Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.
The measurement of the quantity of heat involved in various processes, such as chemical reactions, changes of state, and formations of solutions, or in the determination of the heat capacities of substances. The fundamental unit of measurement is the joule or the calorie (4.184 joules). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Calculation of the energy expenditure in the form of heat production of the whole body or individual organs based on respiratory gas exchange.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Heat production, or its measurement, of an organism at the lowest level of cell chemistry in an inactive, awake, fasting state. It may be determined directly by means of a calorimeter or indirectly by calculating the heat production from an analysis of the end products of oxidation within the organism or from the amount of oxygen utilized.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The determination of the concentration of a given component in solution (the analyte) by addition of a liquid reagent of known strength (the titrant) until an equivalence point is reached (when the reactants are present in stoichiometric proportions). Often an indicator is added to make the equivalence point visible (e.g., a change in color).
Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A change of a substance from one form or state to another.
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
Synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers to study biological membranes. It is also a major constituent of PULMONARY SURFACTANTS.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
The temperature at which a substance changes from one state or conformation of matter to another.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.
Method of using a polycrystalline powder and Rietveld refinement (LEAST SQUARES ANALYSIS) of X-RAY DIFFRACTION or NEUTRON DIFFRACTION. It circumvents the difficulties of producing single large crystals.
A synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers for the study of biological membranes.
Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
Technique whereby the weight of a sample can be followed over a period of time while its temperature is being changed (usually increased at a constant rate).
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
The measure of that part of the heat or energy of a system which is not available to perform work. Entropy increases in all natural (spontaneous and irreversible) processes. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.
Usually inert substances added to a prescription in order to provide suitable consistency to the dosage form. These include binders, matrix, base or diluent in pills, tablets, creams, salves, etc.
Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
Relating to the size of solids.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.
Freedom from activity.
Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
A nitrogen-free class of lipids present in animal and particularly plant tissues and composed of one mole of glycerol and 1 or 2 moles of phosphatidic acid. Members of this group differ from one another in the nature of the fatty acids released on hydrolysis.
The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.
A cytosolic carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme found widely distributed in cells of almost all tissues. Deficiencies of carbonic anhydrase II produce a syndrome characterized by OSTEOPETROSIS, renal tubular acidosis (ACIDOSIS, RENAL TUBULAR) and cerebral calcification. EC 4.2.1.-
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of seven (7) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Method of tissue preparation in which the tissue specimen is frozen and then dehydrated at low temperature in a high vacuum. This method is also used for dehydrating pharmaceutical and food products.
A polyvinyl polymer of variable molecular weight; used as suspending and dispersing agent and vehicle for pharmaceuticals; also used as blood volume expander.
Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.
Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.
Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.
A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
A class of sphingolipids found largely in the brain and other nervous tissue. They contain phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine as their polar head group so therefore are the only sphingolipids classified as PHOSPHOLIPIDS.
Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.
The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.
A nonionic polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene block co-polymer with the general formula HO(C2H4O)a(-C3H6O)b(C2H4O)aH. It is available in different grades which vary from liquids to solids. It is used as an emulsifying agent, solubilizing agent, surfactant, and wetting agent for antibiotics. Poloxamer is also used in ointment and suppository bases and as a tablet binder or coater. (Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)
Measurement of the polarization of fluorescent light from solutions or microscopic specimens. It is used to provide information concerning molecular size, shape, and conformation, molecular anisotropy, electronic energy transfer, molecular interaction, including dye and coenzyme binding, and the antigen-antibody reaction.
The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The ability of a protein to retain its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to physical or chemical manipulations.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A homologous group of cyclic GLUCANS consisting of alpha-1,4 bound glucose units obtained by the action of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase on starch or similar substrates. The enzyme is produced by certain species of Bacillus. Cyclodextrins form inclusion complexes with a wide variety of substances.
Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
Nanometer-sized, hollow, spherically-shaped objects that can be utilized to encapsulate small amounts of pharmaceuticals, enzymes, or other catalysts (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechnology, 4th ed).
The accumulation of an electric charge on a object
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
A class of organic compounds which contain an anilino (phenylamino) group linked to a salt or ester of naphthalenesulfonic acid. They are frequently used as fluorescent dyes and sulfhydryl reagents.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.
Deacetylated CHITIN, a linear polysaccharide of deacetylated beta-1,4-D-glucosamine. It is used in HYDROGEL and to treat WOUNDS.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
The generation of heat in order to maintain body temperature. The uncoupled oxidation of fatty acids contained within brown adipose tissue and SHIVERING are examples of thermogenesis in MAMMALS.
Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
A plant genus of the family ASCLEPIADACEAE.
Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.
The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.
Conformational transitions of the shape of a protein to various unfolded states.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Deuterium. The stable isotope of hydrogen. It has one neutron and one proton in the nucleus.
A strong organic base existing primarily as guanidium ions at physiological pH. It is found in the urine as a normal product of protein metabolism. It is also used in laboratory research as a protein denaturant. (From Martindale, the Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed and Merck Index, 12th ed) It is also used in the treatment of myasthenia and as a fluorescent probe in HPLC.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Glucose in blood.
Methylester of cellulose. Methylcellulose is used as an emulsifying and suspending agent in cosmetics, pharmaceutics and the chemical industry. It is used therapeutically as a bulk laxative.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Materials in intermediate state between solid and liquid.
Removal of moisture from a substance (chemical, food, tissue, etc.).
The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.
Substances produced from the reaction between acids and bases; compounds consisting of a metal (positive) and nonmetal (negative) radical. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A naphthalene derivative with carcinogenic action.
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
A genus of the family Heteromyidae which contains 22 species. Their physiology is adapted for the conservation of water, and they seldom drink water. They are found in arid or desert habitats and travel by hopping on their hind limbs.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC 3.2.1.17.
Single membrane vesicles, generally made of PHOSPHOLIPIDS.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Maintenance of a constant blood glucose level by perfusion or infusion with glucose or insulin. It is used for the study of metabolic rates (e.g., in glucose, lipid, amino acid metabolism) at constant glucose concentration.
Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Salts and esters of the 12-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--lauric acid.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.
A cellulose derivative which is a beta-(1,4)-D-glucopyranose polymer. It is used as a bulk laxative and as an emulsifier and thickener in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals and as a stabilizer for reagents.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.
A component of NEOMYCIN that is produced by Streptomyces fradiae. On hydrolysis it yields neamine and neobiosamine B. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
A peroxide derivative that has been used topically for BURNS and as a dermatologic agent in the treatment of ACNE and POISON IVY DERMATITIS. It is used also as a bleach in the food industry.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
A computer simulation technique that is used to model the interaction between two molecules. Typically the docking simulation measures the interactions of a small molecule or ligand with a part of a larger molecule such as a protein.
Microscopy using polarized light in which phenomena due to the preferential orientation of optical properties with respect to the vibration plane of the polarized light are made visible and correlated parameters are made measurable.
The protein components of a number of complexes, such as enzymes (APOENZYMES), ferritin (APOFERRITINS), or lipoproteins (APOLIPOPROTEINS).
The two types of spaces between which water and other body fluids are distributed: extracellular and intracellular.
Abstaining from all food.
A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Globulins of milk obtained from the WHEY.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
The modification of the reactivity of ENZYMES by the binding of effectors to sites (ALLOSTERIC SITES) on the enzymes other than the substrate BINDING SITES.
Imaging the temperatures in a material, or in the body or an organ. Imaging is based on self-emanating infrared radiation (HEAT WAVES), or on changes in properties of the material or tissue that vary with temperature, such as ELASTICITY; MAGNETIC FIELD; or LUMINESCENCE.

Affinity modulation of small-molecule ligands by borrowing endogenous protein surfaces. (1/2376)

A general strategy is described for improving the binding properties of small-molecule ligands to protein targets. A bifunctional molecule is created by chemically linking a ligand of interest to another small molecule that binds tightly to a second protein. When the ligand of interest is presented to the target protein by the second protein, additional protein-protein interactions outside of the ligand-binding sites serve either to increase or decrease the affinity of the binding event. We have applied this approach to an intractable target, the SH2 domain, and demonstrate a 3-fold enhancement over the natural peptide. This approach provides a way to modulate the potency and specificity of biologically active compounds.  (+info)

Energy-based de novo protein folding by conformational space annealing and an off-lattice united-residue force field: application to the 10-55 fragment of staphylococcal protein A and to apo calbindin D9K. (2/2376)

The conformational space annealing (CSA) method for global optimization has been applied to the 10-55 fragment of the B-domain of staphylococcal protein A (protein A) and to a 75-residue protein, apo calbindin D9K (PDB ID code), by using the UNRES off-lattice united-residue force field. Although the potential was not calibrated with these two proteins, the native-like structures were found among the low-energy conformations, without the use of threading or secondary-structure predictions. This is because the CSA method can find many distinct families of low-energy conformations. Starting from random conformations, the CSA method found that there are two families of low-energy conformations for each of the two proteins, the native-like fold and its mirror image. The CSA method converged to the same low-energy folds in all cases studied, as opposed to other optimization methods. It appears that the CSA method with the UNRES force field, which is based on the thermodynamic hypothesis, can be used in prediction of protein structures in real time.  (+info)

Domain organization of flagellar hook protein from Salmonella typhimurium. (3/2376)

Hook forms a universal joint, which mediates the torque of the flagellar motor to the outer helical filaments. Domain organization of hook protein from Salmonella typhimurium was investigated by exploring thermal denaturation properties of its proteolytic fragments. The most stable part of hook protein involves residues 148 to 355 and consists of two domains, as revealed by deconvolution analysis of the calorimetric melting profiles. Residues 72-147 and 356-370 form another domain, while the terminal regions of the molecule, residues 1-71 and 371-403, avoid a compact tertiary structure in the monomeric state. These folding domains were assigned to the morphological domains of hook subunits known from EM image reconstructions, revealing the overall folding of hook protein in its filamentous state.  (+info)

Thermodynamics of the reconstitution of tuna cytochrome c from two peptide fragments. (4/2376)

Two peptide fragments from tuna cytochrome c (cyt c), N-fragment (residues 1-44 containing the heme) and C-fragment (residues 45-103), combine to form a 1:1 fragment complex. This was clearly proved by ion-spray mass spectrometry. It was found from CD and NMR spectra that the structure of the fragment complex formed is similar to that of an intact cyt c, although each isolated fragment itself is unstructured. Binding constants and enthalpies upon the complex formation were directly observed by isothermal titration calorimetry. Thermodynamic parameters (deltaG(o)b, deltaHb, deltaS(o)b, and deltaC(b)p)) associated with the complex formation were determined at various pHs and temperatures. DeltaHb was found to be almost independent of pH values. The change in heat capacity accompanying the complex formation (deltaC(b)p) was directly determined from the temperature dependence of deltaHb. In addition, the change in heat capacity and enthalpy upon tuna cyt c unfolding were determined by differential scanning calorimetry. Thermodynamic parameters for the unfolding/dissociation process of the fragment complex were compared with those for cyt c unfolding at pH 3.9 and 303 K. In a comparison of two unfolding processes, the heat capacity change of each was very close to the other, while both the unfolding enthalpy and entropy of the fragment complex were larger than those of tuna cyt c. These thermodynamic data suggest that the internal interactions between polar groups (hydrogen bonding) and nonpolar groups (van der Waals interactions) are preserved in the fragment complex as well as in the native state of cyt c.  (+info)

Time-resolved absorption and photothermal measurements with sensory rhodopsin I from Halobacterium salinarum. (5/2376)

An expansion accompanying the formation of the first intermediate in the photocycle of transducer-free sensory rhodopsin I (SRI) was determined by means of time-resolved laser-induced optoacoustic spectroscopy. For the native protein (SRI-WT), the absolute value of the expansion is approximately 5.5 mL and for the mutant SRI-D76N, approximately 1.5 mL per mol of phototransformed species (in 0.5 M NaCl), calculated by using the formation quantum yield for the first intermediate (S610) of Phi610 = 0.4 +/- 0.05 for SRI-WT and 0.5 +/- 0.05 for SRI-D76N, measured by laser-induced optoacoustic spectroscopy and by laser flash photolysis. The similarity in Phi610 and in the determined value of the energy level of S610, E610 = (142 +/- 12) kJ/mol for SRI-WT and SRI-D76N indicates that Asp76 is not directly involved in the first step of the phototransformation. The increase with pH of the magnitude of the structural volume change for the formation of S610 in SRI-WT and in SRI-D76N upon excitation with 580 nm indicates also that amino acids other than Asp76, and other than those related to the Schiff base, are involved in the process. The difference in structural volume changes as well as differences in the activation parameters for the S610 decay should be attributed to differences in the rigidity of the cavity surrounding the chromophore. Except for the decay of the first intermediate, which is faster than in the SRI-transducer complex, the rate constants of the photocycle for transducer-free SRI in detergent suspension are strongly retarded with respect to wild-type membranes (this comparison should be done with great care because the preparation of both samples is very different).  (+info)

Mechanical and chemical unfolding of a single protein: a comparison. (6/2376)

Is the mechanical unraveling of protein domains by atomic force microscopy (AFM) just a technological feat or a true measurement of their unfolding? By engineering a protein made of tandem repeats of identical Ig modules, we were able to get explicit AFM data on the unfolding rate of a single protein domain that can be accurately extrapolated to zero force. We compare this with chemical unfolding rates for untethered modules extrapolated to 0 M denaturant. The unfolding rates obtained by the two methods are the same. Furthermore, the transition state for unfolding appears at the same position on the folding pathway when assessed by either method. These results indicate that mechanical unfolding of a single protein by AFM does indeed reflect the same event that is observed in traditional unfolding experiments. The way is now open for the extensive use of AFM to measure folding reactions at the single-molecule level. Single-molecule AFM recordings have the added advantage that they define the reaction coordinate and expose rare unfolding events that cannot be observed in the absence of chemical denaturants.  (+info)

Interaction of heparin with annexin V. (7/2376)

The energetics and kinetics of the interaction of heparin with the Ca2+ and phospholipid binding protein annexin V, was examined and the minimum oligosaccharide sequence within heparin that binds annexin V was identified. Affinity chromatography studies confirmed the Ca2+ dependence of this binding interaction. Analysis of the data obtained from surface plasmon resonance afforded a Kd of approximately 21 nM for the interaction of annexin V with end-chain immobilized heparin and a Kd of approximately 49 nM for the interaction with end-chain immobilized heparan sulfate. Isothermal titration calorimetry showed the minimum annexin V binding oligosaccharide sequence within heparin corresponds to an octasaccharide sequence. The Kd of a heparin octasaccharide binding to annexin V was approximately 1 microM with a binding stoichiometry of 1:1.  (+info)

Glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in inactive inflammatory bowel disease. (8/2376)

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory mediator concentration was found to be increased in active inflammatory bowel disease, and this could be related to an insulin-resistant state. Moreover, glucocorticoids, which are widely used in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease, are notoriously related to insulin resistance. AIM: To measure body composition, whole body glucose uptake and oxidation in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis patients with inactive disease. METHODS: All patients had clinical, ultrasound and biochemical assessment. Body composition was determined by isotopic dilution technique; basal metabolic rate and substrate oxidation were measured by indirect calorimetry. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by the euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp. Ten patients with inactive Crohn's disease (five males, aged 31.1 +/- 7.0 years) and 10 patients with inactive ulcerative colitis (five males, aged 33.4 +/- 8.8 years) participated in the study. Forty healthy subjects, matched for age and height were used as a control group. RESULTS: Crohn's disease patients showed lower BMI (P < 0.001), fat mass (P < 0.05) and respiratory quotient (P < 0.001) values compared to both ulcerative colitis and control subjects. No difference in peripheral glucose uptake (micromol/kg/min) was found between groups (respectively 42.5 +/- 6.78 in Crohn's disease, 40.2 +/- 8.00 in ulcerative colitis and 41.4 +/- 10.8 in control subjects). Glucose storage and oxidation did not differ between groups. CONCLUSION: Our data showed that inflammatory bowel disease patients in a remission phase of the disease activity had a whole body glucose uptake and oxidation similar to those of control subjects, probably due to fat-free mass preservation and low blood and tissue cytokine concentration.  (+info)

Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is a thermoanalytical technique used to measure the difference in the amount of heat required to increase the temperature of a sample and a reference as a function of temperature. It is commonly used to study phase transitions, such as melting, crystallization, and glass transition, as well as chemical reactions, in a wide range of materials, including polymers, pharmaceuticals, and biological samples.

In DSC, the sample and reference are placed in separate pans and heated at a constant rate. The heat flow required to maintain this heating rate is continuously measured for both the sample and the reference. As the temperature of the sample changes during a phase transition or chemical reaction, the heat flow required to maintain the same heating rate will change relative to the reference. This allows for the measurement of the enthalpy change (ΔH) associated with the transition or reaction.

Differential scanning calorimetry is a powerful tool in materials science and research as it can provide information about the thermal behavior, stability, and composition of materials. It can also be used to study the kinetics of reactions and phase transitions, making it useful for optimizing processing conditions and developing new materials.

Calorimetry is the measurement and study of heat transfer, typically using a device called a calorimeter. In the context of medicine and physiology, calorimetry can be used to measure heat production or dissipation in the body, which can provide insight into various bodily functions and metabolic processes.

There are different types of calorimeters used for medical research and clinical applications, including direct and indirect calorimeters. Direct calorimetry measures the heat produced directly by the body, while indirect calorimetry estimates heat production based on oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production rates. Indirect calorimetry is more commonly used in clinical settings to assess energy expenditure and metabolic rate in patients with various medical conditions or during specific treatments, such as critical illness, surgery, or weight management programs.

In summary, calorimetry in a medical context refers to the measurement of heat exchange within the body or between the body and its environment, which can offer valuable information for understanding metabolic processes and developing personalized treatment plans.

Indirect calorimetry is a method used to estimate an individual's energy expenditure or metabolic rate. It does not directly measure the heat produced by the body, but instead calculates it based on the amount of oxygen consumed and carbon dioxide produced during respiration. The principle behind indirect calorimetry is that the body's energy production is closely related to its consumption of oxygen and production of carbon dioxide during cellular metabolism.

The most common application of indirect calorimetry is in measuring an individual's resting metabolic rate (RMR), which is the amount of energy required to maintain basic bodily functions while at rest. This measurement can be used to determine an individual's daily caloric needs and help guide weight loss or gain strategies, as well as assess nutritional status and health.

Indirect calorimetry can also be used in clinical settings to monitor the energy expenditure of critically ill patients, who may have altered metabolic rates due to illness or injury. This information can help healthcare providers optimize nutrition support and monitor recovery.

Overall, indirect calorimetry is a valuable tool for assessing an individual's energy needs and metabolic status in both healthy and clinical populations.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "thermodynamics" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is a branch of physics that deals with the relationships between heat and other forms of energy. However, the principles of thermodynamics can be applied to biological systems, including those in the human body, such as in the study of metabolism or muscle function. But in a medical context, "thermodynamics" would not be a term used independently as a diagnosis, treatment, or any medical condition.

Energy metabolism is the process by which living organisms produce and consume energy to maintain life. It involves a series of chemical reactions that convert nutrients from food, such as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, into energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

The process of energy metabolism can be divided into two main categories: catabolism and anabolism. Catabolism is the breakdown of nutrients to release energy, while anabolism is the synthesis of complex molecules from simpler ones using energy.

There are three main stages of energy metabolism: glycolysis, the citric acid cycle (also known as the Krebs cycle), and oxidative phosphorylation. Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell and involves the breakdown of glucose into pyruvate, producing a small amount of ATP and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). The citric acid cycle takes place in the mitochondria and involves the further breakdown of pyruvate to produce more ATP, NADH, and carbon dioxide. Oxidative phosphorylation is the final stage of energy metabolism and occurs in the inner mitochondrial membrane. It involves the transfer of electrons from NADH and other electron carriers to oxygen, which generates a proton gradient across the membrane. This gradient drives the synthesis of ATP, producing the majority of the cell's energy.

Overall, energy metabolism is a complex and essential process that allows organisms to grow, reproduce, and maintain their bodily functions. Disruptions in energy metabolism can lead to various diseases, including diabetes, obesity, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Basal metabolism, also known as basal metabolic rate (BMR) or resting metabolic rate (RMR), is the amount of energy expended by an organism at rest, in a neutrally temperate environment, while in the post-absorptive state. It is the minimum amount of energy required to maintain basic bodily functions such as breathing, heartbeat, and maintenance of body temperature.

The BMR is typically measured in units of energy per unit time, such as kilocalories per day (kcal/day) or watts (W). In humans, the BMR is usually around 10-15% of a person's total daily energy expenditure. It can vary depending on factors such as age, sex, body size and composition, and genetics.

The BMR can be measured in a variety of ways, including direct calorimetry, indirect calorimetry, or by using predictive equations based on factors such as age, weight, and height. It is an important concept in the study of energy balance, nutrition, and metabolism.

Temperature, in a medical context, is a measure of the degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment. It is usually measured using a thermometer and reported in degrees Celsius (°C), degrees Fahrenheit (°F), or kelvin (K). In the human body, normal core temperature ranges from about 36.5-37.5°C (97.7-99.5°F) when measured rectally, and can vary slightly depending on factors such as time of day, physical activity, and menstrual cycle. Elevated body temperature is a common sign of infection or inflammation, while abnormally low body temperature can indicate hypothermia or other medical conditions.

Titrimetry is a type of analytical technique used in chemistry and medicine to determine the concentration of a substance (analyte) in a solution. It involves a controlled addition of a reagent, called a titrant, with a known concentration and volume, into the analyte solution until the reaction between them is complete. This point is commonly determined by a change in the physical or chemical properties of the solution, such as a color change, which is indicated by a visual endpoint or an electrical endpoint using a pH or redox electrode.

The volume of titrant added is then used to calculate the concentration of the analyte using the stoichiometry of the reaction and the concentration of the titrant. Titrimetry is widely used in medical laboratories for various applications, such as determining the amount of active ingredients in pharmaceuticals, measuring the strength of acid or base solutions, and assessing the hardness of water.

Protein denaturation is a process in which the native structure of a protein is altered, leading to loss of its biological activity. This can be caused by various factors such as changes in temperature, pH, or exposure to chemicals or radiation. The three-dimensional shape of a protein is crucial for its function, and denaturation causes the protein to lose this shape, resulting in impaired or complete loss of function. Denaturation is often irreversible and can lead to the aggregation of proteins, which can have negative effects on cellular function and can contribute to diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's.

X-ray diffraction (XRD) is not strictly a medical definition, but it is a technique commonly used in the field of medical research and diagnostics. XRD is a form of analytical spectroscopy that uses the phenomenon of X-ray diffraction to investigate the crystallographic structure of materials. When a beam of X-rays strikes a crystal, it is scattered in specific directions and with specific intensities that are determined by the arrangement of atoms within the crystal. By measuring these diffraction patterns, researchers can determine the crystal structures of various materials, including biological macromolecules such as proteins and viruses.

In the medical field, XRD is often used to study the structure of drugs and drug candidates, as well as to analyze the composition and structure of tissues and other biological samples. For example, XRD can be used to investigate the crystal structures of calcium phosphate minerals in bone tissue, which can provide insights into the mechanisms of bone formation and disease. Additionally, XRD is sometimes used in the development of new medical imaging techniques, such as phase-contrast X-ray imaging, which has the potential to improve the resolution and contrast of traditional X-ray images.

Circular dichroism (CD) is a technique used in physics and chemistry to study the structure of molecules, particularly large biological molecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. It measures the difference in absorption of left-handed and right-handed circularly polarized light by a sample. This difference in absorption can provide information about the three-dimensional structure of the molecule, including its chirality or "handedness."

In more technical terms, CD is a form of spectroscopy that measures the differential absorption of left and right circularly polarized light as a function of wavelength. The CD signal is measured in units of millidegrees (mdeg) and can be positive or negative, depending on the type of chromophore and its orientation within the molecule.

CD spectra can provide valuable information about the secondary and tertiary structure of proteins, as well as the conformation of nucleic acids. For example, alpha-helical proteins typically exhibit a strong positive band near 190 nm and two negative bands at around 208 nm and 222 nm, while beta-sheet proteins show a strong positive band near 195 nm and two negative bands at around 217 nm and 175 nm.

CD spectroscopy is a powerful tool for studying the structural changes that occur in biological molecules under different conditions, such as temperature, pH, or the presence of ligands or other molecules. It can also be used to monitor the folding and unfolding of proteins, as well as the binding of drugs or other small molecules to their targets.

A phase transition in the context of medicine and physiology often refers to the transformation of a substance or matter from one state to another within the body, typically in relation to temperature or pressure changes. However, I couldn't find a widely accepted medical definition for "phase transition."

In physics and chemistry, a phase transition is a process where a thermodynamic system changes from one phase or state of matter to another, such as:

1. Solid to liquid (melting)
2. Liquid to gas (vaporization)
3. Gas to liquid (condensation)
4. Solid to gas (sublimation)
5. Changes between different crystalline structures of the same substance (polymorphic phase transitions)

While not a direct medical definition, these concepts are relevant in various biochemical and physiological processes, such as protein folding, cell membrane fluidity, and temperature regulation in the body.

Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is a type of infrared spectroscopy that uses the Fourier transform mathematical technique to convert the raw data obtained from an interferometer into a more interpretable spectrum. This technique allows for the simultaneous collection of a wide range of wavelengths, resulting in increased sensitivity and speed compared to traditional dispersive infrared spectroscopy.

FTIR spectroscopy measures the absorption or transmission of infrared radiation by a sample as a function of frequency, providing information about the vibrational modes of the molecules present in the sample. This can be used for identification and quantification of chemical compounds, analysis of molecular structure, and investigation of chemical interactions and reactions.

In summary, FTIR spectroscopy is a powerful analytical technique that uses infrared radiation to study the vibrational properties of molecules, with increased sensitivity and speed due to the use of Fourier transform mathematical techniques and an interferometer.

1,2-Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) is a type of phospholipid molecule that is a major component of the lipid bilayer in biological membranes, particularly in lung surfactant. It is composed of two palmitic acid chains attached to a glycerol backbone, which is linked to a phosphate group and a choline headgroup. The chemical formula for DPPC is C44H86NO8P.

In the body, DPPC plays an important role in maintaining the structure and function of cell membranes, as well as reducing surface tension in the lungs. It is also used in research and medical settings as a component of liposomes, which are used for drug delivery and other biomedical applications.

A lipid bilayer is a thin membrane made up of two layers of lipid molecules, primarily phospholipids. The hydrophilic (water-loving) heads of the lipids face outwards, coming into contact with watery environments on both sides, while the hydrophobic (water-fearing) tails point inward, away from the aqueous surroundings. This unique structure allows lipid bilayers to form a stable barrier that controls the movement of molecules and ions in and out of cells and organelles, thus playing a crucial role in maintaining cellular compartmentalization and homeostasis.

Transition temperature is a term used in the field of biophysics and physical chemistry, particularly in relation to the structure and properties of lipids and proteins. It does not have a specific application in general medicine or clinical practice. However, in the context of biophysics, transition temperature refers to the critical temperature at which a lipid bilayer or a protein molecule changes its phase or conformation.

For example, in the case of lipid bilayers, the transition temperature (Tm) is the temperature at which the membrane transitions from a gel phase to a liquid crystalline phase. In the gel phase, the lipid acyl chains are tightly packed and relatively immobile, while in the liquid crystalline phase, they are more disordered and can move more freely.

In the case of proteins, the transition temperature can refer to the temperature at which a protein undergoes a conformational change that affects its function or stability. For example, some proteins may denature or unfold at high temperatures, leading to a loss of function.

Overall, the transition temperature is an important concept in understanding how biological membranes and proteins respond to changes in temperature and other environmental factors.

Protein binding, in the context of medical and biological sciences, refers to the interaction between a protein and another molecule (known as the ligand) that results in a stable complex. This process is often reversible and can be influenced by various factors such as pH, temperature, and concentration of the involved molecules.

In clinical chemistry, protein binding is particularly important when it comes to drugs, as many of them bind to proteins (especially albumin) in the bloodstream. The degree of protein binding can affect a drug's distribution, metabolism, and excretion, which in turn influence its therapeutic effectiveness and potential side effects.

Protein-bound drugs may be less available for interaction with their target tissues, as only the unbound or "free" fraction of the drug is active. Therefore, understanding protein binding can help optimize dosing regimens and minimize adverse reactions.

In a medical context, "hot temperature" is not a standard medical term with a specific definition. However, it is often used in relation to fever, which is a common symptom of illness. A fever is typically defined as a body temperature that is higher than normal, usually above 38°C (100.4°F) for adults and above 37.5-38°C (99.5-101.3°F) for children, depending on the source.

Therefore, when a medical professional talks about "hot temperature," they may be referring to a body temperature that is higher than normal due to fever or other causes. It's important to note that a high environmental temperature can also contribute to an elevated body temperature, so it's essential to consider both the body temperature and the environmental temperature when assessing a patient's condition.

Molecular models are three-dimensional representations of molecular structures that are used in the field of molecular biology and chemistry to visualize and understand the spatial arrangement of atoms and bonds within a molecule. These models can be physical or computer-generated and allow researchers to study the shape, size, and behavior of molecules, which is crucial for understanding their function and interactions with other molecules.

Physical molecular models are often made up of balls (representing atoms) connected by rods or sticks (representing bonds). These models can be constructed manually using materials such as plastic or wooden balls and rods, or they can be created using 3D printing technology.

Computer-generated molecular models, on the other hand, are created using specialized software that allows researchers to visualize and manipulate molecular structures in three dimensions. These models can be used to simulate molecular interactions, predict molecular behavior, and design new drugs or chemicals with specific properties. Overall, molecular models play a critical role in advancing our understanding of molecular structures and their functions.

Medical technology, also known as health technology, refers to the use of medical devices, medicines, vaccines, procedures, and systems for the purpose of preventing, diagnosing, or treating disease and disability. This can include a wide range of products and services, from simple devices like tongue depressors and bandages, to complex technologies like MRI machines and artificial organs.

Pharmaceutical technology, on the other hand, specifically refers to the application of engineering and scientific principles to the development, production, and control of pharmaceutical drugs and medical devices. This can include the design and construction of manufacturing facilities, the development of new drug delivery systems, and the implementation of quality control measures to ensure the safety and efficacy of pharmaceutical products.

Both medical technology and pharmaceutical technology play crucial roles in modern healthcare, helping to improve patient outcomes, reduce healthcare costs, and enhance the overall quality of life for individuals around the world.

Powder diffraction is not a medical term, but rather a technique used in the field of materials science and physics. It refers to the analysis of the diffraction pattern produced when a beam of X-rays, neutrons, or electrons is shone onto a powdered sample of a material. The diffraction pattern provides information about the crystal structure and composition of the material, making it a valuable tool in the study of materials used in medical devices, pharmaceuticals, and other healthcare applications.

Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) is a type of phospholipid molecule that is commonly found in animal cell membranes. It is composed of two myristoyl fatty acid chains, a phosphate group, and a choline headgroup. DMPC has a gel-to-liquid crystalline phase transition temperature of around 23-25°C, which makes it a useful compound for studying the physical properties of lipid membranes and for creating model membrane systems in laboratory experiments.

Pharmaceutical chemistry is a branch of chemistry that deals with the design, synthesis, and development of chemical entities used as medications. It involves the study of drugs' physical, chemical, and biological properties, as well as their interactions with living organisms. This field also encompasses understanding the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) of drugs in the body, which are critical factors in drug design and development. Pharmaceutical chemists often work closely with biologists, medical professionals, and engineers to develop new medications and improve existing ones.

Solubility is a fundamental concept in pharmaceutical sciences and medicine, which refers to the maximum amount of a substance (solute) that can be dissolved in a given quantity of solvent (usually water) at a specific temperature and pressure. Solubility is typically expressed as mass of solute per volume or mass of solvent (e.g., grams per liter, milligrams per milliliter). The process of dissolving a solute in a solvent results in a homogeneous solution where the solute particles are dispersed uniformly throughout the solvent.

Understanding the solubility of drugs is crucial for their formulation, administration, and therapeutic effectiveness. Drugs with low solubility may not dissolve sufficiently to produce the desired pharmacological effect, while those with high solubility might lead to rapid absorption and short duration of action. Therefore, optimizing drug solubility through various techniques like particle size reduction, salt formation, or solubilization is an essential aspect of drug development and delivery.

Medical definitions of water generally describe it as a colorless, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for all forms of life. It is a universal solvent, making it an excellent medium for transporting nutrients and waste products within the body. Water constitutes about 50-70% of an individual's body weight, depending on factors such as age, sex, and muscle mass.

In medical terms, water has several important functions in the human body:

1. Regulation of body temperature through perspiration and respiration.
2. Acting as a lubricant for joints and tissues.
3. Facilitating digestion by helping to break down food particles.
4. Transporting nutrients, oxygen, and waste products throughout the body.
5. Helping to maintain healthy skin and mucous membranes.
6. Assisting in the regulation of various bodily functions, such as blood pressure and heart rate.

Dehydration can occur when an individual does not consume enough water or loses too much fluid due to illness, exercise, or other factors. This can lead to a variety of symptoms, including dry mouth, fatigue, dizziness, and confusion. Severe dehydration can be life-threatening if left untreated.

Protein conformation refers to the specific three-dimensional shape that a protein molecule assumes due to the spatial arrangement of its constituent amino acid residues and their associated chemical groups. This complex structure is determined by several factors, including covalent bonds (disulfide bridges), hydrogen bonds, van der Waals forces, and ionic bonds, which help stabilize the protein's unique conformation.

Protein conformations can be broadly classified into two categories: primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures. The primary structure represents the linear sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain. The secondary structure arises from local interactions between adjacent amino acid residues, leading to the formation of recurring motifs such as α-helices and β-sheets. Tertiary structure refers to the overall three-dimensional folding pattern of a single polypeptide chain, while quaternary structure describes the spatial arrangement of multiple folded polypeptide chains (subunits) that interact to form a functional protein complex.

Understanding protein conformation is crucial for elucidating protein function, as the specific three-dimensional shape of a protein directly influences its ability to interact with other molecules, such as ligands, nucleic acids, or other proteins. Any alterations in protein conformation due to genetic mutations, environmental factors, or chemical modifications can lead to loss of function, misfolding, aggregation, and disease states like neurodegenerative disorders and cancer.

Protein folding is the process by which a protein molecule naturally folds into its three-dimensional structure, following the synthesis of its amino acid chain. This complex process is determined by the sequence and properties of the amino acids, as well as various environmental factors such as temperature, pH, and the presence of molecular chaperones. The final folded conformation of a protein is crucial for its proper function, as it enables the formation of specific interactions between different parts of the molecule, which in turn define its biological activity. Protein misfolding can lead to various diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease.

Thermogravimetry (TG) is a technique used in materials science and analytical chemistry to measure the mass of a substance as a function of temperature while it is subjected to a controlled heating or cooling rate in a carefully controlled atmosphere. The sample is placed in a pan which is suspended from a balance and heated at a constant rate. As the temperature increases, various components of the sample may decompose, lose water, or evolve gases, resulting in a decrease in mass, which is recorded by the balance.

TG can be used to determine the weight loss due to decomposition, desorption, or volatilization, and to calculate the amount of various components present in a sample. It is often used in conjunction with other techniques such as differential thermal analysis (DTA) or differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to provide additional information about the thermal behavior of materials.

In summary, thermogravimetry is a method for measuring the mass changes of a material as it is heated or cooled, which can be used to analyze its composition and thermal stability.

Molecular conformation, also known as spatial arrangement or configuration, refers to the specific three-dimensional shape and orientation of atoms that make up a molecule. It describes the precise manner in which bonds between atoms are arranged around a molecular framework, taking into account factors such as bond lengths, bond angles, and torsional angles.

Conformational isomers, or conformers, are different spatial arrangements of the same molecule that can interconvert without breaking chemical bonds. These isomers may have varying energies, stability, and reactivity, which can significantly impact a molecule's biological activity and function. Understanding molecular conformation is crucial in fields such as drug design, where small changes in conformation can lead to substantial differences in how a drug interacts with its target.

Entropy, in the context of thermodynamics, is a measure of the number of specific ways in which a system may be arranged, often taken to be a measure of disorder or randomness. The entropy of a system increases as the number of possible arrangements of its particles increases. It is usually denoted by the letter S and measured in units of joules per kelvin (J/K).

However, I must clarify that 'Entropy' is not a medical term. It is a concept from the field of thermodynamics, which is a branch of physics. Entropy has been applied to various fields including information theory and statistical mechanics but it does not have a specific medical definition.

Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) is a non-invasive diagnostic technique that provides information about the biochemical composition of tissues, including their metabolic state. It is often used in conjunction with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to analyze various metabolites within body tissues, such as the brain, heart, liver, and muscles.

During MRS, a strong magnetic field, radio waves, and a computer are used to produce detailed images and data about the concentration of specific metabolites in the targeted tissue or organ. This technique can help detect abnormalities related to energy metabolism, neurotransmitter levels, pH balance, and other biochemical processes, which can be useful for diagnosing and monitoring various medical conditions, including cancer, neurological disorders, and metabolic diseases.

There are different types of MRS, such as Proton (^1^H) MRS, Phosphorus-31 (^31^P) MRS, and Carbon-13 (^13^C) MRS, each focusing on specific elements or metabolites within the body. The choice of MRS technique depends on the clinical question being addressed and the type of information needed for diagnosis or monitoring purposes.

Drug compounding is the process of combining, mixing, or altering ingredients to create a customized medication to meet the specific needs of an individual patient. This can be done for a variety of reasons, such as when a patient has an allergy to a certain ingredient in a mass-produced medication, or when a patient requires a different dosage or formulation than what is available commercially.

Compounding requires specialized training and equipment, and compounding pharmacists must follow strict guidelines to ensure the safety and efficacy of the medications they produce. Compounded medications are not approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), but the FDA does regulate the ingredients used in compounding and has oversight over the practices of compounding pharmacies.

It's important to note that while compounding can provide benefits for some patients, it also carries risks, such as the potential for contamination or incorrect dosing. Patients should only receive compounded medications from reputable pharmacies that follow proper compounding standards and procedures.

Phosphatidylcholines (PtdCho) are a type of phospholipids that are essential components of cell membranes in living organisms. They are composed of a hydrophilic head group, which contains a choline moiety, and two hydrophobic fatty acid chains. Phosphatidylcholines are crucial for maintaining the structural integrity and function of cell membranes, and they also serve as important precursors for the synthesis of signaling molecules such as acetylcholine. They can be found in various tissues and biological fluids, including blood, and are abundant in foods such as soybeans, eggs, and meat. Phosphatidylcholines have been studied for their potential health benefits, including their role in maintaining healthy lipid metabolism and reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease.

In the context of medical and biological sciences, a "binding site" refers to a specific location on a protein, molecule, or cell where another molecule can attach or bind. This binding interaction can lead to various functional changes in the original protein or molecule. The other molecule that binds to the binding site is often referred to as a ligand, which can be a small molecule, ion, or even another protein.

The binding between a ligand and its target binding site can be specific and selective, meaning that only certain ligands can bind to particular binding sites with high affinity. This specificity plays a crucial role in various biological processes, such as signal transduction, enzyme catalysis, or drug action.

In the case of drug development, understanding the location and properties of binding sites on target proteins is essential for designing drugs that can selectively bind to these sites and modulate protein function. This knowledge can help create more effective and safer therapeutic options for various diseases.

X-ray crystallography is a technique used in structural biology to determine the three-dimensional arrangement of atoms in a crystal lattice. In this method, a beam of X-rays is directed at a crystal and diffracts, or spreads out, into a pattern of spots called reflections. The intensity and angle of each reflection are measured and used to create an electron density map, which reveals the position and type of atoms in the crystal. This information can be used to determine the molecular structure of a compound, including its shape, size, and chemical bonds. X-ray crystallography is a powerful tool for understanding the structure and function of biological macromolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids.

Secondary protein structure refers to the local spatial arrangement of amino acid chains in a protein, typically described as regular repeating patterns held together by hydrogen bonds. The two most common types of secondary structures are the alpha-helix (α-helix) and the beta-pleated sheet (β-sheet). In an α-helix, the polypeptide chain twists around itself in a helical shape, with each backbone atom forming a hydrogen bond with the fourth amino acid residue along the chain. This forms a rigid rod-like structure that is resistant to bending or twisting forces. In β-sheets, adjacent segments of the polypeptide chain run parallel or antiparallel to each other and are connected by hydrogen bonds, forming a pleated sheet-like arrangement. These secondary structures provide the foundation for the formation of tertiary and quaternary protein structures, which determine the overall three-dimensional shape and function of the protein.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Tertiary protein structure refers to the three-dimensional arrangement of all the elements (polypeptide chains) of a single protein molecule. It is the highest level of structural organization and results from interactions between various side chains (R groups) of the amino acids that make up the protein. These interactions, which include hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, van der Waals forces, and disulfide bridges, give the protein its unique shape and stability, which in turn determines its function. The tertiary structure of a protein can be stabilized by various factors such as temperature, pH, and the presence of certain ions. Any changes in these factors can lead to denaturation, where the protein loses its tertiary structure and thus its function.

Drug stability refers to the ability of a pharmaceutical drug product to maintain its physical, chemical, and biological properties during storage and use, under specified conditions. A stable drug product retains its desired quality, purity, strength, and performance throughout its shelf life. Factors that can affect drug stability include temperature, humidity, light exposure, and container compatibility. Maintaining drug stability is crucial to ensure the safety and efficacy of medications for patients.

Body composition refers to the relative proportions of different components that make up a person's body, including fat mass, lean muscle mass, bone mass, and total body water. It is an important measure of health and fitness, as changes in body composition can indicate shifts in overall health status. For example, an increase in fat mass and decrease in lean muscle mass can be indicative of poor nutrition, sedentary behavior, or certain medical conditions.

There are several methods for measuring body composition, including:

1. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This method uses low-level electrical currents to estimate body fat percentage based on the conductivity of different tissues.
2. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This method uses low-dose X-rays to measure bone density and body composition, including lean muscle mass and fat distribution.
3. Hydrostatic weighing: This method involves submerging a person in water and measuring their weight underwater to estimate body density and fat mass.
4. Air displacement plethysmography (ADP): This method uses air displacement to measure body volume and density, which can be used to estimate body composition.

Understanding body composition can help individuals make informed decisions about their health and fitness goals, as well as provide valuable information for healthcare providers in the management of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and heart disease.

Body temperature regulation, also known as thermoregulation, is the process by which the body maintains its core internal temperature within a narrow range, despite varying external temperatures. This is primarily controlled by the hypothalamus in the brain, which acts as a thermostat and receives input from temperature receptors throughout the body. When the body's temperature rises above or falls below the set point, the hypothalamus initiates responses to bring the temperature back into balance. These responses can include shivering to generate heat, sweating to cool down, vasodilation or vasoconstriction of blood vessels to regulate heat loss, and changes in metabolic rate. Effective body temperature regulation is crucial for maintaining optimal physiological function and overall health.

Excipients are inactive substances that serve as vehicles or mediums for the active ingredients in medications. They make up the bulk of a pharmaceutical formulation and help to stabilize, preserve, and enhance the delivery of the active drug compound. Common examples of excipients include binders, fillers, coatings, disintegrants, flavors, sweeteners, and colors. While excipients are generally considered safe and inert, they can sometimes cause allergic reactions or other adverse effects in certain individuals.

A drug carrier, also known as a drug delivery system or vector, is a vehicle that transports a pharmaceutical compound to a specific site in the body. The main purpose of using drug carriers is to improve the efficacy and safety of drugs by enhancing their solubility, stability, bioavailability, and targeted delivery, while minimizing unwanted side effects.

Drug carriers can be made up of various materials, including natural or synthetic polymers, lipids, inorganic nanoparticles, or even cells and viruses. They can encapsulate, adsorb, or conjugate drugs through different mechanisms, such as physical entrapment, electrostatic interaction, or covalent bonding.

Some common types of drug carriers include:

1. Liposomes: spherical vesicles composed of one or more lipid bilayers that can encapsulate hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs.
2. Polymeric nanoparticles: tiny particles made of biodegradable polymers that can protect drugs from degradation and enhance their accumulation in target tissues.
3. Dendrimers: highly branched macromolecules with a well-defined structure and size that can carry multiple drug molecules and facilitate their release.
4. Micelles: self-assembled structures formed by amphiphilic block copolymers that can solubilize hydrophobic drugs in water.
5. Inorganic nanoparticles: such as gold, silver, or iron oxide nanoparticles, that can be functionalized with drugs and targeting ligands for diagnostic and therapeutic applications.
6. Cell-based carriers: living cells, such as red blood cells, stem cells, or immune cells, that can be loaded with drugs and used to deliver them to specific sites in the body.
7. Viral vectors: modified viruses that can infect cells and introduce genetic material encoding therapeutic proteins or RNA interference molecules.

The choice of drug carrier depends on various factors, such as the physicochemical properties of the drug, the route of administration, the target site, and the desired pharmacokinetics and biodistribution. Therefore, selecting an appropriate drug carrier is crucial for achieving optimal therapeutic outcomes and minimizing side effects.

Liposomes are artificially prepared, small, spherical vesicles composed of one or more lipid bilayers that enclose an aqueous compartment. They can encapsulate both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs, making them useful for drug delivery applications in the medical field. The lipid bilayer structure of liposomes is similar to that of biological membranes, which allows them to merge with and deliver their contents into cells. This property makes liposomes a valuable tool in delivering drugs directly to targeted sites within the body, improving drug efficacy while minimizing side effects.

In the context of medical and health sciences, particle size generally refers to the diameter or dimension of particles, which can be in the form of solid particles, droplets, or aerosols. These particles may include airborne pollutants, pharmaceutical drugs, or medical devices such as nanoparticles used in drug delivery systems.

Particle size is an important factor to consider in various medical applications because it can affect the behavior and interactions of particles with biological systems. For example, smaller particle sizes can lead to greater absorption and distribution throughout the body, while larger particle sizes may be filtered out by the body's natural defense mechanisms. Therefore, understanding particle size and its implications is crucial for optimizing the safety and efficacy of medical treatments and interventions.

Hydrogen-ion concentration, also known as pH, is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. It is defined as the negative logarithm (to the base 10) of the hydrogen ion activity in a solution. The standard unit of measurement is the pH unit. A pH of 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acidic, and greater than 7 is basic.

In medical terms, hydrogen-ion concentration is important for maintaining homeostasis within the body. For example, in the stomach, a high hydrogen-ion concentration (low pH) is necessary for the digestion of food. However, in other parts of the body such as blood, a high hydrogen-ion concentration can be harmful and lead to acidosis. Conversely, a low hydrogen-ion concentration (high pH) in the blood can lead to alkalosis. Both acidosis and alkalosis can have serious consequences on various organ systems if not corrected.

Oxygen consumption, also known as oxygen uptake, is the amount of oxygen that is consumed or utilized by the body during a specific period of time, usually measured in liters per minute (L/min). It is a common measurement used in exercise physiology and critical care medicine to assess an individual's aerobic metabolism and overall health status.

In clinical settings, oxygen consumption is often measured during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) to evaluate cardiovascular function, pulmonary function, and exercise capacity in patients with various medical conditions such as heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other respiratory or cardiac disorders.

During exercise, oxygen is consumed by the muscles to generate energy through a process called oxidative phosphorylation. The amount of oxygen consumed during exercise can provide important information about an individual's fitness level, exercise capacity, and overall health status. Additionally, measuring oxygen consumption can help healthcare providers assess the effectiveness of treatments and rehabilitation programs in patients with various medical conditions.

Fluorescence spectrometry is a type of analytical technique used to investigate the fluorescent properties of a sample. It involves the measurement of the intensity of light emitted by a substance when it absorbs light at a specific wavelength and then re-emits it at a longer wavelength. This process, known as fluorescence, occurs because the absorbed energy excites electrons in the molecules of the substance to higher energy states, and when these electrons return to their ground state, they release the excess energy as light.

Fluorescence spectrometry typically measures the emission spectrum of a sample, which is a plot of the intensity of emitted light versus the wavelength of emission. This technique can be used to identify and quantify the presence of specific fluorescent molecules in a sample, as well as to study their photophysical properties.

Fluorescence spectrometry has many applications in fields such as biochemistry, environmental science, and materials science. For example, it can be used to detect and measure the concentration of pollutants in water samples, to analyze the composition of complex biological mixtures, or to study the properties of fluorescent nanomaterials.

A chemical model is a simplified representation or description of a chemical system, based on the laws of chemistry and physics. It is used to explain and predict the behavior of chemicals and chemical reactions. Chemical models can take many forms, including mathematical equations, diagrams, and computer simulations. They are often used in research, education, and industry to understand complex chemical processes and develop new products and technologies.

For example, a chemical model might be used to describe the way that atoms and molecules interact in a particular reaction, or to predict the properties of a new material. Chemical models can also be used to study the behavior of chemicals at the molecular level, such as how they bind to each other or how they are affected by changes in temperature or pressure.

It is important to note that chemical models are simplifications of reality and may not always accurately represent every aspect of a chemical system. They should be used with caution and validated against experimental data whenever possible.

Enzyme stability refers to the ability of an enzyme to maintain its structure and function under various environmental conditions, such as temperature, pH, and the presence of denaturants or inhibitors. A stable enzyme retains its activity and conformation over time and across a range of conditions, making it more suitable for industrial and therapeutic applications.

Enzymes can be stabilized through various methods, including chemical modification, immobilization, and protein engineering. Understanding the factors that affect enzyme stability is crucial for optimizing their use in biotechnology, medicine, and research.

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Biomolecular is a research technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to study the structure and dynamics of biological molecules, such as proteins and nucleic acids. This technique measures the magnetic properties of atomic nuclei within these molecules, specifically their spin, which can be influenced by the application of an external magnetic field.

When a sample is placed in a strong magnetic field, the nuclei absorb and emit electromagnetic radiation at specific frequencies, known as resonance frequencies, which are determined by the molecular structure and environment of the nuclei. By analyzing these resonance frequencies and their interactions, researchers can obtain detailed information about the three-dimensional structure, dynamics, and interactions of biomolecules.

NMR spectroscopy is a non-destructive technique that allows for the study of biological molecules in solution, which makes it an important tool for understanding the function and behavior of these molecules in their natural environment. Additionally, NMR can be used to study the effects of drugs, ligands, and other small molecules on biomolecular structure and dynamics, making it a valuable tool in drug discovery and development.

Medical Definition of Rest:

1. A state of motionless, inactivity, or repose of the body.
2. A period during which such a state is experienced, usually as a result of sleep or relaxation.
3. The cessation of mental or physical activity; a pause or interval of rest is a period of time in which one does not engage in work or exertion.
4. In medical contexts, rest may also refer to the treatment or management strategy that involves limiting physical activity or exertion in order to allow an injury or illness to heal, reduce pain or prevent further harm. This can include bed rest, where a person is advised to stay in bed for a certain period of time.
5. In physiology, rest refers to the state of the body when it is not engaged in physical activity and the muscles are at their resting length and tension. During rest, the body's systems have an opportunity to recover from the demands placed on them during activity, allowing for optimal functioning and overall health.

In the context of medical terminology, "powders" do not have a specific technical definition. However, in a general sense, powders refer to dry, finely ground or pulverized solid substances that can be dispersed in air or liquid mediums. In medicine, powders may include various forms of medications, such as crushed tablets or capsules, which are intended to be taken orally, mixed with liquids, or applied topically. Additionally, certain medical treatments and therapies may involve the use of medicated powders for various purposes, such as drying agents, abrasives, or delivery systems for active ingredients.

"Energy intake" is a medical term that refers to the amount of energy or calories consumed through food and drink. It is an important concept in the study of nutrition, metabolism, and energy balance, and is often used in research and clinical settings to assess an individual's dietary habits and health status.

Energy intake is typically measured in kilocalories (kcal) or joules (J), with one kcal equivalent to approximately 4.184 J. The recommended daily energy intake varies depending on factors such as age, sex, weight, height, physical activity level, and overall health status.

It's important to note that excessive energy intake, particularly when combined with a sedentary lifestyle, can lead to weight gain and an increased risk of chronic diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. On the other hand, inadequate energy intake can lead to malnutrition, decreased immune function, and other health problems. Therefore, it's essential to maintain a balanced energy intake that meets individual nutritional needs while promoting overall health and well-being.

Phosphatidylethanolamines (PE) are a type of phospholipid that are abundantly found in the cell membranes of living organisms. They play a crucial role in maintaining the structural integrity and functionality of the cell membrane. PE contains a hydrophilic head, which consists of an ethanolamine group linked to a phosphate group, and two hydrophobic fatty acid chains. This unique structure allows PE to form a lipid bilayer, where the hydrophilic heads face outwards and interact with the aqueous environment, while the hydrophobic tails face inwards and interact with each other.

PE is also involved in various cellular processes, such as membrane trafficking, autophagy, and signal transduction. Additionally, PE can be modified by the addition of various functional groups or molecules, which can further regulate its functions and interactions within the cell. Overall, phosphatidylethanolamines are essential components of cellular membranes and play a critical role in maintaining cellular homeostasis.

Phosphatidylglycerols are a type of glycerophospholipids, which are major components of biological membranes. They are composed of a glycerol backbone to which two fatty acid chains and a phosphate group are attached. In the case of phosphatidylglycerols, the phosphate group is linked to a glycerol molecule through an ester bond, forming a phosphoglyceride.

Phosphatidylglycerols are unique because they have an additional glycerol molecule attached to the phosphate group, making them more complex than other glycerophospholipids such as phosphatidylcholine or phosphatidylethanolamine. This additional glycerol moiety can be further modified by the addition of various headgroups, leading to the formation of different subclasses of phosphatidylglycerols.

In biological membranes, phosphatidylglycerols are often found in the inner leaflet of the mitochondrial membrane and play important roles in maintaining the structure and function of this organelle. They have also been implicated in various cellular processes such as membrane fusion, protein trafficking, and bacterial cell wall biosynthesis.

Biophysical phenomena refer to the observable events and processes that occur in living organisms, which can be explained and studied using the principles and methods of physics. These phenomena can include a wide range of biological processes at various levels of organization, from molecular interactions to whole-organism behaviors. Examples of biophysical phenomena include the mechanics of muscle contraction, the electrical activity of neurons, the transport of molecules across cell membranes, and the optical properties of biological tissues. By applying physical theories and techniques to the study of living systems, biophysicists seek to better understand the fundamental principles that govern life and to develop new approaches for diagnosing and treating diseases.

Carbonic anhydrase II (CA-II) is a specific isoform of the carbonic anhydrase enzyme, which catalyzes the reversible reaction between carbon dioxide and water to form carbonic acid. This enzyme plays a crucial role in various physiological processes, including pH regulation, electrolyte balance, and biosynthetic reactions.

CA-II is widely distributed in the body, with high concentrations found in erythrocytes (red blood cells), the gastric mucosa, and renal tubules. In erythrocytes, CA-II facilitates the rapid conversion of carbon dioxide generated during cellular respiration to bicarbonate and protons, which can then be transported across the cell membrane for excretion or used in other metabolic processes.

In the gastric mucosa, CA-II helps regulate acid secretion by catalyzing the formation of carbonic acid from water and carbon dioxide, which subsequently dissociates into bicarbonate and a proton. The generated proton can then participate in the production of hydrochloric acid in the stomach.

In renal tubules, CA-II is involved in the reabsorption of bicarbonate ions from the filtrate back into the bloodstream, helping maintain electrolyte balance and pH homeostasis. Additionally, CA-II has been implicated in several pathological conditions, such as neurological disorders, cancer, and osteoporosis, making it a potential therapeutic target for drug development.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Artificial membranes are synthetic or man-made materials that possess properties similar to natural biological membranes, such as selective permeability and barrier functions. These membranes can be designed to control the movement of molecules, ions, or cells across them, making them useful in various medical and biotechnological applications.

Examples of artificial membranes include:

1. Dialysis membranes: Used in hemodialysis for patients with renal failure, these semi-permeable membranes filter waste products and excess fluids from the blood while retaining essential proteins and cells.
2. Hemofiltration membranes: Utilized in extracorporeal circuits to remove larger molecules, such as cytokines or inflammatory mediators, from the blood during critical illnesses or sepsis.
3. Drug delivery systems: Artificial membranes can be used to encapsulate drugs, allowing for controlled release and targeted drug delivery in specific tissues or cells.
4. Tissue engineering: Synthetic membranes serve as scaffolds for cell growth and tissue regeneration, guiding the formation of new functional tissues.
5. Biosensors: Artificial membranes can be integrated into biosensing devices to selectively detect and quantify biomolecules, such as proteins or nucleic acids, in diagnostic applications.
6. Microfluidics: Artificial membranes are used in microfluidic systems for lab-on-a-chip applications, enabling the manipulation and analysis of small volumes of fluids for various medical and biological purposes.

Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet (UV-Vis) is a type of spectrophotometry that measures how much ultraviolet (UV) and visible light is absorbed or transmitted by a sample. It uses a device called a spectrophotometer to measure the intensity of light at different wavelengths as it passes through a sample. The resulting data can be used to determine the concentration of specific components within the sample, identify unknown substances, or evaluate the physical and chemical properties of materials.

UV-Vis spectroscopy is widely used in various fields such as chemistry, biology, pharmaceuticals, and environmental science. It can detect a wide range of substances including organic compounds, metal ions, proteins, nucleic acids, and dyes. The technique is non-destructive, meaning that the sample remains unchanged after the measurement.

In UV-Vis spectroscopy, the sample is placed in a cuvette or other container, and light from a source is directed through it. The light then passes through a monochromator, which separates it into its component wavelengths. The monochromatic light is then directed through the sample, and the intensity of the transmitted or absorbed light is measured by a detector.

The resulting absorption spectrum can provide information about the concentration and identity of the components in the sample. For example, if a compound has a known absorption maximum at a specific wavelength, its concentration can be determined by measuring the absorbance at that wavelength and comparing it to a standard curve.

Overall, UV-Vis spectrophotometry is a versatile and powerful analytical technique for quantitative and qualitative analysis of various samples in different fields.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Beta-cyclodextrins are cyclic, oligosaccharide structures made up of 6-8 glucose units linked by α-1,4 glycosidic bonds. They have a hydrophilic outer surface and a hydrophobic central cavity, making them useful for forming inclusion complexes with various hydrophobic molecules in aqueous solutions. This property is exploited in pharmaceutical applications to improve drug solubility, stability, and bioavailability. Additionally, beta-cyclodextrins can be chemically modified to enhance their properties and expand their uses.

Molecular structure, in the context of biochemistry and molecular biology, refers to the arrangement and organization of atoms and chemical bonds within a molecule. It describes the three-dimensional layout of the constituent elements, including their spatial relationships, bond lengths, and angles. Understanding molecular structure is crucial for elucidating the functions and reactivities of biological macromolecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates. Various experimental techniques, like X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), are employed to determine molecular structures at atomic resolution, providing valuable insights into their biological roles and potential therapeutic targets.

Biophysics is a interdisciplinary field that combines the principles and methods of physics with those of biology to study biological systems and phenomena. It involves the use of physical theories, models, and techniques to understand and explain the properties, functions, and behaviors of living organisms and their constituents, such as cells, proteins, and DNA.

Biophysics can be applied to various areas of biology, including molecular biology, cell biology, neuroscience, and physiology. It can help elucidate the mechanisms of biological processes at the molecular and cellular levels, such as protein folding, ion transport, enzyme kinetics, gene expression, and signal transduction. Biophysical methods can also be used to develop diagnostic and therapeutic tools for medical applications, such as medical imaging, drug delivery, and gene therapy.

Examples of biophysical techniques include X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, electron microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and computational modeling. These methods allow researchers to probe the structure, dynamics, and interactions of biological molecules and systems with high precision and resolution, providing insights into their functions and behaviors.

A ligand, in the context of biochemistry and medicine, is a molecule that binds to a specific site on a protein or a larger biomolecule, such as an enzyme or a receptor. This binding interaction can modify the function or activity of the target protein, either activating it or inhibiting it. Ligands can be small molecules, like hormones or neurotransmitters, or larger structures, like antibodies. The study of ligand-protein interactions is crucial for understanding cellular processes and developing drugs, as many therapeutic compounds function by binding to specific targets within the body.

Radiation scattering is a physical process in which radiation particles or waves deviate from their original direction due to interaction with matter. This phenomenon can occur through various mechanisms such as:

1. Elastic Scattering: Also known as Thomson scattering or Rayleigh scattering, it occurs when the energy of the scattered particle or wave remains unchanged after the collision. In the case of electromagnetic radiation (e.g., light), this results in a change of direction without any loss of energy.
2. Inelastic Scattering: This type of scattering involves an exchange of energy between the scattered particle and the target medium, leading to a change in both direction and energy of the scattered particle or wave. An example is Compton scattering, where high-energy photons (e.g., X-rays or gamma rays) interact with charged particles (usually electrons), resulting in a decrease in photon energy and an increase in electron kinetic energy.
3. Coherent Scattering: In this process, the scattered radiation maintains its phase relationship with the incident radiation, leading to constructive and destructive interference patterns. An example is Bragg scattering, which occurs when X-rays interact with a crystal lattice, resulting in diffraction patterns that reveal information about the crystal structure.

In medical contexts, radiation scattering can have both beneficial and harmful effects. For instance, in diagnostic imaging techniques like computed tomography (CT) scans, radiation scattering contributes to image noise and reduces contrast resolution. However, in radiation therapy for cancer treatment, controlled scattering of therapeutic radiation beams can help ensure that the tumor receives a uniform dose while minimizing exposure to healthy tissues.

Membrane fluidity, in the context of cell biology, refers to the ability of the phospholipid bilayer that makes up the cell membrane to change its structure and organization in response to various factors. The membrane is not a static structure but rather a dynamic one, with its lipids constantly moving and changing position.

Membrane fluidity is determined by the fatty acid composition of the phospholipids that make up the bilayer. Lipids with unsaturated fatty acids have kinks in their hydrocarbon chains, which prevent them from packing closely together and increase membrane fluidity. In contrast, lipids with saturated fatty acids can pack closely together, reducing membrane fluidity.

Membrane fluidity is important for various cellular processes, including the movement of proteins within the membrane, the fusion of vesicles with the membrane during exocytosis and endocytosis, and the ability of the membrane to respond to changes in temperature and other environmental factors. Abnormalities in membrane fluidity have been linked to various diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, and infectious diseases.

Oxidation-Reduction (redox) reactions are a type of chemical reaction involving a transfer of electrons between two species. The substance that loses electrons in the reaction is oxidized, and the substance that gains electrons is reduced. Oxidation and reduction always occur together in a redox reaction, hence the term "oxidation-reduction."

In biological systems, redox reactions play a crucial role in many cellular processes, including energy production, metabolism, and signaling. The transfer of electrons in these reactions is often facilitated by specialized molecules called electron carriers, such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+/NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD/FADH2).

The oxidation state of an element in a compound is a measure of the number of electrons that have been gained or lost relative to its neutral state. In redox reactions, the oxidation state of one or more elements changes as they gain or lose electrons. The substance that is oxidized has a higher oxidation state, while the substance that is reduced has a lower oxidation state.

Overall, oxidation-reduction reactions are fundamental to the functioning of living organisms and are involved in many important biological processes.

Crystallization is a process in which a substance transitions from a liquid or dissolved state to a solid state, forming a crystal lattice. In the medical context, crystallization can refer to the formation of crystals within the body, which can occur under certain conditions such as changes in pH, temperature, or concentration of solutes. These crystals can deposit in various tissues and organs, leading to the formation of crystal-induced diseases or disorders.

For example, in patients with gout, uric acid crystals can accumulate in joints, causing inflammation, pain, and swelling. Similarly, in nephrolithiasis (kidney stones), minerals in the urine can crystallize and form stones that can obstruct the urinary tract. Crystallization can also occur in other medical contexts, such as in the formation of dental calculus or plaque, and in the development of cataracts in the eye.

Freeze-drying, also known as lyophilization, is a method of preservation that involves the removal of water from a frozen product by sublimation, which is the direct transition of a solid to a gas. This process allows for the preservation of the original shape and structure of the material while significantly extending its shelf life. In medical contexts, freeze-drying can be used for various purposes, including the long-term storage of pharmaceuticals, vaccines, and diagnostic samples. The process helps maintain the efficacy and integrity of these materials until they are ready to be reconstituted with water and used.

Povidone, also known as PVP or polyvinylpyrrolidone, is not a medication itself but rather a pharmaceutical ingredient used in various medical and healthcare products. It is a water-soluble synthetic polymer that has the ability to bind to and carry other substances, such as drugs or iodine.

In medical applications, povidone is often used as a binder or coating agent in pharmaceutical tablets and capsules. It can also be found in some topical antiseptic solutions, such as those containing iodine, where it helps to stabilize and control the release of the active ingredient.

It's important to note that while povidone is a widely used pharmaceutical ingredient, it is not typically considered a medication on its own.

Micelles are structures formed in a solution when certain substances, such as surfactants, reach a critical concentration called the critical micelle concentration (CMC). At this concentration, these molecules, which have both hydrophilic (water-attracting) and hydrophobic (water-repelling) components, arrange themselves in a spherical shape with the hydrophilic parts facing outward and the hydrophobic parts clustered inside. This formation allows the hydrophobic components to avoid contact with water while the hydrophilic components interact with it. Micelles are important in various biological and industrial processes, such as drug delivery, soil remediation, and the formation of emulsions.

Membrane lipids are the main component of biological membranes, forming a lipid bilayer in which various cellular processes take place. These lipids include phospholipids, glycolipids, and cholesterol. Phospholipids are the most abundant type, consisting of a hydrophilic head (containing a phosphate group) and two hydrophobic tails (composed of fatty acid chains). Glycolipids contain a sugar group attached to the lipid molecule. Cholesterol helps regulate membrane fluidity and permeability. Together, these lipids create a selectively permeable barrier that separates cells from their environment and organelles within cells.

Spectrophotometry, Infrared is a scientific analytical technique used to measure the absorption or transmission of infrared light by a sample. It involves the use of an infrared spectrophotometer, which directs infrared radiation through a sample and measures the intensity of the radiation that is transmitted or absorbed by the sample at different wavelengths within the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Infrared spectroscopy can be used to identify and quantify functional groups and chemical bonds present in a sample, as well as to study the molecular structure and composition of materials. The resulting infrared spectrum provides a unique "fingerprint" of the sample, which can be compared with reference spectra to aid in identification and characterization.

Infrared spectrophotometry is widely used in various fields such as chemistry, biology, pharmaceuticals, forensics, and materials science for qualitative and quantitative analysis of samples.

Hydrophobic interactions: These are the interactions that occur between non-polar molecules or groups of atoms in an aqueous environment, leading to their association or aggregation. The term "hydrophobic" means "water-fearing" and describes the tendency of non-polar substances to repel water. When non-polar molecules or groups are placed in water, they tend to clump together to minimize contact with the polar water molecules. These interactions are primarily driven by the entropy increase of the system as a whole, rather than energy minimization. Hydrophobic interactions play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as protein folding, membrane formation, and molecular self-assembly.

Hydrophilic interactions: These are the interactions that occur between polar molecules or groups of atoms and water molecules. The term "hydrophilic" means "water-loving" and describes the attraction of polar substances to water. When polar molecules or groups are placed in water, they can form hydrogen bonds with the surrounding water molecules, which helps solvate them. Hydrophilic interactions contribute to the stability and functionality of various biological systems, such as protein structure, ion transport across membranes, and enzyme catalysis.

Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) is a physical phenomenon that occurs at the interface between a metal and a dielectric material, when electromagnetic radiation (usually light) is shone on it. It involves the collective oscillation of free electrons in the metal, known as surface plasmons, which are excited by the incident light. The resonance condition is met when the momentum and energy of the photons match those of the surface plasmons, leading to a strong absorption of light and an evanescent wave that extends into the dielectric material.

In the context of medical diagnostics and research, SPR is often used as a sensitive and label-free detection technique for biomolecular interactions. By immobilizing one binding partner (e.g., a receptor or antibody) onto the metal surface and flowing the other partner (e.g., a ligand or antigen) over it, changes in the refractive index at the interface can be measured in real-time as the plasmons are disturbed by the presence of bound molecules. This allows for the quantification of binding affinities, kinetics, and specificity with high sensitivity and selectivity.

Carbohydrate metabolism is the process by which the body breaks down carbohydrates into glucose, which is then used for energy or stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen. This process involves several enzymes and chemical reactions that convert carbohydrates from food into glucose, fructose, or galactose, which are then absorbed into the bloodstream and transported to cells throughout the body.

The hormones insulin and glucagon regulate carbohydrate metabolism by controlling the uptake and storage of glucose in cells. Insulin is released from the pancreas when blood sugar levels are high, such as after a meal, and promotes the uptake and storage of glucose in cells. Glucagon, on the other hand, is released when blood sugar levels are low and signals the liver to convert stored glycogen back into glucose and release it into the bloodstream.

Disorders of carbohydrate metabolism can result from genetic defects or acquired conditions that affect the enzymes or hormones involved in this process. Examples include diabetes, hypoglycemia, and galactosemia. Proper management of these disorders typically involves dietary modifications, medication, and regular monitoring of blood sugar levels.

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is a type of electron microscopy that uses a focused beam of electrons to scan the surface of a sample and produce a high-resolution image. In SEM, a beam of electrons is scanned across the surface of a specimen, and secondary electrons are emitted from the sample due to interactions between the electrons and the atoms in the sample. These secondary electrons are then detected by a detector and used to create an image of the sample's surface topography. SEM can provide detailed images of the surface of a wide range of materials, including metals, polymers, ceramics, and biological samples. It is commonly used in materials science, biology, and electronics for the examination and analysis of surfaces at the micro- and nanoscale.

Sphingomyelins are a type of sphingolipids, which are a class of lipids that contain sphingosine as a backbone. Sphingomyelins are composed of phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine bound to the ceramide portion of the molecule through a phosphodiester linkage. They are important components of cell membranes, particularly in the myelin sheath that surrounds nerve fibers. Sphingomyelins can be hydrolyzed by the enzyme sphingomyelinase to form ceramide and phosphorylcholine or phosphorylethanolamine. Abnormalities in sphingomyelin metabolism have been implicated in several diseases, including Niemann-Pick disease, a group of inherited lipid storage disorders.

In medical terms, "gels" are semi-solid colloidal systems in which a solid phase is dispersed in a liquid medium. They have a viscous consistency and can be described as a cross between a solid and a liquid. The solid particles, called the gel network, absorb and swell with the liquid component, creating a system that has properties of both solids and liquids.

Gels are widely used in medical applications such as wound dressings, drug delivery systems, and tissue engineering due to their unique properties. They can provide a moist environment for wounds to heal, control the release of drugs over time, and mimic the mechanical properties of natural tissues.

"Physicochemical phenomena" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, in general terms, physicochemical phenomena refer to the physical and chemical interactions and processes that occur within living organisms or biological systems. These phenomena can include various properties and reactions such as pH levels, osmotic pressure, enzyme kinetics, and thermodynamics, among others.

In a broader context, physicochemical phenomena play an essential role in understanding the mechanisms of drug action, pharmacokinetics, and toxicity. For instance, the solubility, permeability, and stability of drugs are all physicochemical properties that can affect their absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) within the body.

Therefore, while not a medical definition per se, an understanding of physicochemical phenomena is crucial to the study and practice of pharmacology, toxicology, and other related medical fields.

Physical chemistry is a branch of chemistry that deals with the fundamental principles and laws governing the behavior of matter and energy at the molecular and atomic levels. It combines elements of physics, chemistry, mathematics, and engineering to study the properties, composition, structure, and transformation of matter. Key areas of focus in physical chemistry include thermodynamics, kinetics, quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics, electrochemistry, and spectroscopy.

In essence, physical chemists aim to understand how and why chemical reactions occur, what drives them, and how they can be controlled or predicted. This knowledge is crucial for developing new materials, medicines, energy technologies, and other applications that benefit society.

Poloxamers are a type of triblock copolymer made up of a central hydrophobic chain of polyoxypropylene (poly(propylene oxide)) flanked by two hydrophilic chains of polyoxyethylene (poly(ethylene oxide)). They are amphiphilic molecules, meaning they have both hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts.

Poloxamers are often used in the pharmaceutical industry as drug delivery agents, emulsifiers, solubilizers, and stabilizers. They can form micelles in aqueous solutions above their critical micelle concentration (CMC), with the hydrophobic chains oriented toward the interior of the micelle and the hydrophilic chains on the exterior, interacting with the water molecules. This unique property allows poloxamers to solubilize drugs that are otherwise poorly soluble in water, improving their bioavailability.

Poloxamers have been studied for various medical applications, including as drug carriers for chemotherapy, diagnostic agents, and mucoadhesive materials. Some specific poloxamer compounds have been approved by the FDA for use in pharmaceutical formulations, such as Poloxamer 188 and Poloxamer 407.

In a medical context, poloxamers are not typically used as standalone treatments but rather as components of drug delivery systems or formulations.

Fluorescence Polarization (FP) is not a medical term per se, but a technique used in medical research and diagnostics. Here's a general definition:

Fluorescence Polarization is a biophysical technique used to measure the rotational movement of molecules in solution after they have been excited by polarized light. When a fluorophore (a fluorescent molecule) absorbs light, its electrons become excited and then return to their ground state, releasing energy in the form of light. This emitted light often has different properties than the incident light, one of which can be its polarization. If the fluorophore is large or bound to a large structure, it may not rotate significantly during the time between absorption and emission, resulting in emitted light that maintains the same polarization as the excitation light. Conversely, if the fluorophore is small or unbound, it will rotate rapidly during this period, and the emitted light will be depolarized. By measuring the degree of polarization of the emitted light, researchers can gain information about the size, shape, and mobility of the fluorophore and the molecules to which it is attached. This technique is widely used in various fields including life sciences, biochemistry, and diagnostics.

Fats, also known as lipids, are a broad group of organic compounds that are insoluble in water but soluble in nonpolar organic solvents. In the body, fats serve as a major fuel source, providing twice the amount of energy per gram compared to carbohydrates and proteins. They also play crucial roles in maintaining cell membrane structure and function, serving as precursors for various signaling molecules, and assisting in the absorption and transport of fat-soluble vitamins.

There are several types of fats:

1. Saturated fats: These fats contain no double bonds between their carbon atoms and are typically solid at room temperature. They are mainly found in animal products, such as meat, dairy, and eggs, as well as in some plant-based sources like coconut oil and palm kernel oil. Consuming high amounts of saturated fats can raise levels of harmful low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in the blood, increasing the risk of heart disease.
2. Unsaturated fats: These fats contain one or more double bonds between their carbon atoms and are usually liquid at room temperature. They can be further divided into monounsaturated fats (one double bond) and polyunsaturated fats (two or more double bonds). Unsaturated fats, especially those from plant sources, tend to have beneficial effects on heart health by lowering LDL cholesterol levels and increasing high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels.
3. Trans fats: These are unsaturated fats that have undergone a process called hydrogenation, which adds hydrogen atoms to the double bonds, making them more saturated and solid at room temperature. Partially hydrogenated trans fats are commonly found in processed foods, such as baked goods, fried foods, and snack foods. Consumption of trans fats has been linked to increased risks of heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes.
4. Omega-3 fatty acids: These are a specific type of polyunsaturated fat that is essential for human health. They cannot be synthesized by the body and must be obtained through diet. Omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to have numerous health benefits, including reducing inflammation, improving heart health, and supporting brain function.
5. Omega-6 fatty acids: These are another type of polyunsaturated fat that is essential for human health. They can be synthesized by the body but must also be obtained through diet. While omega-6 fatty acids are necessary for various bodily functions, excessive consumption can contribute to inflammation and other health issues. It is recommended to maintain a balanced ratio of omega-3 to omega-6 fatty acids in the diet.

I couldn't find a medical definition specifically for "delayed-action preparations." However, in the context of pharmacology, it may refer to medications or treatments that have a delayed onset of action. These are designed to release the active drug slowly over an extended period, which can help to maintain a consistent level of the medication in the body and reduce the frequency of dosing.

Examples of delayed-action preparations include:

1. Extended-release (ER) or controlled-release (CR) formulations: These are designed to release the drug slowly over several hours, reducing the need for frequent dosing. Examples include extended-release tablets and capsules.
2. Transdermal patches: These deliver medication through the skin and can provide a steady rate of drug delivery over several days. Examples include nicotine patches for smoking cessation or fentanyl patches for pain management.
3. Injectable depots: These are long-acting injectable formulations that slowly release the drug into the body over weeks to months. An example is the use of long-acting antipsychotic injections for the treatment of schizophrenia.
4. Implantable devices: These are small, biocompatible devices placed under the skin or within a body cavity that release a steady dose of medication over an extended period. Examples include hormonal implants for birth control or drug-eluting stents used in cardiovascular procedures.

Delayed-action preparations can improve patient compliance and quality of life by reducing dosing frequency, minimizing side effects, and maintaining consistent therapeutic levels.

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

Protein stability refers to the ability of a protein to maintain its native structure and function under various physiological conditions. It is determined by the balance between forces that promote a stable conformation, such as intramolecular interactions (hydrogen bonds, van der Waals forces, and hydrophobic effects), and those that destabilize it, such as thermal motion, chemical denaturation, and environmental factors like pH and salt concentration. A protein with high stability is more resistant to changes in its structure and function, even under harsh conditions, while a protein with low stability is more prone to unfolding or aggregation, which can lead to loss of function or disease states, such as protein misfolding diseases.

In the context of medical terminology, "solutions" refers to a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances, in which one substance (the solute) is uniformly distributed within another substance (the solvent). The solvent is typically the greater component of the solution and is capable of dissolving the solute.

Solutions can be classified based on the physical state of the solvent and solute. For instance, a solution in which both the solvent and solute are liquids is called a liquid solution or simply a solution. A solid solution is one where the solvent is a solid and the solute is either a gas, liquid, or solid. Similarly, a gas solution refers to a mixture where the solvent is a gas and the solute can be a gas, liquid, or solid.

In medical applications, solutions are often used as vehicles for administering medications, such as intravenous (IV) fluids, oral rehydration solutions, eye drops, and topical creams or ointments. The composition of these solutions is carefully controlled to ensure the appropriate concentration and delivery of the active ingredients.

Quaternary protein structure refers to the arrangement and interaction of multiple folded protein molecules in a multi-subunit complex. These subunits can be identical or different forms of the same protein or distinctly different proteins that associate to form a functional complex. The quaternary structure is held together by non-covalent interactions, such as hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, and van der Waals forces. Understanding quaternary structure is crucial for comprehending the function, regulation, and assembly of many protein complexes involved in various cellular processes.

Cyclodextrins are cyclic, oligosaccharide structures made up of 6-8 glucose units joined together in a ring by alpha-1,4 glycosidic bonds. They have a hydrophilic outer surface and a hydrophobic central cavity, which makes them useful for forming inclusion complexes with various hydrophobic guest molecules. This property allows cyclodextrins to improve the solubility, stability, and bioavailability of drugs, and they are used in pharmaceutical formulations as excipients. Additionally, cyclodextrins have applications in food, cosmetic, and chemical industries.

Surfactants, also known as surface-active agents, are amphiphilic compounds that reduce the surface tension between two liquids or between a liquid and a solid. They contain both hydrophilic (water-soluble) and hydrophobic (water-insoluble) components in their molecular structure. This unique property allows them to interact with and stabilize interfaces, making them useful in various medical and healthcare applications.

In the medical field, surfactants are commonly used in pulmonary medicine, particularly for treating respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in premature infants. The lungs of premature infants often lack sufficient amounts of natural lung surfactant, which can lead to RDS and other complications. Exogenous surfactants, derived from animal sources or synthetically produced, are administered to replace the missing or dysfunctional lung surfactant, improving lung compliance and gas exchange.

Surfactants also have applications in topical formulations for dermatology, as they can enhance drug penetration into the skin, reduce irritation, and improve the spreadability of creams and ointments. Additionally, they are used in diagnostic imaging to enhance contrast between tissues and improve visualization during procedures such as ultrasound and X-ray examinations.

Nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), also known as free fatty acids (FFA), refer to fatty acid molecules that are not bound to glycerol in the form of triglycerides or other esters. In the bloodstream, NEFAs are transported while bound to albumin and can serve as a source of energy for peripheral tissues. Under normal physiological conditions, NEFA levels are tightly regulated by the body; however, elevated NEFA levels have been associated with various metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, obesity, and type 2 diabetes.

Phospholipids are a major class of lipids that consist of a hydrophilic (water-attracting) head and two hydrophobic (water-repelling) tails. The head is composed of a phosphate group, which is often bound to an organic molecule such as choline, ethanolamine, serine or inositol. The tails are made up of two fatty acid chains.

Phospholipids are a key component of cell membranes and play a crucial role in maintaining the structural integrity and function of the cell. They form a lipid bilayer, with the hydrophilic heads facing outwards and the hydrophobic tails facing inwards, creating a barrier that separates the interior of the cell from the outside environment.

Phospholipids are also involved in various cellular processes such as signal transduction, intracellular trafficking, and protein function regulation. Additionally, they serve as emulsifiers in the digestive system, helping to break down fats in the diet.

Lipid metabolism is the process by which the body breaks down and utilizes lipids (fats) for various functions, such as energy production, cell membrane formation, and hormone synthesis. This complex process involves several enzymes and pathways that regulate the digestion, absorption, transport, storage, and consumption of fats in the body.

The main types of lipids involved in metabolism include triglycerides, cholesterol, phospholipids, and fatty acids. The breakdown of these lipids begins in the digestive system, where enzymes called lipases break down dietary fats into smaller molecules called fatty acids and glycerol. These molecules are then absorbed into the bloodstream and transported to the liver, which is the main site of lipid metabolism.

In the liver, fatty acids may be further broken down for energy production or used to synthesize new lipids. Excess fatty acids may be stored as triglycerides in specialized cells called adipocytes (fat cells) for later use. Cholesterol is also metabolized in the liver, where it may be used to synthesize bile acids, steroid hormones, and other important molecules.

Disorders of lipid metabolism can lead to a range of health problems, including obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). These conditions may be caused by genetic factors, lifestyle habits, or a combination of both. Proper diagnosis and management of lipid metabolism disorders typically involves a combination of dietary changes, exercise, and medication.

A nanocapsule is a type of nanoparticle that is characterized by its hollow, spherical structure. It is composed of a polymeric membrane that encapsulates an inner core or "cargo" which can be made up of various substances such as drugs, proteins, or imaging agents. The small size of nanocapsules (typically ranging from 10 to 1000 nanometers in diameter) allows them to penetrate cells and tissue more efficiently than larger particles, making them useful for targeted drug delivery and diagnostic applications.

The polymeric membrane can be designed to be biodegradable or non-biodegradable, depending on the desired application. Additionally, the surface of nanocapsules can be functionalized with various moieties such as antibodies, peptides, or small molecules to enhance their targeting capabilities and improve their stability in biological environments.

Overall, nanocapsules have great potential for use in a variety of medical applications, including cancer therapy, gene delivery, and vaccine development.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but static electricity is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Static electricity is an electrical charge that builds up on the surface of objects. This occurs when there is an imbalance of electric charges within or on the surface of a material. It can be caused by certain conditions, such as friction, which can build up an electric charge.

While not a medical term, static electricity can have various effects in different settings, including medical ones. For instance, it can cause issues with electronic equipment used in healthcare settings. Additionally, some people may experience a shock or spark when they touch a conductive object that has been charged with static electricity. However, these occurrences are not typically considered medical conditions or issues.

Hydrogen bonding is not a medical term per se, but it is a fundamental concept in chemistry and biology that is relevant to the field of medicine. Here's a general definition:

Hydrogen bonding is a type of attractive force between molecules or within a molecule, which occurs when a hydrogen atom is bonded to a highly electronegative atom (like nitrogen, oxygen, or fluorine) and is then attracted to another electronegative atom. This attraction results in the formation of a partially covalent bond known as a "hydrogen bond."

In biological systems, hydrogen bonding plays a crucial role in the structure and function of many biomolecules, such as DNA, proteins, and carbohydrates. For example, the double helix structure of DNA is stabilized by hydrogen bonds between complementary base pairs (adenine-thymine and guanine-cytosine). Similarly, the three-dimensional structure of proteins is maintained by a network of hydrogen bonds that help to determine their function.

In medical contexts, hydrogen bonding can be relevant in understanding drug-receptor interactions, where hydrogen bonds between a drug molecule and its target protein can enhance the binding affinity and specificity of the interaction, leading to more effective therapeutic outcomes.

Anilino Naphthalenesulfonates are a group of compounds that contain both aniline and naphthalene sulfonate components. Aniline is a organic compound with the formula C6H5NH2, and naphthalene sulfonate is the sodium salt of naphthalene-1,5-disulfonic acid.

Anilino Naphthalenesulfonates are commonly used as fluorescent dyes in various applications such as histology, microscopy, and flow cytometry. These compounds exhibit strong fluorescence under ultraviolet light and can be used to label and visualize specific structures or molecules of interest. Examples of Anilino Naphthalenesulfonates include Propidium Iodide, Acridine Orange, and Hoechst 33258.

It is important to note that while these compounds are widely used in research and diagnostic settings, they may also have potential hazards and should be handled with appropriate safety precautions.

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a colorless, odorless gas that is naturally present in the Earth's atmosphere. It is a normal byproduct of cellular respiration in humans, animals, and plants, and is also produced through the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas.

In medical terms, carbon dioxide is often used as a respiratory stimulant and to maintain the pH balance of blood. It is also used during certain medical procedures, such as laparoscopic surgery, to insufflate (inflate) the abdominal cavity and create a working space for the surgeon.

Elevated levels of carbon dioxide in the body can lead to respiratory acidosis, a condition characterized by an increased concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood and a decrease in pH. This can occur in conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, or other lung diseases that impair breathing and gas exchange. Symptoms of respiratory acidosis may include shortness of breath, confusion, headache, and in severe cases, coma or death.

Recombinant proteins are artificially created proteins produced through the use of recombinant DNA technology. This process involves combining DNA molecules from different sources to create a new set of genes that encode for a specific protein. The resulting recombinant protein can then be expressed, purified, and used for various applications in research, medicine, and industry.

Recombinant proteins are widely used in biomedical research to study protein function, structure, and interactions. They are also used in the development of diagnostic tests, vaccines, and therapeutic drugs. For example, recombinant insulin is a common treatment for diabetes, while recombinant human growth hormone is used to treat growth disorders.

The production of recombinant proteins typically involves the use of host cells, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells, which are engineered to express the desired protein. The host cells are transformed with a plasmid vector containing the gene of interest, along with regulatory elements that control its expression. Once the host cells are cultured and the protein is expressed, it can be purified using various chromatography techniques.

Overall, recombinant proteins have revolutionized many areas of biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study and manipulate proteins in ways that were previously impossible.

A Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR) in the context of medicinal chemistry and pharmacology refers to the relationship between the chemical structure of a drug or molecule and its biological activity or effect on a target protein, cell, or organism. SAR studies aim to identify patterns and correlations between structural features of a compound and its ability to interact with a specific biological target, leading to a desired therapeutic response or undesired side effects.

By analyzing the SAR, researchers can optimize the chemical structure of lead compounds to enhance their potency, selectivity, safety, and pharmacokinetic properties, ultimately guiding the design and development of novel drugs with improved efficacy and reduced toxicity.

Nucleic acid denaturation is the process of separating the two strands of a double-stranded DNA molecule, or unwinding the helical structure of an RNA molecule, by disrupting the hydrogen bonds that hold the strands together. This process is typically caused by exposure to high temperatures, changes in pH, or the presence of chemicals called denaturants.

Denaturation can also cause changes in the shape and function of nucleic acids. For example, it can disrupt the secondary and tertiary structures of RNA molecules, which can affect their ability to bind to other molecules and carry out their functions within the cell.

In molecular biology, nucleic acid denaturation is often used as a tool for studying the structure and function of nucleic acids. For example, it can be used to separate the two strands of a DNA molecule for sequencing or amplification, or to study the interactions between nucleic acids and other molecules.

It's important to note that denaturation is a reversible process, and under the right conditions, the double-stranded structure of DNA can be restored through a process called renaturation or annealing.

Chitosan is a complex carbohydrate that is derived from the exoskeletons of crustaceans, such as shrimp and crabs. It is made up of chains of N-acetyl-d-glucosamine and d-glucosamine units. Chitosan has been studied for its potential medical and health benefits, including its ability to lower cholesterol levels, promote weight loss, and help control blood sugar levels. It is also used in wound care products due to its antibacterial and absorbent properties. However, more research is needed to confirm these potential benefits and establish recommended dosages and safety guidelines.

Surface properties in the context of medical science refer to the characteristics and features of the outermost layer or surface of a biological material or structure, such as cells, tissues, organs, or medical devices. These properties can include physical attributes like roughness, smoothness, hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity, and electrical conductivity, as well as chemical properties like charge, reactivity, and composition.

In the field of biomaterials science, understanding surface properties is crucial for designing medical implants, devices, and drug delivery systems that can interact safely and effectively with biological tissues and fluids. Surface modifications, such as coatings or chemical treatments, can be used to alter surface properties and enhance biocompatibility, improve lubricity, reduce fouling, or promote specific cellular responses like adhesion, proliferation, or differentiation.

Similarly, in the field of cell biology, understanding surface properties is essential for studying cell-cell interactions, cell signaling, and cell behavior. Cells can sense and respond to changes in their environment, including variations in surface properties, which can influence cell shape, motility, and function. Therefore, characterizing and manipulating surface properties can provide valuable insights into the mechanisms of cellular processes and offer new strategies for developing therapies and treatments for various diseases.

Peptides are short chains of amino acid residues linked by covalent bonds, known as peptide bonds. They are formed when two or more amino acids are joined together through a condensation reaction, which results in the elimination of a water molecule and the formation of an amide bond between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another.

Peptides can vary in length from two to about fifty amino acids, and they are often classified based on their size. For example, dipeptides contain two amino acids, tripeptides contain three, and so on. Oligopeptides typically contain up to ten amino acids, while polypeptides can contain dozens or even hundreds of amino acids.

Peptides play many important roles in the body, including serving as hormones, neurotransmitters, enzymes, and antibiotics. They are also used in medical research and therapeutic applications, such as drug delivery and tissue engineering.

An emulsion is a type of stable mixture of two immiscible liquids, such as oil and water, which are normally unable to mix together uniformly. In an emulsion, one liquid (the dispersed phase) is broken down into small droplets and distributed throughout the other liquid (the continuous phase), creating a stable, cloudy mixture.

In medical terms, emulsions can be used in various pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications. For example, certain medications may be formulated as oil-in-water or water-in-oil emulsions to improve their absorption, stability, or palatability. Similarly, some skincare products and makeup removers contain emulsifiers that help create stable mixtures of water and oils, allowing for effective cleansing and moisturizing.

Emulsions can also occur naturally in the body, such as in the digestion of fats. The bile salts produced by the liver help to form small droplets of dietary lipids (oil) within the watery environment of the small intestine, allowing for efficient absorption and metabolism of these nutrients.

In the context of medical definitions, polymers are large molecules composed of repeating subunits called monomers. These long chains of monomers can have various structures and properties, depending on the type of monomer units and how they are linked together. In medicine, polymers are used in a wide range of applications, including drug delivery systems, medical devices, and tissue engineering scaffolds. Some examples of polymers used in medicine include polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and biodegradable polymers such as polylactic acid (PLA) and polycaprolactone (PCL).

Body weight is the measure of the force exerted on a scale or balance by an object's mass, most commonly expressed in units such as pounds (lb) or kilograms (kg). In the context of medical definitions, body weight typically refers to an individual's total weight, which includes their skeletal muscle, fat, organs, and bodily fluids.

Healthcare professionals often use body weight as a basic indicator of overall health status, as it can provide insights into various aspects of a person's health, such as nutritional status, metabolic function, and risk factors for certain diseases. For example, being significantly underweight or overweight can increase the risk of developing conditions like malnutrition, diabetes, heart disease, and certain types of cancer.

It is important to note that body weight alone may not provide a complete picture of an individual's health, as it does not account for factors such as muscle mass, bone density, or body composition. Therefore, healthcare professionals often use additional measures, such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and blood tests, to assess overall health status more comprehensively.

Thermogenesis is the process of heat production in organisms. In a medical context, it often refers to the generation of body heat by metabolic processes, especially those that increase the rate of metabolism to produce energy and release it as heat. This can be induced by various factors such as cold exposure, certain medications, or by consuming food, particularly foods high in thermogenic nutrients like protein and certain spices. It's also a key component of weight loss strategies, as increasing thermogenesis can help burn more calories.

Nanoparticles are defined in the field of medicine as tiny particles that have at least one dimension between 1 to 100 nanometers (nm). They are increasingly being used in various medical applications such as drug delivery, diagnostics, and therapeutics. Due to their small size, nanoparticles can penetrate cells, tissues, and organs more efficiently than larger particles, making them ideal for targeted drug delivery and imaging.

Nanoparticles can be made from a variety of materials including metals, polymers, lipids, and dendrimers. The physical and chemical properties of nanoparticles, such as size, shape, charge, and surface chemistry, can greatly affect their behavior in biological systems and their potential medical applications.

It is important to note that the use of nanoparticles in medicine is still a relatively new field, and there are ongoing studies to better understand their safety and efficacy.

Gymnema, also known as Gymnema sylvestre, is a woody climbing shrub native to the tropical forests of India and Africa. In traditional medicine, extracts from the leaves of this plant have been used for centuries to help manage diabetes, primarily by reducing sugar cravings and lowering blood sugar levels.

The active components in Gymnema are believed to be a group of triterpenoid saponins called gymnemic acids. These compounds have been shown to interfere with the ability of the tongue to taste sweetness, which may help reduce the desire for sugary foods and beverages. Additionally, gymnemic acids have been found to slow the absorption of glucose in the intestines, which can help regulate blood sugar levels after meals.

While Gymnema has a long history of use in traditional medicine, more research is needed to fully understand its potential health benefits and risks. It's important to consult with a healthcare provider before starting any new supplement regimen, especially if you have a medical condition like diabetes or are taking prescription medications.

In the context of medical terminology, tablets refer to pharmaceutical dosage forms that contain various active ingredients. They are often manufactured in a solid, compressed form and can be administered orally. Tablets may come in different shapes, sizes, colors, and flavors, depending on their intended use and the manufacturer's specifications.

Some tablets are designed to disintegrate or dissolve quickly in the mouth, making them easier to swallow, while others are formulated to release their active ingredients slowly over time, allowing for extended drug delivery. These types of tablets are known as sustained-release or controlled-release tablets.

Tablets may contain a single active ingredient or a combination of several ingredients, depending on the intended therapeutic effect. They are typically manufactured using a variety of excipients, such as binders, fillers, and disintegrants, which help to hold the tablet together and ensure that it breaks down properly when ingested.

Overall, tablets are a convenient and widely used dosage form for administering medications, offering patients an easy-to-use and often palatable option for receiving their prescribed treatments.

Dimerization is a process in which two molecules, usually proteins or similar structures, bind together to form a larger complex. This can occur through various mechanisms, such as the formation of disulfide bonds, hydrogen bonding, or other non-covalent interactions. Dimerization can play important roles in cell signaling, enzyme function, and the regulation of gene expression.

In the context of medical research and therapy, dimerization is often studied in relation to specific proteins that are involved in diseases such as cancer. For example, some drugs have been developed to target and inhibit the dimerization of certain proteins, with the goal of disrupting their function and slowing or stopping the progression of the disease.

Ultracentrifugation is a medical and laboratory technique used for the separation of particles of different sizes, densities, or shapes from a mixture based on their sedimentation rates. This process involves the use of a specialized piece of equipment called an ultracentrifuge, which can generate very high centrifugal forces, much greater than those produced by a regular centrifuge.

In ultracentrifugation, a sample is placed in a special tube and spun at extremely high speeds, causing the particles within the sample to separate based on their size, shape, and density. The larger or denser particles will sediment faster and accumulate at the bottom of the tube, while smaller or less dense particles will remain suspended in the solution or sediment more slowly.

Ultracentrifugation is a valuable tool in various fields, including biochemistry, molecular biology, and virology. It can be used to purify and concentrate viruses, subcellular organelles, membrane fractions, ribosomes, DNA, and other macromolecules from complex mixtures. The technique can also provide information about the size, shape, and density of these particles, making it a crucial method for characterizing and studying their properties.

"Freezing" is a term used in the medical field to describe a phenomenon that can occur in certain neurological conditions, most notably in Parkinson's disease. It refers to a sudden and temporary inability to move or initiate movement, often triggered by environmental factors such as narrow spaces, turning, or approaching a destination. This can increase the risk of falls and make daily activities challenging for affected individuals.

Freezing is also known as "freezing of gait" (FOG) when it specifically affects a person's ability to walk. During FOG episodes, the person may feel like their feet are glued to the ground, making it difficult to take steps forward. This can be very distressing and debilitating for those affected.

It is important to note that "freezing" has different meanings in different medical contexts, such as in the field of orthopedics, where it may refer to a loss of joint motion due to stiffness or inflammation. Always consult with a healthcare professional for accurate information tailored to your specific situation.

Pulmonary gas exchange is the process by which oxygen (O2) from inhaled air is transferred to the blood, and carbon dioxide (CO2), a waste product of metabolism, is removed from the blood and exhaled. This process occurs in the lungs, primarily in the alveoli, where the thin walls of the alveoli and capillaries allow for the rapid diffusion of gases between them. The partial pressure gradient between the alveolar air and the blood in the pulmonary capillaries drives this diffusion process. Oxygen-rich blood is then transported to the body's tissues, while CO2-rich blood returns to the lungs to be exhaled.

Protein multimerization refers to the process where multiple protein subunits assemble together to form a complex, repetitive structure called a multimer or oligomer. This can involve the association of identical or similar protein subunits through non-covalent interactions such as hydrogen bonding, ionic bonding, and van der Waals forces. The resulting multimeric structures can have various shapes, sizes, and functions, including enzymatic activity, transport, or structural support. Protein multimerization plays a crucial role in many biological processes and is often necessary for the proper functioning of proteins within cells.

Protein unfolding, also known as protein denaturation, refers to the loss of a protein's native structure, leading to a random or disordered conformation. Proteins are complex molecules that fold into specific three-dimensional shapes, allowing them to perform their biological functions. Various factors, such as heat, changes in pH, chemical denaturants, or mechanical forces, can disrupt the delicate balance of interactions that maintain this folded structure, causing the protein to unfold. Unfolded proteins may lose their functionality and can aggregate, forming insoluble aggregates, which can be harmful to cells and contribute to various diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders.

Lipids are a broad group of organic compounds that are insoluble in water but soluble in nonpolar organic solvents. They include fats, waxes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E, and K), monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, and phospholipids. Lipids serve many important functions in the body, including energy storage, acting as structural components of cell membranes, and serving as signaling molecules. High levels of certain lipids, particularly cholesterol and triglycerides, in the blood are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

Dietary carbohydrates refer to the organic compounds in food that are primarily composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms, with a general formula of Cm(H2O)n. They are one of the three main macronutrients, along with proteins and fats, that provide energy to the body.

Carbohydrates can be classified into two main categories: simple carbohydrates (also known as simple sugars) and complex carbohydrates (also known as polysaccharides).

Simple carbohydrates are made up of one or two sugar molecules, such as glucose, fructose, and lactose. They are quickly absorbed by the body and provide a rapid source of energy. Simple carbohydrates are found in foods such as fruits, vegetables, dairy products, and sweeteners like table sugar, honey, and maple syrup.

Complex carbohydrates, on the other hand, are made up of long chains of sugar molecules that take longer to break down and absorb. They provide a more sustained source of energy and are found in foods such as whole grains, legumes, starchy vegetables, and nuts.

It is recommended that adults consume between 45-65% of their daily caloric intake from carbohydrates, with a focus on complex carbohydrates and limiting added sugars.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

Solvents, in a medical context, are substances that are capable of dissolving or dispersing other materials, often used in the preparation of medications and solutions. They are commonly organic chemicals that can liquefy various substances, making it possible to administer them in different forms, such as oral solutions, topical creams, or injectable drugs.

However, it is essential to recognize that solvents may pose health risks if mishandled or misused, particularly when they contain volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Prolonged exposure to these VOCs can lead to adverse health effects, including respiratory issues, neurological damage, and even cancer. Therefore, it is crucial to handle solvents with care and follow safety guidelines to minimize potential health hazards.

Deuterium is a stable and non-radioactive isotope of hydrogen. The atomic nucleus of deuterium, called a deuteron, contains one proton and one neutron, giving it an atomic weight of approximately 2.014 atomic mass units (amu). It is also known as heavy hydrogen or heavy water because its hydrogen atoms contain one neutron in addition to the usual one proton found in common hydrogen atoms.

Deuterium occurs naturally in trace amounts in water and other organic compounds, typically making up about 0.015% to 0.018% of all hydrogen atoms. It can be separated from regular hydrogen through various methods such as electrolysis or distillation, and it has many applications in scientific research, particularly in the fields of chemistry and physics.

In medical contexts, deuterium is sometimes used as a tracer to study metabolic processes in the body. By replacing hydrogen atoms in specific molecules with deuterium atoms, researchers can track the movement and transformation of those molecules within living organisms. This technique has been used to investigate various physiological processes, including drug metabolism, energy production, and lipid synthesis.

Guanidine is not typically defined in the context of medical terminology, but rather, it is a chemical compound with the formula NH2(C=NH)NH2. However, guanidine and its derivatives do have medical relevance:

1. Guanidine is used as a medication in some neurological disorders, such as stiff-person syndrome, to reduce muscle spasms and rigidity. It acts on the central nervous system to decrease abnormal nerve impulses that cause muscle spasticity.

2. Guanidine derivatives are found in various medications used for treating diabetes, like metformin. These compounds help lower glucose production in the liver and improve insulin sensitivity in muscle cells.

3. In some cases, guanidine is used as a skin penetration enhancer in transdermal drug delivery systems to increase the absorption of certain medications through the skin.

It is essential to note that guanidine itself has limited medical use due to its potential toxicity and narrow therapeutic window. Its derivatives, like metformin, are more commonly used in medical practice.

"Cattle" is a term used in the agricultural and veterinary fields to refer to domesticated animals of the genus *Bos*, primarily *Bos taurus* (European cattle) and *Bos indicus* (Zebu). These animals are often raised for meat, milk, leather, and labor. They are also known as bovines or cows (for females), bulls (intact males), and steers/bullocks (castrated males). However, in a strict medical definition, "cattle" does not apply to humans or other animals.

A cation is a type of ion, which is a charged particle, that has a positive charge. In chemistry and biology, cations are formed when a neutral atom loses one or more electrons during chemical reactions. The removal of electrons results in the atom having more protons than electrons, giving it a net positive charge.

Cations are important in many biological processes, including nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and enzyme function. For example, sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), calcium (Ca2+), and magnesium (Mg2+) are all essential cations that play critical roles in various physiological functions.

In medical contexts, cations can also be relevant in the diagnosis and treatment of various conditions. For instance, abnormal levels of certain cations, such as potassium or calcium, can indicate specific diseases or disorders. Additionally, medications used to treat various conditions may work by altering cation concentrations or activity within the body.

Blood glucose, also known as blood sugar, is the concentration of glucose in the blood. Glucose is a simple sugar that serves as the main source of energy for the body's cells. It is carried to each cell through the bloodstream and is absorbed into the cells with the help of insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas.

The normal range for blood glucose levels in humans is typically between 70 and 130 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) when fasting, and less than 180 mg/dL after meals. Levels that are consistently higher than this may indicate diabetes or other metabolic disorders.

Blood glucose levels can be measured through a variety of methods, including fingerstick blood tests, continuous glucose monitoring systems, and laboratory tests. Regular monitoring of blood glucose levels is important for people with diabetes to help manage their condition and prevent complications.

Methylcellulose is a semisynthetic, inert, viscous, and tasteless white powder that is soluble in cold water but not in hot water. It is derived from cellulose through the process of methylation. In medical contexts, it is commonly used as a bulk-forming laxative to treat constipation, as well as a lubricant in ophthalmic solutions and a suspending agent in pharmaceuticals.

When mixed with water, methylcellulose forms a gel-like substance that can increase stool volume and promote bowel movements. It is generally considered safe for most individuals, but like any medication or supplement, it should be used under the guidance of a healthcare provider.

Obesity is a complex disease characterized by an excess accumulation of body fat to the extent that it negatively impacts health. It's typically defined using Body Mass Index (BMI), a measure calculated from a person's weight and height. A BMI of 30 or higher is indicative of obesity. However, it's important to note that while BMI can be a useful tool for identifying obesity in populations, it does not directly measure body fat and may not accurately reflect health status in individuals. Other factors such as waist circumference, blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and blood sugar levels should also be considered when assessing health risks associated with weight.

Insulin is a hormone produced by the beta cells of the pancreatic islets, primarily in response to elevated levels of glucose in the circulating blood. It plays a crucial role in regulating blood glucose levels and facilitating the uptake and utilization of glucose by peripheral tissues, such as muscle and adipose tissue, for energy production and storage. Insulin also inhibits glucose production in the liver and promotes the storage of excess glucose as glycogen or triglycerides.

Deficiency in insulin secretion or action leads to impaired glucose regulation and can result in conditions such as diabetes mellitus, characterized by chronic hyperglycemia and associated complications. Exogenous insulin is used as a replacement therapy in individuals with diabetes to help manage their blood glucose levels and prevent long-term complications.

Glucose is a simple monosaccharide (or single sugar) that serves as the primary source of energy for living organisms. It's a fundamental molecule in biology, often referred to as "dextrose" or "grape sugar." Glucose has the molecular formula C6H12O6 and is vital to the functioning of cells, especially those in the brain and nervous system.

In the body, glucose is derived from the digestion of carbohydrates in food, and it's transported around the body via the bloodstream to cells where it can be used for energy. Cells convert glucose into a usable form through a process called cellular respiration, which involves a series of metabolic reactions that generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP)—the main currency of energy in cells.

Glucose is also stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen, a polysaccharide (multiple sugar) that can be broken down back into glucose when needed for energy between meals or during physical activity. Maintaining appropriate blood glucose levels is crucial for overall health, and imbalances can lead to conditions such as diabetes mellitus.

Liquid crystals (LCs) are not exclusive to the medical field, but they do have important applications in medicine, particularly in the development of display technologies for medical devices. Here is a general definition:

Liquid crystals are a state of matter that possess properties between those of conventional liquids and solid crystals. They can flow like liquids but have molecules oriented in a way that they can reflect light, creating birefringence. This unique property makes them useful in various applications, such as LCDs (liquid crystal displays) found in many electronic devices, including medical equipment.

In the context of medicine, liquid crystals are primarily used in LCD screens for medical devices like monitors, imaging systems, and diagnostic equipment. They enable high-resolution, clear, and adjustable visualization of medical images, which is crucial for accurate diagnosis and treatment planning.

Desiccation is a medical term that refers to the process of extreme dryness or the state of being dried up. It is the removal of water or moisture from an object or tissue, which can lead to its dehydration and preservation. In medicine, desiccation may be used as a therapeutic technique for treating certain conditions, such as drying out wet wounds or preventing infection in surgical instruments. However, desiccation can also have harmful effects on living tissues, leading to cell damage or death.

In a broader context, desiccation is also used to describe the process of drying up of an organ, tissue, or body part due to various reasons such as exposure to air, heat, or certain medical conditions that affect moisture regulation in the body. For example, diabetic patients may experience desiccation of their skin due to decreased moisture production and increased evaporation caused by high blood sugar levels. Similarly, people living in dry climates or using central heating systems may experience desiccation of their mucous membranes, leading to dryness of the eyes, nose, and throat.

Nutritional requirements refer to the necessary amount of nutrients, including macronutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats) and micronutrients (vitamins and minerals), that an individual requires to maintain good health, support normal growth and development, and promote optimal bodily functions. These requirements vary based on factors such as age, sex, body size, pregnancy status, and physical activity level. Meeting one's nutritional requirements typically involves consuming a balanced and varied diet, with additional consideration given to any specific dietary restrictions or medical conditions that may influence nutrient needs.

Drug delivery systems (DDS) refer to techniques or technologies that are designed to improve the administration of a pharmaceutical compound in terms of its efficiency, safety, and efficacy. A DDS can modify the drug release profile, target the drug to specific cells or tissues, protect the drug from degradation, and reduce side effects.

The goal of a DDS is to optimize the bioavailability of a drug, which is the amount of the drug that reaches the systemic circulation and is available at the site of action. This can be achieved through various approaches, such as encapsulating the drug in a nanoparticle or attaching it to a biomolecule that targets specific cells or tissues.

Some examples of DDS include:

1. Controlled release systems: These systems are designed to release the drug at a controlled rate over an extended period, reducing the frequency of dosing and improving patient compliance.
2. Targeted delivery systems: These systems use biomolecules such as antibodies or ligands to target the drug to specific cells or tissues, increasing its efficacy and reducing side effects.
3. Nanoparticle-based delivery systems: These systems use nanoparticles made of polymers, lipids, or inorganic materials to encapsulate the drug and protect it from degradation, improve its solubility, and target it to specific cells or tissues.
4. Biodegradable implants: These are small devices that can be implanted under the skin or into body cavities to deliver drugs over an extended period. They can be made of biodegradable materials that gradually break down and release the drug.
5. Inhalation delivery systems: These systems use inhalers or nebulizers to deliver drugs directly to the lungs, bypassing the digestive system and improving bioavailability.

Overall, DDS play a critical role in modern pharmaceutical research and development, enabling the creation of new drugs with improved efficacy, safety, and patient compliance.

In the context of medicine, "salts" often refers to ionic compounds that are formed when an acid and a base react together. The resulting product of this neutralization reaction is composed of cations (positively charged ions) and anions (negatively charged ions), which combine to form a salt.

Salts can also be formed from the reaction between a weak acid and a strong base, or between a strong acid and a weak base. The resulting salt will have properties that are different from those of the reactants, including its solubility in water, pH, and taste. In some cases, salts can be used for therapeutic purposes, such as potassium chloride (KCl) or sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), while others may be harmful and pose a risk to human health.

It's important to note that the term "salts" can also refer to organic compounds that contain a functional group consisting of a single bond between a carbon atom and a halogen atom, such as sodium chloride (NaCl) or potassium iodide (KI). These types of salts are not formed from acid-base reactions but rather through ionic bonding between a metal and a nonmetal.

2-Naphthylamine is a crystalline solid organic compound that is classified as a primary aromatic amine. Its chemical formula is C10H9N. It is an intensely orange-red to reddish-brown substance that is slightly soluble in water and more soluble in organic solvents.

2-Naphthylamine is produced by the reduction of 2-naphthol or its derivatives. Historically, it was used as an intermediate in the synthesis of azo dyes and other chemical compounds. However, due to its toxicity and carcinogenicity, its use has been largely discontinued in many industries.

Exposure to 2-Naphthylamine can occur through inhalation, skin contact, or ingestion, and it has been associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer and other health effects. Therefore, appropriate safety measures must be taken when handling this compound, including the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) such as gloves, lab coats, and eye protection.

Glycerol, also known as glycerine or glycerin, is a simple polyol (a sugar alcohol) with a sweet taste and a thick, syrupy consistency. It is a colorless, odorless, viscous liquid that is slightly soluble in water and freely miscible with ethanol and ether.

In the medical field, glycerol is often used as a medication or supplement. It can be used as a laxative to treat constipation, as a source of calories and energy for people who cannot eat by mouth, and as a way to prevent dehydration in people with certain medical conditions.

Glycerol is also used in the production of various medical products, such as medications, skin care products, and vaccines. It acts as a humectant, which means it helps to keep things moist, and it can also be used as a solvent or preservative.

In addition to its medical uses, glycerol is also widely used in the food industry as a sweetener, thickening agent, and moisture-retaining agent. It is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

Adipose tissue, also known as fatty tissue, is a type of connective tissue that is composed mainly of adipocytes (fat cells). It is found throughout the body, but is particularly abundant in the abdominal cavity, beneath the skin, and around organs such as the heart and kidneys.

Adipose tissue serves several important functions in the body. One of its primary roles is to store energy in the form of fat, which can be mobilized and used as an energy source during periods of fasting or exercise. Adipose tissue also provides insulation and cushioning for the body, and produces hormones that help regulate metabolism, appetite, and reproductive function.

There are two main types of adipose tissue: white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT). WAT is the more common form and is responsible for storing energy as fat. BAT, on the other hand, contains a higher number of mitochondria and is involved in heat production and energy expenditure.

Excessive accumulation of adipose tissue can lead to obesity, which is associated with an increased risk of various health problems such as diabetes, heart disease, and certain types of cancer.

'Dipodomys' is the genus name for kangaroo rats, which are small rodents native to North America. They are called kangaroo rats due to their powerful hind legs and long tails, which they use to hop around like kangaroos. Kangaroo rats are known for their ability to survive in arid environments, as they are able to obtain moisture from the seeds they eat and can concentrate their urine to conserve water. They are also famous for their highly specialized kidneys, which allow them to produce extremely dry urine.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Muramidase, also known as lysozyme, is an enzyme that hydrolyzes the glycosidic bond between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetylglucosamine in peptidoglycan, a polymer found in bacterial cell walls. This enzymatic activity plays a crucial role in the innate immune system by contributing to the destruction of invading bacteria. Muramidase is widely distributed in various tissues and bodily fluids, such as tears, saliva, and milk, and is also found in several types of white blood cells, including neutrophils and monocytes.

Unilamellar liposomes are a type of liposome that consists of a single phospholipid bilayer membrane enclosing an aqueous compartment. They are spherical vesicles, ranging in size from 20 nanometers to several micrometers, and can be used as drug delivery systems for various therapeutic agents, including hydrophilic drugs (in the aqueous compartment) and hydrophobic drugs (incorporated into the lipid bilayer). The single membrane structure of unilamellar liposomes distinguishes them from multilamellar liposomes, which have multiple concentric phospholipid bilayers.

Cholesterol is a type of lipid (fat) molecule that is an essential component of cell membranes and is also used to make certain hormones and vitamins in the body. It is produced by the liver and is also obtained from animal-derived foods such as meat, dairy products, and eggs.

Cholesterol does not mix with blood, so it is transported through the bloodstream by lipoproteins, which are particles made up of both lipids and proteins. There are two main types of lipoproteins that carry cholesterol: low-density lipoproteins (LDL), also known as "bad" cholesterol, and high-density lipoproteins (HDL), also known as "good" cholesterol.

High levels of LDL cholesterol in the blood can lead to a buildup of cholesterol in the walls of the arteries, increasing the risk of heart disease and stroke. On the other hand, high levels of HDL cholesterol are associated with a lower risk of these conditions because HDL helps remove LDL cholesterol from the bloodstream and transport it back to the liver for disposal.

It is important to maintain healthy levels of cholesterol through a balanced diet, regular exercise, and sometimes medication if necessary. Regular screening is also recommended to monitor cholesterol levels and prevent health complications.

The glucose clamp technique is a method used in medical research, particularly in the study of glucose metabolism and insulin action. It's a controlled procedure that aims to maintain a steady state of plasma glucose concentration in an individual for a specific period.

In this technique, a continuous infusion of glucose is administered intravenously at a variable rate to balance the amount of glucose being removed from the circulation (for example, by insulin-stimulated uptake in muscle and fat tissue). This creates a "clamp" of stable plasma glucose concentration.

The rate of glucose infusion is adjusted according to frequent measurements of blood glucose levels, typically every 5 to 10 minutes, to keep the glucose level constant. The glucose clamp technique allows researchers to study how different factors, such as various doses of insulin or other drugs, affect glucose metabolism under standardized conditions.

There are two primary types of glucose clamps: the hyperglycemic clamp and the euglycemic clamp. The former aims to raise and maintain plasma glucose at a higher-than-normal level, while the latter maintains plasma glucose at a normal, euglycemic level.

Physical exertion is defined as the act of applying energy to physically demandable activities or tasks, which results in various body systems working together to produce movement and maintain homeostasis. It often leads to an increase in heart rate, respiratory rate, and body temperature, among other physiological responses. The level of physical exertion can vary based on the intensity, duration, and frequency of the activity.

It's important to note that engaging in regular physical exertion has numerous health benefits, such as improving cardiovascular fitness, strengthening muscles and bones, reducing stress, and preventing chronic diseases like obesity, diabetes, and heart disease. However, it is also crucial to balance physical exertion with adequate rest and recovery time to avoid overtraining or injury.

Osmolar concentration is a measure of the total number of solute particles (such as ions or molecules) dissolved in a solution per liter of solvent (usually water), which affects the osmotic pressure. It is expressed in units of osmoles per liter (osmol/L). Osmolarity and osmolality are related concepts, with osmolarity referring to the number of osmoles per unit volume of solution, typically measured in liters, while osmolality refers to the number of osmoles per kilogram of solvent. In clinical contexts, osmolar concentration is often used to describe the solute concentration of bodily fluids such as blood or urine.

Amino acid motifs are recurring patterns or sequences of amino acids in a protein molecule. These motifs can be identified through various sequence analysis techniques and often have functional or structural significance. They can be as short as two amino acids in length, but typically contain at least three to five residues.

Some common examples of amino acid motifs include:

1. Active site motifs: These are specific sequences of amino acids that form the active site of an enzyme and participate in catalyzing chemical reactions. For example, the catalytic triad in serine proteases consists of three residues (serine, histidine, and aspartate) that work together to hydrolyze peptide bonds.
2. Signal peptide motifs: These are sequences of amino acids that target proteins for secretion or localization to specific organelles within the cell. For example, a typical signal peptide consists of a positively charged n-region, a hydrophobic h-region, and a polar c-region that directs the protein to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane for translocation.
3. Zinc finger motifs: These are structural domains that contain conserved sequences of amino acids that bind zinc ions and play important roles in DNA recognition and regulation of gene expression.
4. Transmembrane motifs: These are sequences of hydrophobic amino acids that span the lipid bilayer of cell membranes and anchor transmembrane proteins in place.
5. Phosphorylation sites: These are specific serine, threonine, or tyrosine residues that can be phosphorylated by protein kinases to regulate protein function.

Understanding amino acid motifs is important for predicting protein structure and function, as well as for identifying potential drug targets in disease-associated proteins.

Biological models, also known as physiological models or organismal models, are simplified representations of biological systems, processes, or mechanisms that are used to understand and explain the underlying principles and relationships. These models can be theoretical (conceptual or mathematical) or physical (such as anatomical models, cell cultures, or animal models). They are widely used in biomedical research to study various phenomena, including disease pathophysiology, drug action, and therapeutic interventions.

Examples of biological models include:

1. Mathematical models: These use mathematical equations and formulas to describe complex biological systems or processes, such as population dynamics, metabolic pathways, or gene regulation networks. They can help predict the behavior of these systems under different conditions and test hypotheses about their underlying mechanisms.
2. Cell cultures: These are collections of cells grown in a controlled environment, typically in a laboratory dish or flask. They can be used to study cellular processes, such as signal transduction, gene expression, or metabolism, and to test the effects of drugs or other treatments on these processes.
3. Animal models: These are living organisms, usually vertebrates like mice, rats, or non-human primates, that are used to study various aspects of human biology and disease. They can provide valuable insights into the pathophysiology of diseases, the mechanisms of drug action, and the safety and efficacy of new therapies.
4. Anatomical models: These are physical representations of biological structures or systems, such as plastic models of organs or tissues, that can be used for educational purposes or to plan surgical procedures. They can also serve as a basis for developing more sophisticated models, such as computer simulations or 3D-printed replicas.

Overall, biological models play a crucial role in advancing our understanding of biology and medicine, helping to identify new targets for therapeutic intervention, develop novel drugs and treatments, and improve human health.

"Laureates" is not a medical term. However, if you are referring to "laurates" as a salt or ester of lauric acid, then here's the definition:

Laurates are organic compounds that contain a laurate group, which is the anion (negatively charged ion) derived from lauric acid. Lauric acid is a saturated fatty acid with a 12-carbon chain, and its anion has the chemical formula CH3(CH2)10COO-.

Laurates can be formed by reacting lauric acid with a base to form a salt (e.g., sodium laurate, potassium laurate) or by reacting it with an alcohol to form an ester (e.g., methyl laurate, ethyl laurate). These compounds have various applications in industry, including as surfactants, emulsifiers, and solubilizers in personal care products, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals.

Site-directed mutagenesis is a molecular biology technique used to introduce specific and targeted changes to a specific DNA sequence. This process involves creating a new variant of a gene or a specific region of interest within a DNA molecule by introducing a planned, deliberate change, or mutation, at a predetermined site within the DNA sequence.

The methodology typically involves the use of molecular tools such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, and/or ligases to introduce the desired mutation(s) into a plasmid or other vector containing the target DNA sequence. The resulting modified DNA molecule can then be used to transform host cells, allowing for the production of large quantities of the mutated gene or protein for further study.

Site-directed mutagenesis is a valuable tool in basic research, drug discovery, and biotechnology applications where specific changes to a DNA sequence are required to understand gene function, investigate protein structure/function relationships, or engineer novel biological properties into existing genes or proteins.

Nitrogen is not typically referred to as a medical term, but it is an element that is crucial to medicine and human life.

In a medical context, nitrogen is often mentioned in relation to gas analysis, respiratory therapy, or medical gases. Nitrogen (N) is a colorless, odorless, and nonreactive gas that makes up about 78% of the Earth's atmosphere. It is an essential element for various biological processes, such as the growth and maintenance of organisms, because it is a key component of amino acids, nucleic acids, and other organic compounds.

In some medical applications, nitrogen is used to displace oxygen in a mixture to create a controlled environment with reduced oxygen levels (hypoxic conditions) for therapeutic purposes, such as in certain types of hyperbaric chambers. Additionally, nitrogen gas is sometimes used in cryotherapy, where extremely low temperatures are applied to tissues to reduce pain, swelling, and inflammation.

However, it's important to note that breathing pure nitrogen can be dangerous, as it can lead to unconsciousness and even death due to lack of oxygen (asphyxiation) within minutes.

I believe there might be a bit of confusion in your question. A "history" in medical terms usually refers to the detailed account of a patient's symptoms, illnesses, and treatments received, which is used by healthcare professionals to understand their health status and provide appropriate care. It is not typically associated with a specific century like the 18th century.

If you are asking for information about the medical practices or significant developments in the field of medicine during the 18th century, I would be happy to provide some insight into that! The 18th century was a time of great advancement and change in the medical field, with many notable discoveries and innovations. Some examples include:

* The development of smallpox vaccination by Edward Jenner in 1796
* The discovery of oxygen by Joseph Priestley in 1774
* The invention of the thermometer by Gabriel Fahrenheit in 1714
* The publication of "An Inquiry into the Causes and Effects of the Variolae Vaccinae" by Edward Jenner in 1798, which helped to establish the concept of vaccination
* The founding of the Royal Society of Medicine in London in 1773
* The development of new surgical techniques and instruments, such as the use of tourniquets and catgut sutures.

Carboxymethylcellulose sodium is a type of cellulose derivative that is widely used in the medical and pharmaceutical fields as an excipient or a drug delivery agent. It is a white, odorless powder with good water solubility and forms a clear, viscous solution.

Chemically, carboxymethylcellulose sodium is produced by reacting cellulose, which is derived from plant sources such as wood or cotton, with sodium hydroxide and chloroacetic acid. This reaction introduces carboxymethyl groups (-CH2COO-) to the cellulose molecule, making it more soluble in water and providing negative charges that can interact with positively charged ions or drugs.

In medical applications, carboxymethylcellulose sodium is used as a thickening agent, binder, disintegrant, and suspending agent in various pharmaceutical formulations such as tablets, capsules, liquids, and semisolids. It can also be used as a lubricant in the manufacture of tablets and capsules to facilitate their ejection from molds or dies.

Carboxymethylcellulose sodium has been shown to have good biocompatibility and low toxicity, making it a safe and effective excipient for use in medical and pharmaceutical applications. However, like any other excipient, it should be used with caution and in appropriate amounts to avoid any adverse effects or interactions with the active ingredients of the drug product.

Exercise is defined in the medical context as a physical activity that is planned, structured, and repetitive, with the primary aim of improving or maintaining one or more components of physical fitness. Components of physical fitness include cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, and body composition. Exercise can be classified based on its intensity (light, moderate, or vigorous), duration (length of time), and frequency (number of times per week). Common types of exercise include aerobic exercises, such as walking, jogging, cycling, and swimming; resistance exercises, such as weightlifting; flexibility exercises, such as stretching; and balance exercises. Exercise has numerous health benefits, including reducing the risk of chronic diseases, improving mental health, and enhancing overall quality of life.

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the genetic material present in the cells of organisms where it is responsible for the storage and transmission of hereditary information. DNA is a long molecule that consists of two strands coiled together to form a double helix. Each strand is made up of a series of four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - that are linked together by phosphate and sugar groups. The sequence of these bases along the length of the molecule encodes genetic information, with A always pairing with T and C always pairing with G. This base-pairing allows for the replication and transcription of DNA, which are essential processes in the functioning and reproduction of all living organisms.

A catalytic domain is a portion or region within a protein that contains the active site, where the chemical reactions necessary for the protein's function are carried out. This domain is responsible for the catalysis of biological reactions, hence the name "catalytic domain." The catalytic domain is often composed of specific amino acid residues that come together to form the active site, creating a unique three-dimensional structure that enables the protein to perform its specific function.

In enzymes, for example, the catalytic domain contains the residues that bind and convert substrates into products through chemical reactions. In receptors, the catalytic domain may be involved in signal transduction or other regulatory functions. Understanding the structure and function of catalytic domains is crucial to understanding the mechanisms of protein function and can provide valuable insights for drug design and therapeutic interventions.

Tryptophan is an essential amino acid, meaning it cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through dietary sources. Its chemical formula is C11H12N2O2. Tryptophan plays a crucial role in various biological processes as it serves as a precursor to several important molecules, including serotonin, melatonin, and niacin (vitamin B3). Serotonin is a neurotransmitter involved in mood regulation, appetite control, and sleep-wake cycles, while melatonin is a hormone that regulates sleep-wake patterns. Niacin is essential for energy production and DNA repair.

Foods rich in tryptophan include turkey, chicken, fish, eggs, cheese, milk, nuts, seeds, and whole grains. In some cases, tryptophan supplementation may be recommended to help manage conditions related to serotonin imbalances, such as depression or insomnia, but this should only be done under the guidance of a healthcare professional due to potential side effects and interactions with other medications.

Oxygen isotopes are different forms or varieties of the element oxygen that have the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei, which is 8, but a different number of neutrons. The most common oxygen isotopes are oxygen-16 (^{16}O), which contains 8 protons and 8 neutrons, and oxygen-18 (^{18}O), which contains 8 protons and 10 neutrons.

The ratio of these oxygen isotopes can vary in different substances, such as water molecules, and can provide valuable information about the origins and history of those substances. For example, scientists can use the ratio of oxygen-18 to oxygen-16 in ancient ice cores or fossilized bones to learn about past climate conditions or the diets of ancient organisms.

In medical contexts, oxygen isotopes may be used in diagnostic tests or treatments, such as positron emission tomography (PET) scans, where a radioactive isotope of oxygen (such as oxygen-15) is introduced into the body and emits positrons that can be detected by specialized equipment to create detailed images of internal structures.

Framycetin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic, which is derived from the bacterium Streptomyces fradiae. It works by binding to the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, thereby inhibiting protein synthesis and leading to bacterial cell death. Framycetin is primarily used topically (on the skin or mucous membranes) to treat infections caused by susceptible strains of Gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, Proteus species, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. It is often found in combination with other antibiotics, corticosteroids, or both in various topical formulations like creams, ointments, and ear drops.

It's important to note that Framycetin, like other aminoglycosides, has the potential for ototoxicity (damage to the inner ear) and nephrotoxicity (kidney damage), but these side effects are less likely to occur with topical use compared to systemic administration. However, it should still be used cautiously, and patients should follow their healthcare provider's instructions carefully when using products containing Framycetin.

I'm happy to help! However, it seems there might be a bit of confusion here. Starch is not typically considered a medical term, but rather a nutritional and biochemical concept. Here's a brief explanation:

Starch is a complex carbohydrate that serves as the primary form of energy storage in plants. It is made up of long chains of glucose molecules and can be found in various foods such as grains, legumes, fruits, and vegetables. Amylase, an enzyme present in our saliva and digestive system, helps break down starch into simpler sugars during the digestion process so that our bodies can absorb them for energy.

I hope this clarifies any confusion! If you have any other questions or need further information on a medical topic, please don't hesitate to ask.

Benzoyl peroxide is a medication used in the treatment of acne. It is available in various forms, including creams, gels, and washes. Benzoyl peroxide works by reducing the amount of bacteria on the skin and helping to unclog pores. It is typically applied to the affected area once or twice a day.

Benzoyl peroxide can cause side effects such as dryness, redness, and irritation of the skin. It is important to follow the directions for use carefully and start with a lower concentration if you are new to using this medication. If you experience severe or persistent side effects, it is recommended that you speak with a healthcare provider.

It is also important to note that benzoyl peroxide can bleach clothing and hair, so it is best to apply it carefully and allow it to fully absorb into the skin before dressing or coming into contact with fabrics.

Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are a family of synthetic, water-soluble polymers with a wide range of molecular weights. They are commonly used in the medical field as excipients in pharmaceutical formulations due to their ability to improve drug solubility, stability, and bioavailability. PEGs can also be used as laxatives to treat constipation or as bowel cleansing agents prior to colonoscopy examinations. Additionally, some PEG-conjugated drugs have been developed for use in targeted cancer therapies.

In a medical context, PEGs are often referred to by their average molecular weight, such as PEG 300, PEG 400, PEG 1500, and so on. Higher molecular weight PEGs tend to be more viscous and have longer-lasting effects in the body.

It's worth noting that while PEGs are generally considered safe for use in medical applications, some people may experience allergic reactions or hypersensitivity to these compounds. Prolonged exposure to high molecular weight PEGs has also been linked to potential adverse effects, such as decreased fertility and developmental toxicity in animal studies. However, more research is needed to fully understand the long-term safety of PEGs in humans.

Substrate specificity in the context of medical biochemistry and enzymology refers to the ability of an enzyme to selectively bind and catalyze a chemical reaction with a particular substrate (or a group of similar substrates) while discriminating against other molecules that are not substrates. This specificity arises from the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme, which has evolved to match the shape, charge distribution, and functional groups of its physiological substrate(s).

Substrate specificity is a fundamental property of enzymes that enables them to carry out highly selective chemical transformations in the complex cellular environment. The active site of an enzyme, where the catalysis takes place, has a unique conformation that complements the shape and charge distribution of its substrate(s). This ensures efficient recognition, binding, and conversion of the substrate into the desired product while minimizing unwanted side reactions with other molecules.

Substrate specificity can be categorized as:

1. Absolute specificity: An enzyme that can only act on a single substrate or a very narrow group of structurally related substrates, showing no activity towards any other molecule.
2. Group specificity: An enzyme that prefers to act on a particular functional group or class of compounds but can still accommodate minor structural variations within the substrate.
3. Broad or promiscuous specificity: An enzyme that can act on a wide range of structurally diverse substrates, albeit with varying catalytic efficiencies.

Understanding substrate specificity is crucial for elucidating enzymatic mechanisms, designing drugs that target specific enzymes or pathways, and developing biotechnological applications that rely on the controlled manipulation of enzyme activities.

Biological availability is a term used in pharmacology and toxicology that refers to the degree and rate at which a drug or other substance is absorbed into the bloodstream and becomes available at the site of action in the body. It is a measure of the amount of the substance that reaches the systemic circulation unchanged, after administration by any route (such as oral, intravenous, etc.).

The biological availability (F) of a drug can be calculated using the area under the curve (AUC) of the plasma concentration-time profile after extravascular and intravenous dosing, according to the following formula:

F = (AUCex/AUCiv) x (Doseiv/Doseex)

where AUCex is the AUC after extravascular dosing, AUCiv is the AUC after intravenous dosing, Doseiv is the intravenous dose, and Doseex is the extravascular dose.

Biological availability is an important consideration in drug development and therapy, as it can affect the drug's efficacy, safety, and dosage regimen. Drugs with low biological availability may require higher doses to achieve the desired therapeutic effect, while drugs with high biological availability may have a more rapid onset of action and require lower doses to avoid toxicity.

An amino acid substitution is a type of mutation in which one amino acid in a protein is replaced by another. This occurs when there is a change in the DNA sequence that codes for a particular amino acid in a protein. The genetic code is redundant, meaning that most amino acids are encoded by more than one codon (a sequence of three nucleotides). As a result, a single base pair change in the DNA sequence may not necessarily lead to an amino acid substitution. However, if a change does occur, it can have a variety of effects on the protein's structure and function, depending on the nature of the substituted amino acids. Some substitutions may be harmless, while others may alter the protein's activity or stability, leading to disease.

Molecular docking simulation is a computational method used in structural molecular biology and drug design to predict the binding orientation and affinity of two molecules, such as a protein (receptor) and a ligand (drug). It involves modeling the three-dimensional structures of the molecules and simulating their interaction using physical forces and energies. The goal is to identify the most stable and favorable binding conformation(s) between the two molecules, which can provide insights into how they interact at the molecular level and help in the design and optimization of new drugs or therapeutic agents.

Molecular docking simulations typically involve several steps, including:

1. Preparation of the receptor and ligand structures, such as adding hydrogen atoms, assigning charges, and optimizing the geometry.
2. Defining a search space or grid around the binding site of the receptor where the ligand is likely to bind.
3. Generating multiple conformations of the ligand using various algorithms, such as systematic, stochastic, or genetic algorithms.
4. Docking each ligand conformation into the receptor's binding site and scoring its binding affinity based on various energy functions, such as van der Waals forces, electrostatic interactions, hydrogen bonding, and desolvation effects.
5. Analyzing the docking results to identify the most promising binding modes and refining them using molecular dynamics simulations or other methods.

Molecular docking simulations have become an essential tool in drug discovery and development, as they can help predict the activity and selectivity of potential drugs, reduce the time and cost of experimental screening, and guide the optimization of lead compounds for further development.

Polarized light microscopy is a type of microscopy that uses polarized light to enhance contrast and reveal unique optical properties in specimens. In this technique, a polarizing filter is placed under the light source, which polarizes the light as it passes through. The specimen is then illuminated with this linearly polarized light. As the light travels through the specimen, its plane of polarization may be altered due to birefringence, a property of certain materials that causes the light to split into two separate rays with different refractive indices.

A second polarizing filter, called an analyzer, is placed in the light path between the objective and the eyepiece. The orientation of this filter can be adjusted to either allow or block the transmission of light through the microscope. When the polarizer and analyzer are aligned perpendicularly, no light will pass through if the specimen does not exhibit birefringence. However, if the specimen has birefringent properties, it will cause the plane of polarization to rotate, allowing some light to pass through the analyzer and create a contrasting image.

Polarized light microscopy is particularly useful for observing structures in minerals, crystals, and certain biological materials like collagen fibers, muscle proteins, and starch granules. It can also be used to study stress patterns in plastics and other synthetic materials.

Apoproteins are the protein components of lipoprotein complexes, which are responsible for transporting fat molecules, such as cholesterol and triglycerides, throughout the body. Apoproteins play a crucial role in the metabolism of lipids by acting as recognition signals that allow lipoproteins to interact with specific receptors on cell surfaces.

There are several different types of apoproteins, each with distinct functions. For example, apolipoprotein A-1 (apoA-1) is the major protein component of high-density lipoproteins (HDL), which are responsible for transporting excess cholesterol from tissues to the liver for excretion. Apolipoprotein B (apoB) is a large apoprotein found in low-density lipoproteins (LDL), very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), and lipoprotein(a). ApoB plays a critical role in the assembly and secretion of VLDL from the liver, and it also mediates the uptake of LDL by cells.

Abnormalities in apoprotein levels or function can contribute to the development of various diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, measuring apoprotein levels in the blood can provide valuable information for diagnosing and monitoring these conditions.

Body fluid compartments refer to the distribution of body fluids in the human body, which are divided into two main compartments: the intracellular fluid compartment and the extracellular fluid compartment. The intracellular fluid compartment contains fluid that is inside the cells, while the extracellular fluid compartment contains fluid that is outside the cells.

The extracellular fluid compartment is further divided into two sub-compartments: the interstitial fluid compartment and the intravascular fluid compartment. The interstitial fluid compartment is the space between the cells, while the intravascular fluid compartment is the fluid inside the blood vessels.

These body fluid compartments are essential for maintaining homeostasis in the human body, as they help to regulate the balance of water and electrolytes, transport nutrients and waste products, and provide a medium for immune cells to travel through the body. Abnormalities in the distribution of body fluids can lead to various medical conditions, such as edema, dehydration, and heart failure.

Fasting is defined in medical terms as the abstinence from food or drink for a period of time. This practice is often recommended before certain medical tests or procedures, as it helps to ensure that the results are not affected by recent eating or drinking.

In some cases, fasting may also be used as a therapeutic intervention, such as in the management of seizures or other neurological conditions. Fasting can help to lower blood sugar and insulin levels, which can have a variety of health benefits. However, it is important to note that prolonged fasting can also have negative effects on the body, including malnutrition, dehydration, and electrolyte imbalances.

Fasting is also a spiritual practice in many religions, including Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, and Hinduism. In these contexts, fasting is often seen as a way to purify the mind and body, to focus on spiritual practices, or to express devotion or mourning.

A buffer in the context of physiology and medicine refers to a substance or system that helps to maintain stable or neutral conditions, particularly in relation to pH levels, within the body or biological fluids.

Buffers are weak acids or bases that can react with strong acids or bases to minimize changes in the pH level. They do this by taking up excess hydrogen ions (H+) when acidity increases or releasing hydrogen ions when alkalinity increases, thereby maintaining a relatively constant pH.

In the human body, some of the key buffer systems include:

1. Bicarbonate buffer system: This is the major buffer in blood and extracellular fluids. It consists of bicarbonate ions (HCO3-) and carbonic acid (H2CO3). When there is an increase in acidity, the bicarbonate ion accepts a hydrogen ion to form carbonic acid, which then dissociates into water and carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide can be exhaled, helping to remove excess acid from the body.
2. Phosphate buffer system: This is primarily found within cells. It consists of dihydrogen phosphate (H2PO4-) and monohydrogen phosphate (HPO42-) ions. When there is an increase in alkalinity, the dihydrogen phosphate ion donates a hydrogen ion to form monohydrogen phosphate, helping to neutralize the excess base.
3. Protein buffer system: Proteins, particularly histidine-rich proteins, can also act as buffers due to the presence of ionizable groups on their surfaces. These groups can bind or release hydrogen ions in response to changes in pH, thus maintaining a stable environment within cells and organelles.

Maintaining appropriate pH levels is crucial for various biological processes, including enzyme function, cell membrane stability, and overall homeostasis. Buffers play a vital role in preserving these balanced conditions despite internal or external challenges that might disrupt them.

Fatty acids are carboxylic acids with a long aliphatic chain, which are important components of lipids and are widely distributed in living organisms. They can be classified based on the length of their carbon chain, saturation level (presence or absence of double bonds), and other structural features.

The two main types of fatty acids are:

1. Saturated fatty acids: These have no double bonds in their carbon chain and are typically solid at room temperature. Examples include palmitic acid (C16:0) and stearic acid (C18:0).
2. Unsaturated fatty acids: These contain one or more double bonds in their carbon chain and can be further classified into monounsaturated (one double bond) and polyunsaturated (two or more double bonds) fatty acids. Examples of unsaturated fatty acids include oleic acid (C18:1, monounsaturated), linoleic acid (C18:2, polyunsaturated), and alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3, polyunsaturated).

Fatty acids play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as energy storage, membrane structure, and cell signaling. Some essential fatty acids cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through dietary sources.

Sequence homology, amino acid, refers to the similarity in the order of amino acids in a protein or a portion of a protein between two or more species. This similarity can be used to infer evolutionary relationships and functional similarities between proteins. The higher the degree of sequence homology, the more likely it is that the proteins are related and have similar functions. Sequence homology can be determined through various methods such as pairwise alignment or multiple sequence alignment, which compare the sequences and calculate a score based on the number and type of matching amino acids.

Lactoglobulins, specifically referring to β-lactoglobulin, are a type of protein found in the whey fraction of milk from ruminant animals such as cows and sheep. They are one of the major proteins in bovine milk, making up about 10% of the total protein content.

β-lactoglobulin is a small, stable protein that is resistant to heat and acid denaturation. It has an important role in the nutrition of young mammals as it can bind to fat molecules and help with their absorption. In addition, β-lactoglobulin has been studied for its potential health benefits, including its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

However, some people may have allergies to β-lactoglobulin, which can cause symptoms such as hives, swelling, and difficulty breathing. In these cases, it is important to avoid foods that contain this protein.

Nucleic acid conformation refers to the three-dimensional structure that nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) adopt as a result of the bonding patterns between the atoms within the molecule. The primary structure of nucleic acids is determined by the sequence of nucleotides, while the conformation is influenced by factors such as the sugar-phosphate backbone, base stacking, and hydrogen bonding.

Two common conformations of DNA are the B-form and the A-form. The B-form is a right-handed helix with a diameter of about 20 Å and a pitch of 34 Å, while the A-form has a smaller diameter (about 18 Å) and a shorter pitch (about 25 Å). RNA typically adopts an A-form conformation.

The conformation of nucleic acids can have significant implications for their function, as it can affect their ability to interact with other molecules such as proteins or drugs. Understanding the conformational properties of nucleic acids is therefore an important area of research in molecular biology and medicine.

Allosteric regulation is a process that describes the way in which the binding of a molecule (known as a ligand) to an enzyme or protein at one site affects the ability of another molecule to bind to a different site on the same enzyme or protein. This interaction can either enhance (positive allosteric regulation) or inhibit (negative allosteric regulation) the activity of the enzyme or protein, depending on the nature of the ligand and its effect on the shape and/or conformation of the enzyme or protein.

In an allosteric regulatory system, the binding of the first molecule to the enzyme or protein causes a conformational change in the protein structure that alters the affinity of the second site for its ligand. This can result in changes in the activity of the enzyme or protein, allowing for fine-tuning of biochemical pathways and regulatory processes within cells.

Allosteric regulation is a fundamental mechanism in many biological systems, including metabolic pathways, signal transduction cascades, and gene expression networks. Understanding allosteric regulation can provide valuable insights into the mechanisms underlying various physiological and pathological processes, and can inform the development of novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of disease.

Thermography, also known as digital infrared thermal imaging (DITI), is a non-invasive diagnostic technique that uses an infrared camera to convert heat emitted from the body into electrical signals that produce images called thermograms. These images visually represent the temperature differences across the surface of the body, which can help identify abnormalities such as inflammation, injury, or disease.

Thermography is not a standalone diagnostic tool but rather an adjunctive one, used in conjunction with other medical tests and clinical evaluations to support diagnosis and treatment planning. It has been used in various medical fields, including breast oncology, rheumatology, neurology, and pain management. However, its effectiveness and accuracy are still a subject of ongoing research and debate within the medical community.

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"Measuring RMR with Indirect Calorimetry (IC)." Nutr Clin Pract. 2007 Aug;22(4):377-88. "Measuring RMR with Indirect Calorimetry ... Respiratory indirect calorimetry (IC) is a noninvasive and highly accurate method of metabolic rate, which has an error of less ... Indirect calorimetry measures O2 consumption and CO2 production. On the assumption that all the oxygen is used to oxidize ... Indirect calorimetry, as we know it, was developed around 1900 as an application of thermodynamics to animal life. Although the ...
Isothermal microcalorimetry Isothermal titration calorimetry Pressure perturbation calorimetry Kocherbitov, V., O. Söderman, ... The method of sorption calorimetry is designed for studies of hydration of complex organic and biological materials. It has ... For studies of hydration at very high relative humidities, a special modification of the method of sorption calorimetry - the ... Vitaly Kocherbitov: Sorption calorimetry (Malmö University) (Articles with short description, Short description is different ...
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Differential scanning calorimetry Dual polarisation interferometry Sorption calorimetry Pressure perturbation calorimetry ... Grolier, Jean-Pierre E.; del Río, Jose Manuel (2015). "Isothermal Titration Calorimetry: Application of the Gibbs-Duhem ... In chemical thermodynamics, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is a physical technique used to determine the thermodynamic ... Quick Start: Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC) (2016). TA Instrument. New Castle, DE. VP-ITC Instruction Manual (2001). ...
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"Indirect Calorimetry" (PDF). "Techniques available for measuring energy expenditure". United Nations University. Weir, J. B. de ... The Weir formula is a formula used in indirect calorimetry, relating metabolic rate to oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide ...
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Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) may be used to determine both a pK value and the corresponding standard enthalpy for ... 2016). "Methods in Enzymology". Calorimetry. Elsevier. 567: 2-493. ISSN 0076-6879. Splittgerber, A. G.; Chinander, L.L. (1 ... The standard enthalpy change can be determined by calorimetry or by using the van 't Hoff equation, though the calorimetric ...
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The second was the study of electrical and thermal units using calorimetry techniques with Howard Turner Barnes. He also ... Callendar, Hugh Longbourne (1902). "Continuous electrical calorimetry". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A. 199 ...
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"Clinical Calorimetry: XLV. Prolonged Meat Diets With A Study Of Kidney Function And Ketosis" (PDF). J. Biol. Chem. 87 (3): 651- ...
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Haines, Peter J. (2002). Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry. Royal Society of Chemistry. ISBN 9780854046102. Brown, M. E. (2001- ...
ISBN 0-8425-0145-2 Library of Congress Catalog Card 74-13074 Grime, J. K.; (1985) Analytical solution calorimetry. John Wiley ... Experiments in thermometric titrimetry and titration calorimetry. Brigham Young University Press, Provo, Utah. ...
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"Indirect Calorimetry Data for Baz1b". Mouse Resources Portal. sanger.ac.uk. Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Body Composition ... Mutant mice showed increased activity, VO2 and energy expenditure, determined by indirect calorimetry. Radiography found teeth ...
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"Indirect calorimetry data for Rad18". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "DEXA data for Rad18". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute ... Mutant male mice showed increased activity, VO2 and energy expenditure, determined by indirect calorimetry. Dual-energy X-ray ...
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DSC is a thermoanalytical technique in which the difference in the amount of heat required to increase the temperature of a sample and reference is measured as a function of temperature. Both the sample and reference are maintained at nearly the same temperature throughout the experiment. Generally, the temperature program for a DSC analysis is designed such that the sample holder temperature increases linearly as a function of time. The technique was developed by E.S. Watson and M.J. ONeill in 1962. Within TPM the DSC a Mettler Toledo DSC822e is used for many applications, e.g. heat of hydration processes, analysis of glass transition temperatures of coatings.. ...
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... is the measurement of the quantity of heat exchanged. For example, if the energy from an exothermic ... The materials involved in the calorimetry are modeled here as a volume of water, a source of heat which is characterized by its ...
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Test Method for Thermal Conductivity and Thermal Diffusivity by Modulated Temperature Differential Scanning Calorimetry. ... Test Method for Thermal Conductivity and Thermal Diffusivity by Modulated Temperature Differential Scanning Calorimetry> new ... Test Method for Thermal Conductivity and Thermal Diffusivity by Modulated Temperature Differential Scanning Calorimetry E1952- ... Test Method for Thermal Conductivity and Thermal Diffusivity by Modulated Temperature Differential Scanning Calorimetry ...
... during the same freezing conditions by calorimetry. Analysis of magnetic resonance imaging and calorimetry results, allow the ... The use of magnetic resonance imaging and calorimetry to follow the freezing process in real food systems.. Author(s) : REID D ... Original title: The use of magnetic resonance imaging and calorimetry to follow the freezing process in real food systems. ... The combination of magnetic resonance imaging and calorimetry is a powerful tool for the study of the freezing process in real ...
Learn Advanced Calorimetry: Equilibrium Temperature with Phase Changes with free step-by-step video explanations and practice ...
Nano DSC is a kind of differential scanning calorimetry that measures the heat absorbed or released by dilute in-solution bio- ... Nano differential scanning calorimetry works by measuring temperature changes associated with antibody unfolding or ... While differential scanning calorimetry has numerous applications across pharmaceuticals, electronics, composites, and more, ... TA Instruments Nano DSC is an ultrasensitive nano differential scanning calorimetry instrument for reliable measurements of ...
Test Method for Thermal Conductivity and Thermal Diffusivity by Modulated Temperature Differential Scanning Calorimetry. ...
TREADMILL WITH INDIRECT CALORIMETRY. *Freitas DA et al (2018) High intensity interval training modulates hippocampal oxidative ... Room specifications for indirect calorimetry. Room temperature. 20-28 °C, the important is that the temperature is maintained ... OXYLETPRO - TREADMILL WITH INDIRECT CALORIMETRY Complete solution for assessing respiratory metabolism in treadmill studies ... Panlab provides a complete Oxylet solution enabling forced exercise training in a treadmill combined with indirect calorimetry ...
Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has been one of the most widely used techniques to characterise the temperature ... Can calorimetry provide accurate estimates of long‑term stability for monoclonal antibodies?. 41 ... Differential Scanning Calorimetry of the Irreversible Thermal Denaturation of Thermolysin. Biochemistry 1988; 27: 1648-1652. ... Theoretical analysis of Lumry-Eyring Models in Differential Scanning Calorimetry. Biophys. J. 1992; 61: 921-935. ...
Important differences between the data from reaction calorimetry and adiabatic calorimetry and how best to use it. ... Topics: vent sizing, ARSST, VSP2, Reaction Calorimetry, Adiabatic Calorimetry, Mettler-Toledo RC1, Chemisens, chemical process ... The adiabatic temperature rise (ΔΤad) is a deliverable from either reaction calorimetry or adiabatic calorimetry but differs in ... In this article we highlight important differences between the data from reaction calorimetry and adiabatic calorimetry and how ...
... by use of open-flow indirect calorimetry (IC) and treatment with aerosolized albuterol on REE in horses with recurrent airway ... Effect of aerosolized albuterol sulfate on resting energy expenditure determined by use of open-flow indirect calorimetry in ... by use of open-flow indirect calorimetry (IC) and treatment with aerosolized albuterol on REE in horses with recurrent airway ... by use of open-flow indirect calorimetry (IC) and treatment with aerosolized albuterol on REE in horses with recurrent airway ...
On the Brilliant Light Power website they state that they limited run time to get accurate calorimetry, but that the SunCell is ... There is a new report on the Brilliant Light Power website titled "Water Bath Calorimetry (120420): Report ". The report was ... The 22 page report describes two water bath calorimetry tests done on December 4th at BLP headquarters in New Jersey. ... Microsoft Word - Report on Water Bath Calorimetry (120420).docx (brilliantlightpower.com). Dr. Nansteel has written a very ...
Binding affinity to human BRD4 at 15 uM by isothermal titration calorimetry. ...
Identification of thermal signature and quantification of charcoal in soil using differential scanning calorimetry… ... In this study, we explored the potential of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to identify, characterize and quantify ... Identification of thermal signature and quantification of charcoal in soil using differential scanning calorimetry and benzene ... Identification of thermal signature and quantification of charcoal in soil using differential scanning calorimetry and benzene ...
Symposium on biological calorimetry. On Friday, May 13th, 2011, the Center for RNA Molecular Biology and the Automated ... Automated Calorimetry Facility Cryo-Electron Microscopy Facility CSL Behring Fermentation Facility Flow Cytometry Facility ... The Automated Biological Calorimetry Facility has acquired a Millipore Direct Detect bio-molecular quantitation system. The ... The micro-calorimetry equipment which was previously located in 104 Chemistry Building was moved to 8 Althouse Lab. ...
Isothermal calorimetry allows rice cooking to be simulated directly at various temperatures in excess water. The signal can be ... Isothermal calorimetry allows rice cooking to be simulated directly at various temperatures in excess water. The signal can be ... CHARACTERIZATION OF RICE COOKING - ISOTHERMAL DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETRY INVESTIGATIONS. M. RIVA;A. SCHIRALDI. Secondo. ... CHARACTERIZATION OF RICE COOKING - ISOTHERMAL DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETRY INVESTIGATIONS / M. RIVA, A. SCHIRALDI, L. ...
... with embedded questions aligned to Common Core and Depth of Knowledge (DOK) as well as scaffolding notes ...
InsideScientific is a Scientist.com company.. Scientist.com is the pharmaceutical industrys leading AI-powered marketplace for outsourced R&D. The marketplace simplifies R&D sourcing, saves time and money, reduces risk and provides access to the latest innovative tools and technologies. Scientist.com operates private enterprise marketplaces for most of the worlds major pharmaceutical companies, over 80 biotechnology companies and the US National Institutes of Health (NIH).. Learn more at www.scientist.com. ...
... ⚡️ Resting energy expenditure REE ⚡️ Respiratory quotient RQ ⚡️ CО₂ elimination VCО₂ ⚡️ О₂ ...
Isothermal titration calorimetry. ITC experiments were performed at 25 °C on an iTC200 (GE Healthcare). Redα and Redβ were ... a) Isothermal titration calorimetry determined by injecting Redα (2 μl; 150 μM; 3 minute intervals) into the cell containing ... the equilibrium dissociation constant for the Redα-Redβ protein-protein interaction using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC ...
  • This document specifies two methods (isothermal and non-isothermal) for studying the crystallization kinetics of partially crystalline polymers using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). (iso.org)
  • Nano differential scanning calorimetry works by measuring temperature changes associated with antibody unfolding or denaturation events. (tainstruments.com)
  • TA Instruments Nano DSC is an ultrasensitive nano differential scanning calorimetry instrument for reliable measurements of antibody and other macromolecule stability. (tainstruments.com)
  • Designed to be easy to use and capable of performing measurements with as little as 2 µg of sample, the Nano DSC is the ideal nano differential scanning calorimetry instrument for monitoring antibody stability for routine and research purposes. (tainstruments.com)
  • Nano DSC is a kind of differential scanning calorimetry that measures the heat absorbed or released by dilute in-solution bio-molecules as they are heated or cooled. (tainstruments.com)
  • While differential scanning calorimetry has numerous applications across pharmaceuticals, electronics, composites, and more, the Nano DSC is specifically built to measure thermal changes in bio-molecules. (tainstruments.com)
  • The TA Instruments Nano DSC is the industry-leading, highly-customizable nano differential scanning calorimetry instrument. (tainstruments.com)
  • 1 Using nano differential scanning calorimetry to make such measurements can also be used to provide general structure information and investigate binding events, particularly for protein-ligand interactions. (tainstruments.com)
  • Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has been one of the most widely used techniques to characterise the temperature stability of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and provide important information in formulation optimisation. (europeanpharmaceuticalreview.com)
  • In this study, we explored the potential of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to identify, characterize and quantify charcoal in the soil of pre-industrial charcoal kiln sites from various forest and cropland areas in Belgium and Germany. (wallonie.be)
  • Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), is an undemanding and effective technique, utilized for examining the thermodynamic properties of thermally induced transitions. (aurigaresearch.com)
  • Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) polymer analysis and plastic analysis measures the heat capacity of a sample. (polymersolutions.com)
  • Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) analysis can be performed from -90 to 725 °C and although the ambient atmosphere is usually nitrogen, that can be altered for specific analytical protocols. (polymersolutions.com)
  • Virtually all plastic and rubber materials are evaluated using Differential Scanning Calorimetry. (polymersolutions.com)
  • Using differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, sorption calorimetry, and synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), we have characterized the properties at low (re)hydration levels of the protein lysozyme, which was freeze-dried together with the excipient sucrose. (lu.se)
  • Indirect calorimetry calculates heat that living organisms produce by measuring either their production of carbon dioxide and nitrogen waste (frequently ammonia in aquatic organisms, or urea in terrestrial ones), or from their consumption of oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Panlab provides a complete Oxylet solution enabling forced exercise training in a treadmill combined with indirect calorimetry in rodents. (panlab.com)
  • Objective -To evaluate effects of sedation on stability of resistance of the respiratory system (RRS) and measures of resting energy expenditure (REE) by use of open-flow indirect calorimetry (IC) and treatment with aerosolized albuterol on REE in horses with recurrent airway obstruction (RAO). (avma.org)
  • On the basis of observational cohort studies, it is suggested that measured energy expenditure by indirect calorimetry (IC) be used to determine energy requirements and guide prescription of the daily energy goal. (medscape.com)
  • Calorimetry is performed with a calorimeter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heat generated by living organisms may also be measured by direct calorimetry, in which the entire organism is placed inside the calorimeter for the measurement. (wikipedia.org)
  • The materials involved in the calorimetry are modeled here as a volume of water, a source of heat which is characterized by its equivalent water mass, and the container or calorimeter with its mass and specific heat. (gsu.edu)
  • A calorimeter is a device through which we can make the heat measurements necessary for calorimetry. (web.app)
  • Assignment: Calorimetry Lab Assignment: Calorimetry Lab Student Exploration: Calorimetry Lab Vocabulary: calorie, calorimeter, joule, specific heat capacity Prior Knowledge Questions (Do these BEFORE using the Gizmo. (gpafix.com)
  • This method of measuring calories is called direct calorimetry. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Reaction calorimetry for sa. (laboratorytalk.com)
  • Reaction calorimetry is used to monitor the heat release rate, as a reaction proceeds. (laboratorytalk.com)
  • In addition, multiple vessel systems with reaction calorimetry are also supplied - for example four or even eight vessels in parallel at volumes from around 75 to 350ml. (laboratorytalk.com)
  • Scottish physician and scientist Joseph Black, who was the first to recognize the distinction between heat and temperature, is said to be the founder of the science of calorimetry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calorimetry requires that a reference material that changes temperature have known definite thermal constitutive properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • The amount of heat energy (q) gained or lost by a substance is equal to the mass of the substance (m) multiplied by its specific heat capacity (Cg) multiplied by the change in temperature (final temperature initial temperature) q = m x Cg x (Tf Ti) Calorimetry Lab C. How do you think increasing or decreasing the copper s initial temperature would affect the final temperature? (gpafix.com)
  • Enthalpies of transition were measured by transposed temperature drop calorimetry. (elsevierpure.com)
  • In chemistry and thermodynamics, calorimetry (from Latin calor 'heat', and Greek μέτρον (metron) 'measure') is the science or act of measuring changes in state variables of a body for the purpose of deriving the heat transfer associated with changes of its state due, for example, to chemical reactions, physical changes, or phase transitions under specified constraints. (wikipedia.org)
  • Isothermal calorimetry is a useful tool for the time-resolved investigation of cement hydration. (fau.eu)
  • Sorption calorimetry experiments demonstrate that the hydration behavior of this formulation is similar to that of the pure amorphous sucrose, while the presence of lysozyme only shifts the sucrose transitions. (lu.se)
  • Virtual calorimetry lab pencil explore the apparatus open the virtual calorimetry lab. (web.app)
  • Limestone Particle size and Cement Performance: Can we apply Calorimetry for Process Control? (cementcalorimetry.org)
  • Calorimetry for particle physics cern document server. (web.app)
  • The word calorimetry is derived from the latin word calor, meaning heat and. (web.app)
  • Can DSC calorimetry gauge long‑term stability for monoclonal antibodies? (europeanpharmaceuticalreview.com)
  • Can calorimetry provide accurate estimates of long‑term stability for monoclonal antibodies? (europeanpharmaceuticalreview.com)
  • The stability fields of two high‐pressure polymorphs of ZrO 2 (ortho I and ortho II) were determined by both calorimetry and phase equilibrium experiments. (elsevierpure.com)
  • The laboratory sessions deal with key experimental techniques such as QCM (quartz crystal microbalance), calorimetry, AFM (atomic force microscopy) and experimental studies of colloidal stability in milk. (lu.se)
  • Calorimetry is the measurement of the heat changes associated with chemical reactions and physical processes. (daviddarling.info)
  • Calorimetry is the measurement of the quantity of heat exchanged. (gsu.edu)
  • Calorimetry is the field of science that deals with the measurement of the state of a body with respect to the thermal aspects in order to examine its physical and chemical changes. (web.app)
  • Calorimetry is the measurement of the quantity of heat exchanged during chemical reactions or physical changes. (studymode.com)
  • Thermal properties of matter 03 calorimetry compilation. (web.app)
  • Heat transfer, specific heat, and calorimetry physics libretexts. (web.app)
  • Selina solutions concise physics chapter 11 calorimetry. (web.app)
  • Calorimetry solutions for icse board class 10 physics. (web.app)
  • The 22 page report describes two water bath calorimetry tests done on December 4th at BLP headquarters in New Jersey. (e-catworld.com)
  • Analysis of magnetic resonance imaging and calorimetry results, allow the prediction of parameters, which will be used to obtain the time-enthalpy curves for the various products during freezing. (iifiir.org)
  • Whole body calorimetry and composition and whole body bioimpedance analysis for weight reduction and other indications. (aetna.com)
  • Calorimetry is the science or act of measuring changes in state variables of a body for the purpose of deriving the heat transfer associated with changes of its state due, for example, to chemical reactions, physical changes, or phase transitions under specified constraints. (web.app)
  • HEL has pioneered the use of power compensation calorimetry as a particularly useful technique for generating this data. (laboratorytalk.com)
  • By this means, reliable calorimetry data can be obtained even for the initial part of cement reactions. (fau.eu)
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  • New York, Appleton, 1916), by Walter Essex Wynter( download Animal and Human Calorimetry books at HathiTrust) Minutes of the General Council of Medical Education and Registration of the United Kingdom. (moerbe.de)
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  • The combination of magnetic resonance imaging and calorimetry is a powerful tool for the study of the freezing process in real food systems. (iifiir.org)
  • The study of the heat gained or lost during physical processes and chemical reactions is called calorimetry. (web.app)
  • Isothermal calorimetry allows rice cooking to be simulated directly at various temperatures in excess water. (unimi.it)
  • Apr 24, 2016 calorimetry means measuring heat calorieheat and metrymeasure. (web.app)
  • There are many materials that do not comply with this rule, and for them, the present formula of classical calorimetry does not provide an adequate account. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the Brilliant Light Power website they state that they limited run time to get accurate calorimetry, but that the SunCell is capable of running indefinitely. (e-catworld.com)
  • Rubric for identification of an unknown metal using calorimetry file 25. (web.app)
  • Calorimetry the science of measuring the heat of chemical. (web.app)
  • The use of magnetic resonance imaging and calorimetry to follow the. (iifiir.org)
  • The use of magnetic resonance imaging and calorimetry to follow the freezing process in real food systems. (iifiir.org)
  • You will use the Calorimetry Lab Gizmo to determine the specific heat capacities of various substances. (gpafix.com)