Calorimetry, Differential Scanning
Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Protein Structure, Secondary
Protein Structure, Tertiary
Body Temperature Regulation
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular
Carbonic Anhydrase II
Amino Acid Sequence
Molecular Sequence Data
Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions
Surface Plasmon Resonance
Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
Protein Structure, Quaternary
Fatty Acids, Nonesterified
Nucleic Acid Denaturation
Pulmonary Gas Exchange
Drug Delivery Systems
Glucose Clamp Technique
Amino Acid Motifs
Amino Acid Substitution
Molecular Docking Simulation
Body Fluid Compartments
Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
Nucleic Acid Conformation
Measured versus predicted oxygen consumption in children with congenital heart disease. (1/799)OBJECTIVE: To compare measured and predicted oxygen consumption (VO2) in children with congenital heart disease. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: The cardiac catheterisation laboratory in a university hospital. PATIENTS: 125 children undergoing preoperative cardiac catheterisation. INTERVENTIONS: VO2 was measured using indirect calorimetry; the predicted values were calculated from regression equations published by Lindahl, Wessel et al, and Lundell et al. Stepwise linear regression and analysis of variance were used to evaluate the influence of age, sex, weight, height, cardiac malformation, and heart failure on the bias and precision of predicted VO2. An artificial neural network was trained and used to produce an estimate of VO2 employing the same variables. The various estimates for VO2 were evaluated by calculating their bias and precision values. RESULTS: Lindahl's equation produced the highest precision (+/- 42%) of the regression based estimates. The corresponding average bias of the predicted VO2 was 3% (range -66% to 43%). When VO2 was predicted according to regression equations by Wessel and Lundell, the bias and precision were 0% and +/- 44%, and -16% and +/- 51%, respectively. The neural network predicted VO2 from variables included in the regression equations with a bias of 6% and precision +/- 29%; addition of further variables failed to improve this estimate. CONCLUSIONS: Both regression based and artificial intelligence based techniques were inaccurate for predicting preoperative VO2 in patients with congenital heart disease. Measurement of VO2 is necessary in the preoperative evaluation of these patients. (+info)
Comparison of indirect calorimetry, the Fick method, and prediction equations in estimating the energy requirements of critically ill patients. (2/799)BACKGROUND: Accurate measurement of resting energy expenditure (REE) is helpful in determining the energy needs of critically ill patients requiring nutritional support. Currently, the most accurate clinical tool used to measure REE is indirect calorimetry, which is expensive, requires trained personnel, and has significant error at higher inspired oxygen concentrations. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare REE measured by indirect calorimetry with REE calculated by using the Fick method and prediction equations by Harris-Benedict, Ireton-Jones, Fusco, and Frankenfield. DESIGN: REEs of 36 patients [12 men and 24 women, mean age 58+/-22 y and mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score 22+/-8] in a hospital intensive care unit and receiving mechanical ventilation and total parenteral nutrition (TPN) were measured for > or = 15 min by using indirect calorimetry and compared with REEs calculated from a mean of 2 sets of hemodynamic measurements taken during the metabolic testing period with an oximetric pulmonary artery catheter. RESULTS: Mean REE by indirect calorimetry was 8381+/-1940 kJ/d and correlated poorly with the other methods tested (r = 0.057-0.154). This correlation did not improve after adjusting for changes in respiratory quotient (r2 = 0.28). CONCLUSIONS: These data do not support previous findings showing a strong correlation between REE determined by the Fick method and other prediction equations and indirect calorimetry. In critically ill patients receiving TPN, indirect calorimetry, if available, remains the most appropriate clinical tool for accurate measurement of REE. (+info)
Physical activity assessment in American Indian schoolchildren in the Pathways study. (3/799)The objective of the Pathways physical activity feasibility study was to develop methods for comparing type and amount of activity between intervention and control schools participating in a school-based obesity prevention program. Two methods proved feasible: 1) a specially designed 24-h physical activity recall questionnaire for assessing the frequency and type of activities and 2) use of a triaxial accelerometer for assessing amount of activity. Results from pilot studies supporting the use of these methods are described. Analyses of activity during different segments of the day showed that children were most active after school. The activities reported most frequently (e.g., basketball and mixed walking and running) were also the ones found to be most popular in the study population on the basis of formative assessment surveys. Both the physical activity recall questionnaire and the triaxial accelerometer methods will be used to assess the effects of the full-scale intervention on physical activity. (+info)
Energy and substrate metabolism in patients with active Crohn's disease. (4/799)The aim of the study was to evaluate the possible contribution of changes in energy metabolism and substrate oxidation rates to malnutrition in Crohn's disease and to assess the effect of enteral nutrition on these parameters. Energy metabolism was evaluated by indirect calorimetry in 32 patients with active Crohn's disease and 19 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals. Measurements were done in the postabsorptive state. Seven out of 32 patients received enteral nutrition via a nasogastric tube. In these patients, resting energy metabolism was determined at d 0 (postabsorptive), 7, 14 (during full enteral nutrition) and 15 (postabsorptive). Resting energy expenditure was not significantly different between patients and controls, whereas the respiratory quotient (RQ) was lower in patients (0.78 +/- 0.05 vs. 0.86 +/- 0.05; P < 0.05). During enteral nutrition in 7 patients with Crohn's disease, the RQ increased on d 7 compared with d 0 and remained high even after cessation of enteral nutrition (d 0, 0.78 +/- 0.03; d 7, 0.91 +/- 0.04; d 15, 0. 84 +/- 0.05; P < 0.05; d 7 and 15 vs. d 0). No effects of enteral nutrition on resting energy expenditure were found. Active Crohn's disease is associated with changes in substrate metabolism that resemble a starvation pattern. These changes appear not to be specific to Crohn's disease but to malnutrition and are readily reversed by enteral nutrition. Enteral nutrition did not affect resting energy expenditure. Wasting is a consequence of malnutrition but not of hypermetabolism in Crohn's disease. (+info)
Acute effect of ephedrine on 24-h energy balance. (5/799)Ephedrine is used to help achieve weight control. Data on its true efficacy and mechanisms in altering energy balance in human subjects are limited. We aimed to determine the acute effect of ephedrine on 24-h energy expenditure, mechanical work and urinary catecholamines in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, two-period crossover study. Ten healthy volunteers were given ephedrine (50 mg) or placebo thrice daily during each of two 24-h periods (ephedrine and placebo) in a whole-room indirect calorimeter, which accurately measures minute-by-minute energy expenditure and mechanical work. Measurements were taken of 24-h energy expenditure, mechanical work, urinary catecholamines and binding of (+/-)ephedrine in vitro to human beta1-, beta2- and beta3-adrenoreceptors. Twenty-four-hour energy expenditure was 3.6% greater (8965+/-1301 versus 8648+/-1347 kJ, P<0.05) with ephedrine than with placebo, but mechanical work was not different between the ephedrine and placebo periods. Noradrenaline excretion was lower with ephedrine (0.032+/-0.011 microg/mg creatinine) compared with placebo (0.044+/-0.012 microg/mg creatinine) (P<0.05). (+/-)Ephedrine is a relatively weak partial agonist of human beta1- and beta2-adrenoreceptors, and had no detectable activity at human beta3-adrenoreceptors. Ephedrine (50 mg thrice daily) modestly increases energy expenditure in normal human subjects. A lack of binding of ephedrine to beta3-adrenoreceptors and the observed decrease in urinary noradrenaline during ephedrine treatment suggest that the thermogenic effect of ephedrine results from direct beta1-/beta2-adrenoreceptor agonism. An indirect beta3-adrenergic effect through the release of noradrenaline seems unlikely as urinary noradrenaline decreased significantly with ephedrine. (+info)
Effects of insulin and amino acids on glucose and leucine metabolism in CAPD patients. (6/799)This study investigates the basal and insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism, substrate utilization, and protein turnover in eight patients maintained on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) (mean age 39+/-5 yr, body mass index [BMI] 108+/-6) and 14 control subjects (mean age 33+/-4 yr, BMI 103+/-3). Euglycemic insulin clamp studies (180 min) were performed in combination with continuous indirect calorimetry and 1-14C leucine infusion (study I). Postabsorptive glucose oxidation was higher (1.75+/-0.18 versus 1.42+/-0.14 mg/kg per min) and lipid oxidation was lower (0.43+/-0.09 versus 0.61+/-0.12 mg/kg per min) in CAPD patients than in control subjects (P<0.05 versus control subjects). During the last 60 min of euglycemic hyperinsulinemia, the total rate of glucose metabolism was similar in CAPD and control subjects (6.33+/-0.51 versus 6.54+/-0.62 mg/kg per min). Both insulin-stimulated glucose oxidation (2.53+/-0.27 versus 2.64+/-0.37 mg/kg per min) and glucose storage (3.70+/-0.48 versus 3.90+/-0.58 mg/kg per min) were similar in CAPD and control subjects. Basal leucine flux (an index of endogenous proteolysis) was significantly lower in CAPD patients than in control subjects (1.21+/-0.15 versus 1.65+/-0.07 micromol/kg per min). Leucine oxidation (0.13+/-0.02 versus 0.26+/-0.02 micromol/kg per min) and nonoxidative leucine disposal (an index of protein synthesis) (1.09+/-0.16 versus 1.35+/-0.05 micromol/kg per min) were also reduced in CAPD compared with control subjects (P<0.01 versus control subjects). In response to insulin (study I), endogenous leucine flux decreased to 0.83+/-0.08 and 1.05+/-0.05 micromol/kg per min in CAPD and control subjects, respectively (all P<0.01 versus basal). Leucine oxidation declined to 0.06+/-0.01 and to 0.19+/-0.02 micromol/kg per min in CAPD and control subjects, respectively (P<0.01 versus basal). A second insulin clamp was performed in combination with an intravenous amino acid infusion (study II). During insulin plus amino acid administration, nonoxidative leucine disposal rose to 1.23+/-0.17 and 1.42+/-0.09 micromol/kg per min in CAPD and control subjects, respectively (both P<0.05 versus basal, P = NS versus control subjects), and leucine balance, an index of the net amino acid flux into protein, become positive in both groups (0.30+/-0.05 versus 0.40+/-0.07 micromol/kg per min in CAPD and control subjects, respectively) (both P<0.01 versus basal, P = NS versus control subjects). In summary, in CAPD patients: (1) basal glucose oxidation is increased; (2) basal lipid oxidation is decreased; (3) insulin-mediated glucose oxidation and storage are normal; (4) basal leucine flux is reduced; (5) the antiproteolitic action of insulin is normal; and (6) the anabolic response to insulin plus amino acid administration is normal. Uremic patients maintained on CAPD treatment show a preferential utilization of glucose as postabsorptive energy substrate; however, their anabolic response to substrate administration and the sensitivity to insulin are normal. (+info)
Endogenous thermoregulatory rhythms of squirrel monkeys in thermoneutrality and cold. (7/799)Whole body heat production (HP) and heat loss (HL) were examined to determine if the free-running circadian rhythm in body temperature (Tb) results from coordinated changes in HP and HL rhythms in thermoneutrality (27 degrees C) as well as mild cold (17 degrees C). Squirrel monkey metabolism (n = 6) was monitored by both indirect and direct calorimetry, with telemetered measurement of Tb and activity. Feeding was also measured. Rhythms of HP, HL, and conductance were tightly coupled with the circadian Tb rhythm at both ambient temperatures (TA). At 17 degrees C, increased HP compensated for higher HL at all phases of the Tb rhythm, resulting in only minor changes to Tb. Parallel compensatory changes of HP and HL were seen at all rhythm phases at both TA. Similar time courses of Tb, HP, and HL in their respective rhythms and the relative stability of Tb during both active and rest periods suggest action of the circadian timing system on Tb set point. (+info)
Effect of protein intake and physical activity on 24-h pattern and rate of macronutrient utilization. (8/799)Effects of moderate physical activity (90 min at 45-50% of maximal O2 uptake 2 times daily) and "high" (2.5 g protein. kg-1. day-1, n = 6) or "normal" protein intake (1.0 g protein. kg-1. day-1, n = 8) on the pattern and rate of 24-h macronutrient utilization in healthy adult men were compared after a diet-exercise-adjustment period of 6 days. Energy turnover (ET) was determined by indirect and direct (suit) calorimetry, and "protein oxidation" was determined by a 24-h continuous intravenous infusion of [1-13C]leucine. Subjects were in slight positive energy balance during both studies. Protein contributed to a higher (22 vs. 10%) and carbohydrate (CHO) a lower (33 vs. 58%) proportion of total 24-h ET on the high- vs. normal-protein intake. The highest contribution of fat to ET was seen postexercise during fasting (73 and 61% of ET for high and normal, respectively). With the high-protein diet the subjects were in a positive protein (P < 0.001) and CHO balance (P < 0.05) and a negative fat balance (P < 0.05). The increased ET postexercise was not explained by increased rates of urea production and/or protein synthesis. (+info)
1,2-Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, also known as DPPC, is a type of phospholipid that is commonly found in cell membranes. It is a phospholipid that consists of a glycerol backbone, two fatty acid chains (palmitic acid), and a phosphate group attached to a choline headgroup. In the medical field, DPPC is often used as a component of liposomes, which are small, spherical vesicles that can encapsulate drugs and other molecules. Liposomes made with DPPC have been used in a variety of medical applications, including drug delivery, gene therapy, and imaging. DPPC has also been studied for its potential therapeutic effects in various diseases, including cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and multiple sclerosis. Some research has suggested that DPPC may have anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties, and it is being investigated as a potential treatment for these conditions.
In the medical field, lipid bilayers refer to the two layers of phospholipid molecules that form the basic structure of cell membranes. The lipid bilayer is composed of a hydrophilic (water-loving) head and a hydrophobic (water-fearing) tail. The hydrophilic heads face outward, towards the aqueous environment of the cell, while the hydrophobic tails face inward, towards each other. This arrangement creates a barrier that separates the inside of the cell from the outside environment, while also allowing for the selective passage of molecules in and out of the cell. The lipid bilayer is essential for maintaining the integrity and function of cells, and is involved in a wide range of cellular processes, including cell signaling, metabolism, and transport.
Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) is a type of phospholipid, which is a molecule that is essential for the structure and function of cell membranes. It is composed of two fatty acid chains, each containing 16 carbon atoms, and a phosphate group attached to a choline molecule. DMPC is a common component of biological membranes and is often used in scientific research to study the properties of cell membranes and the behavior of membrane proteins. It is also used in the production of liposomes, which are small, spherical structures that can be used to deliver drugs and other molecules into cells.
In the medical field, water is a vital substance that is essential for the proper functioning of the human body. It is a clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that makes up the majority of the body's fluids, including blood, lymph, and interstitial fluid. Water plays a crucial role in maintaining the body's temperature, transporting nutrients and oxygen to cells, removing waste products, and lubricating joints. It also helps to regulate blood pressure and prevent dehydration, which can lead to a range of health problems. In medical settings, water is often used as a means of hydration therapy for patients who are dehydrated or have fluid imbalances. It may also be used as a diluent for medications or as a component of intravenous fluids. Overall, water is an essential component of human health and plays a critical role in maintaining the body's normal functions.
Phosphatidylcholines (PCs) are a type of phospholipid, which are essential components of cell membranes. They are composed of a glycerol backbone, two fatty acid chains, and a phosphate group, with a choline molecule attached to the phosphate group. In the medical field, phosphatidylcholines are often used as a dietary supplement or in various medical treatments. They have been shown to have a number of potential health benefits, including improving liver function, reducing inflammation, and improving cognitive function. Phosphatidylcholines are also used in some medical treatments, such as liposuction, where they are injected into the fat cells to help break them down and remove them from the body. They are also used in some types of chemotherapy to help reduce side effects and improve treatment outcomes.
Phosphatidylethanolamines (PEs) are a type of phospholipid that are found in cell membranes throughout the body. They are composed of a glycerol backbone, two fatty acid chains, and a phosphate group, with an ethanolamine group attached to the phosphate. PEs play a number of important roles in cell function, including maintaining the structure and fluidity of cell membranes, participating in signal transduction pathways, and serving as a source of energy for the cell. They are also involved in a number of cellular processes, such as cell growth and differentiation, and have been implicated in a number of diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative disorders.
Phosphatidylglycerols are a type of phospholipid, which are essential components of cell membranes. They are composed of a glycerol backbone, two fatty acid chains, and a phosphate group. Phosphatidylglycerols are found in all types of cells, but are particularly abundant in the membranes of certain organelles such as mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. In the medical field, phosphatidylglycerols have been studied for their potential role in various diseases and conditions. For example, changes in the levels of phosphatidylglycerols have been observed in certain types of cancer, and they may play a role in the development and progression of these diseases. Additionally, phosphatidylglycerols have been studied for their potential use as a diagnostic tool, as changes in their levels may indicate the presence of certain diseases or conditions.
Carbonic anhydrase II (CA II) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the body's metabolism of carbon dioxide (CO2) and bicarbonate (HCO3-). It is primarily found in the red blood cells, where it helps to regulate the pH of the blood by converting CO2 into bicarbonate and protons (H+). This process is essential for maintaining the proper balance of acids and bases in the body, which is necessary for the proper functioning of many physiological processes. In addition to its role in regulating blood pH, CA II also plays a role in the transport of CO2 from the tissues to the lungs, where it is exhaled. It does this by converting bicarbonate back into CO2, which can then be transported in the blood to the lungs and exhaled. CA II is also involved in the regulation of fluid balance in the body, as bicarbonate is an important ion that helps to maintain the proper concentration of electrolytes in the blood. It is also involved in the metabolism of other substances, such as ammonia and sulfates. In the medical field, CA II is often studied as a potential target for the treatment of a variety of conditions, including metabolic acidosis, respiratory acidosis, and certain types of cancer. It is also used as a diagnostic marker for certain diseases, such as renal disease and liver disease.
Beta-cyclodextrins (β-CD) are a type of cyclic oligosaccharide composed of seven glucose units linked by α-1,4-glycosidic bonds. They are commonly used in the medical field as a drug delivery system to improve the solubility, stability, and bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. β-CD forms inclusion complexes with a wide range of hydrophobic molecules, including drugs, by encapsulating them within the hydrophobic cavity of the cyclodextrin molecule. This results in an increase in the solubility of the drug and a reduction in its toxicity. β-CD can also enhance the stability of drugs by protecting them from degradation and improving their shelf life. In addition to their use as drug delivery agents, β-CDs have also been used in medical imaging, as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) scans. They have also been used in the treatment of certain medical conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome. Overall, β-CDs have a wide range of applications in the medical field, and their use is expected to continue to grow as researchers discover new ways to harness their unique properties.
Povidone is a water-soluble polymer that is commonly used in the medical field as an antiseptic and disinfectant. It is also known as polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and is a white, odorless powder that is easily soluble in water. Povidone is used in a variety of medical applications, including wound care, surgical procedures, and the treatment of skin infections. It is effective against a wide range of microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, and fungi, and is often used in combination with other antiseptic agents to enhance its effectiveness. Povidone is available in a variety of forms, including solutions, gels, and ointments, and is typically applied topically to the skin or applied to medical devices and surfaces to disinfect them. It is generally considered to be safe and well-tolerated by most people, although it may cause skin irritation or allergic reactions in some individuals.
Micelles are small, spherical structures that form when surfactant molecules, such as phospholipids, are dissolved in water. In the medical field, micelles are often used as drug delivery systems to transport drugs across cell membranes and into cells. This is because the hydrophobic core of the micelle can encapsulate hydrophobic drugs, while the hydrophilic shell of the micelle can interact with water and other polar molecules. This allows the drug to be transported through the bloodstream and into cells, where it can be released and exert its therapeutic effect. Micelles are also used in various medical imaging techniques, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), to enhance the contrast between different tissues in the body.
Membrane lipids are a type of lipid molecule that are essential components of cell membranes. They are composed of fatty acids and glycerol, and are responsible for maintaining the structure and function of cell membranes. There are several types of membrane lipids, including phospholipids, glycolipids, and cholesterol. Phospholipids are the most abundant type of membrane lipid and are responsible for forming the basic structure of cell membranes. They consist of a hydrophilic (water-loving) head and two hydrophobic (water-fearing) tails, which allow them to spontaneously form a bilayer in an aqueous environment. Glycolipids are another type of membrane lipid that are composed of a fatty acid chain and a carbohydrate group. They are found on the surface of cell membranes and play a role in cell recognition and signaling. Cholesterol is a third type of membrane lipid that is important for maintaining the fluidity and stability of cell membranes. It is also involved in the regulation of membrane protein function. Membrane lipids play a crucial role in many cellular processes, including cell signaling, nutrient transport, and cell division. They are also important for maintaining the integrity and function of cell membranes, which are essential for the survival of cells.
Sphingomyelins are a type of sphingolipid, which are a class of lipids that are important components of cell membranes. They are composed of a sphingosine backbone, a fatty acid chain, and a phosphate group. In the medical field, sphingomyelins are often studied in relation to their role in the development and progression of various diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and cardiovascular disease. They are also important for maintaining the structure and function of cell membranes, and have been shown to play a role in the regulation of cell growth and differentiation.
In the medical field, "gels" typically refer to a type of semi-solid or liquid substance that is used for various purposes, such as topical application, injection, or ingestion. Gels can be made from a variety of materials, including water, oils, and other substances, and can be used for a wide range of medical applications. For example, hydrogels are a type of gel that are made from water and polymers, and are often used in wound dressings and other medical devices. Injectable gels are used in various medical procedures, such as cosmetic procedures and orthopedic surgeries. Gels can also be used as drug delivery systems, allowing medications to be absorbed into the body more slowly and evenly over time. Overall, gels are a versatile and widely used tool in the medical field, with a wide range of applications and uses.
Poloxamer is a nonionic surfactant composed of a block copolymer of polyethylene oxide (PEO) and polypropylene oxide (PPO). It is used in various medical applications, including as a drug delivery system, a viscosity modifier, and a stabilizer for emulsions and suspensions. Poloxamer can enhance the solubility and bioavailability of drugs, improve the stability of formulations, and reduce the irritation caused by some drugs. It is also used in ophthalmic and topical preparations, as well as in medical devices such as catheters and implants.
In the medical field, fats are a type of macronutrient that are essential for the body to function properly. Fats are made up of fatty acids and glycerol and are found in a variety of foods, including meats, dairy products, nuts, and oils. Fats play several important roles in the body, including providing energy, insulation for the body, protecting vital organs, and helping to absorb certain vitamins. The body can break down fats into smaller molecules called fatty acids, which can be used as a source of energy. However, excessive consumption of certain types of fats, such as saturated and trans fats, can increase the risk of certain health problems, including heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, it is important to consume fats in moderation and choose healthy sources of fats, such as monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats found in nuts, seeds, and fatty fish.
Cyclodextrins are a group of cyclic oligosaccharides that are commonly used in the medical field as pharmaceutical excipients. They are composed of glucose units linked by α-1,4-glycosidic bonds to form a torus-shaped molecule with a hydrophobic central cavity and hydrophilic outer surface. Cyclodextrins have the ability to form inclusion complexes with a wide range of hydrophobic molecules, including drugs, lipids, and other bioactive compounds. By encapsulating these molecules within the hydrophobic cavity of the cyclodextrin, they can improve their solubility, stability, and bioavailability. In the medical field, cyclodextrins are used as solubilizing agents, stabilizers, and permeation enhancers in various pharmaceutical formulations, such as tablets, capsules, and topical creams. They are also used as carriers for drug delivery systems, such as nanoparticles and liposomes, to improve the targeted delivery of drugs to specific tissues or organs. Cyclodextrins have also been studied for their potential therapeutic applications, such as in the treatment of cancer, diabetes, and infectious diseases. They have been shown to have anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-viral properties, and are being investigated as potential adjuvants for vaccines and immunotherapies.
In the medical field, "Fatty Acids, Nonesterified" refers to free fatty acids that are not bound to glycerol in triglycerides. These fatty acids are found in the bloodstream and are an important source of energy for the body. They can be obtained from dietary fats or synthesized by the liver and adipose tissue. Nonesterified fatty acids are also involved in various physiological processes, such as the regulation of insulin sensitivity and the production of signaling molecules. Abnormal levels of nonesterified fatty acids in the blood can be associated with various medical conditions, including diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease.
Phospholipids are a type of lipid molecule that are essential components of cell membranes in living organisms. They are composed of a hydrophilic (water-loving) head and two hydrophobic (water-fearing) tails, which together form a bilayer structure that separates the interior of the cell from the external environment. Phospholipids are important for maintaining the integrity and fluidity of cell membranes, and they also play a role in cell signaling and the transport of molecules across the membrane. They are found in all types of cells, including animal, plant, and bacterial cells, and are also present in many types of lipoproteins, which are particles that transport lipids in the bloodstream. In the medical field, phospholipids are used in a variety of applications, including as components of artificial cell membranes for research purposes, as components of liposomes (small vesicles that can deliver drugs to specific cells), and as ingredients in dietary supplements and other health products. They are also the subject of ongoing research in the fields of nutrition, metabolism, and disease prevention.
Anilino naphthalenesulfonates are a class of organic compounds that are used in various medical applications. They are typically synthesized by the reaction of naphthalene-1-sulfonic acid with aniline or substituted anilines. These compounds have a planar aromatic structure and are often used as dyes, pigments, and surfactants. In the medical field, anilino naphthalenesulfonates are used as antimalarial agents. They are effective against Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite responsible for the most severe form of malaria. Some examples of anilino naphthalenesulfonates used in this context include chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine. Anilino naphthalenesulfonates are also used as antiviral agents. They have been shown to be effective against a variety of viruses, including influenza, herpes simplex virus, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Some examples of anilino naphthalenesulfonates used in this context include amantadine and rimantadine. In addition to their antimalarial and antiviral properties, anilino naphthalenesulfonates have also been studied for their potential use in the treatment of other medical conditions, such as cancer and inflammatory diseases. However, more research is needed to fully understand their therapeutic potential and to develop safe and effective treatments based on these compounds.
In the medical field, carbon dioxide (CO2) is a gas that is produced as a byproduct of cellular respiration and is exhaled by the body. It is also used in medical applications such as carbon dioxide insufflation during colonoscopy and laparoscopic surgery, and as a component of medical gases used in anesthesia and respiratory therapy. High levels of CO2 in the blood (hypercapnia) can be a sign of respiratory or metabolic disorders, while low levels (hypocapnia) can be caused by respiratory failure or metabolic alkalosis.
Recombinant proteins are proteins that are produced by genetically engineering bacteria, yeast, or other organisms to express a specific gene. These proteins are typically used in medical research and drug development because they can be produced in large quantities and are often more pure and consistent than proteins that are extracted from natural sources. Recombinant proteins can be used for a variety of purposes in medicine, including as diagnostic tools, therapeutic agents, and research tools. For example, recombinant versions of human proteins such as insulin, growth hormones, and clotting factors are used to treat a variety of medical conditions. Recombinant proteins can also be used to study the function of specific genes and proteins, which can help researchers understand the underlying causes of diseases and develop new treatments.
Chitosan is a natural polysaccharide derived from chitin, which is a polymer of N-acetylglucosamine found in the exoskeletons of crustaceans such as shrimp and crab. Chitosan has been used in various medical applications due to its unique properties, including its ability to absorb and retain water, its biocompatibility, and its ability to modulate immune responses. In the medical field, chitosan is used in a variety of ways, including as a wound dressing, a drug delivery system, and a biofilm inhibitor. As a wound dressing, chitosan can help to promote healing by providing a moist environment that promotes cell growth and reduces inflammation. As a drug delivery system, chitosan can be used to encapsulate drugs and release them slowly over time, improving their effectiveness and reducing side effects. As a biofilm inhibitor, chitosan can help to prevent the formation of bacterial biofilms, which can be difficult to treat and can lead to chronic infections. Chitosan has also been studied for its potential use in cancer therapy, as it has been shown to have anti-tumor properties and can help to enhance the effectiveness of chemotherapy drugs. Additionally, chitosan has been used in the development of medical devices, such as catheters and implants, due to its ability to reduce inflammation and promote tissue integration.
In the medical field, peptides are short chains of amino acids that are linked together by peptide bonds. They are typically composed of 2-50 amino acids and can be found in a variety of biological molecules, including hormones, neurotransmitters, and enzymes. Peptides play important roles in many physiological processes, including growth and development, immune function, and metabolism. They can also be used as therapeutic agents to treat a variety of medical conditions, such as diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. In the pharmaceutical industry, peptides are often synthesized using chemical methods and are used as drugs or as components of drugs. They can be administered orally, intravenously, or topically, depending on the specific peptide and the condition being treated.
In the medical field, an emulsion is a mixture of two immiscible liquids, such as oil and water, that are dispersed in the form of small droplets. These droplets are typically stabilized by an emulsifying agent, which prevents the two liquids from separating and allows them to remain in a stable mixture. Emulsions are commonly used in the medical field for a variety of purposes, including drug delivery, imaging, and therapy. For example, oil-in-water emulsions are often used to deliver drugs or other therapeutic agents to specific areas of the body, such as the lungs or the eye. They can also be used in imaging studies to help visualize certain structures or tissues within the body. Emulsions can be prepared in a variety of ways, including mechanical agitation, high-pressure homogenization, and ultrasonication. The choice of preparation method depends on the specific properties of the emulsifying agent and the liquids being mixed, as well as the desired properties of the final emulsion.
In the medical field, polymers are large molecules made up of repeating units or monomers. Polymers are used in a variety of medical applications, including drug delivery systems, tissue engineering, and medical devices. One common use of polymers in medicine is in drug delivery systems. Polymers can be used to encapsulate drugs and release them slowly over time, allowing for more controlled and sustained release of the drug. This can help to improve the effectiveness of the drug and reduce side effects. Polymers are also used in tissue engineering, where they are used to create scaffolds for growing new tissue. These scaffolds can be designed to mimic the structure and properties of natural tissue, allowing cells to grow and differentiate into the desired tissue type. In addition, polymers are used in a variety of medical devices, including implants, prosthetics, and surgical sutures. For example, polymers can be used to create biodegradable implants that are absorbed by the body over time, reducing the need for additional surgeries to remove the implant. Overall, polymers play an important role in the medical field, providing a range of useful materials for drug delivery, tissue engineering, and medical device applications.
In the medical field, body weight refers to the total mass of an individual's body, typically measured in kilograms (kg) or pounds (lbs). It is an important indicator of overall health and can be used to assess a person's risk for certain health conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and heart disease. Body weight is calculated by measuring the amount of mass that a person's body contains, which includes all of the organs, tissues, bones, and fluids. It is typically measured using a scale or other weighing device, and can be influenced by factors such as age, gender, genetics, and lifestyle. Body weight can be further categorized into different types, such as body mass index (BMI), which takes into account both a person's weight and height, and waist circumference, which measures the size of a person's waist. These measures can provide additional information about a person's overall health and risk for certain conditions.
Lipids are a diverse group of organic compounds that are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents such as ether or chloroform. They are an essential component of cell membranes and play a crucial role in energy storage, insulation, and signaling in the body. In the medical field, lipids are often measured as part of a routine blood test to assess an individual's risk for cardiovascular disease. The main types of lipids that are measured include: 1. Total cholesterol: This includes both low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, which is often referred to as "bad" cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, which is often referred to as "good" cholesterol. 2. Triglycerides: These are a type of fat that is stored in the body and can be converted into energy when needed. 3. Phospholipids: These are a type of lipid that is a major component of cell membranes and helps to regulate the flow of substances in and out of cells. 4. Steroids: These are a type of lipid that includes hormones such as testosterone and estrogen, as well as cholesterol. Abnormal levels of lipids in the blood can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, including heart attack and stroke. Therefore, monitoring and managing lipid levels is an important part of maintaining overall health and preventing these conditions.
In the medical field, dietary carbohydrates refer to the carbohydrates that are consumed as part of a person's diet. Carbohydrates are one of the three macronutrients (along with protein and fat) that provide energy to the body. They are found in a variety of foods, including grains, fruits, vegetables, and dairy products. Dietary carbohydrates are classified into two main types: simple carbohydrates and complex carbohydrates. Simple carbohydrates, also known as sugars, are made up of one or two sugar molecules and are quickly digested and absorbed by the body. Examples of simple carbohydrates include table sugar, honey, and fruit juice. Complex carbohydrates, on the other hand, are made up of long chains of sugar molecules and take longer to digest and absorb. Examples of complex carbohydrates include whole grains, legumes, and starchy vegetables. The amount and type of carbohydrates that a person consumes can have a significant impact on their health. Consuming too many simple carbohydrates, particularly those that are high in added sugars, can contribute to weight gain and an increased risk of chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and heart disease. On the other hand, consuming adequate amounts of complex carbohydrates can provide important nutrients and fiber that are essential for good health.
Bacterial proteins are proteins that are synthesized by bacteria. They are essential for the survival and function of bacteria, and play a variety of roles in bacterial metabolism, growth, and pathogenicity. Bacterial proteins can be classified into several categories based on their function, including structural proteins, metabolic enzymes, regulatory proteins, and toxins. Structural proteins provide support and shape to the bacterial cell, while metabolic enzymes are involved in the breakdown of nutrients and the synthesis of new molecules. Regulatory proteins control the expression of other genes, and toxins can cause damage to host cells and tissues. Bacterial proteins are of interest in the medical field because they can be used as targets for the development of antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. They can also be used as diagnostic markers for bacterial infections, and as vaccines to prevent bacterial diseases. Additionally, some bacterial proteins have been shown to have therapeutic potential, such as enzymes that can break down harmful substances in the body or proteins that can stimulate the immune system.
Deuterium is a stable isotope of hydrogen that has one extra neutron in its nucleus compared to the most common isotope of hydrogen, protium. In the medical field, deuterium is sometimes used as a tracer in nuclear medicine imaging studies. For example, deuterium oxide (heavy water) can be used to label certain molecules, such as glucose or amino acids, which can then be injected into the body and imaged using positron emission tomography (PET) or single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). This can help doctors to visualize the uptake and metabolism of these molecules in different tissues and organs, which can be useful for diagnosing and monitoring various medical conditions. Deuterium is also used in some types of radiation therapy, where it is used to replace hydrogen atoms in certain molecules to make them more radioactive, allowing them to be targeted to specific cancer cells.
Guanidine is a chemical compound that is commonly used in the medical field as a medication and a research tool. It is a white, crystalline solid that is soluble in water and has a bitter taste. Guanidine is used to treat a variety of conditions, including hypertension (high blood pressure), congestive heart failure, and certain types of kidney disease. It works by relaxing blood vessels and reducing the workload on the heart, which can help to lower blood pressure and improve blood flow. Guanidine is also used in research to study the structure and function of proteins, and to develop new drugs and therapies.
In the medical field, cations are positively charged ions that are found in the body fluids, such as blood and extracellular fluid. They are important for maintaining the proper balance of electrolytes in the body and for regulating various physiological processes, such as nerve function, muscle contraction, and fluid balance. Cations are classified based on their charge and chemical properties. The most common cations in the body include sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), and hydrogen (H+). These ions play important roles in various bodily functions, and imbalances in their levels can lead to a range of health problems, such as muscle cramps, heart arrhythmias, and seizures. In medical testing, cations are often measured in blood or urine samples using various analytical techniques, such as ion-selective electrodes or atomic absorption spectroscopy. Monitoring cation levels is important for diagnosing and treating various medical conditions, such as kidney disease, acid-base disorders, and electrolyte imbalances.
Blood glucose, also known as blood sugar, is the level of glucose (a type of sugar) in the blood. Glucose is the primary source of energy for the body's cells, and it is produced by the liver and released into the bloodstream in response to the body's needs. In the medical field, blood glucose levels are often measured as part of a routine check-up or to monitor the health of people with diabetes or other conditions that affect blood sugar levels. Normal blood glucose levels for adults are typically between 70 and 100 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) before a meal and between 80 and 120 mg/dL two hours after a meal. Elevated blood glucose levels, also known as hyperglycemia, can be caused by a variety of factors, including diabetes, stress, certain medications, and high-carbohydrate meals. Low blood glucose levels, also known as hypoglycemia, can be caused by diabetes treatment that is too aggressive, skipping meals, or certain medications. Monitoring blood glucose levels is important for people with diabetes, as it helps them manage their condition and prevent complications such as nerve damage, kidney damage, and cardiovascular disease.
Methylcellulose is a water-soluble polymer that is commonly used in the medical field as a thickening agent, emulsifier, and stabilizer. It is derived from cellulose, which is a natural polymer found in plant cell walls. Methylcellulose is often used in medical applications such as drug delivery systems, ophthalmic solutions, and wound dressings. It can help to improve the stability and bioavailability of certain drugs, and can also be used to create gels and other formulations that are easy to apply and absorb. In addition to its use in medical applications, methylcellulose is also used in a variety of other industries, including food and cosmetics. It is generally considered to be safe for use in humans, although high doses may cause digestive upset in some people.
Obesity is a medical condition characterized by an excessive accumulation of body fat, which increases the risk of various health problems. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines obesity as a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or higher, where BMI is calculated as a person's weight in kilograms divided by their height in meters squared. Obesity is a complex condition that results from a combination of genetic, environmental, and behavioral factors. It can lead to a range of health problems, including type 2 diabetes, heart disease, stroke, certain types of cancer, and respiratory problems. In the medical field, obesity is often treated through a combination of lifestyle changes, such as diet and exercise, and medical interventions, such as medications or bariatric surgery. The goal of treatment is to help individuals achieve and maintain a healthy weight, reduce their risk of health problems, and improve their overall quality of life.
Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that regulates the amount of glucose (sugar) in the bloodstream. It helps the body's cells absorb glucose from the bloodstream and use it for energy or store it for later use. Insulin is essential for maintaining normal blood sugar levels and preventing conditions such as diabetes. In the medical field, insulin is used to treat diabetes and other conditions related to high blood sugar levels. It is typically administered through injections or an insulin pump.
Glucose is a simple sugar that is a primary source of energy for the body's cells. It is also known as blood sugar or dextrose and is produced by the liver and released into the bloodstream by the pancreas. In the medical field, glucose is often measured as part of routine blood tests to monitor blood sugar levels in people with diabetes or those at risk of developing diabetes. High levels of glucose in the blood, also known as hyperglycemia, can lead to a range of health problems, including heart disease, nerve damage, and kidney damage. On the other hand, low levels of glucose in the blood, also known as hypoglycemia, can cause symptoms such as weakness, dizziness, and confusion. In severe cases, it can lead to seizures or loss of consciousness. In addition to its role in energy metabolism, glucose is also used as a diagnostic tool in medical testing, such as in the measurement of blood glucose levels in newborns to detect neonatal hypoglycemia.
In the medical field, "salts" typically refers to compounds that contain ions of metals or other elements combined with non-metallic elements such as chlorine, sulfur, or phosphorus. These compounds are often used in various medical applications, including: 1. Electrolyte balance: Salts are essential for maintaining the balance of electrolytes in the body. Electrolytes are minerals that carry an electric charge and are necessary for many bodily functions, including muscle and nerve function, hydration, and acid-base balance. 2. Medications: Salts are often used as active ingredients in medications. For example, sodium chloride (table salt) is used as an ingredient in many over-the-counter pain relievers and cold medicines. 3. Antiseptics: Salts such as silver sulfadiazine are used as antiseptics to prevent infection in wounds. 4. Diuretics: Salts such as potassium chloride are used as diuretics to increase urine production and help remove excess fluids from the body. 5. Supplements: Salts such as magnesium sulfate are used as supplements to provide essential minerals that may be lacking in the diet. Overall, salts play an important role in many medical applications and are essential for maintaining proper bodily function.
2-Naphthylamine is a chemical compound that is used in the production of dyes, pigments, and other industrial chemicals. It is also a known human carcinogen, and exposure to it has been linked to an increased risk of bladder cancer. In the medical field, 2-naphthylamine is not typically used as a therapeutic agent, but it may be encountered in the context of occupational health and safety, as well as in the investigation of environmental pollutants.
Glycerol, also known as glycerin, is a simple sugar alcohol that is commonly used in the medical field as a lubricant, a moisturizer, and a preservative. It is a clear, odorless, and tasteless liquid that is derived from fats and oils. In the medical field, glycerol is used in a variety of applications, including: 1. As a lubricant: Glycerol is used as a lubricant in various medical procedures, such as colonoscopies, cystoscopies, and endoscopies, to reduce friction and discomfort. 2. As a moisturizer: Glycerol is used as a moisturizer in skin care products, such as lotions and creams, to hydrate and soothe dry, irritated skin. 3. As a preservative: Glycerol is used as a preservative in some medical products, such as eye drops and nasal sprays, to prevent the growth of bacteria and other microorganisms. 4. As an antifreeze: Glycerol is used as an antifreeze in some medical equipment, such as dialysis machines, to prevent the equipment from freezing during cold weather. Overall, glycerol is a safe and effective ingredient that is widely used in the medical field for a variety of purposes.
Muramidase is an enzyme that is involved in the degradation of peptidoglycan, a major component of bacterial cell walls. It is also known as lysozyme or muramidase lysozyme. The enzyme cleaves the bond between the N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylmuramic acid residues in the peptidoglycan chain, leading to the breakdown of the cell wall and ultimately the death of the bacterium. Muramidase is found in various organisms, including humans, and is used as an antimicrobial agent in some medications. It is also used in laboratory research to study bacterial cell wall structure and function.
Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance that is produced by the liver and is also found in some foods. It is an essential component of cell membranes and is necessary for the production of hormones, bile acids, and vitamin D. However, high levels of cholesterol in the blood can increase the risk of developing heart disease and stroke. There are two main types of cholesterol: low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, which is often referred to as "bad" cholesterol because it can build up in the walls of arteries and lead to plaque formation, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, which is often referred to as "good" cholesterol because it helps remove excess cholesterol from the bloodstream and transport it back to the liver for processing.
"Laurates" is not a commonly used term in the medical field. It is possible that you may be referring to "lauric acid," which is a fatty acid found in coconut oil and other plant oils. Lauric acid has been studied for its potential health benefits, including its antimicrobial properties and its ability to boost the immune system. However, more research is needed to fully understand the effects of lauric acid on human health.
In the medical field, nitrogen is a chemical element that is commonly used in various medical applications. Nitrogen is a non-metallic gas that is essential for life and is found in the air we breathe. It is also used in the production of various medical gases, such as nitrous oxide, which is used as an anesthetic during medical procedures. Nitrogen is also used in the treatment of certain medical conditions, such as nitrogen narcosis, which is a condition that occurs when a person breathes compressed air that contains high levels of nitrogen. Nitrogen narcosis can cause symptoms such as dizziness, confusion, and disorientation, and it is typically treated by reducing the amount of nitrogen in the air that the person is breathing. In addition, nitrogen is used in the production of various medical devices and equipment, such as medical imaging equipment and surgical instruments. It is also used in the production of certain medications, such as nitroglycerin, which is used to treat heart conditions. Overall, nitrogen plays an important role in the medical field and is used in a variety of medical applications.
Carboxymethylcellulose sodium (CMC sodium) is a water-soluble polymer that is commonly used in the medical field as a thickening agent, emulsifier, and stabilizer. It is derived from cellulose, which is a natural polymer found in plant cell walls. CMC sodium is often used in pharmaceuticals to improve the texture and consistency of various products, such as tablets, capsules, and ointments. It can also be used as a binder to help hold ingredients together in a cohesive mixture. In addition to its use in pharmaceuticals, CMC sodium is also used in medical devices, such as wound dressings and catheters, to improve their handling and performance. It is also used in food and beverage products as a thickener and stabilizer. CMC sodium is generally considered safe for use in humans and is listed as a food additive by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, it may cause allergic reactions in some people, and its use in certain medical products may be contraindicated in individuals with certain medical conditions.
DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is a molecule that carries genetic information in living organisms. It is composed of four types of nitrogen-containing molecules called nucleotides, which are arranged in a specific sequence to form the genetic code. In the medical field, DNA is often studied as a tool for understanding and diagnosing genetic disorders. Genetic disorders are caused by changes in the DNA sequence that can affect the function of genes, leading to a variety of health problems. By analyzing DNA, doctors and researchers can identify specific genetic mutations that may be responsible for a particular disorder, and develop targeted treatments or therapies to address the underlying cause of the condition. DNA is also used in forensic science to identify individuals based on their unique genetic fingerprint. This is because each person's DNA sequence is unique, and can be used to distinguish one individual from another. DNA analysis is also used in criminal investigations to help solve crimes by linking DNA evidence to suspects or victims.
Tryptophan is an essential amino acid that is required for the production of proteins in the body. It is also a precursor to the neurotransmitter serotonin, which plays a role in regulating mood, appetite, and sleep. In the medical field, tryptophan is often used to treat conditions such as depression, anxiety, and insomnia. It is also used to help manage symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and to improve athletic performance. Tryptophan supplements are available over-the-counter, but it is important to talk to a healthcare provider before taking them, as they can interact with certain medications and may have side effects.
In the medical field, oxygen isotopes refer to the different forms of the element oxygen that have different atomic weights due to the presence of different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei. The most common oxygen isotopes are oxygen-16, oxygen-17, and oxygen-18. Oxygen-16 is the most abundant and is the form of oxygen that is found in the air we breathe. Oxygen-17 and oxygen-18 are less abundant and are often used in medical research and diagnostic imaging. Oxygen isotopes can be used to study the metabolism and function of various organs and tissues in the body, and can also be used to diagnose and treat certain medical conditions.
Framycetin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic that is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including urinary tract infections, respiratory infections, and skin infections. It works by binding to the ribosomes of bacteria, which inhibits protein synthesis and ultimately leads to bacterial cell death. Framycetin is typically administered intravenously or intramuscularly, and it is usually used in combination with other antibiotics to increase its effectiveness. It is important to note that framycetin can cause serious side effects, including hearing loss, kidney damage, and allergic reactions, and it should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional.
In the medical field, starch refers to a type of carbohydrate that is found in plants, particularly in grains such as wheat, corn, and potatoes. Starch is a complex carbohydrate that is made up of long chains of glucose molecules. Starch is an important source of energy for the body and is broken down into glucose during digestion. It is also used in the production of various medical products, such as intravenous fluids, medications, and medical devices. In some cases, starch may be used as a thickening agent in medical products, such as eye drops or nasal sprays. It can also be used as a filler in certain medications to help with their texture or consistency. However, it is important to note that not all starches are created equal. Some types of starch, such as amylose, are more easily digested than others, such as amylopectin. Additionally, some people may have difficulty digesting certain types of starches, which can lead to digestive issues such as bloating or diarrhea.
Benzoyl Peroxide is a medication that is commonly used to treat acne. It works by killing bacteria on the skin and reducing inflammation. It is available in various strengths and forms, including creams, gels, and washes. It is usually applied to the affected areas of the skin once or twice a day. It is important to follow the instructions on the label and to avoid using too much or too often, as this can cause skin irritation or dryness.
Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are a group of water-soluble polymers that are commonly used in the medical field as solvents, dispersants, and stabilizers. They are made by polymerizing ethylene oxide and have a hydroxyl (-OH) group at each end of the molecule. PEGs are used in a variety of medical applications, including as a carrier for drugs and other therapeutic agents, as a lubricant for medical devices, and as an ingredient in various medical products such as ointments, creams, and lotions. They are also used in diagnostic imaging agents, such as contrast agents for X-rays and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). PEGs are generally considered to be safe for use in humans, although high doses or prolonged exposure may cause irritation or allergic reactions. They are also used in food and personal care products, and are generally recognized as safe for these applications as well.
Apoproteins are proteins that are associated with lipids (fats) in the bloodstream. They play a crucial role in the transport and metabolism of lipids in the body. There are several different types of apolipoproteins, each with a specific function. Apolipoproteins are found in lipoprotein particles, which are complexes of lipids and proteins that transport lipids through the bloodstream. The different types of apolipoproteins are associated with different types of lipoproteins, such as low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Apolipoproteins are important for maintaining healthy lipid levels in the body. For example, HDL, which is often referred to as "good cholesterol," contains the apolipoprotein A-I, which helps to remove excess cholesterol from the bloodstream and transport it back to the liver for processing and elimination. Abnormal levels of apolipoproteins can be associated with various health conditions, such as high cholesterol, heart disease, and diabetes. Therefore, measuring levels of apolipoproteins can be an important part of diagnosing and managing these conditions.
Fatty acids are organic compounds that are composed of a long chain of carbon atoms with hydrogen atoms attached to them. They are a type of lipid, which are molecules that are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents. Fatty acids are an important source of energy for the body and are also used to synthesize other important molecules, such as hormones and cell membranes. In the medical field, fatty acids are often studied in relation to their role in various diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity. They are also used in the development of new drugs and therapies.
Lactoglobulins are a group of proteins found in milk that play important roles in the digestion and absorption of nutrients. They are the most abundant proteins in milk, accounting for about 20% of the total protein content. Lactoglobulins have a number of functions in the body. They help to stabilize and transport fat molecules in the digestive tract, which aids in the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins. They also have immune-modulating properties, and may help to protect against certain infections and diseases. In the medical field, lactoglobulins have been studied for their potential therapeutic applications. For example, they have been used in the development of drugs for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. They have also been studied for their potential use in the prevention and treatment of certain types of cancer. Overall, lactoglobulins are an important component of milk and play a number of important roles in the body.
Putative sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 10
Mitochondrial 2-oxodicarboxylate carrier
Resting metabolic rate
Edward D. Thalmann
Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption
Hypoxia in fish
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- Panlab provides a complete Oxylet solution enabling forced exercise training in a treadmill combined with indirect calorimetry in rodents. (panlab.com)
- You will perform indirect calorimetry assessments, select steady state data, and calibrate devices at the direction of the instructors. (eatrightfnce.org)
- Demonstrate how to perform an indirect calorimetry test, interpreting results, and selecting steady state data. (eatrightfnce.org)
- Indirect calorimetry was used to collect cardiopulmonary data and blood lactate concentrations were also determined throughout the test. (sdsu.edu)
- More work is needed to determine the net energy content of FM using more accurate methods such as indirect calorimetry. (allaboutfeed.net)
- Predicted energy requirements using weight-based equations significantly deviated from indirect calorimetry measurements in older vs younger patients. (annals.edu.sg)
- Measurements include: heart rate, core temperature, body weight losses due to sweating, and energy requirements of specific tasks determined by means of indirect calorimetry. (cdc.gov)
- On the basis of observational cohort studies, it is suggested that measured energy expenditure by indirect calorimetry (IC) be used to determine energy requirements and guide prescription of the daily energy goal. (medscape.com)
- The Mifflin-St. Jeor equation estimates RMR more precisely and with fewer errors than the commonly used Harris-Benedict equation, usually providing results that are within 20% of those measured by indirect calorimetry. (msdmanuals.com)
- Therefore, many authors have proposed that the association of direct composites with simple thermal treatments may produce similar results when compared to the indirect technique, such as the improvement in material cure, thus enhancing clinical and mechanical properties (9-14). (bvsalud.org)
- Requirements can be estimated by formulas or measured by indirect calorimetry. (msdmanuals.com)
- Indirect calorimetry requires use of a metabolic cart (a closed rebreathing system that determines energy expenditure based on total CO2 production), which requires special expertise and is not always available. (msdmanuals.com)
- COSMED provides gold-standard assessment and diagnostic solutions for Cardio Pulmonary Exercise Testing, Pulmonary Function Testing, Plethysmography, Indirect Calorimetry, and Stress ECGs. (acc.org)
- In the indirect technique, specific resin systems are applied to the damaged tooth area to form a cast restoration that is then heat-treated using special ovens under controlled laboratory conditions (3,4). (bvsalud.org)
Estimated by means of indirect calorimetry1
- FAT OXR and CHO OXR were estimated by means of indirect calorimetry and stoichiometric equations. (thieme-connect.de)
- Q-NRG is the first Indirect Calorimeter specifically intended for Resting Energy Expenditure (REE) measurement on spontaneously breathing subjects. (cosmed.com)
- Indirect Calorimetry and Energy Expenditure: Guess or Measure? (korr.com)
- Learn the importance of measuring energy expenditure using indirect calorimetry with Carol Ireton-Jones (PhD, RD, LD, CNSC, FASPEN) from Dallas Texas. (korr.com)
- Postmeal challenge responses were measured via laboratory assays and instrumentation, based on a diverse set of metabolic flexibility indicators [e.g., energy expenditure (whole-body indirect calorimetry), glucose and insulin kinetics, metabolomics, transcriptomics]. (nih.gov)
- 4. Validation of physical activity monitors in individuals with diabetes: energy expenditure estimation by the multisensor SenseWear Armband Pro3 and the step counter Omron HJ-720 against indirect calorimetry during walking. (nih.gov)
- Validation of energy expenditure evaluation by SenseWear Armband by direct comparison with indirect calorimetry. (nih.gov)
- Indirect calorimetry requires use of a metabolic cart (a closed rebreathing system that determines energy expenditure based on total CO2 production), which requires special expertise and is not always available. (msdmanuals.com)
- Indirect calorimetry (IC) measurement is considered the gold standard for the assessment of resting energy expenditure (REE). (healthmanagement.org)
- Adult animals were analyzed for body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, locomotor activity by running-wheel experiments, respiratory exchange rate by indirect calorimetry, and food intake using metabolic cages. (nih.gov)
- Indirect calorimetry was used to determine REE and to calculate respiratory quotient. (nih.gov)
- Respiratory indirect calorimery measures the oxygen you exhale as a proxy for how much food your body is burning. (wallstreetwindow.com)
- Our respiratory therapists routinely perform indirect calorimetry studies in support of various Clinical Center protocols. (nih.gov)
- On the second day, we conducted magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy and imaging, and on the third day and after an overnight fast the participants underwent a full-day metabolic investigation including a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp with continuous infusion of a primed glucose tracer, indirect calorimetry, repetitive blood sampling, and muscle and adipose tissue biopsies. (medscape.com)
- Indirect calorimetry provides an individual and dynamic metabolic assessment based on the actual physical status of the subject rather than estimating it on anthropometric data. (cosmed.com)
- Indirect calorimetry is another way to estimate metabolic rate. (wallstreetwindow.com)
- Participants underwent a single day of testing, consisting of determination of REE by indirect calorimetry ( TrueOne ® 2400 Metabolic Measurement system, ParvoMedics, Sandy, UT ) followed by body composition assessment. (biomedcentral.com)
- Total fatty acid and palmitate oxidation rates during 1-hour submaximal cycle ergometer exercise assessed with stable isotope method (U13C-palmitate and 2H2-d-glucose) and indirect calorimetry with and without l-carnitine. (nih.gov)
- Study patients were admitted to the General Clinical Research Center for 24 hours for initial tests including a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (for measurement of insulin sensitivity), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and anthropometric measurements (for assessment of body composition), indirect calorimetry (for measurement of REE), electronic blood pressure monitoring, and blood chemistries to measure blood lipids levels along with renal and hepatic functions. (nih.gov)
- We work closely with the nutritionists to assess the nutritional status of the patient with the use of an indirect calorimeter. (nih.gov)
- heart rate, core temperature, body weight losses due to sweating, and energy requirements of specific tasks determined by means of indirect calorimetry. (cdc.gov)
- By collecting and studying indirect calorimetry (IC) data, a measure of energy use and activity levels, from more than 2000 normal mice, the researchers showed that onset time of peak activity and food intake rhythms are reliable parameters for screening defects of circadian alignment. (nih.gov)
- Generate high-resolution gas analyzer data that delivers the most accurate indirect calorimetry values, so you can answer the toughest research questions. (sablesys.com)
- The Mifflin-St. Jeor equation estimates RMR more precisely and with fewer errors than the commonly used Harris-Benedict equation, usually providing results that are within 20% of those measured by indirect calorimetry. (msdmanuals.com)