Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.
The measurement of the quantity of heat involved in various processes, such as chemical reactions, changes of state, and formations of solutions, or in the determination of the heat capacities of substances. The fundamental unit of measurement is the joule or the calorie (4.184 joules). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Calculation of the energy expenditure in the form of heat production of the whole body or individual organs based on respiratory gas exchange.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Heat production, or its measurement, of an organism at the lowest level of cell chemistry in an inactive, awake, fasting state. It may be determined directly by means of a calorimeter or indirectly by calculating the heat production from an analysis of the end products of oxidation within the organism or from the amount of oxygen utilized.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The determination of the concentration of a given component in solution (the analyte) by addition of a liquid reagent of known strength (the titrant) until an equivalence point is reached (when the reactants are present in stoichiometric proportions). Often an indicator is added to make the equivalence point visible (e.g., a change in color).
Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A change of a substance from one form or state to another.
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
Synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers to study biological membranes. It is also a major constituent of PULMONARY SURFACTANTS.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
The temperature at which a substance changes from one state or conformation of matter to another.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.
Method of using a polycrystalline powder and Rietveld refinement (LEAST SQUARES ANALYSIS) of X-RAY DIFFRACTION or NEUTRON DIFFRACTION. It circumvents the difficulties of producing single large crystals.
A synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers for the study of biological membranes.
Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
Technique whereby the weight of a sample can be followed over a period of time while its temperature is being changed (usually increased at a constant rate).
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
The measure of that part of the heat or energy of a system which is not available to perform work. Entropy increases in all natural (spontaneous and irreversible) processes. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.
Usually inert substances added to a prescription in order to provide suitable consistency to the dosage form. These include binders, matrix, base or diluent in pills, tablets, creams, salves, etc.
Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
Relating to the size of solids.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.
Freedom from activity.
Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
A nitrogen-free class of lipids present in animal and particularly plant tissues and composed of one mole of glycerol and 1 or 2 moles of phosphatidic acid. Members of this group differ from one another in the nature of the fatty acids released on hydrolysis.
The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.
A cytosolic carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme found widely distributed in cells of almost all tissues. Deficiencies of carbonic anhydrase II produce a syndrome characterized by OSTEOPETROSIS, renal tubular acidosis (ACIDOSIS, RENAL TUBULAR) and cerebral calcification. EC 4.2.1.-
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of seven (7) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Method of tissue preparation in which the tissue specimen is frozen and then dehydrated at low temperature in a high vacuum. This method is also used for dehydrating pharmaceutical and food products.
A polyvinyl polymer of variable molecular weight; used as suspending and dispersing agent and vehicle for pharmaceuticals; also used as blood volume expander.
Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.
Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.
Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.
A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
A class of sphingolipids found largely in the brain and other nervous tissue. They contain phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine as their polar head group so therefore are the only sphingolipids classified as PHOSPHOLIPIDS.
Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.
The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.
A nonionic polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene block co-polymer with the general formula HO(C2H4O)a(-C3H6O)b(C2H4O)aH. It is available in different grades which vary from liquids to solids. It is used as an emulsifying agent, solubilizing agent, surfactant, and wetting agent for antibiotics. Poloxamer is also used in ointment and suppository bases and as a tablet binder or coater. (Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)
Measurement of the polarization of fluorescent light from solutions or microscopic specimens. It is used to provide information concerning molecular size, shape, and conformation, molecular anisotropy, electronic energy transfer, molecular interaction, including dye and coenzyme binding, and the antigen-antibody reaction.
The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The ability of a protein to retain its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to physical or chemical manipulations.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A homologous group of cyclic GLUCANS consisting of alpha-1,4 bound glucose units obtained by the action of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase on starch or similar substrates. The enzyme is produced by certain species of Bacillus. Cyclodextrins form inclusion complexes with a wide variety of substances.
Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
Nanometer-sized, hollow, spherically-shaped objects that can be utilized to encapsulate small amounts of pharmaceuticals, enzymes, or other catalysts (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechnology, 4th ed).
The accumulation of an electric charge on a object
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
A class of organic compounds which contain an anilino (phenylamino) group linked to a salt or ester of naphthalenesulfonic acid. They are frequently used as fluorescent dyes and sulfhydryl reagents.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.
Deacetylated CHITIN, a linear polysaccharide of deacetylated beta-1,4-D-glucosamine. It is used in HYDROGEL and to treat WOUNDS.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
The generation of heat in order to maintain body temperature. The uncoupled oxidation of fatty acids contained within brown adipose tissue and SHIVERING are examples of thermogenesis in MAMMALS.
Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
A plant genus of the family ASCLEPIADACEAE.
Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.
The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.
Conformational transitions of the shape of a protein to various unfolded states.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Deuterium. The stable isotope of hydrogen. It has one neutron and one proton in the nucleus.
A strong organic base existing primarily as guanidium ions at physiological pH. It is found in the urine as a normal product of protein metabolism. It is also used in laboratory research as a protein denaturant. (From Martindale, the Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed and Merck Index, 12th ed) It is also used in the treatment of myasthenia and as a fluorescent probe in HPLC.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Glucose in blood.
Methylester of cellulose. Methylcellulose is used as an emulsifying and suspending agent in cosmetics, pharmaceutics and the chemical industry. It is used therapeutically as a bulk laxative.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Materials in intermediate state between solid and liquid.
Removal of moisture from a substance (chemical, food, tissue, etc.).
The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.
Substances produced from the reaction between acids and bases; compounds consisting of a metal (positive) and nonmetal (negative) radical. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A naphthalene derivative with carcinogenic action.
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
A genus of the family Heteromyidae which contains 22 species. Their physiology is adapted for the conservation of water, and they seldom drink water. They are found in arid or desert habitats and travel by hopping on their hind limbs.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC
Single membrane vesicles, generally made of PHOSPHOLIPIDS.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Maintenance of a constant blood glucose level by perfusion or infusion with glucose or insulin. It is used for the study of metabolic rates (e.g., in glucose, lipid, amino acid metabolism) at constant glucose concentration.
Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Salts and esters of the 12-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--lauric acid.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.
A cellulose derivative which is a beta-(1,4)-D-glucopyranose polymer. It is used as a bulk laxative and as an emulsifier and thickener in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals and as a stabilizer for reagents.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.
A component of NEOMYCIN that is produced by Streptomyces fradiae. On hydrolysis it yields neamine and neobiosamine B. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
A peroxide derivative that has been used topically for BURNS and as a dermatologic agent in the treatment of ACNE and POISON IVY DERMATITIS. It is used also as a bleach in the food industry.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
A computer simulation technique that is used to model the interaction between two molecules. Typically the docking simulation measures the interactions of a small molecule or ligand with a part of a larger molecule such as a protein.
Microscopy using polarized light in which phenomena due to the preferential orientation of optical properties with respect to the vibration plane of the polarized light are made visible and correlated parameters are made measurable.
The protein components of a number of complexes, such as enzymes (APOENZYMES), ferritin (APOFERRITINS), or lipoproteins (APOLIPOPROTEINS).
The two types of spaces between which water and other body fluids are distributed: extracellular and intracellular.
Abstaining from all food.
A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Globulins of milk obtained from the WHEY.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
The modification of the reactivity of ENZYMES by the binding of effectors to sites (ALLOSTERIC SITES) on the enzymes other than the substrate BINDING SITES.
Imaging the temperatures in a material, or in the body or an organ. Imaging is based on self-emanating infrared radiation (HEAT WAVES), or on changes in properties of the material or tissue that vary with temperature, such as ELASTICITY; MAGNETIC FIELD; or LUMINESCENCE.

Affinity modulation of small-molecule ligands by borrowing endogenous protein surfaces. (1/2376)

A general strategy is described for improving the binding properties of small-molecule ligands to protein targets. A bifunctional molecule is created by chemically linking a ligand of interest to another small molecule that binds tightly to a second protein. When the ligand of interest is presented to the target protein by the second protein, additional protein-protein interactions outside of the ligand-binding sites serve either to increase or decrease the affinity of the binding event. We have applied this approach to an intractable target, the SH2 domain, and demonstrate a 3-fold enhancement over the natural peptide. This approach provides a way to modulate the potency and specificity of biologically active compounds.  (+info)

Energy-based de novo protein folding by conformational space annealing and an off-lattice united-residue force field: application to the 10-55 fragment of staphylococcal protein A and to apo calbindin D9K. (2/2376)

The conformational space annealing (CSA) method for global optimization has been applied to the 10-55 fragment of the B-domain of staphylococcal protein A (protein A) and to a 75-residue protein, apo calbindin D9K (PDB ID code), by using the UNRES off-lattice united-residue force field. Although the potential was not calibrated with these two proteins, the native-like structures were found among the low-energy conformations, without the use of threading or secondary-structure predictions. This is because the CSA method can find many distinct families of low-energy conformations. Starting from random conformations, the CSA method found that there are two families of low-energy conformations for each of the two proteins, the native-like fold and its mirror image. The CSA method converged to the same low-energy folds in all cases studied, as opposed to other optimization methods. It appears that the CSA method with the UNRES force field, which is based on the thermodynamic hypothesis, can be used in prediction of protein structures in real time.  (+info)

Domain organization of flagellar hook protein from Salmonella typhimurium. (3/2376)

Hook forms a universal joint, which mediates the torque of the flagellar motor to the outer helical filaments. Domain organization of hook protein from Salmonella typhimurium was investigated by exploring thermal denaturation properties of its proteolytic fragments. The most stable part of hook protein involves residues 148 to 355 and consists of two domains, as revealed by deconvolution analysis of the calorimetric melting profiles. Residues 72-147 and 356-370 form another domain, while the terminal regions of the molecule, residues 1-71 and 371-403, avoid a compact tertiary structure in the monomeric state. These folding domains were assigned to the morphological domains of hook subunits known from EM image reconstructions, revealing the overall folding of hook protein in its filamentous state.  (+info)

Thermodynamics of the reconstitution of tuna cytochrome c from two peptide fragments. (4/2376)

Two peptide fragments from tuna cytochrome c (cyt c), N-fragment (residues 1-44 containing the heme) and C-fragment (residues 45-103), combine to form a 1:1 fragment complex. This was clearly proved by ion-spray mass spectrometry. It was found from CD and NMR spectra that the structure of the fragment complex formed is similar to that of an intact cyt c, although each isolated fragment itself is unstructured. Binding constants and enthalpies upon the complex formation were directly observed by isothermal titration calorimetry. Thermodynamic parameters (deltaG(o)b, deltaHb, deltaS(o)b, and deltaC(b)p)) associated with the complex formation were determined at various pHs and temperatures. DeltaHb was found to be almost independent of pH values. The change in heat capacity accompanying the complex formation (deltaC(b)p) was directly determined from the temperature dependence of deltaHb. In addition, the change in heat capacity and enthalpy upon tuna cyt c unfolding were determined by differential scanning calorimetry. Thermodynamic parameters for the unfolding/dissociation process of the fragment complex were compared with those for cyt c unfolding at pH 3.9 and 303 K. In a comparison of two unfolding processes, the heat capacity change of each was very close to the other, while both the unfolding enthalpy and entropy of the fragment complex were larger than those of tuna cyt c. These thermodynamic data suggest that the internal interactions between polar groups (hydrogen bonding) and nonpolar groups (van der Waals interactions) are preserved in the fragment complex as well as in the native state of cyt c.  (+info)

Time-resolved absorption and photothermal measurements with sensory rhodopsin I from Halobacterium salinarum. (5/2376)

An expansion accompanying the formation of the first intermediate in the photocycle of transducer-free sensory rhodopsin I (SRI) was determined by means of time-resolved laser-induced optoacoustic spectroscopy. For the native protein (SRI-WT), the absolute value of the expansion is approximately 5.5 mL and for the mutant SRI-D76N, approximately 1.5 mL per mol of phototransformed species (in 0.5 M NaCl), calculated by using the formation quantum yield for the first intermediate (S610) of Phi610 = 0.4 +/- 0.05 for SRI-WT and 0.5 +/- 0.05 for SRI-D76N, measured by laser-induced optoacoustic spectroscopy and by laser flash photolysis. The similarity in Phi610 and in the determined value of the energy level of S610, E610 = (142 +/- 12) kJ/mol for SRI-WT and SRI-D76N indicates that Asp76 is not directly involved in the first step of the phototransformation. The increase with pH of the magnitude of the structural volume change for the formation of S610 in SRI-WT and in SRI-D76N upon excitation with 580 nm indicates also that amino acids other than Asp76, and other than those related to the Schiff base, are involved in the process. The difference in structural volume changes as well as differences in the activation parameters for the S610 decay should be attributed to differences in the rigidity of the cavity surrounding the chromophore. Except for the decay of the first intermediate, which is faster than in the SRI-transducer complex, the rate constants of the photocycle for transducer-free SRI in detergent suspension are strongly retarded with respect to wild-type membranes (this comparison should be done with great care because the preparation of both samples is very different).  (+info)

Mechanical and chemical unfolding of a single protein: a comparison. (6/2376)

Is the mechanical unraveling of protein domains by atomic force microscopy (AFM) just a technological feat or a true measurement of their unfolding? By engineering a protein made of tandem repeats of identical Ig modules, we were able to get explicit AFM data on the unfolding rate of a single protein domain that can be accurately extrapolated to zero force. We compare this with chemical unfolding rates for untethered modules extrapolated to 0 M denaturant. The unfolding rates obtained by the two methods are the same. Furthermore, the transition state for unfolding appears at the same position on the folding pathway when assessed by either method. These results indicate that mechanical unfolding of a single protein by AFM does indeed reflect the same event that is observed in traditional unfolding experiments. The way is now open for the extensive use of AFM to measure folding reactions at the single-molecule level. Single-molecule AFM recordings have the added advantage that they define the reaction coordinate and expose rare unfolding events that cannot be observed in the absence of chemical denaturants.  (+info)

Interaction of heparin with annexin V. (7/2376)

The energetics and kinetics of the interaction of heparin with the Ca2+ and phospholipid binding protein annexin V, was examined and the minimum oligosaccharide sequence within heparin that binds annexin V was identified. Affinity chromatography studies confirmed the Ca2+ dependence of this binding interaction. Analysis of the data obtained from surface plasmon resonance afforded a Kd of approximately 21 nM for the interaction of annexin V with end-chain immobilized heparin and a Kd of approximately 49 nM for the interaction with end-chain immobilized heparan sulfate. Isothermal titration calorimetry showed the minimum annexin V binding oligosaccharide sequence within heparin corresponds to an octasaccharide sequence. The Kd of a heparin octasaccharide binding to annexin V was approximately 1 microM with a binding stoichiometry of 1:1.  (+info)

Glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in inactive inflammatory bowel disease. (8/2376)

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory mediator concentration was found to be increased in active inflammatory bowel disease, and this could be related to an insulin-resistant state. Moreover, glucocorticoids, which are widely used in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease, are notoriously related to insulin resistance. AIM: To measure body composition, whole body glucose uptake and oxidation in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis patients with inactive disease. METHODS: All patients had clinical, ultrasound and biochemical assessment. Body composition was determined by isotopic dilution technique; basal metabolic rate and substrate oxidation were measured by indirect calorimetry. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by the euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp. Ten patients with inactive Crohn's disease (five males, aged 31.1 +/- 7.0 years) and 10 patients with inactive ulcerative colitis (five males, aged 33.4 +/- 8.8 years) participated in the study. Forty healthy subjects, matched for age and height were used as a control group. RESULTS: Crohn's disease patients showed lower BMI (P < 0.001), fat mass (P < 0.05) and respiratory quotient (P < 0.001) values compared to both ulcerative colitis and control subjects. No difference in peripheral glucose uptake (micromol/kg/min) was found between groups (respectively 42.5 +/- 6.78 in Crohn's disease, 40.2 +/- 8.00 in ulcerative colitis and 41.4 +/- 10.8 in control subjects). Glucose storage and oxidation did not differ between groups. CONCLUSION: Our data showed that inflammatory bowel disease patients in a remission phase of the disease activity had a whole body glucose uptake and oxidation similar to those of control subjects, probably due to fat-free mass preservation and low blood and tissue cytokine concentration.  (+info)

The differential adsorption heats of oxygen and NO, as well as catalytic oxidation behavior during NO oxidation and NO2 dissociation reactions over supported Pt-catalysts, were investigated by microcalorimetric measurements. The average heat of adsorption (Delta H) of oxygen ranged from 310 kJ/mol at 200 degrees C to 289 kJ/mol at 400 degrees C. Over this temperature range formation of platinum oxides and coverage dependence caused variations in the apparent heat of adsorption. NO heat of adsorption from 50 to 150 degrees C was near constant with an average value of 202 kJ/mol over the temperature range.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread in various ecosystems and are pollutants of great concern due to their potential toxicity, mutagenecity and carcinogenicity. Surfactant has become a hot topic for its wide application in the bioremediation of PAHs. The aim of this work is to explore a microcalorimetric method to determine the toxic effect of pyrene on Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) and the PAH-degrading bacteria Burkholderia cepacia (B. cepacia) and to evaluate the effect of Tween 80 on biodegradation of pyrene. Power-time curves were studied and calorimetric parameters including the growth rate constant (k), half inhibitory concentration (IC50), and total thermal effect (QT) were determined. B. subtilis, B. cepacia and B. cepacia with Tween 80 were completely inhibited when the concentration of pyrene were 200, 800 and 1600μgmL-1, respectively. B. cepacia shows better tolerance to pyrene than B. subtilis. Tween 80 significantly improves the biodegradation of pyrene by increasing
The thermodynamics of a monoclonal antibody (mAb)-peptide interaction have been characterized by isothermal titration microcalorimetry. GCC:B10 mAb, generated against human guanylyl cyclase C, a membrane-associated receptor and a potential marker for metastatic colon cancer, recognizes the cognate peptide epitope HIPPENIFPLE and its two contiguous mimotopes, HIPPEN and ENIFPLE, specifically and reversibly. The exothermic binding reactions between 6.4 and 42 degreeC are driven by dominant favorable enthalpic contributions between 20 and 42 degreeC, with a large negative heat capacity (DELTACp) of -421 +- 27 cal mol-1 K-1. The unfavorable negative value of entropy (DELTASb0) at 25 degreeC, an unusual feature among protein-protein interactions, becomes a positive one below an inversion temperature of 20.5 degreeC. Enthalpy-entropy compensation due to solvent reorganization accounts for an essentially unchanged free energy of interaction (DELTADELTAGb0 simeq 0). The role of water molecules in the ...
Binding of enzymatic E colicins to the vitamin B12 receptor, BtuB, is the first stage in a cascade of events that culminate in the translocation of the cytotoxic nuclease into the Escherichia coli cytoplasm and release of its tightly bound immunity protein. A dogma of colicin biology is that the toxin coiled-coil connecting its functional domains must unfold or unfurl to span the periplasm, with recent reports claiming this reaction is initiated by receptor binding. We report isothermal titration calorimetry data of BtuB binding the endonuclease toxin ColE9 and a disulfide form (ColE9S-S) where unfolding of the coiled-coil is prevented and, as a consequence, the toxin is biologically inactive. Contrary to expectation, the thermodynamics of receptor binding, characterized by large negative values for TDeltaS, are identical for the two colicins, arguing against any form of BtuB-induced unfolding. We go on to delineate key features of the colicin translocon that assembles at the cell surface after BtuB
Cooperative binding pervades Nature. This review discusses the use of isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) in the identification and characterisation of cooperativity in biological interactions. ITC has broad scope in the analysis of cooperativity as it determines binding stiochiometries, affinities and thermodynamic parameters, including enthalpy and entropy in a single experiment. Examples from the literature are used to demonstrate the applicability of ITC in the characterisation of cooperative systems.
Integral membrane proteins, including G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) and ion channels, mediate diverse biological functions that are crucial to all aspects of life. The knowledge of the molecular mechanisms, and in particular, the thermodynamic basis of the binding interactions of the extracellular ligands and intracellular effector proteins is essential to understand the workings of these remarkable nanomachines. In this review, we describe how isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) can be effectively used to gain valuable insights into the thermodynamic signatures (enthalpy, entropy, affinity, and stoichiometry), which would be most useful for drug discovery studies, considering that more than 30% of the current drugs target membrane proteins. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Structural and biophysical characterisation of membrane protein-ligand binding.
With their hydrolytic, optical and magnetic properties, lanthanide ions (Ln3+) are versatile probes for nucleic acids. In addition, nucleotide-coordinated Ln3+ ions form useful nanoparticles. However, the thermodynamic basis of their interaction is still lacking. In this work, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is used to study the binding between nucleotides and 14 different Ln3+ ions. Ln3+ interacts mainly with the phosphate of cytidine and thymidine monophosphate (CMP and TMP), while the nucleobases in adenosine and guanosine monophosphate (AMP and GMP) are also involved. Phosphate binding is fully entropy driven since the reactions absorb heat. Nucleosides alone do not bind Ln3+ and the purines need the phosphate for chelation. With increasing atomic number of Ln3+, the binding reaction with GMP goes from exothermic to endothermic. The entropy contribution starts to increase from Gd3+, explaining the gadolinium break observed in many Ln3+-mediated RNA cleavage reactions. This study ...
Oxalate oxidase from Ceriporiopsis subvermispora (CsOxOx) is a manganese-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxygen-dependent oxidation of oxalate to form two moles of carbon dioxide and one mole of hydrogen peroxide. CsOxOx is the first oxalate oxidase reported to have a two beta barrel architecture (bicupin). The CsOxOx catalyzed oxidation of oxalate reaction can be monitored by coupling the product H2O2 to the horseradish peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation of 2,2-azinobis-(3- ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) and by membrane inlet mass spectrometry. Coupled enzyme assays often confound data interpretation. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) measures heat changes that occur during a reaction. Therefore, ITC can measure reaction rates where both the substrates and products are spectrophotometrically silent and when the reaction products are unknown. In this work, we apply the multiple injection method of ITC to characterize the catalytic properties of oxalate oxidase. Steady-state kinetic
Isothermal titration calorimetry profiles of Alba1 binding to various DNA.A-DNA (a), and B-DNA (b) and CT-DNA (c), at 25°C in 50 mM NaH2PO4, pH 7.0.
The binding of a series of low molecular weight ligands towards trypsin and thrombin has been studied by isothermal titration calorimetry and protein crystallography. In a series of congeneric ligands, surprising changes of protonation states occur and are overlaid on the binding process. They result from induced pK(a) shifts depending on the local environment experienced by the ligand and protein functional groups in the complex (induced dielectric fit). They involve additional heat effects that must be corrected before any conclusion on the binding enthalpy (DeltaH) and entropy (DeltaS) can be drawn. After correction, trends in both contributions can be interpreted in structural terms with respect to the hydrogen bond inventory or residual ligand motions. For all inhibitors studied, a strong negative heat capacity change (DeltaC(p)) is detected, thus binding becomes more exothermic and entropically less favourable with increasing temperature. Due to a mutual compensation, Gibbs free energy ...
The geopolymerization process of metakaolinite activated by alkali and alkali silicate solutions was revealed. The effects of alkali concentration, modulus of alkali silicate solution and reaction temperature on geopolymerization were studied systematically by isothermal calorimetry, as well as X-ray diffraction and 27Al/29Si MAS NMR. Results show that the geopolymerization process of metakaolinite under alkali activation condition can be reasonably supposed into three stages: (I) destruction, (II) polymerization and (III) stabilization. The rate of geopolymerization in KOH solution is higher than in NaOH solution and reaches the maximum in 15 mol/L KOH solution during stage II. The extent of geopolymerization increases with increasing of alkali content regardless of the existence of silicate anions in activator.. ...
67 matching references were found. Hernandez de la T.; Romero I., Physical interaction between n-alkanes, Rev. Colomb. Quim., 1987, 14, 71. [all data] Helmig, D.; Revermann, T.; Pollmann, J.; Kaltschmidt, O.; Hernández, A.J.; Bocquet, F.; David, D., Calibration system and analytical considerations for quantitative sesquiterpene measurements in air, J. Chromatogr. A, 2003, 1002, 1-2, 193-211, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(03)00619-8 . [all data] Damon, A.A.; Hernández, A.S.; Rojas, J.C., Analysis of the fragrance produced by the epiphytic orchid Anathallis (Pleurothallis) racemiflora (orchidaceae) in the Soconusco region, Chiapas, Mexico, Lindleyana, 2002, 17, 2, 93-97. [all data] Paz Andrade, M.I.; Hernandez, C.; Nunez, L.; Jimenez Cuesta, E., Microcalorimetric study of heats of mixing for the systems benzene + o-, m- , and p-xylene at 50c, J. Chim. Phys. Phys.-Chim. Biol., 1972, 69, 1132-5. [all data] Paz-Andrade, M.E.; Jimenez Cuesta, E.; Hernandez, C., Newassembly for microcalorimetric ...
en] A new microcalorimetric method for recording the kinetic parameters k(cat)/K-m and K-i of alpha-amylases using polysaccharides and oligosaccharides as substrates is described. This method is based on the heat released by glycosidic bond hydrolysis. The method has been developed to study the active site properties of the cold-active alpha-amylase produced by an Antarctic psychrophilic bacterium in comparison with its closest structural homolog from pig pancreas. It is shown that the psychrophilic a-amylase is more active on large macromolecular substrates and that the higher rate constants k(cat) are gained at the expense of a lower affinity for the substrate. The active site is able to accommodate larger inhibitory complexes, resulting in a mixed-type inhibition of starch hydrolysis by maltose. A method for recording the binding enthalpies by isothermal titration calorimetry in a low-affinity system has been developed, allowing analysis of the energetics of weak ligand binding using the ...
The MicroCal PEAQ-ITC is a highly sensitive, low volume isothermal titration calorimeter for the label-free in solution study of biomolecular interactions.
Three blended cements prepared by intergrinding 6-35% slag with clinker and gypsum, and a control portland cement, were sieved to yield 0-10 mu m, 10-30 mu m, 30-50 mu m, and ,50 mu m subgroups. Clinker/slag/gypsum contents, and oxide compositions of the subgroups differed significantly from the unsieved cements. Fine subgroups always contained more gypsum and had lower slag-to-clinker ratios than coarse subgroups. Heat evolution was investigated up to 48 h using isothermal calorimetry. Contribution of slag to early heat evolution was limited. 0-10 mu m particles evolved up to 5-10% of their heat in the first 30 min. Particle size affected the peak rate of heat evolution but not its timing. A linear relationship was observed between heat evolved from 0 to 24 h and from 24 h to 48 h. Median size or slag content of subgroups affected the positions of data points on this line. Heat evolved up to 24 h (or 48 h) was found to be closely related to particle size. Rate of heat development does not ...
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Dr. Toone is a physical organic chemist who studies relationships between structure and activity in the context of biology. Currently active programs exist in biocatalysis/applied enzymology, ligand binding and the activity of water, and the synthesis of novel donors of nitric oxide. The study of these problems makes use of synthetic organic chemistry, traditional enzymology, isothermal titration microcalorimetry, and the techniques of directed evolution.. ...
In the cement industry, the extrusion technique is used to produce flat shapes with improved resistance to compression. Extrusion is a plastic-forming process that consists of forcing a highly viscous plastic mixture through a shaped die. The material should be fluid enough to be mixed and to pass through the die, and on the other hand, the extruded specimen should be stiff enough to be handled without changing in shape or cracking. These characteristics are industrially obtained by adding cellulosic polymers to the mixture. The aim of this work is to understand the action mechanism of these additives on the major pure phases constituting a typical Portland cement: tricalcium silicate (C3S), dicalcium silicate (C2S), tricalcium aluminate (C(3)A), and tetracalcium iron-aluminate (C(4)AF). In particular, a methylhydroxyethyl cellulose (MHEC) was selected from the best-performing polymers for further study. The effect of this additive on the hydration kinetics (rate constants, activation energies, ...
I am a phD Student in Spain and i´m currently starting to work with ITC. What I want is to stablish Kd between my protein and some inhibitors. Actually I´m having quite a lot of problems because i´m not able to establish the optimal concentrations conditions to see the union. Could you explain me, please, how do you to to stablish which are your optimal conditions to work ...
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Biological phenomena in general involve molecular recognition on an intramolecular or intermolecular level. Intermolecular processes involve interaction between different types of macromolecules or between a macromolecule and small ligands.. Understanding the interplay between a macromolecular structure and the energetics of its stability and the binding of its partners relies on the knowledge of the parameters describing the equilibrium constant of the free energy, as a sum of enthalpy and entropy.. Modern calorimeters permit direct determination of enthalpy values for binding reactions and conformational transitions in biomolecules. Complete thermodynamics of free energy, enthalpy, and entropy are obtained for reactions of interest in a straightforward manner. Such data are of enormous value in drug design where they provide information about the balance of driving forces.. At the CBS, the Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is used to investigate all types of protein interactions, with an ...
We are organizing (again) a practical hands-on protein purification course from December 4th to 20th. We maximally can accommodate 16 participants, which will form groups of 2 to 4 participants. Each group needs 3 full days to go thru the practical exercises, but day 3 of the course will be overlapping with day 1 of the next group. Venue is Biomedicum Helsinki, rooms A516a1 (where the machinery is) and B318a/b (our lab). We will purify a protein (VEGF receptor 3) using a two-step protocol (affinity chromatography + gel filtration) on the the Äkta Avant FPLC device. On the third course day well assay its interaction with its ligand (VEGF-C) on the ITC (isothermal calorimetry) device. We have given a similar course in 2015 (http://www.helisci.fi/hbgs/FPLC2015/). This new course (https://courses.helsinki.fi/en/DPBM-135/120171139) will have a similar structure, but we expand it by one day to analyze protein interactions making use of the new isothermal calorimetry device of our B3P core facility. ...
Introduction. COMPARING THE ENTHALPY CHANGE OF COMBUSTION OF DIFFERENT ALCHOHOLS. Aim The aim of my experiment will be to find out which alcohols have a higher enthalpy change of combustion. The comparison of the enthalpy changes of these fuels will then determine the alcohol efficiency and effectiveness. I will experiment on the first 5 consecutive primary alcohols. These are; methanol, ethanol, propan-1-ol, butan-1-ol, pentan-1-ol and hexan-1-ol. The reason why I chose these fuels is because they are the most reliable and accurate fuels to compare within the group; which also have the smallest variable, add one carbon each time, to the aliphatic chain. All combustion reactions are exothermic which is why I am expecting all the values for the enthalpy change of combustion to always be negative. CH3OH + 1.5O2 CO2 + 2H2O METHANOL CH3CH 2OH+ 3O2 2CO2 + 3H2O ETHANOL CH3CH 2 CH 2OH+ 4.5O2 3CO2 + 4H2O PROPAN-1-OL CH3CH 2 CH 2 CH 2OH+ 6O2 4CO2 + 5H2O BUTAN-1-OL CH3CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2OH+ 7.5O2 5CO2 + ...
Chemokines are peptide ligands that activate G protein-coupled receptors and that bind glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) on the cell surface. Through these two interactions, chemokines participate in leukocyte migration and inflammatory signaling. Although studies of crystals and solution structures indicate that chemokines are dimers, various experiments with monomeric interleukin 8 (IL-8) suggest that the monomer may activate its GPCR, CXCR1. Fernando et al. provide in vitro evidence from isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and sedimentation equilibrium studies that IL-8 interacts with the N-terminal domain of CXCR1 (site 1) as a monomer. Sedimentation equilibration experiments showed a 1:1 stoichiometry and suggested that the dimeric IL-8 in solution must dissociate to bind the receptor peptide. ITC experiments supported the conclusion that the ligand dimer dissociated and then IL-8 bound to the receptor as a monomer. The authors propose that the dimeric IL-8 serves as a negative regulator for ...
For Ni/CeZrO catalyst prepared in supercritical isopropanol main features of methane dry reforming reaction mechanism were studied by the pulse microcalorimetric technique. The reaction scheme is described by a step-wise redox mechanism with independent stages of CH4 transformation on Ni/support interface producing syngas with participation of support oxygen bridging species (the rate-limiting stage) and fast reoxidation of support sites by CO2 yielding CO regenerating reactive oxygen species.
Divided into thirteen chapters, the book introduces readers to the basics of thermodynamics as it applies to calorimetry, the evolution of the calorimetric technique, as well as how calorimetric techniques are used in the thermodynamic studies of macromolecules, detailing instruments for measuring the heat effects of various processes.
Abstract: The formation constant (K) and thermodynamic parameters (ΔC.ΔH.ΔS) in reactions in which complexes of adenosine triphosphate with magnesium ion and calcium ion are formed have been obtained by a microcalorimetric method ...
Progression through S phase of the eukaryotic cell cycle is regulated by the action of the cyclin dependent protein kinase 2 (CDK2) in association with cyclin A. CDK2/cyclin A phosphorylates numerous substrates. Substrate specificity often employs a dual recognition strategy in which the sequence flanking the phospho-acceptor site (Ser.Pro.X.Arg/Lys) is recognized by CDK2, while the cyclin A component of the complex contains a hydrophobic site that binds Arg/Lys.X.Leu (RXL or KXL) substrate recruitment motifs. To determine additional sequence specificity motifs around the RXL sequence, we have performed X-ray crystallographic studies at 2.3 A resolution and isothermal calorimetry measurements on complexes of phospho-CDK2/cyclin A with a recruitment peptide derived from E2F1 and with shorter 11-mer peptides from p53, pRb, p27, E2F1, and p107. The results show that the cyclin recruitment site accommodates a second hydrophobic residue either immediately C-terminal or next adjacent to the ...
Progression through S phase of the eukaryotic cell cycle is regulated by the action of the cyclin dependent protein kinase 2 (CDK2) in association with cyclin A. CDK2/cyclin A phosphorylates numerous substrates. Substrate specificity often employs a dual recognition strategy in which the sequence flanking the phospho-acceptor site (Ser.Pro.X.Arg/Lys) is recognized by CDK2, while the cyclin A component of the complex contains a hydrophobic site that binds Arg/Lys.X.Leu (RXL or KXL) substrate recruitment motifs. To determine additional sequence specificity motifs around the RXL sequence, we have performed X-ray crystallographic studies at 2.3 A resolution and isothermal calorimetry measurements on complexes of phospho-CDK2/cyclin A with a recruitment peptide derived from E2F1 and with shorter 11-mer peptides from p53, pRb, p27, E2F1, and p107. The results show that the cyclin recruitment site accommodates a second hydrophobic residue either immediately C-terminal or next adjacent to the ...
The paper frankly discusses some of the limits of using enthalpy arrays. For example, since the fragment should be present at a higher concentration than enzyme, very tight binders would require unfeasibly low enzyme concentrations. This limits the practical range of the technique to inhibitors with KIs ranging from ~500 nM to 2 mM. Also, as Morgen G observed in a comment to the last post, this is more of a biochemical assay (monitoring the heat of an enzymatic reaction) rather than what most people think of when you say the word calorimetry (monitoring the heat of binding, as in the case of isothermal titration calorimetry). Still, enthalpy arrays seem pretty cool; hopefully folks will warm to them ...
When extremely low temperature calorimetry measurements are not necessary, BT2.15 can be equipped with a high performance chiller adapted to the users temperature range. -10 to 195 °C, -30 to 165 °C and -50 to 115 °C are already available. More can be made available on request.. High pressure cell ...
Ligand-mediated regulation of protein assembly occurs frequently in different cellular contexts. Auto-regulated assembly, where a ligand acts as its own competitive inhibitor, provides a mechanism for exquisite control of assembly. Unlike simple protein-ligand systems a quantification of the binding thermodynamics is not straightforward. Here, we characterize the interactions of a recently identified model system in which the oligomerization of cytochrome c is controlled by sulfonato-calix[8]arene, an anionic supramolecular scaffold. Isothermal titration calorimetry and thermodynamic modelling, in combination with Bayesian fitting, were used to quantify the ligand binding and assembly equilibria for this system. The approach and variations of this model may prove useful for the analysis of auto-regulated protein assembly in general ...
Thanks to cashmemorz for providing the following link:. https://brilliantlightpower.com/validation-report-of-275-kw-of-power-at-5-mw-liter-power-density-produced-by-the-suncell/. A news update on the Brilliant Light Power website reports that a validation of their SunCell technology has been carried out by Dr. Mark Nansteel Ph.D. University of California, Berkeley in March 2020, and he has written a report of his testing which can be accessed at this link:. https://brilliantlightpower.com/pdf/Waterbath_Calorimetry_Data_and_Analysis_031120.pdf. Dr. Nansteel writes in the Summary section of his report:. The energy flows and enthalpy changes essential to the calorimetric measurement were carefully measured in the tests. These measured quantities were subsequently used with rigorous statements of energy conservation to determine the energy released by the plasma. Here, the plasma energy is defined as energy released in excess of the conventional electrical energy dissipated between the ...
No binding heat in Substrate and Enzyme ITC - posted in Molecular Biology: Dear all, I did the ITC (isothermal titration calorimetry) between an enzyme with its known substrate on Microcal ITC200. The concentartion of the ligand (substarte) is 1mM; and the concentration of the enzyme is 100 uM; 1.8 ul/injection X 22 injection; However, there is no heat of binding observed in the raw data (isotherms). (dilution of substrate(substrate to buffer control) seems to consume some heat; dilution o...
Microcalorimetry and UV-vis spectroscopy were used to conduct thermodynamic and kinetic investigations of the scission of calf thymus DNA catalyzed by bleomycin A5 (BLM-A5) in the presence of ferrous ion and oxygen. The molar reaction enthalpy for the cleavage, the Michaelis- Menten constant for calf thymus DNA and the turnover number of BLM-A5 were calculated by a novel thermokinetic method for an enzyme-catalyzed reaction to be )577 ± 19 kJÆmol)1, 20.4 ± 3.8 lM and 2.28 ± 0.49 · 10)2 s)1, respectively, at 37.0 °C. This DNA cleavage was a largely exothermic reaction.... ...
Reaction calorimeters uncover potential safety issues and provide process information under using real time heat flow or heat flux calorimetry.
In the new paper, the researchers tried merging compound 1 with another fragment, compound 2, which also binds at two positions within the protein. Several merging strategies were attempted, and although they all stabilized the protein against thermal denaturation and could be characterized crystallographically bound to the protein, most were no better at blocking DNA binding than the original fragments. Compound 5, however, did show enhanced activity, and was the subject of additional SAR. This led to compound 15, which showed low micromolar binding by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and functional activity. (Oddly, compound 1 appeared to bind considerably more tightly by ITC than suggested by its functional activity, perhaps a result of having two binding sites.) The crystal structure of the optimized, merged compound bound to EthR revealed that compound 15 binds as expected (gray), overlaying with one copy each of compound 2 (magenta) and compound 1 (cyan ...
Characterizing the interactions and stability of biomolecules. Microcalorimetry is used to study reactions involving biomolecules, including interactions
Characterizing the interactions and stability of biomolecules. Microcalorimetry is used to study reactions involving biomolecules, including interactions
Ectodomain shedding of glycoprotein (GP) Ibα is thought to mediate the clearance of activated, aged or damaged platelets. A monoclonal antibody, 5G6, has been developed recently to specifically bind to the GPIbα shedding cleavage site and to inhibit its shedding. However, the molecular mechanism underlying antigen recognition and inhibitory specificity is not clear. To elucidate the structural basis for 5G6 binding to GPIbα, we determined the crystal structure of 5G6 Fab fragment in complex with its epitope peptide KL10 (GPIbα residues 461-470, KLRGVLQGHL), to 2.4-Å resolution. Key residues in both 5G6 and KL10 were mutated to validate their effects in antibody binding by using isothermal titration calorimetry. The 5G6 Fab-KL10 peptide complex structure confirmed the direct association of 5G6 with its target GPIbα residues and elucidated the molecular basis underlying its binding specificity and high affinity. The similar binding properties of 5G6 Fab fragment to GPIbα on human platelets ...
The project will start with the design and ordering of CooA (wild type/mutants) and its response element (wild type/mutants) sequences. CooA mutants were reported to have higher affinity for CO. They were included in our order to shorten CO response time if needed. Two promoters, PCOOF and PCOOM, were previously reported as strong and weak promoters of CooA. We will also design several PCOOF promoter mutants (point mutations). These mutants are expected to have changed affinity for CooA. Binding affinity of CooA and mutated promoters will be determined as a part of characterization work package which includes Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC), Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA) and Intrinsic Tryptophan Fluorescence (ITF). Following this, promoters with different CooA affinities will be coupled and constructs will be prepared for in-vivo cell sensor experiments ...
The project will start with the design and ordering of CooA (wild type/mutants) and its response element (wild type/mutants) sequences. CooA mutants were reported to have higher affinity for CO. They were included in our order to shorten CO response time if needed. Two promoters, PCOOF and PCOOM, were previously reported as strong and weak promoters of CooA. We will also design several PCOOF promoter mutants (point mutations). These mutants are expected to have changed affinity for CooA. Binding affinity of CooA and mutated promoters will be determined as a part of characterization work package which includes Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC), Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA) and Intrinsic Tryptophan Fluorescence (ITF). Following this, promoters with different CooA affinities will be coupled and constructs will be prepared for in-vivo cell sensor experiments ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Calorimetric measurements of sodium chloride dihydrate (hydrohalite). AU - Drebushchak, V. A.. AU - Ogienko, A. G.. N1 - Publisher Copyright: © 2019, Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary. Copyright: Copyright 2020 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2020/6/1. Y1 - 2020/6/1. N2 - Calorimetric measurements of sodium chloride dihydrate NaCl·2H2O (mineral name hydrohalite) were carried out with using DSC. Heat capacity from 190 to 250 K was measured and found to increase from 109 to 137 J mol−1 K−1. The enthalpy of formation of hydrohalite from solid ice and halite at 273.15 K was derived from the thermal effect of melting/decomposition in DSC measurements and found to be close to − 1.8 kJ mol−1. The same DSC results show clearly that the upper temperature limit for the existence of hydrohalite is several degrees greater than the current value of 273.15 K accepted for the peritectic decomposition of hydrohalite. The phase diagram of the NaCl-H2O system needs ...
Complexing between soy proteins (SP) and gum arabic (GA) was achieved by mutual titration of soy protein and gum arabic and was characterized using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), turbidity, sedimentation and ternary phase boundaries. In the first section, SP were titrated into GA (SP-to-GA titration) under salt-free condition (no added NaCl) at pH 3.0 and pH 5.6, respectively. ITC experiments displayed exothermic processes at both pH status, but the enthalpy changes (ΔH) at pH 3.0 was −0.70 ± 0.02 cal/g as compared to −0.10 ± 0.01 cal/g at pH 5.6. For SP-to-GA titration at pH 3.0, a sudden turbidity increase was observed at the critical SP/GA mass ratio (rφ) of 0.42, which was approximately equal to the charge density ratio of GA and SP (0.36), indicating the charge compensation was achieved at phase separation point. In the second part, GA was titrated into SP (GA-to-SP titration) under salt-free condition at pH 3.0. An immediate turbidity increase was observed when GA was ...
The general belief that chemical structure determines the biological effect of drugs has led to several techniques to establish structure-activity relationships (SAR) that is useful in the development of more active compounds. Predicting toxic effects based on SAR, one can obtain toxicological data with a low cost-benefit ratio. Chlorophenols that represent a class of toxic agents frequently used in industrial processes are not satisfactorily described in the literature in relation to their toxicity. The main objective of this work is to relate the microbial activities of phenol, anisole and their chlorinated derivatives on Chromobacterium violaceum respiration with their physicochemical properties. Anisole and its chlorinated derivatives were used to evaluate the influence of phenol acidity on biological activity. The calculations were carried out at the semi-empirical AM1 and ab initio DFT levels employing the basis sets CEP-31G, CEP-31+Ge CEP-31G** that were parameterized using the ...
Retroviral genome recognition is mediated by the nucleocapsid (NC) domain of the virally encoded Gag polyprotein, which interacts with cognate RNA packaging elements that typically reside within the 5-untranslated region (5-UTR) of the genome. Recent studies suggest that the packaging signal of Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV), a member of the human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV)/BLV family and a non-primate animal model for HTLV-induced leukemogenesis, comprises elements that reside within both the 5-UTR and gag open reading frame. The recombinant BLV NC protein has been prepared and purified. Electrophoretic mobility shift and isothermal titration calorimetry studies with RNA fragments corresponding to these proposed packaging elements have been conducted. The gag-derived RNAs did not exhibit significant affinity for NC, suggesting an alternate role in packaging. However, an 83-nucleotide fragment of the 5-UTR that resides just upstream of the gag start codon binds NC stoichiometrically and with ...
The binding of insulin to the G-quadruplexes formed by the consensus sequence of the insulin-linked polymorphic region (ILPR) was investigated with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). The thermal denaturation temperature of insulin was increased by almost 4 oC upon binding to ILPR G-quadruplex DNA as determined by DSC. The thermodynamic parameters (KD, H, G and S) of the insulin-G-quadruplex complex were further investigated by temperature-dependent ITC measurement over 10-37 °C. The binding of insulin to the ILPR consensus sequence displays micromolar affinity in phosphate buffer at pH 7.4, which and is mainly driven by entropic factors at below 25 °C but by enthalpic factors terms at above 30 °C. The interaction was also examined in several different buffers and results showed that observed H is dependent on the ionization enthalpy of the buffer used. This indicates proton release upon the binding of G-quadruplex DNA to insulin. ...
In: XXII International Conference on Raman Spectroscopy. American Institute of Physics, Melville, USA, pp. 839-840. ISBN 9780735408180 ISSN 0094-243X (doi:10.1063/1.3482842) Vine, G.J., Chowdhry, B.Z. and Mitchell, J.C. (2005) Antimicrobial properties of surface-active agents by flow calorimetry. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 57 (S1). S107-S107. ISSN 0022-3573 (Print), 2042-7158 (Online) (doi:10.1211/002235705778248406) Seidel, J., Pinkrah, V.T., Mitchell, J.C., Chowdhry, B.Z. and Snowden, M.J. (2004) Isothermal titration calorimetric studies of the acid-base properties of poly (N-isopropylacrylamide-co-4-vinylpyridine) cationic polyelectrolyte colloidal microgels. Thermochimica Acta, 414 (1). pp. 47-52. ISSN 0040-6031 (doi:10.1016/j.tca.2003.11.012) Pinkrah, V.T., Snowden, M.J., Mitchell, J.C., Seidel, J., Chowdhry, B.Z. and Fern, G.R. (2003) Physicochemical properties of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-4-vinylpyridine) cationic polyelectrolyte colloidal microgels. Langmuir, 19 (3). pp. ...
The purpose of this investigation was to further elucidate calorimetric properties of cartilage samples from femoral head necrosis and osteoarthritis from live surgeries. The natural course of this disease is one of steady progression with eventual collapse of the femoral head, followed by secondary osteoarthritis in the hip joint. All samples showed a clear denaturation peak on the calorimetric curve. Cartilage obtained from necrotic femoral head required the lowest amount of energy for decomposition. The use differential scanning calorimetry as part of thermal analysis was a reliable method for differentiating. ...
A novel method for the determination of the point of micellar saturation has been developed. To exemplify the theory a model system was considered, this being the saturation of two aqueous micellar solvents with dimethyl phthalate ester (DMP). Upon addition of a hydrophobic compound to an aqueous micellar system partitioning will occur. On further addition, the inner hydrophobic regions will eventually be unable to accommodate any more DMP and, at this specific concentration, the micelle is saturated. With a comparatively large enthalpy change upon partitioning the point of saturation can be determined by a corresponding significant reduction in enthalpy change.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Recognition of septanose carbohydrates by concanavalin A. AU - Castro, Steve. AU - Duff, Michael. AU - Snyder, Nicole L.. AU - Morton, Martha D. AU - Kumar, C. V.. AU - Peczuh, Mark W.. PY - 2005/11/7. Y1 - 2005/11/7. N2 - The ability of the jack bean lectin concanavalin A (ConA) to bind seven membered ring (septanose) monosaccharides has been investigated by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR spectroscopy.. AB - The ability of the jack bean lectin concanavalin A (ConA) to bind seven membered ring (septanose) monosaccharides has been investigated by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR spectroscopy.. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=27844440774&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=27844440774&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1039/b509243d. DO - 10.1039/b509243d. M3 - Article. VL - 3. SP - 3869. EP - 3872. JO - Organic and Biomolecular ...
Research Interests: Statistical genetics, data modeling and analysis Research experiences Undergraduate thesis: Study on epigenetical regulator CDYL - Feb 2017 - Jun 2017 Supervisor: Haitao LI, professor at Medical School, Tsinghua University - Cloned and got 8 CDYL point mutants, used isothermal titration to test their binding ability to the ligand Acetyl-CoA. Try to confirm the location of catalytic pocket in the amino acid sequence. - Purified and crystalized the CDYL-Acetyl-CoA compound and used x-ray to get structure information. Enrichment of low-abundance genes by engineered ttAgo - Aug 2015 - Dec 2016 Research student (RA), Supervisor: Haitao LI, professor at Medical School, Tsinghua University - Took charge of the TtAgo experiment, modified the purification of TtAgo; succeeded increasing enriching efficiency of low-abundance long noncoding RNA. - Proved the interaction effectiveness of ttAgo-gDNA-mRNA using negative gel electrophoresis and QPCR. - Summarized the process and results
0056]The system described with reference to FIG. 1 may be generalized to n display screens, as shown in FIG. 4. In this figure, the display system comprises n display screens 10 (where n is an integer number more than 2), each screen being controlled by a corresponding display unit 3. The correction system according to the invention comprises a calorimetric measurement and correction system using the separation line 12 between two adjacent screens. Each rank i measurement and correction system (where i is an integer number between 1 and n-1) includes a sensor 7 positioned facing a separation line 12 between two adjacent screens 10 with ranks i and i+1, this sensor being coupled to a calculation device 5 calculating the rank i calorimetric drift, which is connected to a rank i correction device 6, inserted in the control video system of the rank i+1 display unit 3. Therefore this system includes n-1 calorimetric measurement and correction systems, the rank 2 to n display units 3 being adjusted ...
31 P-NMR and Differential Scanning Calorimetry Studies for Determining Vesicleâ s Drug Physical State and Fraction in Alendronate Liposomes Abstract.
Yes, if youre talking about the simple calorimeters that are used in high school labs, which basically consist of thermometers suspended in a container filled with water. The difference between these calorimeters and bomb calorimeters is that simple calorimeters maintain a constant pressure (since its not completely enclosed, and gases can enter and exit the container), while bomb calorimeters maintain a constant volume (sealed so gases cannot flow between the system and the surroundings ...
CheY, the 129 amino acid chemotactic protein from Escherichia coli, is a good model for studies of folding of parallel alpha/beta proteins. We report here the thermodynamic characterization of the wild-type CheY at different pH values and in different buffers and denaturation conditions. The denaturation of CheY by urea monitored by circular dichroism and fluorescence fits the two-state unfolding model. The stability of the protein is ionic strength dependent, probably due to the presence of three Asp residues in very close proximity in its active site. The presence of a Mg2+ ion, which seems to interact with Asp 13 in the active site, stabilizes the native structure by up to 6.9 kJ mol-1. The CheY maximum stability (31.7 +/- 2.1 kJ mol-1), without magnesium, is reached at pH 5.1. Analysis of scanning calorimetry data has shown that temperature-induced unfolding of CheY is not a two-state process and proceeds through a highly populated intermediate state, corresponding to protein dimers, as was ...
The effect of copper(II) ions (Cu+2) on the structure of β-lactoglobulin (β-lg) was investigated spectroscopically using UV-visible, fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) and calorimetrically using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), at different temperatures. Results of the UV-visible studies showed that adding Cu+2 to β-lg solution caused increasing turbidity, indicative of protein aggregation. It was noticeable that the rate of increasing turbidity was directly proportional to increasing temperature. The far-UV CD studies displayed that the Cu+2 cannot induce any significant changes in the secondary structures of β-lg at different temperatures. Also, the ITC data indicated that the binding process of Cu+2 to β-lg is mainly entropically driven. The results highlight that copper ions cause the tertiary structure of β-lg to change and induce a slightly open structure leading to the formation of supramolecular aggregates in β-lg which may result in the reduced allergenicity of β-lg ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Thermodynamic study of the discrimination between uridine and thymidine derivatives by hydrophobic, stacking, and intercalating interactions. AU - Rekharsky, M. V.. AU - Nakamura, Asao. AU - Hembury, G. A.. AU - Inoue, Y.. PY - 2001/3. Y1 - 2001/3. N2 - Thermodynamic parameters for the complexation reactions of uridine/thymidine nucleobases and related compounds, with hosts of differing binding modes and properties (natural cyclodextrins, 5,10,15,20-tetrakis (1-methlpyridinium-4-yl) porphyrin tetrachloride and bis-intercaland macrocycle) have been determined by titration microcalorimetry and/or fluorometry, in an aqueous buffer. For each of these hosts the effect of the 5-methyl group on the binding affinities was investigated. Although the affinities of uridine and thymidine towards cyclodextrins and 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(1-methylpyridinium-4-yl)porphyrin tetrachloride are very similar, the intercalation of these compounds into the bis-intercaland macrocycle has been shown to ...
Global Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) Market 2020 research affords a number one review of the business enterprise inclusive of characterizations, companies, displays and organisation chain shape. The evaluation is recommended with Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) market trends research, evaluation additionally covers each the winning and earlier cutting-edge market developments, drivers and barriers faced through Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) Market.. Request a sample copy of the report : https://www.360marketupdates.com/enquiry/request-sample/14254679 Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) market research report provides the newest industry data and industry future trends, allowing you to identify the products and end users driving Revenue growth and profitability. The industry report lists the leading competitors and provides the insights strategic industry Analysis of the key factors influencing the market.The report includes the forecasts, Analysis and discussion ...
If you have a question about this talk, please contact Simon Hodgkin.. The Hitomi X-ray Observatory was launched on February 17 and lost on March 26th. In the meantime its Soft X-ray Spectrometer, a microcalorimeter operating at 50 mK, spent 3 days observing the Perseus cluster and measuring the velocity broadening of the hot intracluster gas to a precision of 10 km/s. This is one to two orders of magnitude better than achieved before and briefly opened the door on high resolution X-ray spectroscopy of extended objects.. This talk is part of the Institute of Astronomy Colloquia series.. ...
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Sodium atom in PDB 1uy1: Binding Sub-Site Dissection of A Family 6 Carbohydrate-Binding Module By X-Ray Crystallography and Isothermal Titration Calorimetry
In this thesis, the syntheses of oligosaccharides for interaction studies with various lectins are described. The first section reports the syntheses of tetra, tri- and disaccharides corresponding to truncated versions of the glucosylated arm of Glc1Man9(GlcNAc)2, found in the biosynthesis of N-glycans. The thermodynamic parameters of their interaction with calreticulin, a lectin assisting and promoting the correct folding of newly synthesised glycoproteins, were established by isothermal titration calorimetry. In the second section, a new synthetic pathway leading to the same tetra- and trisaccharides is discussed. Adoption of a convergent strategy and of a different protecting group pattern resulted in significantly increased yields of the target structures. The third section describes the syntheses of a number of monodeoxy-trisaccharides related to the above trisaccharide Glc-α-(1→3)-Man-α-(1→2)-Man-α-OMe. Differentsynthetic approaches were explored and the choice of early introduction ...
Introduction. The First Law of Thermodynamics states that energy can be neither created nor destroyed. This means that energy, instead of disappearing, is either transformed, transferred, dispersed, or dissipated. When energy is lost by a system, it will be acquired by the surroundings. Heat can be described as the amount of energy needed to cause the temperature of a substance to rise and it is transferred from warmer areas to cooler ones. In order to be able to measure the change in heat or enthalpy of a reaction, a colorimeter can be used. The calorimeter was first introduced in the 18th century and can be used with any procedure that involves the flow heat between a system and its surroundings (CACT). It is capable of measuring the heat created or exchanged after a reaction has occurred in a system with a constant pressure.. A calorimeter can be used to find the specific heat of a substance or even the heat of neutralization between a base and an acid. A basic calorimeter is composed of ...
Determination of stability constants of tauro- and glyco-conjugated bile salts with the negatively charged sulfobutylether-β-cyclodextrin: comparison of affinity capillary electrophoresis and isothermal titration calorimetry and thermodynamic analysis of the interaction. / Holm, René; Østergaard, Jesper; Schönbeck, Jens Christian Sidney; Jensen, Henrik; Shi, Wei; Peters, Günther H.J.; Westh, Peter.. In: Journal of Inclusion Phenomena and Macrocyclic Chemistry, Vol. 78, No. 1-4, 2014, p. 185-194.. Publication: Research - peer-review › Journal article - Annual report year: 2013 ...
The tumor suppressor protein, p53, is mutated or dysregulated in nearly all human cancers(1). The amino terminal domains are essential for transcriptional activation in stressed cells and play a vital role in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis and senescence. The transactivation (TAD) and proline rich domains in this region are dynamic and intrinsically disordered; lacking stable secondary or tertiary structure. This region contains multiple binding sites; arguably, the most significant of these is for p53s negative regulator, the E3 ligase, MDM2. An important, but less understood interaction involving the single stranded DNA binding protein, RPA70A, is hypothesized to be involved in maintaining genome integrity(2-4). Additionally, the amino terminus contains an important single nucleotide polymorphism that has demonstrated different affinity for MDM2 and is of significant biological importance in the induction of apoptosis (5). Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)
Hi Emily, Some direct methods are available to study the kinetics of protein to DNA binding. 1. Isothermal titration calorimetry. 2. Surface plasmon resonance. Both are widely used, but the second is easier in practice, to my opinion. You need a tag (His-tag will do) on your protein for it to be immobilized. You can measure kinetics very sensitively and quickly using these two techniques. Regards, Clement ...
Many proteins fibrillate at low pH despite a high population of charged side chains. Therefore exchange of protons between the fibrillating peptide and its surroundings may play an important role in fibrillation. Here, we use isothermal titration calorimetry to measure exchange of protons between buffer and the peptide hormone glucagon during fibrillation. Glucagon absorbs or releases protons to an extent which allows it to attain a net charge of zero in the fibrillar state, both at acidic and basic pH. Similar results are obtained for lysozyme. This suggests that side chain pKa values change dramatically in the fibrillar state ...
KtrAB is a key player in bacterial K+ uptake required for K+ homeostasis and osmoadaptation. The system is unique in structure and function. It consists of the K+-translocating channel subunit KtrB, which forms a dimer in the membrane, and the soluble regulatory subunit KtrA, which attaches to the cytoplasmic side of the dimer as an octameric ring conferring Na+ and ATP dependency to the system. Unlike most K+ channels, KtrB lacks the highly conserved T(X)GYG selectivity filter sequence. Instead, only a single glycine residue is found in each pore loop, which raises the question of how selective the ion channel is. Here, we characterized the KtrB subunit from the Gram-negative pathogen Vibrio alginolyticus by isothermal titration calorimetry, solid-supported membrane-based electrophysiology, whole-cell K+ uptake, and ACMA-based transport assays. We found that, despite its simple selectivity filter, KtrB selectively binds K+ with micromolar affinity. Rb+ and Cs+ bind with millimolar affinities. ...
Translational GTPases run the ribosomal cycle, and the ribosome talks back - it recruits the GTPases when it is a certain state, affects trGTPases affinity to G nucleotides and activates the GTP hydrolysis when needed. Using Isothermal Titration Calorimetry we showed that binding of GDP nucleotide and of SRL rRNA element to translational GTPases IF2 and EF-G are mutually exclusive. This suggests a neat mechanism for the destabilisation of the ribosome-bound GDP form of the GTPase: the moor has done his duty, the moor can go. ...
Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are a nano-scaled particulae material that has been shown to improve strength in cementitious pastes. One advantage of CNCs compared to other nano-materials is that CNCs are renewable and sustainable. The objective of this investigation is to investigate the influence of additional alkali content on the behavior of CNCs in cement paste. This work evaluates flexural and compressive strength as a function of heat of hydration-which measures the extent of reaction. Previous mechanical tests on cement paste containing cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) have shown CNCs to improve the flexural strength of cement paste by approximately 30%. Isothermal calorimetry testing showed that degree of hydration of the cement paste containing CNCs increases compared to the plain system. Since properties of cement composites are time dependent, specimens were tested at degree of hydration. The hypothesis of this work is that CNC will improve the strength gain as a function of hydration. In
The three most common cement s for rock injection in Norway were characterized in terms of grout flow properties, stability and initial set for w/c = 1.2, 1.0, 0.8 and 0.6 at 8 and 20°C. The fineness was characterized by Blaine, BET and particle size distribution (PSD). The test methods w ere bleeding, consistency (ring and Marsh Cone), setting by Vic at and temperature evolution in insulated cup. Additional rheology tests with parallel plate rheometer and isothermal calorimetry for hydration evolution were performed for mixes at 20°C only. Only one of the three cements tested could be utilized at all w /c levels ...
Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that studies the movement of heat between different objects.[1] Thermodynamics also studies the change in pressure and volume of objects. A branch of math called statistics is often used in thermodynamics to look at the motion of particles. Thermodynamics is useful because it helps us understand how the world of the very small atoms connects to the large scale world we see everyday. Thermodynamics also has two main branches called classical thermodynamics[2][3] and statistical thermodynamics.[4][5][6] An important idea in thermodynamics is that of a thermodynamic system. An example of a thermodynamic system is a brick. A brick is made up of many atoms which all have their own properties. All thermodynamic systems have two kinds of properties, extensive and intensive. For the brick, the extensive properties are the ones you get by adding up all the atoms. Things like the volume, energy, mass, and charge are extensive because two of the same brick put together ...
Author: Vollhardt, D. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2008-08-28; Title: Thermodynamic characterization of mixed monolayers of two similar amide amphiphiles different only by exchange of substituents position
ITC is a versatile method for the determination of ligand binding constants (KBs) in solution by measuring the binding heats that are released (enthalpic) or consumed (entropic). ITC is a very direct method which can be applied to a large diversity of ligand- receptor systems. The generated data reveal also the thermodynamic driving forces that give rise to ligand binding. It is therefore a very informative technology for structure based design of inhibitor molecules. An example of a set of ITC experiments is shown on the left. The figures shows the raw titration heats (upper panel) as well as the normalized binding heats (binding isotherm) for each injection on the lower panel as well as a non-linear least squares fit (solid line). Shown are three titration experiments (Bromodomain of BRD4): A) Bank titration (ligand into buffer, B) Inactive (-)-JQ1 stereo isomer. As expected no significant heat effects have been observed C) Active (+)-JQ1 showing exothermic strong binding (2).. ...
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Observed or Experimental value of colligative property when Vant Hoff factor is given calculator uses Experimental Value of Colligative Property=Vant Hoff Factor*Theoretical value of colligative property to calculate the Experimental Value of Colligative Property, The Observed or Experimental value of colligative property when Vant Hoff factor is given is calculated by multiplying Vant Hoff Factor with the theoretical value of colligative property.
What you write is correct about all reactions proceeding if starting with reactants only, these will decrease in concentration and products increase until equilibrium is reached. How long this takes is a matter for chemical kinetics not thermodynamics. Strictly speaking thermodynamics has nothing to say about this process as it deals only with equilibrium situations. Think of the word spontaneous in thermodynamics as not having the same meaning as the word used in general language, but describes only that $K_p , 1$ so that $\Delta G^{\mathrm{0}},0 $.. The graph below shows $\Delta G=\Delta G^\mathrm{0} +RT\ln(Q)$ where for a reaction $\ce{A ,=,B}$ at equilibrium $\displaystyle Q\equiv K_p=\frac{p_B}{p_A}$ where $p$s are the partial pressures. The $\Delta G$ is the gradient of $G$ with extent of reaction $\xi$ which is zero when only reactants are present and is $1$ when $1$ mole of reactants have been converted to products. Thus $\Delta G$ is the slope of the curve shown in the plot in the ...
However, in simple terms, it can be said, Systems that are in thermal equilibrium exist at the same temperature. Examples of how to use laws of thermodynamics in a sentence from the Cambridge Dictionary Labs All things in the observable universe are affected by and obey the Laws of Thermodynamics. The first law concerns the conservation of energy. Among them are the isobaric, isochoric, isothermal and adiabatic processes. The first, second and third laws helps to define the physical quantities that describes a thermodynamic system at thermodynamic … Two kg of air at 500kPa, 80°C expands adiabatically in a closed system until its volume is doubled and its temperature becomes equal to that of the surroundings which is at 100kPa and 5°C. Second law of thermodynamics: The entropy of any isolated system always increases. Thermodynamics, science of the relationship between heat, work, temperature, and energy. Thus, the Laws of Thermodynamics are the Laws of Heat Power. The law is based on ...
Extended indirect calorimetry as a physiological phenotyping tool in mouse nutritionalintervention studies, with a focus on metabolic programming by ...
When gases evolve during a chemical reaction, a fraction of the reaction heat is lost with them. We have analyzed, both theoretically and experimentally, the deviations that this effect can produce on the determination of the reaction heat by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It is shown that, even in the absence of gas overheating, deviations related to variations in the sample heat capacity can be substantial in experiments involving very intense DSC peaks. However, experiments performed on thermal decomposition of metal organic salts and on evaporation of liquids have shown that deviations usually arise from gas ...
lists a charge of 0 for both the aqueous proton and electron. Data in this this column are used in CHNOSZ only to specify the charge that is input to the g-function (Tanger and Helgeson, 1988; Shock and Helgeson, 1988). Setting it to zero prevents activation of the g-function, which would result in non-zero contributions to thermodynamic properties, conflicting with the conventions mentioned above. All other calculations in CHNOSZ obtain the elemental makeup, including the correct charge for the species, by parsing the chemical formulas stored in the database.^^. **Likewise, GEM-Selektor defines independent components to be stoichiometric units usually consisting of elements and charge; the latter, which is named Zz and has a standard molal entropy of -65.34 J/mol/K and heat capacity of -14.418 J/mol/K (negative one-half those of gaseous hydrogen), is negated in the formula of the fictive aqueous electron (Kulik, 2006).. ^^ Relatedly, charged amino acid sidechain groups have a charge ...
Video created by 肯塔基大学 for the course 化学. In this unit, we will learn about thermochemistry, which is the study of the thermal energy transfer (heat) in chemical reactions. We will learn how these measurements of heat are made via calorimetry. ...
When 22.7mL of o.500 M H2SO4 is added to 22.7mL of 1.00 M KOH in a coffee-cup calorimeter at 23.50 degrees Celsius, the temperature rises to 30.17 degrees Celsius. Calculate the delta h of this reaction. (Assume that the total volume ...
High-resoln. ac calorimetric data near the Curie point are reported for several single crystals of gadolinium. The crit. temp. and the shape of the heat-capacity curve near Tc both depend on the sample-prepn. procedure, including heat treatments. The heat-capacity data are analyzed in terms of predictions of renormalization-group theory. This anal. shows that the crit. behavior of Gd is consistent with the picture of a complex crit. behavior consisting of a series of crossovers dictated by the interplay between short-range and magnetic-dipolar interactions ...
Its has a lower density which suggests a lower weight for the calorimeter with pure CsI. Its higher refractive index indicates that it would be easier to achieve better light collection uniformity for tapered pure CsI crystals like the pion beta modules. Finally, pure CsI has a long nuclear interaction length and consequently, there would be fewer hadronic interactions in CsI, especially in the pion beta modules. Some other properties of undoped CsI include radiation hardness and temperature dependence of the light output. Wei and Zhu observed a continuous decrease in the light yield of undoped CsI after 1 kRads [Wei-92]. According to their findings, pure CsI can sustain high counting rates up to 10 kRads. Woody et al. reported an increase in the light yield and the decay time of the fast component of pure CsI, and a shift to longer wavelengths at low temperatures Woo-90. A tomography system has been designed and is in operation at the Paul Scherrer Institute with the objective to examine the ...
Get the latest calorimeters (monitoring and testing) news on Environmental XPRT, the worlds largest environmental industry marketplace and information resource.
Hesss law can be used to calculate enthalpy changes that are difficult to measure directly. In this video, well use Hesss law to calculate the enthalpy change for the formation of methane, CH₄, from solid carbon and hydrogen gas, a reaction that occurs too slowly to be measured in the laboratory.
Thermodynamics is a part of science which is related with heat, temperature and energy. It is concerned with various forms of energy and its mutual conversion. The Thermodynamic behavior of different quantities or matter is controlled by 4 laws of thermodynamics. In this universe there is always a relation between any matter and energy. Thermodynamics is applicable in wide range of Science, Technology and Engineering world.
The First Law of the Thermodynamics is related to the conservation of energy, while the Second Law of Thermodynamics argue that some of the thermodynamics processes are impermissible and does not entirely follow the First Law of Thermodynamics.
Mechanical Engineering Online course and notes for Metallurgical Thermodynamics & Kinetics,Third Law Of Thermodynamics. Download Mechanical Engineering, Third Law Of Thermodynamics in Metallurgical Thermodynamics & Kinetics notes
APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS BY MCCONKEY 5TH EDITION PDF - Applied Thermodynamics (5th Edition) by A Mc Conkey and T D Eastop is a very simple language thermodynamics book for various. Applied Thermodynamics. For
Calorimetry errors[edit]. The calculation of excess heat in electrochemical cells involves certain assumptions.[153] Errors in ... Wilson, R.H.; Bray, J.W.; Kosky, P.G.; Vakil, H.B.; Will, F.G. (1992), "Analysis of experiments on the calorimetry of LiOD-D2O ... Mengoli, G.; Bernardini, M.; Manduchi, C.; Zannoni, G. (1998), "Calorimetry close to the boiling temperature of the D2O/Pd ... Fleischmann, Martin; Pons, S. (1993), "Calorimetry of the Pd-D2O system: from simplicity via complications to simplicity", ...
"Calorimetry". ATLAS Technical Proposal. CERN. 1994. "Magnet system". ATLAS Technical Proposal. CERN. 1994. Aad, G.; (ATLAS ...
Borges Dos Santos, R. M.; Lagoa, A. L. C. C.; Martinho Simões, J. A. (1999). "Photoacoustic calorimetry. An examination of a ...
Calorimetry errors. The calculation of excess heat in electrochemical cells involves certain assumptions.[148] Errors in these ... Wilson, R.H.; Bray, J.W.; Kosky, P.G.; Vakil, H.B.; Will, F.G. (1992), "Analysis of experiments on the calorimetry of LiOD-D2O ... Shanahan, Kirk L. (23 May 2002), "A systematic error in mass flow calorimetry demonstrated", Thermochimica Acta, 382 (2): 95- ... Mengoli, G.; Bernardini, M.; Manduchi, C.; Zannoni, G. (1998), "Calorimetry close to the boiling temperature of the D2O/Pd ...
Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) may be used to determine both a pK value and the corresponding standard enthalpy for ... The standard enthalpy change can be determined by calorimetry or by using the van 't Hoff equation, though the calorimetric ...
"Calcon - Award History". calorimetry-conference.org. Retrieved 2021-01-17. "CIC Fellows" (PDF). Chemical Institute of Canada. ... 1993 Dalhousie University Faculty of Science Award for Excellence in Teaching 1994 Calorimetry Conference Sunner Memorial Award ...
The second was the study of electrical and thermal units using calorimetry techniques with Howard Turner Barnes. He also ... Callendar, Hugh Longbourne (1902). "Continuous electrical calorimetry". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A. 199 ...
McClellan WS, Du Bois EF (February 13, 1930). "Clinical Calorimetry: XLV. Prolonged Meat Diets With A Study Of Kidney Function ...
"Indirect Calorimetry" (PDF). "Techniques available for measuring energy expenditure". United Nations University. Weir, J. B. de ... The Weir formula is a formula used in indirect calorimetry, relating metabolic rate to oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide ...
Rudzitis, Edgars; Feder, Harold; Hubbard, Ward (November 1963). "Fluorine Bomb Calorimetry. VII. The Heat of Formation of ...
"Clinical Calorimetry: XLV. Prolonged Meat Diets With A Study Of Kidney Function And Ketosis" (PDF). J. Biol. Chem. 87 (3): 651- ...
Indirect calorimetry. Normal Glucose tolerance test. Normal Auditory brainstem response. Abnormal DEXA. Normal ...
Indirect calorimetry. Normal Glucose tolerance test. Normal Auditory brainstem response. Normal DEXA. Normal ...
Indirect calorimetry. Normal Glucose tolerance test. Normal Auditory brainstem response. Normal DEXA. Normal ...
Indirect calorimetry. Normal Glucose tolerance test. Normal Auditory brainstem response. Normal DEXA. Normal ...
Indirect calorimetry. Normal. Glucose tolerance test. Normal. Auditory brainstem response. Normal. DEXA. Normal. ...
Fabjan, Christian W.; Gianotti, Fabiola (2003-10-15). "Calorimetry for particle physics". Reviews of Modern Physics. 75 (4): ... "Calorimetry for particle physics" in the APS Physics Journal. Gianotti had to push past barriers to be successful in a male ...
Haines, Peter J. (2002). Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry. Royal Society of Chemistry. ISBN 9780854046102. Brown, M. E. (2001- ...
ISBN 0-8425-0145-2 Library of Congress Catalog Card 74-13074 Grime, J. K.; (1985) Analytical solution calorimetry. John Wiley ... Experiments in thermometric titrimetry and titration calorimetry. Brigham Young University Press, Provo, Utah. ...
"Calorimetry and Molar Enthalpy". Retrieved 2021-03-05. McGlashan, M. L. (2007-10-31). Chemical Thermodynamics: Volume 1. Royal ...
6 (3). "Isothermal Titration Calorimetry" (PDF). Calcutta University. 2016. Retrieved 3 October 2016. "NASI fellows". National ...
Awards Calorimetry Conference.org. 2013. De Groote M. 20 researchers at Utah universities are ranked among most cited Deseret ... Izatt received the Utah Award (1971) (Salt Lake Section, American Chemical Society); the Huffman Award (1983) (Calorimetry ... titration calorimetry in CH3OH at 25 °C, and selective crystallization. J. Org. Chem. 1982 vol 47 pp3362-3364. Davidson, R. et ... titration calorimetry in methanol, and selective crystallization) and to report K, ΔH, and ΔS values for the interactions, thus ...
Constant flux calorimetry (or COFLUX as it is often termed) is derived from heat balance calorimetry and uses specialized ... A calorimeter is an object used for calorimetry, or the process of measuring the heat of chemical reactions or physical changes ... Main article: Differential scanning calorimetry. In a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), heat flow into a sample-usually ... Constant-pressure calorimetry is used in determining the changes in enthalpy occurring in solution. Under these conditions the ...
"Indirect Calorimetry Data for Baz1b". Mouse Resources Portal. sanger.ac.uk. Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Body Composition ... Mutant mice showed increased activity, VO2 and energy expenditure, determined by indirect calorimetry. Radiography found teeth ...
"Indirect calorimetry data for Nsun2". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Glucose tolerance test data for Nsun2". Wellcome Trust ... and abnormal indirect calorimetry and plasma chemistry parameters. Males (but not females) were also infertile. In addition, ...
Isothermal titration calorimetry is commonly used to determine the values of both an equilibrium constant and the corresponding ... The advantages of isothermal titration calorimetry over the other commonly used techniques, apart from giving the entire set of ... Calorimetry, and Molecular Dynamics of Cyclodextrins with a Non-ionic Surfactant". Journal of Physical Chemistry B. 111 (17): ... When the data are obtained using an Isothermal titration calorimetry the software required for the calculations is supplied by ...
Therefore, the heat produced by some electrons hitting the aluminium disc was measured by calorimetry in order to directly ... "Calorimetry for particle physics" (PDF). Reviews of Modern Physics. 75 (4): 1243-1286. Bibcode:2003RvMP...75.1243F. doi:10.1103 ...
"Indirect calorimetry data for Akap9". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Glucose tolerance test data for Akap9". Wellcome Trust ...
"Indirect calorimetry data for Rad18". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "DEXA data for Rad18". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute ... Mutant male mice showed increased activity, VO2 and energy expenditure, determined by indirect calorimetry. Dual-energy X-ray ...
"Indirect calorimetry data for Dnase1l2". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "DEXA data for Dnase1l2". Wellcome Trust Sanger ... abnormal indirect calorimetry and femur/tibia morphology. Females also had an increased blood urea nitrogen level while males ...
... in a continuing series represents the compilation of papers presented at the International Symposium on Analytical Calorimetry ... Specific topics covering such techniques as differential scanning calorimetry, combined thermogravimetric procedures, dynamic ... in a continuing series represents the compilation of papers presented at the International Symposium on Analytical Calorimetry ...
... measures your daily resting energy expenditure (your calorie needs at rest). The handheld calorimeter ... An indirect calorimetry test requires two simple 10-minute breathing tests. It measures your daily resting energy expenditure ( ...
Calorimetry is performed with a calorimeter. The word calorimetry is derived from the Latin word calor, meaning heat and the ... Constant-volume calorimetry is calorimetry performed at a constant volume. This involves the use of a constant-volume ... Isothermal microcalorimetry (IMC) Isothermal titration calorimetry Sorption calorimetry Reaction calorimeter Reardon, Francis D ... Constant-volume calorimetry is calorimetry performed at a constant volume. This involves the use of a constant-volume ...
Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry is a fully peer reviewed journal publishing high quality papers covering all ... Formerly known as Journal of Thermal Analysis, Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry is published by Springer Science & ... Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry is a fully peer reviewed journal publishing high quality papers covering all ... Showcases cutting edge thermal analysis, calorimetry, and experimental thermodynamics. *Covers research performed in many areas ...
Indirect calorimetry. Energy metabolism is measured by means of indirect calorimetry. Indirect calorimetry is a method where ... Indirect calorimetry is combined with an on line technique to measure 13CO2 enrichment. The 13C enriched substrates can be used ... Furthermore, within the calorimetry facilities, in individually as well as in group-housing settings, we use a radar-Doppler ... The indirect calorimetry studies are performed at the the Climate Respiration Unit of the Department of Animal Sciences within ...
... but with regards to calorimetry? I dont know how to get the energy but I know how to get the molar enthalpy, but I am still ... Calorimetry [ 1 Answers ] A 56.3g sample of water was heated to 51.2 C and added to 45.8 g of 20.3 C water in a calorimeter, ... Calorimetry I did an experiment using a calorimeter to determine the energy produced when certain salts are mixed with water. ... Thermodynamics/Calorimetry Practice Problems [ 1 Answers ] I was wondering if someone might be able to check my answers to some ...
Respiratory indirect calorimetry, or indirect calorimetry (IC) as it is known by most authors, is a noninvasive and highly ... "Measuring RMR with Indirect Calorimetry (IC)." Nutr Clin Pract. 2007 Aug;22(4):377-88. "Measuring RMR with Indirect Calorimetry ... Indirect calorimetry, as we know it, was developed at the turn of the centurys as an application of thermodynamics to animal ... Indirect calorimetry is the method by which the type and rate of substrate utilization, and energy metabolism are estimated in ...
Differential scanning calorimetry, or DSC, is a thermoanalytical technique in which the difference in the amount of heat ...
The book is about calorimetry and thermal analysis methods, alone or linked to other techniques, as applied to the ... Calorimetry and Thermal Methods in Catalysis. Editors. * Aline Auroux Series Title. Springer Series in Materials Science. ... The book is about calorimetry and thermal analysis methods, alone or linked to other techniques, as applied to the ... Provides the basics of calorimetry and studies of physico-chemical properties with calorimetric measurements ...
Define photoacoustic calorimetry: Periodic interruptions of a light beam incident on an absorbing medium that produce heat, ... photoacoustic calorimetry. Periodic interruptions of a light beam incident on an absorbing medium that produce heat, expansion ...
Purchase Handbook of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, Volume 6 - 2nd Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780444640628, ... Handbook of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, Volume 6 2nd Edition. Recent Advances, Techniques and Applications. 0 star rating ... Fast scanning chip calorimetry. Christoph Schick and Renè Androsch. 19. Dilatometry Martin Hunkel, Holger surm, and Matthias ... He is a winner of the Mettler-Toledo Award in thermal analysis and of the James J. Christensen Award in calorimetry. Professor ...
Purchase Handbook of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, Volume 5 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780444531230, ... THE HANDBOOK OF THERMAL ANALYSIS AND CALORIMETRY 1. *THE LITERATURE OF THERMAL ANALYSIS AND CALORIMETRY 2 2.1. Books 2 2.2. ... Combustion calorimetry 542 2.3. Reaction calorimetry 550 2.4. Thermochemistry of phase changes 551 2.5. Additional techniques ... Handbook of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, Volume 5 1st Edition. Recent Advances, Techniques and Applications. Write a ...
One of the major advantages of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is that it depends on heat measurements, which make ... In this aspect, calorimetry is not an exceptional method. DSC is the method that often faces aggregation issues, which cannot ... One of the major advantages of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is that it depends on heat measurements, which make ... Using Differential Scanning Calorimetry to Expedite the Development of Optimized Therapeutic Protein Formulations. ...
adsorption-calorimetry definition: Noun (uncountable) 1. The study of the heat exchanged when molecules are adsorbed on a ... adsorption-calorimetry definition: Noun (uncountable) 1. The study of the heat exchanged when molecules are adsorbed on a ... "adsorption-calorimetry." YourDictionary, n.d. Web. 12 November 2018. ,https://www.yourdictionary.com/adsorption-calorimetry,. ... adsorption-calorimetry. (n.d.). Retrieved November 12th, 2018, from https://www.yourdictionary.com/adsorption-calorimetry ...
This tutorial describes the use of Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC) as a universal enzyme assay method. ...
More about Pennies And Calorimetry Lab Report. *. Mass Lab. 568 Words , 3 Pages ...
This is accomplished by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The technique makes use of the double melting point ... Determination of Degradation of Nylon 66 Using Differential Scanning Calorimetry. Published: 0 ...
Transcript of Experiment 1: A3 Bomb Calorimetry. Experiment A3 Introduction Using Bomb Calorimetry to Calculate the Resonance ... Bomb Calorimetry. Calibration. Examining Benzene. Experimental. Bomb Calorimeter Diagram. Results. C of our calorimeter. ... Knowing the heat of combustion of benzoic acid allows the calorimeter constant to be calculated Experimental Bomb Calorimetry ... Energy of Benzene Theory: Bomb Calorimetry Bomb Calorimeter. Digital image. Calorimetry. University of Florida, n.d. Web. 20 ...
Flash Differential Scanning Calorimetry revolutionizes rapid-scanning DSC. The Flash DSC 1 can analyze reorganization processes ... You are here: Home , Analytical Instruments , Thermal Analysis Excellence , Chip Calorimetry (Flash DSC) ... Safety analysis of a nitration reaction by DSC and reaction calorimetry. Safety is an important aspect in process development ... This article, describes how reaction calorimetry and DSC can be used to quickly assess the thermal hazard potential of ...
Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is the most frequently used thermal analysis ... Physics of Differential scanning calorimetry. Differences in heat flow arise when a sample absorbs or releases heat due to ... Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is the most frequently used thermal analysis tech-nique. DSC measures enthalpy changes ... Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is the most frequently used thermal analysis technique. DSC measures enthalpy changes ...
A method and apparatus for simultaneous differential scanning calorimetry and microdielectrometry is disclosed. The apparatus ... Apparatus for the calorimetry of chemical processes. DE3226803A1 *. Jul 17, 1982. Jan 19, 1984. Bayer Ag. Device for thermal ... Pressure perturbation calorimetry instruments and methods. US6561692. Jan 26, 2001. May 13, 2003. Ta Instruments-Waters Llc. ... Pressure perturbation calorimetry instruments and methods. US7044635 *. Dec 11, 2003. May 16, 2006. Rigaku Corporation. ...
This review discusses the use of isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) in the identification and characterisation of ... This article belongs to the Special Issue Isothermal Titration Calorimetry) View Full-Text , Download PDF [2273 KB, uploaded 19 ... Brown, A. Analysis of Cooperativity by Isothermal Titration Calorimetry. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2009, 10, 3457-3477. ... This review discusses the use of isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) in the identification and characterisation of ...
... Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) analysis and ...
Calorimetry. Calorimetry is the measuring of heat quantities that are linked to biological, chemical or physical processes both ... Calorimetry is used in many industries, including: food, construction material, raw materials, waste management, recycling, ...
The model was also useful in determining the nature of a calorimetry experiment and helped determine how high above the block ... and how much time a calorimetry experiment would require. Experiments using copper samples have confirmed the validity of the ... Small sample, low-temperature calorimetry Public Deposited Citeable URL:. http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_ ...
... this practical book begins by dealing with all fundamental aspects of calorimetry. The second part looks at the equipment... ... Microchip Calorimetry. Microchip Calorimetry. Extreme Ranges of State. Calorimetry as an Analytical and Diagnostic Tool. ... Definition of Calorimetry. Application Fields for Calorimetry. First Example from Life Sciences. Second Example from Material ... PART I: Fundamentals of Calorimetry. METHODS OF CALORIMETRY. Compensation of the Thermal Effect. Measurement of Temperature ...
Calvet-type high-temperature oxide melt solution calorimeter and drop solution experiment. Credit: JACerS; Wiley. There is some pretty interesting work underway …. ...
How to Calculate Heat Evolution in Constant Pressure Calorimetry. By Emilee Leach Feb 29, 2012 ... particularly in regard the measure of the ΔHrxn in constant-pressure calorimetry. Because these measurements require that one ...
Relative densities and heat capacity ratios have been measured for selected aqueous systems. These measurements have been used to calculate apparent molar volumes and heat capacities. Densities of aqueous sodium bromide have been measured from 374 to 522 K and 10.00 to 30.00 MPa using a recently developed high temperature and pressure vibrating tube densimeter. These data have been used to test the utility of an automated high temperature and pressure densimetric data analysis program. Apparent molar volumes and heat capacities of several aqueous rare earth sulphate systems at 298.15 K and 0.10 MPa have been reported, and discussed in terms of ionic contributions. Single ion partial molar volumes and heat capacities for aqueous trivalent rare earth species have been estimated in a review of apparent molar data from the literature and through the use of semi-empirical Debye-Huckel equation. These singles ion properties have subsequently been used to estimate the single ion properties of the ...
  • This tutorial describes the use of Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC) as a universal enzyme assay method. (genengnews.com)
  • This review discusses the use of isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) in the identification and characterisation of cooperativity in biological interactions. (mdpi.com)
  • In this work, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), cryo-TEM, and fluorescence spectroscopy were used to study the adsorption of three types of liposomes. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • In this work, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is used to study the binding between nucleotides and 14 different Ln3+ ions. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • We demonstrate that isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), using human plasma as substrate, overcomes several limitations of previously used techniques. (diva-portal.org)
  • Mutual titration of soy proteins and gum arabic and the complexing behavior studied by isothermal titration calorimetry, turbidity and ternary phase boundaries. (gc.ca)
  • Complexing between soy proteins (SP) and gum arabic (GA) was achieved by mutual titration of soy protein and gum arabic and was characterized using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), turbidity, sedimentation and ternary phase boundaries. (gc.ca)
  • All three meetings promise in-depth insight into the latest developments and applications for both isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), as well as advice on best practice and advanced data analysis. (labmanager.com)
  • Although the development of indirect calorimetry dates back over 200 years, its greatest use has been in the last two decades with the development of total parenteral nutrition, interdisciplinary nutrition support teams, and the production of portable, reliable, relatively inexpensive calorimeters. (wikipedia.org)
  • CHEF2019 is the third edition of the Calorimetry for High Energy Frontier (CHEF) conference series that started in 2013 with the goal to address the calorimeters development at the energy frontiers in physics including the use of high granularity, dual readout, and time information. (cern.ch)
  • Calorimeters are a tool used in calorimetric testing (calorimetry), which is the process of measuring heat, enthalpy or specific heat capacity for both chemical reactions and physical changes in a given system. (azosensors.com)
  • Calorimetry is performed with a calorimeter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heat generated by living organisms may also be measured by direct calorimetry, in which the entire organism is placed inside the calorimeter for the measurement. (wikipedia.org)
  • Experiment A3 Introduction Using Bomb Calorimetry to Calculate the Resonance Energy of Benzene Theory: Bomb Calorimetry Bomb Calorimeter. (prezi.com)
  • The model was also useful in determining the nature of a calorimetry experiment and helped determine how high above the block temperature the sample should be heated, how low the pressure inside the calorimeter should be, and how much time a calorimetry experiment would require. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Calorimeter concepts go beyond the detection aspects and therefore CHEF gives an important place to discuss energy reconstruction algorithms, simulation techniques, readout systems, and services in the calorimetry fields. (cern.ch)
  • There are two common types of Adiabatic calorimeter- Accelerating Rate Calorimetry (ARC) and Adiabatic Pressure Dewar Calorimetry (ADC). (azosensors.com)
  • Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry is a fully peer reviewed journal publishing high quality papers covering all aspects of thermal analysis, calorimetry, thermodynamics, heat and energy. (springer.com)
  • Indirect calorimetry, as we know it, was developed at the turn of the century's as an application of thermodynamics to animal life. (wikipedia.org)
  • The two major thrusts of this work are (1) an exploration of student approaches to solving calorimetry problems involving two substances with differing specific heats, and (2) a careful probing of student ideas regarding certain aspects of entropy and the second law of thermodynamics. (compadre.org)
  • I don't know how to get the energy but I know how to get the molar enthalpy, but I am still confused, if I calculate just for energy using q=mct I feel like I'm not taking into consideration everything regarding calorimetry. (askmehelpdesk.com)
  • The enthalpy for denaturation of a protein can be directly measured using calorimetry. (news-medical.net)
  • Bomb calorimetry is typically used to measure the enthalpy of combustion in a reaction. (azosensors.com)
  • Oxide-melt solution calorimetry of selenides: Enthalpy of formation of zinc, cadmium, and lead selenide" American Mineralogist , vol. 93, no. 5-6, 2008, pp. 779-783. (degruyter.com)
  • We characterize the simulated transitions through changes in structural properties, and we introduce a computational method to monitor changes in enthalpy, as is done experimentally with differential scanning calorimetry. (berkeley.edu)
  • Differential scanning calorimetry studies revealed strong relationships between onset and enthalpy values of all acorn tissues and percent germination, as did regressions involving moisture content and seed germination. (usda.gov)
  • Indirect calorimetry is a method where heat production and the type and rate of substrate utilization are estimated in vivo starting from gas (O2, CO2 and CH4) exchange measurements. (wur.nl)
  • Indirect calorimetry is the method by which the type and rate of substrate utilization, and energy metabolism are estimated in vivo starting from gas exchange measurements (carbon dioxide production and oxygen consumption during rest and steady-state exercise). (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the major advantages of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is that it depends on heat measurements, which make characterization of native biomolecules possible. (news-medical.net)
  • Calorimetry (adiabatic, isothermal, differential, oscillating or acoustic) is generally based on heat-flow measurements of the studied system. (epfl.ch)
  • Bursztein S, Saphar P, Singer P, Elwyn DH (1989) A mathematical analysis of indirect calorimetry measurements in acutely ill patients. (springer.com)
  • We present a scanning AC nanocalorimetry method that enables calorimetry measurements at heating and cooling rates that vary from isothermal to 2 × 10^3 K/s, thus bridging the gap between traditional scanning calorimetry of bulk materials and nanocalorimetry. (caltech.edu)
  • 31 P-NMR measurements utilizing Ga +3 as a shifting reagent in comparison to HPLC determinations, theoretical calculations and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies of various liposomal ALN formulations. (omicsonline.org)
  • Specific topics covering such techniques as differential scanning calorimetry, combined thermogravimetric procedures, dynamic mechan- ical analysis and a variety of novel kinetic analyses are covered. (springer.com)
  • Differential scanning calorimetry, or DSC, is a thermoanalytical technique in which the difference in the amount of heat required to increase the temperature of a sample and reference is measured as a function of temperature. (purdue.edu)
  • This is accomplished by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). (astm.org)
  • Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is the most frequently used thermal analysis technique. (mt.com)
  • Measurement principles Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measures the difference between the heat flows from the sample and reference sides of a sensor as a function of temperature or time. (mt.com)
  • See more than you ever thought possible with our advanced line of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) solutions. (perkinelmer.com)
  • Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) is a technique for understanding the stability of proteins and other biomolecules. (water-technology.net)
  • This paper describes the first application of ultrafast scanning calorimetry to the process of gelation in concentrated (40 wt%) aqueous gelatin solutions. (rsc.org)
  • We further employed ultrafast differential scanning calorimetry to explore the crystallization kinetics of In-doped Sb4Te, and found that In20(Sb4Te)80 component has the fastest crystallization rate (~ 7.1 m s-1 at 726.2 K). In20(Sb4Te)80 film exhibits high Tp (~ 503 K), better data retention ability (~ 418.7 K for 10 years), and ultrafast crystallization speed with strong non-Arrhenius behavior. (rsc.org)
  • Spectrum offers laboratory grade Differential Scanning Calorimetry Supplies from the industry's leading manufacturer Perkin Elmer. (spectrumchemical.com)
  • Whether you require a DSC Calibration reference Material or a Diamond DSC Loading Tool, Spectrum has the Differential Scanning Calorimetry Supplies solution for you. (spectrumchemical.com)
  • Recently, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has been acknowledged as a novel tool for diagnosing and monitoring several diseases. (nih.gov)
  • Using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and plate count (PC), growth of Escherichia coli was measured in four initial E. coli cell concentrations cultured in tryptic soy broth (TSB) at 35C. (edu.mx)
  • Fast Scanning Calorimetry (FSC) introduced by [2] brought vast possibilities for polymer vitrification and crystallization study. (aps.org)
  • We studied the cold-cap reactions of a representative waste glass feed using both the simultaneous differential scanning calorimetry thermogravimetry (DSC-TGA) and the thermogravimetry coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (TGA-GC-MS) as complementary tools to perform evolved gas analysis (EGA). (osti.gov)
  • Phase Transitions of Binary Lipid Mixtures: A Combined Study by Adiabatic Scanning Calorimetry and Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation Monitoring," Advances in Condensed Matter Physics , vol. 2015, Article ID 479318, 14 pages, 2015. (hindawi.com)
  • Thermotoga maritima AxeA represents the most thermostable acetyl xylan esterase known to date.Differential scanning calorimetry analysis of the thermal stability of AxeA corroborated its extreme heat resistance.A multi-phasic unfolding behaviour was found, with two apparent exothermic peaks at approximately 100-104 °C and 107.5 °C. (nih.gov)
  • The thermal stability of AxeA was further investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). (nih.gov)
  • Differential Scanning Calorimetry applied to bitumen: Results of the RILEM NBM TG1 Round Robin test. (nynas.com)
  • The application of Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) has been proven useful in characterizing bituminous binders, distillates and crude oils. (nynas.com)
  • Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to study the denaturation of this lectin as a function of pH that ranged from 2.0 to 3.0. (eurekamag.com)
  • This application note focuses on the utility of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to inform multiple aspects of the biotherapeutic development processes of IgG and IgE. (technologynetworks.com)
  • The THEMYS is available in various platforms: Standard Thermogravimetric Analysis ( TGA ), high pressure TGA , Simultaneous Thermal Analysis ( STA ) TG/DSC, Differential Thermal Analysis / Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DTA/DSC), and Evolved Gas Analysis (EGA). (setaram.com)
  • Heat resistance of viable but nonculturable Escherichia coli cells determined by differential scanning calorimetry. (edu.mx)
  • Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has been used to study the thermal resistance of culturable bacteria but has never been used to study VBNC cells. (edu.mx)
  • Figure 1: Schematic of the thermal core of a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) system shows reference and sample cells. (bioprocessintl.com)
  • One such technique currently attracting attention is differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). (bioprocessintl.com)
  • The crystallization of the amorphous form of this compound was investigated using Differential Scanning Calorimetry. (illinois.edu)
  • The indirect calorimetry studies are performed at the the Climate Respiration Unit of the Department of Animal Sciences within the Wageningen University. (wur.nl)
  • Indirect calorimetry studies have consistently reported a 100 ste·min −1 threshold for moderate intensity walking in adults. (humankinetics.com)
  • No indirect calorimetry studies have investigated step-rate thresholds in children and therefore the primary purpose of the study was to determine preliminary step-rate thresholds for moderate physical activity walking in children. (humankinetics.com)
  • The book is intended to fill the gap between the basic thermodynamic and kinetics concepts acquired by students during their academic formation, and the use of experimental techniques such as thermal analysis and calorimetry to answer practical questions. (springer.com)
  • The ability to perform calorimetry over such a broad range of scanning rates makes it an ideal tool to characterize the kinetics of phase transformations or to explore the behavior of materials far from equilibrium. (caltech.edu)
  • The book is about calorimetry and thermal analysis methods, alone or linked to other techniques, as applied to the characterization of catalysts, supports and adsorbents, and to the study of catalytic reactions in various domains: air and wastewater treatment, clean and renewable energies, refining of hydrocarbons, green chemistry, hydrogen production and storage. (springer.com)
  • How do you calculate the energy absorbed when mixing salts with water that produce an endothermic reaction, make thing the water cold, but with regards to calorimetry? (askmehelpdesk.com)
  • phase as well as applications and theory related to reaction calorimetry. (epfl.ch)
  • Paste specimens are often preferred for mechanistic research when details of individual reaction peaks are important or for particular calorimetry configurations. (astm.org)
  • Reaction calorimetry is a non-invasive, non-destructive, real-time technique that yields important kinetic data, as well as providing safety data for scale-up and hazardous processes. (azosensors.com)
  • Reaction calorimetry is an efficient tool used to obtain kinetic, thermodn. (epfl.ch)
  • reaction calorimetry in comparison with the classical liq. (epfl.ch)
  • This confirms that the employed heat balance model is correct and shows the important potential of reaction calorimetry for the promotion of supercrit. (epfl.ch)
  • reaction calorimetry as new tool for detn. (epfl.ch)
  • 669015-51-4P Role: PRP (Properties), SPN (Synthetic preparation), PREP (Preparation) (reaction calorimetry as new tool for detn. (epfl.ch)
  • Furthermore, within the calorimetry facilities, in individually as well as in group-housing settings, we use a radar-Doppler technique for continuous recording of physical activity of various animal species under various experimental conditions.Quantification of energy expenditure on physical activity is important because experimental treatments (e.g. diets, housing conditions) can affect animal behaviour. (wur.nl)
  • Face mask (breath by breath): Indirect calorimetry tests are also often performed with a face mask, which is used to convey exhaled and inhaled gas through a turbine flowmeter able to measure the patient's breath by breath minute ventilation, at the same time a sample of gas is conveyed to the analyser and VO2 and VCO2 are measured and converted in energy expenditure. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aim of this study was to examine the energy expenditure (EE) measured using indirect calorimetry (IC) during playground games and to assess the validity of heart rate (HR) and accelerometry counts as indirect indicators of EE in children´s physical activity games. (humankinetics.com)
  • Caloric expenditure was measured using indirect calorimetry at rest and at 30-min intervals OYer 3 hrs following each of three conditions: a 750-kcal liquid meal, high or low intensity exercise, and a 750-kcal liquid meal followed by high or low intensity exercise. (humankinetics.com)
  • Coss-Bu JA, Jefferson LS, Walding D, David Y, Smith EO, Klish WJ (1998) Resting energy expenditure in children in a pediatric intensive care unit: comparison of Harris-Benedict andTalbot predictions with indirect calorimetry values. (springer.com)
  • Indirect calorimetry calculates heat that living organisms produce by measuring either their production of carbon dioxide and nitrogen waste (frequently ammonia in aquatic organisms, or urea in terrestrial ones), or from their consumption of oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calorimetry is therefore a spirometry in which the consumption of oxygen and the production of carbon dioxide are measured sequentially. (cun.es)
  • calorimetry applied to the intrinsic properties of carbon dioxide in the liq. (epfl.ch)
  • By simultaneous calorimetry the amounts of oxidized substrates during normoxia and anoxia and the amount of excreted ethanol, the end product of incomplete anaerobic oxidation, as well as normoxic and anoxic carbon dioxide production were determined. (biologists.org)
  • To determine the relative contributions of glucose oxidation versus glucose storage by peripheral tissues following hyperinsulinemia, we performed euglycemic insulin clamp studies in combination with indirect calorimetry. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Thermochemistry is a branch of the field that many students find exceptionally challenging when taking their first chemistry class, particularly in regard the measure of the ΔH rxn in constant-pressure calorimetry. (infobarrel.com)
  • A trademark of KEP Technologies group SETARAM : leading manufacturer of calorimetry, thermal analysis and gas sorption. (setaram.com)
  • Hydration of hen egg white lysozyme was studied by using the method of sorption calorimetry at 25, 40, and 50degreesC. (lu.se)
  • Scottish physician and scientist Joseph Black, who was the first to recognize the distinction between heat and temperature, is said to be the founder of the science of calorimetry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calorimetry requires that a reference material that changes temperature have known definite thermal constitutive properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • The basic strategy in calorimetry is to use a temperature change and a heat capacity to determine a heat flow. (davidson.edu)
  • This "Thermalization Calorimetry" technique is based on monitoring the temperature and its rate of change during heating or cooling of a sample for which the thermal power input comes from heat conduction through an insulating material, i.e., is proportional to the temperature difference between sample and surroundings. (ruc.dk)
  • calorimetry - a method of measuring the quantity of heat transferred in a process. (gpb.org)
  • Flancbaum L, Choban PS, Sambucco S, Verducci J, Burge JC (1999) Comparison of indirect calorimetry, the Fick method, and predictive equations in estimating the energy requirements of critically ill patients. (springer.com)
  • J. M. Rodgers, J. Sorensen, F. J. M. de Meyer, B. Schiott, and B. Smit, Understanding the Phase Behavior of Coarse-Grained Model Lipid Bilayers through Computational Calorimetry J. Phys. (berkeley.edu)
  • The purpose of this study is to analyze whether calorimetry compared to conventional methods (i.e.blood culture systems)is superior to diagnose peritoneal dialysis related peritonitis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Calorimetry is the science or act of measuring changes in state variables of a body for the purpose of deriving the heat transfer associated with changes of its state due, for example, to chemical reactions, physical changes, or phase transitions under specified constraints. (wikipedia.org)
  • The word calorimetry is derived from the Latin word calor, meaning heat and the Greek word μέτρον (metron), meaning measure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heat flow calorimetry on the lab. (epfl.ch)
  • calorimetry used in measuring heat capacity of supercrit. (epfl.ch)
  • Simultaneous direct and indirect calorimetry together with biochemical determinations of metabolite concentrations were used to compare the normoxic and anoxic energy metabolism of goldfish at 20°C. The normoxic and anoxic heat production levels determined by direct calorimetry were in agreement with previous results: 700 and 200Jh −1 MW −1 , respectively (where MW is metabolic weight, kg 0.85 ). (biologists.org)
  • An emerging new field is concerned with the use of calorimetry in the presence of supercrit. (epfl.ch)
  • Baxter International Inc. (NYSE: BAX), a global leader in clinical nutrition, today announced the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) clearance of Q-NRG+ , a metabolic monitoring device utilizing indirect calorimetry (IC) technology. (baxter.com)
  • Energy Balance in Critically Ill Children With Severe Sepsis Using Indirect Calorimetry: A Prospective Cohort Study. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Sepsis Using Indirect Calorimetry: A Prospective Cohort Study. (bioportfolio.com)
  • 5.3 Although this technique has been used historically to understand issues related to setting and slump loss, it must be emphasized that isothermal calorimetry results cannot predict concrete performance definitely, either positively or negatively. (astm.org)
  • Formerly known as Journal of Thermal Analysis , Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry is published by Springer Science & Business Media in cooperation with Akadémiai Kiadó. (springer.com)
  • Indirect calorimetry is combined with an on line technique to measure 13CO2 enrichment. (wur.nl)
  • Conclusions: Indirect calorimetry could improve the reliability of lactose malabsorption diagnosis. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • By means of animal calorimetry we can estimate energy costs of living. (wur.nl)
  • We test the proton calorimetry hypothesis and estimate the observation time needed for a detection by Fermi for a range of assumptions about conditions in Arp 220. (wisc.edu)