Cysteine proteinase found in many tissues. Hydrolyzes a variety of endogenous proteins including NEUROPEPTIDES; CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS; proteins from SMOOTH MUSCLE; CARDIAC MUSCLE; liver; platelets; and erythrocytes. Two subclasses having high and low calcium sensitivity are known. Removes Z-discs and M-lines from myofibrils. Activates phosphorylase kinase and cyclic nucleotide-independent protein kinase. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.22.4.
Peptides composed of two amino acid units.
Exogenous and endogenous compounds which inhibit CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
A high molecular weight (220-250 kDa) water-soluble protein which can be extracted from erythrocyte ghosts in low ionic strength buffers. The protein contains no lipids or carbohydrates, is the predominant species of peripheral erythrocyte membrane proteins, and exists as a fibrous coating on the inner, cytoplasmic surface of the membrane.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A group of acylated oligopeptides produced by Actinomycetes that function as protease inhibitors. They have been known to inhibit to varying degrees trypsin, plasmin, KALLIKREINS, papain and the cathepsins.
A heterogenous group of inherited muscular dystrophy that can be autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive. There are many forms (called LGMDs) involving genes encoding muscle membrane proteins such as the sarcoglycan (SARCOGLYCANS) complex that interacts with DYSTROPHIN. The disease is characterized by progressing wasting and weakness of the proximal muscles of arms and legs around the HIPS and SHOULDERS (the pelvic and shoulder girdles).
A 235-kDa cytoplasmic protein that is also found in platelets. It has been localized to regions of cell-substrate adhesion. It binds to INTEGRINS; VINCULIN; and ACTINS and appears to participate in generating a transmembrane connection between the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton.
The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
The procedures involved in combining separately developed modules, components, or subsystems so that they work together as a complete system. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.
Proteins found in any species of helminth.
The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.
Validation of the SEX of an individual by inspection of the GONADS and/or by genetic tests.
A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A subclass of peptide hydrolases that depend on a CYSTEINE residue for their activity.
Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-CYSTEINE to 3-sulfinoalanine (3-sulfino-L-alanine) in the CYSTEINE metabolism and TAURINE and hypotaurine metabolic pathways.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
Serine proteinase inhibitors which inhibit trypsin. They may be endogenous or exogenous compounds.
A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).
Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A protein component of the synaptic basal lamina. It has been shown to induce clustering of acetylcholine receptors on the surface of muscle fibers and other synaptic molecules in both synapse regeneration and development.
Drugs that bind to and activate cholinergic receptors.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, nonsporeforming rods which usually contain granules of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.
The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.
Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.
Compounds that inhibit the function or proteolytic action of the PROTEASOME.
ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.
A family of the order Rodentia containing 250 genera including the two genera Mus (MICE) and Rattus (RATS), from which the laboratory inbred strains are developed. The fifteen subfamilies are SIGMODONTINAE (New World mice and rats), CRICETINAE, Spalacinae, Myospalacinae, Lophiomyinae, ARVICOLINAE, Platacanthomyinae, Nesomyinae, Otomyinae, Rhizomyinae, GERBILLINAE, Dendromurinae, Cricetomyinae, MURINAE (Old World mice and rats), and Hydromyinae.
A highly conserved 76-amino acid peptide universally found in eukaryotic cells that functions as a marker for intracellular PROTEIN TRANSPORT and degradation. Ubiquitin becomes activated through a series of complicated steps and forms an isopeptide bond to lysine residues of specific proteins within the cell. These "ubiquitinated" proteins can be recognized and degraded by proteosomes or be transported to specific compartments within the cell.
Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.
Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
An exchange of segments between the sister chromatids of a chromosome, either between the sister chromatids of a meiotic tetrad or between the sister chromatids of a duplicated somatic chromosome. Its frequency is increased by ultraviolet and ionizing radiation and other mutagenic agents and is particularly high in BLOOM SYNDROME.
Separase is a caspase-like cysteine protease, which plays a central role in triggering ANAPHASE by cleaving the SCC1/RAD21 subunit of the cohesin complex. Cohesin holds the sister CHROMATIDS together during METAPHASE and its cleavage results in chromosome segregation.
Securin is involved in the control of the metaphase-anaphase transition during MITOSIS. It promotes the onset of anaphase by blocking SEPARASE function and preventing proteolysis of cohesin and separation of sister CHROMATIDS. Overexpression of securin is associated with NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION and tumor formation.
The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.
Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.
The phase of cell nucleus division following METAPHASE, in which the CHROMATIDS separate and migrate to opposite poles of the spindle.

Cyclin D1 proteolysis: a retinoid chemoprevention signal in normal, immortalized, and transformed human bronchial epithelial cells. (1/2088)

BACKGROUND: Retinoids (derivatives of vitamin A) are reported to reduce the occurrence of some second primary cancers, including aerodigestive tract tumors. In contrast, beta-carotene does not reduce the occurrence of primary aerodigestive tract cancers. Mechanisms explaining these effective retinoid and ineffective carotenoid chemoprevention results are poorly defined. Recently, the all-trans-retinoic acid (RA)-induced proteolysis of cyclin D1 that leads to the arrest of cells in G1 phase of the cell cycle was described in human bronchial epithelial cells and is a promising candidate for such a mechanism. In this study, we have investigated this proteolysis as a common signal used by carotenoids or receptor-selective and receptor-nonselective retinoids. METHODS: We treated cultured normal human bronchial epithelial cells, immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B), and transformed human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2BNNK) with receptor-selective or receptor-nonselective retinoids or with carotenoids and studied the effects on cell proliferation by means of tritiated thymidine incorporation and on cyclin D1 expression by means of immunoblot analysis. We also examined whether calpain inhibitor I, an inhibitor of the 26S proteasome degradation pathway, affected the decline (i.e., proteolysis) of cyclin D1. RESULTS: Receptor-nonselective retinoids were superior to the carotenoids studied in mediating the decline in cyclin D1 expression and in suppressing the growth of bronchial epithelial cells. Retinoids that activated retinoic acid receptor beta or retinoid X receptor pathways preferentially led to a decrease in the amount of cyclin D1 protein and a corresponding decline in growth. The retinoid-mediated degradation of cyclin D1 was blocked by cotreatment with calpain inhibitor I. CONCLUSIONS: Retinoid-dependent cyclin D1 proteolysis is a common chemoprevention signal in normal and neoplastic human bronchial epithelial cells. In contrast, carotenoids did not affect cyclin D1 expression. Thus, the degradation of cyclin D1 is a candidate intermediate marker for effective retinoid-mediated cancer chemoprevention in the aerodigestive tract.  (+info)

Modifications to rat lens major intrinsic protein in selenite-induced cataract. (2/2088)

PURPOSE: To identify modifications to rat lens major intrinsic protein (MIP) isolated from selenite-induced cataract and to determine whether m-calpain (EC 3.4.22.17) is responsible for cleavage of MIP during cataractogenesis. METHODS: Cataracts were induced in rats by a single injection of sodium selenite. Control and cataract lenses were harvested on day 16 and dissected into cortical and nuclear regions. Membranes were washed with urea buffer followed by NaOH. The protein was reduced/alkylated, delipidated, and cleaved with cyanogen bromide (CNBr). Cleavage products were fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and peptides were characterized by mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry. MIP cleavage by m-calpain was carried out by incubation with purified enzyme, and peptides released from the membrane were analyzed by Edman sequencing. RESULTS: The intact C terminus, observed in the control nuclear and cataractous cortical membranes, was not observed in the cataractous nuclear membranes. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed heterogeneous cleavage of the C terminus of MIP in control and cataract nuclear regions. The major site of cleavage was between residues 238 and 239, corresponding to the major site of in vitro cleavage by m-calpain. However, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometric analysis indicated that in vivo proteolysis during cataract formation also included sites closer to the C terminus not produced by m-calpain in vitro. Evidence for heterogeneous N-terminal cleavage was also observed at low levels with no differences between control and cataractous lenses. The major site of phosphorylation was determined to be at serine 235. CONCLUSIONS: Specific sites of MIP N- and C-terminal cleavage in selenite-induced cataractous lenses were identified. The heterogeneous cleavage pattern observed suggests that m-calpain is not the sole enzyme involved in MIP C-terminal processing in rat lens nuclei.  (+info)

Caspase-dependent activation of calpain during drug-induced apoptosis. (3/2088)

We have previously demonstrated that calpain is responsible for the cleavage of Bax, a proapoptotic protein, during drug-induced apoptosis of HL-60 cells (Wood, D. E., Thomas, A., Devi, L. A., Berman, Y., Beavis, R. C., Reed, J. C., and Newcomb, E. W. (1998) Oncogene 17, 1069-1078). Here we show the sequential activation of caspases and calpain during drug-induced apoptosis of HL-60 cells. Time course experiments using the topoisomerase I inhibitor 9-amino-20(S)-camptothecin revealed that cleavage of caspase-3 substrates poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and the retinoblastoma protein as well as DNA fragmentation occurred several hours before calpain activation and Bax cleavage. Pretreatment with the calpain inhibitor calpeptin blocked calpain activation and Bax cleavage but did not inhibit PARP cleavage, DNA fragmentation, or 9-amino-20(S)-camptothecin-induced morphological changes and cell death. Pretreatment with the pan-caspase inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone (Z-VAD-fmk) inhibited PARP cleavage, DNA fragmentation, calpain activation, and Bax cleavage and increased cell survival by 40%. Interestingly, Z-VAD-fmk-treated cells died in a caspase- and calpain-independent manner that appeared morphologically distinct from apoptosis. Our results suggest that excessive or uncontrolled calpain activity may play a role downstream of and distinct from caspases in the degradation phase of apoptosis.  (+info)

Degradation of protein kinase Malpha by mu-calpain in a mu-calpain-protein kinase Calpha complex. (4/2088)

In previous studies, we isolated and identified a mu-calpain-PKCalpha complex from rabbit skeletal muscle. At the same time we pointed out that an association between mu-calpain and PKCalpha could occur at the level of the plasma membrane of muscle cells, and that PKCalpha could thus be considered as a potential mu-calpain substrate. In the present study, using the mu-calpain-PKCalpha complex as a model, we report that mu-calpain is activated in the combined presence of physiological calcium concentrations (less than 1 microM) and phosphatidylserine. Furthermore our data also show that: (1) there exists a correlation between the appearance of autolyzed mu-calpain forms and PKCalpha hydrolysis which leads to the formation of PKMalpha; (2) in certain experimental conditions, autolyzed mu-calpain forms are able to hydrolyze PKMalpha independently of the presence of diacylglycerol.  (+info)

Hydrostatic pressure and calcium-induced dissociation of calpains. (5/2088)

The dissociation of mu- and m-calpains was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy under high hydrostatic pressure (up to 650 MPa). Increasing pressure induced a red shift of the tryptophan fluorescence of the calcium-free enzyme. The concentration dependence of the spectral transition was consistent with a pressure-induced dissociation of the subunits. Rising temperature increased the stability of calpain heterodimers and confirmed the predominance of hydrophobic interactions between monomers. At saturating calcium, the spectral transition was not observed for native or iodoacetamide-inactivated calpains, indicating that they were already dissociated by calcium. The reaction volume was about -150 ml mol-1 for both isoforms, and the dissociation constants at atmospheric pressure are approximately 10-12 M and 10-15 M for mu- and m-calpains, respectively. This result indicates a tighter interaction in the isoform that requires higher calcium concentration for activity.  (+info)

Calpain inhibitor I increases beta-amyloid peptide production by inhibiting the degradation of the substrate of gamma-secretase. Evidence that substrate availability limits beta-amyloid peptide production. (6/2088)

The calpain inhibitor N-acetyl-leucyl-leucyl-norleucinal (ALLN) has been reported to have complex effects on the production of the beta-amyloid peptide (Abeta). In this study, the effects of ALLN on the processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) to Abeta were examined in 293 cells expressing APP or the C-terminal 100 amino acids of APP (C100). In cells expressing APP or low levels of C100, ALLN increased Abeta40 and Abeta42 secretion at low concentrations, decreased Abeta40 and Abeta42 secretion at high concentrations, and increased cellular levels of C100 in a concentration-dependent manner by inhibiting C100 degradation. Low concentrations of ALLN increased Abeta42 secretion more dramatically than Abeta40 secretion. ALLN treatment of cells expressing high levels of C100 did not alter cellular C100 levels and inhibited Abeta40 and Abeta42 secretion with similar IC50 values. These results suggest that C100 can be processed both by gamma-secretase and by a degradation pathway that is inhibited by low concentrations of ALLN. The data are consistent with inhibition of gamma-secretase by high concentrations of ALLN but do not support previous assertions that ALLN is a selective inhibitor of the gamma-secretase producing Abeta40. Rather, Abeta42 secretion may be more dependent on C100 substrate concentration than Abeta40 secretion.  (+info)

Posttranslational regulation of the retinoblastoma gene family member p107 by calpain protease. (7/2088)

The retinoblastoma protein plays a critical role in regulating the G1/S transition. Less is known about the function and regulation of the homologous pocket protein p107. Here we present evidence for the posttranslational regulation of p107 by the Ca2+-activated protease calpain. Three negative growth regulators, the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor lovastatin, the antimetabolite 5-fluorouracil, and the cyclic nucleotide dibutyryl cAMP were found to induce cell type-specific loss of p107 protein which was reversible by the calpain inhibitor leucyl-leucyl-norleucinal but not by the serine protease inhibitor phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride, caspase inhibitors, or lactacystin, a specific inhibitor of the 26S proteasome. Purified calpain induced Ca2+-dependent p107 degradation in cell lysates. Transient expression of the specific calpain inhibitor calpastatin blocked the loss of p107 protein in lovastatin-treated cells, and the half-life of p107 was markedly lengthened in lovastatian-treated cells stably transfected with a calpastatin expression vector versus cells transfected with vector alone. The data presented here demonstrate down-regulation of p107 protein in response to various antiproliferative signals, and implicate calpain in p107 posttranslational regulation.  (+info)

Ubiquitination and degradation of ATF2 are dimerization dependent. (8/2088)

Ubiquitination and proteasome-dependent degradation are key determinants of the half-lives of many transcription factors. Homo- or heterodimerization of basic region-leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors is required for their transcriptional activities. Here we show that activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) heterodimerization with specific bZIP proteins is an important determinant of the ubiquitination and proteasome-dependent degradation of ATF2. Depletion of c-Jun as one of the ATF2 heterodimer partners from the targeting proteins decreased the efficiency of ATF2 ubiquitination in vitro, whereas the addition of exogenously purified c-Jun restored it. Similarly, overexpression of c-Jun in 293T human embryo kidney cells increased ATF2 ubiquitination in vivo and reduced its half-life in a dose-dependent manner. Mutations of ATF2 that disrupt its dimerization inhibited ATF2 ubiquitination in vitro and in vivo. Conversely, removal of residues 150 to 248, as in a constitutively active ATF2 spliced form, enhanced ATF2 dimerization and transactivation, which coincided with increased ubiquitination and decreased stability. Our findings indicate the increased sensitivity of transcriptionally active dimers of ATF2 to ubiquitination and proteasome-dependent degradation. Based on these observations, we conclude that increased targeting of a transcriptionally active ATF2 form indicates the mechanism by which the magnitude and the duration of the cellular stress response are regulated.  (+info)

Calpain Substrate IV, Cell-Permeable, Fluorogenic - Calbiochem The non-permeant fluorogenic Calpain Substrate III is made cell-permeable by a c-terminal heptaarginine extension via a Glu linkage. - Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more information.
The small subunit of calpain, a calcium-dependent cysteine protease, was found to interact with the cytoplasmic domain of the common cytokine receptor γ chain (γ c) in a yeast two-hybrid interaction trap assay. This interaction was functional as demonstrated by the ability of calpain to cleave in vitro-translated wild-type γc, but not γc containing a mutation in the PEST (proline, glutamate, serine, and threonine) sequence in its cytoplasmic domain, as well as by the ability of endogenous calpain to mediate cleavage of γc in a calcium-dependent fashion. In T cell receptor-stimulated murine thymocytes, calpain inhibitors decreased cleavage of γ c. Moreover, in single positive CD4+ thymocytes, not only did a calpain inhibitor augment CD3-induced proliferation, but antibodies to γ c blocked this effect. Finally, treatment of cells with ionomycin could inhibit interleukin 2-induced STAT protein activation, but this inhibition could be reversed by calpain inhibitors. Together, these data ...
A calpain (/ˈkælpeɪn/; EC 3.4.22.52, EC 3.4.22.53) is a protein belonging to the family of calcium-dependent, non-lysosomal cysteine proteases (proteolytic enzymes) expressed ubiquitously in mammals and many other organisms. Calpains constitute the C2 family of protease clan CA in the MEROPS database. The calpain proteolytic system includes the calpain proteases, the small regulatory subunit CAPNS1, also known as CAPN4, and the endogenous calpain-specific inhibitor, calpastatin. The history of calpain originates in 1964, when calcium-dependent proteolytic activities caused by a calcium-activated neutral protease (CANP) were detected in brain, lens of the eye and other tissues. In the late 1960s the enzymes were isolated and characterised independently in both rat brain and skeletal muscle. These activities were caused by an intracellular cysteine protease not associated with the lysosome and having an optimum activity at neutral pH, which clearly distinguished it from the cathepsin family ...
Calpastatin (CAST) is a calpain inhibitor, a calcium-dependent cysteine protease that is widely distributed in higher order animals. There are different types of calpastatins; examples include the 68 kDa erythrocyte-derived calpastatin and the 107 kDa myocyte-derived calpastatin (as evidenced by SDS-PAGE). Through its inhibition of calpain, calpastatin is believed to play important roles in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation and aging. CAST is also involved in the proteolysis of amyloid precursor protein (APP). ...
Calpastatin (CAST) is a calpain inhibitor, a calcium-dependent cysteine protease that is widely distributed in higher order animals. There are different types of calpastatins; examples include the 68 kDa erythrocyte-derived calpastatin and the 107 kDa myocyte-derived calpastatin (as evidenced by SDS-PAGE). Through its inhibition of calpain, calpastatin is believed to play important roles in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation and aging. CAST is also involved in the proteolysis of amyloid precursor protein (APP). ...
Calpains are calcium-dependent cysteine proteases involved in signal transduction in a variety of cellular processes. A functional calpain protein consists of an invariant small subunit and 1 of a family of large subunits. CAPN5 is one of the large subunits. Unlike some of the calpains, CAPN5 and CAPN6 lack a calmodulin-like domain IV. Because of the significant similarity to Caenorhabditis elegans sex determination gene tra-3, CAPN5 is also called as HTRA3. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A (LGMD2A) is a genetic disease that is caused by mutations in the calpain 3 gene (CAPN3), which encodes the skeletal muscle-specific calpain, calpain 3 (also known as p94). However, the precise mechanism by which p94 functions in the pathogenesis of this disease …
Calpain II was purified to apparent homogeneity from bovine neural retinas. It was found to be biochemically similar to brain calpain II, purified by the same procedure, with respect to: subunit mobility in SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; Ca2+ sensitivity; inhibition by calpeptin and other cysteine protease inhibitors; and optimal pH. Semithin cryosections were immuno-labeled with antibodies specific for the catalytic subunit of calpain II. Calpain II was detected in most layers of the retina, with the most pronounced label present in the plexiform layers (synaptic regions) and the photoreceptor outer segments. In dark-adapted retinas, the label was distributed throughout the outer segments. In light-adapted retinas, outer segment labeling was concentrated in the connecting cilium, and the inner segments were labeled. A partially pure preparation of calpain II from isolated rod outer segments was found to have the same biochemical characteristics as calpain II prepared in the same way ...
Cell-attached and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were done at 32°C from visually identified CA1 pyramidal neurons using an EPC 10 amplifier and Pulse software (HEKA). Patch pipettes were fabricated from borosilicate glass (Harvard Apparatus), and their resistance ranged from 4.5 to 6.5 MΩ. The pipette solution consisted of (in mm): 30 N-methyl-d-glucamine-HCl, 95 K-gluconate, 1 EGTA, 5 HEPES, 10 d-glucose, 2 Mg-ATP, 20 sucrose, 0.1 Alexa Fluor 488, 2 NaOH, and 5.4 KOH, pH 7.3. For recordings, slices were positioned in a submerged-type recording chamber and continuously perfused at a rate of 3.5 ml/min with extracellular solution containing (in mm): 124 NaCl, 3.5 KCl, 2 CaCl2, 25 NaHCO3, 1.1 NaH2PO4, 2 MgSO4, and 10 d-glucose, equilibrated with 95% O2 and 5% CO2, pH 7.4. Membrane potential values were corrected for calculated liquid junction potentials (Barry, 1994). Interictal-like activity was induced by omitting Mg2+ from the extracellular solution after recovery and during the recordings ...
The c-Fos and c-Jun transcription factors are rapidly turned over in vivo. One of the multiple pathways responsible for their breakdown is probably initiated by calpains, which are cytoplasmic calcium-dependent cysteine proteases. The c-fos gene has been transduced by two murine oncogenic retroviruses called Finkel-Biskis-Jenkins murine sarcoma virus (FBJ-MSV) and Finkel-Biskis-Reilly murine sarcoma virus (FBR-MSV); c-jun has been transduced by the chicken avian sarcoma virus 17 (ASV17) retrovirus. Using an in vitro degradation assay, we show that the mutated v-FosFBR, but not v-FosFBJ or v-JunASV17, is resistant to calpains. This property raises the interesting possibility that decreased sensitivity to calpains might contribute to the tumorigenic potential of FBR-MSV by allowing greater accumulation of the protein that it encodes in infected cells. It has also been demonstrated that resistance to cleavage by calpains does not result from mutations that have accumulated in the Fos moiety of the ...
Calpains are calcium-dependent cysteine proteases involved in sigl transduction in a variety of cellular processes. A functiol calpain protein…
Calpains make up a ubiquitously expressed, well-conserved family of calcium-dependent cysteine proteases. The calpain proteins are heterodimers…
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhibitors of calpain activation (PD150606 and E-64) and renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. AU - Chatterjee, P.K.. AU - Todorovic, Z.. AU - Sivarajah, A.. AU - Mota-Filipe, H.. AU - Brown, P.A.J.. AU - Stewart, K.N.. AU - Mazzon, E.. AU - Cuzzocrea, S.. AU - Thiemermann, C.. PY - 2005/4. Y1 - 2005/4. N2 - Calpain activation has been implicated in the development of ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury. Here we investigate the effects of two inhibitors of calpain activity, PD150606 and E-64, on the renal dysfunction and injury caused by I-R of rat kidneys in vivo. Male Wistar rats were administered PD150606 or E-64 (3 mg/kg i.p.) or vehicle (10%, v/v, DMSO) 30 min prior to I-R. Rats were subjected to bilateral renal ischemia (45 min) followed by reperfusion (6 h). Serum and urinary biochemical indicators of renal dysfunction and injury were measured; serum creatinine (for glomerular dysfunction), fractional excretion of Na+ (FENa, for tubular dysfunction) and urinary ...
The major finding of the present study is that type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with the cleavage of platelet PECAM-1 through a mechanism involving the tyrosine nitration of SERCA-2, an increase in [Ca2+]i, and the activation of the Ca2+-dependent protease μ-calpain. Moreover, treating subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus with the PPAR-γ agonist rosiglitazone successfully reversed many of these changes and restored platelet [Ca2+]i, calpain activity, and PECAM-1 to levels comparable to those detected in nondiabetic subjects. From these results, it is clear that megakaryocytes/platelets are an additional cellular target for PPAR-γ agonists.. Intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis in platelets from patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus is reported to be altered, leading to an increased adhesiveness and spontaneous aggregation. One factor that contributes to the disturbed platelet [Ca2+]i in diabetic subjects is a marked reduction in Ca2+-ATPase activity.3,4 Although human platelets coexpress ...
Group B coxsackieviruses (CVB) are associated with viral-induced heart disease and are among the leading causes of aseptic meningitis worldwide. Here we show that CVB entry into polarized brain microvasculature and aortic endothelial cells triggers a depletion of intracellular calcium stores initiated through viral attachment to the apical attachment factor decayaccelerating factor. Calcium release was dependent upon a signaling cascade that required the activity of the Src family of tyrosine kinases, phospholipase C, and the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor isoform 3. CVB-mediated calcium release was required for the activation of calpain-2, a calcium-dependent cysteine protease, which controlled the vesicular trafficking of internalized CVB particles. These data point to a specific role for calcium signaling in CVB entry into polarized endothelial monolayers and highlight the unique signaling mechanisms used by these viruses to cross endothelial barriers. © 2010 Bozym et al.. ...
A reciprocal relationship exists between agrin and acetylcholine (ACh) in controlling acetylcholine receptor (AChR) clustering at the neuromuscular junction: Agrin promotes clustering, and ACh disperses clusters. Chen et al. provide insight into how these opposing signals may allow stabilization of AChR at the neuromuscular junction by differential activity of the calcium-activated proteases calpains. Exposure of C2C12 myotubes in culture to the cholinergic agonist carbachol triggered a calcium transient, activation of calpain, and stimulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) through production of the activator p25 by cleavage of the CDK5 regulatory partner p35. (CDK5 has been previously implicated in AChR dispersal, and p35 is a known substrate for calpain.) Activation of CDK5 by carbachol was blocked by pharmacological inhibition of calpain with calpeptin, and the dispersal of AChR clusters induced by agrin was also prevented if calpain activity was blocked (pharmacologically or by RNAi). ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Activation of m-Calpain Is Required for Chromosome Alignment on the Metaphase Plate during Mitosis. AU - Honda, Shinobu. AU - Marumoto, Tomotoshi. AU - Hirota, Toru. AU - Nitta, Masayuki. AU - Arima, Yoshimi. AU - Ogawa, Michio. AU - Saya, Hideyuki. PY - 2004/3/12. Y1 - 2004/3/12. N2 - Calpains form a superfamily of Ca2+-dependent intracellular cysteine proteases with various isoforms. Two isoforms, μ- and m-calpains, are ubiquitously expressed and known as conventional calpains. It has been previously shown that the mammalian calpains are activated during mitosis by transient increases in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration. However, it is still unknown whether the activation of calpains contributes to particular events in mitosis. With the use of RNA interference (RNAi), we investigated the roles of calpains in mitosis. Cells reduced the levels of m-calpain, but not μ-calpain, arrested at prometaphase and failed to align their chromosomes at the spindle equator. Specific peptidyl ...
The report generally describes calpain inhibitor i, examines its uses, production methods, patterns. CALPAIN INHIBITOR I market situation is overviewed;
Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) is known to induce apoptosis in endothelial cells, and this is believed to contribute to the progression of atherosclerosis. In the present study we made the novel observation that oxLDL-induced death of HMEC-1 cells is accompanied by activation of calpain. The μ-calpain inhibitor PD 151746 decreased oxLDL-induced cytotoxicity, whereas the general caspase inhibitor BAF (t-butoxycarbonyl-Asp-methoxyfluoromethylketone) had no effect. Also, oxLDL provoked calpain-dependent proteolysis of cytoskeletal α-fodrin in the HMEC-1 cells. Our observation of an autoproteolytic cleavage of the 80 kDa subunit of μ-calpain provided further evidence for an oxLDL-induced stimulation of calpain activity. The Bcl-2 protein Bid was also cleaved during oxLDL-elicited cell death, and this was prevented by calpain inhibitors, but not by inhibitors of cathepsin B and caspases. Treating the HMEC-1 cells with oxLDL did not result in detectable activation of procaspase 3 or ...
Comparative Studies on Metabolic Rate and Calpain/Calpastatin Activity between Hanwoo and Holstein Beef - Hanwoo Beef;Holstein Beef;Temperature Conditioning;Metabolic Rate;Calpain;Calpastatin;
To The Editor:. In the March 28, 2008 issue of Circulation Research, Letavernier et al assessed the effects of calpain inhibition on angiotensin (Ang) II-induced cardiovascular remodeling.1 These authors used transgenic mice expressing high levels of calpastatin to inhibit Ang II-dependent calpain activation. They show that prevention of Ang II-induced calpain activation is associated with impaired nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation in heart tissue, which eventually leads to decreased Ang II-induced cardiac hypertrophy. This finding adds substantial novel information to our understanding of how calpains might be involved in the complex regulation of cardiac hypertrophy. However, compelling evidence as to how calpains are activated by Ang II in the myocardium and how the calpain/calpastatin system is linked to NF-κB activation is not provided. In the May 23, 2008 issue of Circulation Research, we show that Ang II induces calcium release via the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (InsP3R) ...
Ionotropic glutamate receptors mediate most excitatory synaptic transmission in mammalian brain, and play important roles in neuronal development and synaptic plasticity. In particular, long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) are generally considered to represent cellular mechanisms involved in certain forms of learning and memory. Calpain is a calcium-dependent neutral protease that plays significant roles in synaptic plasticity, cell motility, as well as in various forms of neurodegeneration. We compared the rates of calpain-mediated truncation of GluR1 and GluR2 subunits with those of GluR1 phosphorylated at serine 831 or serine 845, and GluR2 phosphorylated at serine 880. Rat brain membranes were treated with calpain and calcium and levels of total and phosphorylated GluR1 and GluR2 subunits were analyzed by western blots. Rates of calpain-mediated truncation of phosphorylated GluR1 (either at serine 831 or 845) were much slower than for total GluR1. On the other hand, ...
Results Doxorubicin decreased calpain activities in cultured neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes and in vivomouse hearts, which correlated with down-regulation of calpain-1 and calpain-2 proteins. Over-expression of calpastatin or treatment with pharmacological calpain inhibitors aggravated apoptosis in neonatal and adult cardiomyocytes caused by doxorubicin. On the while, over-expression of calpain-2 but not calpain-1 decreased doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. The pro-apoptotic effects of calpain inhibition were concerned with down-regulation of AKT protein and mRNA expression, and a concomitant reduction in GSK-3 beta phosphorylation (Ser9) in doxorubicin-treated cardiomyocytes. Inhibiting AKT further increased doxorubicin-induced cardiac injuries, suggesting the effects of calpain inhibition may be mediated through inactivating the AKT signalling. In an in vivomodel of doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity, overexpression of calpastatin aggravated myocardial dysfunction in transgenic ...
Abstract: : Purpose: Our previous study suggested that calpains played an important role in retinal cell death induced by ischemia-reperfusion in rat. However, the relationship between changes in signaling pathways caused by activation of calpain and retinal cell death is not clear. Recently, calpain-induced proteolysis of p35, a regulator of cdk5, to p25 was reported in Alzheimers disease. Thus, the purpose of present study to determine if p35 was similarly proteolyzed by m-calpain to p25 during retinal cell damage occurring in vitro. Methods: Rat retinas were incubated in RPMI medium with glucose under conditions supplying oxygen sufficient for retinal cell survival. To induce a hypoxia, retinas were incubated in RPMI medium without glucose under 95 % N2/5 % CO2 instead of 95 % O2/5 % CO2. Leakage of LDH into the medium assessed membrane damage and cell death. Casein zymography and immunoblotting assessed activation of calpain and proteolysis of α-spectrin and p35. Results: Results Leakage ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - CAPN5 mutation in hereditary uveitis. T2 - The R243L mutation increases calpain catalytic activity and triggers intraocular inflammation in a mouse model. AU - Wert, Katherine J.. AU - Bassuk, Alexander G.. AU - Wu, Wen Hsuan. AU - Gakhar, Lokesh. AU - Coglan, Diana. AU - Mahajan, Mary Ann. AU - Wu, Shu. AU - Yang, Jing. AU - Lin, Chyuan Sheng. AU - Tsang, Stephen H.. AU - Mahajan, Vinit B.. PY - 2015/4/28. Y1 - 2015/4/28. N2 - A single amino acid mutation near the active site of the CAPN5 protease was linked to the inherited blinding disorder, autosomal dominant neovascular inflammatory vitreoretinopathy (ADNIV, OMIM #193235). In homology modeling with other calpains, this R243L CAPN5 mutation was situated in a mobile loop that gates substrate access to the calcium-regulated active site. In in vitro activity assays, the mutation increased calpain protease activity and made it far more active at low concentrations of calcium. To test whether the disease allele could yield an ...
Calpain Inhibitor Set - Calbiochem The Calpain Inhibitor Set controls the biological activity of Calpain. This small molecule/inhibitor is primarily used for Protease Inhibitors applications. - Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more information.
The peptidyl-proline isomerase, Protein Never in Mitosis Gene A Interacting-1 (PIN1), regulates turnover of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in murine aortic endothelial cells (MAEC) stimulated with E. coli endotoxin (LPS) and interferon-γ (IFN). Degradation of iNOS was reduced by a calpain inhibitor, suggesting that PIN1 may affect induction of other calpain-sensitive inflammatory proteins, such as cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, in MAEC. MAEC, transduced with lentivirus encoding an inactive control short hairpin (sh) RNA or one targeting PIN1 that reduced PIN1 by 85%, were used. Cells were treated with LPS/IFN, calpain inhibitors (carbobenzoxy-valinyl-phenylalaninal (zVF), PD150606), cycloheximide and COX inhibitors to determine the effect of PIN1 depletion on COX-2 and calpain. LPS or IFN alone did not induce COX-2. However, treatment with 10 μg LPS plus 20 ng IFN per ml induced COX-2 protein 10-fold in Control shRNA MAEC. Induction was significantly greater (47-fold) in PIN1 shRNA cells. COX-2
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Calpains are intracellular Ca(2+)-dependent Cys proteases that play important roles in a wide range of biological phenomena via the limited proteolysis of their substrates. Genetic defects in calpain genes cause lethality and/or functional deficits in many organisms, including humans. Despite their …
Two types of cell death can be distinguished by morphological features, although it is likely that these are two ends of a spectrum with possible intermediate forms. Apoptosis involves shrinkage, nuclear disassembly, and fragmentation of the cell into discrete bodies with intact plasma membranes. These are rapidly phagocytosed by neighbouring cells. An important feature of apoptosis is the requirement for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to initiate the execution phase. In contrast, necrotic cell death is characterized by cell swelling and lysis. This is usually a consequence of profound loss of mitochondrial function and resultant ATP depletion, leading to loss of ion homeostasis, including volume regulation, and increased Ca2+. The latter activates a number of nonspecific hydrolases (i.e., proteases, nucleases, and phospholipases) as well as calcium dependent kinases. Activation of calpain I, the Ca2+-dependent cysteine protease cleaves the death-promoting Bcl-2 family members Bid and Bax which ...
Calpain-like mRNAs have been identified in other organisms including bacteria, but the molecules encoded by these mRNAs have not been isolated, so little is known about their properties. How calpain activity is regulated in these organisms cells is still unclear In metazoans, the activity of calpain is controlled by a single proteinase inhibitor, calpastatin (IPR001259). The calpastatin gene can produce eight or more calpastatin polypeptides ranging from 17 to 85 kDa by use of different promoters and alternative splicing events. The physiological significance of these different calpastatins is unclear, although all bind to three different places on the calpain molecule; binding to at least two of the sites is Ca2+ dependent. The calpains ostensibly participate in a variety of cellular processes including remodelling of cytoskeletal/membrane attachments, different signal transduction pathways, and apoptosis. Deregulated calpain activity following loss of Ca2+ homeostasis results in tissue damage ...
Fulvestrant (ICI 182 780, ICI) has been used in treating patients with hormone-sensitive breast cancer, yet initial or acquired resistance to endocrine therapies frequently arises and, in particular, cancer recurs as metastasis. We demonstrate here that both 17-beta-estradiol (E2) and ICI enhance cell adhesion to matrigel in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, with increased autolysis of calpain 1 (large subunit) and proteolysis of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), indicating calpain activation. Additionally, either E2 or ICI induced down-regulation of estrogen receptor α without affecting G protein coupled estrogen receptor 30 (GPR30) expression. Interestingly, GPR30 agonist G1 triggered calpain 1 autolysis but not calpain 2, whereas ER agonist diethylstilbestrol caused no apparent calpain autolysis. Furthermore, the actions of E2 and ICI on calpain and cell adhesion were tremendously suppressed by G15, or knockdown of GPR30. E2 and ICI also induced phosphorylation of extracellular regulated protein kinases ...
Hypoxia-specific upregulation of calpain activity and gene expression in pulmonary artery endothelial cells.: The effects of exposure to hypoxia on the catalyti
Methods Male wild type mice were randomly divided into control and PD150606 groups. Mice were subjected to myocardial ischemia by occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery for 45 min and reperfusion for 3 h (I/R). Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase d-UTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining was performed using an In Situ Cell Death Detection kit on paraffin heart sections (5 mm). Hoechst 33342 was used as a counter-stain. Adult mouse cardiomyocytes were isolated and cultured, then subjected to ischemia for 1 h, and reperfusion for 3 h. The survival of cardiomyocytes, activity of calpain and caspase-3, cytoplasmic DNA fragments and cytochrome c concentrations were determined. Results Compared to control, the numbers of TUNEL-positive nuclei were significantly increased in the peri-infarct area in I/R mice (p,0.05). Compared to normal cultured cardiomyocytes, the survival of the cells significantly decreased, however the activation of calpain and caspase-3, and cytoplasmic DNA ...
The pSUPER.retro (Oligoengine) RNA interference system was used to achieve stable expression of siRNAs. Oligonucleotides targeted to calpain 2 or PTP1B mRNA as well as a nonsilencing control were synthesized by Integrated DNA Technologies, annealed, and cloned into the pSUPER.retro.puro vector according to manufacturers instructions. Retroviral transfection was performed as described previously (Franco et al., 2004a). Wild-type MTLn3 cells were infected at 32°C for 6 h and allowed to recover in growth medium for 24 h before selection with 1 μg/ml puromycin for 4-5 d. Target sequences for calpain 2 in MTLn3 cells: control, 5′-TTCTCCGAACGTGTCACGT-3′; Capn2 si-A, 5′-AGGCCTATGCCAAGATCAA-3′; and Capn2 si-B, 5′-GAATGGCGATTTCTGCATC-3′. Target sequences for PTP1B in MTLn3 cells: PTP1B si-A, 5′-GCTGACACTGATCTCTGAA-3′; and PTP1Bsi-B, 5′-CAGGAGGAGCCTTGGTGTC-3′. Target sequences for human calpain 2 have been described previously (Su et al., 2006). Target sequences for cortactin: ...
The activity of calpain is controlled by the free intracellular calcium level and by the proteins intrinsically disordered endogenous inhibitor, calpastatin, mediated by short conserved segments: subdomains A-C. The exact binding mode of calpastatin to the enzyme has until now been unclear. Our NMR data of the 141 amino acid long inhibitor, with and without calcium and calpain, have revealed structural changes and a tripartite binding mode, in which the disordered inhibitor wraps around, and contacts, the enzyme at three points, facilitated by flexible linkers. This unprecedented binding mode permits a unique combination of specificity, speed and binding strength in regulation.. ...
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FUNCTION: The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the calpain family of proteins. Unlike many members of the calpain gene family, this gene lacks a calmodulin-like domain, required for calcium binding. Mouse models for Huntington's disease displayed increased levels of the protein encoded by this gene. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014 ...
Calpains encompass a family of calcium-dependent, nonlysosomal proteases characterized by a cysteine-protease domain that includes a conserved catalytic sequence Cys-His-Arg combined with a calmodulin-like Ca2+-binding site (Sorimachi and Suzuki 2001). The configuration of the cysteine-protease domain determines the formation of an active catalytic pocket, which only occurs when calcium is present. Calpains are involved in a large variety of calcium-regulated processes, such as signal transduction, cell proliferation, and PCD (Goll et al. 2003).. The calpain family comprises a heterogeneous group of cysteine proteases with a large expression pattern. The proteases belonging to this family have been subdivided into three groups depending on their primary structure and the presence or absence of regulatory subunits. These three groups are defined as: typical (also called ubiquitous or conventional), atypical, and other EF-calpains (Goll et al. 2003; Saez et al. 2006). The most important and most ...
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Calpains are a family of intracellular cysteine proteases activated by calcium. They participate in many processes including cell motility, cell cycle progression and cell death, in response to calcium signaling. Because ...
M2 Ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutagenized Ler seeds were purchased from Lehle Seeds and examined under a dissecting microscope for the absence of giant cells in the sepal.. The dek1-4 mutation isolated contains a C to T change at base 6316 of the CDS, which causes a single amino acid substitution of a cysteine for conserved arginine 2106 in domain III of the calpain protease (supplementary material Fig. S2A) (Sorimachi and Suzuki, 2001). The dek1-4 allele fails to complement the reference dek1-3 (SAIL_384_G07) allele (data not shown), establishing that the absence of giant cells is due to the mutation in the DEK1 gene.. The dek1-4 mutation can be PCR genotyped by amplifying with oAR448 (5′-TGTTGGTGGAACAGACTATGTGAATTCA-3′) and oAR449 (5′-TGAAGACTGAAAGGACAAAAGGTGC-3′) with a 60°C annealing temperature followed by digesting the product with BsaAI to produce a 108 bp wild-type product or a 137 bp mutant product.. The atml1-2 allele isolated in this mutant screen contains a C to T change ...
The photoswitchable N-terminal diazo and triazene-dipeptide aldehydes 8a-d, 10a,b, and 17a,b present predominantly as the (E)-isomer, which purportedly binds deep in the S3 pocket of calpain. All compounds are potent inhibitors of m-calpain, with 8b being the most active (IC50 of 35 nM). The diazo-containing inhibitors 8a, 8c, and 10a were irradiated at 340 nm to give a photostationary state enriched in the (Z)-isomer, and in all cases, these were less active. The most water soluble triazene 17a (IC50 of 90 nM) retards calpain-induced cataract formation in lens culture ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Temporal response of rabbits to beta-adrenergic agonist feeding: tissue weight, calpains and calpastatin activities, and nucleic acid and protein concentrations.. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
The calpain family is named for the calcium dependence of the papain-like, thiol protease activity of the well-studied ubiquitous vertebrate enzymes calpain-1 (μ-calpain) and calpain-2 (m-calpain). Proteins showing sequence relatedness to the catalytic core domains of these enzymes are included in this ancient and diverse eukaryotic protein family. Calpains are examples of highly modular organization, with several varieties of amino-terminal or carboxy-terminal modules flanking a conserved core. Acquisition of the penta-EF-hand module involved in calcium binding (and the formation of heterodimers for some calpains) seems to be a relatively late event in calpain evolution. Several alternative mechanisms for binding calcium and associating with membranes/phospholipids are found throughout the family. The gene family is expanded in mammals, trypanosomes and ciliates, with up to 26 members in Tetrahymena, for example; in striking contrast to this, only a single calpain gene is present in many other
4PHK: The Structural Basis of Differential Inhibition of Human Calpain by Indole and Phenyl alpha-Mercaptoacrylic Acids. The complex with (Z)-3-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-mercaptoacrylic acid
Calpain兔多克隆抗体(ab124631)可与小鼠, 大鼠, 人, 曼氏血吸虫样本反应并经WB, IP, ELISA实验严格验证。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
From NCBI Gene:. Calpains represent a ubiquitous, well-conserved family of calcium-dependent cysteine proteases. The calpain proteins are heterodimers consisting of an invariant small subunit and variable large subunits. The large catalytic subunit has four domains: domain I, the N-terminal regulatory domain that is processed upon calpain activation; domain II, the protease domain; domain III, a linker domain of unknown function; and domain IV, the calmodulin-like calcium-binding domain. This gene encodes a large subunit. It is an atypical calpain in that it lacks the calmodulin-like calcium-binding domain and instead has a divergent C-terminal domain. It is similar in organization to calpains 5 and 6. This gene is associated with type 2 or non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), and is located within the NIDDM1 region. Multiple alternative transcript variants have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]. From UniProt: ...
Calpains form a family of Ca(2+)-dependent cysteine proteases involved in diverse cellular processes. However, the specific functions of each calpain isoform remain unknown. Recent reports have shown that calpain 2 (Capn2) is essential for cell viability. We have recently shown that Capn2 is a nuclear protease associated with chromosomes during mitosis in mammalian embryonic cells. We now report that Capn2 depletion impairs mitosis and induces apoptosis in murine cells. Low Capn2 levels induce chromosome alignment defects, the loss of histone H3 threonine 3 phosphorylation at centromeres, and premature sister chromatid separation. Thus, Capn2 may play a role in fundamental mitotic functions, such as the maintenance of sister chromatid cohesion.
context: it has been reported that the equilibrium between the erythrocyte protease calpain i and its physiological inhibitor calpastatin is disrupted in patients with essential hypertension. objective: to investigate the activity of non-purified calpain i...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Involvement of calpain in AMPA-induced toxicity to rat cerebellar Purkinje neurons. AU - Mansouri, Bobbak. AU - Henne, William M.. AU - Oomman, Sowmini K.. AU - Bliss, Richard. AU - Attridge, Jennifer. AU - Finckbone, VelvetLee. AU - Zeitouni, Tarek. AU - Hoffman, Trent. AU - Bahr, Ben A.. AU - Strahlendorf, Howard K.. AU - Strahlendorf, Jean C.. PY - 2007/2/28. Y1 - 2007/2/28. N2 - AMPA receptor-elicited excitotoxicity is manifested as both a type of programmed cell death termed dark cell degeneration and edematous necrosis, both of which are linked to increased intracellular Ca2+ concentration. The appearance of marked cytoskeletal changes in response to abusive AMPA receptor activation, coupled with increased intracellular Ca2+ concentration suggests activation of various destructive enzymes such as calpains, a family of Ca2+-dependent cysteine proteases. Since calpains and AMPA have been linked to both necrotic cell death and programmed cell death, we sought to determine the ...
Glioblastoma is an aggressive primary brain tumor with a 5-year survival rate of less than 5%. The ability of glioblastoma cells to invade surrounding brain tissue presents the primary challenge for the success of focal therapeutic approaches. We previously reported that the calcium-activated protease calpain 2 is critical for glioblastoma cell invasion in vitro. Here, we show that expression of calpain 2 is required for the dispersal of glioblastoma cells in a living brain microenvironment. Knockdown of calpain 2 resulted in a 2.9-fold decrease in the invasion of human glioblastoma cells in zebrafish brain. Control cells diffusely migrated up to 450 µm from the site of injection, whereas knockdown cells remained confined in clusters. The invasion study was repeated in organotypic mouse brain tissues, and calpain 2 knockdown cells demonstrated a 2.3-fold lower area of dispersal compared with control cells. In zebrafish brain, glioblastoma cells appeared to migrate in part along the blood ...
ABSTRACT Meat tenderness is one of the most important factors affecting consumers assessment of meat quality. Variation in meat tenderness among chickens is genetically controlled and it is also influenced by environmental factors. There has been an increased interest in genetic polymorphisms associated with the variation in meat tenderness among chicken breeds. Understanding and identifying the polymorphisms of candidate genes will facilitate selection programs for genetic improvement in tenderness. Calpain1 (CAPN1), a gene encoding the enzyme μ-calpain which degrades myofibrillar proteins post-mortem, is a physiological candidate gene for meat tenderness. In Malaysia there are two commercially available chicken lines, native and commercial broilers. Native breeds are known to have lower meat tenderness compared to the broilers. The aim of this study is to investigate the reported association between the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) G3535A, C7198A and G9950A markers in the CAPN1 ...
Trost M., English L., Lemieux S., Courcelles M., Desjardins M., Thibault P.. The ability of macrophages to clear pathogens and elicit a sustained immune response is regulated by various cytokines, including interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). To investigate the molecular mechanisms by which IFN-gamma modulates phagosome functions, we profiled the changes in composition, abundance, and phosphorylation of phagosome proteins in resting and activated macrophages by using quantitative proteomics and bioinformatics approaches. We identified 2415 phagosome proteins together with 2975 unique phosphorylation sites with a high level of sensitivity. Using network analyses, we determined that IFN-gamma delays phagosomal acquisition of lysosomal hydrolases and peptidases for the gain of antigen presentation. Furthermore, this gain in antigen presentation is dependent on phagosomal networks of the actin cytoskeleton and vesicle-trafficking proteins, as well as Src kinases and calpain proteases. Major ...
Overexpression of suprachiasmatic nucleus circadian oscillatory protein (SCOP), a negative ERK regulator, blocks long-term memory encoding. Inhibition of calpain-mediated SCOP degradation also prevents the formation of long-term memory, suggesting rapid SCOP breakdown is necessary for memory encoding. However, whether SCOP levels also control the magnitude of long-term synaptic plasticity is unknown. Here we show that following synaptic activity-induced SCOP degradation, SCOP is rapidly replaced via mTOR-mediated protein synthesis. We further show that early SCOP degradation is specifically catalysed by μ-calpain, whereas late SCOP resynthesis is mediated by m-calpain. We propose that μ-calpain promotes long-term potentiation induction by degrading SCOP and activating ERK, whereas m-calpain activation limits the magnitude of potentiation by terminating the ERK response via enhanced SCOP synthesis. This unique braking mechanism could account for the advantages of spaced versus massed training in the
Apoptosis is a highly conserved process which can be triggered by a broad range of physiological and pathological conditions. Recent evidence suggests that most proapoptotic stimuli induce the activation of a family of intracellular cysteine proteases called caspases ((1), (2)). These proteases are synthesized as inactive proenzymes which, upon proteolytic cleavage at aspartate residues, form an active complex composed of two heterodimeric subunits. Caspases lead to the proteolysis of a number of cellular substrates, a process which finally results in the apoptotic collapse of the cell.. One of the best-defined apoptotic pathways is mediated by the death receptor CD95 (APO-1/Fas; references (3)-(5)). Triggering of CD95 by its natural ligand CD95L or agonistic antibodies induces the formation of a death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) consisting of the adaptor protein Fas-associated death domain protein (FADD [MORT-1]) and procaspase-8 (FADD-like IL-1β-converting enzyme [FLICE, Mch5]) ...
Title: Pharmacological Modulation of Caspase Activation. VOLUME: 4 ISSUE: 4. Author(s):Ute Fischer and Klaus Schulze-Osthoff. Affiliation:Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Dusseldorf, Building 23.12, Universitatsstr. 1, D-40225Dusseldorf, Germany.. Keywords:apoptosis, caspase, smac, inhibitor, therapy. Abstract: Deregulation of apoptosis resulting either in inappropriate loss or accumulation of cells is a major cause of many severe pathological conditions such as cancer, autoimmune diseases, microbial infections and degenerative disorders. Consequently, great interest has emerged in devising therapeutic strategies for intervening with cell death, either in a pro- or antiapoptotic direction. Among the different apoptosis-based drug targets, caspases, a family of intracellular cysteine proteases are most promising candidates, because they form the central core of the apoptotic machinery that coordinate cell death from various signals. Inappropriate cell death can be efficiently ...
Supplementary Materials Supplemental Materials supp_24_18_2966__index. Dorsal, a take flight NFB/Rel homologue. We display that proteolytic cleavage by CalpA generates Cactus fragments lacking an N-terminal region required for Toll responsiveness. These fragments are generated in vivo and display properties unique from those of full-length Cactus. We propose that CalpA focuses on free Cactus, which is definitely integrated into and modulates Toll-responsive complexes in the embryo and immune system. Intro Calpains are Ca2+-dependent modulatory proteases with several substrates and functions. They have been implicated in several diseases, such as limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, Huntington disease, Alzheimer disease, and malignancy (Bertipaglia and Carafoli, 2007 ). Unlike degrading enzymes, calpains cleave substrates in a limited manner, generating novel activities by substrate proteolysis (Friedrich and Bozoky, 2005 ; Sorimachi to investigate in more detail the mechanism of calpain action and ...
Calpain 3 (CAPN 3) is an intracellular muscle specific nonlysosomal cysteine protease with a variety of cytoskeletal and myofibrillar substrates. CAPN 3 is vital for cytoskeletal rearrangements, sarcomere function, remodeling, and apoptosis (Kramerova et al. 2005). Knockout Capn3 -/- mice do not demonstrate any clinical myopathic signs throughout their lifespan. However on histologic examination progressive myopathy is evident. There are central nuclei present as well as areas of inflammatory infiltrates that increase as the animal ages (Fougerousse et al. 2003). This model was used to elucidate the pathophysiology of LGMD2A.. ...
Background Chronic microglia-mediated inflammation and oxidative stress are well-characterized underlying factors in neurodegenerative disease, whereby reactive inflammatory microglia enhance ROS production and impact neuronal integrity. Recently, it has been shown that during chronic inflammation, neuronal integrity is compromised through targeted disruption of the axon initial segment (AIS), the axonal domain critical for action potential initiation. AIS disruption was associated with contact by reactive inflammatory microglia which wrap around the AIS, increasing association with disease progression. While it is clear that chronic microglial inflammation and enhanced ROS production impact neuronal integrity, little is known about how acute microglial inflammation influences AIS stability. Here, we demonstrate that acute neuroinflammation induces AIS structural plasticity in a ROS-mediated and calpain-dependent manner. Methods C57BL/6J and NOX2−/− mice were given a single injection of
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Reagents. All chemicals used were commercial products of the highest grade of purity available. The sources of these reagents are detailed in Supplemental Methods.. Mice. Mice were fed chow (CRF-1; Oriental Yeast Co.) or HFD (F2HFD1; CRF-1 supplemented with 16.5% fat, 1.25% cholesterol, and 0.5% sodium cholate; Oriental Yeast Co.) for 12 weeks from 8 weeks of age. Generation of Capn6- and Capn9-deficient mice was performed as described previously (20, 32). Capn6−/y mice express LacZ instead of CAPN6. Ldlr−/− mice (C57/BL6J) were obtained from The Jackson Laboratory (stock no. 2207). Capn6−/yLdlr−/− and Capn9−/−Ldlr−/− mice were generated by intercrossing Capn6−/y and Capn9−/− mice with Ldlr−/− mice, respectively. Capn6+/yLdlr−/−, Capn6−/yLdlr−/−, Capn9+/+Ldlr−/−, and Capn9−/−Ldlr−/− mice were maintained by homozygous breeding, as they have a common genetic background; the genotypes were determined by standard PCR-based genotyping with specific ...
Calpain-1 Substrate II, Fluorogenic - Calbiochem An internally quenched peptide substrate that is optimized for calpain-1 amino acid recognition motifs at the primed as well as the non-primed sides. - Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more information.
Please register to see prices including your discount. Registration may take up to 24h. For guest orders the standard discount of your institution will apply and discounts are visible on the order confirmation.. ...
Yorikawa C, Takaya E, Osako Y, Tanaka R, Terasawa Y, Hamakubo T, Mochizuki Y, Iwanari H, Kodama T, Maeda T et al. (2008) Human calpain 7/PalBH associates with a subset of ESCRT-III-related proteins in its N-terminal region and partly localizes to endocytic membrane compartments. J Biochem 143, 731-745 ...
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Calcium-regulated non-lysosomal thiol-protease. Proteolytically cleaves CTBP1 at His-410. Mediates, with UTP25, the proteasome-independent degradation of p53/TP53.
Complete information for CAPN10-AS1 gene (RNA Gene), CAPN10 Antisense RNA 1 (Head To Head), including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Reliable and easy to perform assays for studying the crucial role of alternative proteolytic enzymes during apoptosis. We offer various assays to detect and quantify cathepsin, calpain and granzyme B activity and screen for respective enzyme inhibitors.. ...
Order monoclonal and polyclonal Calpain 2 antibodies for many applications. Selected quality suppliers for anti-Calpain 2 antibodies.
Rabbit polyclonal Calpain 1 antibody validated for WB, IHC, ICC/IF and tested in Human, Mouse and Rat. Referenced in 14 publications. Immunogen corresponding…
Mouse polyclonal antibody raised against a full-length human CAPN12 protein. CAPN12 (AAI53094.1, 1 a.a. ~ 719 a.a) full-length human protein. (H00147968-B01P) - Products - Abnova
Characterizing Caplains Implications for production agriculture and human health Calpains and calpastatin may not be household words but their action is as clo
Calpain. "Kiki Memorial and Art Gathering". Equestria Daily. Retrieved February 15, 2015. Sporeman, Sean (May 6, 2015). "Follow ...
Calpain 8 is a protein in humans that is encoded by the CAPN8 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000203697 - Ensembl, May ... "Entrez Gene: Calpain 8". Retrieved 2012-12-16. v t e. ...
Calpain (2017-06-21). "(AU) MLP Season 7 Episode 13 - The Perfect Pear - Stream / Discussion". Equestria Daily. Retrieved 2017- ...
Calpain (October 5, 2016). "(It Aired!) UK - Season 6 Episode 25 - To Where and Back Again - Stream / Discussion (It Aired!)". ...
Calpain 6 is a protein in humans that is encoded by the CAPN6 gene. Calpains are ubiquitous, well-conserved family of calcium- ... The calpain proteins are heterodimers consisting of an invariant small subunit and variable large subunits. The large subunit ... "Entrez Gene: Calpain 6". National Center for Biotechnology Information. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Archived from the ... Calpains have been implicated in neurodegenerative processes, as their activation can be triggered by calcium influx and ...
Calpain (October 5, 2016). "(It Aired!) UK - Season 6 Episode 25 - To Where and Back Again - Stream / Discussion (It Aired!)". ... Calpain (June 21, 2017). "(AU) MLP Season 7 Episode 13 - The Perfect Pear - Stream / Discussion". Equestria Daily. Retrieved ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Calpain (August 17, 2018). "(AUS) My Little Pony Season 8 Episode 19 - On the Road to ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Calpain (August 24, 2018). "(AUS) My Little Pony Season 8 Episode 21 - A Rockhoof and a ...
Calpain (2015-02-16). "Season 5 Concept Art at PonyCon Appears! New Characters and More Revealed!". Equestria Daily. Retrieved ... Calpain (2015-01-19). "PonyCon 2015 To Premiere New Season 5 Trailer With MLP Directors!". Equestria Daily. Retrieved 2015-01- ...
Calpain (September 20, 2017). "America's Got Talent Special MLP Movie Sneak Peak". Equestria Daily. Retrieved September 27, ...
Calpain (September 29, 2015). "Ratings For The 'Friendship Games' Are In". Equestria Daily. Retrieved September 29, 2015. ...
Research is being done to identify the proteins cleaved by calpain-3. Gene therapy is being studied to replace the function of ... Mutation in the gene CAPN3, which encodes the protein calpain-3 (CAPN3), is the cause of calpainopathy. As of 2019, more than ... Levy, Jennifer (21 January 2020). "Dufour Lab to investigate the biological role of calpain 3 in muscle". Coalition to Cure ... the calpain-3. Injection of plasmids containing CAPN3 into mouse models resulted in increased levels of calpain-3. Angelini, C ...
Calpain-9 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CAPN9 gene. Calpains are ubiquitous, well-conserved family of calcium- ... "Entrez Gene: CAPN9 calpain 9". Huang Y, Wang KK (2001). "The calpain family and human disease". Trends in Molecular Medicine. 7 ... The calpain proteins are heterodimers consisting of an invariant small subunit and variable large subunits. The large subunit ... Calpains have been implicated in neurodegenerative processes, as their activation can be triggered by calcium influx and ...
"Ionomycin-activated calpain triggers apoptosis. A probable role for Bcl-2 family members". The Journal of Biological Chemistry ...
Calpain-2 catalytic subunit is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CAPN2 gene. The calpains, calcium-activated neutral ... m-calpains and calpastatin and capture of mu-calpain activation in endothelial cells". J. Cell. Biochem. 66 (2): 197-209. doi: ... "Entrez Gene: CAPN2 calpain 2, (m/II) large subunit". Gil-Parrado S, Fernández-Montalván A, Assfalg-Machleidt I, Popp O, ... Potential role of calpain, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1b, and p130Cas in integrin-mediated signaling events". J. Biol. Chem. ...
Löfvenberg L, Backman L (1999). "Calpain-induced proteolysis of beta-spectrins". FEBS Lett. 443 (2): 89-92. doi:10.1016/S0014- ...
Calpain small subunit 1, also known as CAPN4, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CAPNS1 gene. Calpains are a ... "Entrez Gene: CAPNS1 calpain, small subunit 1". Lin GD, Chattopadhyay D, Maki M, Wang KK, Carson M, Jin L, Yuen PW, Takano E, ... Calpain I and II are heterodimeric with distinct large subunits associated with common small subunits, all of which are encoded ... Ohno S, Minoshima S, Kudoh J, Fukuyama R, Shimizu Y, Ohmi-Imajoh S, Shimizu N, Suzuki K (1990). "Four genes for the calpain ...
Calpain-3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CAPN3 gene. Calpain, a heterodimer consisting of a large and a small ... "Entrez Gene: CAPN3 calpain 3, (p94)". Hoek KS, Schlegel NC, Eichhoff OM, Widmer DS, Praetorius C, Einarsson SO, Valgeirsdottir ... Huang Y, de Morrée A, van Remoortere A, Bushby K, Frants RR, den Dunnen JT, van der Maarel SM (2008). "Calpain 3 is a modulator ... Ohno S, Minoshima S, Kudoh J, Fukuyama R, Shimizu Y, Ohmi-Imajoh S, Shimizu N, Suzuki K (1990). "Four genes for the calpain ...
1997). "Identification of mu-, m-calpains and calpastatin and capture of mu-calpain activation in endothelial cells". J. Cell. ... 1989). "Inhibition of calpain by a synthetic oligopeptide corresponding to an exon of the human calpastatin gene". J. Biol. ... It consists of an N-terminal domain L and four repetitive calpain-inhibition domains (domains 1-4), and it is involved in the ... 1990). "Cloning and expression of the genes for calpains and calpastatins". Biochem. Soc. Symp. 55: 29-44. PMID 2559735. Asada ...
... is a calcium-binding protein of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. The protein helps hold calcium in the cisterna of the sarcoplasmic reticulum after a muscle contraction, even though the concentration of calcium in the sarcoplasmic reticulum is much higher than in the cytosol. It also helps the sarcoplasmic reticulum store an extraordinarily high amount of calcium ions. Each molecule of calsequestrin can bind 18 to 50 Ca2+ ions.[1] Sequence analysis has suggested that calcium is not bound in distinct pockets via EF-hand motifs, but rather via presentation of a charged protein surface. Two forms of calsequestrin have been identified. The cardiac form Calsequestrin-2 (CASQ2) is present in cardiac and slow skeletal muscle and the fast skeletal form Calsequestrin-1(CASQ1) is found in fast skeletal muscle. The release of calsequestrin-bound calcium (through a calcium release channel) triggers muscle contraction. The active protein is not highly structured, more than 50% of it adopting a ...
Calpain-1 catalytic subunit is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CAPN1 gene. The calpains, calcium-activated neutral ... "Entrez Gene: CAPN1 calpain 1, (mu/I) large subunit". Shinozaki K, Maruyama K, Kume H, Tomita T, Saido TC, Iwatsubo T, Obata K ( ... The mammalian calpains include ubiquitous, stomach-specific, and muscle-specific proteins. The ubiquitous enzymes consist of ... This gene encodes the large subunit of the ubiquitous enzyme, calpain 1. CAPN1 has been shown to interact with PSEN2. GRCh38: ...
This protein is a substrate of calpain II. A second transcript from this gene has been described, but its full length nature ...
The protease calpain has also been shown to be involved in this type of cell destruction; just as the use of calpain inhibitors ... Wang KK (Jan 2000). "Calpain and caspase: can you tell the difference?". Trends in Neurosciences. 23 (1): 20-26. doi:10.1016/ ... Villa PG, Henzel WJ, Sensenbrenner M, Henderson CE, Pettmann B (Mar 1998). "Calpain inhibitors, but not caspase inhibitors, ...
These cysteine proteases include calpain, caspase, and cathepsin. These three proteins are examples of detectable signs of ...
This group includes the calpains. Basic proteases (or alkaline proteases) Proteases are involved in digesting long protein ...
Calpain-5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CAPN5 gene. Calpains are calcium-dependent cysteine proteases involved ... "Entrez Gene: CAPN5 calpain 5". Vanderklish PW, Bahr BA (2001). "The pathogenic activation of calpain: a marker and mediator of ... A functional calpain protein consists of an invariant small subunit and 1 of a family of large subunits. CAPN5 is one of the ... 2007). "Calpain-5 gene variants are associated with diastolic blood pressure and cholesterol levels". BMC Med. Genet. 8: 1. doi ...
... interacts with many sarcomeric proteins including: Z line region: telethonin and alpha-actinin I band region: calpain-3 ... Kinbara K, Sorimachi H, Ishiura S, Suzuki K (August 1998). "Skeletal muscle-specific calpain, p49: structure and physiological ... Sorimachi H, Ono Y, Suzuki K (2000). "Skeletal muscle-specific calpain, p94, and connectin/titin: their physiological functions ... "Muscle-specific calpain, p94, responsible for limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A, associates with connectin through IS2, a ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Calpain (2018-08-24). "(AUS) My Little Pony Season 8 Episode 21 - A Rockhoof and a Hard ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Calpain (2018-08-10). "(AUS) My Little Pony Season 8 Episode 17 - The End in Friend - ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Calpain (2018-08-17). "(AUS) My Little Pony Season 8 Episode 19 - On the Road to ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Calpain (2018-08-03). "(AUS) My Little Pony Season 8 Episode 15 - The Hearth's Warming ...
This includes a binding site for SA1 or SA2, recognition motifs for separase, caspase, and calpain to cleave, as well as a ... Panigrahi AK, Zhang N, Mao Q, Pati D (November 2011). "Calpain-1 cleaves Rad21 to promote sister chromatid separation". ... RAD21 is cleaved by several proteases including Separase and Calcium-dependent cysteine endopeptidase Calpain-1 during mitosis ...
Calpain-10 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CAPN10 gene. Calpains are ubiquitous, well-conserved family of calcium ... "Entrez Gene: CAPN10 calpain 10". Sorimachi H, Ishiura S, Suzuki K (1998). "Structure and physiological function of calpains". ... 2001). "Characterization and expression of calpain 10. A novel ubiquitous calpain with nuclear localization". J. Biol. Chem. ... Horikawa Y (2007). "Calpain-10 (NIDDM1) as a Susceptibility Gene for Common Type 2 Diabetes". Endocr. J. 53 (5): 567-76. doi: ...
Baliova M, Betz H, Jursky F (2004). "Calpain-mediated proteolytic cleavage of the neuronal glycine transporter, GlyT2". J. ...
One possibility is that the calcium-dependent protease calpain is involved: it has been shown that the inhibition of calpain ... Focal adhesion components are amongst the known calpain substrates, and it is possible that calpain degrades these components ... "Regulation of cell migration by the calcium-dependent protease calpain". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 272 (52): 32719-22. ...
Calpain 8/nCL-2 and calpain 9/nCL-4 constitute an active protease complex, G-calpain, involved in gastric mucosal defense.. ... The calpain system.. Physiol. Rev. 83 731-801 2003. Jeong SY, Martchenko M, Cohen SN. Calpain-dependent cytoskeletal ... Calpain-9 (CAPN9) belongs to the calpain family, which consists of a group of Ca2+ dependent cysteine proteases that regulate ... Calpain-9 and Calpain-8 are predominantly expressed in the gastrointestinal tract and are restricted to the gastric surface ...
A single C2 domain is found in calpains (EC 3.4.22.52, EC 3.4.22.53), calcium-dependent, non-lysosomal cysteine proteases. ...
Calpains are a family of Ca2+-dependent cysteine proteases that play a key role in multiple cell functions including cell ... Calpain Dysregulation in Alzheimers Disease. Adriana Ferreira Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Feinberg School of ... One of such mechanisms seems to be the dysregulation of calcium homeostasis that results in the abnormal activation of calpains ... We also summarized data underscoring the participation of calpains in the neurodegenerative mechanisms associated with AD. ...
Domain I of the large subunit of Calpain 1; does not recognize N-processed Calpain 1, and can be used to discriminate between ... Immunogen = synthetic peptide based on domain-I in the large subunit of human Calpain 1 ...
If you know of any papers that use this antibody, please contact us at antibodies [at] alzforum [dot] org for consideration in the References section.. ...
C2_Calpain; C2 domain present in Calpain proteins. cd00214. Location:352 → 498. Calpain_III; Calpain, subdomain III. Calpains ... C2_Calpain; C2 domain present in Calpain proteins. cd00214. Location:352 → 498. Calpain_III; Calpain, subdomain III. Calpains ... C2_Calpain; C2 domain present in Calpain proteins. pfam01067. Location:394 → 533. Calpain_III; Calpain large subunit, domain ... calpain-5. Names. calpain htra-3. new calpain 3. testis tissue sperm-binding protein Li 91mP. ...
As the first calpain whose three-dimensional structure was determined, m-calpain is the type-protease for the C2 (calpain) ... calpain and m-calpain (or calpain I and II), that differed primarily in their calcium requirements in vitro. Their names ... Calpain for Modulatory Proteolysis Database The Calpain Family of Proteases. (2001). University of Arizona. Calpain Info with ... Calpains constitute the C2 family of protease clan CA in the MEROPS database. The calpain proteolytic system includes the ...
Calpain-2 (EC 3.4.22.53, calcium-activated neutral protease II, m-calpain, milli-calpain) is an intracellular heterodimeric ... "Structure and nomenclature / Calpain Research Portal: Calpain Structure and Nomenclature". calpain.net. Retrieved 2021-01-17. ... Calpain Research Portal CAPN2 Crystal Structure of Human Calpain-2 Strobl S, Fernandez-Catalan C, Braun M, Huber R, Masumoto H ... Calpain-2 heterodimer is highly homologous to calpain-1, which is formed by a catalytic CAPN1 and a regulatory CAPNS1 subunits ...
Calpain-mediated proteolysis of talin regulates adhesion dynamics.. Franco SJ1, Rodgers MA, Perrin BJ, Han J, Bennin DA, ... Here, we show that proteolysis of talin by the intracellular calcium-dependent protease calpain is critical for focal adhesion ... We have generated a single point mutation in talin that renders it resistant to proteolysis by calpain. Quantification of ... Together, these findings identify calpain-mediated proteolysis of talin as a mechanism by which adhesion dynamics are regulated ...
... Calpains (EC 3.4.22.52, EC 3.4.22.53) are a family of calcium-dependent, non-lysosomal cysteine proteases (proteolytic ... calpain and m-calpain (a.k.a. calpain I and II), that differed primarily in their calcium requirements in vitro. Their names ... Calpains in pathologies The structural and functional diversity of calpains in the cell is reflected in their involvement in ... As the first calpain whose almost complete three-dimensional structure was determined, m-calpain is the type-protease for the ...
Calpain Inhibitor II for your research needs. Find product specific information including CAS, MSDS, protocols and references. ... Calpain I, Calpain I Inhibitors, Calpain II, Calpain II Inhibitors, Calpain Inhibitors, Calpain and Proteasome Inhibitors, ... Calpain inhibitor II is a cell-permeable peptide that restricts the activity of calpain, cathepsin L and cathepsin B. Calpain ... Calpain Inhibitor II powder Synonym: N-Acetyl-. L. -leucyl-. L. -leucyl-. L. -methioninal ...
... of calpain. Rapsyn is a protein that interacts with the AChR and is necessary for cluster stabilization. Calpain activity in ... Rapsyn, calpain, and the AChR coimmunoprecipitated from C2C12 cells, and agrin stimulated this interaction. Analysis of the ... CDK5 has been previously implicated in AChR dispersal, and p35 is a known substrate for calpain.) Activation of CDK5 by ... A yeast two-hybrid screen revealed that rapsyn interacted with the large subunit of m-calpain, and mutagenesis analysis ...
E-64c Calpain Inhibitor; CAS Number: 76684-89-4; Synonym: (2S,3S)-trans-Epoxysuccinyl-L-leucylamido-3-methylbutane; Linear ... A to C, Apoptosis Enzymes, Application Index, Biochemicals and Reagents, Calpain, Calpain II, Calpain II Inhibitors, Calpain ... Cysteine protease inhibitor; membrane-impermeable calpain inhibitor. Significantly reduces calpain-mediated depletion of ...
... crystal structures of the native domain VI of calpain and its complexes with calpastatin peptide and a small molecule inhibitor ... A structural model for the inhibition of calpain by calpastatin: ... Calpain Domain VI. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb1nx2/pdb. *Classification: ...
The authors propose that activation of calpain by an increase in intracellular calcium, a condition that also promotes calpain ... Activation of caspase-12 in glial cells, in response to ER stress agents, was blocked when cells were treated with a calpain ... Nakagawa, T., and Yuan, J. (2000) Cross-talk between two cysteine protease families: Activation of caspase-12 by calpain in ... is cleaved and activated by a noncaspase protease called calpain. ...
In comparison with m-calpain, the catalytic triad residues in micro-like calpain, His and Cys, are much closer together in the ... We have determined the structure of a micro-like calpain, which has 85% micro-calpain sequence (the first 48 and the last 62 ... The structure of micro-like calpain is very similar in overall fold to that of m-calpain as expected, but differs significantly ... mu-like calpain. A, B. 900. Rattus norvegicus, Bos taurus. Mutation(s): 1 Gene Names: Capn1. EC: 3.4.22.52 (PDB Primary Data), ...
Rabbit polyclonal Calpain 1 antibody validated for WB, ICC/IF and tested in Human, Mouse and Rat. Referenced in 9 publications ... Also, it does not cross react with the other calpain family members (M Calpain, Calpain 94, ncl2, ncl3, etc.). ... All lanes : Anti-Calpain 1 antibody (ab28257) at 1 µg/ml. Lane 1 : Human liver tissue lysate - total protein (ab29889). Lane 2 ... Calpain 1 regulates TGF-ß1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human lung epithelial cells via PI3K/Akt signaling ...
Rabbit polyclonal Calpain 1 antibody validated for WB, IHC, ICC/IF and tested in Human, Mouse and Rat. Referenced in 14 ... Calpain 1. It but does not cross react with the other calpain family members (Calpain 2, calpain 94, ncl 2, ncl 3, etc.). ... This antibody binds to reduced and non reduced Calpain 1. It reacts with Domain IV of Calpain 1, and detects both latent and ... The calpain-suppressing effects of olesoxime in Huntingtons disease.. Rare Dis 4:e1153778 (2016). WB . Read more (PubMed: ...
IPR022684, Calpain_cysteine_protease. IPR022682, Calpain_domain_III. IPR022683, Calpain_III. IPR036213, Calpain_III_sf. ... IPR022684, Calpain_cysteine_protease. IPR022682, Calpain_domain_III. IPR022683, Calpain_III. IPR036213, Calpain_III_sf. ... PR00704, CALPAIN. SMARTi. View protein in SMART. SM00720, calpain_III, 1 hit. SM00230, CysPc, 1 hit. SM00054, EFh, 3 ... Calpain-3Add BLAST. 821. Proteomic databases. PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across all three domains of life ...
Calpain-1 cleaves Rad21 at L192, in a calcium-dependent manner. We further show that Rad21 cleavage by calpain-1 promotes ... Engineered cleavage of Rad21 at the calpain-cleavable site without activation of calpain-1 can lead to a loss of sister ... Calpain-1 cleaves Rad21 to promote sister chromatid separation Mol Cell Biol. 2011 Nov;31(21):4335-47. doi: 10.1128/MCB.06075- ... We report here that the calcium-dependent cysteine endopeptidase calpain-1 is a Rad21 peptidase and normally localizes to the ...
IPR022684 Calpain_cysteine_protease. IPR029545 CAPN12. IPR038765 Papain-like_cys_pep_sf. IPR001300 Peptidase_C2_calpain_cat. ... IPR022684 Calpain_cysteine_protease. IPR029545 CAPN12. IPR038765 Papain-like_cys_pep_sf. IPR001300 Peptidase_C2_calpain_cat. ... Calpain-12Imported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p> ,p>,a href="/ ... Calpain catalyticInterPro annotation. ,p>Information which has been generated by the UniProtKB automatic annotation system, ...
... suppression of calpain expression with siRNAs against μ-calpain or m-calpain and inhibition of calpain activation by specific ... or m-calpain siRNA (lane 4) and processed on DIV 4 for immunoblotting with anti-m-calpain (arrow indicates native m-calpain, Mr ... In Vitro m-Calpain-Mediated p53 Cleavage Assay.. Purified m-calpain (0.5 U/mL; Calbiochem) and CaCl2 (1.0 mM; Sigma) were added ... Calpain, and in particular m-calpain, is ideally suited to integrate these various signals, as a result of its dual regulation ...
Mechanistically, we determined that inflammatory cytokines induce an unconventional nonproteolytic calpain, calpain-6 (CAPN6), ...
a) Time-dependent effects of calpain inhibition on LTP. Hippocampal slices were prepared from adult rats and LTP was induced in ... Figure 5: Effects of calpain inhibition at various times before or after LTP induction.. From: A molecular brake controls the ... c) Post-TBS calpain inhibition blocks TBS2-induced further potentiation. TBS was applied as indicated by arrows. CI-III (10 μM ... Figure 5: Effects of calpain inhibition at various times before or after LTP induction. , Nature Communications ...
... to demonstrate that calpain-2 genetic deletion or blockade with NeurAegis novel calpain-2 inhibitor eliminated the ... Michel Baudry, at Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA, where the neurodegenerative role of the protease calpain-2 ... These studies lend further scientific rationale for the Companys focus on developing novel calpain-2 inhibitors as therapeutic ... Calpain-2 as a therapeutic target in repeated concussion-induced neuropathy and behavioral impairment in Science Advances. The ...
calpain-2 catalytic subunit. Orthologs:. Homo sapiens (human) : CAPN2 (calpain 2) HGNC Alliance Mus musculus (house mouse) : ... Capn2 (calpain 2). Transitive Ortholog Pipeline. Transitive Ortholog Pipeline. Sus scrofa (pig):. CAPN2 (calpain 2). Transitive ... Capn2 (calpain 2). Transitive Ortholog Pipeline. Transitive Ortholog Pipeline. Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat):. Capn2 (calpain ... Sus scrofa (pig) : CAPN2 (calpain 2) Chlorocebus sabaeus (African green monkey) : CAPN2 (calpain 2) more info ... ...
J:125385 Hata S, et al., Stomach-specific calpain, nCL-2/calpain 8, is active without calpain regulatory subunit and ...
In this study, we investigated whether mu-calpain is involved in the processing of profilaggrin to filaggrin monomer … ... active mu-calpain with a molecular mass of 76 kDa appeared preceded by an increase in mu-calpain mRNA. In synchrony with the ... Cytoplasmic processing of human profilaggrin by active mu-calpain Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1997 Jun 27;235(3):652-6. doi: ... In this study, we investigated whether mu-calpain is involved in the processing of profilaggrin to filaggrin monomers by using ...
... which are closely related to calpain activation; directly inhibiting calpain itself via intrinsic or synthetic calpain ... Keywords: calpain, neurodegeneration, neuroprotection, calpain inhibitors, NMDAR, Speedy/RINGO ... Thus, it is very crucial to unravel all the aspects of calpain-mediated neurodegeneration in order to protect neurons through ... According to the results of numerous studies to date, there is no doubt that abnormal calpain activation triggers activation ...
Browse our Calpain small subunit 1 Protein catalog backed by our Guarantee+. ... Calpain small subunit 1 Proteins available through Novus Biologicals. ... calpain 4, small subunit (30K) protein, Calpain regulatory subunit protein, calpain, small polypeptide protein, calpain, small ... Calpain small subunit 1 Proteins. We offer Calpain small subunit 1 Peptides and Calpain small subunit 1 Proteins for use in ...
  • The calpain proteolytic system includes the calpain proteases, the small regulatory subunit CAPNS1, also known as CAPN4, and the endogenous calpain-specific inhibitor, calpastatin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The calpain proteolytic system includes the calpain proteases, the small regulatory subunit (CAPNS1 (former CAPN4, a.k.a. 30K)), and the endogenous calpain-specific inhibitor, calpastatin. (bionity.com)
  • Calpain inhibitor II is a cell-permeable peptide that restricts the activity of calpain, cathepsin L and cathepsin B. Calpain inhibitor II also prevents the methylmercury-induced cell death of cultured rat cerebellar neurons. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Thus, the authors propose that agrin promotes the interaction of calpain with the inhibitor rapsyn at the synapse, allowing AChR to cluster, and in nonsynaptic regions, calpain is activated in response to the calcium signals induced by ACh and disperses nonsynaptic ACh clusters. (sciencemag.org)
  • membrane-impermeable calpain inhibitor. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Activation of caspase-12 in glial cells, in response to ER stress agents, was blocked when cells were treated with a calpain inhibitor. (sciencemag.org)
  • At the end of calpain inhibitor treatment, stimulation intensity was decreased to obtain a response equivalent to the pre-TBS value. (nature.com)
  • The Baudry lab used a mouse model of repeated concussions that reproduces many of the features of human Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE), to demonstrate that calpain-2 genetic deletion or blockade with NeurAegis' novel calpain-2 inhibitor eliminated the pathological consequences of repeated concussions and protected the brain against neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration and cognitive impairment in control mice. (prnewswire.com)
  • Dr. Baudry commented, 'There are currently no FDA-approved therapies for concussion and these data provide further scientific rationale supporting the development of our lead calpain-2 inhibitor to address this serious unmet medical need. (prnewswire.com)
  • In this study, we investigated whether mu-calpain is involved in the processing of profilaggrin to filaggrin monomers by using both an active mu-calpain specific antibody and a 27-mer synthetic calpastatin peptide, a cell-permeable calpain-specific inhibitor. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, the Ca2+-induced activation of mu-calpain and the processing of profilaggrin were affected by the addition of the synthetic calpastatin inhibitor. (nih.gov)
  • We found that EHEC infection results in an increase in epithelial (CaCo-2a) cell calpain activity and that EHEC-induced microvillar effacement was blocked by ectopic expression of calpastatin, an endogenous calpain inhibitor, or by pretreatment of intestinal cells with a cell-penetrating version of calpastatin. (frontiersin.org)
  • Both m-calpain and mu-calpain are ubiquitously expressed, and are countered by the endogenous calpain inhibitor, calpastatin. (thermofisher.com)
  • Calpastatin (CAST) is a calpain inhibitor, a calcium-dependent cysteine protease that is widely distributed in higher order animals. (clontech.com)
  • Conclusion Calpain inhibitor PD150606 decreases myocardial apoptosis induced by I/R. Our data suggest that calpain activation may play a critical role in the development of myocardial I/R. (bmj.com)
  • View detailed Calpain 1 Inhibitor specifications, including Calpain 1 Inhibitor CAS number, molecular weight, molecular formula and chemical structure, by clicking on the product name. (scbt.com)
  • A cell-permeable, non-competitive, selective, non-peptide inhibitor directed at the Ca 2+ binding sites of calpain. (scbt.com)
  • These effects were blocked by the calpain inhibitor MDL-28170. (jneurosci.org)
  • Our Enzyme Inhibitor portfolio includes inhibitors for caspases, calpain, kinases, granzyme as well as other useful molecules used in e.g. cancer, angiogenesis and stem cell research. (promocell.com)
  • A cell-permeable inhibitor of calpain I, calpain II, cathepsin B, and cathepsin L. (promocell.com)
  • A cell-permeable inhibitor of calpain 1, calpain 2 which also inhibits cathepsin B, and cathepsin L. (promocell.com)
  • This was prevented with a calpain inhibitor and was dependent on optimal calcium concentration, especially for calpain 2. (mdpi.com)
  • calpain inhibitor i manufacturers and suppliers with contacts and product range are mentioned in the study. (marketpublishers.com)
  • Furthermore, calpain inhibitor i prices in regional markets can be found in the report with regards to countries and companies. (marketpublishers.com)
  • The report also focuses on calpain inhibitor i consumers by providing data on companies that use it. (marketpublishers.com)
  • CALPAIN INHIBITOR I (CAS 110044-82-1) Market Research Report 2017 contents were prepared and placed on the website in December, 2017. (marketpublishers.com)
  • Please note that CALPAIN INHIBITOR I (CAS 110044-82-1) Market Research Report 2017 is a half ready publication and contents are subject to change. (marketpublishers.com)
  • The culturing of epithelial cells in serum-free media supplemented with a membrane-permeable calpain inhibitor significantly promoted growth while suppressing IL-1α maturation and secretion. (doaj.org)
  • By contrast, non-membrane-permeable calpain inhibitor treatment did not have these effects. (doaj.org)
  • Interestingly, immunoblotting analysis revealed that immature, untruncated, IL-1α expression was also downregulated by cell-permeable calpain inhibitor treatment, and the difference in IL-1α gene expression increased from day 2 to day 6. (doaj.org)
  • Although IL-1RA has been reported to promote epithelial cell growth, we detected no synergistic promotion of epithelial cell growth using a calpain inhibitor and IL-1RA. (doaj.org)
  • Under physiological conditions, calpain is inhibited by its natural inhibitor calpastatin (4, 5). (ukessays.com)
  • Calpain-1 and calpain-2 activities are tightly controlled by the endogenous inhibitor calpastatin. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, treatment with the FAK inhibitor and TPL markedly decreased the protein levels of FAK and p‑FAK, and increased the protein expression of calpain 1 and calpain 2 in lung fibroblasts stimulated by TGF‑β1 to a greater extent than TPL alone, while calpeptin had an antagonistic effect on the action of TPL. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The proteolysis of pp125 FAK was prevented by pretreating platelets with the calpain inhibitors calpeptin or calpain inhibitor-1, and was reproduced in vitro by incubating immunoprecipitated pp125 FAK with purified calpain. (biochemj.org)
  • The calpain inhibitor, calpastatin, significantly reversed the increase in mitochondrial injury and endoplasmic reticulum stress and eventually ameliorated GBM cell apoptosis during SKF83959 treatment. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Furthermore, after the intracerebroventricular injection of carbenoxolone (CBX, the inhibitor of Cx43) at 30min before MCAO surgery, Calpain II, Bax and cleaved Caspased-3 immunoreactivity in ischemic penumbra region was detected by immunofluorescent staining, and cell apoptosis was detected by TUNEL staining. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Calpain activity is tightly controlled by its endogenous inhibitor calpastatin. (ahajournals.org)
  • Recent in vitro studies suggest calpain mediates degradation of the cytosolic NF-κB inhibitor IκBα, a step that is a prerequisite in the activation of NF-κB. (ahajournals.org)
  • Calpain inhibitor blocked the signaling pathway activation induced by extinction of fear-memory. (ovid.com)
  • 4) All such changes are ameliorated by calpain inhibitor SNJ1945. (arvojournals.org)
  • When used, calpain inhibitor SNJ-1945 was added 1 hr before hypoxia treatment. (arvojournals.org)
  • The cell permeant agent, calpain inhibitor I, limited EGF-induced motility and de-adhesion similarly to IP-10. (rupress.org)
  • and (c) the protein kinase A inhibitor Rp-8-Br-cAMPS abrogated IP-10 inhibition of cell migration, cell detachment, and calpain activation. (rupress.org)
  • The Calpain Inhibitor Set controls the biological activity of Calpain. (merckmillipore.com)
  • No. 208719 ), 25 mg of Calpain Inhibitor III (Cat. (merckmillipore.com)
  • Calpain inhibitor, SNJ-1945, and pan-caspase inhibitor, z-VAD-fmk, were used to confirm activation of the proteases. (arvojournals.org)
  • Such knowledge may be utilized in the treatment of AMD if inhibitor drugs against calpain and/or caspase are used to prevent RPE dysfunction caused by hypoxia or A2E. (arvojournals.org)
  • this increase was completely inhibited by preincubation with calpain inhibitor I ( N -acetyl-leucyl-leucyl-norleucinal [aLLN]), an active-site inhibitor. (asm.org)
  • A cell-permeable inhibitor of calpain 1 (Ki = 120 nM) and calpain 2 (Ki = 230 nM). (creative-enzymes.com)
  • Evidence is now provided that inhibiting calpain through over-expression of the endogenous inhibitor of calpain, calpastatin, and pharmacological inhibitors results in an inhibition of adhesive complex disassembly with stabilization of GFP-vinculin and GFP/RFP-zyxin at the cell periphery. (biologists.org)
  • In the present investigation, the effect of a calpain inhibitor, AK 295, on ischemia/ reperfusion damage in rat kidney were investigated and evaluated. (alliedacademies.org)
  • In AK295+IR group, caspase-3 enzyme band was not observed due to the fact that the calpain inhibitor AK295 prevented the ischemic damage. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Structurally, these two heterodimeric isoforms share an identical small (28 kDa) subunit (CAPNS1 (formerly CAPN4)), but have distinct large (80 kDa) subunits, known as calpain 1 and calpain 2 (each encoded by the CAPN1 and CAPN2 genes, respectively). (wikipedia.org)
  • Calpain-2 is a heterodimer of a catalytic subunit encoded by CAPN2 gene and a regulatory subunit CAPNS1. (wikipedia.org)
  • The catalytic subunit consists of four domains: protease core 1 domain (PC1), protease core 2 domain (PC2), calpain-type beta-sandwich-like domain (CBSW), and penta EF-hand domain (PEF(L)). The catalytic cleft is formed by PC1 and PC2 upon calcium binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • A functional calpain protein consists of an invariant small subunit and 1 of a family of large subunits. (nih.gov)
  • A yeast two-hybrid screen revealed that rapsyn interacted with the large subunit of m-calpain, and mutagenesis analysis identified that the two proteins interacted through the tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain of rapsyn and the regulatory domain (domain III) of calpain. (sciencemag.org)
  • We have determined the structure of a micro-like calpain, which has 85% micro-calpain sequence (the first 48 and the last 62 residues of the large subunit are those from m-calpain) and a low Ca2+ requirement. (rcsb.org)
  • ab28257 recognizes the amino terminal end of the large subunit of Calpain 1. (abcam.com)
  • Synthetic peptide based on Domain IV of the large subunit of Human Calpain 1. (abcam.com)
  • We offer Calpain small subunit 1 Peptides and Calpain small subunit 1 Proteins for use in common research applications: Blocking/Neutralizing, Control, ELISA, Protein Array, Western Blot. (novusbio.com)
  • Each Calpain small subunit 1 Peptide and Calpain small subunit 1 Protein is fully covered by our Guarantee+, to give you complete peace of mind and the support when you need it. (novusbio.com)
  • Our Calpain small subunit 1 Peptides and Calpain small subunit 1 Proteins can be used in a variety of model species: Human. (novusbio.com)
  • Choose from our Calpain small subunit 1 Peptides and Proteins. (novusbio.com)
  • Both Calpains 1 and 2 are composed of an 80 kD subunit and a 30 kD subunit. (novusbio.com)
  • The calpain family members consist of a common small subunit (Calpain-4), and a large variable subunit. (thermofisher.com)
  • It is not clear that all calpains contain a small subunit. (thermofisher.com)
  • Calpain is a heterodimer composed of a small regulatory subunit and one of three large catalytic subunits, designated calpain 1, calpain 2 and calpain 3. (thermofisher.com)
  • The ubiquitous μ- and m-calpains (calpains I and II), by far the best characterized calpains, are heterodimers comprising distinct but quite homologous 80-kDa "large" L-subunits and a common 30-kDa "small" S-subunit. (pnas.org)
  • The calpain proteins are heterodimers consisting of an invariant small subunit and variable large subunits. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Purified bovine skeletal muscle 80 kDa mu-calpain subunit. (genetex.com)
  • The regulatory subunit is essential for μ- and m -calpain stability and catalytic activity. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Our observation of autoproteolytic cleavage of the 80 kDa subunit of calpain-1 provided further evidence for enzyme activity in the plaque samples. (lu.se)
  • Semithin cryosections were immuno-labeled with antibodies specific for the catalytic subunit of calpain II. (biologists.org)
  • A large subunit of calpain, a calcium-activated neutral proteinase, from Schistosoma japonicum was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli . (asm.org)
  • In the present study, we first showed that semaphorin 3A-induced growth cone collapse in cultured hippocampal neurons was associated with the partial truncation of phosphorylated p53, and that both effects were prevented by calpain inhibition with either m-calpain-specific siRNA or inhibitors. (pnas.org)
  • These studies lend further scientific rationale for the Company's focus on developing novel calpain-2 inhibitors as therapeutic agents for concussion. (prnewswire.com)
  • EDITOR'S PICK: Calpain inhibitors n. (bio-medicine.org)
  • EDITOR'S PICK: Calpain inhibitors never forget: improving memory in Al. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In the study, analysis of cells and tissue slices from APP/PS1 mice, specifically cells from the part of the brain known as the hippocampus and hippocampal slices, indicated that exposure to calpain inhibitors restored signaling between nerve cells to normal. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The authors therefore suggest that calpain inhibitors improve memory in APP/PS1 mice because they reestablish normal signaling between nerve cells. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Synthesis and antiproliferative activity of sulfonamide-based peptidomimetic calpain inhibitors. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Therefore, calpain inhibitors are of interest as potential therapeutic agents. (bioportfolio.com)
  • We have synthesized four new sulfonamide-based peptidomimetic compounds 2-5 as inhibitors of μ-calpain that incorporate (E)-1-(phenyl)-2-phenyldiazene and (E)-1-(phenyl)-2-phenylethene functionalities as the N-terminal capping groups of the inhibitors. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Santa Cruz Biotechnology now offers a broad range of Calpain 1 Inhibitors. (scbt.com)
  • Calpain 1 Inhibitors offered by Santa Cruz inhibit Calpain 1 and, in some cases, other cell cycle and cytoskeletal related proteins. (scbt.com)
  • In the presence of the glutamate receptor agonist NMDA, the total KCC2 protein level decreased to about 30% within 4 h, and this effect was blocked by calpeptin and MDL-28170, inhibitors of the calcium-activated protease calpain. (jneurosci.org)
  • and 4) Inhibition of m- and µ-Capn proteolytic activity by the cell permeable calpain inhibitors has little effect on the formation of podosomes downstream of active c-Src. (queensu.ca)
  • Membrane-Permeable Calpain Inhibitors Promote Rat Oral Mucosal Epithelial Cell Proliferation by Inhibiting IL-1α Signaling. (doaj.org)
  • In this study, we examined inhibitors of calpain, a cysteine proteinase that plays crucial roles in various cellular functions, including IL-1α maturation and secretion. (doaj.org)
  • These findings indicate that calpain inhibitors promote epithelial cell proliferation by inhibiting IL-1α maturation at an early phase of epithelial cell culture and by suppressing the positive feedback-mediated amplification of IL-1α signalling. (doaj.org)
  • We offer various assays to detect and quantify cathepsin, calpain and granzyme B activity and screen for respective enzyme inhibitors. (promocell.com)
  • Allows fast screening of potential human calpain 1 inhibitors. (promocell.com)
  • Calpain inhibitors have been tested with success in animal models of human diseases. (ukessays.com)
  • The focus of this review is to highlight the potential of targeted protease inhibitors as therapeutic agents in the treatment of neurodegenerative and neuromuscular disorders and to introduce three newer calpain inhibitors with improved characteristics. (ukessays.com)
  • Given the role of calpain in different pathological conditions, several calpain inhibitors have been developed and tested as potential therapeutic agents in animal models of diseases and in human trials (15, 19, 20, 22, 25-27). (ukessays.com)
  • its in vitro degradation was stimulated by peroxynitrite and prevented by calpain inhibitors. (ahajournals.org)
  • Calpain activation also was linked to hyperresponsiveness to thrombin and the loss of platelet sensitivity to nitric oxide synthase inhibitors. (ahajournals.org)
  • Our data demonstrated that intraperitoneal or intra-basolateral amygdala (BLA) injection of calpain inhibitors could eliminate extinction of fear-memory in mice. (ovid.com)
  • In reconstructed systems, and in intact cells, the conversion of native CFTR into the 100 kDa fragment linearly correlated with calpain activation and was prevented by addition of synthetic calpain inhibitors. (biochemj.org)
  • We investigated the potential role of calpain in reovirus-induced apoptosis in vitro by measuring calpain activity as well as evaluating the effects of calpain inhibitors. (asm.org)
  • Apoptosis induced by UV-inactivated reovirus was also reduced 65 to 69% by aLLN, indicating that inhibition of apoptosis by calpain inhibitors is independent of effects on viral replication. (asm.org)
  • DIGITAL.CSIC: Studies on calpain inhibitors. (csic.es)
  • Studies on calpain inhibitors. (csic.es)
  • The activity as calpain inhibitors of both thiolactams and chloroisoquinoline has been measured, finding that some of these compounds are inhibitors in the micromolar range. (csic.es)
  • In this area, Several and important researches have been done to improve a means of identifying selective calpain inhibitors, since many of them also inhibit other cysteine proteases, serine proteases and even the proteasome. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Calpains constitute the C2 family of protease clan CA in the MEROPS database. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the sequence of this enzyme became known, it was given the name "calpain", to recognize its common properties with two well-known proteins at the time, the calcium-regulated signalling protein, calmodulin, and the cysteine protease of papaya, papain. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the first calpain whose three-dimensional structure was determined, m-calpain is the type-protease for the C2 (calpain) family in the MEROPS database. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calpain 8/nCL-2 and calpain 9/nCL-4 constitute an active protease complex, G-calpain, involved in gastric mucosal defense. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Calpain-2 (EC 3.4.22.53, calcium-activated neutral protease II, m-calpain, milli-calpain) is an intracellular heterodimeric calcium-activated cysteine protease. (wikipedia.org)
  • T, p.Arg289Trp) that shows greater hyperactivation of the calpain protease, indicating a genotype-phenotype correlation. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we show that proteolysis of talin by the intracellular calcium-dependent protease calpain is critical for focal adhesion disassembly. (nih.gov)
  • The history of calpain originates during the mid-1960s, when calcium-dependent proteolytic activities caused by a "calcium-activated neutral protease" (CANP) were detected in brain , lens of the eye and other tissues . (bionity.com)
  • However, Nakagawa and Yuan report that procaspase-12, localized at the cytoplasmic face of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), is cleaved and activated by a noncaspase protease called calpain. (sciencemag.org)
  • Nakagawa, T., and Yuan, J. (2000) Cross-talk between two cysteine protease families: Activation of caspase-12 by calpain in apoptosis. (sciencemag.org)
  • The studies reported in the publication were performed in the laboratory of NeurAegis' scientific founder, Dr. Michel Baudry , at Western University of Health Sciences , Pomona, CA , where the neurodegenerative role of the protease calpain-2 in repeated concussions was investigated. (prnewswire.com)
  • Effacement by the related pathogen enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) requires the activity of the Ca +2 -dependent host protease, calpain, which participates in a variety of cellular processes, including cell adhesion and motility. (frontiersin.org)
  • Calpain, an intracellular calcium-dependent protease that cleaves cytoskeletal and submembranous proteins, plays a role in cytoskeletal reorganization and muscle protein degradation. (thermofisher.com)
  • Calpain 3 (calpain p94) is a muscle-preferred calcium activated neutral protease that localizes to the nucleus. (thermofisher.com)
  • BDNF also activates calpain, a calcium-dependent cysteine protease, which has been shown to play a critical role in learning and memory. (jneurosci.org)
  • Recently, the cysteine protease m-calpain (m-Capn) has been shown to cleave cortactin, an integral component of the podosomal F-actin core, as well as various proteins found in the peripheral adhesive region leading to the disassembly of these dynamic structures. (queensu.ca)
  • We describe the various instances in which a protease, in this case calpain, has been implicated. (ukessays.com)
  • Calpastatin appears to be specific for these two calpain isoforms but does not inhibit any other protease ( 7 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Transplantation of human glioblastoma cells in the zebrafish brain showed that the knockdown of calpain 2, a calcium-activated protease, resulted in a three fold decrease in the tumor cell invasion. (oregonstate.edu)
  • These results provide evidence that calpain 2 protease activity is required for the dispersal of glioblastoma cells in the brain microenvironment. (oregonstate.edu)
  • 4 In light of our findings, the in vivo study by Letavernier et al 1 suggests that the missing link in calcium-dependent NF-κB activation in the heart is the calcium-activated protease calpain. (ahajournals.org)
  • Although the intriguing parallels of the 2 independent studies suggest that the missing link in calcium-dependent NF-κB activation in the context of Ang II-induced cardiac hypertrophy is the calcium-activated protease calpain, further studies are needed for a detailed and comprehensive description of the underlying signaling pathway. (ahajournals.org)
  • Calpain is a type of calcium-dependent protease that plays a critical role in memory consolidation and reconsolidation. (ovid.com)
  • We also found that the HECs promoted the intracellular activity of calpain, a Ca(2+)-dependent protease, and the enzyme activity fluctuated in concert with cellular energy levels, suggesting that calpain activity may also be energy-driven or energy-dependent. (medworm.com)
  • however, calpain, a cytosolic calcium-activated cysteine protease, has been implicated in several forms of programmed cell death. (asm.org)
  • Calpain is a calcium-dependent papain-like neutral cysteine protease that is distributed widely throughout the cytosol of many cell types ( 32 ). (asm.org)
  • We have previously demonstrated that the calcium-dependent protease, calpain, regulates the organization of adhesive complexes and cell detachment during cell migration. (biologists.org)
  • Calpain is a cysteine protease with two characterized isoforms, μ- and m-calpain ( Croall and De Martino, 1991 ). (biologists.org)
  • Calpain (Ca(2+)-dependent thiol protease) in erythrocytes of young and old individuals. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Calpain 5 is a calcium regulated non-lysosomal thiol-protease which catalyzes limited proteolysis of substrates involved in cytoskeletal remodeling and signal transduction. (abbiotec.com)
  • In addition, calpain-1/2 can be inhibited by calpastatin (encoded by the CAST gene) which binds to the PEF domains of the catalytic and regulatory subunits of calpains-1/2. (wikipedia.org)
  • In transgenic mice overexpressing a calpain-inhibitory peptide calpastatin in skeletal muscle, p25 abundance was lower in the skeletal muscles from the transgenic mice, and AChR clustering was increased compared with control mice. (sciencemag.org)
  • Calpastatin regulates calpain by inhibiting both the proteolytic activity of calpain and its binding to membranes. (thermofisher.com)
  • Through its inhibition of calpain, calpastatin is believed to play important roles in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation and aging. (clontech.com)
  • This antibody does not cross-react with Calpain 2, n-calpain, calmodulin or calpastatin. (genetex.com)
  • The function of calpain was genetically manipulated by cardiomyocyte-specific knockout Capn4 in mice and the use of calpastatin transgenic mice. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Overexpression of calpastatin has been successfully used to block calpain activation both in vitro and in vivo ( 11 - 14 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 1 These authors used transgenic mice expressing high levels of calpastatin to inhibit Ang II-dependent calpain activation. (ahajournals.org)
  • However, compelling evidence as to how calpains are activated by Ang II in the myocardium and how the calpain/calpastatin system is linked to NF-κB activation is not provided. (ahajournals.org)
  • 2 Here, we discuss the convergent results of these 2 studies and show that calpain/calpastatin and CGB may be important for developing new strategies in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. (ahajournals.org)
  • The calpain/calpastatin system in the heart, and particularly its potential role in the complex regulation of cardiac hypertrophy, is only poorly understood. (ahajournals.org)
  • Decreased activation of calpain in calpastatin transgenic mice impairs NF-κB activity and attenuates Ang II-induced hypertrophy, just as we observed for impaired InsP 3 R-dependent calcium release in CGB knockdown cardiomyocytes on Ang II stimulation. (ahajournals.org)
  • 1,2 The parallels of the 2 studies become even more obvious when 2 observations are highlighted: neither calpain inhibition by calpastatin overexpression nor impaired InsP 3 R-dependent calcium release impaired NFAT signaling but rather selectively targeted NF-κB. (ahajournals.org)
  • Including the calpain/calpastatin system in the complex signaling network that controls cardiac hypertrophy will be a challenging task for ongoing research but is likely to be a key to our understanding of the pathophysiology and will ultimately lead to the development of novel therapeutic agents in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. (ahajournals.org)
  • The authors propose that activation of calpain by an increase in intracellular calcium, a condition that also promotes calpain translocation from the cytosol to membranes, may promote activation of caspase-12 and may play an important role in mediating neuronal degeneration. (sciencemag.org)
  • Different pathways lead to the abnormal and prolonged activation of calpain as a result of increased intracellular calcium. (ukessays.com)
  • Calpains are Ca 2+ -dependent intracellular proteases. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Calpains are intracellular Ca 2+ -regulated cysteine proteases that are essential for various cellular functions. (mcponline.org)
  • High-energy compounds mobilize intracellular Ca(2+) and activate calpain in cultured SH-SY5Y cells: potential use for preventing Alzheimer's disease. (medworm.com)
  • The antibody does not recognize amino-processed Calpain 1, and can be used to discriminate between latent and amino-processed forms. (abcam.com)
  • This antibody binds to reduced and non reduced Calpain 1. (abcam.com)
  • Immunohistochemistry-Paraffin: Calpain 2 Antibody [NBP1-51276] Analyzes of Calpain 2 (K354) pAb in paraffin-embedded human brain tissue. (novusbio.com)
  • The following antibody was used in this experiment: Calpain 2 Polyclonal Antibody from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # PA5-82884. (thermofisher.com)
  • Immunofluorescence analysis of paraformaldehyde-fixed HeLa, using Calpain-5(GTX103264) antibody at 1:100 dilution. (genetex.com)
  • Tissues were then probed at a dilution of 1:20 with or without Calpain 1 antibody [9A4H8D3] overnight at 4°C in a humidified chamber. (genetex.com)
  • Cells were probed without (control) or with Calpain 1 antibody [9A4H8D3] at a dilution of 1:100 overnight at 4°C, washed with PBS and incubated with a proper secondary antibody. (genetex.com)
  • An antibody specific for calpain-proteolyzed alpha-fodrin was used on western blots. (lu.se)
  • Protecting neurons against calpain-activated apoptosis basically requires developing effective, reliable, and most importantly, therapeutically applicable approaches to succeed. (dovepress.com)
  • The mechanistic link between apoptosis and activation of calpain remains unclear. (bmj.com)
  • Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the role of calpain in adult cardiomyocyte apoptosis induced by I/R. (bmj.com)
  • In its relation with cell death, calpain was primarily considered to be responsible for necrosis, but it is now well-known that calpain may play important roles in apoptosis as well (14). (ukessays.com)
  • OBJECTIVE Recently we have shown that calpain-1 activation contributes to cardiomyocyte apoptosis induced by hyperglycemia. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Calpain activity and apoptosis were detected by performing immunohistochemical analysis and TUNEL assay on human carotid plaque sections. (lu.se)
  • Glucopsychosine increases cytosolic calcium to induce calpain-mediated apoptosis of acute myeloid leukemia cells. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • Glucopsychosine increased cytosolic calcium and induced apoptosis through calpain enzymes. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • We conclude that calpain activation is a component of the regulatory cascade in reovirus-induced apoptosis. (asm.org)
  • Examples of proteases implicated in apoptosis include granzyme B, caspases, and calpain. (asm.org)
  • Increases in cytosolic calcium levels occur in many forms of apoptosis ( 9 , 66 ), an observation that led to investigation of the potential role of calpain in apoptosis. (asm.org)
  • In cultured cardiac microvascular endothelial cells, inhibition of calpain improved angiogenesis and prevented apoptosis under metabolic stress. (springer.com)
  • Upregulation of β-catenin promoted angiogenesis and inhibited apoptosis whereas knockdown of β-catenin offset the protective effects of calpain inhibition in endothelial cells under metabolic stress. (springer.com)
  • Calpains are involved in a variety of calcium-regulated cellular processes such as signal transduction, cell proliferation and differentiation, apoptosis, membrane fusion and platelet activation. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Activation of CDK5 by carbachol was blocked by pharmacological inhibition of calpain with calpeptin, and the dispersal of AChR clusters induced by agrin was also prevented if calpain activity was blocked (pharmacologically or by RNAi). (sciencemag.org)
  • In vivo, pharmacologic inhibition of calpain (by injection of pregnant mice) in mice deficient for agrin rescued the formation of AChR clusters, although not all clusters were apposed to the nerve terminals. (sciencemag.org)
  • The pharmacological inhibition of calpain activity by MDL28170 reduced the cleavage of Nav channels, I NaP in motoneurons and spasticity in rats with SCI. (nature.com)
  • Thus, inhibition of calpain may help diminish the symptoms, or help treat these disease entities that result from abnormal activation and action of calpain. (ukessays.com)
  • Thus targeted inhibition of calpain represents a potential novel therapeutic strategy for reversing diabetic cardiomyopathy. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Additionally, phosphorylation by protein kinase A and dephosphorylation by alkaline phosphatase have been found to positively regulate the activity of μ-calpains by increasing random coils and decreasing β-sheets in its structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calpain is also involved in skeletal muscle protein breakdown due to exercise and altered nutritional states. (wikipedia.org)
  • Significantly reduces calpain-mediated depletion of microtubule-associated protein (MAP2) in an animal model of an ischemic brain. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Calpain 2 (K354) pAb detects endogenous levels of Calpain 2 protein. (novusbio.com)
  • Additionally we are shipping Calpain 2 Proteins (5) and Calpain 2 Kits (3) and many more products for this protein. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Novel role of calpain-3 in the triad-associated protein complex regulating calcium release in skeletal muscle. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Calpain cleaves cytoskeletal and submembranous proteins, and is thought to play a role in cytoskeletal reorganization and muscle protein degradation. (scbt.com)
  • This study was therefore directed at testing the hypothesis that calpain activity is required for BDNF-stimulated local protein synthesis, and at identifying the underlying molecular mechanism. (jneurosci.org)
  • In rat hippocampal slices, cortical synaptoneurosomes, and cultured neurons, BDNF-induced mTOR pathway activation and protein translation were blocked by calpain inhibition. (jneurosci.org)
  • Our results reveal a critical role for calpain-2 in BDNF-induced mTOR signaling and dendritic protein synthesis via PTEN, hamartin, and tuberin degradation. (jneurosci.org)
  • Recombinant protein encompassing a sequence within the center region of human Calpain 5. (genetex.com)
  • Although other proteases are also involved in muscle and neuronal degradation, calpain appears to play a major role in this process since neuronal protein degradation such as alpha-fodrin is significantly decreased when calpain is inhibited following central nervous system (CNS) injury (15-24). (ukessays.com)
  • The protein levels of FAK, phosphorylated (p)‑FAK, calpain 1 and calpain 2 were detected by western blot analysis. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • By generating P. falciparum clones expressing C-terminally tagged calpain, we localized this protein to the nucleolus. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • P. falciparum calpain is a unique nucleolar protein with an interesting mechanism of targeting. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Moreover, extinction of fear-memory paradigm-activated BLA calpain activity, which degraded suprachiasmatic nucleus circadian oscillatory protein (SCOP) and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), subsequently contributing to activation of a protein kinase B (AKT)-mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTor) signaling pathway. (ovid.com)
  • Together, our data confirmed the function of BLA calpain in extinction of fear-memory, likely via degrading PTEN and activating AKT-mTor-dependent protein synthesis. (ovid.com)
  • An important role in calpain-mediated turnover of CFTR is exerted by HSP90 (heat-shock protein 90), which, via association with the protein channel, modulates the degradative effect of calpain through a selective protection. (biochemj.org)
  • Taken together these results indicate that CFTR turnover is initiated by calpain activation, which is induced by an increased Ca 2+ influx and, following internalization of the cleaved channel protein, and completed by the lysosomal proteases. (biochemj.org)
  • Mechanistically, deletion of Capns1 elevated the protein levels of β-catenin in endothelial cells of Capns1 -KO mice and constitutive activity of calpain 2 suppressed β-catenin protein expression in cultured endothelial cells. (springer.com)
  • These results suggest that CaLac addition to early postmortem muscle may lead a significant improvement of meat tenderness by providing an activation of endogenous calpain enzymes and protection against protein oxidation. (iastate.edu)
  • Shortly thereafter, the activity was found to be attributable to two main isoforms, dubbed μ ("mu")-calpain and m-calpain (or calpain I and II), that differed primarily in their calcium requirements in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calpain activity in vitro or in transfected cells was inhibited by rapsyn, and RNAi experiments to knock down rapsyn in C2C12 myotubes showed that p25 was more abundant in control and carbachol-treated cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • In vitro studies confirmed that p53 and especially phosphorylated p53 were partially truncated by calpain. (pnas.org)
  • Using purified calpains 1 and 2 in an in vitro assay, we show that addition of calpains leads to an increase in the release of VP1 and VP3 capsid proteins from P1 of enterovirus B species, detected by western blotting. (mdpi.com)
  • In conclusion, we show that cellular proteases, calpains, can cleave structural proteins from enterovirus polyprotein in vitro. (mdpi.com)
  • The tyrosine nitration of SERCA-2 and the activation of μ-calpain in vitro in platelets from healthy volunteers could be evoked in vitro by peroxynitrite. (ahajournals.org)
  • Immunoblots of the rod outer segment cytoskeleton were used to determine the susceptibility of known components of the actin-based cytoskeleton to proteolysis by calpain II in vitro. (biologists.org)
  • The localization of calpain II in the connecting cilium after light exposure, combined with the in vitro proteolysis of myosin II, suggests that calpain II could be involved in light-dependent regulation of disk membrane morphogenesis by proteolysis of myosin II. (biologists.org)
  • The in vitro half-lives of nNOSα and nNOSμ are 12 and 50 min, respectively, and calpain is important for this degradation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • On the other hand, spleen cells of immunized mice showed only faint interleukin-4 production in response to r-calpain in vitro, suggesting that immunization with r-calpain alters the Th1-Th2 balance in murine hosts even during a Th2-promoting S. japonicum infection. (asm.org)
  • Regardless of the brain regions studied, the normal monkey brain tissues showed calpain-mediated cleavage of Hsp70.1 after in-vitro oxidative stress. (omicsonline.org)
  • Antioxidant Capacity of Calcium Lactate on m-Calpain Activity In Vitro" by Yuan Kim, Edward M. Steadham et al. (iastate.edu)
  • Arguably, the best currently available fluorogenic calpain substrate is (EDANS)-Glu-Pro-Leu-Phe=Ala-Glu-Arg-Lys-(DABCYL), with cleavage occurring at the Phe=Ala bond. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteolytic cleavage by calpain-2 is regulated by presence of Ca2+ ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exposure of C2C12 myotubes in culture to the cholinergic agonist carbachol triggered a calcium transient, activation of calpain, and stimulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) through production of the activator p25 by cleavage of the CDK5 regulatory partner p35. (sciencemag.org)
  • We further show that Rad21 cleavage by calpain-1 promotes separation of chromosome arms, which coincides with a calcium-induced partial loss of cohesin at several chromosomal loci. (nih.gov)
  • Engineered cleavage of Rad21 at the calpain-cleavable site without activation of calpain-1 can lead to a loss of sister chromatid cohesion. (nih.gov)
  • Calpain-dependent cleavage of Nav channels after neonatal SCI was associated with an upregulation of I NaP in motoneurons. (nature.com)
  • Similarly, the calpain-dependent cleavage of Nav1.6 channels expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells caused the upregulation of I NaP . (nature.com)
  • Figure 2: Cleavage of Nav1.6 channels by calpain. (nature.com)
  • Figure 3: Calpain inhibition prevents the cleavage of Nav channels and the I NaP increase after SCI. (nature.com)
  • Chou, Huang, Chen, Li: Calcium-induced cleavage of DNA topoisomerase I involves the cytoplasmic-nuclear shuttling of calpain 2. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Taken together, these findings show that calpain activation leads to cleavage of KCC2, thereby modulating GABAergic signaling. (jneurosci.org)
  • In addition, calpain cleavage at the VP3-VP1 interface was supported by a competition assay using a peptide containing the VP3-VP1 cleavage site. (mdpi.com)
  • In this study, we identified a novel mechanism that the PI3 kinase activity regulates the cleavage of filamin by calpain 2 in glioblastoma cells. (oregonstate.edu)
  • However, the calpains' substrate specificity remains unclear, because the amino acid (aa) sequences around their cleavage sites are very diverse. (mcponline.org)
  • To clarify calpains' substrate specificities, 84 20-mer oligopeptides, corresponding to P10-P10′ of reported cleavage site sequences, were proteolyzed by calpains, and the catalytic efficiencies ( k cat / K m ) were globally determined by LC/MS. This analysis revealed 483 cleavage site sequences, including 360 novel ones. (mcponline.org)
  • 1,300 aa descriptors achieved k cat / K m prediction with r = 0.834, and binary-QSAR modeling attained an 87.5% positive prediction value for 132 reported calpain cleavage sites independent of our model construction. (mcponline.org)
  • These results outperformed previous calpain cleavage predictors, and revealed the importance of the P2, P3′, and P4′ sites, and P1-P2 cooperativity. (mcponline.org)
  • L929 cells were infected with reovirus type 3 Abney (T3A), and calpain activity, measured as cleavage of the fluorogenic calpain substrate Suc-Leu-Leu-Val-Tyr-AMC, was monitored. (asm.org)
  • The cleavage of neuron-specific Cdk5 activator, p35, to p25, mediated by calpain and calcium, deregulates Cdk5 activity and promotes neurodegeneration. (springer.com)
  • In addition, FZS also blocked Aβ 25-35 -induced calcium influx, calpain activation and decreased cleavage of p35 to p25. (springer.com)
  • C/EBPalpha is required for proteolytic cleavage of cyclin A by calpain 3 in myeloid precursor cells. (harvard.edu)
  • Under these physiological conditions, a transient and localized influx of calcium into the cell activates a small local population of calpains (for example, those close to Ca2+ channels), which then advance the signal transduction pathway by catalyzing the controlled proteolysis of its target proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is one of 15 proteins in the calpain family. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has recently become widely acknowledged that calpain, by partially truncating a variety of cytoskeletal proteins, plays a critical role in the regulation of shape and motility in numerous cell types (see refs. (pnas.org)
  • Overactivation of proteins known as calpains which are involved in me. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Overactivation of proteins known as calpains, which are involved in memory formation, has been linked to Alzheimer disease. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Treatment of brain homogenates with purified calpain-1 and calpain-2 truncated both proteins. (jneurosci.org)
  • Calpain activation results in the truncation of target proteins, leading to persistent modifications of their functions and in time-dependent changes in synaptic properties and functions. (jneurosci.org)
  • Laajala M, Hankaniemi MM, Määttä JAE, Hytönen VP, Laitinen OH, Marjomäki V. Host Cell Calpains Can Cleave Structural Proteins from the Enterovirus Polyprotein. (mdpi.com)
  • Upon binding with a putative membrane receptor, Aβ activates a molecular cascade that leads to activation of calpain and degradation of important proteins involved in synaptic plasticity and learning and memory (28). (ukessays.com)
  • Thus, it is critically important to determine the site(s) in proteins at which calpains cleave. (mcponline.org)
  • Label-free CARS imaging of myelin coupled with multiphoton fluorescence imaging of immuno-labeled proteins at the nodes of Ranvier revealed that high-frequency stimulation induced paranodal myelin retraction via pathologic calcium influx into axons, calpain activation, and cytoskeleton degradation through spectrin break-down. (purdue.edu)
  • Synthetic peptide corresponding to Human Calpain 1 aa 1-30. (abcam.com)
  • Synthetic peptide, corresponding to amino acids 320-370 of Human Calpain 2. (novusbio.com)
  • Active Human Calpain 1. (promocell.com)
  • CDK5 has been previously implicated in AChR dispersal, and p35 is a known substrate for calpain. (sciencemag.org)
  • In addition, ezrin, a known calpain substrate that links the plasma membrane to axial actin filaments in microvilli, was cleaved in a calpain-dependent manner during EHEC infection and lost from its normal locale within microvilli. (frontiersin.org)
  • Compared with papain, the two subdomains dIIa+dIIb of the catalytic unit are rotated against one another by 50°, disrupting the active site and the substrate binding site, explaining the inactivity of calpains in the absence of calcium. (pnas.org)
  • This study increases our understanding of calpain substrate specificities, and opens calpains to "next-generation," i.e. activity-related quantitative and cooperativity-dependent analyses. (mcponline.org)
  • A fluorogenic FRET peptide with a substrate sequence that is optimized for calpain-1 and -2. (emdmillipore.com)
  • ENaC (show SCNN1A Antibodies ) activity is regulated by calpain-2 proteolysis of MARCKS (show MARCKS Antibodies ). (antibodies-online.com)
  • When defective, the mammalian calpain 3 (also known as p94) is the gene product responsible for limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A [5] [6] , calpain 10 has been identified as a susceptibility gene for type II diabetes mellitus, and calpain 9 has been identified as a tumor suppressor for gastric cancer. (bionity.com)
  • The calpains are a conserved family of cysteine proteases that includes several isoforms of which µ-calpain and m-calpain are the most widely distributed in mammalian cells. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Calpain is one of the proteases that plays an important role in the life and death of mammalian cells including proliferation, differentiation and migration (1-3). (ukessays.com)
  • Mammalian conventional calpains (calpain-1 and calpain-2) modulate the structure and function of their substrates by limited proteolysis. (mcponline.org)
  • Conclusion: These novel results suggest that calpain-1 is commonly active in carotid artery atherosclerotic plaques, and that calpain activity is colocalized with cell death and inversely associated with symptoms. (lu.se)
  • These observations suggest that calpain may be involved in the degeneration of retinal nerve fibers during hypoxia in glaucoma. (arvojournals.org)
  • Together, these findings suggest that calpain and calpain substrates, such as FAK and Src, may be acting by related mechanisms to regulate cell migration. (biologists.org)
  • We have generated a single point mutation in talin that renders it resistant to proteolysis by calpain. (nih.gov)
  • Binding of a membrane phospholipid phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5) triphosphate [PtdIns (3,4,5)-P₃] to filamin induces its proteolysis by calpain 2 after the amino acid lysine 268, removing the actin binding domain which in-turn abolishes the actin binding ability of filamin. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Figure 5: Effects of calpain inhibition at various times before or after LTP induction. (nature.com)
  • a ) Time-dependent effects of calpain inhibition on LTP. (nature.com)
  • In the March 28, 2008 issue of Circulation Research , Letavernier et al assessed the effects of calpain inhibition on angiotensin (Ang) II-induced cardiovascular remodeling. (ahajournals.org)
  • To date, these two isoforms remain the best characterised members of the calpain family. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Human Genome Project has revealed that more than a dozen other calpain isoforms exist, some with multiple splice variants. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mammals, the calpain family comprises several "tissue-specific" isoforms (n-calpains) besides two "ubiquitous" isoenzymes (μ- and m-calpains). (pnas.org)
  • Two isoforms (μ- and m-calpain) are ubiquitously expressed, whereas the other isoforms are tissue-specific. (ahajournals.org)
  • The calpain family includes a heterogeneous group of cysteine proteases with a broad expression pattern that includes multiple isoforms, which are both ubiquitous and tissue specific. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Calpain-9 (CAPN9) belongs to the calpain family, which consists of a group of Ca2+ dependent cysteine proteases that regulate functions of substrates by proteolysis [ PMID: 12843408 , PMID: 24085852 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • There is no known consensus sequence for calpain-2 proteolysis, but there is evidence for over 130 potential substrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aa compositions of the novel sites were not statistically different from those of previously reported sites as a whole, suggesting calpains have a strict implicit rule for sequence specificity, and that the limited proteolysis of intact substrates is because of substrates' higher-order structures. (mcponline.org)
  • 3) Calpain substrates are proteolyzed. (arvojournals.org)
  • The relevance of these calpain substrates to calpain function in vivo has yet to be determined. (biologists.org)
  • Although the physiological role of calpains is still poorly understood, they have been shown to be active participants in processes such as cell mobility and cell cycle progression, as well as cell-type specific functions such as long-term potentiation in neurons and cell fusion in myoblasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vivo , both calpains seem to be active at physiological calcium concentrations of 100-300 nM, however, suggesting that other factors such as phospholipids might play a role in activation in addition. (pnas.org)
  • Although its precise physiological function is uncertain, calpain plays a demonstrated role in cardiovascular disease ( 14 , 15 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This wide variety of physiological functions, including calpains, designates their important pathological role in a host of human diseases. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Moreover, a mass spectrometry analysis showed that calpains can cleave this same peptide at the VP3-VP1 interface, the cutting site being two amino acids aside from 3C's cutting site. (mdpi.com)
  • Abnormal calpain-3 mutations have been linked to limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A (LGMD2A) [MIM:253600]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A is characterized by progressive muscle weakness resulting from deficiency in calpain 3. (sciencemag.org)
  • Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A (LGMD2A or LGMDR1) is a neuromuscular disorder caused by mutations in the calpain 3 gene ( CAPN3 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Kit provides a simple and convenient means for analyzing calpain activity in apoptotic and other samples. (promocell.com)
  • Phosphorylation improves proteolytic activity and stimulates auto-activation of μ-calpains. (wikipedia.org)
  • 100 nM) is insufficient for activating calpain-2, so activation occurs upon influx of ions from extracellular space or from endoplasmic reticulum. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of such mechanisms seems to be the dysregulation of calcium homeostasis that results in the abnormal activation of calpains. (hindawi.com)
  • The two Ca2+-dependent cysteine proteases, micro- and m-calpain, are involved in various Ca2+-linked signal pathways but differ markedly in their Ca2+ requirements for activation. (rcsb.org)
  • These structural differences imply that Ca2+-free micro-calpain may represent a partially activated structure, requiring lower Ca2+ concentration to trigger its activation. (rcsb.org)
  • We further determined that semaphorin 3A-mediated calpain activation and growth cone collapse were associated with m-calpain phosphorylation and prevented by inhibition of MAPK, ERK, or p38. (pnas.org)
  • Thus, our results indicate that semaphorin 3A-mediated growth cone collapse is mediated in part by m-calpain activation, possibly through MAPK-mediated phosphorylation, and the resulting truncation of phosphorylated p53, leading to Rho kinase activation and cytoskeletal reorganization. (pnas.org)
  • They provide a pathway by which extrinsic signals regulate axonal growth through activation of m-calpain and p53 truncation. (pnas.org)
  • Interestingly, integrin activation results in calpain activation and, depending on the state of phosphorylation of the integrin cytoplasmic domain, leads to inhibition of RhoA and cell spreading or activation of RhoA and cell retraction. (pnas.org)
  • It has been further proposed that the combined activation of calpain and Rho kinase (ROCK) signaling is required to produce growth cone collapse ( 15 ). (pnas.org)
  • However, the links between calpain activation and growth cone collapse were not elucidated. (pnas.org)
  • These results indicate that the activation of mu-calpain plays a major role in the profilaggrin processing. (nih.gov)
  • Calpains are calcium-dependent proteolytic enzymes that have deleterious effects on neurons upon their pathological over-activation. (dovepress.com)
  • According to the results of numerous studies to date, there is no doubt that abnormal calpain activation triggers activation and progression of apoptotic processes in neurodegeneration, leading to neuronal death. (dovepress.com)
  • For a full understanding of the activation mechanism and the functioning of calpains, the structures of full-length calpain must to be known. (pnas.org)
  • In the following, we describe the fundamental properties of full-length human m-calpain and discuss the possible mechanisms of calcium activation. (pnas.org)
  • In cultured cortical neurons, knockdown of calpain-2, but not calpain-1, by small interfering RNA completely suppressed the effect of BDNF on mTOR activation. (jneurosci.org)
  • Calpains have been implicated in neurodegenerative processes as their activation can be triggered by calcium influx and oxidative stress. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Of note, mechanisms other than abnormal calpain activation contribute to the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases. (ukessays.com)
  • The purpose of the present paper was to study the possible activation of calpain in human carotid plaques, and to compare calpain activity in the plaques from symptomatic patients with those obtained from patients without symptoms. (lu.se)
  • Methods and Results- In platelets from patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, we found enhanced tyrosine nitration and inactivation of the sarcoplasmic endoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ -ATPase (SERCA-2), elevated platelet [Ca 2+ ] i , and activation of μ-calpain. (ahajournals.org)
  • They show that prevention of Ang II-induced calpain activation is associated with impaired nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation in heart tissue, which eventually leads to decreased Ang II-induced cardiac hypertrophy. (ahajournals.org)
  • 3 Although these common principles in calpain regulation are well described, activation and downstream signaling of calpain in the myocardium are not fully understood. (ahajournals.org)
  • however, the role of calpain-dependent NF-κB activation in the heart is not established. (ahajournals.org)
  • Therefore, calpain might not just be the missing link in cardiomyocyte calcium-dependent NF-κB activation but may also be of crucial importance in the differential activation of calcium-activated transcription factors such as NFAT and NF-κB. (ahajournals.org)
  • See commentary " Spatial Localization of m-Calpain to the Plasma Membrane by Phosphoinositide Biphosphate Binding during Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-Mediated Activation " in Mol Cell Biol , volume 26 on page 5481. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 3) zinc deficiency activation of calpain and caspase proteases, leading to cell death. (arvojournals.org)
  • The purpose of the present study is to compare activation of calpain and caspase in monkey RPE cells cultured under hypoxia or with A2E. (arvojournals.org)
  • Immunoblotting was used to detect activation of calpain and caspase. (arvojournals.org)
  • 2) Incubation under hypoxia alone induced activation of calpain, but not caspases. (arvojournals.org)
  • SNJ-1945 inhibited calpain activation, but z-VAD-fmk did not. (arvojournals.org)
  • 3) Incubation with A2E alone induced activation of calpain, caspase-9, and caspase-3. (arvojournals.org)
  • SNJ-1945 inhibited calpain activation. (arvojournals.org)
  • z-VAD-fmk inhibited caspase activation, suggesting no interaction between calpain and caspases. (arvojournals.org)
  • Calpain plays physiologic regulatory roles in membrane and cytoskeletal remodelling, including mitosis ( 54 ) and platelet activation ( 39 ). (asm.org)
  • Calpain-2, but not calpain-1, treatment of brain homogenates resulted in PTEN degradation. (jneurosci.org)
  • Päiväläinen, S., Suokas, M., Lahti, O. and Heape, A. M. (2003), Degraded myelin-associated glycoprotein (dMAG) formation from pure human brain myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) is not mediated by calpain or cathepsin L-like activities. (wiley.com)
  • Calpain-5 gene variants are associated with diastolic blood pressure and cholesterol levels. (nih.gov)
  • Mutations involving the calpain 3 gene are associated with limb-girdle muscle dystrophy type 2A, a form of autosomal recessive and progressive neuromuscular diso4. (thermofisher.com)
  • Results support further investigation into calpain 3 gene therapy as a treatment for limb-girdle muscular dystrophy. (sciencemag.org)
  • Previous experiments using adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector-mediated calpain 3 gene transfer in mice indicated cardiac toxicity associated with the ectopic expression of the calpain 3 transgene. (sciencemag.org)
  • Collectively, our work reveals a novel function of calpain-1 and describes an additional pathway for sister chromatid separation in humans. (nih.gov)
  • Cortesio CL, Chan KT, Perrin BJ, Burton NO, Zhang S, Zhang ZY and Huttenlocher A: Calpain 2 and PTP1B function in a novel pathway with Src to regulate invadopodia dynamics and breast cancer cell invasion. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • we aimed to demonstrate the protective effect of TXL on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and provide the evidence for the involvement of Connexin 43/Calpain II/ Bax/Caspase-3 pathway in TXL-mediated neuroprotection. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • TXL could effectively protect against I/R injury and reduced cell death via Cx43/Calpain II/Bax/Caspase-3 pathway, which contribute to I/R injury prevention and therapy. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Hypoxia activated the calpain pathway, while A2E activated both calpain and caspase pathways in monkey RPE cells. (arvojournals.org)
  • Real-Time CARS Imaging Reveals a Calpain-Dependent Pathway for Paranod" by Terry B. Huff, Yunzhou Shi et al. (purdue.edu)
  • Real-Time CARS Imaging Reveals a Calpain-Dependent Pathway for Paranodal Myelin Retraction during High-Frequency Stimulation. (purdue.edu)
  • and Cheng, Ji-Xin, "Real-Time CARS Imaging Reveals a Calpain-Dependent Pathway for Paranodal Myelin Retraction during High-Frequency Stimulation. (purdue.edu)
  • Chen X, Huang T, Zhang J et al (2008) Involvement of calpain and p25 of CDK5 pathway in ginsenoside Rb1's attenuation of beta-amyloid peptide25-35-induced tau hyperphosphorylation in cortical neurons. (springer.com)
  • Previously used nomenclature used Roman numerals to denote calpain-2 domains starting from the N-terminus of CAPN2 and ending at C-terminus of CAPNS1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent reports have shown that calpain 2 (Capn2) is essential for cell viability. (inserm.fr)
  • Calpain-mediated proteolysis of talin regulates adhesion dynamics. (nih.gov)
  • These studies define a novel signal-terminating role for calpain, wherein proteolytic modification of pp125 FAK attenuates its autokinase activity and induces its subcellular relocation within the cell. (biochemj.org)
  • Our data show that calpain 2 plays a role in the process of tumor cell angiogenesis. (oregonstate.edu)
  • However, increased calcium concentration overruns the effects of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation on calpain activity, and thus calpain activity ultimately depends on the presence of calcium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enhanced calpain activity, regulated by CAPNS1, significantly contributes to platelet hyperreactivity under hypoxic environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • provide insight into how these opposing signals may allow stabilization of AChR at the neuromuscular junction by differential activity of the calcium-activated proteases calpains. (sciencemag.org)
  • Analysis of the synaptic and nonsynaptic regions of diaphragm suggested that m-calpain was relatively evenly distributed between these two regions, but the activity of calpain was substantially less in the synaptic region (based on the abundance of p25). (sciencemag.org)
  • The activity of calpain appears to control whether acetylcholine receptors cluster or disperse. (sciencemag.org)
  • Increased activity of calpain-1 and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 was observed in different models of arterial hypertension and contribute to thicken the left ventricle (LV) walls and to hypertroph. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The calpains have papain-like activity, thus the -pain nomenclature. (thermofisher.com)
  • The survival of cardiomyocytes, activity of calpain and caspase-3, cytoplasmic DNA fragments and cytochrome c concentrations were determined. (bmj.com)
  • We are examining calpain 2 proteolysis as a novel mechanism for modulating the activity of Akt. (oregonstate.edu)
  • I conclude that Capn4 may play a role in the assembly phase of podosomes independent of calpain proteolytic activity. (queensu.ca)
  • RESULTS Calpain activity, cardiomyocyte cross-sectional areas, and myocardial collagen deposition were significantly increased in both STZ-induced and OVE26 diabetic hearts, and these were accompanied by elevated expression of hypertrophic and fibrotic collagen genes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Knockout of Capn4 in mice abolished calpain-1 and calpain-2 activity, resulting in embryonic lethality ( 10 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Results: We found that calpain was activated in all the plaques and calpain activity colocalized with apoptotic cell death. (lu.se)
  • When calpain activity was quantified, we found that plaques from symptomatic patients displayed significantly lower calpain activity compared with asymptomatic plaques. (lu.se)
  • These results suggested a potential therapeutic target for human GBM treatment regarding calpain expression and activity regulation. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Rosiglitazone also reduced μ-calpain activity, normalized platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 levels, and partially restored platelet sensitivity to nitric oxide synthase inhibition. (ahajournals.org)
  • One unit is defined as the amount of enzyme that will hydrolyze 1 pmol Suc-LLVY-AMC in 1 minute at 25°C using the Calpain Activity Assay Kit, Fluorogenic. (creative-enzymes.com)
  • These data suggested that calpain activity may be involved. (rupress.org)
  • The elevated (20-fold) levels of calpain in diseased muscle tissue in Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and the hydrolytic sensitivity of both nNOSμ and nNOSα to this enzyme, may contribute to the deficiency of nNOS activity in the diseased tissue. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Has been used successfully in monitoring calpain activity in whole Drosophila S2 cells (cellular incorporation achieved with a lipofection reagent) and in COS-7 cell lysate. (emdmillipore.com)
  • To investigate the antioxidant capacity of calcium lactate on m-calpain activity, porcine m-calpain was preincubated with various combinations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), calcium chloride (CaCl2), and/or different concentrations of calcium lactate (CaLac). (iastate.edu)
  • The upregulation of various members of the calpain family includes a diverse range of biological processes and diseases that is the reason why this family of proteases has important therapeutic potential. (alliedacademies.org)
  • We also summarized data underscoring the participation of calpains in the neurodegenerative mechanisms associated with AD. (hindawi.com)
  • In this review, the most remarkable neuroprotective strategies for calpain-mediated neurodegeneration are categorized and summarized with respect to their advantages and disadvantages over one another, in terms of their efficiency and applicability as a therapeutic regimen in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. (dovepress.com)
  • In this review we summarize the associated neurodegenerative and neuromuscular diseases and the role of calpain in individual disorders. (ukessays.com)
  • Calpain-2 heterodimer is highly homologous to calpain-1, which is formed by a catalytic CAPN1 and a regulatory CAPNS1 subunits. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conditioned stimulation/unconditioned stimulation-conditioned stimulation paradigms combined with pharmacological methods were employed to evaluate the action of calpain in memory extinction. (ovid.com)
  • article{deebbc7d-884a-4473-831c-0376e64efd9e, abstract = {Background: In a previous study, we observed that oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced death of endothelial cells was calpain-1-dependent. (lu.se)
  • Detergent fractionation revealed the cytosolic localization of calpain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calpains are a family of cytosolic calcium-regulated cysteine proteases that functions to regulate a wide variety of cellular processes. (scbt.com)
  • calpains are a family of neutral calcium-dependent proteases involved in a wide range of cellular functions ( 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • Calpains represent a unique family of calcium-dependent, neutral, cysteine proteases that play critical roles in different neuronal processes. (jneurosci.org)
  • Recent studies have more specifically implicated calpain in growth cone regulation. (pnas.org)
  • However, whether calpain plays a role in neuronal Cl − regulation is unknown. (jneurosci.org)
  • Jang HS, Lal S and Greenwood JA: Calpain 2 is required for glioblastoma cell invasion: Regulation of matrix metalloproteinase 2. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • To determine the mechanism of calpain 2 regulation of tumor cell invasion, proteolysis of filamin by calpain 2 was studied. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Calpains have been implicated in apoptotic cell death, and appear to be an essential component of necrosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike some of the calpains, CAPN5 and CAPN6 lack a calmodulin-like domain IV. (nih.gov)
  • Mechanistically, we determined that inflammatory cytokines induce an unconventional nonproteolytic calpain, calpain-6 (CAPN6), which associates with the essential EJC-loading factor CWC22 in the cytoplasm. (jci.org)
  • the C-terminal region of CAPN6 lacks homology to the calmodulin-like domain of other vertebrate calpains. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • SOUTHBOROUGH, Mass. , July 1, 2020 /PRNewswire/ -- NeurAegis, Inc., a neuropharmaceutical company pioneering the development of breakthrough treatments for neurological disorders, today announced the publication of a paper titled ' Calpain-2 as a therapeutic target in repeated concussion-induced neuropathy and behavioral impairment ' in Science Advances . (prnewswire.com)
  • These results delineate a primary role of calpain in inducing cardiac endothelial cell injury and impairing neovascularisation via suppression of β-catenin, thereby promoting diabetic cardiomyopathy, and indicate that calpain is a promising therapeutic target to prevent diabetic cardiac complications. (springer.com)
  • The present study aimed to investigate the mechanism of anti‑proliferative, anti‑inflammatory and anti‑fibrotic effects of triptolide (TPL) on activated lung fibroblasts by regulating the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and calpain signaling pathways. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • In conclusion, the present study indicated that TPL protected against TGF‑β1‑induced proliferation, inflammation and fibrosis by regulating the FAK and calpain signaling pathways. (spandidos-publications.com)