A species of bacteria present in man and many kinds of animals and birds, often causing infertility and/or abortion.
A genus of bacteria found in the reproductive organs, intestinal tract, and oral cavity of animals and man. Some species are pathogenic.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CAMPYLOBACTER.
A species of bacteria that resemble small tightly coiled spirals. Its organisms are known to cause abortion in sheep and fever and enteritis in man and may be associated with enteric diseases of calves, lambs, and other animals.
A species of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the intestinal tract of swine, poultry, and man. It may be pathogenic.
The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Any type of abortion, induced or spontaneous, that is associated with infection of the UTERUS and its appendages. It is characterized by FEVER, uterine tenderness, and foul discharge.
A dilated cavity extended caudally from the hindgut. In adult birds, reptiles, amphibians, and many fishes but few mammals, cloaca is a common chamber into which the digestive, urinary and reproductive tracts discharge their contents. In most mammals, cloaca gives rise to LARGE INTESTINE; URINARY BLADDER; and GENITALIA.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A species of thermophilic CAMPYLOBACTER found in healthy seagulls and causing ENTERITIS in humans.
Salts and esters of hippuric acid.
A mammalian fetus expelled by INDUCED ABORTION or SPONTANEOUS ABORTION.
An antischistosomal agent that has become obsolete.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
Insulated enclosures in which temperature, humidity, and other environmental conditions can be regulated at levels optimal for growth, hatching, reproduction, or metabolic reactions.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
The blind sac or outpouching area of the LARGE INTESTINE that is below the entrance of the SMALL INTESTINE. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform APPENDIX.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Cold-blooded, air-breathing VERTEBRATES belonging to the class Reptilia, usually covered with external scales or bony plates.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
Inflammation of any segment of the SMALL INTESTINE.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Distinct units in some bacterial, bacteriophage or plasmid GENOMES that are types of MOBILE GENETIC ELEMENTS. Encoded in them are a variety of fitness conferring genes, such as VIRULENCE FACTORS (in "pathogenicity islands or islets"), ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE genes, or genes required for SYMBIOSIS (in "symbiosis islands or islets"). They range in size from 10 - 500 kilobases, and their GC CONTENT and CODON usage differ from the rest of the genome. They typically contain an INTEGRASE gene, although in some cases this gene has been deleted resulting in "anchored genomic islands".
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.

A simple technique for mass cultivation of Campylobacter fetus. (1/489)

Studies using 86 media for maximum growth of Campylobacter fetus for antigen production showed that a diphasic medium (solid base with liquid overlay) was most suitable. The solid base was double strength cystine heart agar. The liquid overlay was thioglycollate medium of Brewer (135-C) without agar. This medium yielded maximum growth of C. fetus in six days with good motility, less clumping and less filament formation than all other media tried.  (+info)

Roles of the surface layer proteins of Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus in ovine abortion. (2/489)

The role of the surface (S)-layer proteins of Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus has been investigated using an ovine model of abortion. Wild-type strain 23D induced abortion in up to 90% of pregnant ewes challenged subcutaneously. Isolates recovered from both dams and fetuses expressed S-layer proteins with variable molecular masses. The spontaneous S-layer-negative variant, strain 23B, neither colonized nor caused abortions in pregnant ewes. A series of isogenic sapA and recA mutants, derived from 23D, also were investigated in this model. A mutant (501 [sapA recA(+)]) caused abortion in one of five challenged animals and was recovered from the placenta of a second animal. Another mutant (502 [sapA recA]) with no S-layer protein expression caused no colonization or abortions in challenged animals but caused abortion when administered intraplacentally. Mutants 600(2) and 600(4), both recA, had fixed expression of 97- and 127-kDa S-layer proteins, respectively. Two of the six animals challenged with mutant 600(4) were colonized, but there were no abortions. As expected, all five strains recovered expressed a 127-kDa S-layer protein. In contrast, mutant 600(2) was recovered from the placentas of all five challenged animals and caused abortion in two. Unexpectedly, one of the 16 isolates expressed a 127-kDa rather than a 97-kDa S-layer protein. Thus, these studies indicate that S-layer proteins appear essential for colonization and/or translocation to the placenta but are not required to mediate fetal injury and that S-layer variation may occur in a recA strain.  (+info)

Chronic atrophic gastritis in SCID mice experimentally infected with Campylobacter fetus. (3/489)

Campylobacter fetus is a cause of enteritis and invasive extraintestinal disease in humans. In order to develop an animal model of C. fetus infection, outbred ICR SCID mice were orally challenged with a clinical isolate of C. fetus. The stomachs of SCID mice were heavily colonized with C. fetus, and colonization was associated with the development of chronic atrophic gastritis. This lesion was characterized by an inflammatory infiltrate of granulocytes and macrophages that over time resulted in a loss of specialized parietal and chief cells in the corpus and the appearance of a metaplastic mucous epithelium. This lesion bears similarity to that encountered during experimental murine infection with Helicobacter pylori or Helicobacter felis. Despite colonization of the cecum and colon tissues by C. fetus in SCID mice, no lesions were noted in these tissues. A follow-up study confirmed these findings for SCID mice and also demonstrated that C. fetus could also infect the gastric mucosa of wild-type, outbred ICR mice. However, in ICR mice, the anatomic extent of colonization was more limited and the severity of inflammation and epithelial alterations was significantly less than that observed in infected SCID mice. The stomach may represent an unrecognized environmental niche for Campylobacter species.  (+info)

Campylobacter fetus sap inversion occurs in the absence of RecA function. (4/489)

Phase variation of Campylobacter fetus surface layer proteins (SLPs) occurs by inversion of a 6.2-kb DNA segment containing the unique sap promoter, permitting expression of a single SLP-encoding gene. Previous work has shown that the C. fetus sap inversion system is RecA dependent. When we challenged a pregnant ewe with a recA mutant of wild-type C. fetus (strain 97-211) that expressed the 97-kDa SLP, 15 of the 16 ovine-passaged isolates expressed the 97-kDa protein. However, one strain (97-209) expressed a 127-kDa SLP, suggesting that chromosomal rearrangement may have occurred to enable SLP switching. Lack of RecA function in strains 97-211 and 97-209 was confirmed by their sensitivity to the DNA-damaging agent methyl methanesulfonate. Southern hybridization and PCR of these strains indicated that the aphA insertion into recA was stably present. However, Southern hybridizations demonstrated that in strain 97-209 inversion had occurred in the sap locus. PCR data confirmed inversion of the 6.2-kb DNA element and indicated that in these recA mutants the sap inversion frequency is reduced by 2 to 3 log(10) units compared to that in the wild type. Thus, although the major sap inversion pathway in C. fetus is RecA dependent, alternative lower-frequency, RecA-independent inversion mechanisms exist.  (+info)

Recurring febrile illness in a slaughterhouse worker. (5/489)

A slaughterhouse worker presented with fever and a pleuropericardial effusion. Conventional microbiology failed to identify the responsible organism. However, DNA sequencing definitively identified Campylobacter fetus ssp fetus, which is rare in immunocompetent individuals. Prolonged treatment was required to eradicate the infection.  (+info)

Bovine veneral vibriosis: cure of genital infection in females by systemic immunization. (6/489)

Cure of female cattle with venereal vibriosis by systemic immunization with killed Campylobacter fetus cells in incomplete Freund adjuvant was investigated. Heifers infected in the cervicovaginal area with a cloned population of C. fetus venerealis were vaccinated subcutaneously 14 and 24 days thereafter with the infecting strain in incomplete Freund adjuvant. Six of eight vaccinated heifers were free of infection 25 to 48 days postinfection. One of the cured animals had an intercurrent infection which precluded interpretation of a vaccine effect. All controls remained infected 48 to 51 days postinfection, when the experiment was terminated. In vaccinated animals, agglutination titers against whole cells of the infecting strain reached peaks varying from 1,280 to 20,480 in serum and from 20 to 5,120 in cervicovaginal mucus (CVM) within days 24 to 32 postinfection. No consistent relationship was noted between levels of whole cell antibodies in serum and those in CVM. Evidence for the occurrence of antigenic variation in the organism after vaccination was sought by comparing the agglutinability of the infecting strain and CVM isolates in serum and CVM extracts. Serum samples of most cured heifers agglutinated whole cells prepared from isolates of the respective heifers to the same extent as cells of the infecting strain. In the corresponding comparisons, those from noncured animals agglutinated isolates to lower titers. CVM extracts from one cured animals agglutinated isolates derived from the same or closely spaced CVM samples to titers comparable with those obtained with the infecting strain. In the remaining animals, CVM extracts which agglutinated the infecting strain produced lower or undetectable reactions with corresponding isolates. It is proposed that the elimination of infection is dependent upon opposing responses of host and parasite, of which the degree of antigenic alteration in the infecting strain and the rate of mobilization and the concentration of specific antibodies in the genital secretions are key factors.  (+info)

Thermophilic multidrug-resistant Campylobacter fetus infection with hypersplenism and histiocytic phagocytosis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. (7/489)

We present a case report of a patient who had acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and Campylobacter fetus infection with a number of unusual clinical and microbiological features. The patient had prominent gastrointestinal symptoms, splenic infarction, splenomegaly with hypersplenism, and hemophagocytic histiocytosis in the spleen and lymph nodes; the organism displayed growth on Campy-selective blood agar, thermotolerance, and resistance to quinolones, piperacillin/tazobactam, ceftazidime, and erythromycin.  (+info)

Evidence that the Campylobacter fetus sap locus is an ancient genomic constituent with origins before mammals and reptiles diverged. (8/489)

Campylobacter fetus bacteria, isolated from both mammals and reptiles, may be either subsp. fetus or subsp. venerealis and either serotype A or serotype B. Surface layer proteins, expressed and secreted by genes in the sap locus, play an important role in C. fetus virulence. To assess whether the sap locus represents a pathogenicity island and to gain further insights into C. fetus evolution, we examined several C. fetus genes in 18 isolates. All of the isolates had 5 to 9 sapA or sapB homologs. One strain (85-387) possessed both sapA and sapB homologs, suggesting a recombinational event in the sap locus between sapA and sapB strains. When we amplified and analyzed nucleotide sequences from portions of housekeeping gene recA (501 bp) and sapD (450 bp), a part of the 6-kb sap invertible element, the phylogenies of the genes were highly parallel. Among the 15 isolates from mammals, serotype A and serotype B strains generally had consistent positions. The fact that the serotype A C. fetus subsp. fetus and subsp. venerealis strains were on the same branch suggests that their differentiation occurred after the type A-type B split. Isolates from mammals and reptiles formed two distinct tight phylogenetic clusters that were well separated. Sequence analysis of 16S rRNA showed that the reptile strains form a distinct phylotype between mammalian C. fetus and Campylobacter hyointestinalis. The phylogenies and sequence results showing that sapD and recA have similar G + C contents and substitution rates suggest that the sap locus is not a pathogenicity island but rather is an ancient constituent of the C. fetus genome, integral to its biology.  (+info)

'Campylobacter fetus' is a species of gram-negative, microaerophilic bacteria that can cause gastrointestinal infections in humans. It is commonly found in the intestinal tracts of animals, particularly cattle, and can be transmitted to humans through contaminated food or water.

The infection caused by 'Campylobacter fetus' is known as campylobacteriosis, which typically presents with symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever, and vomiting. In some cases, the infection can also lead to serious complications such as bacteremia (bacterial infection of the blood) and Guillain-Barré syndrome, a neurological disorder that can cause muscle weakness and paralysis.

It's important to note that while 'Campylobacter fetus' is a significant cause of foodborne illness, it can be prevented through proper food handling and preparation practices, such as cooking meats thoroughly and avoiding cross-contamination between raw and cooked foods.

'Campylobacter' is a genus of gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in the intestinal tracts of animals, including birds and mammals. These bacteria are a leading cause of bacterial foodborne illness worldwide, with Campylobacter jejuni being the most frequently identified species associated with human infection.

Campylobacter infection, also known as campylobacteriosis, typically causes symptoms such as diarrhea (often bloody), abdominal cramps, fever, and vomiting. The infection is usually acquired through the consumption of contaminated food or water, particularly undercooked poultry, raw milk, and contaminated produce. It can also be transmitted through contact with infected animals or their feces.

While most cases of campylobacteriosis are self-limiting and resolve within a week without specific treatment, severe or prolonged infections may require antibiotic therapy. In rare cases, Campylobacter infection can lead to serious complications such as bacteremia (bacterial bloodstream infection), meningitis, or Guillain-Barré syndrome, a neurological disorder that can cause muscle weakness and paralysis.

Preventive measures include proper food handling and cooking techniques, thorough handwashing, and avoiding cross-contamination between raw and cooked foods.

Campylobacter infections are illnesses caused by the bacterium *Campylobacter jejuni* or other species of the genus *Campylobacter*. These bacteria are commonly found in the intestines of animals, particularly birds, and can be transmitted to humans through contaminated food, water, or contact with infected animals.

The most common symptom of Campylobacter infection is diarrhea, which can range from mild to severe and may be bloody. Other symptoms may include abdominal cramps, fever, nausea, and vomiting. The illness usually lasts about a week, but in some cases, it can lead to serious complications such as bacteremia (bacteria in the bloodstream), meningitis, or Guillain-Barré syndrome, a neurological disorder that can cause muscle weakness and paralysis.

Campylobacter infections are typically treated with antibiotics, but in mild cases, they may resolve on their own without treatment. Prevention measures include cooking meat thoroughly, washing hands and surfaces that come into contact with raw meat, avoiding unpasteurized dairy products and untreated water, and handling pets, particularly birds and reptiles, with care.

'Campylobacter jejuni' is a gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacterium that is a common cause of foodborne illness worldwide. It is often found in the intestines of warm-blooded animals, including birds and mammals, and can be transmitted to humans through contaminated food or water.

The bacteria are capable of causing an infection known as campylobacteriosis, which is characterized by symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever, and vomiting. In severe cases, the infection can spread to the bloodstream and cause serious complications, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems.

'Campylobacter jejuni' is one of the most common causes of foodborne illness in the United States, with an estimated 1.3 million cases occurring each year. It is often found in undercooked poultry and raw or unpasteurized milk products, as well as in contaminated water supplies. Proper cooking and pasteurization can help reduce the risk of infection, as can good hygiene practices such as washing hands thoroughly after handling raw meat and vegetables.

'Campylobacter coli' is a species of bacteria that can cause gastrointestinal illness in humans. It is one of the several species within the genus Campylobacter, which are gram-negative, microaerophilic, spiral or curved rods. 'Campylobacter coli' is commonly found in the intestines of animals, particularly swine and cattle, and can be transmitted to humans through contaminated food or water.

The most common symptom of infection with 'Campylobacter coli' is diarrhea, which can range from mild to severe and may be accompanied by abdominal cramps, fever, nausea, and vomiting. The illness, known as campylobacteriosis, typically lasts for about a week and resolves on its own without specific treatment in most cases. However, in some cases, the infection can lead to more serious complications, such as bacteremia (bacterial infection of the blood) or Guillain-Barré syndrome, a rare neurological disorder that can cause muscle weakness and paralysis.

Prevention measures include cooking food thoroughly, washing hands and surfaces frequently, and avoiding cross-contamination between raw and cooked foods. 'Campylobacter coli' infections are also reportable to public health authorities in many jurisdictions, as they are considered a significant cause of foodborne illness worldwide.

A fetus is the developing offspring in a mammal, from the end of the embryonic period (approximately 8 weeks after fertilization in humans) until birth. In humans, the fetal stage of development starts from the eleventh week of pregnancy and continues until childbirth, which is termed as full-term pregnancy at around 37 to 40 weeks of gestation. During this time, the organ systems become fully developed and the body grows in size. The fetus is surrounded by the amniotic fluid within the amniotic sac and is connected to the placenta via the umbilical cord, through which it receives nutrients and oxygen from the mother. Regular prenatal care is essential during this period to monitor the growth and development of the fetus and ensure a healthy pregnancy and delivery.

Septic abortion is a medical term used to describe a spontaneous abortion or miscarriage that is associated with infection. This occurs when the products of conception, such as the fetal tissue and placenta, are not completely expelled from the uterus, leading to an infection of the uterine lining and potentially the pelvic cavity.

The infection can cause fever, chills, severe abdominal pain, foul-smelling vaginal discharge, and heavy bleeding. If left untreated, septic abortion can lead to serious complications such as sepsis, infertility, and even death. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if you suspect a septic abortion. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to clear the infection and possibly surgical intervention to remove any remaining products of conception.

A cloaca is a common cavity or channel in some animals, including many birds and reptiles, that serves as the combined endpoint for the digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems. Feces, urine, and in some cases, eggs are all expelled through this single opening. In humans and other mammals, these systems have separate openings. Anatomical anomalies can result in a human born with a cloaca, which is very rare and typically requires surgical correction.

Feces are the solid or semisolid remains of food that could not be digested or absorbed in the small intestine, along with bacteria and other waste products. After being stored in the colon, feces are eliminated from the body through the rectum and anus during defecation. Feces can vary in color, consistency, and odor depending on a person's diet, health status, and other factors.

Campylobacter lari is a species of bacteria that can cause gastrointestinal illness in humans. It is one of several species within the genus Campylobacter, which are known to be significant causes of foodborne illness worldwide. C. lari is commonly found in the intestines of birds and other animals, and human infection typically occurs through the consumption of contaminated food or water.

The symptoms of a C. lari infection can include diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever, and vomiting. The illness is usually self-limiting and resolves within a few days to a week, although in some cases it may lead to more severe complications such as bacteremia (bacteria in the bloodstream) or Guillain-Barré syndrome, a serious neurological condition.

Prevention measures include proper food handling and cooking techniques, as well as good hygiene practices such as handwashing after using the bathroom and before preparing or eating food. If you suspect that you have a C. lari infection, it is important to seek medical attention promptly to receive appropriate treatment and prevent complications.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Hippurates" is not a medical term or condition. It might refer to Hippocrates, who is often referred to as the "Father of Medicine." However, if you have a different context in mind, please provide it so I can give a more accurate response.

An aborted fetus refers to a developing human organism that is expelled or removed from the uterus before it is viable, typically as a result of an induced abortion. An abortion is a medical procedure that intentionally ends a pregnancy and can be performed through various methods, depending on the stage of the pregnancy.

It's important to note that the term "abortion" is often used in different contexts and may carry different connotations depending on one's perspective. In medical terminology, an abortion refers specifically to the intentional ending of a pregnancy before viability. However, in other contexts, the term may be used more broadly to refer to any spontaneous or induced loss of a pregnancy, including miscarriages and stillbirths.

The definition of "viable" can vary, but it generally refers to the point at which a fetus can survive outside the uterus with medical assistance, typically around 24 weeks of gestation. Fetal viability is a complex issue that depends on many factors, including the availability and accessibility of medical technology and resources.

In summary, an aborted fetus is a developing human organism that is intentionally expelled or removed from the uterus before it is viable, typically as a result of a medical procedure called an abortion.

Niridazole is an anti-parasitic medication that was previously used to treat infections caused by parasites such as schistosomiasis (also known as bilharzia or snail fever) and loiasis (also known as African eye worm). It works by inhibiting the metabolism of the parasites, leading to their death. However, due to its side effects, including neurotoxicity and potential for causing optic neuritis, it is no longer commonly used in clinical practice.

Cattle diseases are a range of health conditions that affect cattle, which include but are not limited to:

1. Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD): Also known as "shipping fever," BRD is a common respiratory illness in feedlot cattle that can be caused by several viruses and bacteria.
2. Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD): A viral disease that can cause a variety of symptoms, including diarrhea, fever, and reproductive issues.
3. Johne's Disease: A chronic wasting disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. It primarily affects the intestines and can cause severe diarrhea and weight loss.
4. Digital Dermatitis: Also known as "hairy heel warts," this is a highly contagious skin disease that affects the feet of cattle, causing lameness and decreased productivity.
5. Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis (IBK): Also known as "pinkeye," IBK is a common and contagious eye infection in cattle that can cause blindness if left untreated.
6. Salmonella: A group of bacteria that can cause severe gastrointestinal illness in cattle, including diarrhea, dehydration, and septicemia.
7. Leptospirosis: A bacterial disease that can cause a wide range of symptoms in cattle, including abortion, stillbirths, and kidney damage.
8. Blackleg: A highly fatal bacterial disease that causes rapid death in young cattle. It is caused by Clostridium chauvoei and vaccination is recommended for prevention.
9. Anthrax: A serious infectious disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Cattle can become infected by ingesting spores found in contaminated soil, feed or water.
10. Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD): A highly contagious viral disease that affects cloven-hooved animals, including cattle. It is characterized by fever and blisters on the feet, mouth, and teats. FMD is not a threat to human health but can have serious economic consequences for the livestock industry.

It's important to note that many of these diseases can be prevented or controlled through good management practices, such as vaccination, biosecurity measures, and proper nutrition. Regular veterinary care and monitoring are also crucial for early detection and treatment of any potential health issues in your herd.

An incubator, in the context of medical care, is a device that creates and maintains an artificial environment for premature or sick newborn babies. The primary purpose of these devices is to provide a controlled setting that supports the infant's growth and development, especially when their underdeveloped bodies are not yet ready to maintain a stable temperature and other vital functions on their own.

Incubators typically include features such as:

1. Temperature control: They maintain a warm temperature, usually between 36.5°C (97.7°F) and 37.5°C (99.5°F), which is essential for the newborn's metabolism, growth, and overall health.
2. Humidity control: Incubators often have adjustable humidity levels to prevent the newborn from losing excess moisture through their delicate skin.
3. Oxygen supply: Some incubators come equipped with oxygen sensors and supplemental oxygen delivery systems to ensure the newborn receives adequate oxygenation.
4. Monitoring capabilities: Modern incubators often include built-in monitors that track various physiological parameters, such as heart rate, respiratory rate, and oxygen saturation, allowing healthcare professionals to closely monitor the infant's condition.
5. Lighting: Incubators may have adjustable lighting to provide a soothing environment for the newborn while also enabling medical staff to easily observe the infant.
6. Isolette: An isolette is a type of incubator that offers an enclosed, transparent structure with controlled temperature and humidity levels. It provides a protective space for the newborn while allowing caregivers easy access for handling and examining the infant.

Incubators play a crucial role in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) by supporting premature or sick infants during their early stages of life, increasing their chances of survival and promoting healthy development.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

Bacteriological techniques refer to the various methods and procedures used in the laboratory for the cultivation, identification, and study of bacteria. These techniques are essential in fields such as medicine, biotechnology, and research. Here are some common bacteriological techniques:

1. **Sterilization**: This is a process that eliminates or kills all forms of life, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and spores. Common sterilization methods include autoclaving (using steam under pressure), dry heat (in an oven), chemical sterilants, and radiation.

2. **Aseptic Technique**: This refers to practices used to prevent contamination of sterile materials or environments with microorganisms. It includes the use of sterile equipment, gloves, and lab coats, as well as techniques such as flaming, alcohol swabbing, and using aseptic transfer devices.

3. **Media Preparation**: This involves the preparation of nutrient-rich substances that support bacterial growth. There are various types of media, including solid (agar), liquid (broth), and semi-solid (e.g., stab agar). The choice of medium depends on the type of bacteria being cultured and the purpose of the investigation.

4. **Inoculation**: This is the process of introducing a bacterial culture into a medium. It can be done using a loop, swab, or needle. The inoculum should be taken from a pure culture to avoid contamination.

5. **Incubation**: After inoculation, the bacteria are allowed to grow under controlled conditions of temperature, humidity, and atmospheric composition. This process is called incubation.

6. **Staining and Microscopy**: Bacteria are too small to be seen with the naked eye. Therefore, they need to be stained and observed under a microscope. Gram staining is a common method used to differentiate between two major groups of bacteria based on their cell wall composition.

7. **Biochemical Tests**: These are tests used to identify specific bacterial species based on their biochemical characteristics, such as their ability to ferment certain sugars, produce particular enzymes, or resist certain antibiotics.

8. **Molecular Techniques**: Advanced techniques like PCR and DNA sequencing can provide more precise identification of bacteria. They can also be used for genetic analysis and epidemiological studies.

Remember, handling microorganisms requires careful attention to biosafety procedures to prevent accidental infection or environmental contamination.

Food microbiology is the study of the microorganisms that are present in food, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. This field examines how these microbes interact with food, how they affect its safety and quality, and how they can be controlled during food production, processing, storage, and preparation. Food microbiology also involves the development of methods for detecting and identifying pathogenic microorganisms in food, as well as studying the mechanisms of foodborne illnesses and developing strategies to prevent them. Additionally, it includes research on the beneficial microbes found in certain fermented foods and their potential applications in improving food quality and safety.

The cecum is the first part of the large intestine, located at the junction of the small and large intestines. It is a pouch-like structure that connects to the ileum (the last part of the small intestine) and the ascending colon (the first part of the large intestine). The cecum is where the appendix is attached. Its function is to absorb water and electrolytes, and it also serves as a site for the fermentation of certain types of dietary fiber by gut bacteria. However, the exact functions of the cecum are not fully understood.

"Cattle" is a term used in the agricultural and veterinary fields to refer to domesticated animals of the genus *Bos*, primarily *Bos taurus* (European cattle) and *Bos indicus* (Zebu). These animals are often raised for meat, milk, leather, and labor. They are also known as bovines or cows (for females), bulls (intact males), and steers/bullocks (castrated males). However, in a strict medical definition, "cattle" does not apply to humans or other animals.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

Species specificity is a term used in the field of biology, including medicine, to refer to the characteristic of a biological entity (such as a virus, bacterium, or other microorganism) that allows it to interact exclusively or preferentially with a particular species. This means that the biological entity has a strong affinity for, or is only able to infect, a specific host species.

For example, HIV is specifically adapted to infect human cells and does not typically infect other animal species. Similarly, some bacterial toxins are species-specific and can only affect certain types of animals or humans. This concept is important in understanding the transmission dynamics and host range of various pathogens, as well as in developing targeted therapies and vaccines.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Reptiles" is not a medical term. It is a term used in biology to describe a class of cold-blooded, scaly-skinned animals that include snakes, lizards, alligators, crocodiles, turtles, and tortoises. They are characterized by having lungs for breathing, laying eggs on land, and having a three-chambered heart. If you have any medical questions or terms, I'd be happy to help clarify those!

Bacterial typing techniques are methods used to identify and differentiate bacterial strains or isolates based on their unique characteristics. These techniques are essential in epidemiological studies, infection control, and research to understand the transmission dynamics, virulence, and antibiotic resistance patterns of bacterial pathogens.

There are various bacterial typing techniques available, including:

1. **Bacteriophage Typing:** This method involves using bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria) to identify specific bacterial strains based on their susceptibility or resistance to particular phages.
2. **Serotyping:** It is a technique that differentiates bacterial strains based on the antigenic properties of their cell surface components, such as capsules, flagella, and somatic (O) and flagellar (H) antigens.
3. **Biochemical Testing:** This method uses biochemical reactions to identify specific metabolic pathways or enzymes present in bacterial strains, which can be used for differentiation. Commonly used tests include the catalase test, oxidase test, and various sugar fermentation tests.
4. **Molecular Typing Techniques:** These methods use genetic markers to identify and differentiate bacterial strains at the DNA level. Examples of molecular typing techniques include:
* **Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE):** This method uses restriction enzymes to digest bacterial DNA, followed by electrophoresis in an agarose gel under pulsed electrical fields. The resulting banding patterns are analyzed and compared to identify related strains.
* **Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST):** It involves sequencing specific housekeeping genes to generate unique sequence types that can be used for strain identification and phylogenetic analysis.
* **Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS):** This method sequences the entire genome of a bacterial strain, providing the most detailed information on genetic variation and relatedness between strains. WGS data can be analyzed using various bioinformatics tools to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), gene deletions or insertions, and other genetic changes that can be used for strain differentiation.

These molecular typing techniques provide higher resolution than traditional methods, allowing for more accurate identification and comparison of bacterial strains. They are particularly useful in epidemiological investigations to track the spread of pathogens and identify outbreaks.

Diarrhea is a condition in which an individual experiences loose, watery stools frequently, often exceeding three times a day. It can be acute, lasting for several days, or chronic, persisting for weeks or even months. Diarrhea can result from various factors, including viral, bacterial, or parasitic infections, food intolerances, medications, and underlying medical conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease or irritable bowel syndrome. Dehydration is a potential complication of diarrhea, particularly in severe cases or in vulnerable populations like young children and the elderly.

Enteritis is a medical term that refers to inflammation of the small intestine. The small intestine is responsible for digesting and absorbing nutrients from food, so inflammation in this area can interfere with these processes and lead to symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss.

Enteritis can be caused by a variety of factors, including bacterial or viral infections, parasites, autoimmune disorders, medications, and exposure to toxins. In some cases, the cause of enteritis may be unknown. Treatment for enteritis depends on the underlying cause, but may include antibiotics, antiparasitic drugs, anti-inflammatory medications, or supportive care such as fluid replacement therapy.

Culture media is a substance that is used to support the growth of microorganisms or cells in an artificial environment, such as a petri dish or test tube. It typically contains nutrients and other factors that are necessary for the growth and survival of the organisms being cultured. There are many different types of culture media, each with its own specific formulation and intended use. Some common examples include blood agar, which is used to culture bacteria; Sabouraud dextrose agar, which is used to culture fungi; and Eagle's minimum essential medium, which is used to culture animal cells.

Anti-bacterial agents, also known as antibiotics, are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria. These agents work by either killing the bacteria or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. There are several different classes of anti-bacterial agents, including penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and tetracyclines, among others. Each class of antibiotic has a specific mechanism of action and is used to treat certain types of bacterial infections. It's important to note that anti-bacterial agents are not effective against viral infections, such as the common cold or flu. Misuse and overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which is a significant global health concern.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

"Chickens" is a common term used to refer to the domesticated bird, Gallus gallus domesticus, which is widely raised for its eggs and meat. However, in medical terms, "chickens" is not a standard term with a specific definition. If you have any specific medical concern or question related to chickens, such as food safety or allergies, please provide more details so I can give a more accurate answer.

Bacterial antigens are substances found on the surface or produced by bacteria that can stimulate an immune response in a host organism. These antigens can be proteins, polysaccharides, teichoic acids, lipopolysaccharides, or other molecules that are recognized as foreign by the host's immune system.

When a bacterial antigen is encountered by the host's immune system, it triggers a series of responses aimed at eliminating the bacteria and preventing infection. The host's immune system recognizes the antigen as foreign through the use of specialized receptors called pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which are found on various immune cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, and neutrophils.

Once a bacterial antigen is recognized by the host's immune system, it can stimulate both the innate and adaptive immune responses. The innate immune response involves the activation of inflammatory pathways, the recruitment of immune cells to the site of infection, and the production of antimicrobial peptides.

The adaptive immune response, on the other hand, involves the activation of T cells and B cells, which are specific to the bacterial antigen. These cells can recognize and remember the antigen, allowing for a more rapid and effective response upon subsequent exposures.

Bacterial antigens are important in the development of vaccines, as they can be used to stimulate an immune response without causing disease. By identifying specific bacterial antigens that are associated with virulence or pathogenicity, researchers can develop vaccines that target these antigens and provide protection against infection.

"Genomic Islands" are horizontally acquired DNA segments in bacterial and archaeal genomes that exhibit distinct features, such as different nucleotide composition (e.g., GC content) and codon usage compared to the rest of the genome. They often contain genes associated with mobile genetic elements, such as transposons, integrases, and phages, and are enriched for functions related to adaptive traits like antibiotic resistance, heavy metal tolerance, and virulence factors. These islands can be transferred between different strains or species through various mechanisms of horizontal gene transfer (HGT), including conjugation, transformation, and transduction, contributing significantly to bacterial evolution and diversity.

Microbial sensitivity tests, also known as antibiotic susceptibility tests (ASTs) or bacterial susceptibility tests, are laboratory procedures used to determine the effectiveness of various antimicrobial agents against specific microorganisms isolated from a patient's infection. These tests help healthcare providers identify which antibiotics will be most effective in treating an infection and which ones should be avoided due to resistance. The results of these tests can guide appropriate antibiotic therapy, minimize the potential for antibiotic resistance, improve clinical outcomes, and reduce unnecessary side effects or toxicity from ineffective antimicrobials.

There are several methods for performing microbial sensitivity tests, including:

1. Disk diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer test): A standardized paper disk containing a predetermined amount of an antibiotic is placed on an agar plate that has been inoculated with the isolated microorganism. After incubation, the zone of inhibition around the disk is measured to determine the susceptibility or resistance of the organism to that particular antibiotic.
2. Broth dilution method: A series of tubes or wells containing decreasing concentrations of an antimicrobial agent are inoculated with a standardized microbial suspension. After incubation, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is determined by observing the lowest concentration of the antibiotic that prevents visible growth of the organism.
3. Automated systems: These use sophisticated technology to perform both disk diffusion and broth dilution methods automatically, providing rapid and accurate results for a wide range of microorganisms and antimicrobial agents.

The interpretation of microbial sensitivity test results should be done cautiously, considering factors such as the site of infection, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the antibiotic, potential toxicity, and local resistance patterns. Regular monitoring of susceptibility patterns and ongoing antimicrobial stewardship programs are essential to ensure optimal use of these tests and to minimize the development of antibiotic resistance.

Poultry diseases refer to a wide range of infectious and non-infectious disorders that affect domesticated birds, particularly those raised for meat, egg, or feather production. These diseases can be caused by various factors including viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, genetic predisposition, environmental conditions, and management practices.

Infectious poultry diseases are often highly contagious and can lead to significant economic losses in the poultry industry due to decreased production, increased mortality, and reduced quality of products. Some examples of infectious poultry diseases include avian influenza, Newcastle disease, salmonellosis, colibacillosis, mycoplasmosis, aspergillosis, and coccidiosis.

Non-infectious poultry diseases can be caused by factors such as poor nutrition, environmental stressors, and management issues. Examples of non-infectious poultry diseases include ascites, fatty liver syndrome, sudden death syndrome, and various nutritional deficiencies.

Prevention and control of poultry diseases typically involve a combination of biosecurity measures, vaccination programs, proper nutrition, good management practices, and monitoring for early detection and intervention. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of poultry diseases is crucial to implementing effective treatment and prevention strategies, and can help minimize the impact of disease outbreaks on both individual flocks and the broader poultry industry.

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

... subspecies fetus Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus is a normal member of the sheep gastrointestinal ... Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus is a commensal organism of the bovine gastrointestinal tract. Campylobacter fetus ... Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus (Cff) can grow in 1% glycine and produce H2S, while C. fetus subspecies venerealis (Cfv) ... Type strain of Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase Type strain of Campylobacter ...
This occurs with Campylobacter fetus surface proteins. The several different surface antigen proteins are all silent apart from ...
Campylobacter is spread horizontally via the fecal-oral route. Campylobacter fetus can also cause venereal disease and abortion ... Gastrointestinal campylobacteriosis is caused by Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobacter coli. Although it is a commensal in the ... Specifically, C. fetus can be detected from cervicovaginal mucus using an agglutination test or ELISA.[citation needed] C. ... Campylobacter infection can be confirmed by rising antibody titers, culture on a selective medium, or histological examination ...
A sexually transmitted disease caused by Campylobacter fetus, a venereal bacteria. Bulls are not directly affected and there ...
... fetus (previously Vibrio coli and V. fetus), were first isolated from cattle and pigs during the 1960s, and Campylobacter ... "Septic abortion associated with Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus infection: case report and review of the literature". ... C. fetus can cause spontaneous abortions in cattle and sheep, and is an opportunistic pathogen in humans. Campylobacter spp. ... Campylobacter testing needs to be done to manage the risk of foodborne Campylobacter and reducing the level of foodborne ...
Campylobacter fetus, Campylobacter hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis, Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter lari and ... Campylobacter upsaliensis is a gram-negative bacteria in the Campylobacter genus. C. upsaliensis is found worldwide, and is a ... Campylobacter upsaliensis shares the characteristic appearance of other Campylobacter species: it is a curved to spiral, gram- ... Campylobacter upsaliensis is a catalase negative species that can be further differentiated from other Campylobacter species by ...
Campylobacter fetus (Smith and Taylor) Sebald and Véron". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 23 ... Further to this, in 1973, Campylobacter was proposed as a novel genus. Campylobacter coli are thought to be mainly transmitted ... Campylobacter secrete a cytolethal distending toxin (CDT), which is an AB toxin composed of three subunits encoded by cdtA, ... Campylobacter coli is a Gram-negative, microaerophilic, non-endospore-forming, S-shaped bacterial species within genus ...
Smith described the bacteria responsible for fetal membrane disease in cows now known as Campylobacter fetus. Nuttall, G. H. F ... Smith, T.; Taylor, M.S. (1919). "Some morphological and biological characters of the Spirilla (Vibrio fetus, n. sp.) associated ...
... recurrentis Chancroid caused by Haemophilus ducreyi Plague due to Yersinia pestis Tularemia Cholera Campylobacter fetus ...
... area hospitals due to infection with the rare bacterium Campylobacter fetus. This infection was seen only in those following ... Centers for Disease Control (CDC) (June 1981). "Campylobacter sepsis associated with "nutritional therapy"--California". MMWR. ...
... cepacia Calymmatobacterium granulomatis Campylobacter Campylobacter coli Campylobacter fetus Campylobacter jejuni Campylobacter ...
... and Campylobacter fetus (previously Vibrio fetus) In the 1960s, King identified a novel bacteria from human respiratory ... Human Infections with Vibrio fetus and a Closely Related Vibrio Human Infections with Vibrio fetus outlines a human outbreak of ... King, E. O. (1957-09-01). "Human Infections with Vibrio Fetus and a Closely Related Vibrio". Journal of Infectious Diseases. ... a type of Vibrio infection usually only seen in cattle and the subsequent analysis of the Vibrio fetus strains causing the ...
Campylobacter MeSH B03.660.150.100.100 - Campylobacter coli MeSH B03.660.150.100.220 - Campylobacter fetus MeSH B03.660.150.100 ... Campylobacter coli MeSH B03.440.180.325 - Campylobacter fetus MeSH B03.440.180.375 - Campylobacter hyointestinalis MeSH B03.440 ... Campylobacter jejuni MeSH B03.440.180.500 - Campylobacter lari MeSH B03.440.180.650 - Campylobacter rectus MeSH B03.440.180.700 ... Campylobacter jejuni MeSH B03.660.150.100.450 - Campylobacter lari MeSH B03.660.150.100.700 - Campylobacter rectus MeSH B03.660 ...
... a 1994 Hungarian film Fetus in fetu, a developmental abnormality Campylobacter fetus, a species of bacteria This disambiguation ... Fetus or foetus refers to a stage in prenatal development. Look up fetus in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Fetus or Foetus ... page lists articles associated with the title Fetus. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point ...
Members of this genus were first isolated in 1977 from aborted bovine fetuses. They are aerotolerant, Campylobacter-like ... Although they are similar to this other genus, Arcobacter species can grow at lower temperatures than Campylobacter, as well as ... P. Vandamme; E. Falsen; R. Rossau; B. Hoste; P. Segers; R. Tytgat & J. De Ley (January 1991). "Revision of Campylobacter, ... in the air, which Campylobacter cannot. The name Arcobacter is derived from the Latin arcus meaning "bow" and the Greek bacter ...
The virus may have already crossed the placenta to infect the fetus. This can lead to several abnormalities. In mild to ... The most common bacteria involved in severe cases are Clostridium, Campylobacter and Salmonella species. This can lead to a ...
... but the fetus has yet to be expelled. This usually will progress to a complete miscarriage. The fetus may or may not have ... In cows, spontaneous abortion may be caused by contagious disease, such as brucellosis or Campylobacter, but often can be ... A fetus that died before birth after this gestational age may be referred to as a stillbirth. Under UK law, all stillbirths ... A missed miscarriage is when the embryo or fetus has died, but a miscarriage has not yet occurred. It is also referred to as ...
"Campylobacter and Listeria infections still rising in the EU - say EFSA and ECDC - European Food Safety Authority". www.efsa. ... intracellularly in phagocytic cells also permits access to the brain and probably transplacental migration to the fetus in ...
Campylobacter, and norovirus. These germs are killed off through a disinfect process that is usually done with chlorine or ... also have no measurable effect on pregnant women or fetuses. One source of perchlorate in drinking water is the past production ... chemicals that are essential for proper development of the fetus and for normal metabolic functioning of the body. According to ... patient advocate and writer Mary Shomon, people with thyroid conditions, as well as pregnant women and their fetuses are ...
... E is spread primarily through the oral-fecal route but may also be spread by blood and from mother to fetus. The ... brucella species and campylobacter species. Chronic or granulomatous hepatitis is seen with infection from mycobacteria species ...
Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus is a normal member of the sheep gastrointestinal ... Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus is a commensal organism of the bovine gastrointestinal tract. Campylobacter fetus ... Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus (Cff) can grow in 1% glycine and produce H2S, while C. fetus subspecies venerealis (Cfv) ... Type strain of Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase Type strain of Campylobacter ...
Two subspecies of C. fetus have been described: C. fetus subsp. fetus and C. fetus subsp. venerealis (3). C. fetus subsp. fetus ... Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum subsp. nov. is a newly proposed subspecies of C. fetus with markers of reptile origin. We ... Pathogenesis of Campylobacter fetus infections. In: Nachamkin I, Blaser MJ, editors. Campylobacter, 2nd ed. Washington (DC): ... Therefore, we encourage laboratories that identify the Campylobacter spp. to forward isolates of C. fetus to the Campylobacter ...
Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus sepsis in a neonate: case report and review of the literature - A Case Report. ... CAMPYLOBACTER FETUS SUBSPECIES FETUS SEPSIS IN A NEONATE: CASE REPORT AND REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ... Campylobacter Fetus Subspecies Fetus Sepsis in a Neonate: Case Report and Review of the Literature. Abstract ... Campylobacter Fetus Subspecies Fetus Sepsis in a Neonate: Case Report and Review of the Literature 01/09/2014 00:00:00 Rebecca ...
Campylobacter fetus accounts for 1% of Campylobacter spp. infections, but prevalence of bacteremia and risk for death are high ... Campylobacter fetus accounts for 1% of Campylobacter spp. infections, but prevalence of bacteremia and risk for death are high ... Campylobacter fetus Invasive Infections and Risks for Death, France, 2000-2021 [PDF - 853 KB - 9 pages] S. Zayet et al. View ... Campylobacter fetus Invasive Infections and Risks for Death, France, 2000-2021 [PDF - 853 KB - 9 pages] S. Zayet et al. View ...
Campylobacter fetus. Enterobacter aerogenes. Escherichia coli. Francisella tularensis. Haemophilus ducreyi. Haemophilus ... Campylobacte fetus,. Brucella species (in conjunction with streptomycin). Because many strains of the following groups of ... are found in fetal tissues and can have toxic effects on the developing fetus (often related to retardation of skeletal ...
Campylobacter infections are among the most common bacterial infections in humans. They produce both diarrheal and systemic ... Most reported bacteremias have been due to Campylobacter fetus infection. Campylobacter lari, which is found in healthy ... Campylobacter cinaedi (sp. nov.) and Campylobacter fennelliae (sp. nov.): two new Campylobacter species associated with enteric ... Campylobacter fetus infections in humans: exposure and disease. Clin Infect Dis. 2014 Jun. 58 (11):1579-86. [QxMD MEDLINE Link] ...
Characterization of Campylobacter fetus strains originating in reptiles and closely related human strains by multilocus ... Characterization of Campylobacter fetus strains originating in reptiles and closely related human strains by multilocus ...
Campylobacter (huisarts). * * Campylobacter (specialist). * * Campylobacter fetus antistoffen. * * Campylobacter in feces ( ...
Campylobacter fetus infections caused by Campylobacter fetus.. *Brucellosis due to Brucella species (in conjunction with ... Campylobacter fetus Enterobacter aerogenes Escherichia coli Francisella tularensis Haemophilus ducreyi Haemophilus influenzae ... and can have toxic effects on the developing fetus (often related to retardation of skeletal development). Evidence of ... the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus. ...
Campylobacter fetus infections caused by Campylobacter fetus. *Brucellosis due to Brucella species (in conjunction with ... Campylobacter fetus Enterobacter aerogenes Escherichia coli Francisella tularensis Haemophilus ducreyi Haemophilus influenzae ... and can have toxic effects on the developing fetus (often related to retardation of skeletal development). Evidence of ... the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus. ...
Complete genome sequence of Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum type strain 03-427T (Peer Reviewed Journal) (11-Nov-13) ... Complete genome sequence of the clinical Campylobacter coli isolate 15-537360 (Peer Reviewed Journal) (15-Nov-13) ...
Campylobacter fetus subspecies venerealis meningitis associated with a companion dog in a young adult: a case report ... Although Campylobacter ... Authors: Yeol Jung Seong, Seung Hun Lee, Eun Jin Kim, Young Hwa Choi, Tae-Joon Kim, Wee Gyo Lee and ... Campylobacter spp., common commensals in the gastrointestinal tract of animals, especially poultry, can cause acute ...
Binational outbreak of Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with Campylobacter jejuni infection, Mexico and USA, 2011 - Volume ... Passive hemagglutination technique for serotyping Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni on the basis of soluble heat-stable ... Rapid identification by PCR of the genus Campylobacter and of five Campylobacter species enteropathogenic for man and animals. ... Detection and typing of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli and analysis of indicator organisms in three waterborne ...
Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis. *Brucella spp.. *Mycoplasma spp.. *Salmonella spp.. *Chlamydia. *Leptospires ...
Categories: Campylobacter fetus Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted ...
Over the past decade, studies on human hosted Campylobacter species strongly suggest that Campylobacter concisus plays a role ... Over the past decade, studies on human hosted Campylobacter species strongly suggest that Campylobacter concisus plays a role ... Here we review the most recent advancements on C. concisus and other human hosted Campylobacter species including their ... Here we review the most recent advancements on C. concisus and other human hosted Campylobacter species including their ...
A Case of Right Loin Pain: Septic Ovarian Vein Thrombosis Due to Campylobacter fetus Bacteraemia. HS Teh, SH Chiang, AGS Tan, ... Fetus-in-fetu in the Pelvis: Report of a Case and Literature Review. JHY Chua, CH Chui, TR Sai Prasad, AS Jacobsen, A Meenakshi ...
Guinea pigs could be effectively used in the study of septic abortion after oral inoculation with this Campylobacter strain. ... Abstract Objective-To compare pathogenicity of an emergent abortifacient Campylobacter jejuni (IA 3902) with that of reference ... Campylobacter fetus. vaccines in the pregnant guinea pig: challenge with Campylobacter fetus. serotype A. . Am J Vet Res. 1979 ... Campylobacter fetus. vaccines in the pregnant guinea pig: challenge with Campylobacter fetus. serotype A. . Am J Vet Res. 1979 ...
Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Campylobacter fetus bacteria, magnified 4,976 times. SMC Images/The Image Bank/Getty ...
Relative rates compared with 1996-1998 baseline period of laboratory-diagnosed cases of infection with Campylobacter, STEC O157 ...
Infections due to Campylobacter fetus. As adjunctive therapy in intestinal amebiasis caused by Entamoeba histolytica ... Campylobacter jejuni, Chlamydia spp, Citrobacter spp, Coxiella burnetii, Eikenella corrodens, Escherichia coli, Francisella ...
Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus. Sheep fetus brain. NCTC, London, UK. 1978-01-11. ... Campylobacter volucris. Black-headed gull (Larus ridibundus). Lies Debruynes & P.Vandamme, LMG, Gent, Belgium. 2008-12-18. ... Campylobacter hyointestinalis subsp. lawsonii. Porcine stomach. Stephen L.W.On, Copenhagen, Denmark. 1995-08-01. ... Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni. Bovine feces. J.-Y.Riou, CIP, Paris, France. 1981-08-15. ...
Campylobacter fetus infections cause by Campylobacter fetus. Brucellosis due to Brucella species (in conjunction with ... and can have toxic effects on the developing fetus (often related to retardation of skeletal development); evidence of ...
Comparative Genome Analysis of Campylobacter fetus Subspecies Revealed Horizontally Acquired Genetic. Elements Important for ...
... microaerophilic bacteria Campylobacter fetus venerealis or C fetus fetus. For many years, it was thought that C fetus fetus was ... Bovine genital campylobacteriosis is caused by either Campylobacter fetus venerealis or C fetus fetus. Clinical signs include ... Bovine genital campylobacteriosis, caused by Campylobacter fetus venerealis or C fetus fetus, is characterized by early fetal ... However, C fetus fetus can also be a significant cause of the classic infertility syndrome usually attributed to C fetus ...
Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus. Campylobacter jejuni. Chlamydophila abortus. Coxiella burnetii. Leptospira spp.. Listeria spp ... Campylobacter fetus Differentiation (rtPCR). 1 g fetal tissue (lung) &/or placenta, 2 mL fetal stomach contents, bacterial ... Campylobacter fetus (Microagglutination). 1 mL serum or plasma. 1-2 days. Serology. CAN. MTWRF. ... View secondary or additional tests for fetus and placenta. Test. Samples. Turnaround Time. Section Laboratory. Schedule. ...
Ng, Francis Kee Peng (1980) Studies on Campylobacter fetus subspecies jejuni. PhD thesis, University of Glasgow. [Open Access] ... Buchan, Peter Cameron (1980) Haemorheological studies in the fetus, pregnant and non-pregnant woman. MD thesis, University of ...
Vibrionic abortion is caused by Campylobacter fetus or Campylobacter jejuni, organisms that live in the intestinal tract. The ... If the fetus dies in mid or late gestation, sometimes the fluids are resporbed and a mummy results. The dead mummy can be "born ... Pregnancy toxemia can occur in the last six weeks of pregnancy in goats and sheep carrying more than one fetus. If not fed ... Stillbirths are deliveries of dead fetuses that are old enough to have survived had something untoward not happened to prevent ...
  • Campylobacter fetus subsp. (cdc.gov)
  • C. fetus subsp. (cdc.gov)
  • most cases of C. fetus infection are caused by C. fetus subsp. (cdc.gov)
  • A subsequent study involving phenotypic and molecular characterization of the 2004 human case, 4 additional human cases, and 3 reptiles definitively identified this collection of strains as a newly proposed subspecies named C. fetus subsp. (cdc.gov)
  • We collected demographic and epidemiologic information to describe characteristics of the 9 reported patients infected with C. fetus subsp. (cdc.gov)
  • We present a case of C. fetus subsp fetus bacteremia in a premature newborn of a substance-abusing mother with chorioamnionitis. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • In humans C. fetus subsp fetus rarely causes invasive disease except in immunocompromised patients including pregnant women and neonates. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • We describe a case of sepsis due to C. fetus subsp fetus in the newborn of a homeless mother with substance abuse and viral hepatitis. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • Blood culture yielded a curved gram-negative rod at twelve hours of incubation that was later fully identified at the local Public Health laboratory as C. fetus subsp. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • Complete genome sequence of Campylobacter fetus subsp. (usda.gov)
  • Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing of Campylobacter fetus subsp. (avma.org)
  • Campylobacter hyointestinalis subsp. (ccug.se)
  • Campylobacter jejuni subsp. (ccug.se)
  • Campylobacter lari subsp. (ccug.se)
  • Bovine genital campylobacteriosis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the gram-negative, microaerophilic rod Campylobacter fetus subsp. (veteriankey.com)
  • Vibrio fetus subsp. (vetbact.org)
  • The Campylobacter genus encompasses several clinically relevant species, such as Campylobacter jejuni subsp. (assignster.com)
  • Campylobacter fetus is a rod-shaped, gram-negative species of bacteria within the genus Campylobacter of phylum Pseudomonadota. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transmission of C. fetus subspecies venerealis occurs mainly through venereal contact while transmission of C. fetus subspecies fetus occurs mainly through ingestion of bacteria in a contaminated environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Campylobacter fetus bacteria, magnified 4,976 times. (yahoo.com)
  • The cause of bovine genital campylobacteriosis is the motile, gram-negative, curved or spiral, polar flagellated, microaerophilic bacteria Campylobacter fetus venerealis or C fetus fetus . (merckvetmanual.com)
  • It is caused by the bacteria Campylobacter fetus ssp. (wa.gov.au)
  • Control of multiple abortions due to opportunistic bacteria is based on diminishing opportunities for ubiquitous organisms to gain access to the maternal bloodstream and survive transit to the fetus. (veteriankey.com)
  • It is caused by bacteria called Campylobacter fetus , Venerealis and Campylobacter fetus fetus . (infonet-biovision.org)
  • Campylobacter lari, which is found in healthy seagulls, also has been reported to produce mild recurrent diarrhea in children. (medscape.com)
  • C. fetus is closely related to C.jejuni, C. hyointestinalis, C. coli and C. lari . (vetbact.org)
  • C. fetus and several other Campylobacter species (eg, C. coli and C. lari ) typically cause bacteremia and systemic manifestations in adults, more often when underlying predisposing diseases, such as diabetes, cirrhosis, cancer, or HIV/AIDS, are present. (msdmanuals.com)
  • the Campylobacter species that cause human acute intestinal disease such as Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli originate from animals. (frontiersin.org)
  • Some of these animal hosted Campylobacter species, such as Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli , can cause acute bacterial gastroenteritis in humans through consumption of contaminated food or water ( Galanis, 2007 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • As C. jejuni and C. coli are the main Campylobacter pathogens which cause human acute intestinal disease and they originate from animal sources, Campylobacteriosis has historically been considered to be zoonotic. (frontiersin.org)
  • Campylobacter coli. (avma.org)
  • The log counts population per million reads for all investigated pathogens (Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, generic Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium (C. botulinum, C. perfringens), and Campylobacter (C.jejuni, C.coli, C.fetus)) were reduced from Arrival to Market-Ready samples mainly due to reduced diversity within the microbiome. (cdc.gov)
  • The major pathogens are C. jejuni , C. coli , and C. fetus . (msdmanuals.com)
  • C. fetus is an uncommonly reported species that typically affects `immunocompromised, pregnant, or elderly persons and causes severe infections, including bacteremia and meningitis ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • To determine clinical features of C. fetus infections and risks for death, we conducted a retrospective observational study of all adult inpatients with a confirmed C. fetus infection in Nord Franche-Comté Hospital, Trevenans, France, during January 2000-December 2021. (cdc.gov)
  • Secondary localizations were reported for 7 (33%) patients with C. fetus bacteremia, of which 5 exhibited a predilection for vascular infections (including 3 with mycotic aneurysm). (cdc.gov)
  • Campylobacter infections are among the most common bacterial infections in humans. (medscape.com)
  • In industrialized regions, enteric Campylobacter infections produce an inflammatory, sometimes bloody, diarrhea or dysentery syndrome. (medscape.com)
  • Infections with Campylobacter -like organisms can produce an enterocolitis/proctocolitis syndrome in homosexual males, who are at increased risk for Helicobacter cinaedi and Helicobacter fennelliae infections. (medscape.com)
  • Chickens may account for 50% to 70% of human Campylobacter infections. (medscape.com)
  • Conditions in which acid secretion is blocked, for example, by antacid treatment or disease, predispose patients to Campylobacter infections. (medscape.com)
  • The infection is less likely to cause gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea than other Campylobacter infections but is prone to causing infection in other parts of the body such as the appendix, abdominal cavity, central nervous system (meningitis), gallbladder, urinary tract and blood stream. (askdocweb.com)
  • Campylobacter fetus infections caused by Campylobacter fetus. (mlivehosted.com)
  • Campylobacter infections typically cause self-limited diarrhea but occasionally cause bacteremia, with consequent endocarditis, osteomyelitis, or septic arthritis. (msdmanuals.com)
  • C. fetus infections in healthy hosts occur in those with occupational exposure to infected animals. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Infertility in cattle and abortion in sheep are common outcomes of infection associated with C. fetus subspecies venerealis and C. fetus subspecies fetus, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus (Cff) can grow in 1% glycine and produce H2S, while C. fetus subspecies venerealis (Cfv) cannot. (wikipedia.org)
  • C. fetus subspecies fetus and C. fetus subspecies venerealis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bovine genital campylobacteriosis is caused by either Campylobacter fetus venerealis or C fetus fetus . (merckvetmanual.com)
  • However, C fetus fetus can also be a significant cause of the classic infertility syndrome usually attributed to C fetus venerealis . (merckvetmanual.com)
  • C. fetus fetus was thought for many years to be primarily an intestinal organism but it has been found to be a significant cause of the classic infertility syndrome usually attributed to C. fetus venerealis . (infonet-biovision.org)
  • Francisella tularensis, Bartonella bacilliformis, Bacteroides species, Vibrio cholerae and Campylobacte fetus, Brucella species (in conjunction with streptomycin). (rxlist.com)
  • Substantial genetic divergence between C. fetus strains of reptile and mammal origin has been demonstrated ( 8 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently screened Campylobacter strains from its historical culture collection and identified 4 additional human cases of infection with this subspecies. (cdc.gov)
  • Cytotoxin production has been reported in Campylobacter strains from patients with bloody diarrhea. (medscape.com)
  • There are several strains of C fetus fetus , and the only way to determine whether a strain is a cause of infertility is to test that possibility in a group of heifers. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • and Campylobacter fetus (Vibrio) can dramatically reduce a herd's calving rate due to pregnancy loss and reproductive inefficiency. (ourcoop.com)
  • Campylobacter upsaliensis may cause diarrhea or bacteremia, whereas Campylobacter hyointestinalis, which has biochemical characteristics similar to those of C fetus, causes occasional bacteremia in immunocompromised individuals. (medscape.com)
  • Campylobacter fetus is a food borne bacterial infection, which may vary in severity from mild to severe. (askdocweb.com)
  • Campylobacters are the leading cause of bacterial foodborne gastroenteritis in the world. (assignster.com)
  • Modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate (CCD) agar is a growth medium designed to isolate Campylobacters from feces. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1984, C. fetus was isolated from feces of a reptile, a Florida box turtle ( Terrapene carolina bauri ) that was kept as a pet ( 6 ). (cdc.gov)
  • C. fetus has also been isolated from feces of a healthy western hognose snake ( Heterodon nasicus ) and a blotched blue-tongue lizard ( Tiliqua nigrolutea ) that had unformed feces and was losing weight ( 7 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The organism is spread through contact with aborted tissues, fluids, and dead fetuses as well as the feces and respiratory discharges of infected carriers. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Some, but not all species of C. fetus will grow at 42 °C. Because C. fetus is a fastidious organism to grow, positive cultures can be considered diagnostic, however negative cultures cannot rule out the possibility of infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • We confirmed monkeypox virus infection in the mother, fetus, and placenta by using a monkeypox virus-specific quantitative PCR. (cdc.gov)
  • Most reported bacteremias have been due to Campylobacter fetus infection. (medscape.com)
  • Symptoms of Campylobacter infection begin after an incubation period of up to a week. (medscape.com)
  • In June 2011, a cluster of suspected cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), which can follow Campylobacter jejuni infection, was identified in San Luis Río Colorado (SLRC), Sonora, Mexico and Yuma County, Arizona, USA. (cambridge.org)
  • Abortion due to blood infection in the fetus can occur in pregnant women who become infected. (askdocweb.com)
  • The hallmark of Campylobacter infection is irregular and delayed returns to estrus. (veteriankey.com)
  • Person-to-person transmission through fecal-oral and sexual contact may also occur but is uncommon because a large number of Campylobacter organisms are required to cause infection. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Transmission of Campylobacter infection does occur among men who have sex with men. (msdmanuals.com)
  • C. fetus are non-spore forming and microaerophilic organisms that are both catalase and oxidase-positive, but non-fermentative. (wikipedia.org)
  • Growth of C. fetus can be seen within 40-48 hours of incubation between 25-37 °C under microaerophilic conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unless cultured quickly after collection from the animal and grown under microaerophilic or anaerobic conditions, Campylobacter spp will not grow. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Campylobacter species are motile, curved, microaerophilic, gram-negative bacilli that normally inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of many domestic animals and fowl. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Another 7 (33%) patients with C. fetus bacteremia died within 30 days. (cdc.gov)
  • C. fetus can be a highly motile organism by means of a single, unsheathed flagellum. (wikipedia.org)
  • For many years, it was thought that C fetus fetus was generally an intestinal organism, only occasionally caused abortion in cattle, and was not a cause of infertility. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • We emphasize that this organism does not cause specific gross lesions in the aborted fetus or placenta. (veteriankey.com)
  • Vibrionic abortion is caused by Campylobacter fetus or Campylobacter jejuni, organisms that live in the intestinal tract. (oregonstate.edu)
  • A history of infertility accompanied by a low number of midterm abortions is more indicative of the potential for Campylobacter abortion than of gross lesions. (veteriankey.com)
  • C. fetus subspecies fetus is a zoonotic pathogen that has been reported to cause disease in immunocompromised humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similar to C. fetus subspecies jejuni, C. fetus subspecies fetus can be acquired via fecal-oral route and resides mostly in the gastrointestinal tract. (wikipedia.org)
  • Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus is an uncommon cause of neonatal sepsis. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus causes septic abortions in cattle, goats and sheep due to marked tropism for placental tissue. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • fetus has been isolated from intestinal tracts of sheep and cattle and from tissues from sporadic abortions in these species. (cdc.gov)
  • Campylobacter is said to be prevalent in food animals such as poultry, cattle, pigs, sheep, and ostriches, as well as pets, including cats and dogs. (medscape.com)
  • Several Campylobacter species utilize humans as their natural host and accumulated evidence supports their role in chronic inflammatory diseases of the human intestinal tract. (frontiersin.org)
  • About 40 species have been described within in the genus Campylobacter and some of these are further divided into subspecies. (vetbact.org)
  • Subspecies of C. fetus commonly causes reproductive disease in ruminants and gastrointestinal disease in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Disease in humans occurs through zoonotic transmission of C. fetus mainly via ingestion of contaminated food or water sources. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transmission of Campylobacter organisms to humans usually occurs via infected animals and their food products. (medscape.com)
  • In addition to C. concisus , humans are also colonized by a number of other Campylobacter species, most of which are in the oral cavity. (frontiersin.org)
  • Campylobacter , along with Arcobacter and Sulfurospirillum , are the three genera that belong to the family, Campylobacteraceae. (frontiersin.org)
  • On cytology, C. fetus is a gram-negative rod, though may present coccoid under suboptimal conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Campylobacter species are sensitive to hydrochloric acid in the stomach. (medscape.com)
  • Campylobacter species are sensitive to hydrochloric acid in the stomach, and antacid treatment can reduce the amount of inoculum needed to cause disease. (medscape.com)
  • Hypochlorhydria and achlorhydria are predisposing factors because Campylobacter species are sensitive to gastric acid. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Here we review the most recent advancements on C. concisus and other human hosted Campylobacter species including their clinical relevance, transmission, virulence factors, disease associated genes, interactions with the human immune system and pathogenic mechanisms. (frontiersin.org)
  • In Campylobacter -endemic herds, clinical signs are most commonly seen in young cows or newly introduced animals. (veteriankey.com)
  • A human isolate of C . fetus with markers of reptile origin was reported in 2004 ( 9 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The S-layer is critical in the pathogenicity of C. fetus, as it allows for a significant bacteremic phase for hematogenous dissemination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exposure to sick pets, especially puppies, also has been associated with Campylobacter outbreaks. (medscape.com)
  • The fetus acquired mpox from the mother after intrauterine transplacental monkeypox virus transmission. (cdc.gov)
  • The known routes of Campylobacter transmission include fecal-oral, person-to-person sexual contact, unpasteurized raw milk and poultry ingestion, and waterborne (ie, through contaminated water supplies). (medscape.com)
  • Less than 10% of infected cows will abort a detectable fetus. (veteriankey.com)
  • Identification of C. fetus requires aseptic sample collection, followed by culture and potentially further biochemical and molecular methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biochemical methods can identify subspecies of C. fetus, though may be considered unreliable. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the fetus dies in mid or late gestation, sometimes the fluids are resporbed and a mummy results. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Aborted fetuses typically have a placentitis, which is consistently identified microscopically, but gross evidence for a placentitis is variable and often inconspicuous. (veteriankey.com)
  • Scanning electron microscope image of Campylobacter jejuni, illustrating its corkscrew appearance and bipolar flagella. (medscape.com)
  • In a study of American military personnel deployed in Thailand, more than half of those with diarrhea were found to be infected with Campylobacter species. (medscape.com)
  • Over the past decade, studies on human hosted Campylobacter species strongly suggest that Campylobacter concisus plays a role in the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). (frontiersin.org)
  • We report the autopsy pathology findings of a 21-week stillborn fetus with congenital mpox syndrome that occurred in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 2008. (cdc.gov)