Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.
The measurement of the quantity of heat involved in various processes, such as chemical reactions, changes of state, and formations of solutions, or in the determination of the heat capacities of substances. The fundamental unit of measurement is the joule or the calorie (4.184 joules). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Calculation of the energy expenditure in the form of heat production of the whole body or individual organs based on respiratory gas exchange.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Heat production, or its measurement, of an organism at the lowest level of cell chemistry in an inactive, awake, fasting state. It may be determined directly by means of a calorimeter or indirectly by calculating the heat production from an analysis of the end products of oxidation within the organism or from the amount of oxygen utilized.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The determination of the concentration of a given component in solution (the analyte) by addition of a liquid reagent of known strength (the titrant) until an equivalence point is reached (when the reactants are present in stoichiometric proportions). Often an indicator is added to make the equivalence point visible (e.g., a change in color).
Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A change of a substance from one form or state to another.
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
Synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers to study biological membranes. It is also a major constituent of PULMONARY SURFACTANTS.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
The temperature at which a substance changes from one state or conformation of matter to another.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.
Method of using a polycrystalline powder and Rietveld refinement (LEAST SQUARES ANALYSIS) of X-RAY DIFFRACTION or NEUTRON DIFFRACTION. It circumvents the difficulties of producing single large crystals.
A synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers for the study of biological membranes.
Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
Technique whereby the weight of a sample can be followed over a period of time while its temperature is being changed (usually increased at a constant rate).
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
The measure of that part of the heat or energy of a system which is not available to perform work. Entropy increases in all natural (spontaneous and irreversible) processes. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.
Usually inert substances added to a prescription in order to provide suitable consistency to the dosage form. These include binders, matrix, base or diluent in pills, tablets, creams, salves, etc.
Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
Relating to the size of solids.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.
Freedom from activity.
Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
A nitrogen-free class of lipids present in animal and particularly plant tissues and composed of one mole of glycerol and 1 or 2 moles of phosphatidic acid. Members of this group differ from one another in the nature of the fatty acids released on hydrolysis.
The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.
A cytosolic carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme found widely distributed in cells of almost all tissues. Deficiencies of carbonic anhydrase II produce a syndrome characterized by OSTEOPETROSIS, renal tubular acidosis (ACIDOSIS, RENAL TUBULAR) and cerebral calcification. EC 4.2.1.-
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of seven (7) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Method of tissue preparation in which the tissue specimen is frozen and then dehydrated at low temperature in a high vacuum. This method is also used for dehydrating pharmaceutical and food products.
A polyvinyl polymer of variable molecular weight; used as suspending and dispersing agent and vehicle for pharmaceuticals; also used as blood volume expander.
Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.
Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.
Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.
A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
A class of sphingolipids found largely in the brain and other nervous tissue. They contain phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine as their polar head group so therefore are the only sphingolipids classified as PHOSPHOLIPIDS.
Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.
The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.
A nonionic polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene block co-polymer with the general formula HO(C2H4O)a(-C3H6O)b(C2H4O)aH. It is available in different grades which vary from liquids to solids. It is used as an emulsifying agent, solubilizing agent, surfactant, and wetting agent for antibiotics. Poloxamer is also used in ointment and suppository bases and as a tablet binder or coater. (Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)
Measurement of the polarization of fluorescent light from solutions or microscopic specimens. It is used to provide information concerning molecular size, shape, and conformation, molecular anisotropy, electronic energy transfer, molecular interaction, including dye and coenzyme binding, and the antigen-antibody reaction.
The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The ability of a protein to retain its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to physical or chemical manipulations.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A homologous group of cyclic GLUCANS consisting of alpha-1,4 bound glucose units obtained by the action of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase on starch or similar substrates. The enzyme is produced by certain species of Bacillus. Cyclodextrins form inclusion complexes with a wide variety of substances.
Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
Nanometer-sized, hollow, spherically-shaped objects that can be utilized to encapsulate small amounts of pharmaceuticals, enzymes, or other catalysts (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechnology, 4th ed).
The accumulation of an electric charge on a object
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
A class of organic compounds which contain an anilino (phenylamino) group linked to a salt or ester of naphthalenesulfonic acid. They are frequently used as fluorescent dyes and sulfhydryl reagents.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.
Deacetylated CHITIN, a linear polysaccharide of deacetylated beta-1,4-D-glucosamine. It is used in HYDROGEL and to treat WOUNDS.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
The generation of heat in order to maintain body temperature. The uncoupled oxidation of fatty acids contained within brown adipose tissue and SHIVERING are examples of thermogenesis in MAMMALS.
Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
A plant genus of the family ASCLEPIADACEAE.
Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.
The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.
Conformational transitions of the shape of a protein to various unfolded states.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Deuterium. The stable isotope of hydrogen. It has one neutron and one proton in the nucleus.
A strong organic base existing primarily as guanidium ions at physiological pH. It is found in the urine as a normal product of protein metabolism. It is also used in laboratory research as a protein denaturant. (From Martindale, the Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed and Merck Index, 12th ed) It is also used in the treatment of myasthenia and as a fluorescent probe in HPLC.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Glucose in blood.
Methylester of cellulose. Methylcellulose is used as an emulsifying and suspending agent in cosmetics, pharmaceutics and the chemical industry. It is used therapeutically as a bulk laxative.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Materials in intermediate state between solid and liquid.
Removal of moisture from a substance (chemical, food, tissue, etc.).
The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.
Substances produced from the reaction between acids and bases; compounds consisting of a metal (positive) and nonmetal (negative) radical. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A naphthalene derivative with carcinogenic action.
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
A genus of the family Heteromyidae which contains 22 species. Their physiology is adapted for the conservation of water, and they seldom drink water. They are found in arid or desert habitats and travel by hopping on their hind limbs.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC 3.2.1.17.
Single membrane vesicles, generally made of PHOSPHOLIPIDS.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Maintenance of a constant blood glucose level by perfusion or infusion with glucose or insulin. It is used for the study of metabolic rates (e.g., in glucose, lipid, amino acid metabolism) at constant glucose concentration.
Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Salts and esters of the 12-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--lauric acid.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.
A cellulose derivative which is a beta-(1,4)-D-glucopyranose polymer. It is used as a bulk laxative and as an emulsifier and thickener in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals and as a stabilizer for reagents.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.
A component of NEOMYCIN that is produced by Streptomyces fradiae. On hydrolysis it yields neamine and neobiosamine B. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
A peroxide derivative that has been used topically for BURNS and as a dermatologic agent in the treatment of ACNE and POISON IVY DERMATITIS. It is used also as a bleach in the food industry.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
A computer simulation technique that is used to model the interaction between two molecules. Typically the docking simulation measures the interactions of a small molecule or ligand with a part of a larger molecule such as a protein.
Microscopy using polarized light in which phenomena due to the preferential orientation of optical properties with respect to the vibration plane of the polarized light are made visible and correlated parameters are made measurable.
The protein components of a number of complexes, such as enzymes (APOENZYMES), ferritin (APOFERRITINS), or lipoproteins (APOLIPOPROTEINS).
The two types of spaces between which water and other body fluids are distributed: extracellular and intracellular.
Abstaining from all food.
A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Globulins of milk obtained from the WHEY.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
The modification of the reactivity of ENZYMES by the binding of effectors to sites (ALLOSTERIC SITES) on the enzymes other than the substrate BINDING SITES.
Imaging the temperatures in a material, or in the body or an organ. Imaging is based on self-emanating infrared radiation (HEAT WAVES), or on changes in properties of the material or tissue that vary with temperature, such as ELASTICITY; MAGNETIC FIELD; or LUMINESCENCE.

Measured versus predicted oxygen consumption in children with congenital heart disease. (1/799)

OBJECTIVE: To compare measured and predicted oxygen consumption (VO2) in children with congenital heart disease. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: The cardiac catheterisation laboratory in a university hospital. PATIENTS: 125 children undergoing preoperative cardiac catheterisation. INTERVENTIONS: VO2 was measured using indirect calorimetry; the predicted values were calculated from regression equations published by Lindahl, Wessel et al, and Lundell et al. Stepwise linear regression and analysis of variance were used to evaluate the influence of age, sex, weight, height, cardiac malformation, and heart failure on the bias and precision of predicted VO2. An artificial neural network was trained and used to produce an estimate of VO2 employing the same variables. The various estimates for VO2 were evaluated by calculating their bias and precision values. RESULTS: Lindahl's equation produced the highest precision (+/- 42%) of the regression based estimates. The corresponding average bias of the predicted VO2 was 3% (range -66% to 43%). When VO2 was predicted according to regression equations by Wessel and Lundell, the bias and precision were 0% and +/- 44%, and -16% and +/- 51%, respectively. The neural network predicted VO2 from variables included in the regression equations with a bias of 6% and precision +/- 29%; addition of further variables failed to improve this estimate. CONCLUSIONS: Both regression based and artificial intelligence based techniques were inaccurate for predicting preoperative VO2 in patients with congenital heart disease. Measurement of VO2 is necessary in the preoperative evaluation of these patients.  (+info)

Comparison of indirect calorimetry, the Fick method, and prediction equations in estimating the energy requirements of critically ill patients. (2/799)

BACKGROUND: Accurate measurement of resting energy expenditure (REE) is helpful in determining the energy needs of critically ill patients requiring nutritional support. Currently, the most accurate clinical tool used to measure REE is indirect calorimetry, which is expensive, requires trained personnel, and has significant error at higher inspired oxygen concentrations. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare REE measured by indirect calorimetry with REE calculated by using the Fick method and prediction equations by Harris-Benedict, Ireton-Jones, Fusco, and Frankenfield. DESIGN: REEs of 36 patients [12 men and 24 women, mean age 58+/-22 y and mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score 22+/-8] in a hospital intensive care unit and receiving mechanical ventilation and total parenteral nutrition (TPN) were measured for > or = 15 min by using indirect calorimetry and compared with REEs calculated from a mean of 2 sets of hemodynamic measurements taken during the metabolic testing period with an oximetric pulmonary artery catheter. RESULTS: Mean REE by indirect calorimetry was 8381+/-1940 kJ/d and correlated poorly with the other methods tested (r = 0.057-0.154). This correlation did not improve after adjusting for changes in respiratory quotient (r2 = 0.28). CONCLUSIONS: These data do not support previous findings showing a strong correlation between REE determined by the Fick method and other prediction equations and indirect calorimetry. In critically ill patients receiving TPN, indirect calorimetry, if available, remains the most appropriate clinical tool for accurate measurement of REE.  (+info)

Physical activity assessment in American Indian schoolchildren in the Pathways study. (3/799)

The objective of the Pathways physical activity feasibility study was to develop methods for comparing type and amount of activity between intervention and control schools participating in a school-based obesity prevention program. Two methods proved feasible: 1) a specially designed 24-h physical activity recall questionnaire for assessing the frequency and type of activities and 2) use of a triaxial accelerometer for assessing amount of activity. Results from pilot studies supporting the use of these methods are described. Analyses of activity during different segments of the day showed that children were most active after school. The activities reported most frequently (e.g., basketball and mixed walking and running) were also the ones found to be most popular in the study population on the basis of formative assessment surveys. Both the physical activity recall questionnaire and the triaxial accelerometer methods will be used to assess the effects of the full-scale intervention on physical activity.  (+info)

Energy and substrate metabolism in patients with active Crohn's disease. (4/799)

The aim of the study was to evaluate the possible contribution of changes in energy metabolism and substrate oxidation rates to malnutrition in Crohn's disease and to assess the effect of enteral nutrition on these parameters. Energy metabolism was evaluated by indirect calorimetry in 32 patients with active Crohn's disease and 19 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals. Measurements were done in the postabsorptive state. Seven out of 32 patients received enteral nutrition via a nasogastric tube. In these patients, resting energy metabolism was determined at d 0 (postabsorptive), 7, 14 (during full enteral nutrition) and 15 (postabsorptive). Resting energy expenditure was not significantly different between patients and controls, whereas the respiratory quotient (RQ) was lower in patients (0.78 +/- 0.05 vs. 0.86 +/- 0.05; P < 0.05). During enteral nutrition in 7 patients with Crohn's disease, the RQ increased on d 7 compared with d 0 and remained high even after cessation of enteral nutrition (d 0, 0.78 +/- 0.03; d 7, 0.91 +/- 0.04; d 15, 0. 84 +/- 0.05; P < 0.05; d 7 and 15 vs. d 0). No effects of enteral nutrition on resting energy expenditure were found. Active Crohn's disease is associated with changes in substrate metabolism that resemble a starvation pattern. These changes appear not to be specific to Crohn's disease but to malnutrition and are readily reversed by enteral nutrition. Enteral nutrition did not affect resting energy expenditure. Wasting is a consequence of malnutrition but not of hypermetabolism in Crohn's disease.  (+info)

Acute effect of ephedrine on 24-h energy balance. (5/799)

Ephedrine is used to help achieve weight control. Data on its true efficacy and mechanisms in altering energy balance in human subjects are limited. We aimed to determine the acute effect of ephedrine on 24-h energy expenditure, mechanical work and urinary catecholamines in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, two-period crossover study. Ten healthy volunteers were given ephedrine (50 mg) or placebo thrice daily during each of two 24-h periods (ephedrine and placebo) in a whole-room indirect calorimeter, which accurately measures minute-by-minute energy expenditure and mechanical work. Measurements were taken of 24-h energy expenditure, mechanical work, urinary catecholamines and binding of (+/-)ephedrine in vitro to human beta1-, beta2- and beta3-adrenoreceptors. Twenty-four-hour energy expenditure was 3.6% greater (8965+/-1301 versus 8648+/-1347 kJ, P<0.05) with ephedrine than with placebo, but mechanical work was not different between the ephedrine and placebo periods. Noradrenaline excretion was lower with ephedrine (0.032+/-0.011 microg/mg creatinine) compared with placebo (0.044+/-0.012 microg/mg creatinine) (P<0.05). (+/-)Ephedrine is a relatively weak partial agonist of human beta1- and beta2-adrenoreceptors, and had no detectable activity at human beta3-adrenoreceptors. Ephedrine (50 mg thrice daily) modestly increases energy expenditure in normal human subjects. A lack of binding of ephedrine to beta3-adrenoreceptors and the observed decrease in urinary noradrenaline during ephedrine treatment suggest that the thermogenic effect of ephedrine results from direct beta1-/beta2-adrenoreceptor agonism. An indirect beta3-adrenergic effect through the release of noradrenaline seems unlikely as urinary noradrenaline decreased significantly with ephedrine.  (+info)

Effects of insulin and amino acids on glucose and leucine metabolism in CAPD patients. (6/799)

This study investigates the basal and insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism, substrate utilization, and protein turnover in eight patients maintained on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) (mean age 39+/-5 yr, body mass index [BMI] 108+/-6) and 14 control subjects (mean age 33+/-4 yr, BMI 103+/-3). Euglycemic insulin clamp studies (180 min) were performed in combination with continuous indirect calorimetry and 1-14C leucine infusion (study I). Postabsorptive glucose oxidation was higher (1.75+/-0.18 versus 1.42+/-0.14 mg/kg per min) and lipid oxidation was lower (0.43+/-0.09 versus 0.61+/-0.12 mg/kg per min) in CAPD patients than in control subjects (P<0.05 versus control subjects). During the last 60 min of euglycemic hyperinsulinemia, the total rate of glucose metabolism was similar in CAPD and control subjects (6.33+/-0.51 versus 6.54+/-0.62 mg/kg per min). Both insulin-stimulated glucose oxidation (2.53+/-0.27 versus 2.64+/-0.37 mg/kg per min) and glucose storage (3.70+/-0.48 versus 3.90+/-0.58 mg/kg per min) were similar in CAPD and control subjects. Basal leucine flux (an index of endogenous proteolysis) was significantly lower in CAPD patients than in control subjects (1.21+/-0.15 versus 1.65+/-0.07 micromol/kg per min). Leucine oxidation (0.13+/-0.02 versus 0.26+/-0.02 micromol/kg per min) and nonoxidative leucine disposal (an index of protein synthesis) (1.09+/-0.16 versus 1.35+/-0.05 micromol/kg per min) were also reduced in CAPD compared with control subjects (P<0.01 versus control subjects). In response to insulin (study I), endogenous leucine flux decreased to 0.83+/-0.08 and 1.05+/-0.05 micromol/kg per min in CAPD and control subjects, respectively (all P<0.01 versus basal). Leucine oxidation declined to 0.06+/-0.01 and to 0.19+/-0.02 micromol/kg per min in CAPD and control subjects, respectively (P<0.01 versus basal). A second insulin clamp was performed in combination with an intravenous amino acid infusion (study II). During insulin plus amino acid administration, nonoxidative leucine disposal rose to 1.23+/-0.17 and 1.42+/-0.09 micromol/kg per min in CAPD and control subjects, respectively (both P<0.05 versus basal, P = NS versus control subjects), and leucine balance, an index of the net amino acid flux into protein, become positive in both groups (0.30+/-0.05 versus 0.40+/-0.07 micromol/kg per min in CAPD and control subjects, respectively) (both P<0.01 versus basal, P = NS versus control subjects). In summary, in CAPD patients: (1) basal glucose oxidation is increased; (2) basal lipid oxidation is decreased; (3) insulin-mediated glucose oxidation and storage are normal; (4) basal leucine flux is reduced; (5) the antiproteolitic action of insulin is normal; and (6) the anabolic response to insulin plus amino acid administration is normal. Uremic patients maintained on CAPD treatment show a preferential utilization of glucose as postabsorptive energy substrate; however, their anabolic response to substrate administration and the sensitivity to insulin are normal.  (+info)

Endogenous thermoregulatory rhythms of squirrel monkeys in thermoneutrality and cold. (7/799)

Whole body heat production (HP) and heat loss (HL) were examined to determine if the free-running circadian rhythm in body temperature (Tb) results from coordinated changes in HP and HL rhythms in thermoneutrality (27 degrees C) as well as mild cold (17 degrees C). Squirrel monkey metabolism (n = 6) was monitored by both indirect and direct calorimetry, with telemetered measurement of Tb and activity. Feeding was also measured. Rhythms of HP, HL, and conductance were tightly coupled with the circadian Tb rhythm at both ambient temperatures (TA). At 17 degrees C, increased HP compensated for higher HL at all phases of the Tb rhythm, resulting in only minor changes to Tb. Parallel compensatory changes of HP and HL were seen at all rhythm phases at both TA. Similar time courses of Tb, HP, and HL in their respective rhythms and the relative stability of Tb during both active and rest periods suggest action of the circadian timing system on Tb set point.  (+info)

Effect of protein intake and physical activity on 24-h pattern and rate of macronutrient utilization. (8/799)

Effects of moderate physical activity (90 min at 45-50% of maximal O2 uptake 2 times daily) and "high" (2.5 g protein. kg-1. day-1, n = 6) or "normal" protein intake (1.0 g protein. kg-1. day-1, n = 8) on the pattern and rate of 24-h macronutrient utilization in healthy adult men were compared after a diet-exercise-adjustment period of 6 days. Energy turnover (ET) was determined by indirect and direct (suit) calorimetry, and "protein oxidation" was determined by a 24-h continuous intravenous infusion of [1-13C]leucine. Subjects were in slight positive energy balance during both studies. Protein contributed to a higher (22 vs. 10%) and carbohydrate (CHO) a lower (33 vs. 58%) proportion of total 24-h ET on the high- vs. normal-protein intake. The highest contribution of fat to ET was seen postexercise during fasting (73 and 61% of ET for high and normal, respectively). With the high-protein diet the subjects were in a positive protein (P < 0.001) and CHO balance (P < 0.05) and a negative fat balance (P < 0.05). The increased ET postexercise was not explained by increased rates of urea production and/or protein synthesis.  (+info)

Indirect Calorimetry measures your daily resting energy expenditure (your calorie needs at rest). The handheld calorimeter measures oxygen consumption. This translates into your actual metabolic rate. The test results will provide you with an individualized calorie goal that can help you meet your weight management goals.
Global Journal of Obesity, Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome is a scientific, an open access, online, peer reviewed, and elevated scope journal which covers
Yes, if youre talking about the simple calorimeters that are used in high school labs, which basically consist of thermometers suspended in a container filled with water. The difference between these calorimeters and bomb calorimeters is that simple calorimeters maintain a constant pressure (since its not completely enclosed, and gases can enter and exit the container), while bomb calorimeters maintain a constant volume (sealed so gases cannot flow between the system and the surroundings ...
Global Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) Market 2020 research affords a number one review of the business enterprise inclusive of characterizations, companies, displays and organisation chain shape. The evaluation is recommended with Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) market trends research, evaluation additionally covers each the winning and earlier cutting-edge market developments, drivers and barriers faced through Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) Market.. Request a sample copy of the report : https://www.360marketupdates.com/enquiry/request-sample/14254679 Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) market research report provides the newest industry data and industry future trends, allowing you to identify the products and end users driving Revenue growth and profitability. The industry report lists the leading competitors and provides the insights strategic industry Analysis of the key factors influencing the market.The report includes the forecasts, Analysis and discussion ...
Get the latest calorimeters (monitoring and testing) news on Environmental XPRT, the worlds largest environmental industry marketplace and information resource.
Worldwide leaders in cardiopulmonary and metabolic diagnostics, including spirometry, pulmonary function, indirect calorimetry, exercise testing, body composition.
Cheetos Combustion AssignmentData CollectionMass of the Cheetos, Calorimeter and Measure of the Temperature and Volume of WaterTrial Number Before Mass of Cheetos [g] ± 0.01g After Mass of Cheetos [g] ± 0.01g Mass ...
PDF DEERFIELD, Ill. - February 12, 2020 Baxter International Inc. (NYSE: BAX), a global leader in clinical nutrition, today announced the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) clearance of Q-NRG+, a metabolic monitoring device utilizing indirect calorimetry (IC) technology. IC is considered the gold standard1 to accurately measure a patients calorie needs, or resting energy expenditure (REE). These readings can help inform prescription and administration of nutrition therapy, which may include parenteral nutrition (PN), the intravenous administration of nutrients. Q-NRG+ is expected to be available in the United States beginning at the ASPEN 2020 Nutrition Science & Practice Conference taking place March 28 - 31, 2020 in Tampa, Florida.. As part of its partnership with COSMED, Baxter has rights to bring Q-NRG+ to at least 18 markets around the globe, with the potential for further expansion. The 510(k) clearance is the latest regulatory approval for Q-NRG+, which is currently available in ...
A bomb calorimeter is a type of constant-volume calorimeter used in measuring the heat of combustion of a particular reaction. Bomb calorimeters have to withstand the large pressure within the calorimeter as the reaction is being measured. Electrical energy is used to ignite the fuel; as the fuel is burning, it will heat up the surrounding air, which expands and escapes through a tube that leads the air out of the calorimeter. When the air is escaping through the copper tube it will also heat up the water outside the tube. The change in temperature of the water allows for calculating calorie content of the fuel. In more recent calorimeter designs, the whole bomb, pressurized with excess pure oxygen (typically at 30atm) and containing a weighed mass of a sample (typically 1-1.5 g) and a small fixed amount of water (to saturate the internal atmosphere, thus ensuring that all water produced is liquid, and removing the need to include enthalpy of vaporization in calculations), is submerged under a ...
The present study demonstrates that overweight and obese Caucasians with type 2 diabetes have a 7% higher 24-h energy expenditure after adjustment for FFM, fat mass, SPA, sex, and age than overweight and obese individuals without diabetes. Our result is higher than earlier reports of 2-5% higher 24-h energy expenditure in diabetic Pima Indians (8,9). However, it has been reported that healthy Pima Indians have higher adjusted 24-h energy expenditure than Caucasians (23). Therefore, the relative increase in 24-h energy expenditure when developing type 2 diabetes may be less in Pima Indians. Thus, overall our findings are in agreement with other studies where individuals with type 2 diabetes under a strict but low physical activity level have a higher 24-h energy expenditure than healthy nondiabetic individuals (6-9,12,13).. It is notable that the nondiabetic subjects were younger than the type 2 diabetic subjects. However, this is unlikely to have any effect on the results, because age was not an ...
The current study aimed to show the validity of a portable motion sensor, the SenseWear Armband (SWA), for the estimation of energy expenditure during pole walking. Twenty healthy adults (mean ± SD: age 30.1 ± 7.2 year, body mass 66.1 ± 10.6 kg, height 172.4 ± 8.0 cm, BMI 22.1 ± 2.4 kg·m−2) wore the armband during randomized pole walking activities at a constant speed (1.25 m·s−1) and at seven grades (0%, ±5%, ±15% and ±25%). Estimates of total energy expenditure from the armband were compared with values derived from indirect calorimetry methodology (IC) using a 2-way mixed model ANOVA (Device × Slope), correlation analyses and Bland-Altman plots. Results revealed significant main effects for device, and slope (p , .025) as well as a significant interaction (p , .001). Significant differences between IC and SWA were observed for all conditions (p , .05). SWA generally underestimate the EE values during uphill PW by 0.04 kcal·kg−1·min−1 (p , .05). Whereas, a significant ...
The reliability of predictive equations versus indirect calorimetry in kidney injury patients has been assessed in this paper published in Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism Journal.
The Quark RMR is a state-of-the-art metabolic cart for expired gas exchange analysis (VO2, VCO2) either during resting or (optionally) exercise protocols. Its high quality components, simplified calibration protocols, easy maintenance and huge configuration options make the Quark RMR the most suitable metabolic cart for applied research in human physiology. Quark RMR accuracy and reliability have been validated against Gold Standard methods either with spontaneously breathing subjects and with mechanically assisted patients ...
BMR = 10W + H - 5A - Revised Harris-Benedict Equation: For men: Calorie counting with the intent of losing weight, on its simplest levels, can be. Apr 29, - THE COST: To show how small math errors can carry a heavy price, weve cast you as this guy: Youre 35 years old, weigh (5 pounds.
This should have been published in the journal of broscience. The idea that fat free mass, by determining basal energy expenditure, will prevent body fat rebound is patent nonsense. Why do bodybuilders need a cutting phase, if this is true? Should be enough to cut once, and then the recomposed body ought to take care of itself. You might get to eat more while starving yourself to stay lean, but I doubt that will make the resulting hunger any more enjoyable. (I find when I need more, more seems like less anyways... so getting to eat more might not really amount to much, anyways).. ReplyDelete ...
Reaction calorimeters uncover potential safety issues and provide process information under using real time heat flow or heat flux calorimetry.
In the present paper the dynamic properties of nonisothermal-nonadiabatic calorimeters have been analysed. In these calorimeters the thermal effect produced is partly accumulated in the calorimetric vessel, and partly transmitted to the shield with constant temperature. The generalized equation of the heat balance and the equation of the dynamics have been given for this type of calorimeter. The dependence between the course of the thermal effectQ in timet as a function of the temperature changesν of the calorimeter has been presented. DependencesQ(t)=f[ν(t)] for a calorimeter with different domain configurations distinguished in it, and with different mutual locations of heat sources and temperature sensor have been given. Practical application of the considerations presented has been given. ...
A respiration calorimeter of the Atwater-Rosa-Benedict type designed for use with dogs and children; with demonstration Experimental Biology and Medicine Sage Publications 1535-3702 1535-3699 10.3181/00379727-8-34
A group of investigators,[2][3] headed by Zvi Shkedi, from Massachusetts, USA, built in 1991-1993 well-insulated cells and calorimeters which included the capability to measure the actual Faraday efficiency in real time during the experiments. The cells were of the light-water type; with a fine-wire nickel cathode; a platinum anode; and K2CO3 electrolyte. The calorimeters were calibrated to an accuracy of 0.02% of input power. The long-term stability of the calorimeters was verified over a period of 9 months of continuous operation. In their publication, the investigators show details of their calorimeters design and teach the technology of achieving high calorimetric accuracy. ...
Oxygen, Metabolism, Muscle, Role, Anesthesia, Calorimetry, Indirect Calorimetry, Paralyses, Paralysis, Patients, Plays, Spinal Anesthesia, Surgery, Thigh, Work, Consumption, Electromyography, Face, Human, Men
BMR is measured using indirect calorimetry, which calculates heat production via measurement of VO2 and VCO2. A number of methods exists depending on whether the patient is intubated or not, or whether they are requring supplementary oxygen.. In general:. ...
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We report on a novel trigger for the liquid argon calorimeter which was installed in the H1 Experiment at HERA. This trigger, called the Jet Trigger, was ...
Nowadays, however, it is normally assumed to be inherently negative: often the term stress describes the animals state when it is challenged beyond its behavioural and physiological capacity to adapt to its environment. Stress demands a redistribution of resources and a rise in energy expenditure ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nonprotein caloric requirements for patients with pancreatic abscess as measured by indirect calorimetry. AU - Arouni, M. A.. AU - Fagan, D. R.. AU - Jasnowski, J.. AU - Watson, P.. AU - Lanspa, Stephen J.. PY - 1990. Y1 - 1990. N2 - Few data exist regarding nutritional assessment during pancreatic abscess. We compared nonprotein caloric requirements calculated by Harris-Benedict equation and measured by indirect calorimetry in patients with pancreatic abscess. Seven patients with pancreatitis and pancreatic abscess had determinations of resting energy expenditure via Medicor metabolic cart with 20% added for activity. Caloric requirements were also estimated using the Harris-Benedict equation with stress factors. Determinations from indirect calorimetry ranged from 22.4-46.8 (mean 36.1) kcal/kg/d. Harris-Benedict calculations with stress factor 1.7 differed from indirect calorimetry by at least 15% in seven of ten determinations. Stress factor 1.9 results overestimated indirect ...
Looking for online definition of resting energy expenditure in the Medical Dictionary? resting energy expenditure explanation free. What is resting energy expenditure? Meaning of resting energy expenditure medical term. What does resting energy expenditure mean?
1. Our objectives were to measure total energy expenditure, the daily variation in total energy expenditure and the physical activity level in a group of HIV-positive subjects using the bicarbonate-urea method. The study also aimed to asses the practicalities of using the bicarbonate-urea technique in free-living conditions. 2. Total energy expenditure was measured with the bicarbonate-urea method over 2 consecutive days (1 day in one subject) in 10 male patients with HIV infection (median CD4 count = 30). Resting energy expenditure was measured by indirect calorimetry. Physical activity level (total energy expenditure/resting energy expenditure) was calculated from these measurements and from activity diaries. 3. Resting energy expenditure was found to be 7.46 +/- 0.87 MJ/day, 5% higher than predicted values. Total energy expenditure was 10.69 +/- 1.95 MJ/day with an intra-individual day-to-day variation of 6 +/- 6%. The measured physical activity level was 1.42 +/- 0.14, higher than the diary estimate
Overweight, energy expenditure and caloric intake are associated with an increased prevalence of asthma. To measure resting energy expenditure and calculate caloric intake of overweight adolescents with asthma and compare results with those of groups of well-nourished adolescents with asthma and overweight adolescents without asthma. Cross-sectional study with 69 adolescents aged 10 to 18 years divided into three matched groups. Nutritional status was assessed using anthropometric and body composition measurements. Indirect calorimetry was used to measure energy expenditure; caloric intake was estimated from dietary recalls. In each group, there were 23 adolescents (10 girls) aged 12.39±2.40 years. Results for each group (overweight adolescents with asthma; well-nourished adolescents with asthma; and overweight adolescents without asthma) were, respectively: Body mass index = 24.83±2.73 kg/m2, 19.01±2.10 kg/m2, and 25.35±3.66 kg/m2; resting energy expenditure (REE) = 1550.24±547.23 ...
The ability to assess energy expenditure (EE) and estimate physical activity (PA) in free-living individuals is extremely important in the global context of non-communicable diseases including malnutrition, overnutrition (obesity), and diabetes. It is also important to appreciate that PA and EE are different constructs with PA defined as any bodily movement that results in EE and accordingly, energy is expended as a result of PA. However, total energy expenditure, best assessed using the criterion doubly labeled water (DLW) technique, includes components in addition to physical activity energy expenditure, namely resting energy expenditure and the thermic effect of food. Given the large number of assessment techniques currently used to estimate PA in humans, it is imperative to understand the relative merits of each. The goal of this review is to provide information on the utility and limitations of a range of objective measures of PA and their relationship with EE. The measures discussed include those
The inaccuracy of resting energy expenditure (REE) prediction formulae to calculate energy metabolism in children may lead to either under- or overestimated...
In the present study, we found that individuals with COPD had higher REE and resting carbohydrate oxidation than the controls, regardless of body composition, since both groups had similar muscle mass.. Other studies have also found that patients with COPD have higher REE (approximately 15 to 26%) [6, 19]. The greater energy expenditure of individuals with COPD is probably due to increased respiratory muscle effort and inflammatory mediators, in addition to the effects of medication (oral or systemic corticosteroids, theophylline, hormones, benzodiazepines and antipsychotics) [19-21].. This study found that mean RQ and carbohydrate oxidation were higher in the COPD group, while fat oxidation was similar in both groups. Increased carbohydrate oxidation in the COPD group was probably caused by increased anaerobic metabolism due to reduced ability to capture oxygen [22]. When carbohydrates are oxidized in the absence of oxygen, only 2 ATP molecules per millimol of carbohydrates are generated, while ...
Looking for online definition of metabolic respiratory quotient in the Medical Dictionary? metabolic respiratory quotient explanation free. What is metabolic respiratory quotient? Meaning of metabolic respiratory quotient medical term. What does metabolic respiratory quotient mean?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Resting metabolic rate and anthropometry in older people. T2 - A comparison of measured and calculated values. AU - Reidlinger, D P. AU - Willis, J M. AU - Whelan, K. N1 - © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.. PY - 2015/2. Y1 - 2015/2. N2 - BACKGROUND: Accurate assessment of energy expenditure and anthropometry in older people is important for targeted nutritional support. The present study aimed to compare measured and calculated resting metabolic rate (m-RMR and c-RMR) and measured, calculated and estimated weight and height in older people aged ≥70 years.METHODS: Participants were healthy older people aged ≥70 years. Indirect calorimetry using a ventilated hood calorimeter was performed for 30 min on fasted participants, and was compared with c-RMR, as calculated using six commonly used equations. Measured, calculated and estimated height and weight were compared.RESULTS: Subjects comprised 14 males and 20 females and mean (SD) m-RMR was 5243 (845) kJ day(-1) ...
The basal energy expenditure of 10 Type 1 (insulin-dependent) C-peptide-negative diabetic patients (2042 +/- 62 kcal/24 h) was found to be significantly higher than the 1774 +/- 52 kcal/24 h predicted from their age, sex and body surface area (p less than 0.01). Intravenous insulin treatment signifi …
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A novel calibration system based on a radio-frequency-quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator has been installed in the L3 experiment. Radiative capture of 1.85 MeV protons from the RFQ accelerator in a lithium target produces a high-intensity flux of 17.6 MeV photons which are used to calibrate 11,000 crystals of the L3 BGO calorimeter. In this paper, we present results of the first fully successful RFQ run, taken in November 1997. We achieved a calibration precision of 0.6% in the barrel and 0.7% in the endcaps of the L3 BGO calorimeter. The RFQ-97 calibration proved to be the best one of all calibration techniques used in the L3 experiment. ...
Previous studies have reported that walking cadence (steps/min) is associated with absolutely-defined intensity (metabolic equivalents; METs), such that cadence-based thresholds could serve as reasonable proxy values for ambulatory intensities. To establish definitive heuristic (i.e., evidence-based, practical, rounded) thresholds linking cadence with absolutely-defined moderate (3 METs) and vigorous (6 METs) intensity. In this laboratory-based cross-sectional study, 76 healthy adults (10 men and 10 women representing each 5-year age-group category between 21 and 40 years, BMI = 24.8 ± 3.4 kg/m2) performed a series of 5-min treadmill bouts separated by 2-min rests. Bouts began at 0.5 mph and increased in 0.5 mph increments until participants: 1) chose to run, 2) achieved 75% of their predicted maximum heart rate, or 3) reported a Borg rating of perceived exertion | 13. Cadence was hand-tallied, and intensity (METs) was measured using a portable indirect calorimeter. Optimal cadence thresholds for
Thirteen physically active, eumenorrheic, normal-weight (BMI ≤ 25 kg/m2) females, aged 18-30 years, completed 4 experimental conditions, with the order based on a Latin Square Design: (a) CHO/Ex: moderate-intensity exer-· cise (65% V̇O2peak) with a net energy cost of ~500 kcals, during which time the subject consumed a carbohydrate beverage (45 g CHO) at specific time intervals; (b) CHO/NoEx: a period of time identical to (a) but with subjects consuming the carbohydrate while sitting quietly rather than exercising; (c) NoCHO/ Ex: same exercise protocol as condition (a) during which time subjects consumed a non-caloric placebo beverage; and (d) NoCHO/NoEx: same as the no-exercise condition (b) but with subjects consuming a non-caloric placebo beverage. Energy expenditure, and fat and carbohydrate oxidation rates for the entire exercise/sitting period plus a 90-min recovery period were determined by continuous indirect calorimetry. Following recovery, subjects ate ad libitum amounts of food ...
The Science of Human Energy Expenditure - Part III In Part II of this series on energy expenditure, we turned our attention to the measurement of free
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cytokine Stimulation of Energy Expenditure through p38 MAP Kinase Activation of PPARγ Coactivator-1. AU - Puigserver, Pere. AU - Rhee, James. AU - Lin, Jiandie. AU - Wu, Zhidan. AU - Yoon, J. Cliff. AU - Zhang, Chen Yu. AU - Krauss, Stefan. AU - Mootha, Vamsi K.. AU - Lowell, Bradford B.. AU - Spiegelman, Bruce M.. PY - 2001/11/21. Y1 - 2001/11/21. N2 - Cachexia is a chronic state of negative energy balance and muscle wasting that is a severe complication of cancer and chronic infection. While cytokines such as IL-1α, IL-1β, and TNFα can mediate cachectic states, how these molecules affect energy expenditure is unknown. We show here that many cytokines activate the transcriptional PPAR gamma coactivator-1 (PGC-1) through phosphorylation by p38 kinase, resulting in stabilization and activation of PGC-1 protein. Cytokine or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced activation of PGC-1 in cultured muscle cells or muscle in vivo causes increased respiration and expression of genes linked ...
Its has a lower density which suggests a lower weight for the calorimeter with pure CsI. Its higher refractive index indicates that it would be easier to achieve better light collection uniformity for tapered pure CsI crystals like the pion beta modules. Finally, pure CsI has a long nuclear interaction length and consequently, there would be fewer hadronic interactions in CsI, especially in the pion beta modules. Some other properties of undoped CsI include radiation hardness and temperature dependence of the light output. Wei and Zhu observed a continuous decrease in the light yield of undoped CsI after 1 kRads [Wei-92]. According to their findings, pure CsI can sustain high counting rates up to 10 kRads. Woody et al. reported an increase in the light yield and the decay time of the fast component of pure CsI, and a shift to longer wavelengths at low temperatures Woo-90. A tomography system has been designed and is in operation at the Paul Scherrer Institute with the objective to examine the ...
When 22.7mL of o.500 M H2SO4 is added to 22.7mL of 1.00 M KOH in a coffee-cup calorimeter at 23.50 degrees Celsius, the temperature rises to 30.17 degrees Celsius. Calculate the delta h of this reaction. (Assume that the total volume ...
Metabolic Calculations - Purpose. Estimate energy expenditure during steady state exercise. Importance of Metabolic Calculations. It is imperative that the exercise physiologist is able to interpret test results and estimate energy expenditure. Optimizing exercise protocols. Slideshow 5638666 by mrinal
BMR Calculator is a Windows software program designed to calculate your Basal Metabolic Rate the amount of calories required to sustain life in your body when at rest Both health care professionals like dietitians and their patients who
Stable isotope tracers and indirect calorimetry were used to evaluate the progressive alterations in lipid and glucose metabolism after 12, 18, 24, 30, 42, 54, and 72 h of fasting in six healthy male volunteers. The rates of appearance (Ra) of glycerol and palmitic acid in plasma doubled from 2.08 + …
This respirometry course - held in Las Vegas, NV - teaches participants how to measure metabolic rates using indirect calorimetry. We will apply techniques for measuring real-time O2 consumption, CO2 production and water vapor loss for subjects ranging from small invertebrates to large mammals. Participants can work with single animal and high through-put systems in both open-flow and stop-flow.. Hands On: The course leads participants through all steps of setting up apparatus, configuring data acquisition, acquiring data, and analyzing data both manually and automatically.. Cost: $2,140 per participant. Included in this fee are all laboratory costs and course materials.. ...
This respirometry course - held in Las Vegas, NV - teaches participants how to measure metabolic rates using indirect calorimetry. We will apply techniques for measuring real-time O2 consumption, CO2 production and water vapor loss for subjects ranging from small invertebrates to large mammals. Participants can work with single animal and high through-put systems in both open-flow and stop-flow.. Hands On: The course leads participants through all steps of setting up apparatus, configuring data acquisition, acquiring data, and analyzing data both manually and automatically.. Cost: $2,140 per participant. Included in this fee are all laboratory costs and course materials.. ...
Learn you Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) - Calculate your RMR here, BMR calculator will tell you how many calories (kilojoules) you burn in a day.
I did an experiment using a calorimeter to determine the energy produced when certain salts are mixed with water. How do you calculate the energy absorbed when mixing salts with water that produce an endothermic reaction, make thing the water cold, but with regards to calorimetry? I dont know how to get the energy but I know how to get the molar enthalpy, but I am still confused, if I calculate just for energy using q=mct I feel like Im not taking into consideration everything regarding
Your BMR (basal metabolic rate) is the rate at which you expend calories while resting. This rate assumes youre resting at room temperature during the post-absorptive stage of digestion, meaning ...
Basal Metabolic Rate of 1,725 means that your body will burn 1,725 calories each day if you engage in no activity for the entire day.
Basal Metabolic Rate of 1,373 means that your body will burn 1,373 calories each day if you engage in no activity for the entire day.
Use the basal metabolic rate calculator to find out how many calories or kilojoules your body needs at rest. Input your height, weight, age and gender to find out.
MicroCal DSC Microcalorimeters - Gold standard label-free protein stability analysis for regulated biopharmaceutical and biosimilar development and manufacture
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"Indirect Calorimetry" (PDF). "Techniques available for measuring energy expenditure". United Nations University. Weir, J. B. de ... The Weir formula is a formula used in indirect calorimetry, relating metabolic rate to oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide ...
"Indirect Calorimetry Data for Baz1b". Mouse Resources Portal. sanger.ac.uk. Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Body Composition ... Mutant mice showed increased activity, VO2 and energy expenditure, determined by indirect calorimetry. Radiography found teeth ...
"Indirect calorimetry data for Nsun2". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Glucose tolerance test data for Nsun2". Wellcome Trust ... and abnormal indirect calorimetry and plasma chemistry parameters. Males (but not females) were also infertile. In addition, ...
"Indirect calorimetry data for Akap9". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Glucose tolerance test data for Akap9". Wellcome Trust ...
"Indirect calorimetry data for Rad18". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "DEXA data for Rad18". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute ... Mutant male mice showed increased activity, VO2 and energy expenditure, determined by indirect calorimetry. Dual-energy X-ray ...
"Indirect calorimetry data for Dnase1l2". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "DEXA data for Dnase1l2". Wellcome Trust Sanger ... abnormal indirect calorimetry and femur/tibia morphology. Females also had an increased blood urea nitrogen level while males ...
"Indirect calorimetry data for Wdr47". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Clinical chemistry data for Wdr47". Wellcome Trust ... Male homozygous mice also had abnormal indirect calorimetry measures. WD repeat GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000085433 - ...
"Indirect calorimetry data for Dlg4". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "DEXA data for Dlg4". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. " ... Homozygous mutant animals had decreased body weight, atypical indirect calorimetry and DEXA data and a skin phenotype. Males ... Its direct and indirect binding partners include neuroligin, NMDA receptors, AMPA receptors, and potassium channels. It plays ... Eldstrom J, Choi WS, Steele DF, Fedida D (July 2003). "SAP97 increases Kv1.5 currents through an indirect N-terminal mechanism ...
"Indirect calorimetry data for Grxcr1". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Glucose tolerance test data for Grxcr1". Wellcome ... Male homozygous mutant animals additionally showed abnormal indirect calorimetry and clinical chemistry parameters, improved ...
"Indirect calorimetry data for Slc38a10". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "DEXA data for Slc38a10". Wellcome Trust Sanger ... Indirect calorimetry analysis showed that males displayed increased oxygen consumption and energy expenditure, while clinical ...
"Indirect calorimetry data for Zc3hc1". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "DEXA data for Zc3hc1". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute ... Males also had a decreased body weight, an abnormal posture and atypical indirect calorimetry data. Females also had an ...
"Indirect calorimetry data for Slc25a21". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "DEXA data for Slc25a21". Wellcome Trust Sanger ... atypical indirect calorimetry, body composition and plasma chemistry data, increased mean platelet volume and moderate ...
"Indirect calorimetry data for Rnf10". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "DEXA data for Rnf10". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute ...
"Indirect calorimetry data for Slc22a21". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Salmonella infection data for Slc22a21". Wellcome ...
"Indirect calorimetry data for Cenpj". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Glucose tolerance test data for Cenpj". Wellcome Trust ... peripheral blood lymphocytes and indirect calorimetry parameters, abnormal head, genitalia and tail morphology, an impaired ...
"Indirect calorimetry data for Myo7a". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Glucose tolerance test data for Myo7a". Wellcome Trust ... severe hearing impairment and a number of abnormal indirect calorimetry and clinical chemistry parameters. GRCh38: Ensembl ...
"Indirect calorimetry data for Dlg2". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "DEXA data for Dlg2". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. " ... Both sexes had atypical indirect calorimetry and DEXA parameters. Females also had decreased body weight, decreased circulating ...
"Entrez Gene: CBX1 chromobox homolog 1 (HP1 beta homolog Drosophila )". "Indirect calorimetry data for Cbx1". Wellcome Trust ... and energy expenditure as determined by indirect calorimetry. CBX1 has been shown to interact with: C11orf30, CBX3 and CBX5, ...
Indirect calorimetry. Normal Glucose tolerance test. Normal Auditory brainstem response. Abnormal DEXA. Normal ...
Indirect calorimetry. Normal Glucose tolerance test. Normal Auditory brainstem response. Normal DEXA. Normal ...
Indirect calorimetry. Normal Glucose tolerance test. Normal Auditory brainstem response. Normal DEXA. Normal ...
Indirect calorimetry. Normal Glucose tolerance test. Normal Auditory brainstem response. Normal DEXA. Normal ...
Indirect calorimetry. Normal. Glucose tolerance test. Normal. Auditory brainstem response. Normal. DEXA. Normal. ...
Indirect calorimetry is considered the gold-standard method to measure RMR. Indirect calorimeters are usually found in ... Indirect calorimetry is the study or clinical use of the relationship between respirometry and bioenergetics, where the ... Thus, estimation of REE by indirect calorimetry is strongly recommended for accomplishing long-term weight management, a ... "Indirect calorimetry: a practical guide for clinicians". Nutrition in Clinical Practice. 22 (4): 377-388. doi:10.1177/ ...
BMR can be measured via direct and indirect calorimetry; however, it is possible to estimate a person's BMR using one of ... Jeor Equation was found to be the most accurate predictor of BMR compared to BMR measured by direct and indirect calorimetry. ...
Females had increased indirect calorimetry parameters while males had an increased susceptibility to bacterial infection. ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Indirect calorimetry data for Fam134c". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Eye ...
Such measurements, like measurements of oxygen uptake, are forms of indirect calorimetry. It is measured using a respirometer. ... "Clinical use of the respiratory quotient obtained from indirect calorimetry". Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition. 27 ( ...
"Indirect calorimetry in man in helium-oxygen at 50 atmospheres pressure". Clin. Res. 21 (4): 848. Raymond, L. W.; E. D. ...
BMR may be measured by gas analysis through either direct or indirect calorimetry, though a rough estimation can be acquired ... This can be confirmed by blood tests and gas analysis using either direct or indirect calorimetry to show the effect of ... along with the oxygen and carbon dioxide measures taken from calorimetry. Studies also showed that by eliminating the sex ...
"Direct and indirect calorimetry of lactate oxidation: Implications for whole-body energy expenditure". Journal of Sports ... direct and indirect calorimeter experiments have definitively disproven any association of lactate metabolism as causal to an ...
The Carathéodory way regards calorimetry only as a secondary or indirect way of measuring quantity of energy transferred as ... In calorimetry, sensible heat is defined with respect to a specific chosen state variable of the system, such as pressure or ... Calorimetry is the empirical basis of the idea of quantity of heat transferred in a process. The transferred heat is measured ... They include calorimetry, which is the commonest practical way of finding internal energy differences.[74] The needed ...
... and indirect (oxygen consumption) calorimetry. Typical values for f are 15-20%.[15] ...
... term mass spectroscope continued to be used even though the direct illumination of a phosphor screen was replaced by indirect ... Calorimetry. *Chromatography. *Electroanalytical methods. *Gravimetric analysis. *Ion-mobility spectrometry. *Mass spectrometry ...
Nevertheless, the indirect method, although less reliable than direct, is still widely used in commerce. For example, it's used ... Determination of the amount of water by measuring the loss in mass of the sample during heating is an example of an indirect ... Volatilization methods can be either direct or indirect. Water eliminated in a quantitative manner from many inorganic ...
These measurements will provide indirect information on the details of the Standard Model, with the possibility of revealing ... "Calorimetry". ATLAS Technical Proposal. CERN. 1994.. *^ a b "Magnet system". ATLAS Technical Proposal. CERN. 1994.. ...
For example, indirect immunofluorescence will allow for fluorescence colocalization and demonstration of location. Fluorescent ... Isothermal titration calorimetry. *X-ray crystallography. *Protein NMR. *Cryo-electron microscopy. *Freeze-fracture electron ...
Indirect calorimetry. Normal Glucose tolerance test. Normal Auditory brainstem response. Normal DEXA. Normal ... Stimulation is indirect since osteoclasts do not have a receptor for PTH; rather, PTH binds to osteoblasts, the cells ...
For example, indirect immunofluorescence will allow for fluorescence colocalization and demonstration of location. Fluorescent ... Isothermal titration calorimetry. *X-ray crystallography. *Protein NMR. *Cryo-electron microscopy. *Freeze-fracture electron ...
Indirect[edit]. Antibodies that are specific for a particular protein, or a group of proteins, are added directly to the ... Isothermal titration calorimetry. *X-ray crystallography. *Protein NMR. *Cryo-electron microscopy. *Freeze-fracture electron ... The indirect method is also used when the binding kinetics of the antibody to the protein is slow for a variety of reasons. In ... An indirect approach is sometimes preferred when the concentration of the protein target is low or when the specific affinity ...
This group was measured via simultaneously direct and indirect calorimetry and had standardized daily meals and sedentary ... Whole body calorimetry studies in the menstrual cycle. New York: Fourth International Conference on Obesity 1983;52(abstr). ...
The indirect method involves an unlabeled primary antibody (first layer) that binds to the target antigen in the tissue and a ... Isothermal titration calorimetry. *X-ray crystallography. *Protein NMR. *Cryo-electron microscopy. *Freeze-fracture electron ... The indirect method of immunohistochemical staining uses one antibody against the antigen being probed for, and a second, ... The indirect method, aside from its greater sensitivity, also has the advantage that only a relatively small number of standard ...
Indirect attack: Method of firefighting in which water is pumped onto materials above or near the fire so that the splash rains ... verified Thornton's Rule using the oxygen consumption calorimetry technique, developed at NIST in the early 1970s. In " ... Backfiring: Also known as a "controlled burn," it's a tactic mostly used in wildland firefighting associated with indirect ... These included 3D offensive water-fog; smooth-bore/straight stream (direct) attack; indirect attack; tactical ventilation ...
If reserves are omitted, there is not enough flexibility to capture product formation and explain indirect calorimetry. ... This organizational position of reserve creates a rather constant internal chemical environment, with only an indirect coupling ...
... isothermal titration calorimetry or surface plasmon resonance. Low-affinity binding (high Ki level) implies that a relatively ... Coimmunopreciptation indirect ELISA, equilibrium dialysis, gel electrophoresis, far western blot, fluorescence polarization ...
Ratio of carbon dioxide produced by the body to oxygen consumed by the body Indirect calorimetry Fick principle - Principle ...
Redox electrode Other values may be determined indirectly by calorimetry. Also by analyzing phase-diagrams. See also the ... using the Doppler effect for indirect measurement of velocity. LIDAR speed gun Speedometer Tachometer (speed of rotation) ... calorimetry) or the transferred energy of the non-thermal carrier may be measured. calorimeter (any device for measuring the ... or coffee cup calorimeter Differential Scanning Calorimeter Reaction calorimeter see also Calorimeter or Calorimetry Entropy is ...
Doubly indirect interactions, mediated by two water molecules, are more numerous in the homologous complexes of low affinity. ... and calorimetry. The experimental detection and characterization of PPIs is labor-intensive and time-consuming. However, many ... Lisova O, Belkadi L, Bedouelle H (April 2014). "Direct and indirect interactions in the recognition between a cross- ...
But those tests demonstrate the relativistic expressions in an indirect way, since many other effects have to be considered in ... Therefore, the heat produced by some electrons hitting the aluminium disc was measured by calorimetry in order to directly ... "Calorimetry for particle physics" (PDF). Reviews of Modern Physics. 75 (4): 1243-1286. Bibcode:2003RvMP...75.1243F. doi:10.1103 ...
Indirect Preparation, and Analysis for Asbestos Structure Number Surface Loading by Transmission Electron Microscopy D6481 - 14 ... 19 Test Method for Oxidation Induction Time of Lubricating Oils by Pressure Differential Scanning Calorimetry (PDSC) D6188 - 17 ... 17 Test Method for Indirect Tensile (IDT) Strength of Asphalt Mixtures D6932/D6932M - 08(2013) Guide for Materials and ... Practice for Glass Transition Temperatures of Hydrocarbon Resins by Differential Scanning Calorimetry D6605 - 06(2020) Practice ...
... measures your daily resting energy expenditure (your calorie needs at rest). The handheld calorimeter ... An indirect calorimetry test requires two simple 10-minute breathing tests. It measures your daily resting energy expenditure ( ...
Indirect calorimetry. Energy metabolism is measured by means of indirect calorimetry. Indirect calorimetry is a method where ... Indirect calorimetry is combined with an on line technique to measure 13CO2 enrichment. The 13C enriched substrates can be used ... The indirect calorimetry studies are performed at the the Climate Respiration Unit of the Department of Animal Sciences within ... Furthermore, within the calorimetry facilities, in individually as well as in group-housing settings, we use a radar-Doppler ...
Respiratory indirect calorimetry, or indirect calorimetry (IC) as it is known by most authors, is a noninvasive and highly ... "Measuring RMR with Indirect Calorimetry (IC)." Nutr Clin Pract. 2007 Aug;22(4):377-88. "Measuring RMR with Indirect Calorimetry ... Indirect calorimetry, as we know it, was developed at the turn of the centurys as an application of thermodynamics to animal ... Indirect calorimetry is the method by which the type and rate of substrate utilization, and energy metabolism are estimated in ...
The indirect calorimetry is a diagnostic test that allows to know in an individualized way the energetic expense of each ... The indirect calorimetry determines the energetic expense in rest of a person, that is to say, it is going to inform to us on ... Indirect calorimetry. If there is excess fat, the patient may have a cardiometabolic risk profile, which carries a high risk ... In addition, indirect calorimetry measures the nutritional needs of each person.. The energy expenditure produces an exchange ...
Indirect calorimetry could improve the reliability of lactose malabsorption diagnosis. Studies on larger populations are needed ... Agreement between indirect calorimetry and traditional tests of lactose malabsorption Virginie Alexandre Anne-Marie Davila 1 ... Agreement between indirect calorimetry and traditional tests of lactose malabsorption. Digestive and Liver Disease, WB Saunders ... Indirect calorimetry could improve the reliability of lactose malabsorption diagnosis. Studies on larger populations are needed ...
Agreement between indirect calorimetry and traditional tests of lactose malabsorption. BACKGROUND: Lactose malabsorption occurs ... CONCLUSIONS: Indirect calorimetry could improve the reliability of lactose malabsorption diagnosis. Studies on larger ...
Simultaneous Direct and Indirect Calorimetry on Normoxic and Anoxic Goldfish. J. VAN WAVERSVELD, A. D. F. ADDINK, G. VAN DEN ... Simultaneous Direct and Indirect Calorimetry on Normoxic and Anoxic Goldfish. J. VAN WAVERSVELD, A. D. F. ADDINK, G. VAN DEN ... Simultaneous Direct and Indirect Calorimetry on Normoxic and Anoxic Goldfish. J. VAN WAVERSVELD, A. D. F. ADDINK, G. VAN DEN ... Simultaneous Direct and Indirect Calorimetry on Normoxic and Anoxic Goldfish Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ...
Baxter and COSMED Announce U.S. FDA 510(k) Clearance of Q-NRG+ Indirect Calorimetry Device ... COSMED products include a full range of spirometers, indirect calorimetry, cardio pulmonary exercise testing and body ... Predictive equations versus measured energy expenditure by indirect calorimetry: A retrospective validation. Clinical Nutrition ... a metabolic monitoring device utilizing indirect calorimetry (IC) technology. IC is considered the "gold standard"1 to ...
Data on energy balance in children with severe sepsis using indirect calorimetry (IC) is lacki... ... sepsis using indirect calorimetry (IC) is lacking. Thus, we planned to study the energy needs and balance of this cohort. ... Sepsis Using Indirect Calorimetry: A Prospective Cohort Study.". Energy needs in critically ill children are dynamic and ... Energy Balance in Critically Ill Children With Severe Sepsis Using Indirect Calorimetry: A Prospective Cohort Study.. 07:00 EST ...
McClave SA, Snider HL (1992) Use of indirect calorimetry in clinical nutrition. Nutr Clin Pract 7: 207-221PubMedCrossRefGoogle ... McClave SA, Snider HL, Greene L, et al (1992) Effective utilization of indirect calorimetry during critical care. Nut Pract 9: ... Singer P., Cohen J.D. (2003) Clinical Applications of Indirect Calorimetry in the Intensive Care Setting. In: Vincent JL. (eds ... Flancbaum L, Choban PS, Sambucco S, Verducci J, Burge JC (1999) Comparison of indirect calorimetry, the Fick method, and ...
The Effect of Insulin on the Disposal of Intravenous Glucose: Results from Indirect Calorimetry and Hepatic and Femoral Venous ... The Effect of Insulin on the Disposal of Intravenous Glucose: Results from Indirect Calorimetry and Hepatic and Femoral Venous ... The Effect of Insulin on the Disposal of Intravenous Glucose: Results from Indirect Calorimetry and Hepatic and Femoral Venous ... The Effect of Insulin on the Disposal of Intravenous Glucose: Results from Indirect Calorimetry and Hepatic and Femoral Venous ...
BIOACTIVE COMPONENTS FROM BLACKBERRIES TO AUGMENT DIETARY APPROACHES TO OBESITY TREATMENT OR PREVENTION: INDIRECT CALORIMETRY ... the subjects completed a 24 hour stay in a room-size indirect calorimeter at the end of each diet period. To assess changes in ...
Substrate utilization and energy expenditure pattern in sepsis by indirect calorimetry. *Andrew Li. ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0003- ... Li, A., Mukhopadhyay, A. Substrate utilization and energy expenditure pattern in sepsis by indirect calorimetry. Crit Care 24, ... longitudinal data using indirect calorimetry (IC) remain sparse. We aimed to determine the temporal trends of energy ... Lim Hong Hong for her invaluable logistic support and the ICU nurses for obtaining the readings of the indirect calorimetry. ...
The adequate provision of energy for obese patients by estimation without indirect calorimetry (IC) is challenging. The goal ... Resting Energy Expenditure Measured by Indirect Calorimetry in Obese Patients: Variation Within Different BMI Ranges. ... Resting Energy Expenditure Measured by Indirect Calorimetry in Obese Patients: Variation W ...
Recommendations for improved data processing from expired gas analysis indirect calorimetry Author(s) Robergs, Robert A.. Dwyer ... Recommendations for improved data processing from expired gas analysis indirect calorimetry. Robergs, Robert A., Dwyer, Dan and ... There is currently no universally recommended and accepted method of data processing within the science of indirect calorimetry ... Breath-by-breath datasets obtained from indirect calorimetry during incremental exercise were then used to demonstrate the ...
Optional kit to test accuracy of COSMED indirect calorimeters *Quality control test for routine calibration ...
2g,h). Indirect calorimetry revealed increased oxygen consumption in BAY-treated mice compared with chow control diet (CD) and ... Indirect calorimetry. Individual oxygen consumption (VO2) and CO2 production (VCO2) were measured using a Phenomaster device ( ...
Indirect calorimetry. Metabolic assessments were performed at room temperature (23 °C) with a 12:12 h light/dark cycle in the ... 3). Indirect calorimetry revealed reduced variability of RER in MD F1 mice, suggesting a bias toward lipid oxidation in these ... Indirect calorimetry showed reduced maximal RER values in MD F1 offspring, indicating a potential bias toward lipid oxidation46 ...
... and 2 hours after indirect calorimetry. Measurements of indirect calorimetry were done in a temperature-controlled incubator ( ... Indirect Calorimetry. Measurements of Vo2 and Vco2 were performed by means of a portable open-circuit continuous indirect ... Because Vo2 and Vco2 are influenced strongly by feeding, each period of indirect calorimetry began 45 minutes after feeding20 ... The use of indirect calorimetry in critically ill patients-the relationship of measured energy expenditure to injury severity ...
Indirect Calorimetry.. During the final 30 min of the basal period and the clamp, indirect calorimetry was performed using the ...
Indirect Calorimetry. Indirect calorimetry can be performed easily in children by using standard commercial equipment as ... Energy expenditure is typically measured in humans by either direct or indirect calorimetry. Direct calorimetry involves ... Indirect calorimetry has the added advantage that the ratio of carbon dioxide production to oxygen consumption (the respiratory ... Indirect calorimetry measures energy production by respiratory gas analysis. This approach is based on measurement of oxygen ...
Indirect Calorimetry.. Indirect calorimetry measurements for test meals sessions were obtained in 11 subjects with a calibrated ... Technical difficulties precluded indirect calorimetry measurements in 3 of the 14 participants. ...
... and indirect calorimetry.. *. Karsten Koehler, Hans Braun, +4 authors Wilhelm Schaenzer. *. Published. 2010 in Journal of ... and indirect calorimetry.}, author={Karsten Koehler and Hans Braun and Markus de Mar{\e}es and Gerhard Fusch and Christoph ...
Today Maastricht Instruments is a leading company in providing customers all over the world with novel indirect calorimetry ... Kaviani, S., et al., Determining the Accuracy and Reliability of Indirect Calorimeters Utilizing the Methanol Combustion ... Considerations for the use of Indirect Calorimeters in Nutrition Management. 21 November 2017 ... Considerations for the use of Indirect Calorimeters in Exercise Bioenergetics. 27 November 2017 ...
Indirect calorimetry. Respiratory gas exchange rates were determined at 30- to 60-min intervals with a metabolic measurement ...
Indirect calorimetry. Indirect calorimetry was performed using a ventilated hood technique (ParvoMedics TrueOne 2400 Metabolic ... oxidative glucose disposal was calculated using data from the final 20 min of indirect calorimetry recordings and the equations ...
Indirect calorimetry. Indirect calorimetry (Deltatrac monitor; Dantes Instrumentarium, Helsinki, Finland) was used from t = 210 ... We observed a robust increase in NOGD measured by indirect calorimetry during insulin withdrawal. This could relate to ... OGD was estimated by indirect calorimetry and NOGD was calculated by subtracting OGD from Rdgluc [20]. ... Ferrannini E (1988) The theoretical bases of indirect calorimetry: a review. Metabolism 37(3):287-301. https://doi.org/10.1016/ ...
Indirect gas calorimetry module CaloSys. Indirect gas calorimetry uses measurements of the animals oxygen consumption (VO2) ... Home / In vivo research / Metabolism and calorimetry / Indirect gas calorimetry module CaloSys ... The PhenoMaster module for indirect gas calorimetry (CaloSys) is a fully automated high-throughput system for short- and long- ... exercise calorimetry on the CaloTreadmill or the CaloWheel. * calorimetry under thermoneutral or rapid temperature challenge ...
Indirect Calorimetry Pulmonary Function Test Spirometry Cardiac Output Body Composition Stress Testing ECGs Ergometers Software ... Optional kit to test accuracy of COSMED indirect calorimeters *Quality control test for routine calibration ...
Furthermore, indirect calorimetry is sensitive to measurement errors, making routine quality control procedures essential. ... Modular indirect calorimetric devices are easy to use and can facilitates routine clinical measurements. The clinical ... Gas Exchange and Indirect Calorimetry Publications Reference List The views expressed in the articles listed herein are those ... Indirect calorimetry devices for intensive care patients usually apply the open circuit technique, where the flow of gas is ...
  • Energy metabolism is measured by means of indirect calorimetry. (wur.nl)
  • Measurements of V o 2 and carbon dioxide production were performed daily for 7 days by means of indirect calorimetry. (aappublications.org)
  • To determine the relative contributions of glucose oxidation versus glucose storage by peripheral tissues following hyperinsulinemia, we performed euglycemic insulin clamp studies in combination with indirect calorimetry. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Continuous glucose monitoring provided incremental area under the curve (iAUC) and mean amplitude of glycaemic excursion (MAGE) and 10 h indirect calorimetry (whole body calorimeter) (day 2) provided energy expenditure and substrate oxidation. (mdpi.com)
  • Flancbaum L, Choban PS, Sambucco S, Verducci J, Burge JC (1999) Comparison of indirect calorimetry, the Fick method, and predictive equations in estimating the energy requirements of critically ill patients. (springer.com)
  • We measured REE by indirect calorimetry strictly following the standard procedures, and we compared it to 45 predictive equations. (mdpi.com)
  • Indirect calorimetry, where feasible, and cautious use of estimating equations and increased surveillance for unintended caloric underfeeding and overfeeding are recommended. (nih.gov)
  • Background: In the absence of reliable predictive equations, indirect calorimetry (IC) remains the gold standard for assessing energy requirements after spinal cord injury (SCI), but it is typically confined to a research setting. (edu.au)
  • Grade: C) Energy requirements may be calculated by predictive equations or measured by indirect calorimetry. (nap.edu)
  • Predictive equations should be used with caution, because they provide a less accurate measure of energy requirements than indirect calorimetry in the individual patient. (nap.edu)
  • In the obese patient, the predictive equations are even more problematic without availability of indirect calorimetry. (nap.edu)
  • Indirect calorimetry is the standard for determination of resting metabolic rate (RMR) in critically ill patients because RMR based on measurement is more accurate than estimation using predictive equations. (nap.edu)
  • Resting Energy Expenditure Measured by Indirect Calorimetry in Obese Patients: Variation Within Different BMI Ranges. (bvsalud.org)
  • Methods for data analysis of resting energy expenditure measured using indirect calorimetry. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Brandi LS, Grana M, Mazzanti T, Giunta F, Natali A, Ferrannini E (1992) Energy expenditure and gas exchange measurement in postoperative patients: thermodilution vs indirect caloriemtry. (springer.com)
  • Furthermore, indirect calorimetry is sensitive to measurement errors, making routine quality control procedures essential. (gehealthcare.com)
  • These findings have previously been validated with the use of indirect calorimetry (IDC), 12,13 the standard for the measurement of energy expenditure in the clinical setting. (ahajournals.org)
  • Measurement of requirements (indirect calorimetry, 24-hour urinary urea) leading to patient-specific, individualised and goal-directed nutritional therapy. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • It is based on the indirect measure of the heat produced by oxidation of macronutrients, which is estimated by monitoring oxygen consumption (O2) and carbon dioxide production (CO2) for a certain period of time. (wikipedia.org)
  • By simultaneous calorimetry the amounts of oxidized substrates during normoxia and anoxia and the amount of excreted ethanol, the end product of incomplete anaerobic oxidation, as well as normoxic and anoxic carbon dioxide production were determined. (biologists.org)
  • In order to assess changes in the respiratory quotient, energy expenditure, and calculated substrate oxidation, the subjects completed a 24 hour stay in a room-size indirect calorimeter at the end of each diet period. (umd.edu)
  • Coss-Bu JA, Jefferson LS, Walding D, David Y, Smith EO, Klish WJ (1998) Resting energy expenditure in children in a pediatric intensive care unit: comparison of Harris-Benedict andTalbot predictions with indirect calorimetry values. (springer.com)
  • We compared nonprotein caloric requirements calculated by Harris-Benedict equation and measured by indirect calorimetry in patients with pancreatic abscess. (elsevier.com)
  • Harris-Benedict calculations with stress factor 1.7 differed from indirect calorimetry by at least 15% in seven of ten determinations. (elsevier.com)
  • Energy requirements via indirect calorimetry of some patients with pancreatic abscess cover a wide range and do not correlate with Harris-Benedict calculations. (elsevier.com)
  • The Weir formula is a formula used in indirect calorimetry, relating metabolic rate to oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metabolic rate was determined by indirect calorimetry. (hindawi.com)
  • 001). The Bland and Altman method showed good agreement in the assessment of energy expenditure between the indirect calorimetry and the data obtained by the accelerometer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The correlation coefficient between indirect calorimetry and accelerometer counts was 0.48 ( p = .026) for endurance games and 0.21 ( p = .574) for strength games. (humankinetics.com)
  • visit), participants provided a final urine specimen, were measured for resting energy expenditure (REE) via indirect calorimetry , 29 and returned the accelerometer. (humankinetics.com)
  • Indirect calorimetry is the method by which the type and rate of substrate utilization, and energy metabolism are estimated in vivo starting from gas exchange measurements (carbon dioxide production and oxygen consumption during rest and steady-state exercise). (wikipedia.org)
  • The indirect calorimetry determines the energetic expense in rest of a person, that is to say, it is going to inform to us on the calories that its organism spends in a situation of rest and, therefore, it will orient to us on its metabolism basal to determine if this one is normal or it is increased or diminished. (cun.es)
  • Simultaneous direct and indirect calorimetry together with biochemical determinations of metabolite concentrations were used to compare the normoxic and anoxic energy metabolism of goldfish at 20°C. The normoxic and anoxic heat production levels determined by direct calorimetry were in agreement with previous results: 700 and 200Jh −1 MW −1 , respectively (where MW is metabolic weight, kg 0.85 ). (biologists.org)
  • Room indirect calorimetry is used for evaluation of 24-h energy metabolism. (uab.edu)
  • Indirect gas calorimetry uses measurements of the animal's oxygen consumption (VO2) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) to estimate various metabolic parameters, including the respiratory exchange rate (RQ), energy expenditure (EE), substrate utilization (fat reserves vs. carbohydrate catabolism), and more. (animalab.eu)
  • Methods- A simple 4-point Bedside Shivering Assessment Scale was validated against continuous assessments of resting energy expenditure, oxygen consumption, and carbon dioxide production as measured by indirect calorimetry. (ahajournals.org)
  • McClave SA, Snider HL, Greene L, et al (1992) Effective utilization of indirect calorimetry during critical care. (springer.com)
  • McClave SA, Snider HL (1992) Use of indirect calorimetry in clinical nutrition. (springer.com)
  • Indirect calorimetry calculates heat that living organisms produce by measuring either their production of carbon dioxide and nitrogen waste (frequently ammonia in aquatic organisms, or urea in terrestrial ones), or from their consumption of oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Parallel assessment of nutrition and activity in athletes: validation against doubly labelled water, 24-h urea excretion, and indirect calorimetry. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We aimed to investigate the reliability of resting energy expenditure (REE) measured by indirect calorimetry (IC) with REE calculated using pred. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The aim of this study was to test the accuracy of different methods of resting energy expenditure (REE) data analysis using indirect calorimetry (IC) during traditional (30 min) and abbreviated (10 mi. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Indirect calorimetry is a method where heat production and the type and rate of substrate utilization are estimated in vivo starting from gas (O2, CO2 and CH4) exchange measurements. (wur.nl)
  • Determinations from indirect calorimetry ranged from 22.4-46.8 (mean 36.1) kcal/kg/d. (elsevier.com)
  • Stress factor 1.9 results overestimated indirect calorimetry by over 25% in four of ten determinations. (elsevier.com)
  • The aim of this study was to examine the energy expenditure (EE) measured using indirect calorimetry (IC) during playground games and to assess the validity of heart rate (HR) and accelerometry counts as indirect indicators of EE in children´s physical activity games. (humankinetics.com)
  • Indirect calorimetry (IC), accelerometry and HR data were simultaneously collected for each child during a 90 min session of 30 playground games. (humankinetics.com)
  • The adequate provision of energy for obese patients by estimation without indirect calorimetry (IC) is challenging. (bvsalud.org)
  • The lack of direct methods has led to development of various models and indirect methods for estimation of fat and fat-free mass, all of which are imperfect and require a number of assumptions, many of which require age-specific considerations, because the usual assumptions in multicompartmental models (eg, hydration of fat-free mass, density of fat-free mass) are known to be influenced by age and state of maturation. (aappublications.org)
  • been developed recently that enable an acceptable estimation of energy expenditure during the activity (indirect calorimetry , double-labeled water turnover), they require the use of time-consuming procedures and expensive equipment difficult to apply in nonagenarians. (humankinetics.com)
  • Face mask (breath by breath): Indirect calorimetry tests are also often performed with a face mask, which is used to convey exhaled and inhaled gas through a turbine flowmeter able to measure the patient's breath by breath minute ventilation, at the same time a sample of gas is conveyed to the analyser and VO2 and VCO2 are measured and converted in energy expenditure. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is currently no universally recommended and accepted method of data processing within the science of indirect calorimetry for either mixing chamber or breath-by-breath systems of expired gas analysis. (edu.au)
  • Breath-by-breath datasets obtained from indirect calorimetry during incremental exercise were then used to demonstrate the consequences of commonly used time, breath and digital filter post-acquisition data processing strategies. (edu.au)
  • Calorimetry is therefore a spirometry in which the consumption of oxygen and the production of carbon dioxide are measured sequentially. (cun.es)
  • This calibration study, using indirect calorimetry, suggests that the two accelerometers can be used to distinguish differing levels of physical activity intensity as well as inactivity among children 5 to 8 years of age. (nih.gov)
  • Exercise physiologists were first surveyed to determine methods used to process oxygen consumption ([OV0312]O 2) data, and current attitudes to data processing within the science of indirect calorimetry. (edu.au)
  • Baxter International Inc. (NYSE: BAX), a global leader in clinical nutrition, today announced the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) clearance of Q-NRG+ , a metabolic monitoring device utilizing indirect calorimetry (IC) technology. (baxter.com)
  • Modular indirect calorimetric devices are easy to use and can facilitates routine clinical measurements. (gehealthcare.com)
  • Hickman, Ingrid J. / Feasibility and acceptability of implementing indirect calorimetry into routine clinical care of patients with spinal cord injury . (edu.au)
  • and VO2peak, (utilising indirect calorimetry ), venous blood sampling, cardiac scanning, strength (1-RM bench press/back squat), power (force velocity profile) and total mood disturbance (TMD) via a profile of mood states (POMS) assessments were made at regular intervals. (humankinetics.com)
  • From the indirect calorimetric calculations it appeared that anoxic goldfish also produce fat. (biologists.org)
  • Conclusions: Indirect calorimetry could improve the reliability of lactose malabsorption diagnosis. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Bursztein S, Saphar P, Singer P, Elwyn DH (1989) A mathematical analysis of indirect calorimetry measurements in acutely ill patients. (springer.com)
  • Results- Fifty consecutive cerebrovascular patients underwent indirect calorimetry between January 2006 and June 2007. (ahajournals.org)
  • The term calculate what percentage of energy expenditure is 'direct calorimetry' is used when the rate of heat being supported by each of the two energy production is directly measured by placing a person substrates. (yudu.com)
  • Indirect calorimetry devices for intensive care patients usually apply the open circuit technique, where the flow of gas is measured, and the inspiratory and expiratory concentrations of oxygen and carbon dioxide analyzed. (gehealthcare.com)
  • Indirect calorimetry to measure energy expenditure, and pulse dye densitometry for a hemodynamic study were performed in patients until 14 POD. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In addition, indirect calorimetry measures the nutritional needs of each person. (cun.es)
  • Determining the Accuracy and Reliability of Indirect Calorimeters Utilizing the Methanol Combustion Technique. (indirectcalorimetry.net)
  • The indirect calorimetry studies are performed at the the Climate Respiration Unit of the Department of Animal Sciences within the Wageningen University. (wur.nl)
  • Indirect calorimetry studies have consistently reported a 100 ste·min −1 threshold for moderate intensity walking in adults. (humankinetics.com)
  • No indirect calorimetry studies have investigated step-rate thresholds in children and therefore the primary purpose of the study was to determine preliminary step-rate thresholds for moderate physical activity walking in children. (humankinetics.com)
  • REE was measured using indirect calorimetry during intubation, or at 9 a.m. on postoperative day 1 in the intensive care unit. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • Indirect calorimetry is the gold standard to measure energy expenditure. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Indirect calorimetry (IC) is the gold standard for measuring BEE. (scielo.br)
  • Exercise physiologists need to agree on, and continually refine through empirical research, a consistent process for analysing data from indirect calorimetry. (edu.au)
  • The effect of oral L-ornithine hydrochloride (0.1 g/kg BW) on energy expenditure during a rest period from 120 to 180 min after resistance exercise was evaluated by indirect calorimetry. (scirp.org)
  • Intervention goal: delivering 100% of patient-specific requirements, measured or calculated throughout entire admission (EN+PN). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The target goal of enteral nutrition (EN) (defined by energy requirements) should be determined and clearly identified at the time of initiation of nutrition support therapy. (nap.edu)
  • It can be a direct or indirect cause of fatality in children suffering from DIARRHEA and PNEUMONIA. (bioportfolio.com)
  • what are some direct and indirect costs? (brainscape.com)
  • The term 'indirect There is, however, a third macronutrient that is calorimetry' is used when heat production is not oxidized to produce energy. (yudu.com)
  • An indirect calorimetry test requires two simple 10-minute breathing tests. (nationaljewish.org)
  • Indirect calorimetry measures O2 consumption and CO2 production. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the development of indirect calorimetry dates back over 200 years, its greatest use has been in the last two decades with the development of total parenteral nutrition, interdisciplinary nutrition support teams, and the production of portable, reliable, relatively inexpensive calorimeters. (wikipedia.org)
  • The process of measuring heat produced by the and fat are being used to support energy expendi- body during combustion of substances or nutrients ture, this difference in RER makes it possible to in animals or humans is called calorimetry. (yudu.com)
  • Indirect calorimetry is combined with an on line technique to measure 13CO2 enrichment. (wur.nl)
  • We used indirect calorimetry to determine the energy expenditure (EE) in response to body position changes, and we assessed EE's correlation with respiratory parameters in healthy volunteers: 8 males and 8 females, mean age 23.4±1.3 years. (okayama-u.ac.jp)
  • The total energy expenditure during rest and mild cold stress was measured by indirect calorimetry. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • However, longitudinal data using indirect calorimetry (IC) remain sparse. (biomedcentral.com)