A genus of bacteria found in the reproductive organs, intestinal tract, and oral cavity of animals and man. Some species are pathogenic.
A species of bacteria that resemble small tightly coiled spirals. Its organisms are known to cause abortion in sheep and fever and enteritis in man and may be associated with enteric diseases of calves, lambs, and other animals.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CAMPYLOBACTER.
A species of bacteria present in man and many kinds of animals and birds, often causing infertility and/or abortion.
A species of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the intestinal tract of swine, poultry, and man. It may be pathogenic.
A species of thermophilic CAMPYLOBACTER found in healthy seagulls and causing ENTERITIS in humans.
Inflammation of any segment of the SMALL INTESTINE.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
A species of CAMPYLOBACTER isolated from cases of human PERIODONTITIS. It is a microaerophile, capable of respiring with OXYGEN.
A protein with a molecular weight of 40,000 isolated from bacterial flagella. At appropriate pH and salt concentration, three flagellin monomers can spontaneously reaggregate to form structures which appear identical to intact flagella.
An acute inflammatory autoimmune neuritis caused by T cell- mediated cellular immune response directed towards peripheral myelin. Demyelination occurs in peripheral nerves and nerve roots. The process is often preceded by a viral or bacterial infection, surgery, immunization, lymphoma, or exposure to toxins. Common clinical manifestations include progressive weakness, loss of sensation, and loss of deep tendon reflexes. Weakness of respiratory muscles and autonomic dysfunction may occur. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1312-1314)
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Places where animals are slaughtered and dressed for market.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
Food products manufactured from poultry.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.
A genus of gram-negative, aerotolerant, spiral-shaped bacteria isolated from water and associated with diarrhea in humans and animals.
Diseases characterized by injury or dysfunction involving multiple peripheral nerves and nerve roots. The process may primarily affect myelin or nerve axons. Two of the more common demyelinating forms are acute inflammatory polyradiculopathy (GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME) and POLYRADICULONEUROPATHY, CHRONIC INFLAMMATORY DEMYELINATING. Polyradiculoneuritis refers to inflammation of multiple peripheral nerves and spinal nerve roots.
A species of CAMPYLOBACTER isolated from the INTESTINES of PIGS with proliferative ENTERITIS. It is also found in CATTLE and in CRICETINAE and can cause enteritis in humans.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A species of CAMPYLOBACTER isolated from DOGS; CATS; and humans.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
A dilated cavity extended caudally from the hindgut. In adult birds, reptiles, amphibians, and many fishes but few mammals, cloaca is a common chamber into which the digestive, urinary and reproductive tracts discharge their contents. In most mammals, cloaca gives rise to LARGE INTESTINE; URINARY BLADDER; and GENITALIA.
Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.
Salts and esters of hippuric acid.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Acute illnesses, usually affecting the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, brought on by consuming contaminated food or beverages. Most of these diseases are infectious, caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, or parasites that can be foodborne. Sometimes the diseases are caused by harmful toxins from the microbes or other chemicals present in the food. Especially in the latter case, the condition is often called food poisoning.
The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.
The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.
The blind sac or outpouching area of the LARGE INTESTINE that is below the entrance of the SMALL INTESTINE. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform APPENDIX.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The productive enterprises concerned with food processing.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.
Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.
A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.
A species of CAMPYLOBACTER comprised of three biovars based on their reaction to CATALASE and UREASE. They have been isolated from humans, CATTLE, and SHEEP.
The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.
A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Direct nucleotide sequencing of gene fragments from multiple housekeeping genes for the purpose of phylogenetic analysis, organism identification, and typing of species, strain, serovar, or other distinguishable phylogenetic level.
A variant of the GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME characterized by the acute onset of oculomotor dysfunction, ataxia, and loss of deep tendon reflexes with relative sparing of strength in the extremities and trunk. The ataxia is produced by peripheral sensory nerve dysfunction and not by cerebellar injury. Facial weakness and sensory loss may also occur. The process is mediated by autoantibodies directed against a component of myelin found in peripheral nerves. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1313; Neurology 1987 Sep;37(9):1493-8)
Large woodland game BIRDS in the subfamily Meleagridinae, family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. Formerly they were considered a distinct family, Melegrididae.
The expelling of bacteria from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A genus of gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacteria that has been isolated from the intestinal tract of mammals, including humans. It has been associated with PEPTIC ULCER.
Any type of abortion, induced or spontaneous, that is associated with infection of the UTERUS and its appendages. It is characterized by FEVER, uterine tenderness, and foul discharge.
Constituent of 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 3200 nucleotides. 23S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.
A family of gram-negative bacteria found primarily in the intestinal tracts and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Its organisms are sometimes pathogenic.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
A synthetic 1,8-naphthyridine antimicrobial agent with a limited bacteriocidal spectrum. It is an inhibitor of the A subunit of bacterial DNA GYRASE.
A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Inflammation of the GASTRIC MUCOSA, a lesion observed in a number of unrelated disorders.
The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The structure of one molecule that imitates or simulates the structure of a different molecule.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
Articles of food which are derived by a process of manufacture from any portion of carcasses of any animal used for food (e.g., head cheese, sausage, scrapple).
The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.
Aspects of health and disease related to travel.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that ferments sugar without gas production. Its organisms are intestinal pathogens of man and other primates and cause bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY).
The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.

A simple technique for mass cultivation of Campylobacter fetus. (1/1058)

Studies using 86 media for maximum growth of Campylobacter fetus for antigen production showed that a diphasic medium (solid base with liquid overlay) was most suitable. The solid base was double strength cystine heart agar. The liquid overlay was thioglycollate medium of Brewer (135-C) without agar. This medium yielded maximum growth of C. fetus in six days with good motility, less clumping and less filament formation than all other media tried.  (+info)

Detection of campylobacter in gastroenteritis: comparison of direct PCR assay of faecal samples with selective culture. (2/1058)

The prevalence of campylobacter gastroenteritis has been estimated by bacterial isolation using selective culture. However, there is evidence that certain species and strains are not recovered on selective agars. We have therefore compared direct PCR assays of faecal samples with campylobacter culture, and explored the potential of PCR for simultaneous detection and identification to the species level. Two hundred unselected faecal samples from cases of acute gastroenteritis were cultured on modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar and subjected to DNA extraction and PCR assay. Culture on CCDA indicated that 16 of the 200 samples contained 'Campylobacter spp.'. By contrast, PCR assays detected campylobacters in 19 of the 200 samples, including 15 of the culture-positive samples, and further identified them as: C. jejuni (16), C. coli (2) and C. hyointestinalis (1). These results show that PCR offers a different perspective on the incidence and identity of campylobacters in human gastroenteritis.  (+info)

Presence of Campylobacter and Salmonella in sand from bathing beaches. (3/1058)

The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. in sand from non-EEC standard and EEC standard designated beaches in different locations in the UK and to assess if potentially pathogenic strains were present. Campylobacter spp. were detected in 82/182 (45%) of sand samples and Salmonella spp. in 10/182 (6%). Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 46/92 (50%) of samples from non-EEC standard beaches and 36/90 (40%) from EEC standard beaches. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was greater in wet sand from both types of beaches but, surprisingly, more than 30% of samples from dry sand also contained these organisms. The major pathogenic species C. jejuni and C. coli were more prevalent in sand from non-EEC standard beaches. In contrast, C. lari and urease positive thermophilic campylobacters, which are associated with seagulls and other migratory birds, were more prevalent in sand from EEC standard beaches. Campylobacter isolates were further characterized by biotyping and serotyping, which confirmed that strains known to be of types associated with human infections were frequently found in sand on bathing beaches.  (+info)

Clonality of Campylobacter sputorum bv. paraureolyticus determined by macrorestriction profiling and biotyping, and evidence for long-term persistent infection in cattle. (4/1058)

Eighteen strains of Campylobacter sputorum bv. paraureolyticus (isolated over a 12-month period from seven dairy cows contained in a single herd) were examined by resistotyping, and macrorestriction profiling using pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The resistotypes of these strains were identical, although repeat testing indicated resistance to metronidazole was not a reliable trait for typing purposes. Five SmaI-derived genotypes were identified among the 18 strains. In 5 of 7 cows, isolates obtained from the same animal, but from different time periods, were genotypically indistinguishable, indicating persistence of infection. Macrorestriction profiles of 5 strains representing the 5 SmaI genotypes and 8 other strains of C. sputorum from various sources, were prepared using 4 endonucleases (SmaI, SalI, BamHI and KpnI). The only other strain of C. sputorum bv. paraureolyticus examined (a Canadian isolate from human faeces), was found to have a SmaI macrorestriction profile identical with one of the five clones isolated from the cattle. Moreover, SalI and BamHI profiles of all bv. paraureolyticus strains were similar, while digestion with KpnI was not observed. By contrast, the seven strains of C. sputorum bv. sputorum yielded various macrorestriction profiles with all the enzymes used, and features distinguishing the two biovars studied could be identified. This study indicates that C. sputorum can persist in cattle for at least 12 months and exhibits a clonal population genetic structure.  (+info)

Detection of cytolethal distending toxin activity and cdt genes in Campylobacter spp. isolated from chicken carcasses. (5/1058)

This study was designed to determine whether isolates from chicken carcasses, the primary source of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in human infections, commonly carry the cdt genes and also whether active cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) is produced by these isolates. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from all 91 fresh chicken carcasses purchased from local supermarkets. Campylobacter spp. were identified on the basis of both biochemical and PCR tests. Of the 105 isolates, 70 (67%) were identified as C. jejuni, and 35 (33%) were identified as C. coli. PCR tests amplified portions of the cdt genes from all 105 isolates. Restriction analysis of PCR products indicated that there appeared to be species-specific differences between the C. jejuni and C. coli cdt genes, but that the restriction patterns of the cdt genes within strains of the same species were almost invariant. Quantitation of active CDT levels produced by the isolates indicated that all C. jejuni strains except four (94%) had mean CDT titers greater than 100. Only one C. jejuni strain appeared to produce no active CDT. C. coli isolates produced little or no toxin. These results confirm the high rate of Campylobacter sp. contamination of fresh chicken carcasses and indicate that cdt genes may be universally present in C. jejuni and C. coli isolates from chicken carcasses.  (+info)

Cloning and characterization of two bistructural S-layer-RTX proteins from Campylobacter rectus. (6/1058)

Campylobacter rectus is an important periodontal pathogen in humans. A surface-layer (S-layer) protein and a cytotoxic activity have been characterized and are thought to be its major virulence factors. The cytotoxic activity was suggested to be due to a pore-forming protein toxin belonging to the RTX (repeats in the structural toxins) family. In the present work, two closely related genes, csxA and csxB (for C. rectus S-layer and RTX protein) were cloned from C. rectus and characterized. The Csx proteins appear to be bifunctional and possess two structurally different domains. The N-terminal part shows similarity with S-layer protein, especially SapA and SapB of C. fetus and Crs of C. rectus. The C-terminal part comprising most of CsxA and CsxB is a domain with 48 and 59 glycine-rich canonical nonapeptide repeats, respectively, arranged in three blocks. Purified recombinant Csx peptides bind Ca2+. These are characteristic traits of RTX toxin proteins. The S-layer and RTX domains of Csx are separated by a proline-rich stretch of 48 amino acids. All C. rectus isolates studied contained copies of either the csxA or csxB gene or both; csx genes were absent from all other Campylobacter and Helicobacter species examined. Serum of a patient with acute gingivitis showed a strong reaction to recombinant Csx protein on immunoblots.  (+info)

Different invasion phenotypes of Campylobacter isolates in Caco-2 cell monolayers. (7/1058)

The pathogenesis of campylobacter enteritis is not well understood, but invasion into and translocation across intestinal epithelial cells may be involved in the disease process, as demonstrated for a number of other enteric pathogens. However, the mechanisms involved in these processes are not clearly defined for campylobacters. In this study, isolates were compared quantitatively in established assays with the enterocyte-like cell line, Caco-2, to determine the extent to which intracellular invasion contributes to translocation across epithelial cell monolayers, and whether isolates vary in this respect. Ten fresh Campylobacter isolates were compared and shown to differ in invasiveness by a factor of 10-fold by following their recovery from gentamicin-treated Caco-2 cells grown on nonpermeable tissue-culture wells. Four of these isolates with contrasting invasive ability were also shown to vary in their ability to translocate across Caco-2 cells grown on semipermeable Transwell inserts by a factor >10. However, translocation did not quantitatively correlate with the intracellular invasiveness of these isolates. Isolate no. 9752 was poorly invasive but had modest translocation ability, isolate no. 10392 was very invasive but did not translocate significantly and remained within the monolayer, isolate no. 9519 both translocated and invaded well, whereas, isolate no. 235 translocated very efficiently but was poorly invasive. Isolate no. 9519 also uniquely caused a transitory flattening of the Caco-2 cells and a possible drop in trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER) of the Transwell monolayers, whereas isolate no. 235 did not show these effects. Together these data demonstrate that there are significantly different 'invasion' phenotypes among Campylobacter strains involving different degrees of intracellular invasion, and either different rates of transcellular trafficking or, alternatively, paracellular trafficking.  (+info)

Rapid identification of thermotolerant Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter lari, and Campylobacter upsaliensis from various geographic locations by a GTPase-based PCR-reverse hybridization assay. (8/1058)

Recently, a gene from Campylobacter jejuni encoding a putative GTPase was identified. Based on two semiconserved GTP-binding sites encoded within this gene, PCR primers were selected that allow amplification of a 153-bp fragment from C. jejuni, C. coli, C. lari, and C. upsaliensis. Sequence analysis of these PCR products revealed consistent interspecies variation, which allowed the definition of species-specific probes for each of the four thermotolerant Campylobacter species. Multiple probes were used to develop a line probe assay (LiPA) that permits analysis of PCR products by a single reverse hybridization step. A total of 320 reference strains and clinical isolates from various geographic origins were tested by the GTP-based PCR-LiPA. The PCR-LiPA is highly specific in comparison with conventional identification methods, including biochemical and whole-cell protein analyses. In conclusion, a simple method has been developed for rapid and highly specific identification of thermotolerant Campylobacter species.  (+info)

'Campylobacter' is a genus of gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in the intestinal tracts of animals, including birds and mammals. These bacteria are a leading cause of bacterial foodborne illness worldwide, with Campylobacter jejuni being the most frequently identified species associated with human infection.

Campylobacter infection, also known as campylobacteriosis, typically causes symptoms such as diarrhea (often bloody), abdominal cramps, fever, and vomiting. The infection is usually acquired through the consumption of contaminated food or water, particularly undercooked poultry, raw milk, and contaminated produce. It can also be transmitted through contact with infected animals or their feces.

While most cases of campylobacteriosis are self-limiting and resolve within a week without specific treatment, severe or prolonged infections may require antibiotic therapy. In rare cases, Campylobacter infection can lead to serious complications such as bacteremia (bacterial bloodstream infection), meningitis, or Guillain-Barré syndrome, a neurological disorder that can cause muscle weakness and paralysis.

Preventive measures include proper food handling and cooking techniques, thorough handwashing, and avoiding cross-contamination between raw and cooked foods.

'Campylobacter jejuni' is a gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacterium that is a common cause of foodborne illness worldwide. It is often found in the intestines of warm-blooded animals, including birds and mammals, and can be transmitted to humans through contaminated food or water.

The bacteria are capable of causing an infection known as campylobacteriosis, which is characterized by symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever, and vomiting. In severe cases, the infection can spread to the bloodstream and cause serious complications, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems.

'Campylobacter jejuni' is one of the most common causes of foodborne illness in the United States, with an estimated 1.3 million cases occurring each year. It is often found in undercooked poultry and raw or unpasteurized milk products, as well as in contaminated water supplies. Proper cooking and pasteurization can help reduce the risk of infection, as can good hygiene practices such as washing hands thoroughly after handling raw meat and vegetables.

Campylobacter infections are illnesses caused by the bacterium *Campylobacter jejuni* or other species of the genus *Campylobacter*. These bacteria are commonly found in the intestines of animals, particularly birds, and can be transmitted to humans through contaminated food, water, or contact with infected animals.

The most common symptom of Campylobacter infection is diarrhea, which can range from mild to severe and may be bloody. Other symptoms may include abdominal cramps, fever, nausea, and vomiting. The illness usually lasts about a week, but in some cases, it can lead to serious complications such as bacteremia (bacteria in the bloodstream), meningitis, or Guillain-Barré syndrome, a neurological disorder that can cause muscle weakness and paralysis.

Campylobacter infections are typically treated with antibiotics, but in mild cases, they may resolve on their own without treatment. Prevention measures include cooking meat thoroughly, washing hands and surfaces that come into contact with raw meat, avoiding unpasteurized dairy products and untreated water, and handling pets, particularly birds and reptiles, with care.

'Campylobacter fetus' is a species of gram-negative, microaerophilic bacteria that can cause gastrointestinal infections in humans. It is commonly found in the intestinal tracts of animals, particularly cattle, and can be transmitted to humans through contaminated food or water.

The infection caused by 'Campylobacter fetus' is known as campylobacteriosis, which typically presents with symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever, and vomiting. In some cases, the infection can also lead to serious complications such as bacteremia (bacterial infection of the blood) and Guillain-Barré syndrome, a neurological disorder that can cause muscle weakness and paralysis.

It's important to note that while 'Campylobacter fetus' is a significant cause of foodborne illness, it can be prevented through proper food handling and preparation practices, such as cooking meats thoroughly and avoiding cross-contamination between raw and cooked foods.

'Campylobacter coli' is a species of bacteria that can cause gastrointestinal illness in humans. It is one of the several species within the genus Campylobacter, which are gram-negative, microaerophilic, spiral or curved rods. 'Campylobacter coli' is commonly found in the intestines of animals, particularly swine and cattle, and can be transmitted to humans through contaminated food or water.

The most common symptom of infection with 'Campylobacter coli' is diarrhea, which can range from mild to severe and may be accompanied by abdominal cramps, fever, nausea, and vomiting. The illness, known as campylobacteriosis, typically lasts for about a week and resolves on its own without specific treatment in most cases. However, in some cases, the infection can lead to more serious complications, such as bacteremia (bacterial infection of the blood) or Guillain-Barré syndrome, a rare neurological disorder that can cause muscle weakness and paralysis.

Prevention measures include cooking food thoroughly, washing hands and surfaces frequently, and avoiding cross-contamination between raw and cooked foods. 'Campylobacter coli' infections are also reportable to public health authorities in many jurisdictions, as they are considered a significant cause of foodborne illness worldwide.

Campylobacter lari is a species of bacteria that can cause gastrointestinal illness in humans. It is one of several species within the genus Campylobacter, which are known to be significant causes of foodborne illness worldwide. C. lari is commonly found in the intestines of birds and other animals, and human infection typically occurs through the consumption of contaminated food or water.

The symptoms of a C. lari infection can include diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever, and vomiting. The illness is usually self-limiting and resolves within a few days to a week, although in some cases it may lead to more severe complications such as bacteremia (bacteria in the bloodstream) or Guillain-Barré syndrome, a serious neurological condition.

Prevention measures include proper food handling and cooking techniques, as well as good hygiene practices such as handwashing after using the bathroom and before preparing or eating food. If you suspect that you have a C. lari infection, it is important to seek medical attention promptly to receive appropriate treatment and prevent complications.

Enteritis is a medical term that refers to inflammation of the small intestine. The small intestine is responsible for digesting and absorbing nutrients from food, so inflammation in this area can interfere with these processes and lead to symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss.

Enteritis can be caused by a variety of factors, including bacterial or viral infections, parasites, autoimmune disorders, medications, and exposure to toxins. In some cases, the cause of enteritis may be unknown. Treatment for enteritis depends on the underlying cause, but may include antibiotics, antiparasitic drugs, anti-inflammatory medications, or supportive care such as fluid replacement therapy.

"Chickens" is a common term used to refer to the domesticated bird, Gallus gallus domesticus, which is widely raised for its eggs and meat. However, in medical terms, "chickens" is not a standard term with a specific definition. If you have any specific medical concern or question related to chickens, such as food safety or allergies, please provide more details so I can give a more accurate answer.

Poultry diseases refer to a wide range of infectious and non-infectious disorders that affect domesticated birds, particularly those raised for meat, egg, or feather production. These diseases can be caused by various factors including viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, genetic predisposition, environmental conditions, and management practices.

Infectious poultry diseases are often highly contagious and can lead to significant economic losses in the poultry industry due to decreased production, increased mortality, and reduced quality of products. Some examples of infectious poultry diseases include avian influenza, Newcastle disease, salmonellosis, colibacillosis, mycoplasmosis, aspergillosis, and coccidiosis.

Non-infectious poultry diseases can be caused by factors such as poor nutrition, environmental stressors, and management issues. Examples of non-infectious poultry diseases include ascites, fatty liver syndrome, sudden death syndrome, and various nutritional deficiencies.

Prevention and control of poultry diseases typically involve a combination of biosecurity measures, vaccination programs, proper nutrition, good management practices, and monitoring for early detection and intervention. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of poultry diseases is crucial to implementing effective treatment and prevention strategies, and can help minimize the impact of disease outbreaks on both individual flocks and the broader poultry industry.

Feces are the solid or semisolid remains of food that could not be digested or absorbed in the small intestine, along with bacteria and other waste products. After being stored in the colon, feces are eliminated from the body through the rectum and anus during defecation. Feces can vary in color, consistency, and odor depending on a person's diet, health status, and other factors.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "poultry" is not a medical term. It is a agricultural and culinary term that refers to domestic birds (such as chickens, ducks, geese, and turkeys) that are kept for their eggs, meat, or feathers. The study and care of these birds would fall under the field of veterinary medicine, but "poultry" itself is not a medical term.

Food microbiology is the study of the microorganisms that are present in food, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. This field examines how these microbes interact with food, how they affect its safety and quality, and how they can be controlled during food production, processing, storage, and preparation. Food microbiology also involves the development of methods for detecting and identifying pathogenic microorganisms in food, as well as studying the mechanisms of foodborne illnesses and developing strategies to prevent them. Additionally, it includes research on the beneficial microbes found in certain fermented foods and their potential applications in improving food quality and safety.

'Campylobacter rectus' is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that can cause periodontal disease, an infection and inflammation of the tissues surrounding the teeth. It is normally found in the oral cavity and is associated with periodontitis, a severe form of gum disease. The bacteria are microaerophilic, meaning they require reduced levels of oxygen to grow. Infection with 'Campylobacter rectus' can lead to tissue destruction, bone loss, and potentially systemic infections in individuals with weakened immune systems. Proper oral hygiene and dental care are important in preventing infection and controlling the spread of this bacterium.

Flagellin is a protein that makes up the structural filament of the flagellum, which is a whip-like structure found on many bacteria that enables them to move. It is also known as a potent stimulator of the innate immune response and can be recognized by Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) in the host's immune system, triggering an inflammatory response. Flagellin is highly conserved among different bacterial species, making it a potential target for broad-spectrum vaccines and immunotherapies against bacterial infections.

Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a rare autoimmune disorder in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks the peripheral nervous system, leading to muscle weakness, tingling sensations, and sometimes paralysis. The peripheral nervous system includes the nerves that control our movements and transmit signals from our skin, muscles, and joints to our brain.

The onset of GBS usually occurs after a viral or bacterial infection, such as respiratory or gastrointestinal infections, or following surgery, vaccinations, or other immune system triggers. The exact cause of the immune response that leads to GBS is not fully understood.

GBS typically progresses rapidly over days or weeks, with symptoms reaching their peak within 2-4 weeks after onset. Most people with GBS experience muscle weakness that starts in the lower limbs and spreads upward to the upper body, arms, and face. In severe cases, the diaphragm and chest muscles may become weakened, leading to difficulty breathing and requiring mechanical ventilation.

The diagnosis of GBS is based on clinical symptoms, nerve conduction studies, and sometimes cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Treatment typically involves supportive care, such as pain management, physical therapy, and respiratory support if necessary. In addition, plasma exchange (plasmapheresis) or intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) may be used to reduce the severity of symptoms and speed up recovery.

While most people with GBS recover completely or with minimal residual symptoms, some may experience long-term disability or require ongoing medical care. The prognosis for GBS varies depending on the severity of the illness and the individual's age and overall health.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

An abattoir is a facility where animals are slaughtered and processed for human consumption. It is also known as a slaughterhouse. The term "abattoir" comes from the French word "abattre," which means "to take down" or "slaughter." In an abattoir, animals such as cattle, pigs, sheep, and chickens are killed and then butchered into smaller pieces of meat that can be sold to consumers.

Abattoirs must follow strict regulations to ensure the humane treatment of animals and the safety of the meat products they produce. These regulations cover various aspects of the slaughtering and processing process, including animal handling, stunning, bleeding, evisceration, and inspection. The goal of these regulations is to minimize the risk of contamination and ensure that the meat is safe for human consumption.

It's important to note that while abattoirs play an essential role in providing a reliable source of protein for humans, they can also be controversial due to concerns about animal welfare and the environmental impact of large-scale animal agriculture.

Diarrhea is a condition in which an individual experiences loose, watery stools frequently, often exceeding three times a day. It can be acute, lasting for several days, or chronic, persisting for weeks or even months. Diarrhea can result from various factors, including viral, bacterial, or parasitic infections, food intolerances, medications, and underlying medical conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease or irritable bowel syndrome. Dehydration is a potential complication of diarrhea, particularly in severe cases or in vulnerable populations like young children and the elderly.

Medical definitions of terms often come from authoritative sources such as those produced by the US National Institutes of Health (NIH), the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), or the World Health Organization (WHO). However, I couldn't find a specific medical definition for 'poultry products' in these resources. Instead, poultry products are commonly defined by food safety authorities such as the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) or the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

According to the USDA, "Poultry products" are items that are derived from the whole carcasses, parts, or portions of poultry carcasses, such as chicken, turkey, duck, goose, guinea fowl, and ratites (emus and ostriches). These products include, but are not limited to, meat, skin, fat, bones, organs, eggs, and egg products.

It's important to note that poultry products can be a source of various bacteria, parasites, and viruses, including Salmonella, Campylobacter, Listeria, and avian influenza viruses. Proper handling, cooking, and storage are crucial steps in preventing foodborne illnesses associated with the consumption of poultry products.

Bacterial typing techniques are methods used to identify and differentiate bacterial strains or isolates based on their unique characteristics. These techniques are essential in epidemiological studies, infection control, and research to understand the transmission dynamics, virulence, and antibiotic resistance patterns of bacterial pathogens.

There are various bacterial typing techniques available, including:

1. **Bacteriophage Typing:** This method involves using bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria) to identify specific bacterial strains based on their susceptibility or resistance to particular phages.
2. **Serotyping:** It is a technique that differentiates bacterial strains based on the antigenic properties of their cell surface components, such as capsules, flagella, and somatic (O) and flagellar (H) antigens.
3. **Biochemical Testing:** This method uses biochemical reactions to identify specific metabolic pathways or enzymes present in bacterial strains, which can be used for differentiation. Commonly used tests include the catalase test, oxidase test, and various sugar fermentation tests.
4. **Molecular Typing Techniques:** These methods use genetic markers to identify and differentiate bacterial strains at the DNA level. Examples of molecular typing techniques include:
* **Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE):** This method uses restriction enzymes to digest bacterial DNA, followed by electrophoresis in an agarose gel under pulsed electrical fields. The resulting banding patterns are analyzed and compared to identify related strains.
* **Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST):** It involves sequencing specific housekeeping genes to generate unique sequence types that can be used for strain identification and phylogenetic analysis.
* **Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS):** This method sequences the entire genome of a bacterial strain, providing the most detailed information on genetic variation and relatedness between strains. WGS data can be analyzed using various bioinformatics tools to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), gene deletions or insertions, and other genetic changes that can be used for strain differentiation.

These molecular typing techniques provide higher resolution than traditional methods, allowing for more accurate identification and comparison of bacterial strains. They are particularly useful in epidemiological investigations to track the spread of pathogens and identify outbreaks.

Gastroenteritis is not a medical condition itself, but rather a symptom-based description of inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract, primarily involving the stomach and intestines. It's often referred to as "stomach flu," although it's not caused by influenza virus.

Medically, gastroenteritis is defined as an inflammation of the mucous membrane of the stomach and intestines, usually resulting in symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, fever, and dehydration. This condition can be caused by various factors, including viral (like rotavirus or norovirus), bacterial (such as Salmonella, Shigella, or Escherichia coli), or parasitic infections, food poisoning, allergies, or the use of certain medications.

Gastroenteritis is generally self-limiting and resolves within a few days with proper hydration and rest. However, severe cases may require medical attention to prevent complications like dehydration, which can be particularly dangerous for young children, older adults, and individuals with weakened immune systems.

Arcobacter is a genus of Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are widely distributed in various environments, including water, soil, and the gastrointestinal tracts of animals and humans. These bacteria are microaerophilic, meaning they require a reduced oxygen environment for growth. Some species of Arcobacter have been associated with gastrointestinal illnesses in humans, although the significance of these associations is not fully understood.

Here is a medical definition of Arcobacter from StatPearls:

"Arcobacter are gram-negative, curved or spiral-shaped rods that are microaerophilic and oxidase positive. They can be found in various environments, including water, soil, and the gastrointestinal tracts of animals and humans. Some species have been associated with diarrheal illnesses in humans, but their significance as human pathogens is not well established."

Source: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2023 Jan-. Campylobacter and Arcobacter Infections.

Polyradiculoneuropathy is a medical term that refers to a condition affecting multiple nerve roots and peripheral nerves. It's a type of neuropathy, which is damage or disease affecting the peripheral nerves, and it involves damage to the nerve roots as they exit the spinal cord.

The term "poly" means many, "radiculo" refers to the nerve root, and "neuropathy" indicates a disorder of the nerves. Therefore, polyradiculoneuropathy implies that multiple nerve roots and peripheral nerves are affected.

This condition can result from various causes, such as infections (like Guillain-Barre syndrome), autoimmune disorders (such as lupus or rheumatoid arthritis), diabetes, cancer, or exposure to toxins. Symptoms may include weakness, numbness, tingling, or pain in the limbs, which can progress and become severe over time. Proper diagnosis and management are crucial for improving outcomes and preventing further nerve damage.

'Campylobacter hyointestinalis' is a species of bacteria that is part of the Campylobacter genus. It is commonly found in the intestines of various animals, including pigs and birds. While it has been found to cause diarrheal illness in humans, particularly in immunocompromised individuals, it is not as well-studied or frequently associated with human disease as other Campylobacter species such as C. jejuni and C. coli.

The bacteria are gram-negative, non-spore forming, curved rods or spiral-shaped organisms that require microaerophilic conditions (reduced oxygen levels) for growth. They can be transmitted to humans through the consumption of contaminated food or water, or through direct contact with infected animals.

Symptoms of infection with C. hyointestinalis may include diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever, and nausea. In severe cases, it can lead to complications such as bacteremia (bacterial infection in the bloodstream) or inflammatory bowel disease. However, more research is needed to fully understand the epidemiology, clinical significance, and optimal treatment strategies for C. hyointestinalis infections in humans.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

'Campylobacter upsaliensis' is a species of gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacteria that can cause gastrointestinal illness in humans. It is one of several species within the genus Campylobacter, which are among the most common causes of bacterial foodborne diarrheal diseases worldwide.

C. upsaliensis is often found in the intestines of animals, particularly cats and dogs, and can be transmitted to humans through contaminated food or water, or direct contact with infected animals. The bacteria are relatively sensitive to environmental conditions, such as heat, acidity, and drying, which makes them less likely to survive for long periods outside the host's body.

The symptoms of C. upsaliensis infection typically include diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever, and nausea, which can last for several days to a week or more. In some cases, the infection may lead to complications such as bacteremia (bacteria in the bloodstream) or Guillain-Barré syndrome, a rare neurological disorder that can cause muscle weakness and paralysis.

Diagnosis of C. upsaliensis infection typically involves laboratory testing of stool samples to detect the presence of the bacteria. Treatment usually involves supportive care, such as hydration and electrolyte replacement, and antibiotics may be prescribed in severe cases or for individuals at high risk of complications. Preventive measures include proper food handling and preparation, avoiding cross-contamination between raw meats and other foods, washing hands thoroughly after handling animals or their waste, and avoiding drinking untreated water from sources that may be contaminated with animal feces.

Serotyping is a laboratory technique used to classify microorganisms, such as bacteria and viruses, based on the specific antigens or proteins present on their surface. It involves treating the microorganism with different types of antibodies and observing which ones bind to its surface. Each distinct set of antigens corresponds to a specific serotype, allowing for precise identification and characterization of the microorganism. This technique is particularly useful in epidemiology, vaccine development, and infection control.

A cloaca is a common cavity or channel in some animals, including many birds and reptiles, that serves as the combined endpoint for the digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems. Feces, urine, and in some cases, eggs are all expelled through this single opening. In humans and other mammals, these systems have separate openings. Anatomical anomalies can result in a human born with a cloaca, which is very rare and typically requires surgical correction.

Domestic animals, also known as domestic animals or pets, are species that have been tamed and kept by humans for various purposes. These purposes can include companionship, work, protection, or food production. Some common examples of domestic animals include dogs, cats, cows, sheep, goats, pigs, horses, and chickens.

Domestic animals are distinguished from wild animals in that they are dependent on humans for their survival and are able to live in close proximity to people. They have often been selectively bred over generations to possess certain traits or characteristics that make them more suitable for their intended uses. For example, dogs may be bred for their size, strength, agility, or temperament, while cats may be bred for their coat patterns or behaviors.

It is important to note that the term "domestic animal" does not necessarily mean that an animal is tame or safe to handle. Some domestic animals, such as certain breeds of dogs, can be aggressive or dangerous if not properly trained and managed. It is always important to approach and handle any animal, domestic or wild, with caution and respect.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Hippurates" is not a medical term or condition. It might refer to Hippocrates, who is often referred to as the "Father of Medicine." However, if you have a different context in mind, please provide it so I can give a more accurate response.

Bacterial drug resistance is a type of antimicrobial resistance that occurs when bacteria evolve the ability to survive and reproduce in the presence of drugs (such as antibiotics) that would normally kill them or inhibit their growth. This can happen due to various mechanisms, including genetic mutations or the acquisition of resistance genes from other bacteria.

As a result, bacterial infections may become more difficult to treat, requiring higher doses of medication, alternative drugs, or longer treatment courses. In some cases, drug-resistant infections can lead to serious health complications, increased healthcare costs, and higher mortality rates.

Examples of bacterial drug resistance include methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE), and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Preventing the spread of bacterial drug resistance is crucial for maintaining effective treatments for infectious diseases.

Foodborne diseases, also known as foodborne illnesses or food poisoning, are defined as disorders caused by the consumption of contaminated foods or beverages, which contain harmful bacteria, parasites, viruses, toxins, or chemicals. These agents can cause a range of symptoms, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever, and dehydration. The severity of the illness can vary from mild discomfort to severe life-threatening conditions, depending on the type of infectious agent and the individual's immune system and overall health status. Common examples of foodborne diseases include Salmonella, Escherichia coli (E. coli), Listeria, Staphylococcus aureus, and Norovirus infections. Proper food handling, preparation, storage, and cooking can help prevent the occurrence of foodborne diseases.

In a medical context, "meat" generally refers to the flesh of animals that is consumed as food. This includes muscle tissue, as well as fat and other tissues that are often found in meat products. However, it's worth noting that some people may have dietary restrictions or medical conditions that prevent them from consuming meat, so it's always important to consider individual preferences and needs when discussing food options.

It's also worth noting that the consumption of meat can have both positive and negative health effects. On the one hand, meat is a good source of protein, iron, vitamin B12, and other essential nutrients. On the other hand, consuming large amounts of red and processed meats has been linked to an increased risk of heart disease, stroke, and certain types of cancer. Therefore, it's generally recommended to consume meat in moderation as part of a balanced diet.

Food contamination is the presence of harmful microorganisms, chemicals, or foreign substances in food or water that can cause illness or injury to individuals who consume it. This can occur at any stage during production, processing, storage, or preparation of food, and can result from various sources such as:

1. Biological contamination: This includes the presence of harmful bacteria, viruses, parasites, or fungi that can cause foodborne illnesses. Examples include Salmonella, E. coli, Listeria, and norovirus.

2. Chemical contamination: This involves the introduction of hazardous chemicals into food, which may occur due to poor handling practices, improper storage, or exposure to environmental pollutants. Common sources of chemical contamination include pesticides, cleaning solvents, heavy metals, and natural toxins produced by certain plants or fungi.

3. Physical contamination: This refers to the presence of foreign objects in food, such as glass, plastic, hair, or insects, which can pose a choking hazard or introduce harmful substances into the body.

Preventing food contamination is crucial for ensuring food safety and protecting public health. Proper hygiene practices, temperature control, separation of raw and cooked foods, and regular inspections are essential measures to minimize the risk of food contamination.

The cecum is the first part of the large intestine, located at the junction of the small and large intestines. It is a pouch-like structure that connects to the ileum (the last part of the small intestine) and the ascending colon (the first part of the large intestine). The cecum is where the appendix is attached. Its function is to absorb water and electrolytes, and it also serves as a site for the fermentation of certain types of dietary fiber by gut bacteria. However, the exact functions of the cecum are not fully understood.

Anti-bacterial agents, also known as antibiotics, are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria. These agents work by either killing the bacteria or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. There are several different classes of anti-bacterial agents, including penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and tetracyclines, among others. Each class of antibiotic has a specific mechanism of action and is used to treat certain types of bacterial infections. It's important to note that anti-bacterial agents are not effective against viral infections, such as the common cold or flu. Misuse and overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which is a significant global health concern.

A "colony count" is a method used to estimate the number of viable microorganisms, such as bacteria or fungi, in a sample. In this technique, a known volume of the sample is spread onto the surface of a solid nutrient medium in a petri dish and then incubated under conditions that allow the microorganisms to grow and form visible colonies. Each colony that grows on the plate represents an individual cell (or small cluster of cells) from the original sample that was able to divide and grow under the given conditions. By counting the number of colonies that form, researchers can make a rough estimate of the concentration of microorganisms in the original sample.

The term "microbial" simply refers to microscopic organisms, such as bacteria, fungi, or viruses. Therefore, a "colony count, microbial" is a general term that encompasses the use of colony counting techniques to estimate the number of any type of microorganism in a sample.

Colony counts are used in various fields, including medical research, food safety testing, and environmental monitoring, to assess the levels of contamination or the effectiveness of disinfection procedures. However, it is important to note that colony counts may not always provide an accurate measure of the total number of microorganisms present in a sample, as some cells may be injured or unable to grow under the conditions used for counting. Additionally, some microorganisms may form clusters or chains that can appear as single colonies, leading to an overestimation of the true cell count.

Culture media is a substance that is used to support the growth of microorganisms or cells in an artificial environment, such as a petri dish or test tube. It typically contains nutrients and other factors that are necessary for the growth and survival of the organisms being cultured. There are many different types of culture media, each with its own specific formulation and intended use. Some common examples include blood agar, which is used to culture bacteria; Sabouraud dextrose agar, which is used to culture fungi; and Eagle's minimum essential medium, which is used to culture animal cells.

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

Microbial sensitivity tests, also known as antibiotic susceptibility tests (ASTs) or bacterial susceptibility tests, are laboratory procedures used to determine the effectiveness of various antimicrobial agents against specific microorganisms isolated from a patient's infection. These tests help healthcare providers identify which antibiotics will be most effective in treating an infection and which ones should be avoided due to resistance. The results of these tests can guide appropriate antibiotic therapy, minimize the potential for antibiotic resistance, improve clinical outcomes, and reduce unnecessary side effects or toxicity from ineffective antimicrobials.

There are several methods for performing microbial sensitivity tests, including:

1. Disk diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer test): A standardized paper disk containing a predetermined amount of an antibiotic is placed on an agar plate that has been inoculated with the isolated microorganism. After incubation, the zone of inhibition around the disk is measured to determine the susceptibility or resistance of the organism to that particular antibiotic.
2. Broth dilution method: A series of tubes or wells containing decreasing concentrations of an antimicrobial agent are inoculated with a standardized microbial suspension. After incubation, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is determined by observing the lowest concentration of the antibiotic that prevents visible growth of the organism.
3. Automated systems: These use sophisticated technology to perform both disk diffusion and broth dilution methods automatically, providing rapid and accurate results for a wide range of microorganisms and antimicrobial agents.

The interpretation of microbial sensitivity test results should be done cautiously, considering factors such as the site of infection, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the antibiotic, potential toxicity, and local resistance patterns. Regular monitoring of susceptibility patterns and ongoing antimicrobial stewardship programs are essential to ensure optimal use of these tests and to minimize the development of antibiotic resistance.

Erythromycin is a type of antibiotic known as a macrolide, which is used to treat various types of bacterial infections. It works by inhibiting the bacteria's ability to produce proteins, which are necessary for the bacteria to survive and multiply. Erythromycin is often used to treat respiratory tract infections, skin infections, and sexually transmitted diseases. It may also be used to prevent endocarditis (inflammation of the lining of the heart) in people at risk of this condition.

Erythromycin is generally considered safe for most people, but it can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. It may also interact with other medications, so it's important to tell your doctor about all the drugs you are taking before starting erythromycin.

Like all antibiotics, erythromycin should only be used to treat bacterial infections, as it is not effective against viral infections such as the common cold or flu. Overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which makes it harder to treat infections in the future.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique used to amplify specific regions of DNA. It enables the production of thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in a rapid and efficient manner, making it an essential tool in various fields such as molecular biology, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and research.

The PCR process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate the DNA strands, allow primers (short sequences of single-stranded DNA) to attach to the target regions, and extend these primers using an enzyme called Taq polymerase, resulting in the exponential amplification of the desired DNA segment.

In a medical context, PCR is often used for detecting and quantifying specific pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in clinical samples, identifying genetic mutations or polymorphisms associated with diseases, monitoring disease progression, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

I believe there might be a slight confusion in your question. The "food processing industry" is not a medical term per se, but rather a term used to describe the branch of manufacturing that involves transforming raw agricultural ingredients into food products for commercial sale.

The food-processing industry includes activities such as:

1. Cleaning and grading raw food materials
2. Preservation through canning, freezing, refrigeration, or dehydration
3. Preparation of food by chopping, cooking, baking, or mixing
4. Packaging and labeling of the final food product

While not a medical term, it is still relevant to the medical field as processed foods can impact human health, both positively and negatively. For example, processing can help preserve nutrients, increase food safety, and make certain foods more accessible and convenient. However, overly processed foods often contain high levels of added sugars, sodium, and unhealthy fats, which can contribute to various health issues such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases.

Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped, Gram-negative bacteria that are facultative anaerobes and are motile due to peritrichous flagella. They are non-spore forming and often have a single polar flagellum when grown in certain conditions. Salmonella species are important pathogens in humans and other animals, causing foodborne illnesses known as salmonellosis.

Salmonella can be found in the intestinal tracts of humans, birds, reptiles, and mammals. They can contaminate various foods, including meat, poultry, eggs, dairy products, and fresh produce. The bacteria can survive and multiply in a wide range of temperatures and environments, making them challenging to control completely.

Salmonella infection typically leads to gastroenteritis, characterized by symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever, and vomiting. In some cases, the infection may spread beyond the intestines, leading to more severe complications like bacteremia (bacterial infection of the blood) or focal infections in various organs.

There are two main species of Salmonella: S. enterica and S. bongori. S. enterica is further divided into six subspecies and numerous serovars, with over 2,500 distinct serotypes identified to date. Some well-known Salmonella serovars include S. Typhi (causes typhoid fever), S. Paratyphi A, B, and C (cause paratyphoid fever), and S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium (common causes of foodborne salmonellosis).

Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is a type of electrophoresis technique used in molecular biology to separate DNA molecules based on their size and conformation. In this method, the electric field is applied in varying directions, which allows for the separation of large DNA fragments that are difficult to separate using traditional gel electrophoresis methods.

The DNA sample is prepared by embedding it in a semi-solid matrix, such as agarose or polyacrylamide, and then subjected to an electric field that periodically changes direction. This causes the DNA molecules to reorient themselves in response to the changing electric field, which results in the separation of the DNA fragments based on their size and shape.

PFGE is a powerful tool for molecular biology research and has many applications, including the identification and characterization of bacterial pathogens, the analysis of genomic DNA, and the study of gene organization and regulation. It is also used in forensic science to analyze DNA evidence in criminal investigations.

Bacteriological techniques refer to the various methods and procedures used in the laboratory for the cultivation, identification, and study of bacteria. These techniques are essential in fields such as medicine, biotechnology, and research. Here are some common bacteriological techniques:

1. **Sterilization**: This is a process that eliminates or kills all forms of life, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and spores. Common sterilization methods include autoclaving (using steam under pressure), dry heat (in an oven), chemical sterilants, and radiation.

2. **Aseptic Technique**: This refers to practices used to prevent contamination of sterile materials or environments with microorganisms. It includes the use of sterile equipment, gloves, and lab coats, as well as techniques such as flaming, alcohol swabbing, and using aseptic transfer devices.

3. **Media Preparation**: This involves the preparation of nutrient-rich substances that support bacterial growth. There are various types of media, including solid (agar), liquid (broth), and semi-solid (e.g., stab agar). The choice of medium depends on the type of bacteria being cultured and the purpose of the investigation.

4. **Inoculation**: This is the process of introducing a bacterial culture into a medium. It can be done using a loop, swab, or needle. The inoculum should be taken from a pure culture to avoid contamination.

5. **Incubation**: After inoculation, the bacteria are allowed to grow under controlled conditions of temperature, humidity, and atmospheric composition. This process is called incubation.

6. **Staining and Microscopy**: Bacteria are too small to be seen with the naked eye. Therefore, they need to be stained and observed under a microscope. Gram staining is a common method used to differentiate between two major groups of bacteria based on their cell wall composition.

7. **Biochemical Tests**: These are tests used to identify specific bacterial species based on their biochemical characteristics, such as their ability to ferment certain sugars, produce particular enzymes, or resist certain antibiotics.

8. **Molecular Techniques**: Advanced techniques like PCR and DNA sequencing can provide more precise identification of bacteria. They can also be used for genetic analysis and epidemiological studies.

Remember, handling microorganisms requires careful attention to biosafety procedures to prevent accidental infection or environmental contamination.

Species specificity is a term used in the field of biology, including medicine, to refer to the characteristic of a biological entity (such as a virus, bacterium, or other microorganism) that allows it to interact exclusively or preferentially with a particular species. This means that the biological entity has a strong affinity for, or is only able to infect, a specific host species.

For example, HIV is specifically adapted to infect human cells and does not typically infect other animal species. Similarly, some bacterial toxins are species-specific and can only affect certain types of animals or humans. This concept is important in understanding the transmission dynamics and host range of various pathogens, as well as in developing targeted therapies and vaccines.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

A bacterial gene is a segment of DNA (or RNA in some viruses) that contains the genetic information necessary for the synthesis of a functional bacterial protein or RNA molecule. These genes are responsible for encoding various characteristics and functions of bacteria such as metabolism, reproduction, and resistance to antibiotics. They can be transmitted between bacteria through horizontal gene transfer mechanisms like conjugation, transformation, and transduction. Bacterial genes are often organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that the term "bacterial gene" is used to describe genetic elements found in bacteria, but not all genetic elements in bacteria are considered genes. For example, some DNA sequences may not encode functional products and are therefore not considered genes. Additionally, some bacterial genes may be plasmid-borne or phage-borne, rather than being located on the bacterial chromosome.

"Food handling" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, in the context of public health and food safety, it generally refers to the activities involved in the storage, preparation, and serving of food in a way that minimizes the risk of contamination and foodborne illnesses. This includes proper hygiene practices, such as handwashing and wearing gloves, separating raw and cooked foods, cooking food to the correct temperature, and refrigerating or freezing food promptly. Proper food handling is essential for ensuring the safety and quality of food in various settings, including restaurants, hospitals, schools, and homes.

Ciprofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic that is used to treat various types of bacterial infections, including respiratory, urinary, and skin infections. It works by inhibiting the bacterial DNA gyrase, which is an enzyme necessary for bacterial replication and transcription. This leads to bacterial cell death. Ciprofloxacin is available in oral and injectable forms and is usually prescribed to be taken twice a day. Common side effects include nausea, diarrhea, and headache. It may also cause serious adverse reactions such as tendinitis, tendon rupture, peripheral neuropathy, and central nervous system effects. It is important to note that ciprofloxacin should not be used in patients with a history of hypersensitivity to fluoroquinolones and should be used with caution in patients with a history of seizures, brain injury, or other neurological conditions.

"Campylobacter sputorum" is a type of bacteria that can be found in the respiratory tract and digestive system of some animals, including humans. It is a gram-negative, curved or spiral-shaped organism that can cause various types of infections, such as pneumonia and bacteremia (bacterial infection of the blood). However, it is not a common cause of human illness and is generally considered to be less pathogenic than other Campylobacter species, such as C. jejuni and C. coli, which are major causes of foodborne illness worldwide.

It's important to note that "Campylobacter sputorum" is a complex group of bacteria with several subspecies, some of them are more pathogenic than others, and it can be found in different environments such as animals, water and soil. It has been associated with cases of respiratory tract infections, bacteremia, and occasionally, gastroenteritis. However, the majority of Campylobacter infections in humans are caused by C. jejuni and C. coli which are commonly found in poultry and other animals.

It's always important to consult a medical professional for any questions or concerns regarding medical definitions and health-related information.

Animal husbandry is the practice of breeding and raising animals for agricultural purposes, such as for the production of meat, milk, eggs, or fiber. It involves providing proper care for the animals, including feeding, housing, health care, and breeding management. The goal of animal husbandry is to maintain healthy and productive animals while also being mindful of environmental sustainability and animal welfare.

Flagella are long, thin, whip-like structures that some types of cells use to move themselves around. They are made up of a protein called tubulin and are surrounded by a membrane. In bacteria, flagella rotate like a propeller to push the cell through its environment. In eukaryotic cells (cells with a true nucleus), such as sperm cells or certain types of algae, flagella move in a wave-like motion to achieve locomotion. The ability to produce flagella is called flagellation.

Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) is a standardized method used in microbiology to characterize and identify bacterial isolates at the subspecies level. It is based on the sequencing of several (usually 7-10) housekeeping genes, which are essential for the survival of the organism and have a low rate of mutation. The sequence type (ST) is determined by the specific alleles present at each locus, creating a unique profile that can be used to compare and cluster isolates into clonal complexes or sequence types. This method provides high-resolution discrimination between closely related strains and has been widely adopted for molecular epidemiology, infection control, and population genetics studies of bacterial pathogens.

Miller Fisher Syndrome (MFS) is a rare neurological disorder that is considered a variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome. It is characterized by the triad of symptoms including ophthalmoplegia (paralysis of the eye muscles), ataxia (loss of coordination and balance), and areflexia (absence of reflexes). Some patients may also experience weakness or paralysis in the limbs, and some cases may involve bulbar symptoms such as dysphagia (difficulty swallowing) and dysarthria (slurred speech). The syndrome is caused by an immune response that damages the nerves, and it often follows a viral infection. Treatment typically includes supportive care, plasma exchange, or intravenous immunoglobulin therapy to help reduce the severity of the symptoms.

I'm not aware of any recognized medical term or condition specifically referred to as "turkeys." The term "turkey" is most commonly used in a non-medical context to refer to the large, bird-like domesticated fowl native to North America, scientifically known as Meleagris gallopavo.

However, if you are referring to a medical condition called "turkey neck," it is a colloquial term used to describe sagging or loose skin around the neck area, which can resemble a turkey's wattle. This condition is not a formal medical diagnosis but rather a descriptive term for an aesthetic concern some people may have about their appearance.

If you meant something else by "turkeys," please provide more context so I can give you a more accurate answer.

Bacterial shedding refers to the release or discharge of bacteria from an infected individual into their environment. This can occur through various routes, such as respiratory droplets when coughing or sneezing, or through fecal matter. The bacteria can then potentially spread to other individuals, causing infection and disease. It's important to note that not all bacteria that are shed cause illness, and some people may be colonized with certain bacteria without showing symptoms. However, in healthcare settings, bacterial shedding is a concern for the transmission of harmful pathogens, particularly in vulnerable populations such as immunocompromised patients.

"Cattle" is a term used in the agricultural and veterinary fields to refer to domesticated animals of the genus *Bos*, primarily *Bos taurus* (European cattle) and *Bos indicus* (Zebu). These animals are often raised for meat, milk, leather, and labor. They are also known as bovines or cows (for females), bulls (intact males), and steers/bullocks (castrated males). However, in a strict medical definition, "cattle" does not apply to humans or other animals.

Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) is a term used in molecular biology and genetics. It refers to the presence of variations in DNA sequences among individuals, which can be detected by restriction enzymes. These enzymes cut DNA at specific sites, creating fragments of different lengths.

In RFLP analysis, DNA is isolated from an individual and treated with a specific restriction enzyme that cuts the DNA at particular recognition sites. The resulting fragments are then separated by size using gel electrophoresis, creating a pattern unique to that individual's DNA. If there are variations in the DNA sequence between individuals, the restriction enzyme may cut the DNA at different sites, leading to differences in the length of the fragments and thus, a different pattern on the gel.

These variations can be used for various purposes, such as identifying individuals, diagnosing genetic diseases, or studying evolutionary relationships between species. However, RFLP analysis has largely been replaced by more modern techniques like polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods and DNA sequencing, which offer higher resolution and throughput.

A disease reservoir refers to a population or group of living organisms, including humans, animals, and even plants, that can naturally carry and transmit a particular pathogen (disease-causing agent) without necessarily showing symptoms of the disease themselves. These hosts serve as a source of infection for other susceptible individuals, allowing the pathogen to persist and circulate within a community or environment.

Disease reservoirs can be further classified into:

1. **Primary (or Main) Reservoir**: This refers to the species that primarily harbors and transmits the pathogen, contributing significantly to its natural ecology and maintaining its transmission cycle. For example, mosquitoes are the primary reservoirs for many arboviruses like dengue, Zika, and chikungunya viruses.

2. **Amplifying Hosts**: These hosts can become infected with the pathogen and experience a high rate of replication, leading to an increased concentration of the pathogen in their bodies. This allows for efficient transmission to other susceptible hosts or vectors. For instance, birds are amplifying hosts for West Nile virus, as they can become viremic (have high levels of virus in their blood) and infect feeding mosquitoes that then transmit the virus to other animals and humans.

3. **Dead-end Hosts**: These hosts may become infected with the pathogen but do not contribute significantly to its transmission cycle, as they either do not develop sufficient quantities of the pathogen to transmit it or do not come into contact with potential vectors or susceptible hosts. For example, humans are dead-end hosts for many zoonotic diseases like rabies, as they cannot transmit the virus to other humans.

Understanding disease reservoirs is crucial in developing effective strategies for controlling and preventing infectious diseases, as it helps identify key species and environments that contribute to their persistence and transmission.

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a type of RNA that combines with proteins to form ribosomes, which are complex structures inside cells where protein synthesis occurs. The "16S" refers to the sedimentation coefficient of the rRNA molecule, which is a measure of its size and shape. In particular, 16S rRNA is a component of the smaller subunit of the prokaryotic ribosome (found in bacteria and archaea), and is often used as a molecular marker for identifying and classifying these organisms due to its relative stability and conservation among species. The sequence of 16S rRNA can be compared across different species to determine their evolutionary relationships and taxonomic positions.

DNA fingerprinting, also known as DNA profiling or genetic fingerprinting, is a laboratory technique used to identify and compare the unique genetic makeup of individuals by analyzing specific regions of their DNA. This method is based on the variation in the length of repetitive sequences of DNA called variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs) or short tandem repeats (STRs), which are located at specific locations in the human genome and differ significantly among individuals, except in the case of identical twins.

The process of DNA fingerprinting involves extracting DNA from a sample, amplifying targeted regions using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and then separating and visualizing the resulting DNA fragments through electrophoresis. The fragment patterns are then compared to determine the likelihood of a match between two samples.

DNA fingerprinting has numerous applications in forensic science, paternity testing, identity verification, and genealogical research. It is considered an essential tool for providing strong evidence in criminal investigations and resolving disputes related to parentage and inheritance.

Water microbiology is not a formal medical term, but rather a branch of microbiology that deals with the study of microorganisms found in water. It involves the identification, enumeration, and characterization of bacteria, viruses, parasites, and other microscopic organisms present in water sources such as lakes, rivers, oceans, groundwater, drinking water, and wastewater.

In a medical context, water microbiology is relevant to public health because it helps to assess the safety of water supplies for human consumption and recreational activities. It also plays a critical role in understanding and preventing waterborne diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms that can lead to illnesses such as diarrhea, skin infections, and respiratory problems.

Water microbiologists use various techniques to study water microorganisms, including culturing, microscopy, genetic analysis, and biochemical tests. They also investigate the ecology of these organisms, their interactions with other species, and their response to environmental factors such as temperature, pH, and nutrient availability.

Overall, water microbiology is a vital field that helps ensure the safety of our water resources and protects public health.

"Helicobacter" is a genus of gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in the stomach. The most well-known species is "Helicobacter pylori," which is known to cause various gastrointestinal diseases, such as gastritis, peptic ulcers, and gastric cancer. These bacteria are able to survive in the harsh acidic environment of the stomach by producing urease, an enzyme that neutralizes stomach acid. Infection with "Helicobacter pylori" is usually acquired in childhood and can persist for life if not treated.

Septic abortion is a medical term used to describe a spontaneous abortion or miscarriage that is associated with infection. This occurs when the products of conception, such as the fetal tissue and placenta, are not completely expelled from the uterus, leading to an infection of the uterine lining and potentially the pelvic cavity.

The infection can cause fever, chills, severe abdominal pain, foul-smelling vaginal discharge, and heavy bleeding. If left untreated, septic abortion can lead to serious complications such as sepsis, infertility, and even death. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if you suspect a septic abortion. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to clear the infection and possibly surgical intervention to remove any remaining products of conception.

23S Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a type of rRNA that is a component of the large ribosomal subunit in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. In prokaryotes, the large ribosomal subunit contains 50S, which consists of 23S rRNA, 5S rRNA, and around 33 proteins. The 23S rRNA plays a crucial role in the decoding of mRNA during protein synthesis and also participates in the formation of the peptidyl transferase center, where peptide bonds are formed between amino acids.

The 23S rRNA is a long RNA molecule that contains both coding and non-coding regions. It has a complex secondary structure, which includes several domains and subdomains, as well as numerous stem-loop structures. These structures are important for the proper functioning of the ribosome during protein synthesis.

In addition to its role in protein synthesis, 23S rRNA has been used as a target for antibiotics that inhibit bacterial growth. For example, certain antibiotics bind to specific regions of the 23S rRNA and interfere with the function of the ribosome, thereby preventing bacterial protein synthesis and growth. However, because eukaryotic cells do not have a 23S rRNA equivalent, these antibiotics are generally not toxic to human cells.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "seasons" is not a term that has a medical definition. Seasons refer to the four divisions of the year (spring, summer, autumn or fall, and winter) based on the position of the earth in its orbit around the sun. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to try to help answer those!

Bacterial antibodies are a type of antibodies produced by the immune system in response to an infection caused by bacteria. These antibodies are proteins that recognize and bind to specific antigens on the surface of the bacterial cells, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Bacterial antibodies can be classified into several types based on their structure and function, including IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE. They play a crucial role in the body's defense against bacterial infections and provide immunity to future infections with the same bacteria.

Zoonoses are infectious diseases that can be transmitted from animals to humans. They are caused by pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, or fungi that naturally infect non-human animals and can sometimes infect and cause disease in humans through various transmission routes like direct contact with infected animals, consumption of contaminated food or water, or vectors like insects. Some well-known zoonotic diseases include rabies, Lyme disease, salmonellosis, and COVID-19 (which is believed to have originated from bats). Public health officials work to prevent and control zoonoses through various measures such as surveillance, education, vaccination, and management of animal populations.

Bacteroidaceae is a family of gram-negative, anaerobic or facultatively anaerobic, non-spore forming bacteria that are commonly found in the human gastrointestinal tract. They are rod-shaped and can vary in size and shape. Bacteroidaceae are important breakdowners of complex carbohydrates and proteins in the gut, and play a significant role in maintaining the health and homeostasis of the intestinal microbiota. Some members of this family can also be opportunistic pathogens and have been associated with various infections and diseases, such as abscesses, bacteremia, and periodontal disease.

Cattle diseases are a range of health conditions that affect cattle, which include but are not limited to:

1. Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD): Also known as "shipping fever," BRD is a common respiratory illness in feedlot cattle that can be caused by several viruses and bacteria.
2. Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD): A viral disease that can cause a variety of symptoms, including diarrhea, fever, and reproductive issues.
3. Johne's Disease: A chronic wasting disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. It primarily affects the intestines and can cause severe diarrhea and weight loss.
4. Digital Dermatitis: Also known as "hairy heel warts," this is a highly contagious skin disease that affects the feet of cattle, causing lameness and decreased productivity.
5. Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis (IBK): Also known as "pinkeye," IBK is a common and contagious eye infection in cattle that can cause blindness if left untreated.
6. Salmonella: A group of bacteria that can cause severe gastrointestinal illness in cattle, including diarrhea, dehydration, and septicemia.
7. Leptospirosis: A bacterial disease that can cause a wide range of symptoms in cattle, including abortion, stillbirths, and kidney damage.
8. Blackleg: A highly fatal bacterial disease that causes rapid death in young cattle. It is caused by Clostridium chauvoei and vaccination is recommended for prevention.
9. Anthrax: A serious infectious disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Cattle can become infected by ingesting spores found in contaminated soil, feed or water.
10. Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD): A highly contagious viral disease that affects cloven-hooved animals, including cattle. It is characterized by fever and blisters on the feet, mouth, and teats. FMD is not a threat to human health but can have serious economic consequences for the livestock industry.

It's important to note that many of these diseases can be prevented or controlled through good management practices, such as vaccination, biosecurity measures, and proper nutrition. Regular veterinary care and monitoring are also crucial for early detection and treatment of any potential health issues in your herd.

Bacterial adhesion is the initial and crucial step in the process of bacterial colonization, where bacteria attach themselves to a surface or tissue. This process involves specific interactions between bacterial adhesins (proteins, fimbriae, or pili) and host receptors (glycoproteins, glycolipids, or extracellular matrix components). The attachment can be either reversible or irreversible, depending on the strength of interaction. Bacterial adhesion is a significant factor in initiating biofilm formation, which can lead to various infectious diseases and medical device-associated infections.

Nalidixic acid is an antimicrobial agent, specifically a synthetic quinolone derivative. It is primarily used for the treatment of urinary tract infections caused by susceptible strains of gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Klebsiella pneumoniae.

Nalidixic acid works by inhibiting bacterial DNA gyrase, an enzyme necessary for DNA replication. This leads to the prevention of DNA synthesis and ultimately results in bacterial cell death. However, its use has become limited due to the emergence of resistance and the availability of more effective antimicrobials.

It is essential to note that nalidixic acid is not typically used as a first-line treatment for urinary tract infections or any other type of infection. It should only be used when other antibiotics are not suitable due to resistance, allergies, or other factors. Additionally, the drug's potential side effects, such as gastrointestinal disturbances, headaches, and dizziness, may limit its use in some patients.

Fluoroquinolones are a class of antibiotics that are widely used to treat various types of bacterial infections. They work by interfering with the bacteria's ability to replicate its DNA, which ultimately leads to the death of the bacterial cells. Fluoroquinolones are known for their broad-spectrum activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.

Some common fluoroquinolones include ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and ofloxacin. These antibiotics are often used to treat respiratory infections, urinary tract infections, skin infections, and gastrointestinal infections, among others.

While fluoroquinolones are generally well-tolerated, they can cause serious side effects in some people, including tendonitis, nerve damage, and changes in mood or behavior. As with all antibiotics, it's important to use fluoroquinolones only when necessary and under the guidance of a healthcare provider.

Bacterial antigens are substances found on the surface or produced by bacteria that can stimulate an immune response in a host organism. These antigens can be proteins, polysaccharides, teichoic acids, lipopolysaccharides, or other molecules that are recognized as foreign by the host's immune system.

When a bacterial antigen is encountered by the host's immune system, it triggers a series of responses aimed at eliminating the bacteria and preventing infection. The host's immune system recognizes the antigen as foreign through the use of specialized receptors called pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which are found on various immune cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, and neutrophils.

Once a bacterial antigen is recognized by the host's immune system, it can stimulate both the innate and adaptive immune responses. The innate immune response involves the activation of inflammatory pathways, the recruitment of immune cells to the site of infection, and the production of antimicrobial peptides.

The adaptive immune response, on the other hand, involves the activation of T cells and B cells, which are specific to the bacterial antigen. These cells can recognize and remember the antigen, allowing for a more rapid and effective response upon subsequent exposures.

Bacterial antigens are important in the development of vaccines, as they can be used to stimulate an immune response without causing disease. By identifying specific bacterial antigens that are associated with virulence or pathogenicity, researchers can develop vaccines that target these antigens and provide protection against infection.

A disease outbreak is defined as the occurrence of cases of a disease in excess of what would normally be expected in a given time and place. It may affect a small and localized group or a large number of people spread over a wide area, even internationally. An outbreak may be caused by a new agent, a change in the agent's virulence or host susceptibility, or an increase in the size or density of the host population.

Outbreaks can have significant public health and economic impacts, and require prompt investigation and control measures to prevent further spread of the disease. The investigation typically involves identifying the source of the outbreak, determining the mode of transmission, and implementing measures to interrupt the chain of infection. This may include vaccination, isolation or quarantine, and education of the public about the risks and prevention strategies.

Examples of disease outbreaks include foodborne illnesses linked to contaminated food or water, respiratory infections spread through coughing and sneezing, and mosquito-borne diseases such as Zika virus and West Nile virus. Outbreaks can also occur in healthcare settings, such as hospitals and nursing homes, where vulnerable populations may be at increased risk of infection.

Virulence, in the context of medicine and microbiology, refers to the degree or severity of damage or harm that a pathogen (like a bacterium, virus, fungus, or parasite) can cause to its host. It is often associated with the ability of the pathogen to invade and damage host tissues, evade or suppress the host's immune response, replicate within the host, and spread between hosts.

Virulence factors are the specific components or mechanisms that contribute to a pathogen's virulence, such as toxins, enzymes, adhesins, and capsules. These factors enable the pathogen to establish an infection, cause tissue damage, and facilitate its transmission between hosts. The overall virulence of a pathogen can be influenced by various factors, including host susceptibility, environmental conditions, and the specific strain or species of the pathogen.

Gastritis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the lining of the stomach. It can be caused by various factors, including bacterial infections (such as Helicobacter pylori), regular use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), excessive alcohol consumption, and stress.

Gastritis can present with a range of symptoms, such as abdominal pain or discomfort, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and bloating. In some cases, gastritis may not cause any noticeable symptoms. Depending on the severity and duration of inflammation, gastritis can lead to complications like stomach ulcers or even stomach cancer if left untreated.

There are two main types of gastritis: acute and chronic. Acute gastritis develops suddenly and may last for a short period, while chronic gastritis persists over time, often leading to atrophy of the stomach lining. Diagnosis typically involves endoscopy and tissue biopsy to assess the extent of inflammation and rule out other potential causes of symptoms. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause but may include antibiotics, proton pump inhibitors, or lifestyle modifications.

Medically, "milk" is not defined. However, it is important to note that human babies are fed with breast milk, which is the secretion from the mammary glands of humans. It is rich in nutrients like proteins, fats, carbohydrates (lactose), vitamins and minerals that are essential for growth and development.

Other mammals also produce milk to feed their young. These include cows, goats, and sheep, among others. Their milk is often consumed by humans as a source of nutrition, especially in dairy products. However, the composition of these milks can vary significantly from human breast milk.

Microbial drug resistance is a significant medical issue that refers to the ability of microorganisms (such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites) to withstand or survive exposure to drugs or medications designed to kill them or limit their growth. This phenomenon has become a major global health concern, particularly in the context of bacterial infections, where it is also known as antibiotic resistance.

Drug resistance arises due to genetic changes in microorganisms that enable them to modify or bypass the effects of antimicrobial agents. These genetic alterations can be caused by mutations or the acquisition of resistance genes through horizontal gene transfer. The resistant microbes then replicate and multiply, forming populations that are increasingly difficult to eradicate with conventional treatments.

The consequences of drug-resistant infections include increased morbidity, mortality, healthcare costs, and the potential for widespread outbreaks. Factors contributing to the emergence and spread of microbial drug resistance include the overuse or misuse of antimicrobials, poor infection control practices, and inadequate surveillance systems.

To address this challenge, it is crucial to promote prudent antibiotic use, strengthen infection prevention and control measures, develop new antimicrobial agents, and invest in research to better understand the mechanisms underlying drug resistance.

A bacterial genome is the complete set of genetic material, including both DNA and RNA, found within a single bacterium. It contains all the hereditary information necessary for the bacterium to grow, reproduce, and survive in its environment. The bacterial genome typically includes circular chromosomes, as well as plasmids, which are smaller, circular DNA molecules that can carry additional genes. These genes encode various functional elements such as enzymes, structural proteins, and regulatory sequences that determine the bacterium's characteristics and behavior.

Bacterial genomes vary widely in size, ranging from around 130 kilobases (kb) in Mycoplasma genitalium to over 14 megabases (Mb) in Sorangium cellulosum. The complete sequencing and analysis of bacterial genomes have provided valuable insights into the biology, evolution, and pathogenicity of bacteria, enabling researchers to better understand their roles in various diseases and potential applications in biotechnology.

Anti-infective agents are a class of medications that are used to treat infections caused by various microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. These agents work by either killing the microorganism or inhibiting its growth, thereby helping to control the infection and alleviate symptoms.

There are several types of anti-infective agents, including:

1. Antibiotics: These are medications that are used to treat bacterial infections. They work by either killing bacteria (bactericidal) or inhibiting their growth (bacteriostatic).
2. Antivirals: These are medications that are used to treat viral infections. They work by interfering with the replication of the virus, preventing it from spreading and causing further damage.
3. Antifungals: These are medications that are used to treat fungal infections. They work by disrupting the cell membrane of the fungus, killing it or inhibiting its growth.
4. Antiparasitics: These are medications that are used to treat parasitic infections. They work by either killing the parasite or inhibiting its growth and reproduction.

It is important to note that anti-infective agents are not effective against all types of infections, and it is essential to use them appropriately to avoid the development of drug-resistant strains of microorganisms.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

The intestines, also known as the bowel, are a part of the digestive system that extends from the stomach to the anus. They are responsible for the further breakdown and absorption of nutrients from food, as well as the elimination of waste products. The intestines can be divided into two main sections: the small intestine and the large intestine.

The small intestine is a long, coiled tube that measures about 20 feet in length and is lined with tiny finger-like projections called villi, which increase its surface area and enhance nutrient absorption. The small intestine is where most of the digestion and absorption of nutrients takes place.

The large intestine, also known as the colon, is a wider tube that measures about 5 feet in length and is responsible for absorbing water and electrolytes from digested food, forming stool, and eliminating waste products from the body. The large intestine includes several regions, including the cecum, colon, rectum, and anus.

Together, the intestines play a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being by ensuring that the body receives the nutrients it needs to function properly.

Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) refers to the specific regions of DNA in a cell that contain the genes for ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Ribosomes are complex structures composed of proteins and rRNA, which play a crucial role in protein synthesis by translating messenger RNA (mRNA) into proteins.

In humans, there are four types of rRNA molecules: 18S, 5.8S, 28S, and 5S. These rRNAs are encoded by multiple copies of rDNA genes that are organized in clusters on specific chromosomes. In humans, the majority of rDNA genes are located on the short arms of acrocentric chromosomes 13, 14, 15, 21, and 22.

Each cluster of rDNA genes contains both transcribed and non-transcribed spacer regions. The transcribed regions contain the genes for the four types of rRNA, while the non-transcribed spacers contain regulatory elements that control the transcription of the rRNA genes.

The number of rDNA copies varies between species and even within individuals of the same species. The copy number can also change during development and in response to environmental factors. Variations in rDNA copy number have been associated with various diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders.

I am not aware of a medical definition for the term "birds." Birds are a group of warm-blooded vertebrates constituting the class Aves, characterized by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, and lightweight but strong skeletons. Some birds, such as pigeons and chickens, have been used in medical research, but the term "birds" itself does not have a specific medical definition.

Genotype, in genetics, refers to the complete heritable genetic makeup of an individual organism, including all of its genes. It is the set of instructions contained in an organism's DNA for the development and function of that organism. The genotype is the basis for an individual's inherited traits, and it can be contrasted with an individual's phenotype, which refers to the observable physical or biochemical characteristics of an organism that result from the expression of its genes in combination with environmental influences.

It is important to note that an individual's genotype is not necessarily identical to their genetic sequence. Some genes have multiple forms called alleles, and an individual may inherit different alleles for a given gene from each parent. The combination of alleles that an individual inherits for a particular gene is known as their genotype for that gene.

Understanding an individual's genotype can provide important information about their susceptibility to certain diseases, their response to drugs and other treatments, and their risk of passing on inherited genetic disorders to their offspring.

Nucleic acid hybridization is a process in molecular biology where two single-stranded nucleic acids (DNA, RNA) with complementary sequences pair together to form a double-stranded molecule through hydrogen bonding. The strands can be from the same type of nucleic acid or different types (i.e., DNA-RNA or DNA-cDNA). This process is commonly used in various laboratory techniques, such as Southern blotting, Northern blotting, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and microarray analysis, to detect, isolate, and analyze specific nucleic acid sequences. The hybridization temperature and conditions are critical to ensure the specificity of the interaction between the two strands.

Molecular mimicry is a phenomenon in immunology where structurally similar molecules from different sources can induce cross-reactivity of the immune system. This means that an immune response against one molecule also recognizes and responds to another molecule due to their structural similarity, even though they may be from different origins.

In molecular mimicry, a foreign molecule (such as a bacterial or viral antigen) shares sequence or structural homology with self-antigens present in the host organism. The immune system might not distinguish between these two similar molecules, leading to an immune response against both the foreign and self-antigens. This can potentially result in autoimmune diseases, where the immune system attacks the body's own tissues or organs.

Molecular mimicry has been implicated as a possible mechanism for the development of several autoimmune disorders, including rheumatic fever, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and multiple sclerosis. However, it is essential to note that molecular mimicry alone may not be sufficient to trigger an autoimmune response; other factors like genetic predisposition and environmental triggers might also play a role in the development of these conditions.

Microbial viability is the ability of a microorganism to grow, reproduce and maintain its essential life functions. It can be determined through various methods such as cell growth in culture media, staining techniques that detect metabolic activity, or direct observation of active movement. In contrast, non-viable microorganisms are those that have been killed or inactivated and cannot replicate or cause further harm. The measurement of microbial viability is important in various fields such as medicine, food safety, water quality, and environmental monitoring to assess the effectiveness of disinfection and sterilization procedures, and to determine the presence and concentration of harmful bacteria in different environments.

Medical definitions typically do not include terms like "meat products" as they are too broad and not specific to medical conditions or treatments. However, in a general food science or nutrition context, "meat products" could be defined as:

Processed or unprocessed foods that contain meat or meat derivatives as the primary ingredient. This can include various types of muscle tissue from mammals, birds, fish, and other animals, along with any accompanying fat, skin, blood vessels, and other tissues. Meat products may be fresh, cured, smoked, or cooked, and they may also contain additional ingredients like salt, sugar, preservatives, and flavorings. Examples of meat products include beef jerky, bacon, sausages, hot dogs, and canned meats.

Environmental Microbiology is a branch of microbiology that deals with the study of microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, viruses, and other microscopic entities, that are found in various environments such as water, soil, air, and organic matter. This field focuses on understanding how these microbes interact with their surroundings, their role in various ecological systems, and their impact on human health and the environment. It also involves studying the genetic and biochemical mechanisms that allow microorganisms to survive and thrive in different environmental conditions, as well as the potential uses of microbes for bioremediation, bioenergy, and other industrial applications.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "travel" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. In general, travel refers to the act of moving or journeying from one place to another, often over long distances. However, in a medical context, it might refer to the recommendation that individuals with certain medical conditions or those who are immunocompromised avoid traveling to areas where they may be at increased risk of exposure to infectious diseases. It's always best to check with a healthcare professional for advice related to specific medical situations and travel.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

Shigella is a genus of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are primarily responsible for causing shigellosis, also known as bacillary dysentery. These pathogens are highly infectious and can cause severe gastrointestinal illness in humans through the consumption of contaminated food or water, or direct contact with an infected person's feces.

There are four main species of Shigella: S. dysenteriae, S. flexneri, S. boydii, and S. sonnei. Each species has distinct serotypes that differ in their epidemiology, clinical presentation, and antibiotic susceptibility patterns. The severity of shigellosis can range from mild diarrhea to severe dysentery with abdominal cramps, fever, and tenesmus (the strong, frequent urge to defecate). In some cases, Shigella infections may lead to complications such as bacteremia, seizures, or hemolytic uremic syndrome.

Preventive measures include maintaining good personal hygiene, proper food handling and preparation, access to clean water, and adequate sanitation facilities. Antibiotic treatment is generally recommended for severe cases of shigellosis, but the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains has become a growing concern in recent years.

Molecular epidemiology is a branch of epidemiology that uses laboratory techniques to identify and analyze the genetic material (DNA, RNA) of pathogens or host cells to understand their distribution, transmission, and disease associations in populations. It combines molecular biology methods with epidemiological approaches to investigate the role of genetic factors in disease occurrence and outcomes. This field has contributed significantly to the identification of infectious disease outbreaks, tracking the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, understanding the transmission dynamics of viruses, and identifying susceptible populations for targeted interventions.

Gene expression regulation in bacteria refers to the complex cellular processes that control the production of proteins from specific genes. This regulation allows bacteria to adapt to changing environmental conditions and ensure the appropriate amount of protein is produced at the right time.

Bacteria have a variety of mechanisms for regulating gene expression, including:

1. Operon structure: Many bacterial genes are organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule. The expression of these genes can be coordinately regulated by controlling the transcription of the entire operon.
2. Promoter regulation: Transcription is initiated at promoter regions upstream of the gene or operon. Bacteria have regulatory proteins called sigma factors that bind to the promoter and recruit RNA polymerase, the enzyme responsible for transcribing DNA into RNA. The binding of sigma factors can be influenced by environmental signals, allowing for regulation of transcription.
3. Attenuation: Some operons have regulatory regions called attenuators that control transcription termination. These regions contain hairpin structures that can form in the mRNA and cause transcription to stop prematurely. The formation of these hairpins is influenced by the concentration of specific metabolites, allowing for regulation of gene expression based on the availability of those metabolites.
4. Riboswitches: Some bacterial mRNAs contain regulatory elements called riboswitches that bind small molecules directly. When a small molecule binds to the riboswitch, it changes conformation and affects transcription or translation of the associated gene.
5. CRISPR-Cas systems: Bacteria use CRISPR-Cas systems for adaptive immunity against viruses and plasmids. These systems incorporate short sequences from foreign DNA into their own genome, which can then be used to recognize and cleave similar sequences in invading genetic elements.

Overall, gene expression regulation in bacteria is a complex process that allows them to respond quickly and efficiently to changing environmental conditions. Understanding these regulatory mechanisms can provide insights into bacterial physiology and help inform strategies for controlling bacterial growth and behavior.

... testing needs to be done to manage the risk of foodborne Campylobacter and reducing the level of foodborne ... Campylobacter genomes and related information at PATRIC, a Bioinformatics Resource Center funded by NIAID Campylobacter info ... "Campylobacter". European Food Safety Authority. Retrieved 2020-11-02. Campylobacter Infections at eMedicine Sauerwein RW, ... Studies have investigated the genes responsible for motility in Campylobacter species. Some Campylobacter species contain two ...
... (formerly Campylobacter laridis) is a species of nalidixic acid-resistant, thermophilic, microaerophilic ... Type strain of Campylobacter laridis at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e (Articles with short description, ... Benjamin, J.; Leaper, S.; Owen, R. J.; Skirrow, M. B. (1983). "Description of Campylobacter laridis, a new species comprising ... Tauxe RV, Patton CM, Edmonds P, Barrett TJ, Brenner DJ, Blake PA (1985). "Illness associated with Campylobacter laridis, a ...
... is a rod-shaped, gram-negative species of bacteria within the genus Campylobacter of phylum Pseudomonadota ... Type strain of Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase Type strain of Campylobacter ... Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus is a normal member of the sheep gastrointestinal ... Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus is a commensal organism of the bovine gastrointestinal tract. Campylobacter fetus ...
Further to this, in 1973, Campylobacter was proposed as a novel genus. Campylobacter coli are thought to be mainly transmitted ... Campylobacter secrete a cytolethal distending toxin (CDT), which is an AB toxin composed of three subunits encoded by cdtA, ... Campylobacter coli is a Gram-negative, microaerophilic, non-endospore-forming, S-shaped bacterial species within genus ... Type strain of Campylobacter coli at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase (CS1 maint: location missing publisher, ...
... is a species of Campylobacter found in humans. It is gram-negative, straight rod-shaped, motile by means ... "Campylobacter showae" at the Encyclopedia of Life LPSN Type strain of Campylobacter showae at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity ... Etoh, Y.; Dewhirst, F. E.; Paster, B. J.; Yamamoto, A.; Goto, N. (1993). "Campylobacter showae sp. nov., Isolated from the ... ISBN 1-904933-05-X. Macuch, P.J.; Tanner, A.C.R. (2000). "Campylobacter Species in Health, Gingivitis, and Periodontitis". ...
... strains can be distinguished from all other catalase-negative Campylobacter strains except C. concisus ... Campylobacter mucosalis strains can be distinguished from Campylobacter concisus strains by their susceptibility to cephalothin ... Campylobacter mucosalis was initially isolated in 1974 by Lawson and Rowland from the lesions of porcine intestinal ... These organisms resembled Campylobacter sputorum in their morphological and phenotypic characteristics and were given the name ...
... is a species of Campylobacter. It is implicated as a pathogen in chronic periodontitis, which can induce ... Type strain of Campylobacter rectus at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e (Articles with short description, ... "Characterization of the invasive and inflammatory traits of oral Campylobacter rectus in a murine model of fetoplacental growth ...
"Prevalence of Campylobacter Species in Adult Crohn's Disease and the Preferential Colonization Sites of Campylobacter Species ... P. Vandamme; F. E. Dewhirst; B. J. Paster; S. L. W. On (2005). "Genus I. Campylobacter". In Garrity, G.; Krieg, N. R.; Staley, ... Campylobacter concisus is a Gram-negative, highly fastidious, mesophilic bacterium that grows under both anaerobic and ... nov., Campylobacter concisus sp. nov., and Eikenella corrodens from Humans with Periodontal Disease". International Journal of ...
... is a species of Campylobacter implicated as a pathogen in gastroenteritis and diarrhoea in humans ... Type strain of Campylobacter hyointestinalis at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e (Articles with short ... April 1987). "Campylobacter hyointestinalis associated with human gastrointestinal disease in the United States". Journal of ... Gorkiewicz G, Feierl G, Zechner R, Zechner EL (July 2002). "Transmission of Campylobacter hyointestinalis from a pig to a human ...
Campylobacter fetus, Campylobacter hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis, Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter lari and ... Campylobacter upsaliensis is a gram-negative bacteria in the Campylobacter genus. C. upsaliensis is found worldwide, and is a ... Campylobacter upsaliensis shares the characteristic appearance of other Campylobacter species: it is a curved to spiral, gram- ... Campylobacter upsaliensis is a catalase negative species that can be further differentiated from other Campylobacter species by ...
... is a species of Campylobacter found in humans and other animals. Like other Campylobacter species, it is ... "Campylobacter lanienae" at the Encyclopedia of Life Type strain of Campylobacter lanienae at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity ... "Colonization of cattle intestines by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter lanienae". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. ... Logan, J.; Burnens, A.; Linton, D.; Lawson, A. J.; Stanley, J. (2000). "Campylobacter lanienae sp. nov., a new species isolated ...
"Campylobacter jejuni , Campylobacter Food Poisoning". www.about-campylobacter.com. Retrieved 2016-04-18. Gundogdu O, Wren BW ( ... "Campylobacter". www.foodsafety.gov. Retrieved 2016-04-18. "Campylobacter: Questions and Answers". U.S. Centers for Disease ... The first well recorded incident of Campylobacter infection occurred in 1938. Campylobacter found in milk caused diarrhea among ... Campylobacter is grown on specially selective "CAMP" agar plates at 42 °C, the normal avian body temperature, rather than at 37 ...
"Campylobacter". meatpoultryfoundation.org. Archived from the original on November 2, 2021. "AMI Foundation". AMI Foundation. ... coli Listeria monocytogenes Salmonella Campylobacter Diet and Health Sodium Nitrite Other Food Safety Foundation, AMI. "AMI ...
"Symptoms , Campylobacter , CDC". www.cdc.gov. 2019-12-23. Retrieved 2022-03-22. "Guillain-Barré Syndrome , Campylobacter , CDC ... Campylobacter is implicated in more than 80% of reported American disease outbreaks in relevance with raw milk from 2007 to ... The preponderance of reported milk borne diseases arises from Campylobacter, most notably the strains C. jejuni and C. coli. ... Kenyon, J.; Inns, T.; Aird, H.; Swift, C.; Astbury, J.; Forester, E.; Decraene, V. (2020). "Campylobacter outbreak associated ...
Campylobacter can cause disease in both humans and animals, and most human cases are induced by the species Campylobacter ... Campylobacter infections are transmitted to a host via contaminated water and food, sexual activity, and interaction with ... "Campylobacter." National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases. Center for disease Control and Prevention, n.d. ...
"Guillain-Barré Syndrome , Campylobacter , CDC". www.cdc.gov. 2019-12-20. Retrieved 2020-05-04. "Meet Alfredo de Batuc - Voyage ...
Campylobacter spp. are a common cause of bacterial diarrhea, but infections by Salmonella spp., Shigella spp. and some strains ...
in the stomach, Campylobacter spp. in the duodenum). Many Campylobacterota are motile with flagella. Numerous environmental ... and Campylobacter spp. Most of the known species inhabit the digestive tracts of animals and serve as symbionts (Wolinella spp ...
The most common triggers are intestinal infections (with Salmonella, Shigella or Campylobacter) and sexually transmitted ... and Campylobacter spp. A bout of food poisoning or a gastrointestinal infection may also precede the disease (the last four ...
Campylobacter jejuni (causes gastroenteritis); Lysinibacillus sphaericus (previously termed Bacillus sphaericus, a rare cause ...
Anon (2005). "Multiple Campylobacter Genomes Sequenced". PLOS Biology. 3 (1): e40. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0030040. ISSN 1545- ...
In some countries, Campylobacter jejuni is the primary cause of bacterial gastroenteritis, with half of these cases associated ... In adults, norovirus and Campylobacter are common causes. Eating improperly prepared food, drinking contaminated water or close ... Reactive arthritis occurs in 1% of people following infections with Campylobacter species. Guillain-Barré syndrome occurs in ... Viruses (particularly rotavirus (in children) and norovirus (in adults)) and the bacteria Escherichia coli and Campylobacter ...
Other examples include Campylobacter spp. and Helicobacter spp., which are capnophilic - require elevated CO2 - among other ...
"Enterobacteriaceae, Vibrio, Campylobacter and Helicobacter". Archived from the original on 24 December 2008. Retrieved 2008-12- ...
Other bacteria found on lettuce include Aeromonas species, which have not been linked to any outbreaks; Campylobacter species, ...
If diarrhea is present, cultures of stool should be examined for enteropathogens (i.e., Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter, ...
Here she specialised in retrovirology and protection against infection caused by the bacteria Campylobacter jejuni. After ... Protection against Campylobacter jejuni infection. london.ac.uk (PhD thesis). University of London. OCLC 940318607. Science, ...
1989). "Transfer of Campylobacter pylori and Campylobacter mustelae to Helicobacter gen. nov. as Helicobacter pylori comb. nov ... The bacterium was initially named Campylobacter pyloridis, then renamed C. pylori in 1987 (pylori being the genitive of pylorus ... Helicobacter pylori, previously known as Campylobacter pylori, is a gram-negative, microaerophilic, spiral (helical) bacterium ... ISBN 978-0-19-910207-5. Marshall BS, Goodwin CS (1987). "Revised nomenclature of Campylobacter pyloridis". International ...
The order Campylobacterales includes human pathogens such as Helicobacter pylori and Campylobacter jejuni. The only publicly ... "Bad Bug Book - BBB - Campylobacter jejuni". www.fda.gov. Retrieved 2016-04-03. "Helicobacter Pylori Infections: MedlinePlus". ...
However, Campylobacter jejuni has seven protofilaments. The basal body has several traits in common with some types of ...
Campylobacter testing needs to be done to manage the risk of foodborne Campylobacter and reducing the level of foodborne ... Campylobacter genomes and related information at PATRIC, a Bioinformatics Resource Center funded by NIAID Campylobacter info ... "Campylobacter". European Food Safety Authority. Retrieved 2020-11-02. Campylobacter Infections at eMedicine Sauerwein RW, ... Studies have investigated the genes responsible for motility in Campylobacter species. Some Campylobacter species contain two ...
Multidrug-Resistant Campylobacter Infections Linked to Contact with Pet Store Puppiesplus icon *Brote de infecciones por ... People with Campylobacter infection usually have diarrhea (often bloody), fever, and stomach cramps. Nausea and vomiting may ... Sometimes Campylobacter infections cause complications, such as irritable bowel syndrome, temporary paralysis, and arthritis. ... These symptoms usually start 2 to 5 days after the person ingests Campylobacter and last about one week. ...
Campylobacter serology test is a blood test to look for antibodies to bacteria called campylobacter. ... Campylobacter serology test is a blood test to look for antibodies to bacteria called campylobacter. ... Campylobacter infection can cause diarrheal illness. A blood test is rarely done to diagnose campylobacter diarrheal illness. ... Campylobacter serology test is a blood test to look for antibodies to bacteria called campylobacter. ...
Campylobacter infections are among the most common bacterial infections in humans. They produce both diarrheal and systemic ... Campylobacter cinaedi (sp. nov.) and Campylobacter fennelliae (sp. nov.): two new Campylobacter species associated with enteric ... Buss JE, Cresse M, Doyle S, Buchan BW, Craft DW, Young S. Campylobacter culture fails to correctly detect Campylobacter in 30% ... Campylobacter upsaliensis may cause diarrhea or bacteremia, whereas Campylobacter hyointestinalis, which has biochemical ...
... Mol Ecol. 2014 May;23(10):2442-51. doi: 10.1111/ ... Campylobacter jejuni is a gut colonizer of numerous animal species and a major human enteric pathogen. We demonstrate that the ...
... has resumed its Campylobacter survey with a revised method. ... More than half of chickens positive for Campylobacter * Half of ... FSA reveals Campylobacter testing methodology ahead of survey restart. By Joseph James Whitworth 21-Aug-2016. - Last updated on ... "Our campaign has also raised awareness of Campylobacter amongst the public and it is good to see from our research that it is ... Campylobacter is estimated to be responsible for more than 280,000 cases of food poisoning each year. ...
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... Packaging firm appoints new commercial director SIBA appoints non-executive director ... Campylobacter working group appoints chair. By Laurence Gibbons 27-Oct-2014. - Last updated on 27-Oct-2014 at 13:06. GMT ... Food and Rural Affairs to reduce the 280,000 estimated cases of campylobacter each year. ... MacDonald CBE has been appointed as the chair for the joint industry and government body focussed on reducing campylobacter in ...
German experts have presented results so far from increased surveillance of Campylobacter infections. In Germany, around 60,000 ... More than 80 percent were Campylobacter jejuni and 15 percent Campylobacter coli. ... From almost 900 Campylobacter jejuni isolates, it was found that four out of five were resistant to at least one antibiotic. A ... Tags: Campylobacter, Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR), Germany, pathogen surveillance, Robert Koch Institute ...
... has published the cumulative results from the first two quarters of its year-long survey of campylobacter on fresh chickens, ... Startling Results in Campylobacter Study UK - The Food Standards Agency (FSA) has published the cumulative results from the ... first two quarters of its year-long survey of campylobacter on fresh chickens, with alarming results. ...
The results of a nationwide study coordinated by BfR show that Campylobacter and Salmonella can frequently be detected at the ... Around 80 percent of the Campylobacter detected were Campylobacter jejuni whereas Campylobacter coli accounted for ... If Campylobacter were detected in animals from one slaughter batch, then the probability that the carcasses in this batch were ... Campylobacter were detected on 62 percent and Salmonella on 17.6 percent of the 432 carcasses examined in Germany. In 48.6 ...
Instances of campylobacter in Tesco chicken have continued falling since it introduced tough new contamination targets for ... "With 93% of our chickens now testing negative for the highest levels of campylobacter, our customers can be confident of the ... Latest internal data released by the retailer revealed instances of campylobacter at the highest level - defined as more than ... The FSAs most recent campylobacter survey results, in November, found that 15% of supermarket chickens showed the highest ...
For use with the QIAsymphony AS (software version 4.0 or higher ...
MAXIMUM 150 WORDS: Remember: front load your paragraphs! This content should include a strong opening sentence describing the health topic in the Eastern Mediterranean (include key words "Eastern Mediterranean" and health topic name for search engine optimization). You should focus on the issue as it relates to the Region and the magnitude of problem in the region, as well as a brief mention of current situation/problem.. ...
Prevalence and antibiogram of campylobacter infections in dogs of Mathura, India. Asian J. Anim. Vet. Adv., 7: 434-440.. ... Isolation and Characterization of Campylobacter spp. from Domestic Animals and Poultry in South of Iran. Pakistan Journal of ... Prevalence and Antibiogram of Campylobacter Infections in Dogs of Mathura, India. Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary ... Campylobacter: An Emerging Pathogen. Research Journal of Microbiology, 1: 23-37. URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=jm. ...
CCUG24584 - Campylobacter upsaliensis, Deposit Date: 1989-04-26
Tags: Campylobacter Attorney, Campylobacter Lawsuit, Campylobacter Lawyer. Print:. Email this postTweet this postLike this post ... Home , Legal Cases , Marler Clark retained in Wild Ginger Campylobacter Outbreak. Marler Clark retained in Wild Ginger ...
Its not clear how pet store puppies caused dozens of humans to get sick with Campylobacter. ... Campylobacter can infect dogs, cats and humans, but most commonly the bacteria are spread through eating raw or undercooked ... The CDC estimates that annually, Campylobacteraffects 1.3 million people. The good news is that most people get well on their ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is investigating a Campylobacter outbreak in people and its link to puppies ...
Campylobacter was found in 83.3% of the cecum contents samples and 52.5% of the neck skin samples from carcasses. The ... All Campylobacter isolates, independent of the sample origin and species, were positive for 6 out of 15 tested genes (flaA, ... The common presence of Campylobacter on geese carcasses as well as the detection of multidrug-resistant isolates indicate that ... both in Campylobacter isolates from cecum (12% and 19%) and carcasses (11.1% and 17.5%). None of the isolates tested, ...
Severe Guillain-Barré Syndrome Associated with Campylobacter jejuni Infection Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ... Severe Guillain-Barré Syndrome Associated with Campylobacter jejuni Infection. Dorothyann M. Lindes ...
Campylobacter is the biggest cause of food poisoning in the UK, costing the economy around £900 million and causing more than ... Our Director of Food Business, Dr Tracey Jones, said: "Campylobacter is not just a public health issue but an animal welfare ... For the first time the FSA announced the levels of campylobacter in fresh chicken by individual supermarkets. All of the ... Others - such as incentivising farms to be campylobacter free and stopping thinning, where a proportion of birds are taken for ...
The proposed Campylobacter work will contribute to the maintenance of expertise on Campylobacter at the AHVLA and the ... Evaluation of Disinfectants against E. Coli (VTEC O157) and Campylobacter in Vitro and on Farms. Objective ... The proposed work will provide robust data on the best performing disinfectants to be used against VTEC O157 and Campylobacter ... li,Evaluation of the efficacy of different disinfectants against Campylobacter - in vitro and on-farm studies,/li,. ,li, ...
A species of CAMPYLOBACTER isolated from cases of human PERIODONTITIS. It is a microaerophile, capable of respiring with OXYGEN ... "Campylobacter rectus" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Campylobacter rectus" by people in this website by year, and ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Campylobacter rectus" by people in Profiles. ...
... consistent with a new Campylobacter species whose nearest phylogenetic neighbours were Campylobacter gracilis and Campylobacter ... The name Campylobacter hominis sp. nov. is proposed for the new species, the type strain of which is NCTC 13146T (= LMG 19568T ... Campylobacters were then isolated from the resulting mixed microbial flora by a dilution strategy and/or by immunomagnetic ... All isolates exhibited the typical Campylobacter characteristics of being non-fermentative, oxidase-positive, catalase-negative ...
Tags: Campylobacter Attorney, Campylobacter Lawyer. Print:. Email this postTweet this postLike this postShare this post on ... Campylobacter: Marler Clark, The Food Safety Law Firm, is the nations leading law firm representing victims of Campylobacter ... The Campylobacter lawyers of Marler Clark have represented thousands of victims of Campylobacter and other foodborne illness ... Our Campylobacter lawyers have litigated Campylobacter cases stemming from outbreaks traced to a variety of sources, such as ...
Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service talks about the state of research into Campylobacter. ... Now two questions arose: Are we unable to find Campylobacter in the hatchery because it really isnt there, or is Campylobacter ... I said Id like to move into Campylobacter research because, in my opinion, no one knows how Campylobacter is getting into ... showing that these were the same Campylobacter. This indicated that the Campylobacter was transmitted through the fertile egg. ...
Campylobacter width (0.2 to 0.8µm) and length (0.5 to 5.0µm) (Vandame, 1992), the size of the egg shell pores (11 to 12 µm), ... Campylobacter sp in organs and meconium of day-old broiler chicks derived from naturally infected breeder hens ... Campylobacter sp was detected in 39 of the 279 cloacal swabs taken from breeder hens (13.97% positive). No presence of ... There are no reports in scientific literature on the presence of Campylobacter sp in these specimens, only of Salmonella sp, ...
The detection of Campylobacter on carcasses was higher than that on cloacal swabs, which could indicate cross-contamination ... The isolation of Campylobacter in cooled and frozen carcasses corroborates the bacterial survival even at temperatures ... Poultry is a major reservoir of Campylobacter. Human infection may occur by consumption of raw and undercooked poultry or by ... Poultry is a major reservoir of Campylobacter. Human infection may occur by consumption of raw and undercooked poultry or by ...
Colles, F. M. and Jones, Keith and Maiden, M. C. J. (2002) Genetic diversity of campylobacter jejuni isolated from farm animals ... Genetic diversity of campylobacter jejuni isolated from farm animals and the farm environment. ...

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