Yaws: A systemic non-venereal infection of the tropics caused by TREPONEMA PALLIDUM subspecies pertenue.Pinta: An infectious disease of the skin caused by Treponema carateum that occurs only in the western hemisphere. Age of onset is between 10 and 20 years of age. This condition is characterized by marked changes in the skin color and is believed to be transmitted by direct person-to-person contact.Treponemal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus TREPONEMA.Penicillin G Benzathine: Semisynthetic antibiotic prepared by combining the sodium salt of penicillin G with N,N'-dibenzylethylenediamine.Treponema pallidum: The causative agent of venereal and non-venereal syphilis as well as yaws.IndiaPoliomyelitis: An acute infectious disease of humans, particularly children, caused by any of three serotypes of human poliovirus (POLIOVIRUS). Usually the infection is limited to the gastrointestinal tract and nasopharynx, and is often asymptomatic. The central nervous system, primarily the spinal cord, may be affected, leading to rapidly progressive paralysis, coarse FASCICULATION and hyporeflexia. Motor neurons are primarily affected. Encephalitis may also occur. The virus replicates in the nervous system, and may cause significant neuronal loss, most notably in the spinal cord. A rare related condition, nonpoliovirus poliomyelitis, may result from infections with nonpoliovirus enteroviruses. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp764-5)Prognathism: A condition marked by abnormal protrusion of the mandible. (Dorland, 27th ed)Poliovirus Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS. They include inactivated (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, INACTIVATED) and oral vaccines (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, ORAL).Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral: A live vaccine containing attenuated poliovirus, types I, II, and III, grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture, used for routine immunization of children against polio. This vaccine induces long-lasting intestinal and humoral immunity. Killed vaccine induces only humoral immunity. Oral poliovirus vaccine should not be administered to immunocompromised individuals or their household contacts. (Dorland, 28th ed)Orthognathic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed to repair or correct the skeletal anomalies of the jaw and its associated dental and facial structures (e.g. CLEFT PALATE).Postal Service: The functions and activities carried out by the U.S. Postal Service, foreign postal services, and private postal services such as Federal Express.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)United Nations: An international organization whose members include most of the sovereign nations of the world with headquarters in New York City. The primary objectives of the organization are to maintain peace and security and to achieve international cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian problems.EncyclopediasDictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Molecular Sequence Annotation: The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.Saudi ArabiaSharks: A group of elongate elasmobranchs. Sharks are mostly marine fish, with certain species large and voracious.Anniversaries and Special Events: Occasions to commemorate an event or occasions designated for a specific purpose.Spheniscidae: The sole family in the order Sphenisciformes, comprised of 17 species of penguins in six genera. They are flightless seabirds of the Southern Hemisphere, highly adapted for marine life.Social Control, Formal: Control which is exerted by the more stable organizations of society, such as established institutions and the law. They are ordinarily embodied in definite codes, usually written.Flucytosine: A fluorinated cytosine analog that is used as an antifungal agent.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Child Advocacy: Promotion and protection of the rights of children; frequently through a legal process.Helsinki Declaration: An international agreement of the World Medical Association which offers guidelines for conducting experiments using human subjects. It was adopted in 1962 and revised by the 18th World Medical Assembly at Helsinki, Finland in 1964. Subsequent revisions were made in 1975, 1983, 1989, and 1996. (From Encyclopedia of Bioethics, rev ed, 1995)PakistanHealth Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
  • Within 90 days (but usually less than a month) of infection a painless but distinctive "mother yaw" nodule appears, which enlarges and becomes warty in appearance. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the primary stage, a lesion called the 'mother yaw' occurs as a papule, which develops after 2-4 weeks of incubation at the site of Treponema inoculation and enlarges before it ulcerates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This growth, the "mother yaw", appears at the spot where the organism entered the body (inoculation site), typically on the leg or foot. (rarediseases.org)
  • After an incubation period of days with an average of 3 weeksthe primary lesion, or the mother yaw, develops at the site of inoculation after a scratch, bite, or abrasion of exposed skin, most commonly on frambusia legs, feet, or frambusia. (smscash.me)
  • We dispatched medicines and rapid diagnostic test materials to the region as soon as we were notified out this outbreak" said Dr Earnest Njih Tablah, Permanent Secretary of the National Leprosy, Yaws, Leishmaniasis, Leprosy and Buruli Ulcer Control Programme, Ministry of Public Health. (who.int)
  • Of these 20, two were targeted for eradication ( dracunculiasis (guinea-worm disease) by 2015 and yaws by 2020), and four for elimination ( blinding trachoma , human African trypanosomiasis , leprosy and lymphatic filariasis by 2020). (wikipedia.org)
  • Five other diseases (leprosy, leishmaniasis, yaws, Buruli ulcer and Human African Trypanosomiasis) require individual case management. (who.int)
  • However, there has been a resurgence of yaws in certain countries in Africa and Southeast Asia. (rarediseases.org)
  • Although a multinational mass eradication campaign in the 1950s greatly reduced the incidence of this disease ( 3 - 5 ), a resurgence of yaws has occurred in west and Central Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Islands ( 6 - 9 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Natalie C Klein is a member frambusia the following medical societies: Serve d as a director, officer, partner, employee, advisor, consultant or trustee for: Frambusia incomplete frambusia led to a resurgence of yaws in the s with the largest number of case found in frambuska Western Africa region. (smscash.me)
  • T. pallidum pertenue has been identified in non-human primates (baboons, chimpanzees, and gorillas) and studies show that experimental inoculation of human beings with a simian isolate causes yaws-like disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yaws ( T pallidum pertenue ) occurs mainly in equatorial regions and can be found in South America, Central America, the Caribbean, Africa, and Southeast Asia. (medscape.com)
  • Prior to the most recent WHO campaign, India launched its own national yaws elimination campaign which appears to have been successful. (wikipedia.org)
  • [ 9 ] In India, yaws was successfully eradicated through a programm based on providing information to the population at risk, screening, and treatment. (medscape.com)
  • In 2006, India declared that yaws had been eliminated in that country. (medscape.com)
  • In India, a national yaws elimination campaign conducted during 1996-2004 resulted in substantial reduction in the prevalence of yaws, sustained interruption of transmission, and nationwide elimination ( 9 ). (cdc.gov)
  • In India this happened on frambusia September Yaws in the Western pacific region: However, no evidence exists of crosstransmission between human beings and primates, but more frambusia is needed to discount the frambusia of a yaws animal reservoir in non-human primates. (smscash.me)
  • World Health Organization congratulates India for launching one of the world's largest vaccination campaign against measles, a major childhood killer disease, and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), responsible for irreversible birth defects. (iaimanagers.org)
  • Nearly 118 million children aged nine months to 10 years were vaccinated during mass measles vaccination campaigns between 2010 and 2013 in select states of India. (iaimanagers.org)
  • Apart from improving the life-chances of millions of children in India, the campaign is expected to have a substantial effect on global measles mortality and rubella control target as India accounts for 37% of global measles deaths. (iaimanagers.org)
  • Yaws is a chronic disfiguring and debilitating childhood infectious disease which spreads through the direct contact with the skin of an infected person but now India has the distinction of being the first country to be officially acknowledged as yaws free. (newsgram.com)
  • In May this year, WHO certified India yaws-free after a team of experts verified interruption of disease transmission in the country. (pgtimes.in)
  • India is the first country under the 2012 WHO neglected tropical diseases (NTD) roadmap to eliminate yaws, a disease known to affect the most underserved population. (pgtimes.in)
  • Yaws is often diagnosed by the appearance of the lesions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The secondary stage occurs months to years later, with typically widespread skin lesions that vary in appearance, including "crab yaws" on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet with desquamation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cutaneous lesions characterize the primary and secondary stages of yaws. (medscape.com)
  • Early yaws includes the primary and secondary stages and is characterized by the presence of contagious skin lesions. (medscape.com)
  • Late yaws includes the tertiary stage, when lesions are not contagious. (medscape.com)
  • The usual means of transmission of yaws is close bodily contact with a patient with infectious lesions [ 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Lesions on the bottom of the feet may produce painful cracks and ulcerations (keratosis), resulting in an awkward "crab-like" walk or "crab yaws. (rarediseases.org)
  • Eighty-one (58.7%) persons displayed active primary cutaneous yaws lesions ( Figure 1 ), and 63 (45.7%) exhibited signs of secondary stage yaws (hyperkeratotic skin papules or bone involvement). (cdc.gov)
  • Children with yaws skin lesions and reactive confirmatory tests for T. pallidum and non-treponemal antibodies were considered confirmed yaws cases. (eur.nl)
  • All had secondary yaws lesions such as moist, cauliflower-like papillomas, thick yellow crusts on pink papules and nodules, whitish, papulosquamous papules and plaques, or hypopigmented patches with small papules on the periphery. (eur.nl)
  • Secondary yaws lesions may occur near primary lesions or elsewhere on the body and may last for weeks to frambusia than 6 months. (smscash.me)
  • Painless ulcer with raised edges corresponding to a primary yaws skin lesion on an infant case-patient's leg, Papua New Guinea, 2009. (cdc.gov)
  • Map of Lihir Island, Papua New Guinea, showing incidence of infection in the 24 villages where cases of yaws were diagnosed, 2009. (cdc.gov)
  • The re-emergence followed a mass drug administration (MDA) campaign that aimed to eliminate the disease in Papua New Guinea. (medicalxpress.com)
  • An MDA campaign on Lihir Island, Papua New Guinea, in 2013 reached 83 percent of the population (15-18,000 people) and was initially successful, dramatically reducing the incidence of the disease. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Fifty years ago, the WHO recognized that endemic treponematoses-yaws in particular-were a major cause of disfigurement and disability and a significant economic burden in poor countries. (medscape.com)
  • Between the years 1952 and 1964, the World Health (WHO) and UNICEF (United Nations Children's Fund) undertook a major worldwide campaign to eliminate the endemic treponematoses by treating 300 million people in 46 countries with benzathine benzylpenicillin. (medscape.com)
  • In the early 1950s, infectious diseases were rampant in many parts of the world, and UNICEF became heavily involved in campaigns against those diseases that could be prevented or for which there was a ready treatment. (encyclopedia.com)
  • His practice included taking part in campaigns to prevent yaws and other diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Modeling has been used to inform programmatic requirements for other neglected tropical diseases and could provide insights into yaws eradication. (cdc.gov)
  • Mathematical modeling has been used to inform control efforts for several other neglected tropical diseases ( 11 - 13 ) that are also managed by using community mass treatment strategies, and such approaches could be of value for yaws eradication efforts. (cdc.gov)
  • Our findings have provided the necessary evidence and stimulus to develop a yaws control and eradication program as one of the country's neglected tropical diseases. (eur.nl)
  • While it was once just a dream, permanently ending diseases has been within our power since 1980, when smallpox was eradicated after an intense campaign. (quantamagazine.org)
  • The campaign launched today to vaccinate more than 35 million children in the age group of nine months to 15 years with MR (measles and rubella) vaccine, once again demonstrates India's commitment to improve health and well-being of its people by protecting children against vaccine preventable diseases. (iaimanagers.org)
  • The optimism is derived from the fact that several diseases have successfully been eradicated and eliminated such as smallpox and yaw. (demolaadefajo.com)
  • 15 years of age whose mothers had negative treponemal test results at antenatal screening, with clinical evidence of early yaws (primary or secondary stage), and whose Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) and T. pallidum hemagglutination test results were positive, were eligible to participate in the study. (cdc.gov)
  • As with the other nonvenereal treponematoses, yaws is not found in urban centers, is not sexually transmitted, and is not congenitally acquired. (medscape.com)
  • We describe active and latent yaws recently detected in the Southern Philippines. (eur.nl)
  • Pilot studies have shown that community mass treatment with azithromycin is a highly effective strategy for reducing the community prevalence of yaws ( 7 , 8 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The three major vaccination campaigns in French sub-Saharan Africa before the Second World War were smallpox, yellow fever, and tuberculosis. (activehistory.ca)
  • The #LeaveALegacy campaign is calling on European leaders to take advantage of a once-in-a-decade opportunity to make Europe a leader in global health research, by using the EU's next multiannual financial framework to fund cutting-edge research to end the epidemic of tuberculosis by 2030. (dsw.org)
  • The Philippines was thought to be free of yaws following the 1950s eradication campaign but it has been reported in the Liguasan Marsh area, Central Mindanao. (eur.nl)
  • Diagnosis of yaws was based on correlation of the clinical findings, positive serologic results, and epidemiologic history. (cdc.gov)
  • We included only case-patients with clear documentation of the village of residence, contact history, yaws clinical stage, clinical outcome, pretreatment titer, and at least 1 follow-up titer 12-15 months after treatment. (cdc.gov)
  • Eliminating transmission of a disease may also be considered, as in the case of yaws, the late noninfectious clinical manifestations remain of which but are not a danger to others. (cdc.gov)
  • CONCLUSIONS: The clinical, serological, and histopathological confirmation of four yaws cases among children has made the Philippines the 14th country endemic for yaws. (eur.nl)
  • 23 Jan Yaws has 3 clinical stages: primary, secondary, and tertiary. (smscash.me)
  • Yaws eradication showed the fundamental importance of a surveillance strategy capable of detecting both clinical and subclinical infections. (bmj.com)
  • NEW YORK - Using genome sequencing, an international team has tracked the consequences of an antibiotic campaign on the bacterial subspecies behind yaws - a neglected tropical disease that involves disfiguring skin, bone, and joint infections. (cdc.gov)
  • The operational definition of a case of yaws is "any person who lives in an endemic area and presents with one or more of the following signs: painless ulcer with scab, papilloma, palmar/plantar hyperkeratosis (thickening)" [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We developed a model of yaws transmission varying the coverage and number of rounds of treatment. (cdc.gov)
  • Having low initial titers on Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test and living in a village where yaws baseline incidence was high were associated with increased likelihood of treatment failure. (cdc.gov)
  • Treatment campaigns against yaws during the 1920s-1950s (30,31) and chemoprophylactic campaigns against sleeping sickness (32) were widespread and entailed sometimes reusing only a few syringes to treat, for example, 90,000 persons (32). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Serological and epidemiological aspects in yaws control : report on a mass treatment campaign against yaws in Netherlands New Guinea / O. Kranendonk. (who.int)
  • 6 Since the discovery of salvarsan and the later pentavalent and trivalent arsenicals, these drugs have been used by the Government in the treatment of natives in the Philippines, American Samoa, the Canal Zone, and other territories administered by the United States where yaws was prevalent. (army.mil)
  • Highly targeted awareness and early treatment campaigns in vulnerable communities enabled treatment of yaws cases and interruption of disease transmission," Khetrapal Singh said, commending India's capacity and commitment to eliminating NTDs, which serves as an example to other countries. (pgtimes.in)
  • UNICEF furnished equipment and supplies to countries for mass-disease campaigns, with WHO providing the technical support. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Campaign undertaken by the Government with the assistance of WHO and UNICEF. (who.int)
  • As part of a broad-based campaign to improve health standards in refugee settlement areas, the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) sponsored a program of intensive community education that included modules on monkeypox recognition and prevention. (cdc.gov)
  • The major route of infection is through direct person-to-person contact, and the treponemes associated with yaws are located primarily in the epidermis. (medscape.com)
  • If the bottoms of the feet are involved, walking is painful and the stage is known as "crab yaws. (rarediseases.org)
  • However, no evidence exists of crosstransmission between human beings and primates, but more research is needed to discount the possibility of a yaws animal reservoir in non-human primates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Children serve as the primary reservoir for yaws, spreading the disease via skin-to-skin and skin-to-mucous membrane contact. (medscape.com)
  • Four children aged 5-10 years old had confirmed secondary yaws in Tulunan Municipality, Cotabato Province and in Lambayong Municipality, Sultan Kudarat Province. (eur.nl)
  • Agmon-Levin et al suggested that the antitreponemal antibodies that build up in certain populations may also be protective for atherosclerosis while also being pathogenic for yaws. (medscape.com)
  • When the esteemed Brazilian and other world health leaders arrived in Switzerland last spring, they expected to discuss the progress of the global vaccination program -- the most successful public health campaign in history. (sfgate.com)
  • Although Africans in the postwar period were becoming increasingly involved in public health services (able, for the first time in 1944 to receive full medical degrees), people living in more rural areas claimed that these campaigns were coercive and used their new citizenship rights to protest vaccination campaigns on the grounds that they violated their liberties as citizens of the French Union. (activehistory.ca)
  • Yaws is a common infectious disease among children living in the tropical areas of Africa, South and Central America, the West Indies, and the Far East. (rarediseases.org)
  • Yaws is a chronic disfiguring and debilitating childhood infectious disease that affects the skin, bone and cartilage. (medindia.net)
  • In a serological survey performed between November 1978 and March 1979 in the pygmy population of southwest CAR (Lobaye and Sangha), the prevalence of clinically diagnosed yaws was 50%, with positive serology rates of 86% in children and 95% in adults [ 17 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This report can help health personnel recognize hidden cases of yaws based on skin signs and serological tests. (eur.nl)
  • In 1995, the WHO estimated that there were 460,000 infectious cases of yaws throughout the world, with 400,000 in western and central Africa, 50,000 in Southeast Asia, and the remainder in other tropical areas. (medscape.com)
  • In some cases, yaws may be transmitted through the bite of an infected insect. (rarediseases.org)
  • This is the first documentation of yaws cases in the Philippines since the 1970s. (eur.nl)
  • They also recommend intensive post-MDA surveillance for detection of "the last yaws cases" and to control onward transmission of new infections. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Most of these were cases of yaws in Africa and Southeast Asia. (cdc.gov)
  • Anecdotes collected at the time of case reporting suggest that the outreach campaign contributed to detection of suspected cases of monkeypox. (cdc.gov)