A bicyclic monoterpene ketone found widely in plants, especially CINNAMOMUM CAMPHORA. It is used topically as a skin antipruritic and as an anti-infective agent.
A soluble cytochrome P-450 enzyme that catalyzes camphor monooxygenation in the presence of putidaredoxin, putidaredoxin reductase, and molecular oxygen. This enzyme, encoded by the CAMC gene also known as CYP101, has been crystallized from bacteria and the structure is well defined. Under anaerobic conditions, this enzyme reduces the polyhalogenated compounds bound at the camphor-binding site.
Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.
Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.
An NADPH-dependent flavin monooxygenase that plays a key role in the catabolism of TRYPTOPHAN by catalyzing the HYDROXYLATION of KYNURENINE to 3-hydroxykynurenine. It was formerly characterized as EC 1.14.1.2 and EC 1.99.1.5.
A tree, Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl, known as the source of CAMPHOR.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
A family of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria utilizing only one-carbon organic compounds and isolated from in soil and water.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.
Bornanes are a class of bicyclic organic compounds, specifically sesquiterpenes, that contain a bornane skeleton, consisting of a cyclohexane ring fused to a cyclopentane ring, and can be found in various essential oils and plants.
A species of METHYLOCOCCUS which forms capsules and is capable of autotrophic carbon dioxide fixation. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. The common names of daisy or marguerite are easily confused with other plants. Some species in this genus have been reclassified to TANACETUM.
A plant genus of the family CUPRESSACEAE. The species are slow growing coniferous evergreen trees or shrubs.
Oils which evaporate readily. The volatile oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. Most volatile oils consist of a mixture of two or more TERPENES or of a mixture of an eleoptene (the more volatile constituent of a volatile oil) with a stearopten (the more solid constituent). The synonym essential oils refers to the essence of a plant, as its perfume or scent, and not to its indispensability.
Norbornanes are a class of bicyclic organic compounds consisting of a hydrocarbon skeleton made up of two fused 5-membered rings, where five of the six ring carbons are bonded to hydrogens and one is bonded to two additional carbon atoms, forming a bridge between the rings.
Compounds with a core of 10 carbons generally formed via the mevalonate pathway from the combination of 3,3-dimethylallyl pyrophosphate and isopentenyl pyrophosphate. They are cyclized and oxidized in a variety of ways. Due to the low molecular weight many of them exist in the form of essential oils (OILS, VOLATILE).
Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Butanes are flammable, colorless gases with a mild petroleum-like odor, consisting of either one of two isomeric forms of butane (n-butane or isobutane), used primarily as fuel, in the production of a wide range of chemicals, and as a refrigerant.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A species of METHYLOSINUS which is capable of degrading trichloroethylene and other organic pollutants.
Agents used to prevent the formation of foam or to treat flatulence or bloat.
A genus of gram-negative, ellipsoidal or rod-shaped bacteria whose major source of energy and reducing power is from the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite. Its species occur in soils, oceans, lakes, rivers, and sewage disposal systems.
A condensation product of riboflavin and adenosine diphosphate. The coenzyme of various aerobic dehydrogenases, e.g., D-amino acid oxidase and L-amino acid oxidase. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p972)
A generalized seizure disorder characterized by recurrent major motor seizures. The initial brief tonic phase is marked by trunk flexion followed by diffuse extension of the trunk and extremities. The clonic phase features rhythmic flexor contractions of the trunk and limbs, pupillary dilation, elevations of blood pressure and pulse, urinary incontinence, and tongue biting. This is followed by a profound state of depressed consciousness (post-ictal state) which gradually improves over minutes to hours. The disorder may be cryptogenic, familial, or symptomatic (caused by an identified disease process). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p329)
The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A substance, extract, or preparation for diffusing or imparting an agreeable or attractive smell, especially a fluid containing fragrant natural oils extracted from flowers, woods, etc., or similar synthetic oils. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Iron-containing proteins that transfer electrons, usually at a low potential, to flavoproteins; the iron is not present as in heme. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A P450 oxidoreductase that catalyzes the hydroxylation of the terminal carbon of linear hydrocarbons such as octane and FATTY ACIDS in the omega position. The enzyme may also play a role in the oxidation of a variety of structurally unrelated compounds such as XENOBIOTICS, and STEROIDS.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.

Putidaredoxin-cytochrome p450cam interaction. Spin state of the heme iron modulates putidaredoxin structure. (1/143)

During the monooxygenase reaction catalyzed by cytochrome P450cam (P450cam), a ternary complex of P450cam, reduced putidaredoxin, and d-camphor is formed as an obligatory reaction intermediate. When ligands such as CO, NO, and O2 bind to the heme iron of P450cam in the intermediate complex, the EPR spectrum of reduced putidaredoxin with a characteristic signal at 346 millitesla at 77 K changed into a spectrum having a new signal at 348 millitesla. The experiment with O2 was carried out by employing a mutant P450cam with Asp251 --> Asn or Gly where the rate of electron transfer from putidaredoxin to oxyferrous P450cam is considerably reduced. Such a ligand-induced EPR spectral change of putidaredoxin was also shown in situ in Pseudomonas putida. Mutations introduced into the neighborhood of the iron-sulfur cluster of putidaredoxin revealed that a Ser44 --> Gly mutation mimicked the ligand-induced spectral change of putidaredoxin. Arg109 and Arg112, which are in the putative putidaredoxin binding site of P450cam, were essential for the spectral changes of putidaredoxin in the complex. These results indicate that a change in the P450cam active site that is the consequence of an altered spin state is transmitted to putidaredoxin within the ternary complex and produces a conformational change of the 2Fe-2S active center.  (+info)

Surface-modified mutants of cytochrome P450cam: enzymatic properties and electrochemistry. (2/143)

We report the electrochemistry of genetic variants of the haem monooxygenase cytochrome P450cam. A surface cysteine-free mutant (abbreviated as SCF) was prepared in which the five surface cysteine residues Cys-58, Cys-85, Cys-136, Cys-148 and Cys-334 were changed to alanines. Four single surface cysteine mutants with an additional mutation, R72C, R112C, K344C or R364C, were also prepared. The haem spin-state equilibria, NADH turnover rates and camphor-hydroxylation properties, as well as the electrochemistry of these mutants are reported. The coupling of a redox-active label, N-ferrocenylmaleimide, to the single surface cysteine mutant SCF-K344C, and the electrochemistry of this modified mutant are also described.  (+info)

The thermodynamics and kinetics of electron transfer in the cytochrome P450cam enzyme system. (3/143)

In anaerobic environments the first electron transfer in substrate-free P450cam is known to be thermodynamically unfavourable, but in the presence of dioxygen the reduction potential for the reaction shifts positively to make electron transfer thermodynamically favourable. Nevertheless a slower rate of electron transfer is observed in the substrate-free P450cam compared to substrate-bound P450cam. The ferric haem centre in substrate-free P450cam changes from six co-ordinate to five co-ordinate when reduced whereas in substrate-bound P450cam the iron centre remains five co-ordinate in both oxidation states. The slower rate of electron transfer in the substrate-free P450cam is therefore attributed to a larger reorganisation energy as predicted by Marcus theory.  (+info)

Proton nuclear magnetic resonance study of the binary complex of cytochrome P450cam and putidaredoxin: interaction and electron transfer rate analysis. (4/143)

A 1H nuclear magnetic resonance study of the complex of cytochrome P450cam-putidaredoxin has been performed. Isocyanide is bound to cytochrome P450cam in order to increase the stability of the protein both in the reduced and the oxidized state. Diprotein complex formation was detected through variation of the heme methyl proton resonances which have been assigned in the two redox states. The electron transfer rate at equilibrium was determinated by magnetization transfer experiments. The observed rate of oxidation of reduced cytochrome P450 by the oxidized putidaredoxin is 27 (+/- 7) per s.  (+info)

A high-throughput digital imaging screen for the discovery and directed evolution of oxygenases. (5/143)

BACKGROUND: Oxygenases catalyze the hydroxylation of a wide variety of organic substrates. An ability to alter oxygenase substrate specificities and improve their activities and stabilities using recombinant DNA techniques would expand their use in processes such as chemical synthesis and bioremediation. Discovery and directed evolution of oxygenases require efficient screens that are sensitive to the activities of interest and can be applied to large numbers of crude enzyme samples. RESULTS: Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) couples the phenolic products of hydroxylation of aromatic substrates to generate colored and/or fluorescent compounds that are easily detected spectroscopically in high-throughput screening. Coexpression of the coupling enzyme with a functional mono- or dioxygenase creates a pathway for the conversion of aromatic substrates into fluorescent compounds in vivo. We used this approach for detecting the products of the toluene-dioxygenase-catalyzed hydroxylation of chlorobenzene and to screen large mutant libraries of Pseudomonas putida cytochrome P450cam by fluorescence digital imaging. Colors generated by the HRP coupling reaction are sensitive to the site of oxygenase-catalyzed hydroxylation, allowing the screen to be used to identify catalysts with new or altered regiospecificities. CONCLUSIONS: The coupled oxygenase-peroxidase reaction system is well suited for screening oxygenase libraries to identify mutants with desired features, including higher activity or stability and altered reaction specificity. This approach should also be useful for screening expressed DNA libraries and combinatorial chemical libraries for hydroxylation catalysts and for optimizing oxygenase reaction conditions.  (+info)

Mutations of glutamate-84 at the putative potassium-binding site affect camphor binding and oxidation by cytochrome p450cam. (6/143)

Cytochrome P450cam (CYP101) from Pseudomonas putida is unusual among P450 enzymes in that it exhibits co-operative binding between the substrate camphor and a potassium ion. This behaviour has been investigated by mutagenesis of Glu84, a surface residue which forms part of the cation-binding site. Substitutions that neutralize or reverse the charge of this side chain are shown to disrupt the co-operativity of potassium and camphor binding by P450cam, and also to influence the catalytic activity. In particular, replacement of Glu84 by positively charged residues such as lysine results in increased high-spin haem fractions and camphor turnover activities in the absence of potassium, along with decreased camphor dissociation constants. However, in the presence of potassium the camphor dissociation constants of these mutants are significantly increased compared with the wild-type, although the camphor turnover activities remain marginally higher. In contrast, substitution by aspartate results in tighter binding of both potassium and camphor, but has little effect on the enzymatic activity. In all cases the reaction remains essentially 100% coupled and gives 5-exo-hydroxycamphor as the only product. These results suggest that an anionic side chain at the 84 position is crucial for the co-operativity of camphor and cation binding, and that the physiological role for potassium binding by cytochrome P450cam is to promote camphor binding even at the expense of turnover rate, thus allowing the organism to utilize low environmental concentrations of this substrate for growth.  (+info)

Optical detection of cytochrome P450 by sensitizer-linked substrates. (7/143)

The ability to detect, characterize, and manipulate specific biomolecules in complex media is critical for understanding metabolic processes. Particularly important targets are oxygenases (cytochromes P450) involved in drug metabolism and many disease states, including liver and kidney dysfunction, neurological disorders, and cancer. We have found that Ru photosensitizers linked to P450 substrates specifically recognize submicromolar cytochrome P450(cam) in the presence of other heme proteins. In the P450:Ru-substrate conjugates, energy transfer to the heme dramatically accelerates the Ru-luminescence decay. The crystal structure of a P450(cam):Ru-adamantyl complex reveals access to the active center via a channel whose depth (Ru-Fe distance is 21 A) is virtually the same as that extracted from an analysis of the energy-transfer kinetics. Suitably constructed libraries of sensitizer-linked substrates could be employed to probe the steric and electronic properties of buried active sites.  (+info)

Assignment of heme methyl 1H-NMR resonances of high-spin and low-spin ferric complexes of cytochrome p450cam using one-dimensional and two-dimensional paramagnetic signals enhancement (PASE) magnetization transfer experiments. (8/143)

An 1H-NMR study of ferric cytochrome P450cam in different paramagnetic states was performed. Assignment of three heme methyl resonances of the isocyanide adduct of cytochrome P450 in the ferric low-spin state was recently performed using electron exchange in the presence of putidaredoxin [Mouro, C., Bondon, A., Jung, C., Hui Bon Hoa, G., De Certaines, J.D., Spencer, R.G.S. & Simonneaux, G. (1999) FEBS Lett. 455, 302-306]. In this study, heme methyl protons of cytochrome P450 in the native high-spin and low-spin states were assigned through one-dimensional and two-dimensional magnetization transfer spectroscopy using the paramagnetic signals enhancement (PASE) method. The order of the methyl proton chemical shifts is inverted between high-spin and low-spin states. The methyl order observed in the ferric low-spin isocyanide complexes is related to the orientation of the cysteinate ligand.  (+info)

Camphor is a waxy, flammable solid with a strong aroma, derived from the wood of the camphor laurel (Cinnamomum camphora). In a medical context, camphor is used topically as a skin protectant and a counterirritant, and in some over-the-counter products such as nasal decongestants and muscle rubs. It can also be found in some insect repellents and embalming fluids.

Camphor works by stimulating nerve endings and increasing blood flow to the area where it is applied. This can help to relieve pain, reduce inflammation, and alleviate congestion. However, camphor should be used with caution, as it can be toxic if ingested or absorbed in large amounts through the skin. It is important to follow the instructions on product labels carefully and avoid using camphor on broken or irritated skin.

Camphor 5-monooxygenase is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of camphor to 5-exo-hydroxycamphor, which is the first step in the degradation of camphor by certain bacteria. This enzyme is a member of the cytochrome P450 family and requires NADPH and molecular oxygen for its activity. The gene that encodes this enzyme is often used as a marker for the presence of camphor-degrading bacteria in environmental samples.

Oxygenases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the incorporation of molecular oxygen (O2) into their substrates. They play crucial roles in various biological processes, including the biosynthesis of many natural products, as well as the detoxification and degradation of xenobiotics (foreign substances).

There are two main types of oxygenases: monooxygenases and dioxygenases. Monooxygenases introduce one atom of molecular oxygen into a substrate while reducing the other to water. An example of this type of enzyme is cytochrome P450, which is involved in drug metabolism and steroid hormone synthesis. Dioxygenases, on the other hand, incorporate both atoms of molecular oxygen into their substrates, often leading to the formation of new carbon-carbon bonds or the cleavage of existing ones.

It's important to note that while oxygenases are essential for many life-sustaining processes, they can also contribute to the production of harmful reactive oxygen species (ROS) during normal cellular metabolism. An imbalance in ROS levels can lead to oxidative stress and damage to cells and tissues, which has been linked to various diseases such as cancer, neurodegeneration, and cardiovascular disease.

Mixed Function Oxygenases (MFOs) are a type of enzyme that catalyze the addition of one atom each from molecular oxygen (O2) to a substrate, while reducing the other oxygen atom to water. These enzymes play a crucial role in the metabolism of various endogenous and exogenous compounds, including drugs, carcinogens, and environmental pollutants.

MFOs are primarily located in the endoplasmic reticulum of cells and consist of two subunits: a flavoprotein component that contains FAD or FMN as a cofactor, and an iron-containing heme protein. The most well-known example of MFO is cytochrome P450, which is involved in the oxidation of xenobiotics and endogenous compounds such as steroids, fatty acids, and vitamins.

MFOs can catalyze a variety of reactions, including hydroxylation, epoxidation, dealkylation, and deamination, among others. These reactions often lead to the activation or detoxification of xenobiotics, making MFOs an important component of the body's defense system against foreign substances. However, in some cases, these reactions can also produce reactive intermediates that may cause toxicity or contribute to the development of diseases such as cancer.

Kynurenine 3-Monooxygenase (KMO) is an enzyme that is involved in the metabolism of the amino acid tryptophan. Specifically, it is a key enzyme in the kynurenine pathway, which is the primary route of tryptophan breakdown in mammals.

KMO catalyzes the conversion of L-kynurenine to 3-hydroxykynurenine using molecular oxygen and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) as cofactors. This reaction is an important step in the production of several neuroactive metabolites, including quinolinic acid and kynurenic acid, which have been implicated in various neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and depression.

Inhibition of KMO has been suggested as a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of these disorders due to its role in regulating the balance between neuroprotective and neurotoxic kynurenine metabolites.

The medical definition of "Cinnamomum camphora" refers to the Camphor Laurel tree, a large evergreen tree native to East Asia. The tree's wood is a source of camphor, a waxy, flammable solid with a strong aroma and medicinal properties.

Camphor has been used historically in traditional medicine to treat various conditions such as respiratory infections, skin diseases, and inflammation. However, its use in modern medicine is limited due to potential toxicity and side effects. It is still used topically in some over-the-counter products like creams, ointments, and vapor rubs for temporary relief of minor aches and pains, as well as for cough suppression and nasal decongestion.

It's important to note that the use of camphor should be done with caution and under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as high concentrations or improper use can lead to serious adverse effects such as seizures, liver damage, and even death.

The Cytochrome P-450 (CYP450) enzyme system is a group of enzymes found primarily in the liver, but also in other organs such as the intestines, lungs, and skin. These enzymes play a crucial role in the metabolism and biotransformation of various substances, including drugs, environmental toxins, and endogenous compounds like hormones and fatty acids.

The name "Cytochrome P-450" refers to the unique property of these enzymes to bind to carbon monoxide (CO) and form a complex that absorbs light at a wavelength of 450 nm, which can be detected spectrophotometrically.

The CYP450 enzyme system is involved in Phase I metabolism of xenobiotics, where it catalyzes oxidation reactions such as hydroxylation, dealkylation, and epoxidation. These reactions introduce functional groups into the substrate molecule, which can then undergo further modifications by other enzymes during Phase II metabolism.

There are several families and subfamilies of CYP450 enzymes, each with distinct substrate specificities and functions. Some of the most important CYP450 enzymes include:

1. CYP3A4: This is the most abundant CYP450 enzyme in the human liver and is involved in the metabolism of approximately 50% of all drugs. It also metabolizes various endogenous compounds like steroids, bile acids, and vitamin D.
2. CYP2D6: This enzyme is responsible for the metabolism of many psychotropic drugs, including antidepressants, antipsychotics, and beta-blockers. It also metabolizes some endogenous compounds like dopamine and serotonin.
3. CYP2C9: This enzyme plays a significant role in the metabolism of warfarin, phenytoin, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
4. CYP2C19: This enzyme is involved in the metabolism of proton pump inhibitors, antidepressants, and clopidogrel.
5. CYP2E1: This enzyme metabolizes various xenobiotics like alcohol, acetaminophen, and carbon tetrachloride, as well as some endogenous compounds like fatty acids and prostaglandins.

Genetic polymorphisms in CYP450 enzymes can significantly affect drug metabolism and response, leading to interindividual variability in drug efficacy and toxicity. Understanding the role of CYP450 enzymes in drug metabolism is crucial for optimizing pharmacotherapy and minimizing adverse effects.

Methylococcaceae is a family of bacteria that have the ability to oxidize methane as their source of carbon and energy. These bacteria are also known as methanotrophs. They are gram-negative, aerobic, and typically occur in freshwater and marine environments. The family includes several genera such as Methylococcus, Methylomonas, and Methylothermus. These bacteria play an important role in the global carbon cycle by converting methane, a potent greenhouse gas, into carbon dioxide.

"Pseudomonas putida" is a species of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that is commonly found in soil and water environments. It is a non-pathogenic, opportunistic microorganism that is known for its versatile metabolism and ability to degrade various organic compounds. This bacterium has been widely studied for its potential applications in bioremediation and industrial biotechnology due to its ability to break down pollutants such as toluene, xylene, and other aromatic hydrocarbons. It is also known for its resistance to heavy metals and antibiotics, making it a valuable tool in the study of bacterial survival mechanisms and potential applications in bioremediation and waste treatment.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "bornanes" is not a medical term or concept. It is a chemical term that refers to a class of compounds called bornane derivatives, which are structurally related to the naturally occurring compound bornane. These compounds have various uses in chemistry and materials science, but they do not have specific relevance to medicine or human health.

"Methylococcus capsulatus" is a species of gram-negative, facultatively aerobic, methane-oxidizing bacteria that belongs to the family Methylococcaceae. These bacteria are characterized by their ability to use methane as their sole source of carbon and energy for growth, a process known as methanotrophy. "Methylococcus capsulatus" is commonly found in freshwater and terrestrial environments, such as soil, lakes, and rivers.

The bacteria are spherical to oval-shaped and are surrounded by a distinct, protective outer layer called a capsule, which gives the species its name "capsulatus." The cells can exist as single cells or in pairs, and they may form aggregates when grown in culture. They are able to grow at a wide range of temperatures, from 4°C to 37°C, making them adaptable to various environmental conditions.

"Methylococcus capsulatus" has attracted interest for its potential use in bioremediation and waste treatment due to its ability to consume methane, a potent greenhouse gas. Additionally, the bacteria have been studied as a source of single-cell protein and other valuable bioproducts.

"Pseudomonas" is a genus of Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are widely found in soil, water, and plants. Some species of Pseudomonas can cause disease in animals and humans, with P. aeruginosa being the most clinically relevant as it's an opportunistic pathogen capable of causing various types of infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems.

P. aeruginosa is known for its remarkable ability to resist many antibiotics and disinfectants, making infections caused by this bacterium difficult to treat. It can cause a range of healthcare-associated infections, such as pneumonia, bloodstream infections, urinary tract infections, and surgical site infections. In addition, it can also cause external ear infections and eye infections.

Prompt identification and appropriate antimicrobial therapy are crucial for managing Pseudomonas infections, although the increasing antibiotic resistance poses a significant challenge in treatment.

I am not a doctor, but I can provide some information about chrysanthemums. Chrysanthemums are flowering plants that belong to the genus Chrysanthemum in the family Asteraceae. They are native to Asia and northeastern Europe and are particularly significant in East Asian cultures.

Chrysanthemums have been cultivated for centuries for their beautiful flowers, which come in a variety of colors including white, yellow, red, and purple. In some countries, chrysanthemums are considered symbolic of death and are used in funerals or on graves, while in others they represent life, joy, and longevity.

While chrysanthemums do not have a direct medical definition, some parts of the plant have been used in traditional medicine in various cultures. For example, chrysanthemum flowers are sometimes used to make teas that are believed to help with headaches, fever, and inflammation. However, it is important to note that the effectiveness of these remedies has not been scientifically proven, and chrysanthemums can cause allergic reactions or other adverse effects in some people. Therefore, it is always recommended to consult with a healthcare professional before using any herbal remedies.

"Juniperus" is not a medical term itself, but it refers to a genus of evergreen coniferous trees and shrubs that belong to the cypress family (Cupressaceae). There are around 50-70 species in this genus, which are native to the northern hemisphere.

Juniperus species have been used in traditional medicine for various purposes, such as treating digestive disorders, skin conditions, and respiratory ailments. The essential oil extracted from some Juniperus species contains compounds that have antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic properties. However, it's important to note that the use of juniper in modern medicine is limited, and its efficacy and safety for specific medical conditions are not well-established.

Therefore, if you're considering using juniper or any of its preparations for medicinal purposes, it's recommended to consult a healthcare professional first to ensure its safe and appropriate use.

Volatile oils, also known as essential oils, are a type of organic compound that are naturally produced in plants. They are called "volatile" because they evaporate quickly at room temperature due to their high vapor pressure. These oils are composed of complex mixtures of various compounds, including terpenes, terpenoids, aldehydes, ketones, esters, and alcohols. They are responsible for the characteristic aroma and flavor of many plants and are often used in perfumes, flavors, and aromatherapy. In a medical context, volatile oils may have therapeutic properties and be used in certain medications or treatments, but it's important to note that they can also cause adverse reactions if not used properly.

Norbornanes are a class of compounds in organic chemistry that contain a norbornane skeleton, which is a bicyclic structure consisting of two fused cyclohexane rings. One of the rings is saturated, while the other contains a double bond. The name "norbornane" comes from the fact that it is a "nor" (short for "norcarene") derivative of bornane, which has a similar structure but with a methyl group attached to one of the carbon atoms in the saturated ring.

Norbornanes have a variety of applications in organic synthesis and medicinal chemistry. Some derivatives of norbornane have been explored for their potential as drugs, particularly in the areas of central nervous system agents and anti-inflammatory agents. However, there is no specific medical definition associated with "norbornanes" as they are a class of chemical compounds rather than a medical term or condition.

Monoterpenes are a class of terpenes that consist of two isoprene units and have the molecular formula C10H16. They are major components of many essential oils found in plants, giving them their characteristic fragrances and flavors. Monoterpenes can be further classified into various subgroups based on their structural features, such as acyclic (e.g., myrcene), monocyclic (e.g., limonene), and bicyclic (e.g., pinene) compounds. In the medical field, monoterpenes have been studied for their potential therapeutic properties, including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activities. However, more research is needed to fully understand their mechanisms of action and clinical applications.

Hydroxylation is a biochemical process that involves the addition of a hydroxyl group (-OH) to a molecule, typically a steroid or xenobiotic compound. This process is primarily catalyzed by enzymes called hydroxylases, which are found in various tissues throughout the body.

In the context of medicine and biochemistry, hydroxylation can have several important functions:

1. Drug metabolism: Hydroxylation is a common way that the liver metabolizes drugs and other xenobiotic compounds. By adding a hydroxyl group to a drug molecule, it becomes more polar and water-soluble, which facilitates its excretion from the body.
2. Steroid hormone biosynthesis: Hydroxylation is an essential step in the biosynthesis of many steroid hormones, including cortisol, aldosterone, and the sex hormones estrogen and testosterone. These hormones are synthesized from cholesterol through a series of enzymatic reactions that involve hydroxylation at various steps.
3. Vitamin D activation: Hydroxylation is also necessary for the activation of vitamin D in the body. In order to become biologically active, vitamin D must undergo two successive hydroxylations, first in the liver and then in the kidneys.
4. Toxin degradation: Some toxic compounds can be rendered less harmful through hydroxylation. For example, phenol, a toxic compound found in cigarette smoke and some industrial chemicals, can be converted to a less toxic form through hydroxylation by enzymes in the liver.

Overall, hydroxylation is an important biochemical process that plays a critical role in various physiological functions, including drug metabolism, hormone biosynthesis, and toxin degradation.

Butanes are a group of flammable, colorless gases that are often used as fuel or in the production of other chemicals. They have the chemical formula C4H10 and are composed of four carbon atoms and ten hydrogen atoms. Butanes are commonly found in natural gas and crude oil, and they can be extracted through a process called distillation.

There are two main types of butane: n-butane and isobutane. N-butane has a straight chain of four carbon atoms, while isobutane has a branched chain with one carbon atom branching off the main chain. Both forms of butane are used as fuel for lighters, stoves, and torches, and they are also used as refrigerants and in the production of aerosols.

Butanes are highly flammable and can be dangerous if not handled properly. They should be stored in a cool, well-ventilated area away from sources of ignition, and they should never be used near an open flame or other source of heat. Ingesting or inhaling butane can be harmful and can cause symptoms such as dizziness, nausea, and vomiting. If you suspect that you have been exposed to butane, it is important to seek medical attention immediately.

Oxidation-Reduction (redox) reactions are a type of chemical reaction involving a transfer of electrons between two species. The substance that loses electrons in the reaction is oxidized, and the substance that gains electrons is reduced. Oxidation and reduction always occur together in a redox reaction, hence the term "oxidation-reduction."

In biological systems, redox reactions play a crucial role in many cellular processes, including energy production, metabolism, and signaling. The transfer of electrons in these reactions is often facilitated by specialized molecules called electron carriers, such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+/NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD/FADH2).

The oxidation state of an element in a compound is a measure of the number of electrons that have been gained or lost relative to its neutral state. In redox reactions, the oxidation state of one or more elements changes as they gain or lose electrons. The substance that is oxidized has a higher oxidation state, while the substance that is reduced has a lower oxidation state.

Overall, oxidation-reduction reactions are fundamental to the functioning of living organisms and are involved in many important biological processes.

"Methylosinus trichosporium" is not a medical term, but rather a term used in microbiology to describe a specific species of bacteria. It's a type of methanotrophic bacterium, which means it can use methane as its source of carbon and energy. The bacteria are often found in environments that contain methane, such as soil, wetlands, and freshwater and marine sediments. While not directly related to medical definitions, these types of bacteria do have potential applications in bioremediation and waste treatment.

Antifoaming agents are substances that prevent or reduce the formation of foam in liquids. They are often used in industrial processes, such as manufacturing and food production, to minimize the negative effects of foam on equipment performance, product quality, and safety. In a medical context, antifoaming agents may be used in certain medications, intravenous (IV) fluids, or enteral feedings to prevent or treat foaming that can interfere with proper administration or absorption of the treatment.

These agents work by reducing surface tension, promoting bubble rupture, or absorbing excess gases. Common antifoaming agents include silicone-based compounds, such as dimethicone and simethicone, as well as other substances like polyoxyethylene sorbitan monostearate (Tween) and alcohols.

In some cases, antifoaming agents may be used during medical procedures to prevent or treat the accumulation of foam in body cavities, such as the stomach or lungs. For instance, simethicone is sometimes administered to newborns with meconium ileus (a bowel obstruction caused by thickened meconium) to help reduce the formation of gas and facilitate the passage of meconium. Similarly, antifoaming agents may be used in mechanical ventilation to prevent or treat pulmonary air leaks and improve oxygenation.

While antifoaming agents are generally considered safe when used as directed, they can have side effects, particularly if overused or misused. Potential adverse reactions include gastrointestinal symptoms like diarrhea, nausea, or bloating, as well as allergic reactions in sensitive individuals. It is essential to follow the recommended dosage and administration guidelines provided by a healthcare professional when using antifoaming agents for medical purposes.

"Nitrosomonas" is a genus of Gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that are capable of oxidizing ammonia to nitrite as part of the nitrogen cycle. These bacteria play a crucial role in nitrification, a process that converts harmful ammonia into less toxic forms. They are commonly found in various environments such as soil, freshwater, and oceans, where they help maintain nutrient balance. The genus "Nitrosomonas" belongs to the family Methylocystaceae within the class Alphaproteobacteria. It's important to note that while these bacteria have medical relevance in understanding environmental and ecological systems, they are not typically associated with human diseases or infections.

Flavin-Adenine Dinucleotide (FAD) is a coenzyme that plays a crucial role in various metabolic processes, particularly in the electron transport chain where it functions as an electron carrier in oxidation-reduction reactions. FAD is composed of a flavin moiety, riboflavin or vitamin B2, and adenine dinucleotide. It can exist in two forms: an oxidized form (FAD) and a reduced form (FADH2). The reduction of FAD to FADH2 involves the gain of two electrons and two protons, which is accompanied by a significant conformational change that allows FADH2 to donate its electrons to subsequent components in the electron transport chain, ultimately leading to the production of ATP, the main energy currency of the cell.

Tonic-clonic epilepsy, also known as grand mal epilepsy, is a type of generalized seizure that affects the entire brain. This type of epilepsy is characterized by two distinct phases: the tonic phase and the clonic phase.

During the tonic phase, which usually lasts for about 10-20 seconds, the person loses consciousness and their muscles stiffen, causing them to fall to the ground. This can result in injuries if the person falls unexpectedly or hits an object on the way down.

The clonic phase follows immediately after the tonic phase and is characterized by rhythmic jerking movements of the limbs, face, and neck. These movements are caused by alternating contractions and relaxations of the muscles and can last for several minutes. The person may also lose bladder or bowel control during this phase.

After the seizure, the person may feel tired, confused, and disoriented. They may also have a headache, sore muscles, and difficulty remembering what happened during the seizure.

Tonic-clonic epilepsy can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, brain injury, infection, or stroke. It is typically diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests such as an electroencephalogram (EEG) or imaging studies. Treatment may include medication, surgery, or dietary changes, depending on the underlying cause and severity of the seizures.

Alkanes are a group of saturated hydrocarbons, which are characterized by the presence of single bonds between carbon atoms in their molecular structure. The general formula for alkanes is CnH2n+2, where n represents the number of carbon atoms in the molecule.

The simplest and shortest alkane is methane (CH4), which contains one carbon atom and four hydrogen atoms. As the number of carbon atoms increases, the length and complexity of the alkane chain also increase. For example, ethane (C2H6) contains two carbon atoms and six hydrogen atoms, while propane (C3H8) contains three carbon atoms and eight hydrogen atoms.

Alkanes are important components of fossil fuels such as natural gas, crude oil, and coal. They are also used as starting materials in the production of various chemicals and materials, including plastics, fertilizers, and pharmaceuticals. In the medical field, alkanes may be used as anesthetics or as solvents for various medical applications.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "perfume" is not a term that has a medical definition. Perfumes are fragranced products used primarily for personal grooming and aesthetic purposes. They consist of a mixture of essential oils or aroma compounds, fixatives, and solvents.

Perfumes can sometimes cause allergic reactions or irritations in some individuals, leading to symptoms such as skin rashes, itching, or sneezing. In such cases, people might consult with healthcare professionals for advice on avoiding specific fragrances or managing related allergies. However, the term "perfume" itself is not a medical concept and does not have a medical definition.

Ferredoxins are iron-sulfur proteins that play a crucial role in electron transfer reactions in various biological systems, particularly in photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation. They contain one or more clusters of iron and sulfur atoms (known as the iron-sulfur cluster) that facilitate the movement of electrons between different molecules during metabolic processes.

Ferredoxins have a relatively simple structure, consisting of a polypeptide chain that binds to the iron-sulfur cluster. This simple structure allows ferredoxins to participate in a wide range of redox reactions and makes them versatile electron carriers in biological systems. They can accept electrons from various donors and transfer them to different acceptors, depending on the needs of the cell.

In photosynthesis, ferredoxins play a critical role in the light-dependent reactions by accepting electrons from photosystem I and transferring them to NADP+, forming NADPH. This reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) is then used in the Calvin cycle for carbon fixation and the production of glucose.

In nitrogen fixation, ferredoxins help transfer electrons to the nitrogenase enzyme complex, which reduces atmospheric nitrogen gas (N2) into ammonia (NH3), making it available for assimilation by plants and other organisms.

Overall, ferredoxins are essential components of many metabolic pathways, facilitating electron transfer and energy conversion in various biological systems.

Alkane 1-monooxygenase is an enzyme that catalyzes the addition of one oxygen atom from molecular oxygen to a alkane, resulting in the formation of an alcohol. This reaction also requires the cofactor NADH or NADPH and generates water as a byproduct.

The general reaction catalyzed by alkane 1-monooxygenase can be represented as follows:

R-CH3 + O2 + NAD(P)H + H+ -> R-CH2OH + H2O + NAD(P)+

where R represents an alkyl group.

This enzyme is found in various microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi, and plays a crucial role in their ability to degrade hydrocarbons, including alkanes, which are major components of fossil fuels. Alkane 1-monooxygenase has potential applications in bioremediation and the production of biofuels from renewable resources.

Substrate specificity in the context of medical biochemistry and enzymology refers to the ability of an enzyme to selectively bind and catalyze a chemical reaction with a particular substrate (or a group of similar substrates) while discriminating against other molecules that are not substrates. This specificity arises from the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme, which has evolved to match the shape, charge distribution, and functional groups of its physiological substrate(s).

Substrate specificity is a fundamental property of enzymes that enables them to carry out highly selective chemical transformations in the complex cellular environment. The active site of an enzyme, where the catalysis takes place, has a unique conformation that complements the shape and charge distribution of its substrate(s). This ensures efficient recognition, binding, and conversion of the substrate into the desired product while minimizing unwanted side reactions with other molecules.

Substrate specificity can be categorized as:

1. Absolute specificity: An enzyme that can only act on a single substrate or a very narrow group of structurally related substrates, showing no activity towards any other molecule.
2. Group specificity: An enzyme that prefers to act on a particular functional group or class of compounds but can still accommodate minor structural variations within the substrate.
3. Broad or promiscuous specificity: An enzyme that can act on a wide range of structurally diverse substrates, albeit with varying catalytic efficiencies.

Understanding substrate specificity is crucial for elucidating enzymatic mechanisms, designing drugs that target specific enzymes or pathways, and developing biotechnological applications that rely on the controlled manipulation of enzyme activities.

... camphor hydroxylase, d-camphor monooxygenase, methylene hydroxylase, methylene monooxygenase, D-camphor-exo-hydroxylase, and ... In enzymology, a camphor 5-monooxygenase (EC 1.14.15.1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction (+)-camphor + ... Cytochrome P450 camphor 5-monooxygenase is a bacterial enzyme originally from Pseudomonas putida, which catalyzes a critical ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is (+)-camphor,reduced putidaredoxin:oxygen oxidoreductase (5-hydroxylating). Other ...
... camphor 1,2-monooxygenase, camphor ketolactonase I) is an enzyme with systematic name (+)-bornane-2,5-dione,NADH:oxygen ... Jones KH, Smith RT, Trudgill PW (April 1993). "Diketocamphane enantiomer-specific 'Baeyer-Villiger' monooxygenases from camphor ... 2-monooxygenase from the camphor metabolizing Pseudomonas putida strain NCIMB 10007". AMB Express. 1 (1): 13. doi:10.1186/2191- ... Camphor ketolactonase I and the role of three protein components". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 244 (22): 6149-52. PMID ...
... camphor 5-monooxygenase MeSH D12.776.422.220.453.915 - steroid hydroxylases MeSH D12.776.422.220.453.915.050 - aldosterone ... tyrosine 3-monooxygenase MeSH D12.776.575.750.500.100 - adenine nucleotide translocator 1 MeSH D12.776.575.750.500.200 - ... cyclin-dependent kinase 5 MeSH D12.776.167.200.067.900 - cyclin-dependent kinase 9 MeSH D12.776.167.200.580.500 - cdc2 protein ... myogenic regulatory factor 5 MeSH D12.776.210.500.570.600 - myogenin MeSH D12.776.210.500.600.100 - myosin heavy chains MeSH ...
4-hydroxybenzoate 3-monooxygenase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.557 - kynurenine 3-monooxygenase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.601 - ... camphor 5-monooxygenase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.170.500 - alkane 1-monooxygenase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.170.915 - steroid ... trans-cinnamate 4-monooxygenase MeSH D08.622.509.700 - pepsinogen a MeSH D08.622.509.725 - pepsinogen c MeSH D08.622.610.500 - ... monophenol monooxygenase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.170 - cytochrome p-450 enzyme system MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.170.040 - aryl ...
Ougham HJ, Taylor DG, Trudgill PW (January 1983). "Camphor revisited: involvement of a unique monooxygenase in metabolism of 2- ... 2,2,3-trimethyl-5-oxocyclopent-3-enyl)acetyl-CoA+synthase at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings ( ... 2,2,3-Trimethyl-5-oxocyclopent-3-enyl)acetyl-CoA synthase (EC 6.2.1.38, 2-oxo-Delta3-4,5,5-trimethylcyclopentenylacetyl-CoA ... oxo-Δ3-4,5,5-trimethylcyclopentenylacetic acid by Pseudomonas putida". Journal of Bacteriology. 153 (1): 140-52. PMC 217351. ...
In enzymology, a camphor 1,2-monooxygenase (EC 1.14.15.2) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction (+)-bornane-2,5- ... camphor ketolactonase I, oxygenase, camphor 1,2-mono, and ketolactonase I. It employs one cofactor, iron. Conrad HE, Dubus R, ... Camphor ketolactonase I and the role of three protein components". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 244 (22): 6149-52. PMID ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is (+)-camphor,reduced-rubredoxin:oxygen oxidoreductase (1,2-lactonizing). Other names ...
"Functional Assembly of camphor converting two-component Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases with a flavin reductase from E. coli". ... 5: 25. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2014.00025. PMC 3915288. PMID 24567729. Kadow M, Balke K, Willetts A, Bornscheuer UT, Bäckvall JE (5 ... 5 (3): 985-97. doi:10.3390/cancers5030985. PMC 3795375. PMID 24202330. Paine MJ, Garner AP, Powell D, Sibbald J, Sales M, Pratt ...
EC 1.14.15.2 camphor 1,2-monooxygenase [(+)-camphor, reduced-rubredoxin:oxygen oxidoreductase (1,2-lactonizing)] (+)-bornane-2, ... H2O EC 1.14.15.3 alkane 1-monooxygenase (alkane, reduced-rubredoxin:oxygen 1-oxidoreductase) octane + reduced rubredoxin + O2 ... 5-dione + reduced rubredoxin + O2 = 5-oxo-1,2-campholide + oxidized rubredoxin + ...
H2O Camphor 6-endo-hydroxylase is a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase from the bacterium Rhodococcus sp. NCIMB 9784. Grogan G, ... Camphor 6-endo-hydroxylase (EC 1.14.15.10, P450camr) is an enzyme with systematic name (+)-camphor,reduced putidaredoxin:oxygen ... camphor+6-endo-hydroxylase at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Portal: Biology (Articles ... camphor". Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 59 (4-5): 449-54. doi:10.1007/s00253-002-1054-0. PMID 12172608. (+)- ...
Ougham HJ, Taylor DG, Trudgill PW (January 1983). "Camphor revisited: involvement of a unique monooxygenase in metabolism of 2- ... Kadow M, Loschinski K, Sass S, Schmidt M, Bornscheuer UT (October 2012). "Completing the series of BVMOs involved in camphor ... 2-monooxygenase, OTEMO) is an enzyme with systematic name ((1R)-2,2,3-trimethyl-5-oxocyclopent-3-enyl)acetyl-CoA,NADPH:oxygen ... and structures of the camphor pathway 2-oxo-Δ(3)-4,5,5-trimethylcyclopentenylacetyl-coenzyme A monooxygenase of Pseudomonas ...
... steroid 15β-monooxygenase EC 1.14.15.9: spheroidene monooxygenase EC 1.14.15.10: (+)-camphor 6-endo-hydroxylase EC 1.14.15.11: ... EC 1.14.15.3: alkane 1-monooxygenase EC 1.14.15.4: steroid 11β-monooxygenase EC 1.14.15.5: corticosterone 18-monooxygenase EC ... valine N-monooxygenase EC 1.14.14.39: isoleucine N-monooxygenase EC 1.14.14.40: phenylalanine N-monooxygenase EC 1.14.14.41: (E ... steroid 17α-monooxygenase EC 1.14.99.10: Now EC 1.14.14.16, steroid 21-monooxygenase EC 1.14.99.11: estradiol 6β-monooxygenase ...
BVMOs are closely related to the flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMOs), enzymes that also occur in the human body, ... They used peroxymonosulfuric acid to make the corresponding lactones from camphor, menthone, and tetrahydrocarvone. There were ... Leisch, Hannes; Morley, Krista; Lau, Peter C. K. (13 July 2011). "Baeyer−Villiger Monooxygenases: More Than Just Green ... In nature, enzymes called Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases (BVMOs) perform the oxidation analogously to the chemical reaction. To ...
This enzyme is part of a camphor-hydroxylating catalytic cycle consisting of two electron transfer steps from putidaredoxin, a ... function as monooxygenases. In mammals, these proteins oxidize steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics, and are important for ... The most common reaction catalyzed by cytochromes P450 is a monooxygenase reaction, e.g., insertion of one atom of oxygen into ... Most CYP enzymes are presumed to have monooxygenase activity, as is the case for most mammalian CYPs that have been ...

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