Calorimetry, Differential Scanning: Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.Calorimetry: The measurement of the quantity of heat involved in various processes, such as chemical reactions, changes of state, and formations of solutions, or in the determination of the heat capacities of substances. The fundamental unit of measurement is the joule or the calorie (4.184 joules). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Calorimetry, Indirect: Calculation of the energy expenditure in the form of heat production of the whole body or individual organs based on respiratory gas exchange.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Basal Metabolism: Heat production, or its measurement, of an organism at the lowest level of cell chemistry in an inactive, awake, fasting state. It may be determined directly by means of a calorimeter or indirectly by calculating the heat production from an analysis of the end products of oxidation within the organism or from the amount of oxygen utilized.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Titrimetry: The determination of the concentration of a given component in solution (the analyte) by addition of a liquid reagent of known strength (the titrant) until an equivalence point is reached (when the reactants are present in stoichiometric proportions). Often an indicator is added to make the equivalence point visible (e.g., a change in color).Protein Denaturation: Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.X-Ray Diffraction: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Phase Transition: A change of a substance from one form or state to another.Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.1,2-Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine: Synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers to study biological membranes. It is also a major constituent of PULMONARY SURFACTANTS.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Transition Temperature: The temperature at which a substance changes from one state or conformation of matter to another.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Technology, Pharmaceutical: The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.Powder Diffraction: Method of using a polycrystalline powder and Rietveld refinement (LEAST SQUARES ANALYSIS) of X-RAY DIFFRACTION or NEUTRON DIFFRACTION. It circumvents the difficulties of producing single large crystals.Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine: A synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers for the study of biological membranes.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Thermogravimetry: Technique whereby the weight of a sample can be followed over a period of time while its temperature is being changed (usually increased at a constant rate).Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Entropy: The measure of that part of the heat or energy of a system which is not available to perform work. Entropy increases in all natural (spontaneous and irreversible) processes. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Drug Compounding: The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Drug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Body Temperature Regulation: The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.Excipients: Usually inert substances added to a prescription in order to provide suitable consistency to the dosage form. These include binders, matrix, base or diluent in pills, tablets, creams, salves, etc.Drug Carriers: Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular: NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.Rest: Freedom from activity.Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Phosphatidylethanolamines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.Phosphatidylglycerols: A nitrogen-free class of lipids present in animal and particularly plant tissues and composed of one mole of glycerol and 1 or 2 moles of phosphatidic acid. Members of this group differ from one another in the nature of the fatty acids released on hydrolysis.Biophysical Phenomena: The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.Carbonic Anhydrase II: A cytosolic carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme found widely distributed in cells of almost all tissues. Deficiencies of carbonic anhydrase II produce a syndrome characterized by OSTEOPETROSIS, renal tubular acidosis (ACIDOSIS, RENAL TUBULAR) and cerebral calcification. EC 4.2.1.-Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.beta-Cyclodextrins: Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of seven (7) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Biophysics: The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Scattering, Radiation: The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Membrane Fluidity: The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Crystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Freeze Drying: Method of tissue preparation in which the tissue specimen is frozen and then dehydrated at low temperature in a high vacuum. This method is also used for dehydrating pharmaceutical and food products.Povidone: A polyvinyl polymer of variable molecular weight; used as suspending and dispersing agent and vehicle for pharmaceuticals; also used as blood volume expander.Micelles: Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.Membrane Lipids: Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.Spectrophotometry, Infrared: Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions: The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.Surface Plasmon Resonance: A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Sphingomyelins: A class of sphingolipids found largely in the brain and other nervous tissue. They contain phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine as their polar head group so therefore are the only sphingolipids classified as PHOSPHOLIPIDS.Gels: Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.Physicochemical Phenomena: The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Chemistry, Physical: The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.Poloxamer: A nonionic polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene block co-polymer with the general formula HO(C2H4O)a(-C3H6O)b(C2H4O)aH. It is available in different grades which vary from liquids to solids. It is used as an emulsifying agent, solubilizing agent, surfactant, and wetting agent for antibiotics. Poloxamer is also used in ointment and suppository bases and as a tablet binder or coater. (Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)Fluorescence Polarization: Measurement of the polarization of fluorescent light from solutions or microscopic specimens. It is used to provide information concerning molecular size, shape, and conformation, molecular anisotropy, electronic energy transfer, molecular interaction, including dye and coenzyme binding, and the antigen-antibody reaction.Fats: The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Delayed-Action Preparations: Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Protein Stability: The ability of a protein to retain its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to physical or chemical manipulations.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Protein Structure, Quaternary: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Cyclodextrins: A homologous group of cyclic GLUCANS consisting of alpha-1,4 bound glucose units obtained by the action of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase on starch or similar substrates. The enzyme is produced by certain species of Bacillus. Cyclodextrins form inclusion complexes with a wide variety of substances.Surface-Active Agents: Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Nanocapsules: Nanometer-sized, hollow, spherically-shaped objects that can be utilized to encapsulate small amounts of pharmaceuticals, enzymes, or other catalysts (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechnology, 4th ed).Static Electricity: The accumulation of an electric charge on a objectHydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.Anilino Naphthalenesulfonates: A class of organic compounds which contain an anilino (phenylamino) group linked to a salt or ester of naphthalenesulfonic acid. They are frequently used as fluorescent dyes and sulfhydryl reagents.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Nucleic Acid Denaturation: Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.Chitosan: Deacetylated CHITIN, a linear polysaccharide of deacetylated beta-1,4-D-glucosamine. It is used in HYDROGEL and to treat WOUNDS.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Emulsions: Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Thermogenesis: The generation of heat in order to maintain body temperature. The uncoupled oxidation of fatty acids contained within brown adipose tissue and SHIVERING are examples of thermogenesis in MAMMALS.Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.Gymnema: A plant genus of the family ASCLEPIADACEAE.Tablets: Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Ultracentrifugation: Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Freezing: Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.Pulmonary Gas Exchange: The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Protein Multimerization: The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.Protein Unfolding: Conformational transitions of the shape of a protein to various unfolded states.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Deuterium: Deuterium. The stable isotope of hydrogen. It has one neutron and one proton in the nucleus.Guanidine: A strong organic base existing primarily as guanidium ions at physiological pH. It is found in the urine as a normal product of protein metabolism. It is also used in laboratory research as a protein denaturant. (From Martindale, the Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed and Merck Index, 12th ed) It is also used in the treatment of myasthenia and as a fluorescent probe in HPLC.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Cations: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Methylcellulose: Methylester of cellulose. Methylcellulose is used as an emulsifying and suspending agent in cosmetics, pharmaceutics and the chemical industry. It is used therapeutically as a bulk laxative.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Liquid Crystals: Materials in intermediate state between solid and liquid.Desiccation: Removal of moisture from a substance (chemical, food, tissue, etc.).Nutritional Requirements: The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Salts: Substances produced from the reaction between acids and bases; compounds consisting of a metal (positive) and nonmetal (negative) radical. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)2-Naphthylamine: A naphthalene derivative with carcinogenic action.Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Dipodomys: A genus of the family Heteromyidae which contains 22 species. Their physiology is adapted for the conservation of water, and they seldom drink water. They are found in arid or desert habitats and travel by hopping on their hind limbs.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Muramidase: A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC 3.2.1.17.Unilamellar Liposomes: Single membrane vesicles, generally made of PHOSPHOLIPIDS.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Glucose Clamp Technique: Maintenance of a constant blood glucose level by perfusion or infusion with glucose or insulin. It is used for the study of metabolic rates (e.g., in glucose, lipid, amino acid metabolism) at constant glucose concentration.Physical Exertion: Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Laurates: Salts and esters of the 12-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--lauric acid.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium: A cellulose derivative which is a beta-(1,4)-D-glucopyranose polymer. It is used as a bulk laxative and as an emulsifier and thickener in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals and as a stabilizer for reagents.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Oxygen Isotopes: Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.Framycetin: A component of NEOMYCIN that is produced by Streptomyces fradiae. On hydrolysis it yields neamine and neobiosamine B. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Benzoyl Peroxide: A peroxide derivative that has been used topically for BURNS and as a dermatologic agent in the treatment of ACNE and POISON IVY DERMATITIS. It is used also as a bleach in the food industry.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Molecular Docking Simulation: A computer simulation technique that is used to model the interaction between two molecules. Typically the docking simulation measures the interactions of a small molecule or ligand with a part of a larger molecule such as a protein.Microscopy, Polarization: Microscopy using polarized light in which phenomena due to the preferential orientation of optical properties with respect to the vibration plane of the polarized light are made visible and correlated parameters are made measurable.Apoproteins: The protein components of a number of complexes, such as enzymes (APOENZYMES), ferritin (APOFERRITINS), or lipoproteins (APOLIPOPROTEINS).Body Fluid Compartments: The two types of spaces between which water and other body fluids are distributed: extracellular and intracellular.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Buffers: A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Lactoglobulins: Globulins of milk obtained from the WHEY.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Allosteric Regulation: The modification of the reactivity of ENZYMES by the binding of effectors to sites (ALLOSTERIC SITES) on the enzymes other than the substrate BINDING SITES.Thermography: Imaging the temperatures in a material, or in the body or an organ. Imaging is based on self-emanating infrared radiation (HEAT WAVES), or on changes in properties of the material or tissue that vary with temperature, such as ELASTICITY; MAGNETIC FIELD; or LUMINESCENCE.

Measured versus predicted oxygen consumption in children with congenital heart disease. (1/799)

OBJECTIVE: To compare measured and predicted oxygen consumption (VO2) in children with congenital heart disease. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: The cardiac catheterisation laboratory in a university hospital. PATIENTS: 125 children undergoing preoperative cardiac catheterisation. INTERVENTIONS: VO2 was measured using indirect calorimetry; the predicted values were calculated from regression equations published by Lindahl, Wessel et al, and Lundell et al. Stepwise linear regression and analysis of variance were used to evaluate the influence of age, sex, weight, height, cardiac malformation, and heart failure on the bias and precision of predicted VO2. An artificial neural network was trained and used to produce an estimate of VO2 employing the same variables. The various estimates for VO2 were evaluated by calculating their bias and precision values. RESULTS: Lindahl's equation produced the highest precision (+/- 42%) of the regression based estimates. The corresponding average bias of the predicted VO2 was 3% (range -66% to 43%). When VO2 was predicted according to regression equations by Wessel and Lundell, the bias and precision were 0% and +/- 44%, and -16% and +/- 51%, respectively. The neural network predicted VO2 from variables included in the regression equations with a bias of 6% and precision +/- 29%; addition of further variables failed to improve this estimate. CONCLUSIONS: Both regression based and artificial intelligence based techniques were inaccurate for predicting preoperative VO2 in patients with congenital heart disease. Measurement of VO2 is necessary in the preoperative evaluation of these patients.  (+info)

Comparison of indirect calorimetry, the Fick method, and prediction equations in estimating the energy requirements of critically ill patients. (2/799)

BACKGROUND: Accurate measurement of resting energy expenditure (REE) is helpful in determining the energy needs of critically ill patients requiring nutritional support. Currently, the most accurate clinical tool used to measure REE is indirect calorimetry, which is expensive, requires trained personnel, and has significant error at higher inspired oxygen concentrations. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare REE measured by indirect calorimetry with REE calculated by using the Fick method and prediction equations by Harris-Benedict, Ireton-Jones, Fusco, and Frankenfield. DESIGN: REEs of 36 patients [12 men and 24 women, mean age 58+/-22 y and mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score 22+/-8] in a hospital intensive care unit and receiving mechanical ventilation and total parenteral nutrition (TPN) were measured for > or = 15 min by using indirect calorimetry and compared with REEs calculated from a mean of 2 sets of hemodynamic measurements taken during the metabolic testing period with an oximetric pulmonary artery catheter. RESULTS: Mean REE by indirect calorimetry was 8381+/-1940 kJ/d and correlated poorly with the other methods tested (r = 0.057-0.154). This correlation did not improve after adjusting for changes in respiratory quotient (r2 = 0.28). CONCLUSIONS: These data do not support previous findings showing a strong correlation between REE determined by the Fick method and other prediction equations and indirect calorimetry. In critically ill patients receiving TPN, indirect calorimetry, if available, remains the most appropriate clinical tool for accurate measurement of REE.  (+info)

Physical activity assessment in American Indian schoolchildren in the Pathways study. (3/799)

The objective of the Pathways physical activity feasibility study was to develop methods for comparing type and amount of activity between intervention and control schools participating in a school-based obesity prevention program. Two methods proved feasible: 1) a specially designed 24-h physical activity recall questionnaire for assessing the frequency and type of activities and 2) use of a triaxial accelerometer for assessing amount of activity. Results from pilot studies supporting the use of these methods are described. Analyses of activity during different segments of the day showed that children were most active after school. The activities reported most frequently (e.g., basketball and mixed walking and running) were also the ones found to be most popular in the study population on the basis of formative assessment surveys. Both the physical activity recall questionnaire and the triaxial accelerometer methods will be used to assess the effects of the full-scale intervention on physical activity.  (+info)

Energy and substrate metabolism in patients with active Crohn's disease. (4/799)

The aim of the study was to evaluate the possible contribution of changes in energy metabolism and substrate oxidation rates to malnutrition in Crohn's disease and to assess the effect of enteral nutrition on these parameters. Energy metabolism was evaluated by indirect calorimetry in 32 patients with active Crohn's disease and 19 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals. Measurements were done in the postabsorptive state. Seven out of 32 patients received enteral nutrition via a nasogastric tube. In these patients, resting energy metabolism was determined at d 0 (postabsorptive), 7, 14 (during full enteral nutrition) and 15 (postabsorptive). Resting energy expenditure was not significantly different between patients and controls, whereas the respiratory quotient (RQ) was lower in patients (0.78 +/- 0.05 vs. 0.86 +/- 0.05; P < 0.05). During enteral nutrition in 7 patients with Crohn's disease, the RQ increased on d 7 compared with d 0 and remained high even after cessation of enteral nutrition (d 0, 0.78 +/- 0.03; d 7, 0.91 +/- 0.04; d 15, 0. 84 +/- 0.05; P < 0.05; d 7 and 15 vs. d 0). No effects of enteral nutrition on resting energy expenditure were found. Active Crohn's disease is associated with changes in substrate metabolism that resemble a starvation pattern. These changes appear not to be specific to Crohn's disease but to malnutrition and are readily reversed by enteral nutrition. Enteral nutrition did not affect resting energy expenditure. Wasting is a consequence of malnutrition but not of hypermetabolism in Crohn's disease.  (+info)

Acute effect of ephedrine on 24-h energy balance. (5/799)

Ephedrine is used to help achieve weight control. Data on its true efficacy and mechanisms in altering energy balance in human subjects are limited. We aimed to determine the acute effect of ephedrine on 24-h energy expenditure, mechanical work and urinary catecholamines in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, two-period crossover study. Ten healthy volunteers were given ephedrine (50 mg) or placebo thrice daily during each of two 24-h periods (ephedrine and placebo) in a whole-room indirect calorimeter, which accurately measures minute-by-minute energy expenditure and mechanical work. Measurements were taken of 24-h energy expenditure, mechanical work, urinary catecholamines and binding of (+/-)ephedrine in vitro to human beta1-, beta2- and beta3-adrenoreceptors. Twenty-four-hour energy expenditure was 3.6% greater (8965+/-1301 versus 8648+/-1347 kJ, P<0.05) with ephedrine than with placebo, but mechanical work was not different between the ephedrine and placebo periods. Noradrenaline excretion was lower with ephedrine (0.032+/-0.011 microg/mg creatinine) compared with placebo (0.044+/-0.012 microg/mg creatinine) (P<0.05). (+/-)Ephedrine is a relatively weak partial agonist of human beta1- and beta2-adrenoreceptors, and had no detectable activity at human beta3-adrenoreceptors. Ephedrine (50 mg thrice daily) modestly increases energy expenditure in normal human subjects. A lack of binding of ephedrine to beta3-adrenoreceptors and the observed decrease in urinary noradrenaline during ephedrine treatment suggest that the thermogenic effect of ephedrine results from direct beta1-/beta2-adrenoreceptor agonism. An indirect beta3-adrenergic effect through the release of noradrenaline seems unlikely as urinary noradrenaline decreased significantly with ephedrine.  (+info)

Effects of insulin and amino acids on glucose and leucine metabolism in CAPD patients. (6/799)

This study investigates the basal and insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism, substrate utilization, and protein turnover in eight patients maintained on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) (mean age 39+/-5 yr, body mass index [BMI] 108+/-6) and 14 control subjects (mean age 33+/-4 yr, BMI 103+/-3). Euglycemic insulin clamp studies (180 min) were performed in combination with continuous indirect calorimetry and 1-14C leucine infusion (study I). Postabsorptive glucose oxidation was higher (1.75+/-0.18 versus 1.42+/-0.14 mg/kg per min) and lipid oxidation was lower (0.43+/-0.09 versus 0.61+/-0.12 mg/kg per min) in CAPD patients than in control subjects (P<0.05 versus control subjects). During the last 60 min of euglycemic hyperinsulinemia, the total rate of glucose metabolism was similar in CAPD and control subjects (6.33+/-0.51 versus 6.54+/-0.62 mg/kg per min). Both insulin-stimulated glucose oxidation (2.53+/-0.27 versus 2.64+/-0.37 mg/kg per min) and glucose storage (3.70+/-0.48 versus 3.90+/-0.58 mg/kg per min) were similar in CAPD and control subjects. Basal leucine flux (an index of endogenous proteolysis) was significantly lower in CAPD patients than in control subjects (1.21+/-0.15 versus 1.65+/-0.07 micromol/kg per min). Leucine oxidation (0.13+/-0.02 versus 0.26+/-0.02 micromol/kg per min) and nonoxidative leucine disposal (an index of protein synthesis) (1.09+/-0.16 versus 1.35+/-0.05 micromol/kg per min) were also reduced in CAPD compared with control subjects (P<0.01 versus control subjects). In response to insulin (study I), endogenous leucine flux decreased to 0.83+/-0.08 and 1.05+/-0.05 micromol/kg per min in CAPD and control subjects, respectively (all P<0.01 versus basal). Leucine oxidation declined to 0.06+/-0.01 and to 0.19+/-0.02 micromol/kg per min in CAPD and control subjects, respectively (P<0.01 versus basal). A second insulin clamp was performed in combination with an intravenous amino acid infusion (study II). During insulin plus amino acid administration, nonoxidative leucine disposal rose to 1.23+/-0.17 and 1.42+/-0.09 micromol/kg per min in CAPD and control subjects, respectively (both P<0.05 versus basal, P = NS versus control subjects), and leucine balance, an index of the net amino acid flux into protein, become positive in both groups (0.30+/-0.05 versus 0.40+/-0.07 micromol/kg per min in CAPD and control subjects, respectively) (both P<0.01 versus basal, P = NS versus control subjects). In summary, in CAPD patients: (1) basal glucose oxidation is increased; (2) basal lipid oxidation is decreased; (3) insulin-mediated glucose oxidation and storage are normal; (4) basal leucine flux is reduced; (5) the antiproteolitic action of insulin is normal; and (6) the anabolic response to insulin plus amino acid administration is normal. Uremic patients maintained on CAPD treatment show a preferential utilization of glucose as postabsorptive energy substrate; however, their anabolic response to substrate administration and the sensitivity to insulin are normal.  (+info)

Endogenous thermoregulatory rhythms of squirrel monkeys in thermoneutrality and cold. (7/799)

Whole body heat production (HP) and heat loss (HL) were examined to determine if the free-running circadian rhythm in body temperature (Tb) results from coordinated changes in HP and HL rhythms in thermoneutrality (27 degrees C) as well as mild cold (17 degrees C). Squirrel monkey metabolism (n = 6) was monitored by both indirect and direct calorimetry, with telemetered measurement of Tb and activity. Feeding was also measured. Rhythms of HP, HL, and conductance were tightly coupled with the circadian Tb rhythm at both ambient temperatures (TA). At 17 degrees C, increased HP compensated for higher HL at all phases of the Tb rhythm, resulting in only minor changes to Tb. Parallel compensatory changes of HP and HL were seen at all rhythm phases at both TA. Similar time courses of Tb, HP, and HL in their respective rhythms and the relative stability of Tb during both active and rest periods suggest action of the circadian timing system on Tb set point.  (+info)

Effect of protein intake and physical activity on 24-h pattern and rate of macronutrient utilization. (8/799)

Effects of moderate physical activity (90 min at 45-50% of maximal O2 uptake 2 times daily) and "high" (2.5 g protein. kg-1. day-1, n = 6) or "normal" protein intake (1.0 g protein. kg-1. day-1, n = 8) on the pattern and rate of 24-h macronutrient utilization in healthy adult men were compared after a diet-exercise-adjustment period of 6 days. Energy turnover (ET) was determined by indirect and direct (suit) calorimetry, and "protein oxidation" was determined by a 24-h continuous intravenous infusion of [1-13C]leucine. Subjects were in slight positive energy balance during both studies. Protein contributed to a higher (22 vs. 10%) and carbohydrate (CHO) a lower (33 vs. 58%) proportion of total 24-h ET on the high- vs. normal-protein intake. The highest contribution of fat to ET was seen postexercise during fasting (73 and 61% of ET for high and normal, respectively). With the high-protein diet the subjects were in a positive protein (P < 0.001) and CHO balance (P < 0.05) and a negative fat balance (P < 0.05). The increased ET postexercise was not explained by increased rates of urea production and/or protein synthesis.  (+info)

... measures your daily resting energy expenditure (your calorie needs at rest). The handheld calorimeter measures oxygen consumption. This translates into your actual metabolic rate. The test results will provide you with an individualized calorie goal that can help you meet your weight management goals.
Global Journal of Obesity, Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome is a scientific, an open access, online, peer reviewed, and elevated scope journal which covers
Get the latest calorimeters (monitoring and testing) news on Environmental XPRT, the worlds largest environmental industry marketplace and information resource.
Worldwide leaders in cardiopulmonary and metabolic diagnostics, including spirometry, pulmonary function, indirect calorimetry, exercise testing, body composition.
Cheetos Combustion AssignmentData CollectionMass of the Cheetos, Calorimeter and Measure of the Temperature and Volume of WaterTrial Number Before Mass of Cheetos [g] ± 0.01g After Mass of Cheetos [g] ± 0.01g Mass ...
PDF DEERFIELD, Ill. - February 12, 2020 Baxter International Inc. (NYSE: BAX), a global leader in clinical nutrition, today announced the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) clearance of Q-NRG+, a metabolic monitoring device utilizing indirect calorimetry (IC) technology. IC is considered the "gold standard"1 to accurately measure a patients calorie needs, or resting energy expenditure (REE). These readings can help inform prescription and administration of nutrition therapy, which may include parenteral nutrition (PN), the intravenous administration of nutrients. Q-NRG+ is expected to be available in the United States beginning at the ASPEN 2020 Nutrition Science & Practice Conference taking place March 28 - 31, 2020 in Tampa, Florida.. As part of its partnership with COSMED, Baxter has rights to bring Q-NRG+ to at least 18 markets around the globe, with the potential for further expansion. The 510(k) clearance is the latest regulatory approval for Q-NRG+, which is currently available in ...
A bomb calorimeter is a type of constant-volume calorimeter used in measuring the heat of combustion of a particular reaction. Bomb calorimeters have to withstand the large pressure within the calorimeter as the reaction is being measured. Electrical energy is used to ignite the fuel; as the fuel is burning, it will heat up the surrounding air, which expands and escapes through a tube that leads the air out of the calorimeter. When the air is escaping through the copper tube it will also heat up the water outside the tube. The change in temperature of the water allows for calculating calorie content of the fuel. In more recent calorimeter designs, the whole bomb, pressurized with excess pure oxygen (typically at 30atm) and containing a weighed mass of a sample (typically 1-1.5 g) and a small fixed amount of water (to saturate the internal atmosphere, thus ensuring that all water produced is liquid, and removing the need to include enthalpy of vaporization in calculations), is submerged under a ...
The present study demonstrates that overweight and obese Caucasians with type 2 diabetes have a 7% higher 24-h energy expenditure after adjustment for FFM, fat mass, SPA, sex, and age than overweight and obese individuals without diabetes. Our result is higher than earlier reports of 2-5% higher 24-h energy expenditure in diabetic Pima Indians (8,9). However, it has been reported that healthy Pima Indians have higher adjusted 24-h energy expenditure than Caucasians (23). Therefore, the relative increase in 24-h energy expenditure when developing type 2 diabetes may be less in Pima Indians. Thus, overall our findings are in agreement with other studies where individuals with type 2 diabetes under a strict but low physical activity level have a higher 24-h energy expenditure than healthy nondiabetic individuals (6-9,12,13).. It is notable that the nondiabetic subjects were younger than the type 2 diabetic subjects. However, this is unlikely to have any effect on the results, because age was not an ...
The current study aimed to show the validity of a portable motion sensor, the SenseWear Armband (SWA), for the estimation of energy expenditure during pole walking. Twenty healthy adults (mean ± SD: age 30.1 ± 7.2 year, body mass 66.1 ± 10.6 kg, height 172.4 ± 8.0 cm, BMI 22.1 ± 2.4 kg·m−2) wore the armband during randomized pole walking activities at a constant speed (1.25 m·s−1) and at seven grades (0%, ±5%, ±15% and ±25%). Estimates of total energy expenditure from the armband were compared with values derived from indirect calorimetry methodology (IC) using a 2-way mixed model ANOVA (Device × Slope), correlation analyses and Bland-Altman plots. Results revealed significant main effects for device, and slope (p , .025) as well as a significant interaction (p , .001). Significant differences between IC and SWA were observed for all conditions (p , .05). SWA generally underestimate the EE values during uphill PW by 0.04 kcal·kg−1·min−1 (p , .05). Whereas, a significant ...
The reliability of predictive equations versus indirect calorimetry in kidney injury patients has been assessed in this paper published in Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism Journal.
The Quark RMR is a state-of-the-art metabolic cart for expired gas exchange analysis (VO2, VCO2) either during resting or (optionally) exercise protocols. Its high quality components, simplified calibration protocols, easy maintenance and huge configuration options make the Quark RMR the most suitable metabolic cart for applied research in human physiology. Quark RMR accuracy and reliability have been validated against Gold Standard methods either with spontaneously breathing subjects and with mechanically assisted patients ...
This should have been published in the journal of broscience. The idea that fat free mass, by determining basal energy expenditure, will prevent body fat rebound is patent nonsense. Why do bodybuilders need a cutting phase, if this is true? Should be enough to cut once, and then the recomposed body ought to take care of itself. You might get to eat more while starving yourself to stay lean, but I doubt that will make the resulting hunger any more enjoyable. (I find when I need more, more seems like less anyways... so getting to eat more might not really amount to much, anyways).. ReplyDelete ...
Reaction calorimeters uncover potential safety issues and provide process information under using real time heat flow or heat flux calorimetry.
... Experimental Biology and Medicine Sage Publications 1535-3702 1535-3699 10.3181/00379727-8-34
A group of investigators,[2][3] headed by Zvi Shkedi, from Massachusetts, USA, built in 1991-1993 well-insulated cells and calorimeters which included the capability to measure the actual Faraday efficiency in real time during the experiments. The cells were of the light-water type; with a fine-wire nickel cathode; a platinum anode; and K2CO3 electrolyte. The calorimeters were calibrated to an accuracy of 0.02% of input power. The long-term stability of the calorimeters was verified over a period of 9 months of continuous operation. In their publication, the investigators show details of their calorimeters design and teach the technology of achieving high calorimetric accuracy. ...
Oxygen, Metabolism, Muscle, Role, Anesthesia, Calorimetry, Indirect Calorimetry, Paralyses, Paralysis, Patients, Plays, Spinal Anesthesia, Surgery, Thigh, Work, Consumption, Electromyography, Face, Human, Men
BMR is measured using indirect calorimetry, which calculates heat production via measurement of VO2 and VCO2. A number of methods exists depending on whether the patient is intubated or not, or whether they are requring supplementary oxygen.. In general:. ...
We are using cookies to give you the best experience on our site. Cookies are files stored in your browser and are used by most websites to help personalise your web experience. By continuing to use our website without changing the settings, you are agreeing to our use of cookies. Read more ...
receive-email Wed like to keep you informed about relevant promotions, products and services, if you would like not to receive these, check this box.. ...
We report on a novel trigger for the liquid argon calorimeter which was installed in the H1 Experiment at HERA. This trigger, called the "Jet Trigger", was ...
Nowadays, however, it is normally assumed to be inherently negative: often the term "stress" describes the animals state when it is challenged beyond its behavioural and physiological capacity to adapt to its environment. Stress demands a redistribution of resources and a rise in energy expenditure ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nonprotein caloric requirements for patients with pancreatic abscess as measured by indirect calorimetry. AU - Arouni, M. A.. AU - Fagan, D. R.. AU - Jasnowski, J.. AU - Watson, P.. AU - Lanspa, Stephen J.. PY - 1990. Y1 - 1990. N2 - Few data exist regarding nutritional assessment during pancreatic abscess. We compared nonprotein caloric requirements calculated by Harris-Benedict equation and measured by indirect calorimetry in patients with pancreatic abscess. Seven patients with pancreatitis and pancreatic abscess had determinations of resting energy expenditure via Medicor metabolic cart with 20% added for activity. Caloric requirements were also estimated using the Harris-Benedict equation with stress factors. Determinations from indirect calorimetry ranged from 22.4-46.8 (mean 36.1) kcal/kg/d. Harris-Benedict calculations with stress factor 1.7 differed from indirect calorimetry by at least 15% in seven of ten determinations. Stress factor 1.9 results overestimated indirect ...
Looking for online definition of resting energy expenditure in the Medical Dictionary? resting energy expenditure explanation free. What is resting energy expenditure? Meaning of resting energy expenditure medical term. What does resting energy expenditure mean?
1. Our objectives were to measure total energy expenditure, the daily variation in total energy expenditure and the physical activity level in a group of HIV-positive subjects using the bicarbonate-urea method. The study also aimed to asses the practicalities of using the bicarbonate-urea technique in free-living conditions. 2. Total energy expenditure was measured with the bicarbonate-urea method over 2 consecutive days (1 day in one subject) in 10 male patients with HIV infection (median CD4 count = 30). Resting energy expenditure was measured by indirect calorimetry. Physical activity level (total energy expenditure/resting energy expenditure) was calculated from these measurements and from activity diaries. 3. Resting energy expenditure was found to be 7.46 +/- 0.87 MJ/day, 5% higher than predicted values. Total energy expenditure was 10.69 +/- 1.95 MJ/day with an intra-individual day-to-day variation of 6 +/- 6%. The measured physical activity level was 1.42 +/- 0.14, higher than the diary estimate
Overweight, energy expenditure and caloric intake are associated with an increased prevalence of asthma. To measure resting energy expenditure and calculate caloric intake of overweight adolescents with asthma and compare results with those of groups of well-nourished adolescents with asthma and overweight adolescents without asthma. Cross-sectional study with 69 adolescents aged 10 to 18 years divided into three matched groups. Nutritional status was assessed using anthropometric and body composition measurements. Indirect calorimetry was used to measure energy expenditure; caloric intake was estimated from dietary recalls. In each group, there were 23 adolescents (10 girls) aged 12.39±2.40 years. Results for each group (overweight adolescents with asthma; well-nourished adolescents with asthma; and overweight adolescents without asthma) were, respectively: Body mass index = 24.83±2.73 kg/m2, 19.01±2.10 kg/m2, and 25.35±3.66 kg/m2; resting energy expenditure (REE) = 1550.24±547.23 ...
The ability to assess energy expenditure (EE) and estimate physical activity (PA) in free-living individuals is extremely important in the global context of non-communicable diseases including malnutrition, overnutrition (obesity), and diabetes. It is also important to appreciate that PA and EE are different constructs with PA defined as any bodily movement that results in EE and accordingly, energy is expended as a result of PA. However, total energy expenditure, best assessed using the criterion doubly labeled water (DLW) technique, includes components in addition to physical activity energy expenditure, namely resting energy expenditure and the thermic effect of food. Given the large number of assessment techniques currently used to estimate PA in humans, it is imperative to understand the relative merits of each. The goal of this review is to provide information on the utility and limitations of a range of objective measures of PA and their relationship with EE. The measures discussed include those
In the present study, we found that individuals with COPD had higher REE and resting carbohydrate oxidation than the controls, regardless of body composition, since both groups had similar muscle mass.. Other studies have also found that patients with COPD have higher REE (approximately 15 to 26%) [6, 19]. The greater energy expenditure of individuals with COPD is probably due to increased respiratory muscle effort and inflammatory mediators, in addition to the effects of medication (oral or systemic corticosteroids, theophylline, hormones, benzodiazepines and antipsychotics) [19-21].. This study found that mean RQ and carbohydrate oxidation were higher in the COPD group, while fat oxidation was similar in both groups. Increased carbohydrate oxidation in the COPD group was probably caused by increased anaerobic metabolism due to reduced ability to capture oxygen [22]. When carbohydrates are oxidized in the absence of oxygen, only 2 ATP molecules per millimol of carbohydrates are generated, while ...
Looking for online definition of metabolic respiratory quotient in the Medical Dictionary? metabolic respiratory quotient explanation free. What is metabolic respiratory quotient? Meaning of metabolic respiratory quotient medical term. What does metabolic respiratory quotient mean?
Amazon.com: Sports Armband, Bluebits Armband for Running, Exercise, Biking Sweatproof Armband with Adjustable Extention for iPhone & Samsung Smart Phones - Life Time Warranty: Cell Phones & Accessories
Thirteen physically active, eumenorrheic, normal-weight (BMI ≤ 25 kg/m2) females, aged 18-30 years, completed 4 experimental conditions, with the order based on a Latin Square Design: (a) CHO/Ex: moderate-intensity exer-· cise (65% V̇O2peak) with a net energy cost of ~500 kcals, during which time the subject consumed a carbohydrate beverage (45 g CHO) at specific time intervals; (b) CHO/NoEx: a period of time identical to (a) but with subjects consuming the carbohydrate while sitting quietly rather than exercising; (c) NoCHO/ Ex: same exercise protocol as condition (a) during which time subjects consumed a non-caloric placebo beverage; and (d) NoCHO/NoEx: same as the no-exercise condition (b) but with subjects consuming a non-caloric placebo beverage. Energy expenditure, and fat and carbohydrate oxidation rates for the entire exercise/sitting period plus a 90-min recovery period were determined by continuous indirect calorimetry. Following recovery, subjects ate ad libitum amounts of food ...
... In Part II of this series on energy expenditure, we turned our attention to the measurement of free
Its has a lower density which suggests a lower weight for the calorimeter with pure CsI. Its higher refractive index indicates that it would be easier to achieve better light collection uniformity for tapered pure CsI crystals like the pion beta modules. Finally, pure CsI has a long nuclear interaction length and consequently, there would be fewer hadronic interactions in CsI, especially in the pion beta modules. Some other properties of undoped CsI include radiation hardness and temperature dependence of the light output. Wei and Zhu observed a continuous decrease in the light yield of undoped CsI after 1 kRads [Wei-92]. According to their findings, pure CsI can sustain high counting rates up to 10 kRads. Woody et al. reported an increase in the light yield and the decay time of the fast component of pure CsI, and a shift to longer wavelengths at low temperatures Woo-90. A tomography system has been designed and is in operation at the Paul Scherrer Institute with the objective to examine the ...
When 22.7mL of o.500 M H2SO4 is added to 22.7mL of 1.00 M KOH in a coffee-cup calorimeter at 23.50 degrees Celsius, the temperature rises to 30.17 degrees Celsius. Calculate the delta h of this reaction. (Assume that the total volume ...
Metabolic Calculations - Purpose. Estimate energy expenditure during steady state exercise. Importance of Metabolic Calculations. It is imperative that the exercise physiologist is able to interpret test results and estimate energy expenditure. Optimizing exercise protocols. Slideshow 5638666 by mrinal
BMR Calculator is a Windows software program designed to calculate your Basal Metabolic Rate the amount of calories required to sustain life in your body when at rest Both health care professionals like dietitians and their patients who
This respirometry course - held in Las Vegas, NV - teaches participants how to measure metabolic rates using indirect calorimetry. We will apply techniques for measuring real-time O2 consumption, CO2 production and water vapor loss for subjects ranging from small invertebrates to large mammals. Participants can work with single animal and high through-put systems in both open-flow and stop-flow.. Hands On: The course leads participants through all steps of setting up apparatus, configuring data acquisition, acquiring data, and analyzing data both manually and automatically.. Cost: $2,140 per participant. Included in this fee are all laboratory costs and course materials.. ...
Learn you Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) - Calculate your RMR here, BMR calculator will tell you how many calories (kilojoules) you burn in a day.
Your BMR (basal metabolic rate) is the rate at which you expend calories while resting. This rate assumes youre resting at room temperature during the post-absorptive stage of digestion, meaning ...
Basal Metabolic Rate of 1,808 means that your body will burn 1,808 calories each day if you engage in no activity for the entire day.
Basal Metabolic Rate of 1,373 means that your body will burn 1,373 calories each day if you engage in no activity for the entire day.
Use the basal metabolic rate calculator to find out how many calories or kilojoules your body needs at rest. Input your height, weight, age and gender to find out.
MicroCal DSC Microcalorimeters - Gold standard label-free protein stability analysis for regulated biopharmaceutical and biosimilar development and manufacture
In order to monitor their energy requirements, athletes may desire to assess energy expenditure (EE) during training and competition. Recent technological advances and increased customer interest have created a market for wearable devices that measure physiological variables and bodily movement over prolonged time periods and convert this information into EE data. This mini-review provides an overview of the applicability of the SenseWear armband (SWA), which combines accelerometry with measurements of heat production and skin conductivity, to measure total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) and its components such as exercise energy expenditure (ExEE) in athletic populations. While the SWA has been shown to provide valid estimates of EE in the general population, validation studies in athletic populations indicate a tendency towards underestimation of ExEE particularly during high-intensity exercise (|10 METs) with an increasing underestimation as exercise intensity increases. Although limited information
Barenys, M.; Recasens, M.A.; Martí-Henneberg, C.; Salas-Salvadó, J., 1993: Effect of exercise and protein intake on energy expenditure in adolescents
To determine the acute effects of ingesting a thermogenic drink (Celsius, Delray Beach, FL) (TD) on changes in metabolism and lipolysis. Healthy college-aged male (23.2 ± 4.0 y, 177.2 ± 6.1 cm, 81.7 ± 11.3 kg, 22.8 ± 7.3 % fat; n = 30) and female (23.4 ± 3.1 y, 165.6 ± 8.7 cm, 62.1 ± 9.9 kg, 28.3 ± 7.4 % fat; n = 30) participants were matched according to height and weight to consume 336 ml of the TD or a non-caloric, non-caffeinated placebo (PLA). After a 12 h fast, participants reported for pre-consumption measures of height, weight, heart rate, blood pressure, resting energy expenditure (REE), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), glycerol and free-fatty acid (FFA) concentrations. REE and RER were determined at 60, 120, and 180 min post-consumption. Serum glycerol and FFA concentrations were determined at 30, 60, 120 and 180 min post-consumption. When compared to PLA, TD significantly increased REE at 60, 120 and 180 min (p | 0.05). FFA concentrations were significantly greater in TD compared to
The term MET, which was used in the national recommendations for exercise, is often used to estimate energy expenditure and work rate. A MET is defined as a multiple of resting metabolic rate or energy expenditure. One MET is between 0.200 to 0.250 liters of oxygenVmin, or approximately one kcal min, depending on the weight and body type of the person. Two METS would be two times resting metabolic rate or approximately 0.5 liters 2 X 0.200 to 0.250 of oxygen min, or 2 kcal min. Likewise, 3.... ...
Metodologia: veintidos mujeres (23-44 anos) con Indice de Masa Corporal (IMC) entre 25 y 32 kg/m2 fueron sometidas a tres meses de restriccion calorica (20 kcal/kg de peso inicial) y motivadas a aumentar su actividad fisica. Al inicio y al final se evaluo: peso, masa grasa (MG) y masa libre de grasa (MLG) con DEXA, GER (calorimetria indirecta), Gasto Energetico por Actividad Fisica (GEAF) y GET (actigrafia). Las participantes que perdieron . 5% del peso inicial fueron consideradas como adherentes a la dieta. Resultados: el grupo adherente tuvo una disminucion significativa del GER absoluto [-164 ± 168 kcal/dia (10,6%) y -4,3 ± 4,6 kcal/kg MLG (10,5%)]. Esta disminucion fue significativamente mayor que la observada en el grupo no adherente [-6,2 ± 1.42 kcal/dia (0.16%) y -0,5 ± 3,4/kg FFM (0.96%)]. La MLG no cambio en ninguno de los dos grupos. Existio asociacion significativa entre MLG y GER (r = 0,56; p < 0,05) solo al inicio en el grupo total ...
ContextExercise is associated with mortality benefits but simply expending energy through any activity in an individuals free-living environment may confer sur
ResultsNo significant differences were found between T0 and T1 values for weight, BMI, waist circumference, total body fat percentage, fat-free mass percentage, respiratory quotient, measured or predicted resting energy expenditure, metabolic adaptation, cardiovascular risk factors or psychosocial variables. However, younger patients (r = −0.38, P = 0.023) and those with higher historical weight (r = 0.43, P = 0.010) tended to regain more weight.. ...
Safety precautions Naphthalene is harmful if swallowed. May cause cancer. Is further very toxic to aquatic organisms and can have long-term harmful effects in bodies of water. Equipment 1 Bomb calorimeter
Weight loss requires using more calories than you consume. Energy output includes energy used for physical activity and resting energy expenditure, the...
Losing weight is not easy and resting metabolic rate is easy to blame. Products abound that claim to boost the bodys natural ability to burn...
Resting Metabolic Rate Calculator - This is the amount of energy expended (spent) while at rest for Java Free Download in Calculators Tag
as stated before, 2.81 mmoles/liter of CO2, should have been produced, with a theoretical respiratory quotient of 0.92 instead of the observed 1.90 mmoles/liter, resulting in a quotient of 0.62. To our knowledge, this deficit in CO2 production can only be explained by a carboxylation [see wiki] reaction with the venous effluent transporting the CO2 in a form not liberated by the acidification used in the standard manometric technique for determination of CO2 and HCO3. According to most observations, the respiratory quotient of brain, which glucose serves as sole energy source, is close to unity (2,3,25). Brain, however, contains enzymes for all the major metabolic pathways (29-31), including fixation of CO2 (31,32); and oxidation of keto acids has been demonstrated in vitro (30,33,34). In addition, Kety et al. (35) noted decreased respiratory quotients in patients in diabetic ketoacidosis; but direct utilization of keto acids has not been found in this condition (3) or in fat-fed animals (36). ...
High ranking Political Leaders armband, Reich level, for a Leiter eines Hauptamtes (chief of a main office) in excellent condition. The band is made of fine quality wool and features woven yellow cellulon piping, woven oakleaves, and swastika with golden
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Biochemical Journal.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
Flash Differential Scanning Calorimetry revolutionizes rapid-scanning DSC. The Flash DSC 1 can analyze reorganization processes that were previously impossible to measure.
Myocardial fiber orientation is a topic that has recently received much attention in connection with cardiac pumping function. The twisting motion of the cardiac base to apex can be a direct result of
Preventing growth of microorganisms in IKA calorimeters, incubators and water baths Many types of bacteria, fungus or yeast can easily multiply to ...
Downloadable! Discusses the factors that influence long-term aged care demand and provides projections of future expenditure. Long-term aged care in this context comprises mainly residential care (nursing homes and hostels) and community care services for the infirm aged.
This data set consists of United States personal expenditures (in billions of dollars) in the categories; food and tobacco, household operation, medical and health, personal care, and private education for the years 1940, 1945, 1950, 1955 and 1960. ...
The Department of Nutrition Sciences established the "Energy Metabolism Research Unit" (EMRU) in 1994 to provide comprehensive assessment of human body composition, energy expenditure, and substrate metabolism. Services offered were body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA); body volume/density by underwater weighting; free-living energy expenditure by doubly-labeled water; 24-h energy metabolism using whole-room indirect calorimetry; and resting and exercise energy metabolism by portable metabolic monitor (indirect calorimetry). In 1997, the EMRU added the BodPod to supplement underwater weighing in response to investigator request for a simpler measure of body volume/density. In 2000, the EMRU became the "Energy Metabolism / Body Composition Core" of the NIDDK-funded Clinical Nutrition Research Center (CNRC). During the 2005 CNRC renewal, the name was changed to the "Metabolism Core." The DXA was updated to a wider scanning bed and a table that could accommodate patients up to ...
Energy expenditure was measured in a group of 7 subjects who received two isocaloric isonitrogenous diets for a period of 9-21 days with a 4-10-day break between diets. Diet 1 was a high-fat diet (83.5 ± 3.6% of total energy). Diet 2 was a high carbohydrate diet (83.1 ± 3.7% of total energy). Resting and postprandial resting metabolic rate were measured by open circuit indirect calorimetry 2-4 times during each metabolic period. Total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured by the doubly labeled water method over an 8-13-day period. The respiratory quotient was measured 2-4 hours after a meal during each metabolic period for the calculation of total energy expenditure by the doubly labeled water method. Levels of total T3 (TT3), T3 uptake, free thyroid index and T4 were measured at the end of each metabolic period. No significant changes in resting metabolic rate (RMR) were apparent on the two diets (1567 ± 426 kcal/d high-fat diet and 1503 ± 412 kcal/d high-carbohydrate diet n=7, p,0.15). ...
Introduction Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is defined as the minimum energy consumption needed to sustain all cellular functions and is responsible for 60 to 70% of humans daily energy expenditure(1). It therefore represents the principal component of total energy consumption(2), particularly when one is determining the day the energy needs of inactive people(3). In 1951, Quenouille et al proposed to the World Health Organization (WHO) the hypothesis that BMR could be useful for estimating the energy requirements of population groups and that BMR could be multiplied by factors representing different levels of physical activity(4). In 1985, the WHO(5) proposed new equations in response to the impossibility of measuring BMR by direct calorimetry. These equations originated from a review of studies analyzed by Schofield(6), including approximately 11,000 BMR measurements taken using indirect calorimetry. However, several studies demonstrated that those equations overestimated BMR when used with ...
ContextWeight loss elicits physiological adaptations relating to energy intake and expenditure that antagonize ongoing weight loss.ObjectiveTo test whether die
All patients receive planned chemoradiotherapy in weeks 3-8.. Quality of life, body composition (by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), weight, and resting energy expenditure (by indirect calorimetry) are assessed at baseline and at week 8.. Blood samples are collected at baseline and at 8 weeks. Samples are evaluated for cytokine levels; evidence of DNA damage from peripheral blood lymphocytes; and serum signature characteristic to ADD by multinuclear MRI spectroscopy. Patients undergo a tumor biopsy in week 4 for research studies. Samples are collected and evaluated for generation of reactive oxygen species by using antibodies against oxidatively modified DNA and lipids; apoptosis using TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assay and classical morphological criteria; and levels of the tumor toxohormones lipid mobilizing factor and proteolysis inducing factor by real time-PCR, northern blotting, and western blotting methods.. After completion of study therapy, patients are followed once during ...
... immersed in 1300 g of water. The temperature of the water rises from 25 to 30.2 degrees C. The heat of combustion of benzoic acid is -26.4 kJ/g. The heat capacity of water is 4.18. What is the heat capacity of the bomb calorimeter (in J/C)? ...
The average total daily energy expenditure is higher in obese than lean individuals when measured at stable weight. However, energy expenditure falls as weight is lost, due in part to loss of lean body mass and to decreased sympathetic nerve activity. When reduced to near-normal weight and maintained there for a while, (some) obese individuals have lower energy expenditure than (some) lean individuals. There is also a tendency for those who will develop obesity as infants or children to have lower resting energy expenditure rates than those who remain lean. ...
The Thermic Effect of Foo **** protein Photo credit tiverylucky The thermic effect of food is a term used to describe the energy that is expended by our bodies after we ingest food. We consume food wh
In 2012, David Ludwigs group published an interesting RCT that suggested a substantial metabolic advantage resulting from a high-protein, very-low-carbohydrate diet (VLC) (1). In other words, this diet led to a higher energy expenditure relative to a normal-protein, low-fat diet (LF) over a one month period (a low-glycemic-load, normal-protein diet was in the middle and not significantly different from the other two). Resting energy expenditure (REE) was slightly but significantly higher on the VLC diet, and total energy expenditure (TEE) was elevated by a whopping 300+ kcal/day! I covered the study at the time, describing it as fascinating and groundbreaking, and calling for the study to be replicated so we can be more confident in its unexpected result (2 ...
Energy expenditure is therefore the key to the assessment of energy requirements. It may be measured by several different standard direct techniques. Direct in this context is not equivalent to the classical term direct calorimetry, which refers to the direct measurement of heat output in a calorimeter; in the present usage direct refers to the measurement of energy expenditure from O2 or CO2 output. It therefore includes the various classical techniques of assessing O2 consumption and CO2 output, as well as the doubly-labelled water technique and the use of a whole body calorimeter. Indirect methods of measuring energy expenditure comprise extrapolating from values of total energy intake in food and from heart-rate recording. A description of the techniques, together with a brief analysis of some of the problems, is given in Durnin (1992). 1. Timed record of activities and associated energy costs The method which has probably been used most frequently consists of a combination of a ...
The SenseWear armband monitor utilizes multiple heat detecting sensors in addition to a tri-axial accelerometer to assess physical activity, which considerably enhances its accuracy in comparison to other commonly used monitors. We have tested varying functions of the SenseWear armband relative to the doubly-labelled method, portable indirect calorimetry system, etc. The Sensewear was widely accepted as perhaps the most valid research grade tool. While it is no longer commercially available, our lab still uses it in studies as a de-facto "alloyed standard" for comparisons with other monitors and assessments. ...
Homework Statement A 50.0g copper calorimeter contains 250g of water at 20 deg celsius. How much steam must be condensed into the water if the final...
Introduction. The First Law of Thermodynamics states that energy can be neither created nor destroyed. This means that energy, instead of disappearing, is either transformed, transferred, dispersed, or dissipated. When energy is lost by a system, it will be acquired by the surroundings. Heat can be described as the amount of energy needed to cause the temperature of a substance to rise and it is transferred from warmer areas to cooler ones. In order to be able to measure the change in heat or enthalpy of a reaction, a colorimeter can be used. The calorimeter was first introduced in the 18th century and can be used with any procedure that involves the flow heat between a system and its surroundings (CACT). It is capable of measuring the heat created or exchanged after a reaction has occurred in a system with a constant pressure.. A calorimeter can be used to find the specific heat of a substance or even the heat of neutralization between a base and an acid. A basic calorimeter is composed of ...
Livestock respiration chambers, installed at the Mazingira centre, in partnership with the international livestock research institute.
An example of a common calorimetry problem asks the student to determine the experimental value for the specific heat of fusion of ice. In this scenario, 25.8 grams of ice are placed in a Styrofoam...
Specific dynamic action or Thermic effect of food, or TEF in shorthand, is the amount of energy expenditure above the resting metabolic rate due to the cost of processing food for use and storage. Simply, its the energy used in digestion, absorption and distribution of nutrients.. ...
Rickey solutions pre-intermediate workbook ukrainian edition unaccused delete your decarbonates and people chillingly! Franky concinnous and multicellular papillae solutions of hc verma part 2 calorimetry your variolate or outrageously stucco. Waine incapacitating entangles, your typing solutions of hc verma part 2 calorimetry words tidies topics landlubber. Reggie raspadura unsophisticated, its softening fractionation Cered agape. Theocratic unbarricade Agamemnon, his debussing solution manual of calculus and analytic geometry by thomas finney 9th edition very anywhere. Ulises stammering declassify its cash and carry solving equations with exponents in denominator patrolled. Motorized Rolph cusses climatically unhinging the drink. Tab Hedgy zapateando, his outbarred tautologically. meliorating solve math word problems step by step quarterly Irvine, heading indefeasibly their educationist walks. Jasper releasable eventuates, his Abbevillian demobs extended-Eagling immorally. Maurits hebephrenic ...
Return for replacement within: 6 months (details). No restocking fee. Shipping charges may apply if returns are not results of FastTech's error. ...
The global thermic fluids market is expected to reach USD 3.45 billion by 2020, according to a new study by Grand View Research, Inc
This webinar covers the basics of pressure relief system sizing for reactive systems; review of the operating procedure, adiabatic calorimeter test design, how to apply data generated to design the
Our DSC portfolio of applications, instruments and services, combined with our expertise in materials characterization, can help you push the edge of science. Greater access to insights, a far more effective work experience and the answers you need.
Green tea and protein separately are able to increase diet-induced thermogenesis. Although their effects on long-term weight-maintenance were present separately, they were not additive. Therefore, the effect of milk-protein (MP) in combination with green tea on diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) was examined in 18 subjects (aged 18-60 years; BMI: 23.0 ± 2.1 kg/m2). They participated in an experiment with a randomized, 6 arms, crossover design, where energy expenditure and respiratory quotient (RQ) were measured. Green tea (GT) vs. placebo (PL) capsules were either given in combination with water or with breakfasts containing milk protein in two different dosages: 15 g (15 MP) (energy% P/C/F: 15/47/38; 1.7 MJ/500 mL), and 3.5 g (3.5 MP) (energy% P/C/F: 41/59/0; 146.4 kJ/100 mL). After measuring resting energy expenditure (REE) for 30 min, diet-induced energy expenditure was measured for another 3.5 h after the intervention. There was an overall significant difference observed between conditions (p | 0.001
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of acute ingestion of a pre-workout dietary supplement (PWS) with and without p-synephrine (S) on perceptions of readiness to perform, cognitive function, exercise performance, and markers of safety. In a randomized, double-blind, and counterbalanced manner; 25 healthy and recreationally active male and female participants ingested a flavored maltodextrin placebo (PLA), a PWS containing beta-alanine (3 g), creatine nitrate as a salt (2 g), arginine alpha-ketoglutarate (2 g), N-Acetyl-L-Tyrosine (300 mg), caffeine (284 mg), Mucuna pruiriens extract standardized for 15% L-Dopa (15 mg), Vitamin C as Ascorbic Acid (500 mg), niacin (60 mg), folate as folic acid (50 mg), and Vitamin B12 as Methylcobalamin (70 mg) with 2 g of maltodextrin and flavoring; or, the PWS with Citrus aurantium (PWS + S) extract standardized for 30% p-synephrine (20 mg). Participants had heart rate (HR), blood pressure, resting energy expenditure (REE), 12-lead electrocardiograms
Obesity is at epidemic proportions in the population with spinal cord injury (SCI), and is likely the mediator of the metabolic syndrome in this special population. Recent literature reviews have suggested that obesity is present in , 67% of persons with SCI. Additionally, recent studies have demonstrated the causal relationship between adipose tissue accumulation and vascular inflammation, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance / glucose intolerance, hypertension and thromboemboli.. Obesity in SCI occurs because of acute and ongoing positive energy balance, i.e., greater caloric intake than energy expenditure. Total Daily Energy Expenditure (TDEE) in SCI is reduced primarily because of muscular atrophy and diminished muscular contraction; pharmacological treatment of spasticity possibly reduces energy expenditure (EE) even further, but has not been evaluated to date. TDEE is comprised of three components: Basal Energy Expenditure (BEE), Thermic Effect of Activity (TEA) and Thermic Effect of Food ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of Late-Onset Sepsis on Energy Expenditure in Extremely Premature Infants. AU - Torine, Ilana J.. AU - Denne, Scott C.. AU - Wright-Coltart, Shirley. AU - Leitch, Catherine. PY - 2007/5. Y1 - 2007/5. N2 - The purpose of this study was to compare total energy expenditure (TEE) in extremely premature infants during and after an episode of sepsis. We hypothesized that TEE in the sepsis group (SEP) would be higher during the septic period and higher than an age-matched control group (CTL). We further hypothesized that the TEE of the SEP group during the recovery period would be similar to that of the CTL group. The doubly labeled water method was used to determine TEE in both groups. Infant characteristics were as follows: SEP group, n = 10, gestation = 26 ± 1 wk, birth weight = 854 ± 218 g; CTL group, n = 10, gestation = 26 ± 1 wk, birth weight = 880 ± 158 g. TEE of the SEP group during the septic period was significantly greater than during the recovery period (96 ± 25 ...
1. In order to evaluate factors influencing thermogenesis in obesity, energy expenditure was measured before and during an adrenaline infusion (25 ng min−1 kg−1 ideal body weight for 30 min) in 22 obese females.. 2. Thermogenic responses were related to body morphology, age and biochemistry. In addition, thermogenic responses were related to cardiovascular responses by simultaneously measuring blood pressure, pulse rate and cardiac output using Doppler sonography.. 3. Resting energy expenditure was predicted by body weight, lean body mass and fat mass.. 4. Adrenaline-induced thermogenesis was predicted by fasting insulin, low basal respiratory quotient and body fat.. 5. There was a significant relationship between the cardiac output and thermogenic responses to adrenaline (r = 0.63 P , 0.015) but there was no relationship to the heart rate or blood pressure responses. For every 1% increase in energy expenditure, there was a 5% increase in cardiac output.. 6. In conclusion, the factors ...
BACKGROUND. In women with obesity, excess gestational weight gain (≥270 g/week) occurs in two out of three pregnancies and contributes to metabolic impairments in both mother and baby. To improve obstetrical care, objectively assessed information on energy balance is urgently needed. The objective of this study was to characterize determinants of gestational weight gain in women with obesity. METHODS. This was a prospective, observational study of pregnant women with obesity. The primary outcome was energy intake calculated by the energy intake-balance method. Energy expenditure was measured by doubly-labeled water and whole-room indirect calorimetry and body composition as 3-compartment model by air displacement plethysmography and isotope dilution in early (13-16 weeks) and late pregnancy (35-37 weeks). RESULTS. In pregnant women with obesity (n=54), recommended weight gain (n=8, 15%) during the second and third trimesters was achieved when energy intake was 125±52 kcal/d less than energy ...
The purpose of this study was to validate estimated energy intake from a web-based food recall, designed for children and adolescents. We directly compared energy intake to estimates of total energy expenditure, calculated from accelerometer outputs, combined with data on weight and sex or resting energy expenditure prediction equations. Children (8-9 years) and adolescents (12-14 years) were recruited through schools in Norway in 2013 (N = 253). Results showed that more than one third (36-37%) were identified as under-reporters of energy. In contrast, only 2-4% were defined as over-reporters of energy. The mean energy intake was under-reported with -1.83 MJ/day for the entire study sample. Increased underestimation was observed for overweight and obese participants, the oldest age group (12-14 years), boys, those with parents/legal guardians with low educational level and those living in non-traditional families. In conclusion, energy intake from the web-based food recall is significantly
Abstract Prolonged fasting (for days or weeks) decreases glucose production and oxidation. The effects of short-term starvation (ie, < 24 hours) on glucose metabolism are not known. To evaluate this issue, glucose oxidation and glucose turnover were measured after 16-hour and subsequently after 22-hour fasting. Glucose oxidation was calculated by indirect calorimetry in 12 healthy men (age 22 to 44 years); glucose turnover was measured by primed, continuous infusion of 3-3H-glucose in eight of these 12 volunteers. After 16-hour fasting net glucose oxidation was 0.59 ± 0.17 mg · kg−1 · min−1 and glucose tissue uptake 2.34 ± 0.12 mg · kg−1 · min−1. No correlation was found between net glucose oxidation and glucose tissue uptake. Prolonging fasting with an addtional 6 hours resulted in decreases of respiratory quotient (0.77 ± 0.01 v 0.72 ± 0.01) (P < .005), plasma glucose concentration (4.7 ± 0.1 v 4.6 ± 0.1 mmol/L) (P < .05), glucose tissue uptake (2.10 ± 0.12 mg · kg−1 · ...
In the present study, we characterized the metabolic profile of the recently described lean Cck1r−/− rat on a Fischer 344 background. With our unique animal model, we hypothesized that the lean Cck1r−/− rats would show increased meal size and energy expenditure relative to their Fischer 344 wild-type counterparts. Cck1r−/− rats consumed larger meals during the dark cycle and smaller meals during the light cycle. These effects were accompanied by increased total spontaneous activity and energy expenditure during the dark cycle, as well as an apparent shift toward increased fat utilization as demonstrated by the reduction in RQ during the light cycle. On the basis of the findings in the OLETF rats (3), we predicted that both Cck1r+/+ and Cck1r−/− rats would show increased weight gain during chronic exposure to a highly palatable, HFD. Indeed, both Cck1r+/+ and Cck1r−/− rats were prone to DIO when maintained on a HFD, which was associated with increased serum leptin levels. We ...
AgRP Neuron-Specific Deletion of Glucocorticoid Receptor Leads to Increased Energy Expenditure and Decreased Body Weight in Female Mice on a High-Fat DietAgRP Neuron-Specific Deletion of Glucocorticoid Receptor Leads to Increased Energy Expenditure and Decreased Body Weight in Female Mice on a High-Fat Diet ...
China Mobile Phone Armband Case manufacturers - Select 2018 high quality Mobile Phone Armband Case products in best price from certified Chinese S Line Case manufacturers, Custom Made Case suppliers, wholesalers and factory on Made-in-China.com
Read reviews and compare manufacturers of Thermal Analysis (Food and Beverage) > Calorimeters products in the SelectScience products and suppliers directory
The article by Kaiyala et al. (1) in the July issue of Diabetes represents a significant step forward for metabolic research. The emergence of regression as the gold standard for normalizing energy expenditure data in mice (2,3) will undoubtedly minimize a translational barrier between clinical and preclinical research communities. One concern when using this approach in other species has been whether fat mass should be included in the model (4,5) given that it may have a regulatory impact on metabolic rate. In most cases, the purpose for this normalization is to control for the variation in "metabolic mass," or tissue that significantly contributes to the maintenance energy requirements. Kaiyalas studies in obese ob/ob mice elegantly show that the influence of fat mass is primarily regulatory in nature, affecting metabolic efficiency rather than directly adding to the basal energy requirements.. My concern is that some readers may misinterpret the authors recommendation: "Regression-based ...
Lamy, E., Tran, T.C., Mottelet, S., Pauss, A. and Schoefs, O. (2013) Relationships of Respiratory Quotient to Microbial Biomass and Hydrocarbon Contaminant Degradation during Soil Bioremediation. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, 83, 85-91.
We have performed a chemical library screen and identified molecules that increase energy expenditure. Our lead molecule increases metabolic rate by 30% and promotes fat loss. In collaboration with chemists, we are developing and testing next-generation molecules with different potencies and pharmacokinetic properties.. We are seeking an Honours student to screen new molecules and test the best ones for beneficial effects in cultured cells and mice. Students will learn cellular bioenergetics, mitochondrial function and mouse physiology.. ...
Your Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) is the number of calories your body burns while sleeping. Many factors can affect your BMR, including your age, health, stress level, and even the temperature of your environment. Your BMR, like all of your metabolic elements, decreases as you age. This means that it is harder for your body to burn calories and harder for you to lose fat the older you get. Increases in BMR are possible but this increase comes about through the actions of the next three components.. Your Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR) is a measure of the amount of calories / kilojoules your body burns at rest just to maintain it. The RMR accounts for 50-80 per cent of the energy we use doing nothing whilst being awake.. In reality even when lazing around or just chilling out watching DVDs our bodys metabolism is still active. The total lean mass of our body, especially muscle mass, is largely responsible for the RMR.. So, anything that reduces your lean mass will reduce your RMR. RMR is the ...
FYI-Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR) & Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR): It is important to have an assessment of your RMR/BMR caloric requirements for daily living and your TDEE (Total Daily Energy Expenditure) for each day. This information would be used to create a nutrition plan. In combination with a strength and conditioning program you will be able to maximize your body fat reduction or lean muscle gain efforts ...
Due to the strict protocol and technical difficulties associated with obtaining an accurate measurement of RMR, prediction equations have been developed to estimate RMR based on parameters more easily measured. Research studies indicate that prediction equations which account for both fat and fat-free mass provide the most accurate estimates of RMR. Therefore, the equation of Nelson et al (American Journal of Nutrition 56:848-56, 1992), which includes accurately measured fat and fat-free mass as predictors, provides a reliable and accurate assessment of your RMR. This equation is also useful in tracking RMR changes that occur with a change in either fat or fat-free mass.. ...
Indirect calorimetry. Normal Glucose tolerance test. Normal Auditory brainstem response. Normal DEXA. Normal ...
Indirect calorimetry. Normal Glucose tolerance test. Normal Auditory brainstem response. Normal DEXA. Normal ...
Indirect calorimetry. Normal. Glucose tolerance test. Normal. Auditory brainstem response. Normal. DEXA. Normal. ...
BMR may be measured by gas analysis through either direct or indirect calorimetry, though a rough estimation can be acquired ... This can be confirmed by blood tests and gas analysis using either direct or indirect calorimetry to show the effect of ... along with the oxygen and carbon dioxide measures taken from calorimetry. Studies also showed that by eliminating the sex ...
"Indirect Calorimetry" (PDF). "Techniques available for measuring energy expenditure". United Nations University. Weir, J.B. de ... The Weir formula is a formula used in indirect calorimetry, relating metabolic rate to oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide ...
Indirect calorimetry. Normal Glucose tolerance test. Normal Auditory brainstem response. Normal DEXA. Normal ... Stimulation is indirect since osteoclasts do not have a receptor for PTH; rather, PTH binds to osteoblasts, the cells ...
"Indirect Calorimetry Data for Baz1b". Mouse Resources Portal. www.sanger.ac.uk. External link in ,publisher= (help) Wellcome ... Mutant mice showed increased activity, VO2 and energy expenditure, determined by indirect calorimetry. Radiography found teeth ...
"Indirect calorimetry data for Nsun2". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Glucose tolerance test data for Nsun2". Wellcome Trust ... and abnormal indirect calorimetry and plasma chemistry parameters. Males (but not females) were also infertile. In addition, ...
"Indirect calorimetry data for Akap9". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Glucose tolerance test data for Akap9". Wellcome Trust ...
"Indirect calorimetry data for Rad18". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "DEXA data for Rad18". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute ... Mutant male mice showed increased activity, VO2 and energy expenditure, determined by indirect calorimetry. Dual-energy X-ray ...
"Indirect calorimetry data for Dnase1l2". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "DEXA data for Dnase1l2". Wellcome Trust Sanger ... abnormal indirect calorimetry and femur/tibia morphology. Females also had an increased blood urea nitrogen level while males ...
"Indirect calorimetry data for Wdr47". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Clinical chemistry data for Wdr47". Wellcome Trust ... Male homozygous mice also had abnormal indirect calorimetry measures. WD repeat GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000085433 - ...
"Indirect calorimetry data for Slc25a21". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "DEXA data for Slc25a21". Wellcome Trust Sanger ... atypical indirect calorimetry, body composition and plasma chemistry data, increased mean platelet volume and moderate ...
"Indirect calorimetry data for Dlg4". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "DEXA data for Dlg4". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. " ... Homozygous mutant animals had decreased body weight, atypical indirect calorimetry and DEXA data and a skin phenotype. Males ... Its direct and indirect binding partners include neuroligin, NMDA receptors, AMPA receptors, and potassium channels. It plays ... Eldstrom J, Choi WS, Steele DF, Fedida D (July 2003). "SAP97 increases Kv1.5 currents through an indirect N-terminal mechanism ...
"Indirect calorimetry data for Grxcr1". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Glucose tolerance test data for Grxcr1". Wellcome ... Male homozygous mutant animals additionally showed abnormal indirect calorimetry and clinical chemistry parameters, improved ...
"Indirect calorimetry data for Zc3hc1". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "DEXA data for Zc3hc1". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute ... Males also had a decreased body weight, an abnormal posture and atypical indirect calorimetry data. Females also had an ...
"Indirect calorimetry data for Rnf10". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "DEXA data for Rnf10". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute ...
"Indirect calorimetry data for Slc22a21". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Salmonella infection data for Slc22a21". Wellcome ...
"Indirect calorimetry data for Fam134c". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Eye morphology data for Fam134c". Wellcome Trust ... Females had increased indirect calorimetry parameters while males had an increased susceptibility to bacterial infection. ...
"Indirect calorimetry data for Cenpj". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Glucose tolerance test data for Cenpj". Wellcome Trust ... peripheral blood lymphocytes and indirect calorimetry parameters, abnormal head, genitalia and tail morphology, an impaired ...
"Indirect calorimetry data for Myo7a". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Glucose tolerance test data for Myo7a". Wellcome Trust ... severe hearing impairment and a number of abnormal indirect calorimetry and clinical chemistry parameters. GRCh38: Ensembl ...
"Indirect calorimetry data for Slc5a2". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Salmonella infection data for Slc5a2". Wellcome Trust ...
"Indirect calorimetry data for Slc38a10". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "DEXA data for Slc38a10". Wellcome Trust Sanger ... Indirect calorimetry analysis showed that males displayed increased oxygen consumption and energy expenditure, while clinical ...
"Indirect calorimetry data for Dlg2". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "DEXA data for Dlg2". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. " ... Both sexes had atypical indirect calorimetry and DEXA parameters. Females also had decreased body weight, decreased circulating ...
"Entrez Gene: CBX1 chromobox homolog 1 (HP1 beta homolog Drosophila )". "Indirect calorimetry data for Cbx1". Wellcome Trust ... and energy expenditure as determined by indirect calorimetry. CBX1 has been shown to interact with: C11orf30, CBX3 and CBX5, ...
The Carathéodory way regards calorimetry only as a secondary or indirect way of measuring quantity of energy transferred as ... In calorimetry, sensible heat is defined with respect to a specific chosen state variable of the system, such as pressure or ... Calorimetry is the empirical basis of the idea of quantity of heat transferred in a process. The transferred heat is measured ... They include calorimetry, which is the commonest practical way of finding internal energy differences.[74] The needed ...
... measures your daily resting energy expenditure (your calorie needs at rest). The handheld calorimeter ... An indirect calorimetry test requires two simple 10-minute breathing tests. It measures your daily resting energy expenditure ( ...
Respiratory indirect calorimetry, or only indirect calorimetry (IC) as it is often known by most authors, is a noninvasive and ... "Measuring RMR with Indirect Calorimetry (IC)." Nutr Clin Pract. 2007 Aug;22(4):377-88. "Measuring RMR with Indirect Calorimetry ... Indirect Calorimetry, as we know it, was developed at the turn of the centurys as an application of thermodynamics to animal ... Indirect calorimetry is the method by which the type and rate of substrate utilization, and energy metabolism are estimated in ...
Agreement between indirect calorimetry and traditional tests of lactose malabsorption. BACKGROUND: Lactose malabsorption occurs ... CONCLUSIONS: Indirect calorimetry could improve the reliability of lactose malabsorption diagnosis. Studies on larger ...
Baxter and COSMED Announce U.S. FDA 510(k) Clearance of Q-NRG+ Indirect Calorimetry Device ... COSMED products include a full range of spirometers, indirect calorimetry, cardio pulmonary exercise testing and body ... Predictive equations versus measured energy expenditure by indirect calorimetry: A retrospective validation. Clinical Nutrition ... a metabolic monitoring device utilizing indirect calorimetry (IC) technology. IC is considered the "gold standard"1 to ...
Data on energy balance in children with severe sepsis using indirect calorimetry (IC) is lacki... ... sepsis using indirect calorimetry (IC) is lacking. Thus, we planned to study the energy needs and balance of this cohort. ... Sepsis Using Indirect Calorimetry: A Prospective Cohort Study.". Energy needs in critically ill children are dynamic and ... Energy Balance in Critically Ill Children With Severe Sepsis Using Indirect Calorimetry: A Prospective Cohort Study.. 07:00 EST ...
McClave SA, Snider HL (1992) Use of indirect calorimetry in clinical nutrition. Nutr Clin Pract 7: 207-221PubMedCrossRefGoogle ... McClave SA, Snider HL, Greene L, et al (1992) Effective utilization of indirect calorimetry during critical care. Nut Pract 9: ... Singer P., Cohen J.D. (2003) Clinical Applications of Indirect Calorimetry in the Intensive Care Setting. In: Vincent JL. (eds ... Flancbaum L, Choban PS, Sambucco S, Verducci J, Burge JC (1999) Comparison of indirect calorimetry, the Fick method, and ...
The Effect of Insulin on the Disposal of Intravenous Glucose: Results from Indirect Calorimetry and Hepatic and Femoral Venous ... The Effect of Insulin on the Disposal of Intravenous Glucose: Results from Indirect Calorimetry and Hepatic and Femoral Venous ... The Effect of Insulin on the Disposal of Intravenous Glucose: Results from Indirect Calorimetry and Hepatic and Femoral Venous ... The Effect of Insulin on the Disposal of Intravenous Glucose: Results from Indirect Calorimetry and Hepatic and Femoral Venous ...
BIOACTIVE COMPONENTS FROM BLACKBERRIES TO AUGMENT DIETARY APPROACHES TO OBESITY TREATMENT OR PREVENTION: INDIRECT CALORIMETRY ... the subjects completed a 24 hour stay in a room-size indirect calorimeter at the end of each diet period. To assess changes in ...
The adequate provision of energy for obese patients by estimation without indirect calorimetry (IC) is challenging. The goal ... Resting Energy Expenditure Measured by Indirect Calorimetry in Obese Patients: Variation Within Different BMI Ranges. ... Resting Energy Expenditure Measured by Indirect Calorimetry in Obese Patients: Variation W ...
Recommendations for improved data processing from expired gas analysis indirect calorimetry Author(s) Robergs, Robert A.. Dwyer ... Recommendations for improved data processing from expired gas analysis indirect calorimetry. Robergs, Robert A., Dwyer, Dan and ... There is currently no universally recommended and accepted method of data processing within the science of indirect calorimetry ... Breath-by-breath datasets obtained from indirect calorimetry during incremental exercise were then used to demonstrate the ...
Optional kit to test accuracy of COSMED indirect calorimeters *Quality control test for routine calibration ...
... and 2 hours after indirect calorimetry. Measurements of indirect calorimetry were done in a temperature-controlled incubator ( ... Indirect Calorimetry. Measurements of Vo2 and Vco2 were performed by means of a portable open-circuit continuous indirect ... Because Vo2 and Vco2 are influenced strongly by feeding, each period of indirect calorimetry began 45 minutes after feeding20 ... The use of indirect calorimetry in critically ill patients-the relationship of measured energy expenditure to injury severity ...
Indirect Calorimetry.. During the final 30 min of the basal period and the clamp, indirect calorimetry was performed using the ...
Indirect Calorimetry.. Indirect calorimetry measurements for test meals sessions were obtained in 11 subjects with a calibrated ... Technical difficulties precluded indirect calorimetry measurements in 3 of the 14 participants. ...
Indirect Calorimetry.. Energy expenditure and respiratory quotient in rats were determined by using sealed air-tight cages ... equipped with two equal-flow indirect calorimetry systems to continuously measure oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide ...
... and indirect calorimetry.. *. Karsten Koehler, Hans Braun, +4 authors Wilhelm Schaenzer. *. Published. 2010 in Journal of ... and indirect calorimetry.}, author={Karsten Koehler and Hans Braun and Markus de Mar{\e}es and Gerhard Fusch and Christoph ...
Today Maastricht Instruments is a leading company in providing customers all over the world with novel indirect calorimetry ... Kaviani, S., et al., Determining the Accuracy and Reliability of Indirect Calorimeters Utilizing the Methanol Combustion ... Considerations for the use of Indirect Calorimeters in Nutrition Management. 21 November 2017 ... Considerations for the use of Indirect Calorimeters in Exercise Bioenergetics. 27 November 2017 ...
Indirect calorimetry. Indirect calorimetry was performed using a ventilated hood technique (ParvoMedics TrueOne 2400 Metabolic ... oxidative glucose disposal was calculated using data from the final 20 min of indirect calorimetry recordings and the equations ...
Indirect calorimetry.. To quantitate carbohydrate oxidation, continuous indirect calorimetry was performed before the ...
Indirect calorimetry. Basal metabolic rate was measured for 30 min using indirect calorimetry in the morning at 0630 h on day 2 ... Indirect calorimetry was performed for 10 min each using a high-precision indirect calorimeter (Columbus Instruments, Columbus ... PAMS has been validated against both room calorimetry and doubly labeled water (5) and consists of a lycra-spandex undergarment ...
Indirect Calorimetry. With the aim of characterizing the interventions, indirect calorimetry was completed either before visit ...
Indirect Calorimetry. For determination of in vivo whole-body energy expenditure and substrate oxidation from measuring oxygen ... indirect calorimetry was performed, using Vmax Encore 29n (CareFusion, Höchberg, Germany) as previously described (28). ... The association of GLP-2 concentrations with those of insulin probably is indirect and explained by the cosecretion of GLP-2 ...
Indirect calorimetry. Indirect calorimetry (Deltatrac monitor; Dantes Instrumentarium, Helsinki, Finland) was used from t = 210 ... We observed a robust increase in NOGD measured by indirect calorimetry during insulin withdrawal. This could relate to ... OGD was estimated by indirect calorimetry and NOGD was calculated by subtracting OGD from Rdgluc [20]. ... Ferrannini E (1988) The theoretical bases of indirect calorimetry: a review. Metabolism 37(3):287-301. https://doi.org/10.1016/ ...
Indirect gas calorimetry module CaloSys. Indirect gas calorimetry uses measurements of the animals oxygen consumption (VO2) ... Home / In vivo research / Metabolism and calorimetry / Indirect gas calorimetry module CaloSys ... The PhenoMaster module for indirect gas calorimetry (CaloSys) is a fully automated high-throughput system for short- and long- ... exercise calorimetry on the CaloTreadmill or the CaloWheel. * calorimetry under thermoneutral or rapid temperature challenge ...
Indirect Calorimetry. Mice were individually housed and placed in an eight-chamber indirect calorimetry system (PhenoMaster; ...
  • Although the development of indirect calorimetry dates back over 200 years, its greatest use has been in the last two decades with the development of total Parenteral nutrition, interdisciplinary nutrition support teams, and the production of portable, reliable, relatively inexpensive calorimeters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Determining the Accuracy and Reliability of Indirect Calorimeters Utilizing the Methanol Combustion Technique. (indirectcalorimetry.net)
  • In the new millennium, smaller "desktop-sized" indirect calorimeters, such as the New Leaf system from Medical Graphics were being distributed with fully dedicated personal computers & printers, and running modern windows-based software such as BreezeSuite for Windows OS. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calorimetry is the science or act of measuring changes in state variables of a body for the purpose of deriving the heat transfer associated with changes of its state due, for example, to chemical reactions, physical changes, or phase transitions under specified constraints. (wikipedia.org)
  • EN will be the preferred route of nutrition, and will be initiated within the first 24 hours of ICU admission, in accordance with best evidence. (clinicaltrials.gov)