A multifunctional protein that is found primarily within membrane-bound organelles. In the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM it binds to specific N-linked oligosaccharides found on newly-synthesized proteins and functions as a MOLECULAR CHAPERONE that may play a role in PROTEIN FOLDING or retention and degradation of misfolded proteins. In addition calreticulin is a major storage form for CALCIUM and functions as a calcium-signaling molecule that can regulate intracellular calcium HOMEOSTASIS.
A lectin found in ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM membranes that binds to specific N-linked OLIGOSACCHARIDES found on newly synthesized proteins. It may play role in PROTEIN FOLDING or retention and degradation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum.
Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.
Acidic protein found in SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM that binds calcium to the extent of 700-900 nmoles/mg. It plays the role of sequestering calcium transported to the interior of the intracellular vesicle.
Sulfur-sulfur bond isomerases that catalyze the rearrangement of disulfide bonds within proteins during folding. Specific protein disulfide-isomerase isoenzymes also occur as subunits of PROCOLLAGEN-PROLINE DIOXYGENASE.
A class of enzymes that catalyze geometric or structural changes within a molecule to form a single product. The reactions do not involve a net change in the concentrations of compounds other than the substrate and the product.(from Dorland, 28th ed) EC 5.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A calbindin protein that is differentially expressed in distinct populations of NEURONS throughout the vertebrate and invertebrate NERVOUS SYSTEM, and modulates intrinsic neuronal excitability and influences LONG-TERM POTENTIATION. It is also found in LUNG, TESTIS, OVARY, KIDNEY, and BREAST, and is expressed in many tumor types found in these tissues. It is often used as an immunohistochemical marker for MESOTHELIOMA.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.
A telecommunication system combining the transmission of a document scanned at a transmitter, its reconstruction at a receiving station, and its duplication there by a copier.
Drugs that are used to treat RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of medicine.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
A clinical syndrome characterized by repeated spontaneous hemorrhages and a remarkable increase in the number of circulating platelets.
Proteins that are involved in the peptide chain termination reaction (PEPTIDE CHAIN TERMINATION, TRANSLATIONAL) on RIBOSOMES. They include codon-specific class-I release factors, which recognize stop signals (TERMINATOR CODON) in the MESSENGER RNA; and codon-nonspecific class-II release factors.
A family of the order Rodentia containing 250 genera including the two genera Mus (MICE) and Rattus (RATS), from which the laboratory inbred strains are developed. The fifteen subfamilies are SIGMODONTINAE (New World mice and rats), CRICETINAE, Spalacinae, Myospalacinae, Lophiomyinae, ARVICOLINAE, Platacanthomyinae, Nesomyinae, Otomyinae, Rhizomyinae, GERBILLINAE, Dendromurinae, Cricetomyinae, MURINAE (Old World mice and rats), and Hydromyinae.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Organic chemistry methodology that mimics the modular nature of various biosynthetic processes. It uses highly reliable and selective reactions designed to "click" i.e., rapidly join small modular units together in high yield, without offensive byproducts. In combination with COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES, it is used for the synthesis of new compounds and combinatorial libraries.
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
An enzyme that in the course of pyrimidine biosynthesis, catalyzes the oxidation of dihydro-orotic acid to orotic acid utilizing oxygen as the electron acceptor. This enzyme is a flavoprotein which contains both FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE and FLAVIN MONONUCLEOTIDE as well as iron-sulfur centers. EC 1.3.3.1.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.

Calreticulin, a peptide-binding chaperone of the endoplasmic reticulum, elicits tumor- and peptide-specific immunity. (1/690)

Calreticulin (CRT), a peptide-binding heat shock protein (HSP) of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), has been shown previously to associate with peptides transported into the ER by transporter associated with antigen processing (Spee, P., and J. Neefjes. 1997. Eur. J. Immunol. 27: 2441-2449). Our studies show that CRT preparations purified from tumors elicit specific immunity to the tumor used as the source of CRT but not to an antigenically distinct tumor. The immunogenicity is attributed to the peptides associated with the CRT molecule and not to the CRT molecule per se. It is further shown that CRT molecules can be complexed in vitro to unglycosylated peptides and used to elicit peptide-specific CD8(+) T cell response in spite of exogenous administration. These characteristics of CRT closely resemble those of HSPs gp96, hsp90, and hsp70, although CRT has no apparent structural homologies to them.  (+info)

Peptide-bound major histocompatibility complex class I molecules associate with tapasin before dissociation from transporter associated with antigen processing. (2/690)

Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules present antigenic peptides to CD8 T cells. The peptides are generated in the cytosol, then translocated across the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum by the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP). TAP is a trimeric complex consisting of TAP1, TAP2, and tapasin (TAP-A) as indicated for human cells by reciprocal coprecipitation with anti-TAP1/2 and anti-tapasin antibodies, respectively. TAP1 and TAP2 are required for the peptide transport. Tapasin is involved in the association of class I with TAP and in the assembly of class I with peptide. The mechanisms of tapasin function are still unknown. Moreover, there has been no evidence for a murine tapasin analogue, which has led to the suggestion that murine MHC class I binds directly to TAP1/2. In this study, we have cloned the mouse analogue of tapasin. The predicted amino acid sequence showed 78% identity to human tapasin with identical consensus sequences of signal peptide, N-linked glycosylation site, transmembrane domain and double lysine motif. However, there was less homology (47%) found at the predicted cytosolic domain, and in addition, mouse tapasin is 14 amino acids longer than the human analogue at the C terminus. This part of the molecule may determine the species specificity for interaction with MHC class I or TAP1/2. Like human tapasin, mouse tapasin binds both to TAP1/2 and MHC class I. In TAP2-mutated RMA-S cells, both TAP1 and MHC class I were coprecipitated by anti-tapasin antiserum indicative of association of tapasin with TAP1 but not TAP2. With crosslinker-modified peptides and purified microsomes, anti-tapasin coprecipitated both peptide-bound MHC class I and TAP1/2. In contrast, anti-calreticulin only coprecipitated peptide-free MHC class I molecules. This difference in association with peptide-loaded class I suggests that tapasin functions later than calreticulin during MHC class I assembly, and controls peptide loading onto MHC class I molecules in the endoplasmic reticulum.  (+info)

Calreticulin is essential for cardiac development. (3/690)

Calreticulin is a ubiquitous Ca2+ binding protein, located in the endoplasmic reticulum lumen, which has been implicated in many diverse functions including: regulation of intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis, chaperone activity, steroid-mediated gene regulation, and cell adhesion. To understand the physiological function of calreticulin we used gene targeting to create a knockout mouse for calreticulin. Mice homozygous for the calreticulin gene disruption developed omphalocele (failure of absorption of the umbilical hernia) and showed a marked decrease in ventricular wall thickness and deep intertrabecular recesses in the ventricular walls. Transgenic mice expressing a green fluorescent protein reporter gene under the control of the calreticulin promoter were used to show that the calreticulin gene is highly activated in the cardiovascular system during the early stages of cardiac development. Calreticulin protein is also highly expressed in the developing heart, but it is only a minor component of the mature heart. Bradykinin-induced Ca2+ release by the InsP3-dependent pathway was inhibited in crt-/- cells, suggesting that calreticulin plays a role in Ca2+ homeostasis. Calreticulin-deficient cells also exhibited impaired nuclear import of nuclear factor of activated T cell (NF-AT3) transcription factor indicating that calreticulin plays a role in cardiac development as a component of the Ca2+/calcineurin/NF-AT/GATA-4 transcription pathway.  (+info)

Antibody levels to recombinant tick calreticulin increase in humans after exposure to Ixodes scapularis (Say) and are correlated with tick engorgement indices. (4/690)

The antibody responses of subjects who presented with a definite Ixodes scapularis (Say) tick bite were measured to determine the utility of the antibody response against recombinant tick calreticulin (rTC) as a biologic marker of tick exposure. Subjects bitten by I. scapularis evidenced an increase in anti-rTC antibody levels between visit 1 and visit 2 from 24.3 to 27.1 ng/microl serum (n = 88, p = 0.003), and levels remained elevated at visit 3 (p = 0.005). These anti-rTC antibody levels during visits 2 and 3 were significantly higher than those in four non-exposed controls. Tick engorgement indices, measured on the biting ticks, were found to be correlated with anti-rTC antibody levels (e.g., for visit 3: Pearson's r = 0.357, p = 0.001). Tick engorgement index (TEI), ratio of body length to scutal width, was identified to be the only independent predictor of anti-rTC antibody levels in linear regression models. Logistic regression revealed that a bite from an I. scapularis tick that became engorged (TEI >3.4) was a risk factor for anti-rTC antibody seropositivity (adjusted odds ratio for age and bite location = 7.4 (95% confidence interval 2.1-26.4)). The anti-rTC antibody test had a sensitivity of 0.50 and a specificity of 0.86 for a bite from I. scapularis that became engorged. Immunoblotting revealed that subjects made a specific anti-rTC antibody response.  (+info)

Calreticulin expression is associated with androgen regulation of the sensitivity to calcium ionophore-induced apoptosis in LNCaP prostate cancer cells. (5/690)

Calreticulin has been identified previously as one of the androgen-response genes in the prostate. The role of calreticulin in androgen action was studied using androgen-sensitive LNCaP and androgen-insensitive PC-3 human prostate cancer cell lines. Calreticulin appears to be a primary androgen-response gene in cultured LNCaP cells because androgen induction of calreticulin mRNA resists protein synthesis inhibition. Calreticulin is a high capacity intracellular Ca2+ binding protein, suggesting that calreticulin expression is likely to be associated with the intracellular Ca2+ buffering capacity that could regulate the sensitivity to cytotoxic intracellular Ca2+ overload. As expected, androgen protects androgen-sensitive LNCaP but not androgen-insensitive PC-3 cells from cytotoxic intracellular Ca2+ overload induced by Ca2+ ionophore A23187. To provide evidence for the role of calreticulin in reducing cytotoxic effect of Ca2+ influx in prostatic cells, we have shown that calreticulin antisense oligonucleotide down-regulates calreticulin protein level and significantly increases the sensitivity to A23187-induced apoptosis in both LNCaP and PC-3 cells. Furthermore, calreticulin antisense oligonucleotide reverses the androgen-induced resistance to A23187 in LNCaP cells. The above observations collectively suggest that calreticulin mediates androgen regulation of the sensitivity to Ca2+ ionophore-induced apoptosis in LNCaP cells.  (+info)

Ligand-specific, transient interaction between integrins and calreticulin during cell adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins is dependent upon phosphorylation/dephosphorylation events. (6/690)

As transmembrane heterodimers, integrins bind to both extracellular ligands and intracellular proteins. We are currently investigating the interaction between integrins and the intracellular protein calreticulin. A prostatic carcinoma cell line (PC-3) was used to demonstrate that calreticulin can be found in the alpha3 immunoprecipitates of cells plated on collagen type IV, but not when plated on vitronectin. Conversely, alphav immunoprecipitates contained calreticulin only when cells were plated on vitronectin, i. e. not when plated on collagen IV. The interactions between these integrins and calreticulin were independent of actin cytoskeleton assembly and were transient, being maximal approx. 10-30 min after the cells came into contact with the substrates prior to complete cell spreading and formation of firm adhesive contacts. We demonstrate that okadaic acid, an inhibitor of intracellular serine/threonine protein phosphatases, inhibited the alpha3beta1-mediated adhesion of PC-3 cells to collagen IV and the alpha2beta1-mediated attachment of Jurkat cells to collagen I. This inhibition by okadaic acid was accompanied by inhibition of the ligand-specific interaction of calreticulin with the respective integrins in the two cell types. Additionally, we found that pharmacological inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) resulted in prolongation of the calreticulin-integrin interaction, and enhancement of PC-3 cell attachment to collagen IV. We conclude that calreticulin interacts transiently with integrins during cell attachment and spreading. This interaction depends on receptor occupation, is ligand-specific, and can be modulated by protein phosphatase and MEK activity.  (+info)

Trypanosoma cruzi calreticulin is a lectin that binds monoglucosylated oligosaccharides but not protein moieties of glycoproteins. (7/690)

Trypanosoma cruzi is a protozoan parasite that belongs to an early branch in evolution. Although it lacks several features of the pathway of protein N-glycosylation and oligosaccharide processing present in the endoplasmic reticulum of higher eukaryotes, it displays UDP-Glc:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase and glucosidase II activities. It is herewith reported that this protozoan also expresses a calreticulin-like molecule, the third component of the quality control of glycoprotein folding. No calnexin-encoding gene was detected. Recombinant T. cruzi calreticulin specifically recognized free monoglucosylated high-mannose-type oligosaccharides. Addition of anti-calreticulin serum to extracts obtained from cells pulse-chased with [35S]Met plus [35S]Cys immunoprecipitated two proteins that were identified as calreticulin and the lysosomal proteinase cruzipain (a major soluble glycoprotein). The latter but not the former protein disappeared from immunoprecipitates upon chasing cells. Contrary to what happens in mammalian cells, addition of the glucosidase II inhibitor 1-deoxynojirimycin promoted calreticulin-cruzipain interaction. This result is consistent with the known pathway of protein N-glycosylation and oligosaccharide processing occurring in T. cruzi. A treatment of the calreticulin-cruzipain complexes with endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H either before or after addition of anti-calreticulin serum completely disrupted calreticulin-cruzipain interaction. In addition, mature monoglucosylated but not unglucosylated cruzipain isolated from lysosomes was found to interact with recombinant calreticulin. It was concluded that the quality control of glycoprotein folding appeared early in evolution, and that T. cruzi calreticulin binds monoglucosylated oligosaccharides but not the protein moiety of cruzipain. Furthermore, evidence is presented indicating that glucosyltransferase glucosylated cruzipain at its last folding stages.  (+info)

Calreticulin affects focal contact-dependent but not close contact-dependent cell-substratum adhesion. (8/690)

We used two cell lines expressing fast (RPEfast) and slow (RPEslow) attachment kinetics to investigate mechanisms of cell-substratum adhesion. We show that the abundance of a cytoskeletal protein, vinculin, is dramatically decreased in RPEfast cells. This coincides with the diminished expression level of an endoplasmic reticulum chaperone, calreticulin. Both protein and mRNA levels for calreticulin and vinculin were decreased in RPEfast cells. After RPEfast cells were transfected with cDNA encoding calreticulin, both the expression of endoplasmic reticulum-resident calreticulin and cytoplasmic vinculin increased. The abundance of other adhesion-related proteins was not affected. RPEfast cells underexpressing calreticulin displayed a dramatic increase in the abundance of total cellular phosphotyrosine suggesting that the effects of calreticulin on cell adhesiveness may involve modulation of the activities of protein tyrosine kinases or phosphatases which may affect the stability of focal contacts. The calreticulin and vinculin underexpressing RPEfast cells lacked extensive focal contacts and adhered weakly but attached fast to the substratum. In contrast, the RPEslow cells that expressed calreticulin and vinculin abundantly developed numerous and prominent focal contacts slowly, but adhered strongly. Thus, while the calreticulin overexpressing RPEslow cells "grip" the substratum with focal contacts, calreticulin underexpressing RPEfast cells use close contacts to "stick" to it.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Regulation of calreticulin gene expression by calcium. AU - Waser, Mathilde. AU - Mesaeli, Nasrin. AU - Spencer, Charlotte. AU - Michalak, Marek. PY - 1997/8/11. Y1 - 1997/8/11. N2 - We have isolated and characterized a 12-kb mouse genomic DNA fragment containing the entire calreticulin gene and 2.14 kb of the promoter region. The mouse calreticulin gene consists of nine exons and eight introns, and it spans 4.2 kb of genomic DNA. A 1.8-kb fragment of the calreticulin promoter was subcloned into a reporter gene plasmid containing chloramphenicol acetyltransferase. This construct was then used in transient and stable transfection of NIH/3T3 cells. Treatment of transfected cells either with the Ca2+ ionophore A23187, or with the ER Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin, resulted in a five- to sevenfold increase of the expression of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase protein. Transactivation of the calreticulin promoter was also increased by fourfold in NIH/3T3 cells treated with ...
Buy our Recombinant Human Calreticulin protein. Ab40609 is a protein fragment produced in Escherichia coli and has been validated in SDS-PAGE, MS. Abcam…
Anti-Calreticulin Antibody is an antibody against Calreticulin for use in IC, IH & WB. Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more information.
SS1P is an anti-mesothelin immunotoxin composed of a targeting antibody fragment genetically fused to a truncated fragment of Pseudomonas exotoxin A. Delayed responses reported in mesothelioma patients receiving SS1P suggest that anti-tumor immunity is induced. The goal of this study is to evaluate if SS1P therapy renders mesothelioma tumors more sensitive to cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) immune checkpoint blockade. We evaluated the ability of SS1P to induce adenosine triphosphate (ATP) secretion and calreticulin expression on the surface of AE17M mouse mesothelioma cells. Both properties are associated with immunogenic cell death. Furthermore, we treated these tumors with intra-tumoral SS1P and systemic CTLA-4. We found that SS1P increased the release of ATP from AE17M cells in a dose and time-dependent manner. In addition, SS1P induced calreticulin expression on the surface of AE17M cells. These results suggest that SS1P promotes immunogenic cell death and could sensitize tumors
Although calreticulin (CRT) is a major Ca2+-binding luminal resident protein, it can also appear on the surface of various types of cells and it functions as an immunopotentiating molecule. However, molecular mechanisms underlying the potent immunobiological activity of cell surface CRT are still unclear. In the present study, a recombinant fragment (rCRT/39-272) covering the lectin-like N domain and partial P domain of murine CRT has been expressed in Escherichia coli. The affinity-purified rCRT/39-272 assembles into homodimers and oligomers in solution and exhibits high binding affinity to various glycans, including carrageenan, alginic acids, and hyaluronic acids. Functionally, rCRT/39-272 is capable of driving the activation and maturation of B cells and cytokine production by macrophages in a TLR-4-dependent manner in vitro. It specifically binds recombinant mouse CD14, but not BAFFR and CD40. It is also able to trigger Ig class switching by B cells in the absence of T cell help both in ...
These results show that vasostatin, an NH2-terminal fragment of human calreticulin, can inhibit endothelial cell proliferation in vitro, suppress neovascularization in vivo, and prevent or reduce growth of experimental tumors. Calreticulin, a ubiquitous and highly conserved protein originally identified in skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum, serves as one of the major storage depots for calcium ions within the endoplasmic reticulum and participates in calcium signaling ((34)-(36)). The NH2-domain of calreticulin, which includes aa 1-180, is the most conserved domain among the calreticulins so far cloned and has no homology to other protein sequences ((34), (35)). Although it does not bind calcium, it can bind the cytoplasmic domain of α subunits of integrins regulating cell attachment ((37)), can interact with the nuclear receptors for glucocorticoid, androgen, and retinoic acid, regulating their binding to DNA ((38)), and can, once phosphorylated, bind stem-loop structures at the 3′-end ...
Calreticulin antibody (calreticulin) for ICC/IF, IHC-P, WB. Anti-Calreticulin pAb (GTX111627) is tested in Human, Mouse, Rat samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Abstract Introduction: Calreticulin is a multi-functioning protein located in the endoplasmic reticulum. Several functions have been attributed to calreticulin including lectin-like chaperoning, regulation of gene expression, cell adhesion, auto-immunity and calcium homeostasis. As an endoplasmic reticulum chaperone calreticulin regulates the maturation and folding of several trans-membrane proteins. We hypothesized that as an endoplasmic reticular protein it regulates the expression folding and maturation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). To date no information is available about the role of calreticulin in EGFR expression and folding. Methods: Wild type calreticulin deficient (crt -/-) and mouse lung cancer cells isolated from transgenic mice over expressing calreticulin was used to examine the expression, localization and function of EGFR. Western blot analysis was used to determine the protein expression. Immunocytochemical staining of cells was utilized to determine localization of EGFR
Ca2+ release in saponin-permeabilized calreticulin-deficient cells. Wild-type (K41) and calreticulin-deficient (K42) cells were loaded with a fluorescent Ca2+ i
Blockade of the checkpoint inhibitor programmed death 1 (PD1) has demonstrated remarkable success in the clinic for the treatment of cancer; however, a majority of tumors are resistant to anti-PD1 monotherapy. Numerous ongoing clinical combination therapy studies will likely reveal additional therapeutics that complement anti-PD1 blockade. Recent studies found that immunogenic cell death (ICD) improves T cell responses against different tumors, thus indicating that ICD may further augment antitumor immunity elicited by anti-PD1. Here, we observed antitumor activity following combinatorial therapy with anti-PD1 Ab and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor dinaciclib in immunocompetent mouse tumor models. Dinaciclib induced a type I IFN gene signature within the tumor, leading us to hypothesize that dinaciclib potentiates the effects of anti-PD1 by eliciting ICD. Indeed, tumor cells treated with dinaciclib showed the hallmarks of ICD including surface calreticulin expression and release of high ...
Quality control of the endoplasmic reticulum plays a critical role in protein folding, modification and modification of a secretory pathway. As endoplasmic reticulum chaperones, calreticulin and calnexin have similar substrate specificity and share several common features. Yet, surprisingly, mice bearing a disruption in the calreticulin gene die from a lesion in cardiac development and develop significant metabolic problems whereas calnexin-deficient mice are born alive with, yet not understood, neurological problems. Studies with calreticulin and calnexin gene knockout mice and calreticulin- and calnexindeficient cell lines indicate that calnexin is unable to compensate for the loss of calreticulin and conversely, calreticulin cannot compensate for the loss of calnexin. Calreticulin or calnexin deficiency or reduction in the level of ERp57 protein (ERp57 heterozygote mice) leads to development of metabolic disorders as documented by sever changes serum lipids and carbohydrates composition in ...
Calreticulin is a multifunctional protein that acts as a major Ca(2+)-binding (storage) protein in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum. It is also found in the nucleus, suggesting that it may have a role in transcription regulation. Calreticulin has been reported to bind to the synthetic peptide …
Accumulating evidence is revealing the essential role of immune system in cancer treatment. Certain chemotherapeutic drugs can potently induce the release of cell death associated molecular patterns (CDAMPs), which accompanies cancer cell demise. CDAMPs can engage corresponding receptors on immune cells and stimulate immune responses to achieve long-term tumor control (Ma et al., 2013; Ma et al., 2014; Yang et al., 2015). Among reported CDAMPs, calreticulin (CALR), ATP and HMGB1 are well known for their immune-stimulatory effect. Here we describe the assays that we applied to measure cell death and these CDAMPs. Briefly, cell death can be analyzed by co-staining of 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) with 3,3-Dihexyloxacarbocyanine Iodide [DiOC6(3)] or Annexin V. CALR exposure on the cell membrane can be detected by flow cytometry. ATP and HMGB1 release can be quantified by luminescence assay and ELISA assay respectively.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evolving Evidence of Calreticulin as a Pharmacological Target in Neurological Disorders. AU - Kotian, Vignesh. AU - Sarmah, Deepaneeta. AU - Kaur, Harpreet. AU - Kesharwani, Radhika. AU - Verma, Geetesh. AU - Mounica, Leela. AU - Veeresh, Pabbala. AU - Kalia, Kiran. AU - Borah, Anupom. AU - Wang, Xin. AU - Dave, Kunjan R. AU - Yavagal, Dileep R. AU - Bhattacharya, Pallab. PY - 2019/1/1. Y1 - 2019/1/1. N2 - Calreticulin (CALR), a lectin-like ER chaperone, was initially known only for its housekeeping function, but today it is recognized for many versatile roles in different compartments of a cell. Apart from canonical roles in protein folding and calcium homeostasis, it performs a variety of noncanonical roles, mostly in CNS development. In the past, studies have linked Calreticulin with various other biological components which are detrimental in deciding the fate of neurons. Many neurological disorders that differ in their etiology are commonly associated with aberrant levels of ...
Close The Infona portal uses cookies, i.e. strings of text saved by a browser on the users device. The portal can access those files and use them to remember the users data, such as their chosen settings (screen view, interface language, etc.), or their login data. By using the Infona portal the user accepts automatic saving and using this information for portal operation purposes. More information on the subject can be found in the Privacy Policy and Terms of Service. By closing this window the user confirms that they have read the information on cookie usage, and they accept the privacy policy and the way cookies are used by the portal. You can change the cookie settings in your browser. ...
As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
This family of GBPs is widespread in evolution and plays a key role in ER quality control,ref name=Ellgaard 2003a,Ellgaard, L. and Frickel, E. M. Calnexin, calreticulin, and ERp57: teammates in glycoprotein folding. Cell Biochem Biophys 39, 223-247 (2003),/ref,,ref name=Jorgensen 2003,Jorgensen, M. M., Bross, P. and Gregersen, N. Protein quality control in the endoplasmic reticulum. APMIS Suppl 86-91 (2003),/ref,,ref name=Ellgaard 2003,Ellgaard, L. and Helenius, A. Quality control in the endoplasmic reticulum. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 4, 181-191 (2003),/ref,,ref name=Helenius 2004,Helenius, A. and Aebi, M. Roles of N-linked glycans in the endoplasmic reticulum. Annu Rev Biochem 73, 1019-1049 (2004),/ref,,ref,Molinari, M., Eriksson, K. K., Calanca, V., Galli, C., Cresswell, P., Michalak, M. and Helenius, A. Contrasting functions of calreticulin and calnexin in glycoprotein folding and ER quality control. Mol Cell 13, 125-135 (2004),/ref,,ref,Deprez, P., Gautschi, M. and Helenius, A. More ...
Does anyone have an antibody to human calreticulin that they can let us have for work on rheumatoid arthritis? Thanks Frank -- Frank C Hay Division of Immunology St Georges Hospital Medical School London SW17 0RE, UK Tel: 0181 767 5751 Fax: 0181 725 3549 email: frank at rabbits.demon.co.uk ...
Current approaches aimed at inducing immunogenic cell death (ICD) to incite an immune response against cancer neoantigens are based on the use of chemotherapeutics and other agents. Results are hampered by issues of efficacy, combinatorial approaches, dosing and toxicity. Here, we adopted a strategy based on the use of an immunomolecule that overcomes pharmachemical limitations. Cytofluorometry, electron microscopy, RT-PCR, western blotting, apotome immunofluorescence, MLR and xenografts. We report that an ICD process can be activated without the use of pharmacological compounds. We show that in Kras-mut/TP53-mut colorectal cancer cells the 15 kDa βGBP cytokine, a T cell effector with onco-suppressor properties and a potential role in cancer immunosurveillance, induces key canonical events required for ICD induction. We document ER stress, autophagy that extends from cancer cells to the corresponding xenograft tumours, CRT cell surface shifting, ATP release and evidence of dendritic cell activation, a
The immunogenicity of malignant cells has recently been acknowledged as a critical determinant of efficacy in cancer therapy. Thus, besides developing direct immunostimulatory regimens, including dendritic cell-based vaccines, checkpoint-blocking therapies, and adoptive T-cell transfer, researchers have started to focus on the overall immunobiology of neoplastic cells. It is now clear that cancer cells can succumb to some anticancer therapies by undergoing a peculiar form of cell death that is characterized by an increased immunogenic potential, owing to the emission of the so-called damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). The emission of DAMPs and other immunostimulatory factors by cells succumbing to immunogenic cell death (ICD) favors the establishment of a productive interface with the immune system. This results in the elicitation of tumor-targeting immune responses associated with the elimination of residual, treatment-resistant cancer cells, as well as with the establishment of
Immunogenic cell death (ICD) converts dying cancer cells into a therapeutic vaccine and stimulates antitumor immune responses. Here we unravel the results of an unbiased screen identifying high-dose (10 µM) crizotinib as an ICD-inducing tyrosine kinase inhibitor that has exceptional antineoplastic activity when combined with non-ICD inducing chemotherapeutics like cisplatin. The combination of cisplatin and high-dose crizotinib induces ICD in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cells and effectively controls the growth of distinct (transplantable, carcinogen- or oncogene induced) orthotopic NSCLC models. These anticancer effects are linked to increased T lymphocyte infiltration and are abolished by T cell depletion or interferon-γ neutralization. Crizotinib plus cisplatin leads to an increase in the expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 in tumors, coupled to a strong sensitization of NSCLC to immunotherapy with PD-1 antibodies. Hence, a sequential combination treatment consisting in conventional ...
Calreticulin: A multifunctional protein that is found primarily within membrane-bound organelles. In the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM it binds to specific N-linked oligosaccharides found on newly-synthesized proteins and functions as a MOLECULAR CHAPERONE that may play a role in PROTEIN FOLDING or retention and degradation of misfolded proteins. In addition calreticulin is a major storage form for CALCIUM and functions as a calcium-signaling molecule that can regulate intracellular calcium HOMEOSTASIS.
Recurrent mutations in the ER chaperone calreticulin (CALR) are found in ~30% of MPNs. All known CALR mutations result in a +1-frameshift of the CALR reading fr
TY - JOUR. T1 - Spreading of the immune response from 52 kDaRo and 60 kDaRo to calreticulin in experimental autoimmunity. AU - Kinoshita, G.. AU - Keech, C. L.. AU - Sontheimer, R. D.. AU - Purcell, A.. AU - McCluskey, J.. AU - Gordon, T. P.. PY - 1998/2/9. Y1 - 1998/2/9. N2 - Calreticulin (CR) is widely recognized as a new human autoantigen but there are conflicting data concerning its relationship with the Ro(SS-A) ribonucleoprotein (RNP). Recent evidence suggests that CR binds to 52 kDaRo (Ro52) by a protein/protein interaction and binds to hY RNA and rubella virus RNA. Other studies have shown that initiation of immunity to either Ro52 or 60 kDaRo (Ro60) can lead to reciprocal spreading of autoimmunity to Ro60 or Ro52, respectively, and induce anti-La autoantibodies in some strains of mice. These findings support a physical association of these polypeptides in Ro/La complexes. To test the hypothesis that CR is physically associated with Ro52 and/or Ro60 we examined the sera of Ro52-, Ro60- ...
Actual Exams Sales Cloud Consultant training service - Salesforce CRT-251 online test materials with real CRT-251 practice exam questions.
The present study contains novel findings supporting the concept that ICD can be induced by chemotherapy alone in patients with breast cancer and ESCC. Firstly, both HMGB1 and calreticulin expression were significantly upregulated after NAC. Secondly, chemotherapeutic drugs induced the upregulation of HMGB1 and calreticulin in several tested breast cancer cell lines.. We and others have recently reported that danger signals from dying cells following treatment with radiotherapy or certain chemotherapeutic drugs, such as anthracyclines and oxaliplatin, can induce Toll-like receptor (TLR)-dependent, antigen-specific T-cell immunity (22,23). Additional therapeutic modalities shown to induce ICD include oncolytic virus therapy (24-26) and photodynamic therapy (27,28). Furthermore, among various danger signals released from dying cells in a tumor-bearing mouse model, HMGB1, but not other known TLR4 ligands, could be a mandatory factor to induce tumor antigen-specific T-cell immunity (22,23). ...
The present study contains novel findings to support the concept of immunogenic cell death induced by chemoradiotherapy in patients with ESCC. First, tumor antigen-specific T-cell responses were confirmed in 6 (38%) of 16 patients with ESCC following chemoradiotherapy. Second, the serum level of HMGB1 following chemoradiation in the patients with antigen-specific T-cell responses was significantly elevated in comparison to that in the patients without antigen-specific T-cell responses. Third, upregulation of HMGB1 within tumor microenvironments was significantly related to preoperative chemoradiotherapy and the degree of HMGB1 positively correlated with patients survival. Fourth, both irradiation and chemodrugs could induce upregulation of HMGB1 and calreticulin on ESCC cell lines in vitro. Finally, HMGB1 was able to induce maturation of DCs in an in vitro culture system.. In general, chemoradiotherapy is thought to induce an immunosuppressive state in both T-cell and natural killer-cell ...
Dear All Please read attached document for details of 4th international CALRETICULIN workshop to be held at Oxford University in April 2000 If you have problems opening the attachment or are worried about viruses look at our homepage on:- http://www.uwcm.ac.uk/uwcm/mb/crt2000.html Yours sincerely, Paul Eggleton. Dept Biochemistry. University of Oxford. UK ...
Researchers at Juntendo University report in the journal Leukemia how mutants of the protein calreticulin lead to molecular mechanisms triggering myeloproliferative neoplasms, which can cause cancer. The findings may lead to the development of novel therapies for certain types of blood cancer.
Two key factors that mediate high-glucose-induced downregulation of the glucose transport system in bovine aortic endothelial cells and in the human-derived EA.hy926 cells have been identified: the lipid peroxidation product 4-HDDE and its cognate nuclear receptor PPARδ. The latter increases the expression of the protein calreticulin that was shown before to destabilize GLUT-1 mRNA (13).. The augmented production of 4-HDDE results from high-glucose-induced 12-LO expression and activity and glucose-derived ROS. The mechanism responsible for the increased expression of 12-LO is not yet known. Numerous studies have proven that hyperglycemia promotes the generation of ROS (3,7). We showed before an augmented production of ROS in bovine aortic endothelial cell primary cultures under high-glucose conditions (28). Two observations confirm the role of ROS in the generation of 4-HDDE from 12-LO metabolites. First, the inhibition of 12-LO activity with baicalein significantly reduced 4-HDDE secretion ...
The term immunogenic cell death (ICD) denotes an immunologically unique type of regulated cell death that enables, rather than suppresses, T cell-driven immune responses that are specific for antigens derived from the dying cells. The ability of ICD to elicit adaptive immunity heavily relies on the immunogenicity of dying cells, implying that such cells must encode and present antigens not covered by central tolerance (antigenicity), and deliver immunostimulatory molecules such as damage-associated molecular patterns and cytokines (adjuvanticity). Moreover, the host immune system must be equipped to detect the antigenicity and adjuvanticity of dying cells. As cancer (but not normal) cells express several antigens not covered by central tolerance, they can be driven into ICD by some therapeutic agents, including (but not limited to) chemotherapeutics of the anthracycline family, oxaliplatin and bortezomib, as well as radiation therapy. In this Trial Watch, we describe current trends in the ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Science Translational Medicine.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Nangalia J., Massie C.E., Baxter E.J., Nice F.L., Gundem G., Wedge D.C., Avezov E., Li J., Kollmann K., Kent D.G., Aziz A., Godfrey A.L., Hinton J., Martincorena I., Van Loo P., Jones A.V., Guglielmelli P., Tarpey P., Harding H.P., Fitzpatrick J.D., Goudie C.T., Ortmann C.A., Loughran S.J., Raine K., Jones D.R., Butler A.P., Teague J.W., OMeara S., McLaren S., Bianchi M., Silber Y., Dimitropoulou D., Bloxham D., Mudie L., Maddison M., Robinson B., Keohane C., Maclean C., Hill K., Orchard K., Tauro S., Du M.-Q., Greaves M., Bowen D., Huntly B.J.P., Harrison C.N., Cross N.C.P., Ron D., Vannucchi A.M., Papaemmanuil E., Campbell P.J., Green A.R., Somatic CALR Mutations in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms with Nonmutated JAK2, 10.1056/nejmoa1312542 ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Genetic variation at the chromosome 9p21 risk locus promotes cardiovascular disease; however, it is unclear how or which proteins encoded at this locus contribute to disease. We have previously demonstrated that loss of one candidate gene at this locus, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B (Cdkn2b), in mice promotes vascular SMC apoptosis and aneurysm progression. Here, we investigated the role of Cdnk2b in atherogenesis and found that in a mouse model of atherosclerosis, deletion of Cdnk2b promoted advanced development of atherosclerotic plaques composed of large necrotic cores. Furthermore, human carriers of the 9p21 risk allele had reduced expression of CDKN2B in atherosclerotic plaques, which was associated with impaired expression of calreticulin, a ligand required for activation of engulfment receptors on phagocytic cells. As a result of decreased calreticulin, CDKN2B-deficient apoptotic bodies were resistant to efferocytosis and not efficiently cleared by neighboring macrophages. These ...
Principal Investigator:TODA Genji, Project Period (FY):2001 - 2002, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Circulatory organs internal medicine
The lollipop plot above illustrates recurrent (observed in 3 or more out of 4440 TCGA tumor samples from 15 cancer types) and therefore potentially oncogenic missense mutations (click on Show Cancer Mutations). The bar plot below shows the proportion of tumor samples that have any kind of altering mutation(s) in the given protein. ...
Lead: Tim Illidge. Radiation treatment (RT) is a highly effective anti-cancer treatment that is delivered to over 50% of all cancer patients and 40% of those cured of their disease.. In order to further improve cancer outcomes using RT, an increased understanding of what determines effective RT-induced anti-tumour responses and how best to combine RT with others treatments is required.. Our research programme evaluates the contribution of RT-induced immunogenic cell death to the induction of tumour-specific immune responses (Project 1); determines how best to integrate RT with immunomodulatory agents to augment such responses and enhance therapeutic outcome (Project 2); and investigates how combination with RT and immune modulation can be utilised to increase the efficacy and durability of anti-CD20 mAb therapy in B- cell lymphomas (Project 3).. The pre-clinical experimental programme runs in parallel with early phase clinical trials to form a cohesive and overlapping programme of work that aims ...
Purpose: To characterize the ability of PT-112 to induce immunogenic cell death (ICD) in vitro and in vivo. Background: PT-112 is a novel chemical entity consisting of a platinum core conjugated to a pyrophosphate and diaminocyclohexane groups. In vitro studies demonstrated that PT-112 has both cytostatic and cytotoxic effects on human cancer cells, two effects that are seen in the absence of robust binding to nuclear DNA. Accordingly, PT-112 potency is largely unaffected by functional DNA repair pathways, suggesting that PT-112 operates with mechanisms that differ from conventional DNA-damaging chemotherapies. PT-112 is currently under phase I/II clinical development in patients with solid tumors and hematologic malignancies, both as monotherapy and in combination with a PD-L1 inhibitor. Interim reports have established encouraging tolerability and signals of single-agent anticancer activity. Previous work with human colorectal cancer HCT-116 cells demonstrated that PT-112 causes the release of ...
CALR antibody - C-terminal region (ARP30114_P050) | Application: WB | CALR is strongly supported by BioGPS gene expression data to be expressed in Human HepG2 cells | Alias: RO; CRT; SSA; cC1qR
CALR D45Y lies within the N-domain region of the Calr protein (UniProt.org). D45Y has been identified in the scientific literature (PMID: 29218307) but has not been biochemically characterized and therefore, its effect on Calr protein function is unknown (PubMed, Feb 2020 ...
Overexpression of the conserved Ca2+-binding proteins calreticulin and calsequestrin impairs cardiac function, leading to premature death. Calreticulin is vital for embryonic development, but also impairs glucocorticoid action. Glucocorticoid overexposure during late fetal life causes intra-uterine growth retardation and programmed hypertension in adulthood. To determine whether intra-uterine growth retardation or programmed hypertension was associated with altered calreticulin or calsequestrin expression, effects of prenatal glucocorticoid overexposure (maternal dexamethasone treatment on days 15-21 of pregnancy) were examined during fetal life and postnatal development until adulthood (24 weeks). Dexamethasone (100 or 200μg/kg of maternal body weight) was administered via osmotic pump. Calreticulin was detected as a 55kDa band and calsequestrin as 55 and 63kDa bands in 21 day fetal hearts. Only the 55kDa calsequestrin band was detected postnatally. Prenatal glucocorticoid overexposure at the ...
Many favorable anti-cancer treatments owe their success to the induction immunogenic cell death (ICD) in cancer cells, which activates antigen presenting cells to prime anti-cancer adaptive immunity. We describe a strategy to synthetically induce ICD by delivering the agonist of stimulator of interferon genes (STING), 23′-cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate (cGAMP) into tumor cells using hollow polymeric nanoshells. Following intracellular delivery of exogenous adjuvant, subsequent cytotoxic treatment creates immunogenic cellular debris, by a process herein termed synthetic immunogenic cell death (sICD). sICD is indiscriminate to the type of chemotherapeutics adopted for cancer treatment and enables co-localization of exogenously administered immunologic adjuvants and tumor antigens for enhanced antigen presentation and development of anticancer adaptive immunity. In three mouse tumor models with distinctive chemotherapeutic treatments, sICD enhances therapeutic efficacy ...
Immunogenic cell death (ICD) is associated with the emission of so-called damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) which trigger the immune response against dead-cell associated antigens. The secretion of the DAMP, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) has been shown to be autophagy-dependent. Here, we demonstrate that Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA), a highly attenuated strain of vaccinia virus, induces both cell death and autophagy in murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs), which in turn confer the (cross-)priming of OVA-specific cytotoxic T cells (OT-I cells). Additionally, we show that MVA infection leads to increased extracellular ATP (eATP) as well as intracellular ATP (iATP) levels, with the latter being influenced by the autophagy. Furthermore, we show that the increased eATP supports the proliferation of OT-I cells and inhibition of the P2RX7 receptors results in an abrogation of the proliferation. These data reveal novel mechanisms on how MVA enhances adaptive immunity in ...
We have proposed that rTcCRT [13, 14] provides an important at least partial explanation of why T. cruzi experimental infection or the inoculation of parasite extracts exerts toxic effects on different tumor types, mammary adenocarcinoma among them (reviewed in [2]).. We have described a 45 kDa T. cruzi, highly pleiotropic chaperone protein, TcCRT [13]. rTcCRT [13] is antiangiogenic because it inhibits ECs proliferation, migration and morphogenesis, in several in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo assays, in 3 species, H. s. sapiens included [9, 16, 17]. Furthermore, in vivo, rTcCRT inhibits the growth of an experimental mammary adenocarcinoma, when inoculated in an area near the tumor. This effect is more potent than the one elicited by its rHuCRT counterpart [9]. However, the proposal that T.cruzi infection has an antitumor effect mediated by its nTcCRT, needs a formal demonstration, as justified in the Introduction section. This important question was addressed herein. In order to causally implicate ...
The surface exposure of CRT and ERp57 was increased in CT26 clones derived from cells transiently exposed to nocodazole that contained close to twice the DNA content of parental cells (which we refer to as hyperploid cells), although the surface expression of most other membrane proteins was unaltered (Fig. 1D and fig. S8). This hyperploidy-associated increase in CRT exposure was also observed in mouse Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) and fibrosarcoma MCA205 cells, as well as in human cancer cell lines (fig. S9). As compared to their parental counterparts, hyperploid clones exhibited constitutive PERK and eIF2α phosphorylation (Fig. 1E). Interruption of the CRT exposure pathway reduced the clonogenic potential of hyperploid cells (Fig. 1, F and G), suggesting a functional link between the ER stress-associated CRT exposure pathway and the fitness of hyperploid cells.. Because hyperploidization is linked to CRT exposure, we wondered whether cancer cells with increased DNA content might be subjected ...
The surface exposure of CRT and ERp57 was increased in CT26 clones derived from cells transiently exposed to nocodazole that contained close to twice the DNA content of parental cells (which we refer to as hyperploid cells), although the surface expression of most other membrane proteins was unaltered (Fig. 1D and fig. S8). This hyperploidy-associated increase in CRT exposure was also observed in mouse Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) and fibrosarcoma MCA205 cells, as well as in human cancer cell lines (fig. S9). As compared to their parental counterparts, hyperploid clones exhibited constitutive PERK and eIF2α phosphorylation (Fig. 1E). Interruption of the CRT exposure pathway reduced the clonogenic potential of hyperploid cells (Fig. 1, F and G), suggesting a functional link between the ER stress-associated CRT exposure pathway and the fitness of hyperploid cells.. Because hyperploidization is linked to CRT exposure, we wondered whether cancer cells with increased DNA content might be subjected ...
In this study, we determined the subcellular accumulation of HTLV-1 p12I to further define the possible function for this protein in viral infection. We demonstrate that p12I is retained as a membrane-associated protein and is expressed predominantly in the ER and cis-Golgi apparatus. Two regions of the protein containing predicted transmembrane domains are independently responsible for this pattern of localization. Importantly, we are the first to identify the interaction of p12I with both calreticulin and calnexin in the ER, suggesting a possible function of the viral protein in calcium-mediated cell signaling leading to host cell activation. These findings are consistent with our previous studies that demonstrated a requirement for HTLV-1 p12I in viral infectivity both in a rabbit model of infection (12), in primary lymphocytes in vitro (1), and in calcium-dependent nuclear factor of activated T cells-mediated transcription (B. Albrecht et al., unpublished data).. HTLV-1 p12I is highly ...
Veysel Sabri Han er, H seyin Tokg z, Serkan G ven , mran al kan, Murat B y kdo an. Three Novel Calreticulin Mutations in Two Turkish Patients. Turk J Hematol. 2017; 34(4): 360- ...
In the present study we demonstrate, using arthritis models, that TFM-C, a celecoxib analogue with 205-fold lower COX-2-inhibitory activity, inhibits autoimmune disease. TFM-C differs from celecoxib by the substitution of the 4-methyl group by a trifluoromethyl group. This substitution drastically increases the IC50s for inhibition of COX1 (15 μM to ,100 μM for celecoxib and TFM-C, respectively) and COX2 (0.04 μM to 8.2 μM, respectively), but does not affect the apoptotic index measured in PC3 prostate cancer cells, indicating independence between structural requirements for COX-2 inhibition and apoptosis induction [36]. Celecoxib perturbs intracellular calcium by blocking ER Ca2+ ATPases, and this activity is shared with TFM-C [23, 37]. In a HEK293 recombinant cell system, this Ca2+ perturbation is associated with inhibition of secretion and altered intracellular interaction of IL-12 polypeptide chains with the ER chaperones calreticulin and ERp44, and results in the interception of IL-12 ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Science Translational Medicine.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
Platinum-based chemotherapy produced a paradigm shift in the treating different cancers initially; nevertheless, the success of the agents may reach the top as researchers have got tried different mixture regimes in various trials without having major differences in the end results. is still significant research required to accomplish full understanding of these resistance mechanisms to overcome the ineffectiveness or toxicities of platinum compounds. It seems affordable in the current perspective when standard chemotherapeutic brokers exhibited immunogenic cell death and they are currently in use with monoclonal antibodies to revisit the platinum brokers pharmacology. This may discover new basis for combination chemotherapy with monoclonal antibodies which may buy AZD4547 improve the current malignancy treatments by opening new vistas for newer buy AZD4547 combination regimes with less toxicity and better efficacy. In this article we review the pharmacologies of both cisplatin and oxaliplatin ...
New treatments for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) are urgently needed. Despite there being little evidence of clinical activity as single-agent therapies, we show that dual blockade of PI3Kα and CDK4/6 is synergistically effective against multiple RB1-wild-type TNBC models. Combined PI3Kα and CDK4/6 inhibition significantly increased apoptosis, cell-cycle arrest, and tumor immunogenicity and generated immunogenic cell death in human TNBC cell lines. Combination treatment also significantly improved disease control in human xenograft models compared with either monotherapy. Combined PI3Kα and CDK4/6 inhibition significantly increased tumor-infiltrating T-cell activation and cytotoxicity and decreased the frequency of immunosuppressive myeloid-derived suppressor cells in a syngeneic TNBC mouse model. Notably, combined PI3Kα and CDK4/6 inhibition, along with inhibition of immune checkpoints PD-1 and CTLA-4, induced complete and durable regressions (,1 year) of established TNBC tumors in ...
NBTXR3 exposed to irradiation enhanced cancer cells destruction and immunogenic cell death compared to irradiation alone, suggesting a strong potential for transforming tumor into an effective in situ vaccine. This may contribute to transform cold tumor into hot tumor and effectively be combined with most of the immunotherapeutic agents across oncology. NBTXR3 is intended to be injected in the tumors. Spilling in the circulation may occur during product administration or, as expected, during tumor destruction, leading to steady trapping of NPs in the reticulo-endothelial system (liver and spleen). Clinically, it is unknown whether patients, previously treated with NPs, may show toxic signs when NPs are exposed (activation) to diagnosis imaging (computed tomography(CT)) of the liver.. Continuer la lecture…. ...
Complete information for UNC119B gene (Protein Coding), Unc-119 Lipid Binding Chaperone B, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
"Protein acyltransferase function of purified calreticulin. Part 1: Characterization of propionylation of protein utilizing ...
In 2013, two groups detected calreticulin mutations in a majority of JAK2-negative/MPL-negative patients with essential ... "Somatic mutations of calreticulin in myeloproliferative neoplasms". The New England Journal of Medicine. 369 (25): 2379-90. doi ...
Another externalized molecule marking apoptotic cells is calreticulin. Generally, the ability of apoptotic cells to change ... interacts with calreticulin which is a known C1q receptor), or complement receptors (CR3 and CR4). There is a variety of ... altered surface sugars on apoptotic cell and enable easier uptake by phagocytes which recognize their complex with calreticulin ...
He elucidated the molecular features of substrate recognition by endoplasmic reticulum chaperones calreticulin and Calnexin. He ... "Interactions of substrate with calreticulin, an endoplasmic reticulum chaperone". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (8): ... "Isothermal titration calorimetric study defines the substrate binding residues of calreticulin". Biochemical and Biophysical ...
"Calreticulin exposure dictates the immunogenicity of cancer cell death". Nature Medicine. 13 (1): 54-61. doi:10.1038/nm1523. ...
Cahu X, Constantinescu SN (December 2015). "Oncogenic Drivers in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms: From JAK2 to Calreticulin ...
"Modulation of gene expression by calreticulin binding to the glucocorticoid receptor". Nature. 367 (6462): 476-480. doi:10.1038 ...
"Adiponectin modulates inflammatory reactions via calreticulin receptor-dependent clearance of early apoptotic bodies". J Clin ...
"Post-translational arginylation of calreticulin: a new isospecies of calreticulin component of stress granules". The Journal of ...
Lectin chaperones: calnexin and calreticulin Non-classical molecular chaperones: HSP47 and ERp29 Folding chaperones: Protein ... "TROSY-NMR reveals interaction between ERp57 and the tip of the calreticulin P-domain". Proceedings of the National Academy of ...
Calreticulin: Evidence has indicated the presence of the protein, calreticulin, within the cortical granule. Researchers have ... On the other hand, different research has shown that calreticulin may be released from vesicles other than cortical granules. ... Furthermore, upon exocytosis, this calreticulin interacts with the oocyte's cytoskeleton, thereby allowing the transmission of ... Additionally contributing to polyspermy prevention, calreticulin may also inhibit certain glycoproteins, which promote ...
Examples include: calmodulin calnexin calreticulin gelsolin Ghoshdastider U, Popp D, Burtnick LD, Robinson RC (2013). "The ...
... may refer to: Calreticulin, a protein that in humans is encoded by the CALR gene. Chief Albert Luthuli Regiment, an ...
Calreticulin is crucial and is highly dependant in the assembly and maturation of MHC-I in the PLC. The globular lectin domain ... When MHC-I chains are empty, they are recruited by calreticulin and form a transient PLC. Tapasin regularly plays a role in the ... Preliminary MHC-I heavy chains form chaperones with the aid of the calnexin-calreticulin complex in the ER. In addition to this ... In general, preliminary MHC-I heavy chains are chaperoned by the calnexin-calreticulin system in the ER. Together with β2- ...
Somatic mutations of calreticulin in myeloproliferative neoplasms. N Engl J Med 2013;369:2379-2390 ...
A chaperone protein (calnexin/calreticulin) binds to the unfolded or partially folded protein to assist protein folding. The ...
Decreased CASQ2 is also associated with high levels of calreticulin, a protein which among other roles regulates the reuptake ... It is possible that calreticulin may contribute to the generation of arrhythmias seen in association with CASQ2 mutations. CPVT ... In the absence of CASQ2, calreticulin levels increase and provide some compensatory calcium binding within the sarcoplasmic ...
Calreticulin (CAL), which is known to bind calcium in most eukaryotic cells, is able to specifically bind to the first stem ... Pfam PF00262 - Calreticulin protein family Page for Rubella virus 3′ cis-acting element at Rfam v t e. ...
October 2005). "Cell-surface calreticulin initiates clearance of viable or apoptotic cells through trans-activation of LRP on ... or calreticulin on the outer leaflet of the cell membrane. Efferocytosis triggers specific downstream intracellular signal ...
"Entrez Gene: CALR calreticulin".. *↑ Nangalia J, Massie CE, Baxter EJ, Nice FL, Gundem G, Wedge DC, Avezov E, Li J, Kollmann K ... Coppolino MG, Dedhar S; Dedhar (1998). "Calreticulin". Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 30 (5): 553-8. PMID 9693955. doi:10.1016/ ... 2010). "A mechanism of release of calreticulin from cells during apoptosis". J. Mol. Biol. 401 (5): 799-812. PMID 20624402. doi ... 2009). "Calreticulin enhances B2 bradykinin receptor maturation and heterodimerization". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 387 (1 ...
... VIII and calreticulin as molecular determinants of sink strength?". Plant Physiology. 126 (1): 39-46. doi:10.1104/pp. ...
The MHC molecule lacking a bound peptide is inherently unstable and requires the binding of the chaperones calreticulin and ... calreticulin, calnexin, and Erp57 (PDIA3). Calnexin acts to stabilize the class I MHC α chains prior to β2m binding. Following ...
... such as calreticulin. "Don't-eat-me" signals include CD47, which when expressed on the surface of a cell, inhibit phagocytosis ... phosphatidylserine or calreticulin. More recently it has become clear that most human cancer cells overexpress CD47 on their ...
In this mechanism, the lectin-type chaperones calnexin/calreticulin (CNX/CRT) provide immature glycoproteins the opportunity to ...
The network of endoplasmic reticulum-resident chaperones (ERp72, GRP94, calreticulin, and BiP) interacts with apolipoprotein b ...
The main proteins involved in the ER quality control system are UGGT, the ER lectin chaperones (calnexin and calreticulin), and ... The lectins, calnexin and calreticulin, have high affinities for monoglucosylated proteins and the ER chaperones that associate ...
Chaperone proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum, such as calnexin and calreticulin, bind to the three glucose residues present ...
... calreticulin, ERp57, and Binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP) facilitates the proper folding of class I MHC and its association ... the complete complex also contains calreticulin and Erp57 and, in mice, calnexin). Once the peptide is transported into the ER ...
Cunningham TJ, Jing H, Wang Y, Hodge L (2000). "Calreticulin binding and other biological activities of survival peptide Y-P30 ...
... calreticulin, ERp57, TAP, tapasin, and MHC class I acts to keep hold of MHC molecules until they have been fully loaded with ...
... Paul Eggleton eggleton at bioch.ox.ac.uk Thu Jun 17 11:21:46 EST 1999 *Previous message: Cb-Amp ... Dear All Please read attached document for details of 4th international CALRETICULIN workshop to be held at Oxford University ...
If you know of any papers that use this antibody, please contact us at antibodies [at] alzforum [dot] org for consideration in the References section.. ...
... Frank C Hay frank at rabbits.demon.co.uk Wed May 3 06:49:58 EST 1995 *Previous message: The Case of ... Does anyone have an antibody to human calreticulin that they can let us have for work on rheumatoid arthritis? Thanks Frank -- ...
Ecto-calreticulin in immunogenic chemotherapy.. Obeid M1, Tesniere A, Panaretakis T, Tufi R, Joza N, van Endert P, Ghiringhelli ... We discovered that the pre-apoptotic translocation of intracellular calreticulin (endo-CRT) to the plasma membrane surface ( ...
Calreticulin, a 60 kDa Ca-binding protein, is a major ER component of non-muscle cells. Calreticulin plays a central role in ... Calreticulin in San Francisco (fwd). Michal Opas m.opas at utoronto.ca Tue Oct 29 14:41:25 EST 1996 *Previous message: ... The Calreticulin Meeting will be held on: December 7th, 1996, 1:00 pm - 5:00 pm in: Moscone Convention Center, room 256. ... Furthermore, calreticulin modulates gene expression, is a chaperone and affects cell adhesion. How does the protein do all of ...
The discovery of mutations in exon 9 of the calreticulin (CALR) gene in the majority of cases of JAK2 wild-type essential ... Mutation of the Calreticulin (CALR) Gene in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms. Jason Gotlib, MD, MS Professor of Medicine Stanford ... Calreticulin mutation does not modify the IPSET score for predicting the risk of thrombosis among 1150 patients with essential ... The discovery of mutations in exon 9 of the calreticulin (CALR) gene in the majority of cases of JAK2 wild-type essential ...
Chicken polyclonal Calreticulin antibody validated for WB, IP, ICC, ICC/IF and tested in Human, Mouse, Rat and Rabbit. ... Western blot of calreticulin on HeLa cell extract using ab2908. Western blot of calreticulin on HeLa cell extract using ab2908. ... All lanes : Anti-Calreticulin antibody (ab2908) at 1/2000 dilution. Lane 1 : MCF7. Lane 2 : MDA-MB-231. Lane 3 : HeLa. Lane 4 ... Synthetic peptide corresponding to Mouse Calreticulin aa 399-414.. Sequence: DEKEEDEEESPGQAKD (Peptide available as ab4927). ...
PS00803. CALRETICULIN_1. 1 hit. PS00804. CALRETICULIN_2. 1 hit. PS00805. CALRETICULIN_REPEAT. 1 hit. ... PS00803. CALRETICULIN_1. 1 hit. PS00804. CALRETICULIN_2. 1 hit. PS00805. CALRETICULIN_REPEAT. 1 hit. ... IPR009169. Calreticulin. IPR009033. Calreticulin/calnexin_P_dom_sf. IPR013320. ConA-like_dom_sf. ... IPR009169. Calreticulin. IPR009033. Calreticulin/calnexin_P_dom_sf. IPR013320. ConA-like_dom_sf. ...
Buy our Recombinant Human Calreticulin protein. Ab40609 is a protein fragment produced in Escherichia coli and has been ... Recombinant Human Calreticulin protein images. * SDS-PAGE - Calreticulin protein (His tag) (ab40609) ... Calreticulin is also found in the nucleus, suggesting that it may have a role in transcription regulation. Calreticulin binds ... Systemic lupus erythematosus is associated with increased autoantibody titers against calreticulin but calreticulin is not a Ro ...
... via the calreticulin/calnexin cycle. This lectin interacts transiently with almost all of the monoglucosylated glycoproteins ... PS00803 CALRETICULIN_1, 1 hit. PS00804 CALRETICULIN_2, 1 hit. PS00805 CALRETICULIN_REPEAT, 3 hits. PS00014 ER_TARGET, 1 hit ... PS00803 CALRETICULIN_1, 1 hit. PS00804 CALRETICULIN_2, 1 hit. PS00805 CALRETICULIN_REPEAT, 3 hits. PS00014 ER_TARGET, 1 hit ... IPR009169 Calreticulin. IPR009033 Calreticulin/calnexin_P_dom_sf. IPR013320 ConA-like_dom_sf. ...
Gardai et al. suggest that on apoptotic cells, cell surface calreticulin (Crt), although it is also present on healthy cells, ... Cell-surface calreticulin initiates clearance of viable or apoptotic cells through trans-activation of LRP on the phagocyte. ...
Calreticulin Polyclonal Antibody from Invitrogen for Western Blot, Immunofluorescence, Immunocytochemistry and ... Cite Calreticulin Polyclonal Antibody. The following antibody was used in this experiment: Calreticulin Polyclonal Antibody ... PA1-903 detects calreticulin from human, rat, mouse, hamster, rabbit and canine tissues.. PA1-903 has been successfully used in ... Calr or Calreticulin is a calcium-binding chaperone that promotes folding, oligomeric assembly and quality control in the ...
Calreticulin has also been suggested to be a component of the peptide loading complex where it interacts with other ER resident ... 9.0 9.1 Michalak, M., Groenendyk, J., Szabo, E., Gold, L. I. and Opas, M. Calreticulin, a multi-process calcium-buffering ... For a complete list of CFG data and resources relating to this paradigm, see the CFG database search results for calreticulin. ... 1.0 1.1 Ellgaard, L. and Frickel, E. M. Calnexin, calreticulin, and ERp57: teammates in glycoprotein folding. Cell Biochem ...
Calreticulin. A, B, C. 265. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: CALR, CRTC. ... A calreticulin molecular zipper, observed in all crystal lattices, could further extend this site by creating a binding cavity ... In the endoplasmic reticulum, calreticulin acts as a chaperone and a Ca(2+)-signalling protein. At the cell surface, it ... In the endoplasmic reticulum, calreticulin acts as a chaperone and a Ca(2+)-signalling protein. At the cell surface, it ...
The exposure of calreticulin (CRT) on the plasma membrane can precede anthracycline-induced apoptosis and is required for cell ... The co-translocation of ERp57 and calreticulin determines the immunogenicity of cell death. *T Panaretakis1,2,3. na1, ... Calreticulin couples calcium release and calcium influx in integrin-mediated calcium signaling. Mol Biol Cell 2000; 11: 1433- ... Ecto-Calreticulin is essential for an efficient immunogenic cell death stimulation in mouse melanoma *Paola Giglio ...
Michael Davidsons lab contains the insert Calreticulin. This plasmid is available through Addgene. ... mEmerald-Calreticulin-N-16 was a gift from Michael Davidson (Addgene plasmid # 54023 ; http://n2t.net/addgene:54023 ; RRID: ...
Calreticulin is a binding protein for muramyl dipeptide and peptidoglycan in RK13 cells. Chen, D., Duggan, C., Reden, T.B., ... A single purification procedure for the major resident proteins of the ER lumen: endoplasmin, BiP, calreticulin and protein ... Calreticulin destabilizes glucose transporter-1 mRNA in vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells under high-glucose ... Comparison of cDNAs from bovine brain coding for two isoforms of calreticulin. Liu, N., Fine, R.E., Johnson, R.J. Biochim. ...
The lollipop plot above illustrates recurrent (observed in 3 or more out of 4440 TCGA tumor samples from 15 cancer types) and therefore potentially oncogenic missense mutations (click on Show Cancer Mutations). The bar plot below shows the proportion of tumor samples that have any kind of altering mutation(s) in the given protein. ...
Identification of calreticulin as a nuclear matrix protein associated with human colon cancer.. Brünagel G1, Shah U, Schoen RE ... The aim of this study was to confirm the identity of the protein as calreticulin as well as to evaluate the localization of ... The multi-functional protein, calreticulin, is normally found in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum although some reports ... The amino acid composition of this protein revealed sequence similarity with calreticulin. ...
Browse our Calreticulin-2/CALR3 Lysate catalog backed by our Guarantee+. ... Calreticulin-2/CALR3 lysate, CALR3 lysate, calreticulin 2 lysate, calreticulin 3 lysate, Calreticulin-2 lysate, calreticulin-3 ... Calreticulin-2/CALR3 Lysates. We offer Calreticulin-2/CALR3 Lysates for use in common research applications: Western Blot. Each ... Our Calreticulin-2/CALR3 Lysates can be used in a variety of model species: Human. Use the list below to choose the ...
Calreticulin, a multi-process calcium-buffering chaperone of the endoplasmic reticulum. Biochem J 2009;417(3):651-666. ... Mutations in the calreticulin gene (CALR) represented by deletions and insertions in exon 9 inducing a −1/+2 frameshift are ... Somatic mutations of calreticulin in myeloproliferative neoplasms. N Engl J Med 2013;369(25):2379-2390. ... Calreticulin is essential for cardiac development. J Cell Biol 1999;144(5):857-868. ...
In addition calreticulin is a major storage form for CALCIUM and functions as a calcium-signaling molecule that can regulate ... Calreticulin: A multifunctional protein that is found primarily within membrane-bound organelles. In the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM ... Calreticulin. Subscribe to New Research on Calreticulin A multifunctional protein that is found primarily within membrane-bound ... In addition calreticulin is a major storage form for CALCIUM and functions as a calcium-signaling molecule that can regulate ...
Calreticulin,Calreticulin. A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J. Hide Full Details. 265. Homo sapiens. Mutation ... Calreticulin (CRT) is a multifaceted protein, initially discovered as an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone protein, that is ... Calreticulin (CRT) is a multifaceted protein, initially discovered as an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone protein, that is ... Structures of parasite calreticulins provide insights into their flexibility and dual carbohydrate/peptide-binding properties. ...
Calreticulin and calnexin are Ca2+-binding chaperones localized in the endoplasmic reticulum of eukaryotes acting in ... Calreticulin Calnexin Chaperones Evolution Green plants Electronic supplementary material. The online version of this article ( ... Crofts AJ, Denecke J (1998) Calreticulin and calnexin in plants. Trends Plants Sci 3:396-399CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Calreticulin and calnexin possibly share a common origin, and both proteins are present along all green plants lineages. The ...
Order monoclonal and polyclonal Calreticulin antibodies for many applications. Selected quality suppliers for anti-Calreticulin ... Calreticulin (CALR) Antigen Profile Protein Summary Calreticulin is a multifunctional protein that acts as a major Ca(2+)- ... Calreticulin in Retinoic Acid Receptor Signaling Pathway * Calreticulin in Retinoic Acid Receptor Signaling Pathway ... Calreticulin in Intracellular Steroid Hormone Receptor Signaling Pathway * Calreticulin in Regulation of Intracellular Steroid ...
... but calreticulin is not a Ro/SS-A antigen. Earlier papers referred to calreticulin as an Ro/SS-A antigen, but this was later ... Functional analysis of recombinant calreticulin fragment 39-272: implications for immunobiological activities of calreticulin ... Calreticulin binds to the [[synthetic peptide]] KLGFFKR, which is almost identical to an amino acid sequence in the [[DNA- ... Transcription regulation === Calreticulin is also found in the nucleus, suggesting that it may have a role in transcription ...
Surface-exposed HSP70 and calreticulin are damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) crucially involved in modulating the ... Surface-exposed HSP70 and calreticulin are damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) crucially involved in modulating the ... Calreticulin exposure dictates the immunogenicity of cancer cell death. Nat Med 13(1):54-61. doi: 10.1038/nm1523 PubMedCrossRef ... surface expression of calreticulin and high-mobility group box-1 release. Cancer Immunol Immunother. doi: 10.1007/s00262-011- ...
The exposure of calreticulin (CRT) on the plasma membrane can precede anthracycline-induced apoptosis and is required for cell ... The co-translocation of ERp57 and calreticulin determines the immunogenicity of cell death Cell Death Differ. 2008 Sep;15(9): ... The exposure of calreticulin (CRT) on the plasma membrane can precede anthracycline-induced apoptosis and is required for cell ...
MBP-calreticulin-N, 33). The purified MBP-calreticulin-N (Fig. 3, lane 2) and the cleaved calreticulin-N (Fig. 3, lane 3), but ... To assess whether specific fragments of calreticulin might exhibit inhibitory activity, the NH2-terminal calreticulin domain, ... a rabbit anti-calreticulin N, or a rabbit anti-calreticulin P domain antiserum ((30)). Bound antibody was detected with an ... neither calreticulin nor the NH2-domain of calreticulin has been shown previously to inhibit endothelial cell growth, ...
Here, we identified that T. spiralis calreticulin (Ts-CRT), a Ca2+-binding protein, facilitated T. spiralis immune evasion by ... Here, we identified that T. spiralis calreticulin (Ts-CRT), a Ca2+ binding protein, facilitated T. spiralis immune evasion by ... Trichinella spiralis calreticulin (Ts-CRT) binds to human C1q. (A) ELISA plate coated with different doses of C1q or BSA (0, ... Trichinella spiralis Calreticulin Binds Human Complement C1q As an Immune Evasion Strategy. Limei Zhao1,2, Shuai Shao1,2, Yi ...
  • The discovery of mutations in exon 9 of the calreticulin (CALR) gene in the majority of cases of JAK2 wild-type essential thrombocythemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF) came out of left field. (hematology.org)
  • Mutations in the calreticulin gene (CALR) represented by deletions and insertions in exon 9 inducing a −1/+2 frameshift are associated with a significant fraction of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). (bloodjournal.org)
  • 297 Calreticulin (CALR) Antibodies from 29 manufacturers are available on www.antibodies-online.com. (antibodies-online.com)
  • ncRNA-RB1 positively regulates the expression of calreticulin (CALR) that in response to certain therapeutic interventions can translocate from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface, hence activating anticancer immune responses. (nih.gov)
  • In 2013, two seminal studies identified gain-of-function mutations in the Calreticulin ( CALR ) gene in a subset of JAK2 / MPL -negative myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) patients. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In this study, we show that PV red blood cells have an unexpectedly high expression of endoplasmic reticulum proteins at the membrane, including calnexin (CANX) and calreticulin (CALR), and present evidence that JAK2 V617F induces CALR overexpression. (haematologica.org)
  • Dr. Dao shares information about the latest discoveries, including the calreticulin (CALR) mutation and what it means for patients. (patientpower.info)
  • Recently, somatic mutations of the calreticulin (CALR) gene have been identified in MPN patients lacking the JAK2 mutation. (cdc.gov)
  • Mutations in the calreticulin (CALR) gene were recently discovered in patients with essential thrombocythemia (ET) lacking the JAK2V617F and MPLW515 mutations, but no information is available on the clinical correlates. (cdc.gov)
  • Calreticulin (CALR) is a major calcium binding protein. (allaboutblood.com)
  • The real-time PCR assay detects Type I and I calreticulin (CALR) mutations and mutations in the CALR exon. (biocentury.com)
  • CeMM granted Qiagen an exclusive, worldwide license to the calreticulin (CALR) biomarker. (biocentury.com)
  • The company offers the PCR-based test, which detects mutations in the calreticulin (CALR) gene from blood and. (biocentury.com)
  • Recurrent mutations in the ER chaperone calreticulin (CALR) are found in ~30% of MPNs. (ashpublications.org)
  • Recently, recurrent mutations in the gene encoding calreticulin (CALR) have been identified in a majority (70-85%) of MPN patients without JAK2 or MPL mutations. (viapath.co.uk)
  • Stefan Constantinescu and his team provide evidence that mutated calreticulins are delinquent (rogue) chaperones for their client protein TpoR, and that the oncogenic effects require exposure of the TpoR-mutated CALR on the cell-surface. (welbio.org)
  • While scientists from University of Pavia found that in CALR-mutated MPNs, defective interaction between mutant calreticulin and SOCE proteins promotes megakaryocyte proliferation. (abebio.com)
  • About one fourth of patients with essential thrombocythemia or primary myelofibrosis carry a somatic mutation of CALR, the gene encoding for calreticulin. (abebio.com)
  • We studied the interaction between calreticulin and Store Operated Calcium (Ca2+) Entry (SOCE) machinery in megakaryocytes from healthy individuals and from patients with CALR-mutated myeloproliferative neoplasms. (abebio.com)
  • In megakaryocytes from patients with CALR-mutated myeloproliferative neoplasms, defective interactions between mutant calreticulin, ERp57, and STIM1 activated SOCE and generated spontaneous cytosolic Ca2+ flows. (abebio.com)
  • In 2013, two groups detected calreticulin mutations in a majority of JAK2-negative/MPL-negative patients with essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis, which makes CALR mutations the second most common in myeloproliferative neoplasms. (wikipedia.org)
  • We have also shown that high amounts of wild-type tapasin are still unable to associate with MHC class I in the absence of the MHC class I/calreticulin interaction, confirming the central role of calreticulin in the formation of the MHC class I assembly complex. (lu.se)
  • My research, I have a laboratory, a research component to my program where I am currently investigating the role of calreticulin in-and its mechanisms of JAK/STAT activation. (patientpower.info)
  • To examine the biological role of calreticulin in cardiac differentiation, the calreticulin gene was introduced into rat cardiomyoblast H9c2 cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Moreover, when the release of granule-associated proteins was triggered by stimulation of the T cell receptor complex, calreticulin was released along with granzymes A and D. Since perforin is activated and becomes lytic in the presence of calcium, we propose that the role of calreticulin is to prevent organelle autolysis due to the protein's calcium chelator capacity. (unige.ch)
  • Further research is warranted to elucidate the role of calreticulin as a chaperone or regulator of calcium homeostasis in the expression of polycystin-2. (qscience.com)
  • To date no information is available about the role of calreticulin in EGFR expression and folding. (qscience.com)
  • Does anyone have an antibody to human calreticulin that they can let us have for work on rheumatoid arthritis? (bio.net)
  • The following antibody was used in this experiment: Calreticulin Polyclonal Antibody from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # PA1-903, RRID AB_2228457. (thermofisher.com)
  • By Western blot, this antibody detects an ~60 kDa protein representing calreticulin and an ~120 kDa unidentified protein from rat brain extract. (thermofisher.com)
  • The following product was used in this experiment: calreticulin Polyclonal Antibody from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # 10292-1-AP. (thermofisher.com)
  • Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded human hepatoma, using Calreticulin(GTX111627) antibody at 1:500 dilution. (genetex.com)
  • Calreticulin antibody detects Calreticulin protein by western blot analysis. (genetex.com)
  • Various whole cell extracts (30 µg) were separated by 10% SDS-PAGE, and the membrane was blotted with Calreticulin antibody (GTX111627) diluted at a dilution of 1:1000. (genetex.com)
  • Primary antibody: Anti-Calreticulin (405-417) Rabbit pAb (Cat. (emdmillipore.com)
  • Blocking the interaction of target cell calreticulin with its receptor, low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein, on phagocytic cells prevented anti-CD47 antibody-mediated phagocytosis. (sciencemag.org)
  • These findings identify calreticulin as the dominant pro-phagocytic signal on several human cancers, provide an explanation for the selective targeting of tumor cells by anti-CD47 antibody, and highlight the balance between pro- and anti-phagocytic signals in the immune evasion of cancer. (sciencemag.org)
  • A new monoclonal antibody (CAL2) detects CALRETICULIN mutations in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded bone marrow biopsies. (sysy.com)
  • Primary antibody: Anti-Calreticulin Mouse mAb (FMC75) (Cat. (emdmillipore.com)
  • Immunohistochemical analysis of calreticulin in pancreatic/ampullary tumor tissue arrays using an isoform nonspecific antibody revealed diffuse and consistent cytoplasmic staining in the neoplastic epithelial cells of the pancreatic and ampullary adenocarcinomas. (nih.gov)
  • Calreticulin is a cell surface protein newly implicated in anti-DNA antibody binding on cell surfaces. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As is the case for other proteins implicated in antibody penetration of cells (e.g. heparan sulfate, collagen type IV, fibronectin, and myosin 1) the mechanisms by which calreticulin mediates this activity is not understood. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The authors failed to demonstrate definitively that binding of calreticulin by antibodies occurred at the cell surface (rather than in the endoplasmic reticulum following uptake), although soluble calreticulin inhibited subsequent antibody uptake in CHO cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Supplier Stressmarq, SPC-122B, 200ul Calreticulin Antibody Pol. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Calreticulin Antibody Polyclonal Host: Rabbit Immunogen: Human calreticulin synthetic peptide with a cysteine residue added and the peptide conjugated to KLH rabbit polyclonal These antibodies are very stable and can be stored up to 2 months at fridge temperature under 10C. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Do not freeze taw, rather use Calreticulin Antibody Polyclonal Host: Rabbit Immunogen: Human calreticulin synthetic peptide with a cysteine residue added and the peptide conjugated to KLH from the fridge if your use is less than 1 or 2 weeks. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Gentaur suppliers human normal cells, cell lines, RNA extracts and lots of antibodies and elisa kit to Human proteins as well as Calreticulin Antibody Polyclonal Host: Rabbit Immunogen: Human calreticulin synthetic peptide with a cysteine residue added and the peptide conjugated to KLH. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Loss of calreticulin function resulted in a significant increase in the expression of EGFR as was determined by western blot analysis with anti-EGFR antibody. (qscience.com)
  • Calreticulin mutation specific CAL2 immunohistochemistry accurately identifies rare calreticulin mutations in myeloproliferative neoplasms. (sysy.com)
  • Mutation specific immunohistochemistry is highly specific for the presence of calreticulin mutations in myeloproliferative neoplasms. (sysy.com)
  • Clinical Manifestation of Calreticulin Gene Mutations in Essential Thrombocythemia without Janus Kinase 2 and MPL Mutations: A Chinese Cohort Clinical Study. (cdc.gov)
  • Calreticulin and calnexin possibly share a common origin, and both proteins are present along all green plants lineages. (springer.com)
  • Both proteins, calnexin and calreticulin, have the function of binding to [[oligosaccharide]]s containing terminal glucose residues, thereby targeting them for degradation. (wikidoc.org)
  • rER]] will re-add glucose residues so that other calreticulin/calnexin can bind to these proteins and prevent them from proceeding to the Golgi. (wikidoc.org)
  • Calreticulin and calnexin are also integral proteins in the production of [[MHC class I]] Proteins. (wikidoc.org)
  • To provide a common research basis for plant calreticulins, a new nomenclature for the proteins was suggested. (lu.se)
  • Prior to binding to antigenic peptide, the major histoconipatibility complex (MHC) heavy chain associates with an assembly complex of proteins that includes calreticulin, tapasin, and the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP). (lu.se)
  • Here we provide evidence that C1q and mannose binding lectin (MBL), a member of the collectin family of proteins, bind to apoptotic cells and stimulate ingestion of these by ligation on the phagocyte surface of the multifunctional protein, calreticulin (also known as the cC1qR), which in turn is bound to the endocytic receptor protein CD91, also known as the α-2-macroglobulin receptor. (rupress.org)
  • Immunoprecipitation of proteins from in vivo-labeled cells demonstrated that RPL60/calreticulin is associated with other polypeptides in a stress- and ATP-dependent fashion. (plantcell.org)
  • Moreover, using coimmunoprecipitation assays, we identify the direct binding of p12 I with both calreticulin and calnexin, resident ER proteins which regulate calcium storage. (asm.org)
  • Overexpression of the conserved Ca 2+ -binding proteins calreticulin and calsequestrin impairs cardiac function, leading to premature death. (biochemj.org)
  • Calreticulin proteins (CRTs) are important components of tick saliva, which is involved in the blood meal success, pathogen transmission and host allergic responses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Calreticulin (CRT) resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and functions to chaperone proteins, ensuring proper folding, and intracellular Ca 2+ homeostasis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Calreticulin is a calcium storage protein and carries a COOH-terminal KDEL sequence, known to act as a retention signal for proteins destined to the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum. (unige.ch)
  • As an endoplasmic reticulum chaperone calreticulin regulates the maturation and folding of several trans-membrane proteins. (qscience.com)
  • By doing so, the mutant calreticulin proteins are able to permanently activate the TpoR leading to excess and clonal proliferation of blood progenitors and eventually to blood cancer. (welbio.org)
  • Biophysical, mutagenesis and protein folding experiments showed that the two proteins interact within a distance of less than 10 nm, and that binding to mutated calreticulins induce dimerization of TpoR in an active conformation. (welbio.org)
  • suggest that on apoptotic cells, cell surface calreticulin (Crt), although it is also present on healthy cells, becomes recognized by the engulfing cells, thereby contributing to the phagocytosis signal. (sciencemag.org)
  • In addition, evidence is provided to support a role for cell surface calreticulin (CRT) in (also known as the cC1qR) binding the collagenous tails of C1q and MBL attached to the apoptotic cell. (rupress.org)
  • Thrombospondin (TSP) signals focal adhesion disassembly (the intermediate adhesive state) through interactions with cell surface calreticulin (CRT). (rupress.org)
  • Ellgaard, L. and Frickel, E. M. Calnexin, calreticulin, and ERp57: teammates in glycoprotein folding. (functionalglycomics.org)
  • The assembly of MHC class I molecules with β 2 -microglobulin and peptides is assisted by the housekeeping chaperones calnexin, calreticulin, and Erp57 and the dedicated accessory protein, tapasin. (elsevier.com)
  • As we know in normal megakaryocytes, calreticulin regulates the activation of Store Operated Calcium Entry (SOCE) by interacting with ERp57 and STIM1. (abebio.com)
  • This resulted in the dissociation of the ERp57-mediated complex between calreticulin and STIM1, a protein of the SOCE machinery that leads to Ca2+ mobilization. (abebio.com)
  • Molecular calcium-binding chaperone promoting folding, oligomeric assembly and quality control in the ER via the calreticulin/calnexin cycle. (abcam.com)
  • A calreticulin molecular zipper, observed in all crystal lattices, could further extend this site by creating a binding cavity lined by hydrophobic residues. (rcsb.org)
  • These data thus provide a first structural insight into the lectin-independent binding properties of calreticulin and suggest new working hypotheses, including that of a multi-molecular mechanism. (rcsb.org)
  • X-ray structure of the human calreticulin globular domain reveals a peptide-binding area and suggests a multi-molecular mechanism. (rcsb.org)
  • Surface-exposed HSP70 and calreticulin are damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) crucially involved in modulating the success of cancer therapy. (springer.com)
  • Calreticulin is recognized as one of the pivotal damage-associated molecular pattern molecules alerting the host of the presence of distressed cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Such surface-exposed calreticulin serves as a powerful mobilizing signal to the immune system, which has inspired recognition of calreticulin as one of the most important damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) ( 5 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Gel filtration experiments showed that BiP and calreticulin are present in distinct high molecular weight complexes in which both molecules interact with each other. (plantcell.org)
  • Calreticulin (CRT), initially identified as a ubiquitous calcium-binding protein in the endoplasmic reticulum, has emerged as a multifunctional protein with roles in calcium homeostasis, molecular chaperoning and cell adhesion. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Molecular cloning and functional study of calreticulin from a lepidopteran pest, Pieris rapae. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Molecular characteristics and expression analysis of calreticulin in Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Molecular responses of calreticulin gene to Vibrio anguillarum and WSSV challenge in the ridgetail white prawn Exopalaemon carinicauda. (semanticscholar.org)
  • To be more about Amazon Sponsored Products, download Calreticulin (Molecular directory of young Just. (weyhs.de)
  • The molecular basis of this phenomenon remained basically unknown until our proposal that T. cruzi Calreticulin (TcCRT), an endoplasmic reticulum-resident chaperone, translocated-externalized by the parasite, may mediate at least an important part of this effect. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 1 Recently, we reported that tumor cells undergoing immunogenic cell death translocate intracellular calreticulin (endo-CRT) to their plasma membrane (PM) surface (ecto-CRT), facilitating tumor cell recognition and engulfment by dendritic cells (DC) and subsequent T-cell-mediated elimination of the tumor. (nature.com)
  • By tracing how anthracyclines and γ-irradiation trigger immunogenic cell deaths, we found that they were causally connected to the exposure of calreticulin on the tumor cell surface, before apoptosis in the tumor cell itself occurred. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Calreticulin ( CRT ) exposure in immunogenic cell death. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Calreticulin is a multifunctional protein that acts as a major Ca(2+)-binding (storage) protein in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum. (genetex.com)
  • Calreticulin is a multifunctional protein mainly localized in the endoplasmic reticulum in eukaryotic organisms, except yeasts. (lu.se)
  • The multifunctional properties assigned to calreticulins have triggered a search for additional isoforms and for two or more copies of calreticulin genes in mammals. (lu.se)
  • Calreticulin (CRT) is a highly conserved and multifunctional endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone protein and plays important roles in salinity stress response. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Calreticulin is a multifunctional protein. (sinobiological.com)
  • Synthetic peptide corresponding to Mouse Calreticulin aa 399-414. (abcam.com)
  • PA1-903 immunizing peptide corresponds to amino acid residues 399-414 from mouse calreticulin. (thermofisher.com)
  • The mouse calreticulin gene consists of nine exons and eight introns, and it spans 4.2 kb of genomic DNA. (elsevier.com)
  • It has a high degree of homology with human (HuCRT) and mouse calreticulin (MoCRT), which would explain why an immune response to TcCRT could contribute to autoimmune reactions in Chagas' disease. (unab.cl)
  • We discovered that the pre-apoptotic translocation of intracellular calreticulin (endo-CRT) to the plasma membrane surface (ecto-CRT) is critical for the recognition and engulfment of dying tumor cells by dendritic cells. (nih.gov)
  • In this role, calreticulin becomes exposed on the surface of tumor cells treated by several types of cancer therapy including photodynamic therapy (PDT). (frontiersin.org)
  • Recombinant calreticulin was found to bind to mouse SCCVII tumor cells treated by PDT. (frontiersin.org)
  • In PDT-vaccine protocol, where PDT-treated SCCVII cells are used for vaccination of SCCVII tumor-bearing mice, adding recombinant calreticulin to cells before their injection produced improved therapeutic effect. (frontiersin.org)
  • The expression of calreticulin gene was reduced in PDT-treated cells, while no changes were observed with the expression of this gene in tumor, liver, and spleen tissues in PDT-vaccine-treated mice. (frontiersin.org)
  • We have recently identified ( a ) ectocalreticulin as the main source of immunogenicity of cancer cell death induced by chemotherapy or radiotherapy, ( b ) ectoERP57 as critical protein for inducing cell surface exposure of calreticulin, and ( c ) that ectoERP57 and ectocalreticulin are cotranslocated together to the tumor cell surface by the mediator of the inhibition of PP1/GADD34 complex. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our current on-going experiments are focusing on identifying the mechanism(s) through which calreticulin appears to promote anti-tumor immunity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Does native Trypanosoma cruzi calreticulin mediate growth inhibition of a mammary tumor during infection? (biomedcentral.com)
  • Similarly, lung tumor cell lines isolated from calreticulin over expressing cells expressed high levels of EGFR. (qscience.com)
  • Calreticulin and calnexin are Ca 2+ -binding chaperones localized in the endoplasmic reticulum of eukaryotes acting in glycoprotein folding quality control and Ca 2+ homeostasis. (springer.com)
  • Calreticulin binds to antibodies in certain sera of systemic lupus and Sjogren patients which contain anti-Ro/SSA antibodies, it is highly conserved among species, and it is located in the endoplasmic and sarcoplasmic reticulum where it may bind calcium. (abcam.com)
  • Finally, the authors demonstrated that four different anti-DNA antibodies can bind to calreticulin. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Seddiki N, Nato F, Lafay P, Amoura Z, Piette J-C, Mazie J-C: Calreticulin, a potential cell surface receptor involved in cell penetration of anti-DNA antibodies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Calreticulin mutants responsible for myeloproliferative neoplasms specifically activate the thrombopoietin receptor and in turn JAK2. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Calreticulin haploinsufficiency augments stem cell activity and is required for onset of myeloproliferative neoplasms. (onmedica.com)
  • Recent results just published by WELBIO Investigator Stefan Constantinescu (UCLouvain) and his team in the journal Blood report a novel mechanism by which that a class of mutants in the chaperone calreticulin induce blood cancers denoted as myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). (welbio.org)
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus is associated with increased autoantibody titers against calreticulin but calreticulin is not a Ro/SS-A antigen. (abcam.com)
  • Earlier papers referred to calreticulin as an Ro/SS-A antigen but this was later disproven. (abcam.com)
  • We demonstrate that Tc45, a polypeptide described as an immunogenetically restricted Trypanosoma cruzi antigen in mice, is calreticulin, a dimorphic molecule encoded by genes with variable chromosomal distribution. (ajtmh.org)
  • Early calreticulin exposure is required for the uptake of antigen by DC. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Van Endert, Peter M. / Calreticulin promotes folding of functional human leukocyte antigen class I molecules in vitro . (elsevier.com)
  • 1) Kageyama S, et al : Identification by Proteomic Analysis of Calreticulin as a Marker for Bladder Cancer and Evaluation of the Diagnostic Accuracy of Its Detection in Urine. (cosmobio.com)
  • Tc45, a dimorphic Trypanosoma cruzi immunogen with variable chromosomal localization, is calreticulin. (ajtmh.org)
  • Michal Opas Department of Anatomy & Cell Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, CANADA Subcellular localization and function of endogenous and recombinant calreticulins. (bio.net)
  • The multi-functional protein, calreticulin, is normally found in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum although some reports have described a nuclear localization of the protein. (nih.gov)
  • The aim of this study was to confirm the identity of the protein as calreticulin as well as to evaluate the localization of calreticulin in the nuclear matrix of colon cancer tissue. (nih.gov)
  • To test this hypothesis we examined changes in polycystin expression and localization in wild type and calreticulin deficient cells using western blot analysis, and immunocytochemistry. (qscience.com)
  • Furthermore, western blot and immunohistochemical analyses were used to examine changes in polycystin expression and localization upon calreticulin over expression in vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells of transgenic mice. (qscience.com)
  • However, there were no significant changes in the localization of polycystin-2 protein in calreticulin deficient cells when compared to the wild type cells. (qscience.com)
  • Wild type calreticulin deficient (crt -/-) and mouse lung cancer cells isolated from transgenic mice over expressing calreticulin was used to examine the expression, localization and function of EGFR. (qscience.com)
  • Immunocytochemical staining of these cells did not show any significant change in the localization of EGFR in either calreticulin deficient or over expressing cells. (qscience.com)
  • Strikingly, these mutated calreticulins also can restore cell surface localization of a traffic-deficient mutant of TpoR (TpoR R102P) that is responsible for congenital amegakaryocytic thrombocythemia, a very severe disease.due to absence of the function of TpoR. (welbio.org)
  • a PDI (protein disulfide-isomerase)-like ER-resident protein], constitutes the 'calreticulin/calnexin cycle' that is responsible for folding and quality control of newly synthesized glycoproteins. (biochemj.org)
  • Probing protein blots of endoplasmic reticulum subfractions with radio-iodinated calreticulin showed specific associations with various polypeptides including one identified as the abundant reticuloplasmin protein disulfide isomerase. (deepdyve.com)
  • Activation of the thrombopoietin receptor requires the glycan binding site and a novel C-terminal tail of the mutant calreticulin. (bloodjournal.org)
  • To test this hypothesis, we loaded wild-type and calreticulin-deficient cells with fluo-3, and then we added saponin to permeabilize the plasma membrane (Favre et al. (nih.gov)
  • We have studied the interaction of ApoB with two lectin-like chaperones of the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)'Calnexin (CN) and Calreticulin (CR). (portlandpress.com)
  • The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the calreticulin family, members of which are calcium-binding chaperones localized mainly in the endoplasmic reticulum. (nih.gov)
  • Calreticulin mutants as oncogenic rogue chaperones for TpoR and traffic-defective pathogenic TpoR mutants. (welbio.org)
  • The amino terminus of calreticulin interacts with the DNA-binding domain of the glucocorticoid receptor and prevents the receptor from binding to its specific glucocorticoid response element. (abcam.com)
  • Calreticulin can inhibit the binding of androgen receptor to its hormone-responsive DNA element and can inhibit androgen receptor and retinoic acid receptor transcriptional activities in vivo, as well as retinoic acid-induced neuronal differentiation. (abcam.com)
  • We demonstrate here that calreticulin acts as a second general recognition ligand by binding and activating LDL-receptor-related protein (LRP) on the engulfing cell. (diva-portal.org)
  • The endoplasmatic protein calreticulin (CRT), in conjunction with Low density lipoprotein Receptorrelated Protein 1 (LRP1) on the phagocyte, can act as a receptor for collectin family members and mediate uptake of apoptotic cells. (diva-portal.org)
  • Our results indicate that calreticulin may play a role in folding of the bradykinin receptor, which affects its ability to initiate InsP3-dependent Ca2+ release in calreticulin-deficient cells. (nih.gov)
  • We have shown that expression of the InsP3R is reduced in calreticulin-deficient (K42) cells, whereas expression of the bradykinin receptor is not. (nih.gov)
  • Altered calreticulin expression does not affect EGFR receptor folding but rather increases its expression and function. (qscience.com)
  • Calreticulin reduces the binding of androgen receptor to its hormone-responsive DNA element and inhibits androgen receptor and retinoic acid receptor transcriptional activities in vivo, as well as retinoic acid-induced neuronal differentiation. (sinobiological.com)
  • The work demonstrates that mutated calreticulins hijack intracellular processing and the traffic to the cell surface of one key protein named thrombopoietin receptor (TpoR). (welbio.org)
  • Robert A. Clark Medicine Department, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX, USA Transcriptional regulation and promoter characterization of the calreticulin gene. (bio.net)
  • Calreticulin is a endoplasmic reticulum-located calcium binding protein important in calcium homeostasis as well as in protein folding. (lu.se)
  • Furthermore, calreticulin modulates gene expression, is a chaperone and affects cell adhesion. (bio.net)
  • Surface calreticulin expression on dying cancer cells is critical for their demise by immunological cell death (ICD) resulting in immune rejection of tumors with the same cells ( 7 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Phylogenetic analyses and expression profiling revealed that both monocotyledons and eudicotyledons contain two distinct calreticulin isoform groups: a Crt1/Crt2 and a Crt3 group. (lu.se)
  • Increased CD47 expression correlated with high amounts of calreticulin on cancer cells and was necessary for protection from calreticulin-mediated phagocytosis. (sciencemag.org)
  • Furthermore, increased calreticulin expression was an adverse prognostic factor in diverse tumors including neuroblastoma, bladder cancer, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. (sciencemag.org)
  • Calreticulin-induced phagocytosis of cancer cells can be counterbalanced by CD47 expression. (sciencemag.org)
  • Baksh S, Michalak M (1991) Expression of calreticulin in Escherichia coli and identification of its Ca 2+ binding domains. (springer.com)
  • To determine whether intra-uterine growth retardation or programmed hypertension was associated with altered calreticulin or calsequestrin expression, effects of prenatal glucocorticoid overexposure (maternal dexamethasone treatment on days 15-21 of pregnancy) were examined during fetal life and postnatal development until adulthood (24 weeks). (biochemj.org)
  • In control offspring, cardiac calreticulin protein expression declined between 2 and 3 weeks of age, and remained suppressed until adulthood. (biochemj.org)
  • Bradykinin binding and bradykinin-induced Ca2+ release are both restored by expression of full-length calreticulin and the N + P domain of the protein. (nih.gov)
  • Expression of the P + C domain of calreticulin does not affect bradykinin-induced Ca2+ release but restores the ER Ca2+ storage capacity. (nih.gov)
  • Our data showed that over expression of calreticulin in either vascular smooth muscle cells or endothelial cells of transgenic mice results in the development of multiple clear cysts in the kidney cortex of these mice. (qscience.com)
  • Furthermore, loss of calreticulin function resulted in altered polycystin-2 expression in the mouse embryonic fibroblast cell lines. (qscience.com)
  • Our data supports a possible role for calreticulin in the expression of polycystin-2. (qscience.com)
  • Coexpression analyses indicated several components with similar expression patterns as the respective calreticulins, suggesting that they might be part of the same functional units in the cell. (lu.se)
  • We evaluated the ability of SS1P to induce adenosine triphosphate (ATP) secretion and calreticulin expression on the surface of AE17M mouse mesothelioma cells. (mdpi.com)
  • In addition, SS1P induced calreticulin expression on the surface of AE17M cells. (mdpi.com)
  • Changes in the concentration of extracellular and cytoplasmic Ca 2+ did not affect the increased expression of the calreticulin gene. (elsevier.com)
  • These studies suggest that stress response to the depletion of intracellular Ca 2+ stores induces expression of the calreticulin gene in vitro and in vivo. (elsevier.com)
  • Several functions have been attributed to calreticulin including lectin-like chaperoning, regulation of gene expression, cell adhesion, auto-immunity and calcium homeostasis. (qscience.com)
  • Anti-Calreticulin (405-417), rabbit polyclonal, recognizes the ~63 kDa calreticulin in heat-shocked HeLa cells. (emdmillipore.com)
  • The exposure of calreticulin (CRT) on the plasma membrane can precede anthracycline-induced apoptosis and is required for cell death to be perceived as immunogenic. (nature.com)
  • Calreticulin is primarily ER-residing chaperone protein with a broad array of cellular functions, including maintenance of adequate calcium levels, protein folding and trafficking, gene transcription regulation, cell adherence and migration, apoptosis and dead cell clearance, and immune responses ( 1 , 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Cancer therapy-mediated lethal insults that involve stress induction in the ER induce the translocation of calreticulin to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane by an active process occurring before the appearance of morphological signs of apoptosis ( 3 , 4 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Upon culture in a differentiation medium containing fetal calf serum (1%) and retinoic acid (10nM), cells transfected with the calreticulin gene were highly susceptible to apoptosis compared with controls. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Thus, overexpression of calreticulin promotes differntiation-dependent apoptosis in H9c2 cells by suppressing the Akt signaling pathway. (nii.ac.jp)
  • These findings indicate a novel mechanism by which cytoplasmic Akt signaling is modulated to cause apoptosis by a resident protein of the endoplasmic reticulum, calreticulin. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Tai, M. Inhibition of Experimental Choroidal Neovascularization by a Novel Peptide Derived from Calreticulin Anti-Angiogenic Domain. (preprints.org)
  • Here we show that a calreticulin anti-angiogenic domain (CAD)-like peptide 27, CAD27, inhibited in vitro angiogenic activities, including tube formation and migration of endothelial cells, and suppressed vascular sprouting from rat aortic ring explants. (preprints.org)
  • This study evaluated the effect of a novel endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis, calreticulin anti-angiogenic domain (CAD), subconjunctivally delivered by an adenoviral vector (Ad-CAD) in a rat model of laser-induced CNV. (edu.au)
  • Discovery of the Calreticulin Mutation: What Does It Mean for Patients? (patientpower.info)
  • So calreticulin is a ubiquitous protein, and it's not clear how it leads to the same disease in those patients that have the JAK2V617F mutation. (patientpower.info)
  • The question is really how does calreticulin and this mutation lead to JAK/STAT signaling specifically because we don't see a direct connection at the present moment. (patientpower.info)
  • Using mutation studies we have concluded that overlapping as well as specific functions also could be assigned to the respective calreticulin isoforms. (lu.se)
  • Studies on transgenic mice reveal that calreticulin is a cardiac embryonic gene that is essential during development. (wikidoc.org)
  • We offer Calreticulin-2/CALR3 Lysates for use in common research applications: Western Blot. (novusbio.com)
  • Calreticulin is vital for embryonic development, but also impairs glucocorticoid action. (biochemj.org)
  • Calreticulin is a Ca2+-binding chaperone in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and calreticulin gene knockout is embryonic lethal. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we used calreticulin-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts to examine the function of calreticulin as a regulator of Ca2+ homeostasis. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we identified that T. spiralis calreticulin ( Ts -CRT), a Ca 2+ -binding protein, facilitated T. spiralis immune evasion by interacting with the first component of human classical complement pathway, C1q. (frontiersin.org)
  • Raghavan M, Wijeyesakere SJ, Peters LR, Del Cid N (2013) Calreticulin in the immune system: ins and outs. (springer.com)
  • Winfrey, Ron 2004-09-29 00:00:00 A full-length cDNA encoding a calreticulin-like protein was isolated by immune-screening a germinating castor bean endosperm cDNA library with antisera raised to the total lumenal fraction of purified plant endoplasmic reticulum. (deepdyve.com)
  • An autoantibody-mediated immune response to calreticulin isoforms in pancreatic cancer. (nih.gov)
  • Calreticulin (CRT) is a chaperone protein which normally resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). (biomedcentral.com)
  • To elucidate the function of CRTs in plant responses against drought, a main abiotic stress limiting cereal crop production worldwide, a full-length cDNA encoding calreticulin protein namely TaCRT was isolated from wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.). The deduced amino acid sequence of TaCRT shares high homology with other plant CRTs. (oup.com)
  • A transgenic mouse whose genome comprises a transcriptional control region operably linked to a cDNA encoding calreticulin (CRT) is described. (justia.com)
  • The purified recombinant NH 2 -terminal domain of calreticulin (amino acids 1-180) inhibited the proliferation of endothelial cells, but not cells of other lineages, and suppressed angiogenesis in vivo. (rupress.org)
  • We have named this NH 2 -terminal domain of calreticulin vasostatin. (rupress.org)
  • We concluded that the C domain of calreticulin plays a role in Ca2+ storage and that the N domain may participate in its chaperone functions. (nih.gov)
  • Our data show that calreticulin can bind weakly to L-d without tapasin's assistance, and that deglycosylation of the alpha1 domain results in a primary loss of binding to calreticulin rather than tapasin. (lu.se)
  • We conclude that calreticulin promotes the folding of HLA class I molecules to a state in which, at low temperature, they spontaneously acquire peptide binding capacity. (elsevier.com)
  • David B. Williams Department of Biochemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, CANADA Lectin and chaperone properties of calreticulin and calnexin. (bio.net)
  • Anthracyclines or γ-irradiation lead to the activation of one or several unknown caspases and then to the phosphorylation of eIF2α, followed by the translocation of calreticulin to the cell surface. (aacrjournals.org)
  • BiP is found in association with calreticulin, both in the presence and absence of endoplasmic reticulum stress. (plantcell.org)
  • Increased autoantibody titer against human calreticulin is found in infants with complete congenital heart block of both the IgG and IgM classes. (abcam.com)
  • Identification of calreticulin as a nuclear matrix protein associated with human colon cancer. (nih.gov)
  • Our Calreticulin-2/CALR3 Lysates can be used in a variety of model species: Human. (novusbio.com)
  • Recombinant protein encompassing a sequence within the center region of human Calreticulin. (genetex.com)
  • Detection of human calreticulin by immunoblotting. (emdmillipore.com)
  • A 98% homology in the deduced amino acid sequence was found with a T. cruzi calreticulin-like molecule and 41% with Leishmania donovani and human calreticulin. (ajtmh.org)
  • By performing BLASTP searches we found a calreticulin isoform (Crt2) in human, which differed significantly from the previously established isoform. (lu.se)
  • Here, we identified calreticulin as a pro-phagocytic signal that was highly expressed on the surface of several human cancers, but was minimally expressed on most normal cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Recombinant protein corresponding to the neoepitope in human mutated calreticulin. (sysy.com)
  • Full length Clone DNA of Human calreticulin with N terminal HA tag. (sinobiological.com)
  • Can be blocked with Calreticulin peptide (ab4927) . (abcam.com)
  • Calreticulin binds to the synthetic peptide KLGFFKR, which is almost identical to an amino acid sequence in the DNA-binding domain of the superfamily of nuclear receptors. (abcam.com)
  • Previous in vitro studies have demonstrated that the lectin calreticulin interacts with monoglucosylated MHC class I heavy chains, whatever their state of assembly with light chains and peptide, and inhibits their aggregation above physiological temperature. (elsevier.com)
  • We used a soluble single chain HLA-A2/β 2 - microglobulin molecule, A2SC, to study the effect of calreticulin on the peptide binding capacity of HLA class I molecules. (elsevier.com)
  • Calreticulin dramatically enhanced acquisition of peptide binding capacity when added to denatured A2SC molecules during refolding at 4 °C. However, it had no effect on the rapid loss of A2SC peptide binding capacity at physiological temperature. (elsevier.com)
  • Arabidopsis contains three calreticulin isoforms. (lu.se)
  • Autoantibodies were detected against either one or two calreticulin isoforms identified by mass spectrometry in sera from 21 of 36 patients with pancreatic cancer. (nih.gov)
  • The detection of autoantibodies to calreticulin isoforms may have utility for the early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. (nih.gov)
  • In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana , three calreticulin isoforms have been distinguished, crt1a and crt1b belonging to one subgroup and crt3 to a subgroup that diverged before the split into monocots and dicots. (lu.se)
  • Ingestion of the apoptotic cells through calreticulin/CD91 stimulation is further shown to involve the process of macropinocytosis, implicated as a primitive and relatively nonselective uptake mechanism for C1q- and MBL-enhanced engulfment of whole, intact apoptotic cells, as well as cell debris and foreign organisms to which these molecules may bind. (rupress.org)
  • Calreticulin, a 60 kDa Ca-binding protein, is a major ER component of non-muscle cells. (bio.net)
  • Shoukat Dedhar / Marc Coppolino Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario, CANADA Calreticulin knockout cells have normal calcium buffering properties but severely impaired integrin functions. (bio.net)
  • Here, we show that when cancer cells are treated with hypericin-based PDT (Hyp-PDT), they surface-expose both HSP70 and calreticulin (CRT). (springer.com)
  • Recognizes the ~63 kDa calreticulin protein in heat-shocked HeLa cells. (emdmillipore.com)
  • Does not recognize calreticulin in Drosophila cells. (emdmillipore.com)
  • Although calreticulin (CRT) is a major Ca 2+ -binding luminal resident protein, it can also appear on the surface of various types of cells and it functions as an immunopotentiating molecule. (jimmunol.org)
  • RPL60/calreticulin transcript levels increased rapidly in abundance during the proliferation of the secretory apparatus and the onset of hydrolase secretion in gibberellic acid-treated barley aleurone cells. (plantcell.org)
  • Since surface calreticulin is also found on viable cells, a mechanism preventing inadvertent uptake was sought. (diva-portal.org)
  • Disruption of interactions between CD47 (integrin-associated protein) on the target cell and SIRPalpha (SHPS-1), a heavily glycosylated transmembrane protein on the engulfing cell, permitted uptake of viable cells in a calreticulin/LRP-dependent manner. (diva-portal.org)
  • We previously revealed that the calreticulin (CRT) gene is a candidate oncogene promoting cell migration and invasion and that neuropilin-1 (NRP1) is a possible effector downstream of CRT in esophageal squamous carcinoma cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A calreticulin/gC1qR complex prevents cells from dying: a conserved mechanism from arthropods to humans. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A molecularly tagged form of calreticulin (CR), a low affinity-high capacity Ca2+ binding protein that resides in the ER lumen, was transiently transfected into HeLa cells to specifically modify the Ca2+ buffering capacity of the intracellular Ca2+ stores. (rupress.org)
  • In cells without calreticulin, the ER has a lower capacity for Ca2+ storage, although the free ER luminal Ca2+ concentration is unchanged. (nih.gov)
  • Calreticulin-deficient cells show inhibited Ca2+ release in response to bradykinin, yet they release Ca2+ upon direct activation with the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3). (nih.gov)
  • Ca2+ release in saponin-permeabilized calreticulin-deficient cells. (nih.gov)
  • Wild-type (K41) and calreticulin-deficient (K42) cells were loaded with a fluorescent Ca2+ indicator fluo-3 and permeabilized with saponin. (nih.gov)
  • Fig. 8 shows that InsP3-induced Ca2+ release from the ER was indistinguishable in the wild-type (K41) and calreticulin-deficient (K42) cells, indicating that there is no difference in function of the InsP3Rs in the different cell types. (nih.gov)
  • Calreticulin inhibited the formation of A2SC aggregates both when co-expressed in insect cells and during incubations at elevated temperature. (elsevier.com)
  • Transactivation of the calreticulin promoter was also increased by fourfold in NIH/3T3 cells treated with bradykinin, a hormone that induces Ca 2+ release from the intracellular Ca 2+ stores. (elsevier.com)
  • Northern blot analysis of cells treated with A23187, or with thapsigargin, revealed a fivefold increase in calreticulin mRNA levels. (elsevier.com)
  • Importantly, we show by nuclear run-on transcription analysis that calreticulin gene transcription is increased in NIH/3T3 cells treated with A23187 and thapsigargin in vivo. (elsevier.com)
  • Our data also demonstrated an increase in the level of tyrosine phosphorylation in calreticulin deficient cells accompanied by a significant increase in the AKT phosphorylation in these cell lines suggesting an increase in EGFR activity. (qscience.com)
  • Furthermore, we showed that calreticulin exposure was necessary and sufficient to increase proimmunogenic killing by other chemotherapies. (aacrjournals.org)
  • B, signal transduction pathway leading to calreticulin exposure. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We have isolated and characterized a 12-kb mouse genomic DNA fragment containing the entire calreticulin gene and 2.14 kb of the promoter region. (elsevier.com)
  • A 1.8-kb fragment of the calreticulin promoter was subcloned into a reporter gene plasmid containing chloramphenicol acetyltransferase. (elsevier.com)
  • Calcium-binding chaperone that promotes folding, oligomeric assembly and quality control in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) via the calreticulin/calnexin cycle. (uniprot.org)
  • The tobacco homolog of mammalian calreticulin is present in protein complexes in vivo. (plantcell.org)
  • Microsequences of RPL60 and RPL90, two abundant members of this family, show high sequence similarity with mammalian calreticulin and endoplasmin. (plantcell.org)
  • The calcium-binding properties of the recombinant protein were characterized and shown to be essentially identical to those reported for the mammalian calreticulin. (deepdyve.com)
  • These findings reveal that externally added recombinant calreticulin can boost antitumor response elicited by PDT or PDT-generated vaccines, and can thus serve as an effective adjuvant for cancer treatment with PDT and probably other cancer cell stress-inducing modalities. (frontiersin.org)