Hoofed mammals with four legs, a big-lipped snout, and a humped back belonging to the family Camelidae.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A movable fold suspended from the posterior border of the hard palate. The uvula hangs from the middle of the lower border.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Voluntary or involuntary motion of head that may be relative to or independent of body; includes animals and humans.
A highly anionic organic phosphate which is present in human red blood cells at about the same molar ratio as hemoglobin. It binds to deoxyhemoglobin but not the oxygenated form, therefore diminishing the oxygen affinity of hemoglobin. This is essential in enabling hemoglobin to unload oxygen in tissue capillaries. It is also an intermediate in the conversion of 3-phosphoglycerate to 2-phosphoglycerate by phosphoglycerate mutase (EC 5.4.2.1). (From Stryer Biochemistry, 4th ed, p160; Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p508)
An immunoglobulin fragment composed of one variable domain from an IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN or IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN.
Ruminant mammals of South America. They are related to camels.
Protein motif that contains a 33-amino acid long sequence that often occurs in tandem arrays. This repeating sequence of 33-amino acids was discovered in ANKYRIN where it is involved in interaction with the anion exchanger (ANION EXCHANGE PROTEIN 1, ERYTHROCYTE). Ankyrin repeats cooperatively fold into domains that mediate molecular recognition via protein-protein interactions.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A surgical specialty concerned with the structure and function of the eye and the medical and surgical treatment of its defects and diseases.
The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.
Drugs used by veterinarians in the treatment of animal diseases. The veterinarian's pharmacological armamentarium is the counterpart of drugs treating human diseases, with dosage and administration adjusted to the size, weight, disease, and idiosyncrasies of the species. In the United States most drugs are subject to federal regulations with special reference to the safety of drugs and residues in edible animal products.
Use for general articles concerning veterinary medical education.
Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of veterinary medicine.
The field of veterinary medicine concerned with the causes of and changes produced in the body by disease.
Diseases affecting the eye.

Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli septicemia and meningoencephalitis in a 7-day-old llama. (1/315)

Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli were isolated from blood collected on presentation and tissues samples taken postmortem. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from cerebrospinal fluid collected antemortem. The importance of passive transfer of immunity, the subtlety of neurologic signs in early meningitis, and considering blood-CSF penetration in antimicrobial selection are discussed.  (+info)

Distribution of keratins, vimentin, and actin in the testis of two South American camelids: vicuna (Vicugna vicugna) and llama (Lama glama). An immunohistochemical study. (2/315)

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the pattern of distribution of cytokeratins, vimentin and muscular actin in the testis of vicuna (Vicugna vicugna) and llama (Lama glama) two species of camelids native of the Andean high plateau of South America. Testicular biopsies of four vicunas and five llamas were used. Animals were healthy breeders. The tissues were processed by standard immunohistochemistry with antipancytokeratinAE1/AE3, antikeratin 18 (K 18), CAM 5.2 (antikeratin 5, 18, and 19), antivimentin, and smooth-muscle-specific antiactin antibodies to track the cytoskeletal pattern of testicular cells. Using AE1/AE3 antibody the immunostaining was found in the epithelial lining of tubuli recti and rete testis. The reaction was relatively stronger in the apical cytoplasm of epithelial cells. The testicular cells of the two species showed no reaction to K 18 and CAM 5.2 antibodies. Antivimentin antibody stained the basal cytoplasm of the Sertoli cells, the Leydig cells, and the epithelial lining of tubuli recti and rete testis. In the last two structures the immunostain was relatively more intense in the basal cytoplasm of epithelial cells. Antiactin antibody stained the peritubular cells and the muscle cells of the lamina propria oftubuli recti and rete testis. The presence in these species of only some keratins found in man, its coexpression with vimentin in epithelial lining of tubuli recti and rete testis and the peritubule organization, so different from other ungulates may reflect a differential adaptation of the cytoskeleton to particular reproductive strategies.  (+info)

An account of the longitudinal mucosal corrugations of the human tracheo-bronchial tree, with observations on those of some animals. (3/315)

A description is given of the distribution of the longitudinal mucosal corrugations in the human tracheo-bronchial tree. It has been shown that they are made up of elastic tissue in a collagen matrix, and that the elastic fibres continue into the smallest bronchioles beyond where the corrugations are no longer visible. An examination has also been made of the tracheo-bronchial trees of the hen, rat, raccoon, pig, sheep, llama and tiger. Corrugations are present in all these animals, except the hen and the raccoon, and they have been compared and contrasted with the condition in Man. The functional significance of these corrugations remains unknown, but, they could be important in equalizing tension in the tracheo-bronchial tree during inspiration, as well as in providing elastic recoil during expiration.  (+info)

Immunodeficiency syndrome in a 3-year-old llama. (4/315)

An adult, castrated male llama was presented for evaluation of a chronic respiratory problem. Complete blood analyses indicated a leukopenia and hypoproteinemia. Radial immunodiffusion, bone marrow core, and lymph node biopsies supported a tentative diagnosis of juvenile llama immunodeficiency syndrome. This diagnosis was confirmed by postmortem findings.  (+info)

Comparison of physical chemical properties of llama VHH antibody fragments and mouse monoclonal antibodies. (5/315)

Antigen specific llama VHH antibody fragments were compared to antigen specific mouse monoclonal antibodies with respect to specificity, affinity and stability. The llama VHH antibody fragments and the mouse monoclonal antibodies investigated were shown to be highly specific for the protein antigen hCG or the hapten antigen RR-6. The affinity of the interaction between monovalent llama VHH antibody fragments and their antigen is close to the nanomolar range, similar to the bivalent mouse monoclonal antibodies studied. Llama VHH antibody fragments are similar to mouse monoclonal antibodies with respect to antigen binding in the presence of ammonium thiocyanate and ethanol. The results show that relative to antigen specific mouse monoclonal antibodies, antigen specific llama VHH fragments are extremely temperature stable. Two out of six llama VHHs are able to bind antigen specifically at temperatures as high as 90 degrees C, whereas four out of four mouse monoclonal antibodies are not functional at this temperature. Together with the finding that llama VHH fragments can be produced at high yield in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, these findings indicate that in the near future antigen specific llama VHH fragments can be used in for antibodies unexpected products and processes.  (+info)

Hybridizing Old and New World camelids: Camelus dromedarius x Lama guanicoe. (6/315)

Thirty female dromedary camels were inseminated on a total of 50 occasions with 2-4 ml of fresh guanaco semen diluted with an equal volume of commercially available camel semen extender. Similarly, nine female guanacos were inseminated on 34 occasions with 4-6 ml of fresh, diluted camel semen. Only two of the dromedary females conceived; one aborted a female foetus on day 260 of gestation and the other gave birth to a stillborn female calf on day 365. Six conceptions occurred in the female guanacos. Two of these conceptuses, diagnosed by ultrasound, were resorbed between days 25 and 40 of gestation, one female foetus was aborted on day 291, another female foetus was aborted on day 302, and one female calf was stillborn on day 365 of gestation. The sixth foetus, a male, was born prematurely but alive after a 328-day gestation. It had a phenotypic appearance intermediate between that of a camel and a guanaco and its hybrid parentage was confirmed by the DNA fingerprinting of eight llama microsatellites. To our knowledge, this is the first viable hybrid ever to be produced between Old World and New World camelids, which have been reproductively isolated from one another for at least 11 million years. The preponderance of female hybrids is in accordance with Haldane's law. Histological examination of their ovaries revealed a failure of meiosis, with only an occasional abnormal oocyte surrounded by follicle cells. Although the diploid chromosone number of camels and guanacos is the same (2n = 74), sufficient genetic change has taken place to make the pairing of homologous chromosomes no longer possible.  (+info)

Fish and mammals in the economy of an ancient Peruvian kingdom. (7/315)

Fish and mammal bones from the coastal site of Cerro Azul, Peru shed light on economic specialization just before the Inca conquest of A. D. 1470. The site devoted itself to procuring anchovies and sardines in quantity for shipment to agricultural communities. These small fish were dried, stored, and eventually transported inland via caravans of pack llamas. Cerro Azul itself did not raise llamas but obtained charqui (or dried meat) as well as occasional whole adult animals from the caravans. Guinea pigs were locally raised. Some 20 species of larger fish were caught by using nets; the more prestigious varieties of these show up mainly in residential compounds occupied by elite families.  (+info)

Subclinical copper accumulation in llamas. (8/315)

A 9-year-old, intact male llama with mild ataxia and generalized malaise of 1 month's duration was euthanized following clinical evaluation. Excessive liver copper concentrations were found in the llama and also in clinically normal herdmates. This case documents multiple animals with increased hepatic stores from standard diets and mineral supplements.  (+info)

Vidal Rioja, L.; Larramendy, M.L.; Semorile, L., 1989: Ag-NOR staining and in situ hybridization of rDNA in the chromosomes of the South American camelids
Previously, we documented the presence of ovulation-inducing factor (OIF) in the seminal plasma of llamas and alpacas. The purpose of the study was to define the biochemical characteristics of the molecule(s) in seminal plasma responsible for inducing ovulation. In Experiment 1, llama seminal plasma was centrifuged using filtration devices with nominal molecular mass cut-offs of 30, 10 and 5 kDa. Female llamas (n = 9 per group) were treated i.m. with whole seminal plasma (positive control), phosphate-buffered saline (negative control), or the fraction of seminal plasma equal or higher than 30 kDa, 10 to 30 kDa, 5 to 10 kDa, or | 5 kDa. In Experiment 2, female llamas (n = 7 per group) were given an i.m. dose of seminal plasma treated previously by: 1) enzymatic digestion with proteinase-K, 2) incubation with charcoal-dextran, 3) heating to 65°C, or 4) untreated (control). In Experiment 3, female llamas (n = 10 per group) were given an i.m. dose of pronase-treated or non-treated (control) seminal plasma.
This study was conducted to determinate carbon and nitrogen isotope fractionation in Bolivian and Chilean alpaca, llama and guanaco, hair, breath, plasma and feces. We also wanted to determine forage selection for these camelids using stable isotope technology. From the data, niche feeding and diet selection habits will determinate based on fecal composition. Bolivian sites were located near the high snow Altiplano Mountains at Tomarapi, Sajama, and at the Technical University Oruros research center at Condoriri, Bolivia. Chilean samples were collected at INIAs (Instituto Nacional de Investigacion Agropecuaria) Kampenaike Research Station, Punta Arenas, Chile. Bolivian alpacas and llamas were 3 to 5 years of age from producer herds and the Oruro Universitys camelid herd. Chilean animals were selected from INIA- Kampenaikes camelid herd. The alpacas, llamas and guanacos were selected based on heath status: no conformation defects, illness, genetic abnormalities or apparent nutrition problems. ...
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Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis, Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Holmiæ: impensis direct. Laurentii Salvii. i-ii, 1-824 pp doi: 10.5962/bhl.title.542: page 65. ...
South American camelids have been poorly genetically investigated and little information is available in llamas (Lama glama) regarding the diversity of the caseins at the protein and gene level. Exon skipping and duplication events previously reported in the αS1-casein gene (CSN1S1) led us to investigate the genetic variability at this locus. Seventy-two positive clones for the αS1-casein transcripts were analyzed and randomly sequenced. The comparative analysis of the sequences revealed 2 transitions, c.366A,G and c.690T,C, at the 10th nucleotide of exon 12 and 94 bp of exon 19, respectively. These SNP are responsible for 2 amino acid changes, Ile→Val in position 86 and Tyr→His in position 194 of the mature protein. Both polymorphisms clarify the genetic events behind the protein variants A and B. This result was confirmed by isoelectric focusing analysis of llama milk samples. Quick methods based on PCR-RFLP and allele-specific PCR were set up for allelic discrimination in a population ...
The farm was visited on November 8, 2004 by the local veterinary practitioner and a veterinary research officer from the Athlone Regional Veterinary Laboratory (ARVL). The disease history and health measures of the herd were reviewed. Contiguous herd history was obtained [4], and clinical evaluation was carried out on the three ill animals. During the visit, it was noted that all three alpacas, two adults D and E and a juvenile of about six months old showed low body condition score of 1.5-2 (using a condition score range between 0 and 5, [1]) and poor appetite. Additionally, alpaca D showed severe dehydration, listlessness, a subnormal rectal temperature (36.7°C; normal range is 37.5-38.9°C) and shallow breathing with a mild expiratory grunt. Harsh lung sounds were audible on auscultation, but no palpable enlargement of surface lymph nodes was evident. Faecal samples were collected from 11 animals (including the three sick alpacas) for: Ziehl-Nielsen (ZN) staining for acid-fast bacilli; ...
Test code: S0229 - Ultrasensitive qualitative detection of camelpox virus by real time PCR. Camelpox virus (CMLV) belongs to the family poxviridae, subfamily chordopoxvirinae, genus Orthopoxvirus. This DNA virus infects both old world camelids (eg dromedaries and Bactrian camels) and new world camelids (eg llamas and alpacas). The virus was first reported in Russia and later in India. The disease occurs throughout camel breeding areas of Northern Africa, the Middle East, and Asia, but has not been reported in wild camels in Australia.. Infected animals can develop fever, local or generalized pox lesions on the skin and in the mucous membranes of the mouth and respiratory tract. Lesions follow the usual pattern of pox lesions, tending to be most concentrated around the face, including eyelids, nostrils, and margins of the pinnae. In severe cases, the whole head may be swollen and intense pruritus may be seen. Later, skin lesions may extend to the neck, limbs, genitalia, mammary glands, and ...
Following importation in May 2000, one cria was lost in December due to a chill. The flock was initially fed very little with the aim to improve coat fibre and, by January 2001, some animals were in poor body condition and were weak. Two animals died, one from pneumonia and the other had lesions compatible with chronic liver fluke infestation. There was no evidence, at gross post mortem, of TB in either case.. In May 2002, the alpacas were successfully treated for an ectoparasitic skin condition. In June 2002, an alpaca showed signs of pneumonia with weight loss, weakness and a temperature of 40°C. She was treated with antibiotics, but died the following morning without post mortem examination.. In March of 2003, an animal was found recumbent with weight loss and tenesmus, and died a few hours later. Post mortem examination carried out at the Limerick Regional Veterinary Laboratory (LRVL) attributed death to fluke infestation with sarcocystosis also evident. In May 2003, two crias two to ...
Pacos De Ferreira (Portugal), 24/02/2018.- Pacos de Ferreiras Luiz Phellype (2-L) celebrates with his teammates after scoring the 1-0 lead during the Portuguese First League soccer match between Pacos de Ferreira and Benfica Lisbon at Mata Real stadium in Pacos Ferreira, Portugal, 24 February 2018. (Lisboa) EFE/EPA/MANUEL FERNANDO ARAUJO ...
Pacos De Ferreira (Portugal), 24/02/2018.- Pacos de Ferreiras Luiz Phellype (2-L) celebrates with his teammates after scoring the 1-0 lead during the Portuguese First League soccer match between Pacos de Ferreira and Benfica Lisbon at Mata Real stadium in Pacos Ferreira, Portugal, 24 February 2018. (Lisboa) EFE/EPA/MANUEL FERNANDO ARAUJO ...
S. Piripi, Hustace, J., Carney, K. R., Heidel, J. R., and Löhr, C. V., Pulmonary arteriovenous malformation in two adult alpacas (Vicugna pacos)., Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation : official publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Inc, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 198-201, 2012. ...
S. Piripi, Hustace, J., Carney, K. R., Heidel, J. R., and Löhr, C. V., Pulmonary arteriovenous malformation in two adult alpacas (Vicugna pacos)., Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation : official publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Inc, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 198-201, 2012. ...
Ponzoni, R. W., Hubbard, D. J., Kenyon, R. V., Tuckwell, C. D., McGregor, B. A., Howse, Andrea, Carmichael, I. and Judson, G. J. 1997, Phenotypes resulting from Huacaya by Huacaya, Suri by Huacaya and Suri by Suri alpaca crossings, in IAI 1997 : Shaping the future : Proceedings of the International Alpaca Industry 1997 seminar, Australian Alpaca Association, Melbourne, Vic., pp. 11-13. ...
Domain: Eukaryota • Regnum: Animalia • Phylum: Chordata • Subphylum: Vertebrata • Infraphylum: Gnathostomata • Superclassis: Tetrapoda • Classis: Mammalia • Subclassis: Theria • Infraclassis: Eutheria • Ordo: Artiodactyla • Subordo: Tylopoda • Familia: Camelidae • Genus: Vicugna Lesson, 1842 ...
Citation: Dubey, J.P., Cassey, S., Zajac, A., Wildeus, S., Lindsay, D., Verma, S., Oliveira, S., Kwok, O.C., Su, C. 2014. Isolation and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from alpaca (Vicugna pacos) and sheep (Ovis aries) grazed on pasture in Virginia. Tropical Animal Health and Production. 46:1503-1507. Interpretive Summary: Toxoplasma gondii is a single-celled parasite of all warm-blooded hosts worldwide. It causes mental retardation and loss of vision in children, and abortion in livestock. Cats are the main reservoir of T. gondii because they are the only hosts that can excrete the resistant stage (oocyst) of the parasite in the feces. Humans become infected by eating under cooked meat from infected animals and food and water contaminated with oocysts. Toxoplasmosis continues to be a major public health problem. Why some people become sick is largely unknown. The parasite genetics affects pathogenicity. In the present study, authors found that the strains of Toxoplasma isolated ...
KAUFMANN, Cristian A; ALVAREZ, María C; LHEUREUX, Lorena G y GUTIERREZ, María A. Dimorfismo sexual en la pelvis de Lama guanicoe (Artiodactyla, Camelidae): un caso de aplicación en el sitio Paso Otero 1, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Mastozool. neotrop. [online]. 2013, vol.20, n.1, pp.47-59. ISSN 0327-9383.. The assessment of sexual structure of fossil assemblages provide valuable information for the discussion of paleodemographic aspects and hunting strategies employed by prehistoric human groups. The aim of this study is to evaluate the sexual structure of the skeletal remains of guanaco (Lama guanicoe) recovered from the site Paso Otero 1, which is located in the Paso Otero archaeological locality (Necochea District, Buenos Aires Province). The methodology is based on previous studies conducted on a modern population of guanacos from Río Negro province. These results showed that the major osteological differences related to sexual dimorphism in postcranial skeleton correspond to variations in ...
The other event was the biennial Paco family reunion. Because of the trip to the hospital, we were a couple of hours late, but thats kind of the way I like it, since whenever you get a large number of Pacos together, you have to worry about the possibility of some kind of law enforcement sting operation, and I always like to make sure Im not walking into an ambush. I met a man with my same name who turned out to represent the Texas branch of the family. Frankly, I didnt know there was a Texas branch of the Pacos until I met this gentleman, who told me that a contingent of Pacos headed out that way in the early 1850s. He was a little vague on what the original bunch did out there; I asked him if they had anything to do with the cattle business, and he just smiled, shrugged and cocked his head to one side, as if to say, something like that. Anyhow, I hope to follow up with him in the near future ...
Female mammals are classified into spontaneous and induced ovulators based on the mechanism eliciting ovulation. Ovulation in spontaneous species (e.g., human, sheep, cattle, horse, pigs, and most rodents) occurs at regular intervals and depends upon the circulating estradiol. However, in induced ovulators (e.g., rabbits, ferrets, cats, and camelids) ovulation is associated with coitus. In the later, various factors have been proposed to trigger ovulation, including auditory, visual, olfactory and mechanic stimuli. However, other studies have identified a biochemical component in the semen of induced ovulators responsible for the induction of ovulation and named accordingly ovulation inducing factor. In camelids, intramuscular or intrauterine administration of seminal plasma was shown to induce the preovulatory LH surge followed by ovulation and subsequent formation of corpus luteum. Recently, this ovulation inducing factor has been identified from seminal plasma as a neurotrophin, the nerve growth
Animals of the Huacaya breed have a rounded and bulky appearance. Huacaya fiber grows perpendicular to the body of the alpaca, and is bulky, smooth and dense. Its curls in its sponge-like fibre are shorter and duller compared with Suri, with an absence of wool grease that is characteristic of Corriedale sheep.[1] Suri fiber instead lies parallel to the body in long hanging well-defined locks which grow towards the ground. The fibre is silkier and more lustrous than that of the Huacaya, as well as being longer. Both breeds possess a vast array of coat colors, totalling 22 different varieties. The Huacaya alpaca is found in the Andes 4,000 m above sea level. Average males weigh 70kg and females weigh 65kg. they have a rounded and bulky appearance. Many of the alpacas in Chile are Huacayas. Peru has the worlds highest population of alpacas and 93% of that is the Huacayan type. Their wool is used to make scarves, vests, and sweaters. It is said that their meat is very high in protein even though it ...
Wheeler, Jane C. A brief History of Camelids in the Western Hemisphere. International Camelid Quarterly 2006 ICID. 2006. ISSN 1705-0332.. Vernacular ...
Camelids are large, strictly herbivorous animals with slender necks and long legs. They differ from ruminants in a number of ways.[2] Their dentition show traces of vestigial central incisors in the incisive bone, and the third incisors have developed into canine-like tusks. Camelids also have true canine teeth and tusk-like premolars, which are separated from the molars by a gap. The musculature of the hind limbs differs from those of other ungulates in that the legs are attached to the body only at the top of the thigh, rather than attached by skin and muscle from the knee upwards. Because of this, camelids have to lie down by resting on their knees with their legs tucked underneath their bodies.[1] They have three-chambered stomachs, rather than four-chambered ones; their upper lips are split in two, with each part separately mobile; and, uniquely among mammals, their red blood cells are elliptical.[2] They also have a unique type of antibodies which lack the light chain, in addition to the ...
Vicuña, (Lama, or Vicugna, vicugna), South American member of the camel family, Camelidae (order Artiodactyla), that is closely related to the alpaca, guanaco, and llama (known collectively as lamoids). Depending on the authority, the llama, alpaca, and guanaco may be classified as distinct species
Having had a growing herd of alpacas at home over the preceding 10 years, Claire realised that there was a niche to be filled in the area of Camelid veterinary medicine in the UK and moved over to the United States to learn about the veterinary care of camelids (mostly alpacas and llamas) from globally-renowned experts: initially this was just for 6 months, but she ended up landing a prestigious Residency in Large Animal Internal Medicine at The Ohio State University Veterinary Medical Center, working under David Anderson. As a US-based residency, this entailed long hours (70-80 hours /week) and little holiday (10 days a year!) but after 3 years she had completed the residency, become board-certified with the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (Large Animal) and obtained a Masters degree with a thesis on vitamin D supplementation in camelids. The learning opportunities and caseload were second to none anywhere in the developed world with 1500 camelid patients alone seen annually ...
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Animals produce antibodies much like those made by the human immune system. But some animals, such as llamas, also produce another type of antibody thats only about a quarter of the size of a typical human antibody. Such single-domain antibodies, or nanobodies, have several features that make them of interest as potential therapeutics.. Nanobodies are very stable, so they could potentially be stored for a long time after production. They can also be delivered by an inhaler directly to the lungs, which makes them particularly promising for respiratory infections such as COVID-19.. The World Health Organization declared COVID-19 an international pandemic on March 11, 2020. To date, it has infected more than 4 million people worldwide and killed over a quarter million. Researchers are rushing to develop vaccines. In the meantime, effective treatments are urgently needed.. Researchers led by Daniel Wrapp and Dr. Jason McLellan from the University of Texas, in collaboration with a Belgian research ...
There are experienced alpaca shearers who travel around shearing on site. They usually take around 5 to 10 minutes to shear one alpaca. The alpaca is tied down on their side by their legs. This holds the alpaca still so the shearer can shear with minimal injury (cuts) to the alpaca.. Are alpacas prone to desease?. Alpacas are generally disease free with only minimal vaccinations required. They need 5 in 1 and Ivomec vaccinations every six months, which protect the alpaca from intestinal parasites. Vaccinations vary for different locations so check your local veterinary for further details.. What is Johnes Disease?. Johnes Disease (JD) is spread to alpacas via faeces and can infect sheep and cattle as well. The disease is not common but there have been recorded cases in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Isolation of alpaca anti-hapten heavy chain single domain antibodies for development of sensitive immunoassay. AU - Kim, Hee Joo. AU - McCoy, Mark R.. AU - Majkova, Zuzana. AU - Dechant, Julie E. AU - Gee, Shirley J.. AU - Tabares-Da Rosa, Sofia. AU - González-Sapienza, Gualberto G.. AU - Hammock, Bruce D.. PY - 2012/1/17. Y1 - 2012/1/17. N2 - Some unique subclasses of Camelidae antibodies are devoid of the light chain, and the antigen binding site is comprised exclusively of the variable domain of the heavy chain (VHH). Although conventional antibodies dominate current assay development, recombinant VHHs have a high potential as alternative reagents for the next generation of immunoassay. We expressed VHHs from an immunized alpaca and developed a VHH-based immunoassay using 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), a major metabolite of pyrethroid insecticides as a model system. A phage VHH library was constructed, and seven VHH clones were selected by competitive binding with 3-PBA. The ...
Abstract:. The objectives of this study were to compare the effects of two intravaginal devices (ID) containing the same dose (0.5 g) of progesterone (P4) on subsequent ovarian response, embryo production and circulating P4 concentration profile in llamas (Lama glama) treated with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) for ovarian superstimulation. Female llamas were randomly assigned (n = 10 llamas per group) to one of the following groups and treated (Day 0) with an ID containing 0.5 g of vegetal P4 to synchronize the emergence of a new follicular wave: i) DIB 0.5® and ii) Cronipres M15®. On Day 3 llamas were intramuscularly treated with 1000 IU of eCG. The IDs were removed on Day 7. Llamas were naturally mated (Day 9) and treated with GnRH analogue to induce ovulation. A second mating was allowed 24 h later. Embryos were collected between 7 and 8 days after the first mating. Blood samples were taken every day from Day 0 to Day 7 to measure circulating P4 concentrations. The results indicated ...
Monoclonal antibodies have been used to effectively treat various tumors. We previously established a unique strategy to identify tumor specific antibodies by capturing B-cell response against breast tumor antigens from patient-derived sentinel lymph nodes. Initial application of this approach led to identification of a tumor specific single domain antibody. In this paper we optimized our previous strategy by generating heavy chain antibodies (HCAbs) to overcome the deficiencies of single domain antibodies. Here we identified and characterized a heavy chain antibody (HCAb2) that targets cell surface HSP90 antigen on breast tumor cells but not normal cells. Eight HCAbs derived from 4 breast cancer patients were generated using an in vitro expression system. HCAbs were screened against normal breast cells (MCF10A, HMEC) and tumor cell lines (MCF7, MDA-MB-231) to identify cell surface targeting and tumor specific antibodies using flow cytometry and immunofluorescence. Results observed with cell lines were
Camelids produce functional antibodies devoid of light chains and CH1 domains. The antigen-binding fragment of such heavy chain antibodies is therefore comprised in one single domain, the camelid heavy chain antibody VH (VHH). Here we report on the structures of three dromedary VHH domains in complex with porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase. Two VHHs bound outside the catalytic site and did not inhibit or inhibited only partially the amylase activity. The third one, AMD9, interacted with the active site crevice and was a strong amylase inhibitor (K(i) = 10 nm). In contrast with complexes of other proteinaceous amylase inhibitors, amylase kept its native structure. The water-accessible surface areas of VHHs covered by amylase ranged between 850 and 1150 A(2), values similar to or even larger than those observed in the complexes between proteins and classical antibodies. These values could certainly be reached because a surprisingly high extent of framework residues are involved in the interactions ...
Albini, S., I. Brodard, A. Jaussi, N. Wollschlaeger, J. Frey, R. Miserez & C. Abril (2008) Real-time multiplex PCR assays for reliable detection of Clostridium perfringens toxin genes in animal isolates. Veterinary Microbiology, 127, 179-185.. Bentancor, A. B., P. Halperin, M. Flores & F. Iribarren (2009) Antibody response to the epsilon toxin of Clostridium perfringens following vaccination of Lama glama crias. Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, 3, 624-627.. Conway, J. O., L. J. Sherwood, M. T. Collazo, J. A. Garza & A. Hayhurst (2010) Llama single domain antibodies specific for the 7 botulinum neurotoxin serotypes as heptaplex immunoreagents. PLoS ONE, e8818.. Ellis, R. P., A. Ramirez, R. J. Todd, L. Phillips, T. McConnell, M. Fowler, R. Walker & E. Hoffman. 1990. An overview of Clostridium perfringens type A enterotoxemia in alpacas and llamas. 2-3. Corvallis, Oregon: Oregon State University, College of Veterinary Medicine.. Ellis, R. P., R. J. Todd, L. A. Metelman-Alvis, A. L. ...
We report the first molecular evolutionary analysis of the family Camelidae by analysing the full DNA sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Estimates for the time of divergence of the Old World (Camelini) and New World (Lamini) tribes obtained from sequence data are in agreement with those derived from the fossil record. The DNA sequence data were also used to test current hypotheses concerning the ancestors of the domesticated llama and alpaca. The results show that hybridization has occurred in the ancestry of both domesticated camelids, obscuring the origin of the domestic species. ...
Antibodies are proteins of the immune system that travel through the bloodstream and recognize potential threats to the body, whether bacteria, viruses or abnormal cells. Most antibodies have a characteristic Y shape. The tips of the Y form a lock that binds to a specific key carried by foreign bodies that the immune system should destroy.. According to Curiel, recent work by other groups has identified an unusually small and stable class of antibodies made by camels, alpacas and related species collectively classified as camelids. The lock of camelid antibodies consists of the stem of the Y only, so it cant unfold in the harsh internal environment of the cell.. We found that when we incorporated the camelid antibodies into the virus, they retained their binding specificity, Curiel said. This opens the door to targeting these antibodies to specific tumor markers.. Currently available viral-based cancer therapeutics and those in human trials are not targeted directly to tumor cells. ...
Dr. Miesner describes what steps to take when a camelid presents with signs of colic. He reviews clinical signs, exam techniques, diagnostic evaluation and the use of ultrasound in cases of colic. ...
The isolation of J3 represents a significant improvement on previous nAbs derived from immunized animals as in single-domain VHH form it has a comparable breadth and potency to the best nAbs obtained from a limited number of natural human infections. In contrast, previous nAb clones characterized from immunized animals have only exhibited limited breadth (Forsman et al., 2008; Sundling et al., 2010). A caveat to this is the observation that sera with 17b-like binding specificity can be induced after immunization of humans (Vaine et al., 2010), and it should be noted that 17b and other Abs to CD4-induced epitopes are less broadly neutralizing as full-length mAbs than in Fab form (Labrijn et al., 2003). However, given the previously reported decrease in neutralization ability seen with the Fab of b12 (Labrijn et al., 2003), it appears the CD4-binding site of Env is not per se more easily targeted for neutralization by small Ab fragments as is the CD4-induced binding site, presumably because of the ...
Free resource for searching and exporting immune epitopes. Includes more than 95% of all published infectious disease, allergy, autoimmune, and transplant epitope data.
Take excellent care of your camelids. Discover knowledge about llama and alpaca health, nutrition, breeding, shearing, marketing, business management, and more.
The ultrasonographic examination technique is a well-established, non-invasive diagnostic tool for diverse conditions in humans and different animal species. The purpose of our study was to describe ultrasonographic localisation, sonographic appearance and dimensions of the kidneys and spleen of clinically healthy llamas and alpacas. Differences between llamas and alpacas and the influence of sex and ages were investigated. Results of this study may aid veterinarians performing ultrasonography in diseased animals and the technique can be used for routine protocol screening. Ultrasonography was performed in 135 clinically healthy, non-sedated llamas and alpacas. Screening was performed with a 6.6 MHz curve linear transducer with only alcohol as contact medium between the probe and unclipped skin. The kidneys could be imaged from the paralumbar region. The right kidney only was visualized when scanning from the right and the left kidney only from the left. While the left kidney appeared in sagittal view
This study identified areas of concern regarding diagnostic and pathological procedures, for which specific measures have been recommended. One particular cause for concern was the number of deaths from emaciation in weanling alpacas during late winter or early spring. For adult alpacas, infectious and non-infectious causes of death were approximately equally frequent. Many of the diseases were considered clinically acute but pathology often showed them to be chronic conditions that had eventually deteriorated and presented as acute cases in the late stages. This study revealed similarities in the health/disease status reported in other European countries and in North America. The results can be used by alpaca keepers and veterinary practitioners to improve management, diagnosis and treatment of alpacas.. ...
Plum Creek Alpacas has many outstanding deals on Sold Alpacas. Our Alpacas We pride ourselves on our small herd of Huacaya alpacas. Intentionally keeping our herd small allows us work with our animals by using a hands-on approach that is especially essential w..
Photo: Getty Images Rockefeller.edu Rocky and Marley are used to the company of scientists. Like many other members of their species, the two llamas, living in pastures in rural Massachusetts, have for many years participated in research aimed to harness the wonders of their immune system. Today, however, the stately creatures are facing an unprecedented level of international attention: scientists hope the special antibodies that llamas make can be directed against SARS-CoV-2 to help find our way out of the pandemic. Humans, too, make antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, and many groups are working on developing treatments based on them. Llama antibodies, however, come in a simpler design than their human counterparts.
ABTAG is a camelid single-domain antibody (sdAb) that binds to bovine serum albumin (BSA) with low picomolar affinity. In surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analyses using BSA surfaces, bound ABTAG can be completely dissociated from the BSA surfaces at low pH, over multiple cycles, without any reduction in the capacity of the BSA surfaces to bind ABTAG. A moderate throughput, SPR-based, antibody screening assay exploiting the unique features of ABTAG is described. Anti-carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 6 (CEACAM6) sdAbs were isolated from a phage-displayed sdAb library derived from the heavy chain antibody repertoire of a llama immunized with CEACAM6 ...
Phage-displayed single domain antibodies (sdAb) were compared to monomeric solubly expressed sdAb and llama polyclonal antibodies for the detection of ricin. SdAb are comprised of the variable domain derived from camelid heavy chain only antibodies (HcAb). Although HcAb lack variable light chains, they as well as their derivative sdAb are able to bind antigens with high affinity. The small size of sdAb (~16 kDa), while advantageous in many respects, limits the number of labels that can be incorporated. The ability to incorporate multiple labels is a beneficial attribute for reporter elements. Opportunely, sdAb are often selected using phage display methodology. Using sdAb displayed on bacteriophage M13 as the reporter element gives the potential for incorporating a very high number of labels. We have demonstrated the use of both sdAb and phage- displayed sdAb for the detection of ricin using both enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and Luminex fluid array assays. The phage-displayed sdAb led to
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of genotype and sex on fiber growth rate of alpacas for their first year of fleece production. AU - Quispe-Peña, E. C.. AU - Poma-Gutiérrez, A. G.. AU - McGregor, B. A.. AU - Bartolomé-Filella, J.. PY - 2014/1/1. Y1 - 2014/1/1. N2 - The sale of alpaca fiber is the main income for thousands of families in the Central Andes of Peru. Little information exists on the fiber length growth rate of alpaca (FLG), especially throughout their first year of life when the fiber is most valuable. We aimed to determine the monthly FLG of 22 alpaca offspring of two genotypes (9 Suri, 13 Huacaya) and considering sex differences (10 females, 12 males) in the High Andes of Peru. FLG growth was determined using dye-bands. An additive lineal model with three factors (genotype, sex, month) was used for statistic analysis. To evaluate the effect of genotype and sex on the profile of the FLG throughout the year a two factor repeated-measures model was used. The results showed that FLG was ...
We are a family run Alpaca Farm, Rob, Raelene & Elyse since 1992, running over 400 alpacas, a Quarantine Facility for Export to anywhere in the world, and Raelene is an AQIS accred Exporter. Our successful Breeding Program is producing some of the finest alpacas in Australia-producing elite fleeces. using the GIFT technology, the latest technology in Alpaca Fleece Improvement. We welcome you to visit and enjoy our Blog page, and share experiences of alpaca farming in Australia. ...
by Vetscite. South American camelids, especially llamas and alpacas, are very susceptible to infections caused by endoparasites. The so-called small liver fluke (Dicrocoelium dendriticum) is particularly problematic and infections with this parasite are frequently fatal. Moreover, camelids are prone to stress and together with their tendency to spit (especially when they do not like the taste of something) this very often results in underdosing if they are given medicine to swallow. Inadequate treatment of endoparasites leads to progression of the pathological changes and can be lethal for the animals. Underdosing of antiparasitic drugs may also lead to the emergence of anthelmintic resistance. Two scientists from the Vetmeduni Vienna now report a solution. Agnes Dadak from the Institute of Pharmacology and Sonja Franz from the Clinic for Ruminants have jointly developed a palatable paste that the animals swallow willingly and that allows the administration of highly concentrated drugs in small ...
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Use: Farmers normally raise Suri alpacas for their fiber, which is silky and resembles pencil-like locks. Like the Huacaya alpaca, the Suri alpaca is prized for its their thick, soft fleece-its been known for centuries as The Fiber of The Gods. Alpaca fiber offers quality, versatility and rarity; in the fashion world its considered to be one of the most exclusive fibers, competing only with wool, cashmere and mohair. Alpaca fiber can be used as sheer in the finest silks, to as thick and chunky as tweeds and wool. It dyes easily, makes the warmest batting, the softest felt, spins like a dream, and can be mixed with other fibers to combine textures and beauty. People also raise alpacas for companionship and to enjoy a rural lifestyle. History: Alpacas are originally from South American where the Incas bred them for thousands of years. In the early to mid-1980s, several alpacas were imported to the United States from Bolivia, Chile and Peru. Alpacas are modified ruminants, part of the camelid ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cryptosporidium parvum as a risk factor of diarrhea occurrence in neonatal alpacas in Peru. AU - Gomez-Puerta, Luis A.. AU - Gonzalez, Armando E.. AU - Vargas-Calla, Ana. AU - Lopez-Urbina, Maria T.. AU - Cama, Vitaliano. AU - Xiao, Lihua. PY - 2020/1/1. Y1 - 2020/1/1. N2 - Cryptosporidiosis has been reported as an important cause of neonatal diarrhea and mortality in cattle, sheep, and other ruminants, but its impact on alpaca health has not been studied thoroughly. In this study, we have determined the prevalence and evaluated the role of cryptosporidiosis as a risk factor for diarrhea occurrence in newborn alpacas. During the calving season (January-March) of 2006, stool specimens (N = 1312) were collected from 24 herds of newborn alpacas in Puno and Cuzco, departments that account for the largest populations of alpacas in Peru. All the specimens were microscopically screened for Cryptosporidium spp. using the acid-fast technique. The association between Cryptosporidium ...
When it was discovered that animals in the camel family produce antibodies with no light chains, the idea that a single-domain fragment can bind as well as a full 4-chain antibody formed a breakthrough. So far it has been a relatively less known one.. Smaller antibody fragments have been tested for therapeutic uses because classical IgG antibodies are too bulky to penetrate tissues well, and very expensive to produce. Different combinations of antigen-binding variable regions are used, e.g. scFv, Fab, diabody, all to some degree of success. In comparison, the N-terminal domain of camelid antibodies, termed VHH domain (nanobody, VHH antibody), represents a naturally evolved, only 13-15 kD in size, fully functional target binding fragment with many advantages.. The only other known species outside camelidae family that has heavy chain antibodies is particular cartilaginous fish, nurse shark. Although the arrangement of CDRs is somewhat different between the camel and shark heavy chain variable ...
To obtain thermostable immunoreagents specific for the spore form of Bacillus anthracis two llamas were immunized with a combination of six different recombinant proteins. These proteins BclA, gerQ, SODA1, SOD15, BxpB and the protein p5303 have all been shown as components of the B. anthracis spore and could potentially serve as targets for the detection of spores in multiplexed biosensors. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were used to construct a phage display library from which single domain antibodies (sdAbs) targeting each of the proteins were isolated. Unique sdAbs exhibiting nanomolar or better affinities for the recombinant proteins were obtained and most of the isolated sdAbs retained their ability to bind antigen after cycles of heating as determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). SdAbs targeting the BclA and gerQ proteins were able to successfully detect bacterial spores, whether broken or intact, using a direct ELISA; the sdAbs were specific, showing binding only to B. anthracis
621Camelid Field Anesthesia. Eric Abrahamsen, DVM, DACVA, Ocala Equine Hospital. 625Chemical Restraint of Ruminants - Ketamine Stun Technique. Eric Abrahamsen, DVM, DACVA, Ocala Equine Hospital. 630Telazol-Based Capture Technique for Wild Hoofstock. Eric Abrahamsen, DVM, DACVA, Ocala Equine Hospital. 632Chemical Restraint of Camelids - Ketamine Stun Technique. Eric Abrahamsen, DVM, DACVA, Ocala Equine Hospital. 636CRI Techniques for Management of Severe Pain. Eric Abrahamsen, DVM, DACVA, Ocala Equine Hospital. 642Ruminant Field Anesthesia. Eric Abrahamsen, DVM, DACVA, Ocala Equine Hospital. 646Castration of Llamas and Alpacas. Aubrey N. Baird, DVM, DACVS, Purdue University. 648Complicated Umbilical Surgery in Calves. Aubrey N. Baird, DVM, DACVS, Purdue University. 650Surgical Treatment of Abomasal Displacement: Outcome. Aubrey N. Baird, DVM, DACVS, Purdue University. 652Management of Urinary Obstruction in Small Ruminants. Sabrina H. Brounts, DVM, MS, DACVS-LA, University of ...
In the present study, we used phage display to develop an engineered antibody domain, called SD1, recognizing an epitope at the C-terminus of mesothelin. This epitope does not overlap with any previously developed mesothelin therapeutic antibodies in preclinical or clinical development. SD1-hFc shows strong CDC and ADCC activity against mesothelin-expressing cancer cells in vitro and causes growth inhibition of human tumor xenografts in nude mice in vivo. Our results suggest that the SD1 single-domain antibody represents a new class of antimesothelin mAbs and is a promising therapeutic candidate for novel mesothelin-targeted therapy.. We isolated the SD1 domain by phage panning on a C-terminal 50-residue peptide of mesothelin and showed that the antibody binds native mesothelin proteins in cancer cells. This region has never been accessed by any known antimesothelin antibodies. Our data show that CDC triggered by SD1-hFc depends on the specific new epitope because the HN1 human IgG (specific for ...
Our current research activities on camelid HCAbs and VHHs aims at three goals: (i) to increase the fundamental knowledge of VHH characteristics and HCAb ontogeny, (ii) to broaden the efficacy of VHHs and extend their applications in medical or biotechnological fields where the unique VHH properties offer a clear advantage over other antibody formats, and (iii) to develop new VHH selection strategies that are amenable to a high throughput mode. The objective here is to arrive at a rapid identification of small molecular probes to be employed in biosensors, functional genomics, structural genomics and proteomics. Obviously, the appearance of HCAbs requires the acquisition of multiple events to allow their generation and maturation into functional molecules. The dromedary germline genes (V, D and J) and constant immunoglobulin genes used to generate HCAbs were cloned. Analysis of these genes forms the cornerstone for understanding the HCAb ontogeny in camelids, and might eventually lead to the ...
Equine clinic providing veterinarian horse care in Avon and the Genesee Valley area in NY including ultrasounds, dentistry, lameness exams, mare, foal, stallion wellness, stallion collections, semen shipping, artificial insemination, equine breeding, equine dentistry, equine floats, vaccinations, worming programs, reproductive services, health papers, coggins, colic examinations, emergency services, animal chiropractic, animal accupuncture, class 4 Laser, Theraplate, Equine Rehabilitation, wellness programs, Equine Kinesiology Taping, shockwave treatments We provide equine veterinary services for boarding, trailrides, eventing, hunting, jumping, racing, showing stables. We treat horses, camelids, llamas, alpacas, goats, sheep, donkeys, mules, draft horses, as well as vaccinate barn cats and dogs. We provide ambulatory services for routine animal health as well as emergencies. Bonny Henderson DVM and Anne Dewar DVM can treat your animal at your farm or in our large animal clinic
Equine clinic providing veterinarian horse care in Avon and the Genesee Valley area in NY including ultrasounds, dentistry, lameness exams, mare, foal, stallion wellness, stallion collections, semen shipping, artificial insemination, equine breeding, equine dentistry, equine floats, vaccinations, worming programs, reproductive services, health papers, coggins, colic examinations, emergency services, animal chiropractic, animal accupuncture, class 4 Laser, Theraplate, Equine Rehabilitation, wellness programs, Equine Kinesiology Taping, shockwave treatments We provide equine veterinary services for boarding, trailrides, eventing, hunting, jumping, racing, showing stables. We treat horses, camelids, llamas, alpacas, goats, sheep, donkeys, mules, draft horses, as well as vaccinate barn cats and dogs. We provide ambulatory services for routine animal health as well as emergencies. Bonny Henderson DVM and Anne Dewar DVM can treat your animal at your farm or in our large animal clinic
|strong|Mouse anti Human Cytochrome B245 Heavy Chain antibody, clone NL7|/strong| recognizes the heavy chain of cytochrome B245, also known as gp91phox or NOX2, a subunit of the nicotinamide adenine d…
Original llama ornament Each piece is curled with hand so every item is completely unique! Made from polymer clay Little llama creation can be as a brooch or magnet at your choice Bright and positive! Each pattern is handcrafted of polymer clay. Bright colors which do not fade. The brooch is not
Handbook of Veterinary Anesthesia, 5th Edition is a well-accepted guide to performing anesthesia and anesthetic techniques safely and effectively. This convenient pocket guide provides clear, concise guidelines on anesthetic procedures for dogs, cats, horses, ruminants, camelids, pigs, birds, and other exotic pets. Topics include patient evaluation and preparation, local anesthetic drugs, anesthetic equipment, patient monitoring, pain management, breathing systems and ventilation, shock therapy, respiratory and cardiac emergencies, and euthanasia. Written by leading anesthesiology experts William W. Muir III and John A. E. Hubbell, this practical handbook is the perfect size to take anywhere!
The eight weeks of the module are designed to lead you through the different topics you need to understand for effective use of animal bones in archaeology. We start by considering what bone is and how it is formed; then move onto how it survives (or doesnt!) and is modified in archaeological contexts - the field of taphonomy. Four weeks are dedicated to exploring how bones and teeth differ between the main archaeologically important groups of vertebrates, from camelids to codfish. Finally, we turn our attention to understanding growth structures and how we can make best use of different hard tissues in bioarchaeology.. ...
See individual species for additional information.. No animal that originates from a herd, premises or area under quarantine because of disease concerns may be transported into Indiana, unless a rule or order specifically allows for such movement.. Vaccination: ...
Discover our womens suri alpaca belted coat in dark charcoal at Cole Haan and shop the full collection of outerwear and apparel. Cole Haan
The X-ray structure of a ternary complex between human chorionic gonadotropin hormone (hCG) and two Fvs recognizing its α and β subunits has been recently determined. The Fvs recognize the elongated hCG molecule by its two ends, one being the Leu-12-Cys-29 loop of the α subunit. We have designed and synthesized a 17-amino-acid peptide (named PepH14) derived from the sequence of this antigenic loop with the purpose of mimicking its three-dimensional structure and its affinity for antibodies. We have determined the solution structure of PepH14 by homonuclear NMR spectroscopy and derived distance restraints. Comparison of this structure with that of the corresponding antigenic loop of α-hCG reveals strong conformational similarities. In particular, the two pairs of residues that establish crucial contacts with the Fv fragment share the same conformation in PepH14 and in the authentic hormone loop. We propose a three-dimensional model of interaction of PepH14 with a llama VHH (VHH-H14) fragment ...
Why is colostrum so important for alpacas? Colostrum is essential for newborn alpacas to survive. A new born, may it be a human baby or an animal, needs passive immunity. That means it has to get antibodies to protect it from infections. Antibodies, or Immunoglobulins, are proteins and can be bound to antigens like bac
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evaluation of acrosome integrity in epidydimal alpaca sperm by flow cytometry. AU - Ugarelli, Alejandra. AU - Evangelista-Vargas, Shirley. AU - Santiani, Alexei. PY - 2017/1/1. Y1 - 2017/1/1. N2 - The aim of this study was to determine the percentage of epidydimal sperm acrosome integrity using alpaca Arachis hypogaea (PNA) and Pisum sativum (PSA), combined with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). Testicles (n=45) were obtained at Ninacaca municipal slaughterhouse (Pasco, Peru). Only 29 samples with motility higher than 30% and concentration higher than 50x106 sperm/ml were used. Sperm from cauda epididymis were recovered with 1 ml of Tris base solution, and then, washed by centrifugation at 600 g for 8 min and pellets were re-suspended in 300 μl of PBS. Each sample was divided into two aliquots and incubated for 8 min at 38 °C with FITC-PNA (0.5 μg/ml) or FITC-PSA (2.5 μg/ mL) together with propidium iodide (PI, 0.5 μg/ml) as a viability marker. Samples were evaluated by ...
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Van Saun, R. J., and Hendrichs A. J. Troubleshooting silage problems: How to identify potential problems. College of Agricultural Science, Penn State University, 10 pp., DAS 08-125, 2008.. Van Saun, R. J., Kime, L. F., Knoll, K. E., Hoch, P., Hoch, A., and Harper, J. K. Agricultural Alternatives: Dairy Goat Production. Agricultural Alternatives Circular UA 447, Department of Agricultural Economics and Veterinary Science, College of Agricultural Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, 8 pp., 2008.. Van Saun, R. J. Feeding the pregnant alpaca. Alpaca Registry Journal. 5(1):3-10, 2000.. Van Saun, R. J. Understanding vitamin and minerals supplements forcamelids: Reading between the lines. Alpaca Registry Journal. 4(1):3-10, 1999.. Van Saun, R. J. Questions & Answers: An Interview With:, Llamas. 12(2):13-15, 1998.. Smith, B. B., Tornquist S. J., and Van Saun, R. J. Hepatic lipidosis in the camelid: A different perspective. Alpaca Registry Journal. 3(1):26-28, 1998.. Magazine Articles. Van Saun, ...
In a new study, an international team led by the University of Bonn identified and further developed the novel single-domain antibodies (sdAbs) against SARS-CoV-2. The researchers also combined these single-domain antibodies intoRead More…. ...
Modulation of the immune system is showing tremendous promise in the treatment of malignancies. In addition to checkpoint inhibitors that re-activate T cells present in the tumor microenvironment, exogenously transduced chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells are providing excellent responses in clinical trials for the treatment of leukemias. In this study, we describe CAR-T cells that target VEGFR2-expressing tumors.. Angiogenesis is the process of new blood vessel formation and is essential for a tumor to grow beyond a certain size. Tumors secrete the pro-angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which acts upon local endothelial cells by binding to vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFR). As VEGFR2 is also expressed by a variety of tumors, we investigated the utility of anti-VEGFR2 CAR-T cells as a method to treat VEGFR2-expressing tumors.. Camelid antibodies are small (14 kD) single chain antibodies. To generate a camelid antibody targeting the extracellular ...
I usually travel several thousand miles a year doing rescue work, I dont mind doing it but I hate doing it this time of year. It is nice when I leave the farm. Quite often by the time I get back it is in the middle of a blizzard. I can always make it back to Middleburgh but getting back up on the mountain can often be interesting. One night I was called in by a Humane Society on a horrible rescue. I left imediately after school, the kids always ask what Im doing when they see my truck and trailer in the teachers parking lot (so I can leave right after school) to get on the road. ... I got there and the Humane Society staff was waiting for me. I assessed the situation, told them how we were going to get the surviving llamas and donkeys on my trailer. It was a bad scene. Dead animals, cold as hell, starting to snow. I walked into the barn over several dead animals, broke the several feet of feces down and got the llamas herded down through the barn and onto the trailer. The donkeys made me work ...
This very unique, charcoal-gray Batman t-shirt for men features the question Como Se Llama? as the Caped Crusader rides into the night on his trusty...llama.
Not that Llamas with Hats is exactly cuddly. The scenario is simple. In each episode a nice cuddly Llama in a ladys hat quizzes his friend Carl about some recent atrocity. On each occasion Carl turns out to be responsible. Why am I explaining this? Each film is shorter than your average Ramones song. Just watch the thing and make up your own mind. Unless I am very wrong, you will, after a few watches, find yourself repeating the one-word catchphrase to yourself every time something goes wrong in life. Caaaarl! Thats what they say.. If you know anything about Film Cow - and you might not - you will know that it was behind the hugely popular Charlie the Unicorn sequence. First released in the Dark Ages that was 2005 the series became so popular that Steele released a parody of his own work called Charlie teh Unicron [sic]. The idea was to play tricks with those YouTube users who mistyped the name of their favourite cartoon. Get any more snarkily post-modern than that and you risk disappearing ...
Lama. Photo about america, south, wool, listening, glama, closeup, staring, stare, face, lama, neck, headshot, long, wildlife, llama, white - 14952082
Immunization by a large molecular assembly, such as the TP901-1 baseplate, proved to be an efficient technique to obtain nanobodies against the exposed surface of the various molecular components of the complex to evaluate the effect of binding on infectivity. Although the three components of the baseplate were targeted, BppU and BppL dominated the immunological response, with some epitopes being clearly favored. The head domain of BppL and its saccharide binding groove were targeted by two TP901-1-neutralizing-strongly binding-nanobodies. This groove was also found to be the epitope of a nanobody-neutralizing (VHH5) phage p2 (14, 15, 24, 26). This groove-directed mode of binding is a characteristic of nanobodies, because this mode has also been observed on several occasions for catalytic crevices of enzymes (22, 34, 35). Noteworthy, nanobodies are distinctly different from DARPINs, because this latter family of artificial binders binds preferentially to flat or convex surfaces. We observed this ...
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The Society for Theriogenology is an organization of veterinarians dedicated to animal reproduction, whose mission is to promote standards of excellence in reproductive medicine, to provide outreach and education to veterinarians, and to foster continual improvements in theriogenology.. ...
Here, at the large-animal hospital at Oregon State University, in stalls with wood shavings on the ground, are the alpacas that look at you with those innocent eyes. They evoke even more sympathy from observers who know what they've gone through. According to authorities, they were starving to...
Hybridisation-capture was used to create 12 unique alpaca DNA libraries each enriched for a different tetranucleotide microsatellite motif. Two hundred and forty nine microsatellites were found, of which 26 were polymorphic (motifs GGAT, GTTT and GCAC). Nine markers were fully characterised on 45 samples. Allele numbers ranged from 6 (Locus P135) to 12 (loci P149 and PCTD17). There was no evidence of linkage disequilibrium at any locus (p = 0.064 - 1). Deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was observed in three loci after Bonferroni correction (PCTD17, P135 and P193). Null alleles were detected at loci P147, P193 and P194. Polymorphic information content ranged from 0.48 to 0.82. When combined, the markers had an exclusion probability of 97.7%. Two polymerase chain reaction multiplex sets comprising six and three markers each were optimized. These multiplex sets will be useful for parentage determination, and individually the markers will add to the pool of markers available for mapping of ...
This hairy alpaca cardigan is perfect for becoming a proper ice queen, with a touch of irony. It is a cardigan with pom-poms and a hood, open in the front with a zipper. A truly versatile garment dedicated to anyone who faces life with a smile.
Noromectin (Ivermectin) Highly effective for treatment and control of roundworms, lungworms, grubs, lice, and mange mites. Injectable. Treats the same parasites as Ivomec but at a huge savings in price! Cattle dosage: 1ml SQ per 110 lbs. of body weight. Swine dosage: 1 ml SQ per 75 lbs. of body weight. Can be used as a preventative for Meningeal Worm in Llamas and Alpacas. Consult your veterinarian for dosage for Llamas and Alpacas. ...
Preventing the spread of infectious diseases remains an urgent priority worldwide, and this is driving the development of advanced nanotechnology to diagnose infections at the point of care. Herein, we report the creation of a library of novel nanobody capture ligands to detect p24, one of the earliest markers of HIV infection. We demonstrate that these nanobodies, one tenth the size of conventional antibodies, exhibit high sensitivity and broad specificity to global HIV-1 subtypes. Biophysical characterization indicates strong 690 pM binding constants and fast kinetic on-rates, 1 to 2 orders of magnitude better than monoclonal antibody comparators. A crystal structure of the lead nanobody and p24 was obtained and used alongside molecular dynamics simulations to elucidate the molecular basis of these enhanced performance characteristics. They indicate that binding occurs at C-terminal helices 10 and 11 of p24, a negatively charged region of p24 complemented by the positive surface of the nanobody
Headband Nasca A.D. 100 - 500 Camelid fibers, cotton Length 144 in. Width 1 1/2 in. A longer, central narrow - Available at 2006 September Pre-Columbian...
RFP Selector is based on a high-affinity single-domain antibody (sdAb) that is covalently immobilized on 4% cross-linked agarose beads. The innovative, oriented and selective attachment via a flexible linker guarantees a high accessibility of the sdAbs and largely eliminates batch-to-batch variations. RFP Selector features high affinity and superior capacity for RFP fusion proteins while showing negligible non-specific background.
Cama (animal) Huarizo Burger, Pamela Anna (2016). "The history of Old World camelids in the light of molecular genetics". ...
While breeders report fiber can sell for US$2 to $4 per ounce, the world wholesale price for processed, spun alpaca "tops" is ... Fowler, Murray (1998). Medicine and Surgery of South American Camelids. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-8138-0397-5. Wheeler ... "Alpaca Wool". World's Finest Wool. 2020-07-04. Retrieved 2020-09-20. Besom, Thomas (2009). Of Summits and Sacrifice: An ...
"The feeds and feeding habits of Old and New World camels" (PDF). The Camelid. 1: 250-92. ... Gellner, A. M. K. (1994). Nomads and the Outside World (2nd ed.). University of Wisconsin Press. p. 108. ISBN 0-299-14284-1.. ... 2005). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 646. ... Simpson, C.D. (1984). "Artiodactyls". In Anderson, S.; Jones Jr., J.K.). Orders and families of recent mammals of the world. ...
"The feeds and feeding habits of Old and New World camels" (PDF). The Camelid. 1: 250-92. ... 2005). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 646. ... Simpson, C.D. (1984). "Artiodactyls". In Anderson, S.; Jones Jr., J.K.). Orders and families of recent mammals of the world. ... Nowak, R.M. (1999). Walker's Mammals of the World. 2 (6th ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 1078-81. ISBN 978-0-8018- ...
... which is the woody plant that grows at the highest elevations in the world. Camelids, such as llamas, alpacas, vicuñas, are ... World Wildlife Fund. Coordinates: 21°00′00″S 68°00′00″W / 21.0000°S 68.0000°W / -21.0000; -68.0000. ...
North America links the South American camelids with those of the Old World (the dromedary, Bactrian camel and wild Bactrian ... Although camelids are extinct in North America, they have survived in South America until today: the guanaco and vicuña, and ... Przewalski horse, a subspecies native of Mongolia and the only remaining wild horse in the world, has also been introduced in ... and camelids in check. The main criticism of the Pleistocene rewilding is that it is unrealistic to assume that communities ...
"World's longest fossilized human trackways discovered at White Sands National Park". Las Cruces Sun News. 9 October 2020. ... Cameloid footprint (Lamaichnum alfi Sarjeant and Reynolds, 1999; convex hyporelief) from the Barstow Formation (Miocene) of ... Over the years, many ichnites have been found, around the world, giving important clues about the behaviour (and foot structure ... "World's largest dinosaur footprints discovered in Western Australia". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2017-12-01. CS1 ...
There are various kinds of silks, used by designers, found in the textile world. Such as Dupiono, China, Brocade, Jacquard, ... Wool is the textile fiber obtained from animals such sheep, camels, camelids, goats, or other hairy mammals. Wool was first ... "Silk in Antiquity". World History Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2019-06-14. "silk , Definition & History". Encyclopedia Britannica. ...
... mutations are rare in most of the Western world, but are more common in some places where malaria is endemic. In ... The abnormally shaped cells are known as elliptocytes or cameloid cells. The basis for this phenotype was first reported by ... Melanesia a greater percentage of the population is Gerbich negative (46.5%) than in any other part of the world. The incidence ...
Camelid pastoralism was also an important means of subsistence and for production of textiles. Evidence of man's presence in ... "Yungay - the driest place in the world". Wondermondo. 3 November 2010. Retrieved 3 April 2013. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter ... The World and its People (Teacher's wraparound ed.). New York: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. p. 276. ISBN 978-0-07-860977-0. Ilo, Peru, ... The cold Humboldt Current offshore creates one of the world's richest marine ecosystems and supports large numbers of fish, ...
There are hill people around the world, many of whom live in stone houses and herd goats, sheep or camelids or have small farms ...
Penelope Z. Dransart (2002). Earth, Water, Fleece and Fabric: An Ethnography and Archaeology of Andean Camelid Herding. London ... Penny Dransart (February 1991). "Llamas, herders and the exploitation of raw materials in the Atacama Desert". World ... the role of fibre in Camelid economies in prehispanic and contemporary Chile. Between 1992 and 1993, Dransart was a research ... the role of fibre in Camelid economies in prehispanic and contemporary Chile, British Library Ethos, retrieved 17 March 2021 ...
11] "Grasslands of the World". Edited by J.M. Suttie, S.G. Reynolds and C. Batello. Food and Agriculture Organization of the ... Throughout Patagonia, the guanaco, a large camelid that is a wild relative of the llama, is the most abundant herbivore. It ... 16] Archived 2015-02-28 at the Wayback Machine "Reproduction in South American Camelids". Timothy Smith. Iowa State University ...
New and Old World camelids, goats, sheep, and pigs - was common. Given its importance to humans and its value as a model of ... New and Old World camelids, goats, sheep, and pigs - was common. One study has concluded that human selection for domestic ... Not overlooking particular crops that don't appear to hold any value outside of the developing world will be key to not only ... In other parts of the world very different species were domesticated. In the Americas squash, maize, beans, and perhaps manioc ...
... camelids, new world MeSH B01.150.900.649.077.380.201 - camels MeSH B01.150.900.649.077.380.271 - cattle MeSH B01.150.900.649. ...
... organized by the National Council for South American Camelids (CONACS). The wool is sold on the world market for over $300 per ... Vicuñas have some of the finest fibers in the world, at a diameter of 12 μm. The fiber of cashmere goats is 14 to 19 μm, while ... In Peru, during 1964-1966, the Servicio Forestal y de Caza in cooperation with the US Peace Corps, Nature Conservancy, World ... 2005). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0- ...
Clay, J. (2004). World Agriculture and the Environment: A Commodity-by-Commodity Guide to Impacts and Practices. Washington, D. ... "Reproductive physiology in South American Camelids." Genetics of Reproduction in Sheep (2013): 81. Pough, F. W.; Janis, C. M.; ... The pig-like creatures (Suina) are made up of two families: The pigs (Suidae) are limited to the Old World. These include the ... Artiodactyls are native to almost all parts of the world, with the exception of Oceania and Antarctica. Humans have introduced ...
... indicating that North America was the original home of camelids, and that the ancestors of Old World camels crossed over via ... Meanwhile, North American camelids died out at the end of the Pleistocene. A full-grown llama can reach a height of 1.7 to 1.8 ... The camelid lineage has a good fossil record. Camel-like animals have been traced from the thoroughly differentiated, modern ... By the end of the last ice age (10,000-12,000 years ago), camelids were extinct in North America. As of 2007, there were over ...
New and Old World camelids, goats, sheep, and pigs - was common. One study has concluded that human selection for domestic ... New and Old World camelids, goats, sheep, and pigs - was common. Bidirectional gene flow between domestic and wild reindeer ... The sustained admixture between different dog and wolf populations across the Old and New Worlds over at least the last 10,000 ... Jared Diamond in his book Guns, Germs, and Steel enquired as to why, among the world's 148 large wild terrestrial herbivorous ...
The camelid family consists of the Old World camelids (the dromedary camels, Bactrian camels, and wild Bactrian camels) and the ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) World Book Encyclopedia. World Book. 1998. ISBN 978-0-7166-0098-5. Great Book of the ... New World camelids (the llama, vicuna, suri alpaca, huacaya alpaca, and guanaco). Though there have been successful and fertile ... The following is a table comparing some of the characteristics of camelids. Hybrid camel Huarizo "Meet Rama the cama ... BBC". ...
Exceptions to the ubiquitous behaviour in mammals can be seen in humans, sea mammals and camelids. It is suggested that the ... However, the concept is becoming more popular among women in the Western World despite its controversial overtone. Theories as ... and that the domestication of camelids has eradicated the behaviour by placing stress and selective pressure on the species. ...
The guanaco (Lama guanicoe) is a camelid native to South America, closely related to the llama. Its name comes from the Quechua ... National Geographic "Guanaco: Lama guanicoe". World Association of Zoos and Aquariums. Archived from the original on 4 March ... Animals>camelids guanaco www.dimensions.guide, Accessed 23 February 2021 "Lama guanicoe". Animal Diversity Web. 18 July 2016. ... Guanacos are one of two wild South American camelids, the other being the vicuña, which lives at higher elevations. Guanacos ...
... created the universe, sun, moon, and stars, time (by commanding the sun to move over the sky) and civilization itself ... due to the sacrifices of camelids that were celebrated at Lake Titiqaqa by pre-Incan Andean cultures that spoke Aymara. ... Thus, "Tunuupa" or "Tunupa" may be read as the "bearer of the mill", while in the Old World the mill or millstone symbolizes ... saving two to bring civilization to the rest of the world. These two beings are Manco Cápac, the son of Inti (sometimes taken ...
The people domesticated camelids such as llamas. Camelids were used for pack animals, for fiber, and for meat. They produced ... It has been designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The chief example of architecture is the Chavín de Huantar temple. The ... The people hunted mainly deer and began to hunt and use camelids. They ate clams and shellfish from the Pacific Ocean, as well ... This product was commonly traded by camelid herders and was the main economic resource for the Chavín people. The Chavín people ...
Camelid (Camelidae) Deer (Cervidae) Giraffidae (Giraffidae) Bovid (Bovidae) "Moscow Zoo (Moscow)". worldwalk.info. WorldWalk. ... Old World monkey (Cercopithecidae) Hominid (Pongidae) Xenarthra (Edentata) Sloth (Bradypodidae) Armadillo (Dasypodidae) ... "Zoos and Aquariums of the World". waza.org. WAZA. Retrieved 15 April 2011. http://www.museum.ru/M499 Vera Chaplina True Stories ...
Australia, home to the world's largest camel herd - BBC News *^ Conrad Malte-Brun, Universal Geography: Containing the ... "Camel-lovers boycott 'Third World' Australia". news.com.au. 2 December 2009. Retrieved 9 January 2020.. ... Camels had been used successfully in desert exploration in other parts of the world. The first suggestion of importing camels ... A prospector riding a camel which held a world record for distance travelled without water (600 miles), 1895 ...
Journal of Camelid Science. 5: 13. Retrieved 25 February 2016.. *^ Fowler, Murray E. (1998). Medicine and surgery of South ... 90% of the world's guanacos are in Argentina,[7] distributed from the islands of the Beagle Channel and the southern extremity ... The guanaco (Lama guanicoe) is a wild camelid, standing at 100-120 cm (39-47 in) at the shoulder[4] and 150-160 cm (59-63 in) ... The vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) is the smallest camelid, with a shoulder height of 75-100 cm (30-39 in) and a weight of 40-60 kg ( ...
The cougar preys on birds, camelids, deer, sloths, rodents, frogs, agoutis and lizards. It sometimes preys on spectacled bear ... Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 544-545. ISBN ...
The area of coverage is broad, and includes poultry as well as camelids, cattle, chinchillas, deer, donkeys, goats, horses, ... 2007). The state of the world's animal genetic resources for food and agriculture. Rome: Commission on Genetic Resources for ...
Camelids (Camelidae). Three genera and six species. Pigs, babirusa, and warthog (Suidae). Six genera and 17 species. Peccaries ... This is the second major project by Lynx Edicions since the release of the Handbook of the Birds of the World in 1992. The ... Don E. Wilson is also editor of the reference work Mammal Species of the World. With an introduction to the class Mammalia by ... Handbook of the Mammals of the World (HMW) is a book series from the publisher Lynx Edicions. The nine volumes were published ...
Cameloid footprint (Lamaichnum alfi Sarjeant and Reynolds, 1999; convex hyporelief) from the Barstow Formation (Miocene) of ... Apes arose and diversified during the Miocene, becoming widespread in the Old World. By the end of this epoch, the ancestors of ... camelids, and whales, along with now extinct groups like borophagine canids, certain gomphotheres, three-toed horses, and ...
Klinowska, Margaret; Cooke, Justin (1991). Dolphins, Porpoises, and Whales of the World: the IUCN Red Data Book (PDF). Columbia ... "World Association of Zoos and Aquariums. Retrieved 5 December 2011.. *. "The Story of Navy Dolphins". PBS. Retrieved 12 October ... "Current World Archaeology. 24 January 2014. Retrieved 31 August 2015.. *. "Thousand gather for whale's funeral in Vietnam". The ... 2005). "Order Cetacea". Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. ...
Many groups, such as equids, entelodonts, rhinos, merycoidodonts, and camelids, became more able to run during this time, ... The Oligocene is often considered an important time of transition, a link between the archaic world of the tropical Eocene and ... Angiosperms continued their expansion throughout the world as tropical and sub-tropical forests were replaced by temperate ... camelids (such as Poebrotherium), running rhinoceratoids, three-toed equids (such as Mesohippus), nimravids, protoceratids, and ...
Pyne, S.J. (1995). World fire: The culture of fire on Earth. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press.. ... camelids and others, the nearly extinct prairie chicken; and the populations of nut-consuming species like rodents, turkey and ... "a world of barely perceptible human disturbance."[15] At the time of these writings, however, enormous tracts of land had ...
1995). A Conservation Assessment of the Terrestrial Ecoregions of Latin America and the Caribbean. World Bank, Washington DC., ... and North Americans like the ancestors of South America's camelids, including the llama (Lama glama), moved south. The long- ... Udvardy, M. D. F. (1975). A classification of the biogeographical provinces of the world. IUCN Occasional Paper no. 18. Morges ... Takhtajan, A. (1986). Floristic Regions of the World. (translated by T.J. Crovello & A. Cronquist). University of California ...
World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 3 (4). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 April 2015.. ... However this generalization does not extend to wild ruminants or camelids. For serum glucose in mg/dL, reference ranges of 42 ...
World Archaeology 6, (1, Political Systems) (Jun.): 66-82. *^ Topic, J. R. (2003). "From stewards to bureaucrats: architecture ... Chimú mantle, Late Intermediate Period, 1250-1350, Camelid fiber and cotton tapestry weave - Los Angeles County Museum of Art ( ... Costin, Cathy Lynne (2016). Making Value, Making Meaning: Techné in the Pre-Columbian World. Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks ... Costin, Cathy Lynne (2016). Making Value, Making Meaning: Techné in the Pre-Columbian World. Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks ...
Camelids (Lama guanicoe, Vicugna vicugna, †Eulamaops, †Hemiauchenia, †Palaeolama). *†Gomphotheres (Cuvieronius hyodon, ... eds.). The World of Elephants (La Terra degli Elefanti) - Proceedings of the 1st International Congress (Atti del 1 Congrsso ... and New World porcupines. (The independent development of spines by New and Old World porcupines is another example of parallel ... eds.). The World of Elephants - Proceedings of the 1st International Congress, Rome October 16-20, 2001. Rome: Consiglio ...
Subfamily Cervinae (Old World deer) *Tribe Cervini (true deer) *Genus Axis (formerly considered to be a subgenus of Cervus) * ... this appears highly probable as the camelids migrated into Asia from North America around the same time.[72] Deer invaded South ... most Old World deer) and Telemetacarpalia (most New World deer). He treated the musk deer as a cervid, placing it under ... Tribe Rangiferini or Odocoileini (reindeer and New World deer) *Genus Blastocerus *Marsh deer (B. dichotomus) ...
The only way they could reach the New World was by the Bering land bridge. Had this bridge not existed at that time, the fauna ... Meanwhile, equids and camelids that had evolved in North America (and later became extinct there) migrated into Asia as well at ... Other land bridges around the world have emerged and disappeared in the same way. Around 14,000 years ago, mainland Australia ... For the battle of World War I in Beringia, Darfur, see Anglo-Egyptian Darfur Expedition § Battle of Beringia. ...
... that form the largest collection in the world. The sediments of the pits there were accumulated 40,000 to 10,000 years ago, in ... camelids and deer, South American herbivores included toxodonts, litopterns, ground sloths, and glyptodonts. Native metatherian ...
Zacango is the state's major zoo with over 2,000 species from all over the world.[39] It is located fourteen km from the city ... but reflected the ideological sense of the artist who carved the piece of bone from a camelid around 22,000 years BCE. The ... the waters of Lake Texcoco which were considered to be the center of the Aztec world,[11][12] and as such was proposed as an ...
Klinowska, Margaret; Cooke, Justin (1991). Dolphins, Porpoises, and Whales of the World: the IUCN Red Data Book (PDF). ... Modern nomenclature divides Artiodactyla (or Cetartiodactyla) in four subordinate taxa: camelids (Tylopoda), pigs and peccaries ... Rice, D. W. (1 January 1998). Marine Mammals of the World: Systematics and Distribution (PDF). Society for Marine Mammalogy. pp ... "World Association of Zoos and Aquariums. Archived from the original on 10 February 2012. Retrieved 5 December 2011.. ...
Peru has the world's highest population of alpacas and 93% of that is the Huacayan type. Their wool is used to make scarves, ... Peru, which contains the majority of the world's alpaca, has 93% Huacaya as estimated by the Food and Agriculture Organization. ...
New and Old World camelids, goats, sheep, and pigs - was common.[7][12] Given its importance to humans and its value as a model ... New and Old World camelids, goats, sheep, and pigs - was common.[7][12] One study has concluded that human selection for ... World Archaeol. 43:628-52 *^ a b Zeder, M. A. 2006. "Archaeological approaches to documenting animal domestication". In ... Zohary, D.; Hopf, M. (2000). Domestication of Plants in the Old World Oxford University Press.[page needed] ...
Daryl Rhys Jones, William Alexander Taylor, Clive Bate, Monique David, Mourad Tayebi A Camelid Anti-PrP Antibody Abrogates ... the Official Journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia։ 12 Suppl 1: 8-15; discussion 26-8։ PMID 16445812։ doi:10.1111/j. ...
The world's first successfully-built biomechanical automaton is considered to be The Flute Player, which could play twelve ... Giovanni Fontana, a Paduan engineer in 1420, developed Bellicorum instrumentorum liber which includes a puppet of a camelid ... The manufacturing tradition of automata continued in the Greek world well into the Middle Ages. On his visit to Constantinople ... He had invented the world's first 'cuckoo clock'". This tradition continued in Alexandria with inventors such as the Greek ...
"Ancient DNA Evidence for Old World Origin of New World Dogs". Science. 298: 1613-1616. Leathlobhair, Máire Ní; Perri, Angela R ... it is hypothesized that they helped herd camelids. While dogs are not needed to herd llamas and alpacas, it is likely that the ...
One example of unique wildlife in the park is the vicuña, a species of camelid related to the llama and the alpaca. These ... On July 1, 2003, it was added to the UNESCO World Heritage Tentative List due to its universal cultural and natural ... 2001). "Terrestrial Ecoregions of the World: A New Map of Life on Earth". BioScience. 51 (11): 933-938. doi:10.1641/0006-3568( ... Canavire-Bacarreza, Gustavo; Hanauer, Merlin (2013). "Estimating the Impacts of Bolivia's Protected Areas on Poverty". World ...
2015). The Second Report on the State of the World's Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. Rome. Guerrant, Edward ... "Interspecies embryo transfer in camelids: the birth of the first Bactrian camel calves (Camelus bactrianus) from dromedary ... They are the most publicly visited ex-situ conservation sites, with the WZCS (World Zoo Conservation Strategy) estimating that ... make ex situ conservation impossible for a great number of the world's endangered flora and fauna. African Wild Dog Conservancy ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) Article from World Preservation Foundation In ... which forms a protected ecosystem to preserve the habitat for the andens native camelids Vicuña, Llama and Alpaca. ...
In the developed world the mountain people are generally prosperous, and the mountains may be used for tourism and outdoor ... and in Peru for camelids. The people of the Andes maintain what John Victor Murra calls "vertical control", in which groups of ... 22% of the world's land, or 29,000,000 square kilometres (11,000,000 sq mi) is classified as mountain region, of which about ... In parts of the developing world the mountain communities depend on remittances from young men who have gone to work in the ...
There is also evidence of entelodonts caching the bodies of early camelids as a food source, as well as multiple examples of ... The same creatures appear in another BBC production, the 2001 remake of The Lost World. Entelodonts were also the main focus of ...
Out of six flamingo species in the world, three species, namely the Chilean, Andean and James flamingos are found in very large ... The most important income generating activity for the two local communities has been camelid farming, selling llama wool and ... World Wildlife Fund. Retrieved 25 June 2011. "Bolivia: Eduardo Avaroa National Andean Fauna Reserve" (PDF). Ecotourism Emphasis ... 2001). "Terrestrial Ecoregions of the World: A New Map of Life on Earth". BioScience. 51 (11): 933-938. doi:10.1641/0006-3568( ...
... camelids, and figurines of gold, silver, and shell. The boys and girls were dressed in finery and matched up as if they were ... World Archaeology 36 (1): 103*122. Duviols, Pierre (1976). La Capacocha. Allpanchis: Revista del Instituto Pastoral Andino, 9. ... World Archaeology. 36 (1): 103-122. doi:10.1080/0043824042000192632. S2CID 161911083. Cobo, Bernabe; Hamilton, Roland (2010). ...
Old World camels have come into the focus as sustainable livestock species, unique in their morphological and physiological ... Population genetic and phylogenetic analyses in Old World camelids. The population genetic analyses in Old World camelids ... The origin of the Old World camelids traces back to the Eocene (40-45 mya) when the first ancestors of the camelid family were ... Application of New World Camelidae microsatellite primers for amplification of polymorphic loci in Old World camelids. Anim. ...
Similarly for New World camelids, some data are available, mins for cervids and New World camelids are extrapolated but many ... Nutrient Requirements of Small Ruminants: Sheep, Goats, Cervids, and New World Camelids (2007) Chapter: Summary. ... Nutrient Requirements of Small Ruminants: Sheep, Goats, Cervids, and New World Camelids Get This Book × ... Chapter 3 addresses the feeding tables for sheep, goats, cervids, and New World camelids behavior of small ruminants, including ...
Comparative FISH-Mapping of MC1R, ASIP, and TYRP1 in New and Old World Camelids and Association Analysis With Coat Color ... Comparative FISH-Mapping of MC1R, ASIP, and TYRP1 in New and Old World Camelids and Association Analysis With Coat Color ... Comparative FISH-Mapping of MC1R, ASIP, and TYRP1 in New and Old World Camelids and Association Analysis With Coat Color ... Comparative FISH-Mapping of MC1R, ASIP, and TYRP1 in New and Old World Camelids and Association Analysis With Coat Color ...
Proost K, Vlaminck L. Surgical treatment of apical disease and/or mandibular osteomyelitis in New World camelids : 18 cases ( ... K. Proost and L. Vlaminck, "Surgical treatment of apical disease and/or mandibular osteomyelitis in New World camelids : 18 ... Surgical treatment of apical disease and/or mandibular osteomyelitis in New World camelids : 18 cases (January 2011-September ... "Surgical Treatment of Apical Disease And/or Mandibular Osteomyelitis in New World Camelids : 18 Cases (January 2011-September ...
The objectives of this study were to identify, map and characterize the MHC region of Old World camelids, with special ... Three species of Old World camels have been recognized: the dromedary (Camelus dromedarius), Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus ... Exon 2 polymorphisms of MHC class II genes in Old World camelids. DRA exon 2. The exon 2 of the DRA gene spans 246 bp in all ... Table 1 Total numbers of Old World camelids analyzed for MHC class II genes. Full size table ...
Camelids (Camelidae). Three genera and six species. Pigs, babirusa, and warthog (Suidae). Six genera and 17 species. Peccaries ... This is the second major project by Lynx Edicions since the release of the Handbook of the Birds of the World in 1992. The ... Don E. Wilson is also editor of the reference work Mammal Species of the World. With an introduction to the class Mammalia by ... Handbook of the Mammals of the World (HMW) is a book series from the publisher Lynx Edicions. The nine volumes were published ...
These farms produce more than 80 percent of the worlds food in value terms, confirming their central importance in world food ... Camelids. Camelids - ranging from alpacas and llamas to dromedary and Bactrian camels - are the primary means of subsistence ... From now on, May 20 will mark World Bee Day. And 2019 will mark the beginning of the UN Decade of Family Farming, drawing more ... 21 December 2017, Rome - FAO welcomes the UNs decision to create a decade on family farming, a World Bee Day, a day promoting ...
Rent and save from the worlds largest eBookstore. Read, highlight, and take notes, across web, tablet, and phone. ... alpaca analysis analytical units Andean camelids animal archaeological sample articulation astragali bone elements burning ... butchery calcanea Calcaneum camel camelid camelid bone carpals Cervid chilla charqui Cobo condyles consumption cultural Cuzco ... An Introduction to the Ethnoarchaeology of the Andean Camelids. George Robert Miller. Snippet view - 1979. ...
World Organisation for Animal Health. Infection with coronavirus in camels, Iran [cited 2015 Oct 11]. http://www.oie.int/wahis_ ... Density of camelids in Kazakhstan (extracted from the Ministry of National Economy of the Republic of Kazakhstan Committee on ... Density of camelids in Kazakhstan (extracted from the Ministry of National Economy of the Republic of Kazakhstan Committee on ... Of the ≈180,000 camels in Kazakhstan, we studied camelids from only 2 of the 13 provinces. No samples were collected from the ...
HYPERKERATOTIC SKIN CONDITIONS IN NEW WORLD CAMELIDS. Hyperkeratotic skin conditions in New World camelids ... pinnae and neck.1 Colored fleeced New World camelids appear to be more susceptible than white fleeced New World camelids, and ... In New World camelids affected with ichthyosis, lesions resemble those of LI. A genetic cause has yet to be elucidated, but it ... New World camelids are exposed to and affected by several ectoparasites, the most common of which are mites. They are ...
... and treatment of shock and hypovolemia is instrumental to improve morbidity and mortality of critically ill camelids. Early ... The estimation of fluid deficits in camelids is challenging. However, early recognition ... Camelids, New World*. Cardiovascular Agents / administration & dosage, therapeutic use. Colloids / administration & dosage, ... The estimation of fluid deficits in camelids is challenging. However, early recognition and treatment of shock and hypovolemia ...
Cama (animal) Huarizo Burger, Pamela Anna (2016). "The history of Old World camelids in the light of molecular genetics". ...
News Feature: Getting the worlds fastest cat to breed with speed. Cheetahs once rarely reproduced in captivity. Today, cubs ... Phage neutralization by camelid nanobodies. Aline Desmyter, Carine Farenc, Jennifer Mahony, Silvia Spinelli, Cecilia Bebeacua, ... Phage neutralization by camelid nanobodies. Aline Desmyter, Carine Farenc, Jennifer Mahony, Silvia Spinelli, Cecilia Bebeacua, ... 2009) Camelid nanobodies raised against an integral membrane enzyme, nitric oxide reductase. Protein Sci 18(3):619-628. ...
... lifelong interest and involvement in livestock breeds of the world, presenting a unique, comprehensive and fully cross- ... referenced guide to cattle, buffalo, horses, pigs, sheep, asses, goats, camelids, yak and other domesticants. ... Masons World Encyclopedia of Livestock Breeds and Breeding describes breeds of livestock worldwide as well as a range of breed ... Masons World Encyclopedia of Livestock Breeds and Breeding, 2 Volume Pack. Valerie Porter, Lawrence Alderson, Stephen J.G. ...
New world camelids; Fish; Amphibians; and Reptiles (crocodilians, lizards, chelonians, and snakes). ...
"The feeds and feeding habits of Old and New World camels" (PDF). The Camelid. 1: 250-92. ... Gellner, A. M. K. (1994). Nomads and the Outside World (2nd ed.). University of Wisconsin Press. p. 108. ISBN 0-299-14284-1.. ... 2005). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 646. ... Simpson, C.D. (1984). "Artiodactyls". In Anderson, S.; Jones Jr., J.K.). Orders and families of recent mammals of the world. ...
"The feeds and feeding habits of Old and New World camels" (PDF). The Camelid. 1: 250-92. ... 2005). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 646. ... Simpson, C.D. (1984). "Artiodactyls". In Anderson, S.; Jones Jr., J.K.). Orders and families of recent mammals of the world. ... Nowak, R.M. (1999). Walkers Mammals of the World. 2 (6th ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 1078-81. ISBN 978-0-8018- ...
Tooth root abscesses in New World camelids: 23 cases (1972-1994). Title. Tooth root abscesses in New World camelids: 23 cases ( ... To determine typical clinical and radiographic findings in a group of New World camelids with tooth root abscesses and to ...
Camelids, New World • Cheirogaleidae • Data Interpretation, Statistical • Databases, Factual • Dental Enamel Proteins • ...
Viral diseases of new world camelids.. Kapil S, Yeary T, Evermann JF. ... World J Clin Cases. 2014 Dec 16;2(12):934-7. doi: 10.12998/wjcc.v2.i12.934. ...
vicuna (a camelid related to the llama); national colors: red, white National anthem: name: "Himno Nacional del Peru" (National ... until 1996 the worlds largest coca leaf producer, Peru is now the worlds second largest producer of coca leaf, though it lags ... of the worlds earthquakes and some 75% of the worlds volcanoes occur within the Ring of Fire. note 3: on 19 February 1600, ... note 1: shares control of Lago Titicaca, worlds highest navigable lake, with Bolivia; a remote slope of Nevado Mismi, a 5,316 ...
30 Ophthalmology of New World Camelids. Juliet R. Gionfriddo. 31 Laboratory Animal Ophthalmology ... New chapters cover ophthalmic genetics and DNA tests, microsurgery, photography, camelid ophthalmology, and rabbit ...
Gli anticorpi di Camelid (o VHHs) rappresentano gli anticorpi solo catena pesanti del unico dominio che sono privi delle catene ... She began her career in pharmacovigilance, where she worked on many global projects with some of the worlds leading ... Gli anticorpi di Camelid (o VHHs) rappresentano gli anticorpi solo catena pesanti del unico dominio che sono privi delle catene ... Gli anticorpi di Camelid esibiscono unpiù alta velocità di avanzamento nei tessuti e lo spazio rapido attraverso la sangue- ...
Keywords : Single-Domain Antibodies; Fascioliasis; Antibodies; Camelids; New World; Peru. · abstract in Spanish · text in ...
Previous studies indicate that the camelids are a large reservoir for MERS-CoV; it is also thought, though not yet proven, that ... To date, according to the World Health Organization, 1,621 cases have been confirmed in the laboratory in 26 different ...
Nutrient requirements of small ruminants: sheep, goats, cervids, and new world camelids, 7th edition. The National Academies ...
Pteropodidae (Old World fruit bat kind). Old world fruit bats are a diverse group with 186 species placed in 42 genera (Wilson ... Camelids have a three chambered ruminating stomach. All ruminants have a distinctive four chambered ruminating stomach, though ... Cercopithecidae (Old world monkey kind). There are 21 genera and 132 species of Old World monkeys (Wilson and Reeder 2005). ... Hystricidae (Old World porcupine kind). Old World porcupines are comprised of three genera and 11 species (Wilson and Reeder ...
S1-3, Old World Camelids, oral. Description. Abstract:. After decades of collecting animal bones at archeological sites in ...
Old and New World camelids 38. Buffalo and related species 39. Deer 40. Laboratory and pet rodents and lagomorphs 41. ...
My teaching and research is grounded in applicability to the real world, and Im proud that my work can help improve horse ...
  • Between 1999 and 2007, several cases of M bovis infection were recorded in Great Britain involving South American camelids, including llamas ( Lama glama ) and alpacas ( Vicugna pacos ) ( Barlow and others 1999 , Twomey and others 2007 , Defra 2008 ). (bmj.com)
  • Old World camels have come into the focus as sustainable livestock species, unique in their morphological and physiological characteristics and capable of providing vital products even under extreme environmental conditions. (springer.com)
  • The demographic history established from genome drafts of Old World camels shows the independent development of the three species over the last 100,000 years with severe bottlenecks occurring during the last glacial period and in the recent past. (springer.com)
  • Ongoing studies involve the immune system, relevant production traits, and the global population structure and domestication of Old World camels. (springer.com)
  • This review will give an overview about the evolutionary history of Old World camels and the molecular genetic studies performed over the past years, and summarize the standard molecular genetic methods that underlie these studies. (springer.com)
  • Three species of Old World camels have been recognized: the dromedary ( Camelus dromedarius ), Bactrian camel ( Camelus bactrianus ) and the wild camel ( Camelus ferus ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The extent of molecular diversity of MHC class II genes seems to be substantially lower in Old World camels than in other mammalian species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Camelids - ranging from alpacas and llamas to dromedary and Bactrian camels - are the primary means of subsistence for millions of poor families living in 90 countries and often in some of the most hostile ecosystems on the planet, making them an invaluable part of the fight against hunger. (fao.org)
  • Of the ≈180,000 camels in Kazakhstan, we studied camelids from only 2 of the 13 provinces. (cdc.gov)
  • Consider the odd sorts of antibodies found in the camelids (camels, llamas, alpacas, and so on). (sciencemag.org)
  • Llamas, Vicunas, and Guanacos and still have much in common with their distant "Old World" cousins, the Dromedary (one humped) and Bactrian (two humped) camels. (openherd.com)
  • They all belong to the camelids family (with camels) and alpaca's use as livestock goes back in time to 6,000 years. (homestead.org)
  • Therefore, MERS-CoV-like viruses in camelids might be spreading across a region covering at least the eastern Arabian Peninsula, including Oman, the United Arab Emirates, Egypt, and Morocco from where some of the antibody-positive camels described by Reusken et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It was a likely center for the domestication of camelids (like llamas and alpacas), and later it saw the emergence of the Tiwanaku Empire. (esri.com)
  • Four members of the camelid family-wild guanacos and vicuñas, and domestic llamas and alpacas-were native to the Andes. (ucla.edu)
  • Finally, the three genes were cytogenetically mapped in New World (alpaca) and Old World (dromedary and Bactrian camel) camelids. (nih.gov)
  • The camel group (Camelidae) was formerly abundant in North America, the now extinct North American stocks having produced the camelids of South America (wild guanaco and vicuña, domestic llama and alpaca) and the Old World dromedary and Bactrian camel. (britannica.com)
  • Closely related to the vicu a, llama, and guanaco, the alpaca is often grouped with these other animals under the collective term lamoids , which is meant to distinguish them from the Old World camelids. (fsu.edu)
  • The llama ( Lama glama ) is one of the two domestic species of South American Camelids (SACs) together with the alpaca ( Lama pacos ), while the guanaco ( Lama guanicoe ) and the vicuña ( Vicugna vicugna ) are wild species. (scielo.org.ar)
  • For instance, alpaca meat is becoming popular in many parts of the world due to its lower cholesterol content than other red meat, thereby it has the potential of a valuable product for both local and international markets. (bireme.br)
  • The llama and alpaca worlds have run fast and furious. (gentlespiritllamas.com)
  • While present-day African savannas are dominated by ruminants (primarily bovids), the Neogene savannas of North America were dominated by a diversity of both camelid and non-bovid ruminant families. (frontiersin.org)
  • Book Review-Nutrient Requirements of Small Ruminants: Sheep, Goats, Cervids and New World Camelids (Animal Nutrition Series). (montana.edu)
  • Camelids regurgitate and rechew ingested forage as true ruminants. (scielo.org.ar)
  • Apart from domestic ruminants, the SBV genome or specific antibodies could also be detected in wild ruminants, New World camelids, and a dog ( 5 - 7 ), and adult type I interferon receptor knockout mice (IFNAR −/− ) are susceptible to an experimental SBV infection ( 8 ). (asm.org)
  • Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) is one of several world-wide pestiviruses known to infect domestic and wild ruminants, camelids, and swine. (wsu.edu)
  • The MC1R was assigned to chr21, ASIP to chr19 and TYRP1 to chr4 in all 3 species confirming extensive conservation of camelid karyotypes. (nih.gov)
  • Don E. Wilson is also editor of the reference work Mammal Species of the World. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Asia, Kazakhstan is of particular interest because large populations of 2 major camelid species overlap: 90% Bactrian (Kazakh breed including 3 ecotypes) and ≈10% dromedary (Arvana breed from Turkmenistan) and their hybrids ( 8 ). (cdc.gov)
  • In school I was taught that taxonomy is a scientific discipline that, among other things, gave each animal species in the world a unique binomial name. (answersingenesis.org)
  • For the purpose of this analysis, the taxonomic structure used in Wilson and Reeder's (2005) Mammal Species of the World is used. (answersingenesis.org)
  • They are the oldest living livestock in the world and have just recently been taken off of the endangered species list since people started breeding them and increasing their numbers. (homestead.org)
  • The results show that hybridization has occurred in the ancestry of both domesticated camelids, obscuring the origin of the domestic species. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • In contrast to other livestock species, the evolutionary history and domestication of Old World camelids have remained largely unexplored because of the scarcity of camel bone assemblages from well-dated archaeological contexts," the authors write in the study published in PNAS. (cosmosmagazine.com)
  • The new species of bothriodontine anthracothere represents the first record of Anthracotheriidae from the New World Tropics. (ufl.edu)
  • C. bactrianus ferus together with the rest of mammalian species do not share a triplet nucleotide insertion (GCC) that encodes a proline residue found only in the nd1 gene of the New World camelid Lama pacos . (biomedcentral.com)
  • The wild bactrian camel ( C. bactrianus ferus ) appears to be the only wild survivor of the Old World camel. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Some of the extinct camelids also fall within this same morphospace, but many do not, perhaps indicating an environmental difference such as greater aridity in Neogene North America. (frontiersin.org)
  • Background: Alpacas are camelids who evolved in North America. (openherd.com)
  • Alpacas and llamas migrated to South America and all the remaining camelids in North America died out. (openherd.com)
  • Camelids originally inhabited North America before they migrated to South America about three million years ago. (kidskonnect.com)
  • LAMAS & ALPACAS are Social and domesticated members of the South American Camelid family. (slideshare.net)
  • The IUCN SSC South American Camelid Specialist Group (GECS) is actively involved in research, conservation, evaluation and program implementation relating to the sustainable use of vicuñas and guanacos in Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Paraguay and Peru. (iucn.org)
  • In this book, Duccio Bonavia tackles major questions about these camelids, from their domestication to their distribution at the time of the Spanish conquest. (ucla.edu)
  • Chicago and Munich - October 20, 2020 - Proteintech, the benchmark in antibodies, today announces the acquisition of ChromoTek, a manufacturer of Camelid, single-domain antibodies, also known as nanobodies. (izb-online.de)
  • These animals primarily occur in South American countries on Andean, elevated plains but in recent years, alpacas and llamas have become emerging animal industries in other parts of the world such as Australia, Europe and the USA due to their high-quality fiber, meat and hides. (bireme.br)
  • have indirect life-cycles where canids and felids serve as main definitive hosts while a range of domestic and wild animals serve as intermediate hosts, including South American camelids (SACs) such as alpacas, llamas and guanacos. (bireme.br)
  • Johne's disease (JD) is a relatively unknown disease which affects sheep, goats, cattle and even camelids throughout the world and is endemic in most European countries. (thenaturalfibre.co.uk)
  • The AVA in conjunction with the Australian Veterinary Conservation Biology (ACVB), Australian Veterinarians for Animal Welfare and Ethics (AVAWE), Australian Cattle Veterinarians (ACV), Sheep, Camelid and Goat Veterinarians (SCGV) and Australian Veterinarians in Public Health (AVPH) groups - is offering a full day's program to consider the crucial food security issues facing humanity up to 2050. (ava.com.au)
  • The findings contribute to coat color genomics and the development of molecular tests in camelids and toward the chromosome level reference assemblies of camelid genomes. (nih.gov)
  • Repetitive sequences form approximately one-third of the camelid genomes, so study on this part of genome can be helpful in providing deeper information from the genome and its evolutionary path. (frontiersin.org)
  • RURAL Affairs Minister Elin Jones is urging animal keepers to respond to the Assembly Government's consultation on proposals to control TB in camelids , goats and deer before it ends on November 11. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The comparative tuberculin skin test in the postaxillary site is the recommended diagnostic test in the UK and many other countries, although this test has not been fully validated and is technically more difficult to perform in camelids than in cattle. (bmj.com)
  • On the mammal front, vicuna (the smallest of the camelids), viscachas , and Andean foxes are also commonly seen. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • One of Bonavia's hypotheses is that the arrival of the Europeans and their introduced Old World animals forced the Andean camelids away from the Pacific coast, creating the (mistaken) impression that camelids were exclusively high-altitude animals. (ucla.edu)
  • K. Proost and L. Vlaminck, "Surgical treatment of apical disease and/or mandibular osteomyelitis in New World camelids : 18 cases (January 2011-September 2016)," in Proceedings of the 26th European veterinary dental forum , Malaga, Spain, 2017, pp. 155-156. (ugent.be)
  • Examines the role of Veterinary Services and highlights the need to work closely with the other services involved.Trilingual En / Fr / Es. (stevensimpsonbooks.com)
  • However, early recognition and treatment of shock and hypovolemia is instrumental to improve morbidity and mortality of critically ill camelids. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This new mange, he believes, was one of the causes behind the great morbidity of camelids in Colonial times. (ucla.edu)
  • Without Old World camelids (Camelini), human survival and prosperity in the marginal agro-ecological zones of African, Arabian, and Asian (semi-) deserts would have been challenging. (springer.com)
  • Estimates for the time of divergence of the Old World (Camelini) and New World (Lamini) tribes obtained from sequence data are in agreement with those derived from the fossil record. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Similar to those considered from nutrient requirements of the animals and nutrient com- in the first edition of the goat publication, data used in esti- position of feedstuffs, provide readers with the knowledge mating requirements of cervids and New World camelids are and means to adopt proper feeding practices. (nap.edu)
  • Deep historical events like climate change or glacial periods as well as more recent anthropogenic interactions triggered demographic processes in Old World camelids, shaping the patterns of genetic diversity in modern populations. (springer.com)
  • Bonavia also addresses the diseases of camelids and their population density, suggesting that the original camelid populations suffered from a different type of mange than that introduced by the Europeans. (ucla.edu)
  • Although studies investigating the prevalence of skin disorders in New World camelids are limited, a recent retrospective analysis of 68 alpacas with skin disorders found that 10% of animals demonstrated mite infestation, 8% had zinc-responsive dermatosis, and 4.5% had ichthyosis.1 Diagnosis of INNH was not definitively made in these cases as the disease was thought to be secondary to several other skin disorders. (alpacaelama.it)
  • ChromoTek is a pioneer in the development and commercialization of innovative reagents based on camelid Nanobodies. (izb-online.de)
  • The question whether MERS-CoV is endemic in camelids in Central Asia remains unanswered. (cdc.gov)
  • Diagnostic value of animal-side antibody assays for rapid detection of Mycobacterium bovis or Mycobacterium microti infection in South American camelids. (chembio.com)
  • Pulmonary arterial lesions in new world camelids in association with dicrocoelium dendriticum and fasciola hepatica infection. (uzh.ch)
  • There are at present no in vitro diagnostic methods for TB in South American camelids that have been properly validated in a large number of animals of known infection status. (bmj.com)
  • Likewise, persistently infected crias are the primary source of herd infection in camelids. (wsu.edu)
  • Development and application of a real-time TaqMan® qPCR assay for detection and quantification of 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemolamae' in South American camelids. (uzh.ch)
  • The most commonly used polymorphic markers in camelid studies are single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or restriction length polymorphisms (RFLPs) studied in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) reflecting the maternal inheritance (Silbermayr et al. (springer.com)
  • This lineage-specific insertion in the L. pacos mtDNA occurred after the split between the Old and New World camelids suggests that it may have functional implication since a proline insertion in a protein backbone usually alters protein conformation significantly, and nd1 gene has not been seen as polymorphic as the rest of ND family genes among camelids. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Currently Bolivia and Peru are supplying the world markets in China, Japan and Europe. (openherd.com)
  • and the coastal deserts of Peru and northern Chile, which are among the driest areas in the world. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The group engages in drug discovery using novel drugs (small molecules), herbal extracts (functional food), probiotics (neutraceuticals), novel antibody-mediated (camelid antibody) and cells (tissue engineering of stem cells of embryonic origin, adult tissue origin and umbilical cord-derived) in inflammatory disease models (tissue-specific inflammation in the lung and systemic inflammation) and degenerative disease models. (springer.com)
  • Aug 28th, as an excellent and world-leading supplier in antibody production field, Creative Biolabs introduced its anti-transporter antibody discovery service to both academic and industrial customers all over the world. (pharmiweb.com)
  • A various of high-quality premade libraries from human, mouse, camelid have been developed by Creative Biolabs for shortening the timeline of antibody proteins discovery. (pharmiweb.com)
  • Nonetheless, a protocol of conservative fluid management is often indicated in the treatment of camelids with pulmonary inflammation, to counteract edema formation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • To investigate the evolutionary relationship between them and to further understand the evolutionary history of this family, we determined the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the wild two-humped camel ( Camelus bactrianus ferus ), the only wild survivor of the Old World camel. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Comparative FISH-Mapping of MC1R, ASIP, and TYRP1 in New and Old World Camelids and Association Analysis With Coat Color Phenotypes in the Dromedar. (nih.gov)
  • Notably, while the locations of ASIP and TYRP1 were in agreement with human-camelid comparative map, mapping MC1R identified a new evolutionary conserved synteny segment between camelid chromosome 21 and HSA16. (nih.gov)
  • Camaroos, as their English name suggests, are intelligent cameloid marsupial bipeds--camel-kangaroos. (worlddreambank.org)
  • The Andes are one of the few places in the world where complex political systems have developed in situ. (esri.com)
  • Steven Simpson are the global distributing and subscription agent for the World Organisation for Animal Health, (OIE), Paris. (stevensimpsonbooks.com)
  • Molecular markers were previously applied in the camelid family for parentage control (Mariasegaram et al. (springer.com)
  • 21 December 2017, Rome - FAO welcomes the UN's decision to create a decade on family farming, a World Bee Day, a day promoting awareness of the need to combat illegal fishing, and declare international years for camelids and artisanal fisheries and aquaculture. (fao.org)
  • He has written extensively on rare breeds and genetic conservation throughout his career, including Mason's World Encyclopedia of Livestock Breeds and Breeding. (google.com)
  • This can be attributed largely to the viral genotypes circulating in different parts of the world. (cdc.gov)
  • Oral administration of COWP appears to be a safe and effective method of reducing FEC in adult camelids. (aabp.org)
  • She has published widely in premiere scientific journals and has spearheaded the rejuvenation of a world-class heritage museum because she believes that to do bioprospecting and molecular drug discovery, knowing and respecting our biodiversity is key. (springer.com)
  • These new data will also be at the origin for genome-wide association studies to link economically relevant phenotypes to genotypes and to conserve the diverse genetic resources in Old World camelids. (springer.com)
  • By examining this modern genetic diversity and its global distribution, it is possible to gain insight into past demographic events, which reflect the history of Old Word camelids. (springer.com)
  • The objectives of this study were to identify, map and characterize the MHC region of Old World camelids, with special attention to genetic variation at selected class MHC II loci. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mason's World Encyclopedia of Livestock Breeds and Breeding describes breeds of livestock worldwide as well as a range of breed-related subjects such as husbandry, health and behaviour. (google.com)
  • The Incas domesticated Alpacas from the wild Vicuña, a Camelid which produces fiber that is still considered the finest naturally grown animal fiber in the world. (top20sites.com)
  • Early goal-directed fluid therapy requires specific knowledge of clinical indicators of hypovolemia and assessment of resuscitation endpoints, but may significantly enhance the understanding, monitoring, and safety of intravenous fluid therapy in South American camelids (SAC). (biomedsearch.com)
  • This is the second major project by Lynx Edicions since the release of the Handbook of the Birds of the World in 1992. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bonavia's landmark study of the South American camelids is now available for the first time in English. (ucla.edu)
  • This edition provides an up-to-date reference book covering all infectious diseases in camelids. (oie.int)
  • Recent Advances in Cloning by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer in Camelids. (reprobiotech.ae)
  • To determine typical clinical and radiographic findings in a group of New World camelids with tooth root abscesses and to determine outcome after medical and surgical treatment. (oregonstate.edu)