Calymmatobacterium: A genus of bacteria causing GRANULOMA INGUINALE and other granulomatous lesions.Granuloma Inguinale: Anogenital ulcers caused by Calymmatobacterium granulomatis as distinguished from lymphogranuloma inguinale (see LYMPHOGRANULOMA VENEREUM) caused by CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS. Diagnosis is made by demonstration of typical intracellular Donovan bodies in crushed-tissue smears.Rhinoscleroma: A granulomatous disease caused by KLEBSIELLA RHINOSCLEROMATIS infection. Despite its name, this disease is not limited to the nose and NASOPHARYNX but may affect any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT, sometimes with extension to the lip and the skin.Klebsiella pneumoniae: Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.Klebsiella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.Klebsiella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus KLEBSIELLA.Mannheimia: Genus of bacteria in the family PASTEURELLACEAE, comprising multiple species that do not ferment trehalose. Species include MANNHEIMIA HAEMOLYTICA; M. glucosida, M. granulomatis, M. ruminalis, and M. varigena.Microbiology: The study of microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, algae, archaea, and viruses.National Library of Medicine (U.S.): An agency of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to advancement of medical and related sciences. Major activities of this institute include the collection, dissemination, and exchange of information important to the progress of medicine and health, research in medical informatics and support for medical library development.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Azure Stains: PHENOTHIAZINES with an amino group at the 3-position that are green crystals or powder. They are used as biological stains.Granuloma: A relatively small nodular inflammatory lesion containing grouped mononuclear phagocytes, caused by infectious and noninfectious agents.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Strongyloides stercoralis: A species of parasitic nematode widely distributed in tropical and subtropical countries. The females and their larvae inhabit the mucosa of the intestinal tract, where they cause ulceration and diarrhea.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Globins: A superfamily of proteins containing the globin fold which is composed of 6-8 alpha helices arranged in a characterstic HEME enclosing structure.Enterobacteriaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE.Neuroendocrine Tumors: Tumors whose cells possess secretory granules and originate from the neuroectoderm, i.e., the cells of the ectoblast or epiblast that program the neuroendocrine system. Common properties across most neuroendocrine tumors include ectopic hormone production (often via APUD CELLS), the presence of tumor-associated antigens, and isozyme composition.Observation: The act of regarding attentively and studying facts and occurrences, gathering data through analyzing, measuring, and drawing conclusions, with the purpose of applying the observed information to theoretical assumptions. Observation as a scientific method in the acquisition of knowledge began in classical antiquity; in modern science and medicine its greatest application is facilitated by modern technology. Observation is one of the components of the research process.Martinique: An island in the Lesser Antilles, one of the Windward Islands. Its capital is Fort-de-France. It was discovered by Columbus in 1502 and from its settlement in 1635 by the French it passed into and out of Dutch and British hands. It was made a French overseas department in 1946. One account of the name tells of native women on the shore calling "Madinina" as Columbus approached the island. The meaning was never discovered but was entered on early charts as Martinique, influenced by the name of St. Martin. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p734 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p339)ParisAtlantic Islands: Widely scattered islands in the Atlantic Ocean as far north as the AZORES and as far south as the South Sandwich Islands, with the greatest concentration found in the CARIBBEAN REGION. They include Annobon Island, Ascension, Canary Islands, Falkland Islands, Fernando Po (also called Isla de Bioko and Bioko), Gough Island, Madeira, Sao Tome and Principe, Saint Helena, and Tristan da Cunha.Shared Paranoid Disorder: A condition in which closely related persons, usually in the same family, share the same delusions.Factor V: Heat- and storage-labile plasma glycoprotein which accelerates the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin in blood coagulation. Factor V accomplishes this by forming a complex with factor Xa, phospholipid, and calcium (prothrombinase complex). Deficiency of factor V leads to Owren's disease.Prothrombin: A plasma protein that is the inactive precursor of thrombin. It is converted to thrombin by a prothrombin activator complex consisting of factor Xa, factor V, phospholipid, and calcium ions. Deficiency of prothrombin leads to hypoprothrombinemia.Ameloblasts: Cylindrical epithelial cells in the innermost layer of the ENAMEL ORGAN. Their functions include contribution to the development of the dentinoenamel junction by the deposition of a layer of the matrix, thus producing the foundation for the prisms (the structural units of the DENTAL ENAMEL), and production of the matrix for the enamel prisms and interprismatic substance. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Prion Diseases: A group of genetic, infectious, or sporadic degenerative human and animal nervous system disorders associated with abnormal PRIONS. These diseases are characterized by conversion of the normal prion protein to an abnormal configuration via a post-translational process. In humans, these conditions generally feature DEMENTIA; ATAXIA; and a fatal outcome. Pathologic features include a spongiform encephalopathy without evidence of inflammation. The older literature occasionally refers to these as unconventional SLOW VIRUS DISEASES. (From Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1998 Nov 10;95(23):13363-83)Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.Prions: Small proteinaceous infectious particles which resist inactivation by procedures that modify NUCLEIC ACIDS and contain an abnormal isoform of a cellular protein which is a major and necessary component. The abnormal (scrapie) isoform is PrPSc (PRPSC PROTEINS) and the cellular isoform PrPC (PRPC PROTEINS). The primary amino acid sequence of the two isoforms is identical. Human diseases caused by prions include CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB SYNDROME; GERSTMANN-STRAUSSLER SYNDROME; and INSOMNIA, FATAL FAMILIAL.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Transmissible gastroenteritis virus: A species of CORONAVIRUS causing a fatal disease to pigs under 3 weeks old.Waiting Lists: Prospective patient listings for appointments or treatments.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.BooksNewspapers: Publications printed and distributed daily, weekly, or at some other regular and usually short interval, containing news, articles of opinion (as editorials and letters), features, advertising, and announcements of current interest. (Webster's 3d ed)Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It conducts and supports basic and applied research for a national program in diabetes, endocrinology, and metabolic diseases; digestive diseases and nutrition; and kidney, urologic, and hematologic diseases. It was established in 1948.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Book SelectionParabens: Methyl, propyl, butyl, and ethyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid. They have been approved by the FDA as antimicrobial agents for foods and pharmaceuticals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed, p872)Biometric Identification: A method of differentiating individuals based on the analysis of qualitative or quantitative biological traits or patterns. This process which has applications in forensics and identity theft prevention includes DNA profiles or DNA fingerprints, hand fingerprints, automated facial recognition, iris scan, hand geometry, retinal scan, vascular patterns, automated voice pattern recognition, and ultrasound of fingers.Radio Frequency Identification Device: Machine readable patient or equipment identification device using radio frequency from 125 kHz to 5.8 Ghz.Doping in Sports: Illegitimate use of substances for a desired effect in competitive sports. It includes humans and animals.Hydroxybenzoates: Benzoate derivatives substituted by one or more hydroxy groups in any position on the benzene ring.Lymphogranuloma Venereum: Subacute inflammation of the inguinal lymph glands caused by certain immunotypes of CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS. It is a sexually transmitted disease in the U.S. but is more widespread in developing countries. It is distinguished from granuloma venereum (see GRANULOMA INGUINALE), which is caused by Calymmatobacterium granulomatis.Chlamydia trachomatis: Type species of CHLAMYDIA causing a variety of ocular and urogenital diseases.Chlamydia Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDIA.Trachoma: A chronic infection of the CONJUNCTIVA and CORNEA caused by CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS.Proctitis: INFLAMMATION of the MUCOUS MEMBRANE of the RECTUM, the distal end of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE).Chlamydia: A genus of the family CHLAMYDIACEAE whose species cause a variety of diseases in vertebrates including humans, mice, and swine. Chlamydia species are gram-negative and produce glycogen. The type species is CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS.Gonorrhea: Acute infectious disease characterized by primary invasion of the urogenital tract. The etiologic agent, NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE, was isolated by Neisser in 1879.

Phylogenetic analysis of Calymmatobacterium granulomatis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. (1/14)

Calymmatobacterium granulomatis is the aetiological agent of granuloma inguinale - a chronic granulomatous genital infection - and is morphologically similar to members of the genus Klebsiella. This study determined the 16S rRNA gene sequence of C. granulomatis and the taxonomic position of the organism in relation to the genus Klebsiella. Genomic DNA was extracted from C. granulomatis-infected monocytes and from frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin wax-embedded tissue biopsy specimens from patients with histologically proven granuloma inguinale. The 16S rDNA was amplified by PCR with broad range oligonucleotide primers. The amplified DNA fragments were cloned into pMOS vector, digested with Bam HI and Pst1 restriction endonucleases, hybridised with a gram-negative bacterial probe (DL04), sequenced in both directions by the automated ALF DNA sequencer, verified on an ABI Prism 377 automated sequencer and analysed with DNASIS and MEGA software packages. Sequence analysis revealed DNA homology of 99% in C. granulomatis from the different sources, supporting the belief that the bacteria in the culture and the biopsy specimens belonged to the same species, although there was some diversity within the species. Phylogenetically, the strains were closely related to the genera Klebsiella and Enterobacter with similarities of 95% and 94% respectively. C. granulomatis is a unique species, distinct from other related organisms belonging to the gamma subclass of Proteobacteria.  (+info)

Phylogenetic evidence for reclassification of Calymmatobacterium granulomatis as Klebsiella granulomatis comb. nov. (2/14)

By sequencing a total of 2089 bp of the 16S rRNA and phoE genes it was demonstrated that Calymmatobacterium granulomatis (the causative organism of donovanosis) shows a high level of identity with Klebsiella species pathogenic to humans (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis). It is proposed that C. granulomatis should be reclassified as Klebsiella granulomatis comb. nov. An emended description of the genus Klebsiella is given.  (+info)

A colorimetric detection system for Calymmatobacterium granulomatis. (3/14)

OBJECTIVE: To incorporate the first polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for Calymmatobacterium granulomatis into a colorimetric detection system for use in routine diagnostic laboratories. METHODS: A capture oligonucleotide specific for the Klebsiella phoE gene was covalently linked to tosyl activated magnetic beads. Biotinylated phoE PCR products obtained from 14 positive specimens from patients with donovanosis and isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae, K rhinoscleromatis, and K ozaenae were cleaved with HaeIII for the purpose of differentiation, captured by the prepared beads, and subjected to standard EIA detection methodology. Eight samples from unrelated genital conditions underwent the same procedure. It was anticipated from the sequence data that the biotinylated fragment would be cleaved from the capture oligonucleotide target region in the three Klebsiella phoE products (that is, a negative colorimetric result) while the entire fragment of interest would remain intact in the positive C granulomatis phoE products (that is, a positive colorimetric result). RESULTS: All 14 positive specimens from patients with donovanosis gave strong colorimetric readings with this detection system. Isolates of K pneumoniae, K rhinoscleromatis, K ozaenae, and the eight specimens from unrelated genital conditions were negative. CONCLUSION: The successful development of a colorimetric detection system for C granulomatis incorporating two levels of specificity enables the molecular diagnosis of this condition to be undertaken by routine diagnostic laboratories. This should have an important role in the Australian government's campaign to eradicate donovanosis by 2003 though the test still needs to undergo trials and be validated using a larger number of samples from geographically diverse parts of the world in order to ascertain the generalisability of the methodology.  (+info)

A serological test for granuloma inguinale. (4/14)

OBJECTIVES: An indirect immunofluorescence technique applied to paraffin embedded tissue sections of lesions containing Donovan bodies was evaluated as a serological test for the diagnosis of granuloma inguinale. METHODS: Sera from patients with proven granuloma inguinale, other sexually acquired genital ulcerations and blood donors from areas where granuloma inguinale is rarely encountered as well as from disease-endemic regions were tested. Sera were tested either unabsorbed or following absorption with whole Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteria. RESULTS: Using unabsorbed sera at a dilution of 1:160 the test was found to have a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 98%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 89% and negative predictive value (NPV) of 100%. There proved to be no advantage in preabsorbing sera with K. pneumoniae antigen. CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of culture methods for Calymmatobacterium granulomatis, an indirect immunofluorescence technique may prove valuable for the diagnosis of individual cases of granuloma inguinale and as an epidemiological tool in studies of the disease.  (+info)

Genital ulcer disease in women in Durban, South Africa. (5/14)

OBJECTIVE: To study the microbial aetiology of genital ulcer disease (GUD) in women. DESIGN: Microbial and clinical assessment of genital ulcers in women. SETTING: City Health sexually transmitted diseases clinic, King Edward VIII Hospital, Durban, South Africa. PARTICIPANTS: 100 Zulu women with genital ulceration who had not received antibiotics in the previous two weeks. RESULTS: Syphilis was diagnosed in 40%, genital herpes in 18%, donovanosis (granuloma inguinale) in 16%, chancroid in 14%, lymphogranuloma venereum in 7% and scabies in 2%. No recognised cause was detected in 18%. Secondary syphilis was diagnosed in 21%, primary syphilis in 16% and mixed primary and secondary syphilis in 3%. Multiple infections were detected in 13 women, of whom 12 had syphilis. Bleeding was observed from the ulcers of 59 during swab collection. Three women had HIV-1 antibodies. Neisseria gonorrhoeae was isolated from the ulcers and endocervix of two women and from the endocervix alone in nine. Generalised scabies was diagnosed in 14. CONCLUSIONS: All the major causes of GUD are prevalent in Zulu women in Durban: secondary syphilis was the commonest diagnosis. Donovanosis, which often presents late with large ulcers, and genital herpes are now significant problems. Mixed infections with coexisting syphilis are common. All women in this population with GUD should be treated for syphilis and receive oral antibiotics effective for chancroid and donovanosis.  (+info)

Genital ulcer disease in men in Durban, South Africa. (6/14)

OBJECTIVE: To study the microbial aetiology of genital ulcer disease (GUD) in men. DESIGN: Microbiological and clinical assessment of genital ulcers in men. SETTING: City Health sexually transmitted diseases clinic, King Edward VIII Hospital, Durban, South Africa. PARTICIPANTS: 100 Zulu men with genital ulcers who had not received antibiotics in the previous four weeks. RESULTS: Syphilis was diagnosed in 42%, chancroid in 22%, donovanosis (granuloma inguinale) in 11%, genital herpes in 10% and lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) in 6%. No pathogens were identified in 24%. Mixed infections were detected in 14 men, in whom 13 had syphilis. Five men had HIV-1 antibodies. Neisseria gonorrhoeae was isolated from the ulcers and urethra in seven men and from the urethra alone in five. Scabies was diagnosed clinically in eight. CONCLUSIONS: All the major causes of GUD are prevalent in Zulu men in Durban. Primary syphilis was the commonest and was invariably present in mixed infections. Donovanosis was under-reported and was associated with a long delay before presentation. In this population, genital ulcers other than superficial lesions should be treated with anti-syphilitic therapy and oral antibiotics effective against chancroid and donovanosis.  (+info)

Detection and discrimination of herpes simplex viruses, Haemophilus ducreyi, Treponema pallidum, and Calymmatobacterium (Klebsiella) granulomatis from genital ulcers. (7/14)

BACKGROUND: Genital ulcer disease (GUD) is commonly caused by pathogens for which suitable therapies exist, but clinical and laboratory diagnoses may be problematic. This collaborative project was undertaken to address the need for a rapid, economical, and sensitive approach to the detection and diagnosis of GUD using noninvasive techniques to sample genital ulcers. METHODS: The genital ulcer disease multiplex polymerase chain reaction (GUMP) was developed as an inhouse nucleic acid amplification technique targeting serious causes of GUD, namely, herpes simplex viruses (HSVs), H. ducreyi, Treponema pallidum, and Klebsiella species. In addition, the GUMP assay included an endogenous internal control. Amplification products from GUMP were detected by enzyme linked amplicon hybridization assay (ELAHA). RESULTS: GUMP-ELAHA was sensitive and specific in detecting a target microbe in 34.3% of specimens, including 1 detection of HSV-1, three detections of HSV-2, and 18 detections of T. pallidum. No H. ducreyi has been detected in Australia since 1998, and none was detected here. No Calymmatobacterium (Klebsiella) granulomatis was detected in the study, but there were 3 detections during ongoing diagnostic use of GUMP-ELAHA in 2004 and 2005. The presence of C. granulomatis was confirmed by restriction enzyme digestion and nucleotide sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene for phylogenetic analysis. CONCLUSIONS: GUMP-ELAHA permitted comprehensive detection of common and rare causes of GUD and incorporated noninvasive sampling techniques. Data obtained by using GUMP-ELAHA will aid specific treatment of GUD and better define the prevalence of each microbe among at-risk populations with a view to the eradication of chancroid and donovanosis in Australia.  (+info)

Granuloma inguinale (Donovanosis). (8/14)