Caloric Restriction: Reduction in caloric intake without reduction in adequate nutrition. In experimental animals, caloric restriction has been shown to extend lifespan and enhance other physiological variables.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Food Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a food or its container or wrapper. The concept includes ingredients, NUTRITIONAL VALUE, directions, warnings, and other relevant information.Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Menu PlanningDiet, Reducing: A diet designed to cause an individual to lose weight.Amino Sugars: SUGARS containing an amino group. GLYCOSYLATION of other compounds with these amino sugars results in AMINOGLYCOSIDES.Fast Foods: Prepared food that is ready to eat or partially prepared food that has a final preparation time of a few minutes or less.Dietary Sucrose: Sucrose present in the diet. It is added to food and drinks as a sweetener.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.RestaurantsDiet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Longevity: The normal length of time of an organism's life.Sugar Alcohols: Polyhydric alcohols having no more than one hydroxy group attached to each carbon atom. They are formed by the reduction of the carbonyl group of a sugar to a hydroxyl group.(From Dorland, 28th ed)Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Deoxy SugarsFood Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Sirtuins: A homologous family of regulatory enzymes that are structurally related to the protein silent mating type information regulator 2 (Sir2) found in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Sirtuins contain a central catalytic core region which binds NAD. Several of the sirtuins utilize NAD to deacetylate proteins such as HISTONES and are categorized as GROUP III HISTONE DEACETYLASES. Several other sirtuin members utilize NAD to transfer ADP-RIBOSE to proteins and are categorized as MONO ADP-RIBOSE TRANSFERASES, while a third group of sirtuins appears to have both deacetylase and ADP ribose transferase activities.Fructose: A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Beverages: Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Sweetening Agents: Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Nutritive Value: An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.Protein-Energy Malnutrition: The lack of sufficient energy or protein to meet the body's metabolic demands, as a result of either an inadequate dietary intake of protein, intake of poor quality dietary protein, increased demands due to disease, or increased nutrient losses.Sirtuin 1: A sirtuin family member found primarily in the CELL NUCLEUS. It is an NAD-dependent deacetylase with specificity towards HISTONES and a variety of proteins involved in gene regulation.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Monosaccharides: Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Phosphoenolpyruvate Sugar Phosphotransferase System: The bacterial sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) that catalyzes the transfer of the phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate to its sugar substrates (the PTS sugars) concomitant with the translocation of these sugars across the bacterial membrane. The phosphorylation of a given sugar requires four proteins, two general proteins, Enzyme I and HPr and a pair of sugar-specific proteins designated as the Enzyme II complex. The PTS has also been implicated in the induction of synthesis of some catabolic enzyme systems required for the utilization of sugars that are not substrates of the PTS as well as the regulation of the activity of ADENYLYL CYCLASES. EC 2.7.1.-.Weight Loss: Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Galactose: An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.Uridine Diphosphate SugarsHexosesAging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Parenteral Nutrition: The administering of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient who cannot maintain adequate nutrition by enteral feeding alone. Nutrients are administered by a route other than the alimentary canal (e.g., intravenously, subcutaneously).Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Nutrition Policy: Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.Sugar AcidsInsulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Mannose: A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Parenteral Nutrition, Total: The delivery of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient whose sole source of nutrients is via solutions administered intravenously, subcutaneously, or by some other non-alimentary route. The basic components of TPN solutions are protein hydrolysates or free amino acid mixtures, monosaccharides, and electrolytes. Components are selected for their ability to reverse catabolism, promote anabolism, and build structural proteins.Nutritional Requirements: The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.XyloseFood Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Carbohydrate Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.Consumer Health Information: Information intended for potential users of medical and healthcare services. There is an emphasis on self-care and preventive approaches as well as information for community-wide dissemination and use.Carbonated Beverages: Drinkable liquids combined with or impregnated with carbon dioxide.Sirtuin 2: A sirtuin family member found primarily in the CYTOPLASM. It is a multifunctional enzyme that contains a NAD-dependent deacetylase activity that is specific for HISTONES and a mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase activity.Saccharum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE widely cultivated in the tropics for the sweet cane that is processed into sugar.Diet, Fat-Restricted: A diet that contains limited amounts of fat with less than 30% of calories from all fats and less than 10% from saturated fat. Such a diet is used in control of HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. (From Bondy et al, Metabolic Control and Disease, 8th ed, pp468-70; Dorland, 27th ed)Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Sugar PhosphatesKetogenic Diet: A course of food intake that is high in FATS and low in CARBOHYDRATES. This diet provides sufficient PROTEINS for growth but insufficient amount of carbohydrates for the energy needs of the body. A ketogenic diet generates 80-90% of caloric requirements from fats and the remainder from proteins.Satiation: Full gratification of a need or desire followed by a state of relative insensitivity to that particular need or desire.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.TriglyceridesEthanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition.Food, Formulated: Food and dietary formulations including elemental (chemically defined formula) diets, synthetic and semisynthetic diets, space diets, weight-reduction formulas, tube-feeding diets, complete liquid diets, and supplemental liquid and solid diets.Taste: The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Hunger: The desire for FOOD generated by a sensation arising from the lack of food in the STOMACH.Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 2-12 years.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Diet Surveys: Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Lactose: A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.Rats, Inbred F344Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Nutritional Support: The administration of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient by means other than normal eating. It does not include FLUID THERAPY which normalizes body fluids to restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Nucleoside Diphosphate SugarsAcetylglucosamine: The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.Food Deprivation: The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.Disaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.Kwashiorkor: A syndrome produced by severe protein deficiency, characterized by retarded growth, changes in skin and hair pigment, edema, and pathologic changes in the liver, including fatty infiltration, necrosis, and fibrosis. The word is a local name in Gold Coast, Africa, meaning "displaced child". Although first reported from Africa, kwashiorkor is now known throughout the world, but mainly in the tropics and subtropics. It is considered to be related to marasmus. (From Dorland, 27th ed)MethylglucosidesTime Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Appetite: Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.Stilbenes: Organic compounds that contain 1,2-diphenylethylene as a functional group.Diet, Carbohydrate-Restricted: A diet that contains limited amounts of CARBOHYDRATES. This is in distinction to a regular DIET.FucoseNutrition Assessment: Evaluation and measurement of nutritional variables in order to assess the level of nutrition or the NUTRITIONAL STATUS of the individual. NUTRITION SURVEYS may be used in making the assessment.Lectins: Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.Overweight: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)GlucosamineVegetables: A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Maltose: A dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)ArabinosePolysaccharidesCholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Rhamnose: A methylpentose whose L- isomer is found naturally in many plant glycosides and some gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharides.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Meals: A portion of the food eaten for the day, usually at regular occasions during the day.Sirtuin 3: A sirtuin family member found primarily in MITOCHONDRIA. It is a multifunctional enzyme that contains a NAD-dependent deacetylase activity that is specific for HISTONES and a mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase activity.Consumer Advocacy: The promotion and support of consumers' rights and interests.Hyperphagia: Ingestion of a greater than optimal quantity of food.Enteral Nutrition: Nutritional support given via the alimentary canal or any route connected to the gastrointestinal system (i.e., the enteral route). This includes oral feeding, sip feeding, and tube feeding using nasogastric, gastrostomy, and jejunostomy tubes.Food Analysis: Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.Monosaccharide Transport Proteins: A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.Ribose: A pentose active in biological systems usually in its D-form.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Adiposity: The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.Food Industry: The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.TrehaloseFood Dispensers, Automatic: Mechanical food dispensing machines.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Nutrition Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.Overnutrition: An imbalanced NUTRITIONAL STATUS resulting from excessive intake of nutrients. Generally, overnutrition generates an energy imbalance between food consumption and energy expenditure leading to disorders such as OBESITY.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.PhlorhizinDiet, High-Fat: Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.New York CityMice, Inbred C57BLOrgan Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Malnutrition: An imbalanced nutritional status resulted from insufficient intake of nutrients to meet normal physiological requirement.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Health Food: A non-medical term defined by the lay public as a food that has little or no preservatives, which has not undergone major processing, enrichment or refinement and which may be grown without pesticides. (from Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Diet Records: Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.MethylglycosidesAcetylgalactosamine: The N-acetyl derivative of galactosamine.Pentoses: A class of carbohydrates that contains five carbon atoms.HexosaminesFood Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Glycosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glycosyl groups to an acceptor. Most often another carbohydrate molecule acts as an acceptor, but inorganic phosphate can also act as an acceptor, such as in the case of PHOSPHORYLASES. Some of the enzymes in this group also catalyze hydrolysis, which can be regarded as transfer of a glycosyl group from the donor to water. Subclasses include the HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES; PENTOSYLTRANSFERASES; SIALYLTRANSFERASES; and those transferring other glycosyl groups. EC 2.4.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Protein Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of proteins in the diet, characterized by adaptive enzyme changes in the liver, increase in amino acid synthetases, and diminution of urea formation, thus conserving nitrogen and reducing its loss in the urine. Growth, immune response, repair, and production of enzymes and hormones are all impaired in severe protein deficiency. Protein deficiency may also arise in the face of adequate protein intake if the protein is of poor quality (i.e., the content of one or more amino acids is inadequate and thus becomes the limiting factor in protein utilization). (From Merck Manual, 16th ed; Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 12th ed, p406)Fats, Unsaturated: Fats containing one or more double bonds, as from oleic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid.Plant Nectar: Sugar-rich liquid produced in plant glands called nectaries. It is either produced in flowers or other plant structures, providing a source of attraction for pollinating insects and animals, as well as being a nutrient source to animal mutualists which provide protection of plants against herbivores.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Sorbose: A ketose sugar that is commonly used in the commercial synthesis of ASCORBIC ACID.Calorimetry: The measurement of the quantity of heat involved in various processes, such as chemical reactions, changes of state, and formations of solutions, or in the determination of the heat capacities of substances. The fundamental unit of measurement is the joule or the calorie (4.184 joules). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Glucose Tolerance Test: A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Dietetics: The application of nutritional principles to regulation of the diet and feeding persons or groups of persons.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Aspartame: Flavoring agent sweeter than sugar, metabolized as PHENYLALANINE and ASPARTIC ACID.United StatesModels, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Corn Oil: Oil from ZEA MAYS or corn plant.Melibiose: A disaccharide consisting of one galactose and one glucose moiety in an alpha (1-6) glycosidic linkage.Satiety Response: Behavioral response associated with the achieving of gratification.Uridine Diphosphate N-Acetylglucosamine: Serves as the biological precursor of insect chitin, of muramic acid in bacterial cell walls, and of sialic acids in mammalian glycoproteins.Yeasts: A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Snacks: Foods eaten between MEALTIMES.Plant Lectins: Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.Postprandial Period: The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.Chenopodiaceae: The goosefoot plant family of the order Caryophyllales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida. It includes beets and chard (BETA VULGARIS), as well as SPINACH, and salt tolerant plants.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Sodium-Glucose Transport Proteins: Monosaccharide transport proteins that function as active symporters. They utilize SODIUM or HYDROGEN IONS to transport GLUCOSE across CELL MEMBRANES.New JerseyFood Services: Functions, equipment, and facilities concerned with the preparation and distribution of ready-to-eat food.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Mannitol: A diuretic and renal diagnostic aid related to sorbitol. It has little significant energy value as it is largely eliminated from the body before any metabolism can take place. It can be used to treat oliguria associated with kidney failure or other manifestations of inadequate renal function and has been used for determination of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol is also commonly used as a research tool in cell biological studies, usually to control osmolarity.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Taste Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of gustatory stimuli are recognized and interpreted by the brain. The four basic classes of taste perception are salty, sweet, bitter, and sour.Sodium-Glucose Transporter 1: The founding member of the sodium glucose transport proteins. It is predominately expressed in the INTESTINAL MUCOSA of the SMALL INTESTINE.MethylgalactosidesGhrelin: A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.Cholesterol, Dietary: Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.Nutrition Therapy: Improving health status of an individual by adjusting the quantities, qualities, and methods of nutrient intake.Protein HydrolysatesThiogalactosides: Galactosides in which the oxygen atom linking the sugar and aglycone is replaced by a sulfur atom.DeoxyriboseElectrophoresis, Paper: Electrophoresis in which paper is used as the diffusion medium. This technique is confined almost entirely to separations of small molecules such as amino acids, peptides, and nucleotides, and relatively high voltages are nearly always used.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Calorimetry, Indirect: Calculation of the energy expenditure in the form of heat production of the whole body or individual organs based on respiratory gas exchange.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Saccharin: Flavoring agent and non-nutritive sweetener.Chromatography, Paper: An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Sorbitol: A polyhydric alcohol with about half the sweetness of sucrose. Sorbitol occurs naturally and is also produced synthetically from glucose. It was formerly used as a diuretic and may still be used as a laxative and in irrigating solutions for some surgical procedures. It is also used in many manufacturing processes, as a pharmaceutical aid, and in several research applications.Anti-Obesity Agents: Agents that increase energy expenditure and weight loss by neural and chemical regulation. Beta-adrenergic agents and serotoninergic drugs have been experimentally used in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) to treat obesity.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Raffinose: A trisaccharide occurring in Australian manna (from Eucalyptus spp, Myrtaceae) and in cottonseed meal.Deoxyglucose: 2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Air-popped popcorn is naturally high in dietary fiber and antioxidants,[unreliable source?] low in calories and fat, and free ... of sugar and sodium. This can make it an attractive snack to people with dietary restrictions on the intake of calories, fat or ... For both these reasons, higher-expansion popcorn fetches a higher profit per unit weight. Popcorn will pop when freshly ... Kernels with a high moisture content are also susceptible to mold when stored. For these reasons, popcorn growers and ...
It is usually high in calories. More desi or traditional version of churma called choorma is very popular in Haryana. Choorma ... It is coarsely ground wheat crushed and cooked with ghee and sugar. Traditionally it is made by mashing up bajri or wheat flour ... is made by mashing up wheat flour roti in desi ghee and ayurvedic sugar (also called gur shakkar in common Hindi or jaggery in ...
... is a condition in which a woman without diabetes develops high blood sugar levels during pregnancy.[2] ... Any diet needs to provide sufficient calories for pregnancy, typically 2,000 - 2,500 kcal with the exclusion of simple ... Neonates born from women with consistently high blood sugar levels are also at an increased risk of low blood glucose ( ... This risk is largely related to uncontrolled high blood glucose levels and its consequences. The risk increases with higher ...
They are also typically higher in calories, fat, and sugar, and lower in dietary fibre.[69] In less developed countries, wheat ... such as iron and B vitamins and a higher intake of sugars and saturated fats. Some gluten-free commercial replacement products ... the limited choice of food products in the diet of children with CD induces a high consumption of packaged GFPs, such as snacks ... In fact, these foods are considered to have a higher nutritional value in terms of energy provision, lipid composition and ...
It is higher in sugars than cows' milk but balances itself in terms of the amount of protein. Alpine goats' milk has 2.3 g of ... since it packs more calories with an increased fat content. Compared to Saanen goat milk, it is higher in all nutritional ... For the Alpine goat that number is higher at 135 pounds and produces 2,134 pounds of milk per lactation.[4] Good nutrition, ... Alpine goats are extremely popular in the dairy industry for their docile temperament, high quality milk output and long ...
In its original high sugar content formulation Lucozade was recommended by UK diabetes charities as an immediate treatment for ... A stated purpose of sports drinks, which provide many calories of energy from sugars, is to improve performance and endurance. ... of sugar, more than Coca-Cola.[10] In 2017, to avoid sugar tax, the drink was reformulated to contain 4.5 g of sugar per 100 ml ... "How will decreased sugar in Lucozade affect people with diabetes?". Retrieved 10 September 2017.. ...
The drink comes in 8 flavors and has 0 calories, 0 sugars and 0 fats. Protein Rush is VPX's newly designed protein drink that ... is packed with 40 grams of the highest quality of protein. This can be taken in the morning or after the gym to ensure muscle ... 1 serving of Protein Rush is only 250 calories and also provides your body with various vitamins such as vitamin A and D. The ...
... are high in calories and low in nutritional content. Each individual Pop-Tart contains a minimum of 14 grams of sugar ... They also have a large amount of high fructose corn syrup. The American Heart Association (AHA) says that daily allotted sugar ... Two Pop-Tarts consume all of the daily sugar allowances in men, women, and children. A single Pop-Tart also contains a minimum ... The first Pop-Tarts came out in four different flavors: strawberry, blueberry, brown sugar cinnamon, and apple currant. As of ...
"FDA lifts ban on 'magic sugar' - Philstar.com". philstar.com.. *^ "High-Intensity Sweeteners". U.S. Food and Drug ... "Calorie Control Council. Retrieved 4 November 2018.. *^ Ashurst, Philip R. (April 15, 2008). Chemistry and Technology of Soft ... the higher dose corresponds to about 30 cans of a diet beverage. Two of the high-dosed monkeys and one of the lower-dosed ... Are there any high-intensity sweeteners that are currently prohibited by FDA for use in the United States but are used in other ...
Due to its high sugar content, a single hotteok may have as many as 230 calories. The Koreans say, "House of Hotteok (Hotteok- ... The dough for hotteok is made from wheat flour, water, milk, sugar, and yeast. The dough is allowed to rise for several hours. ... The mix also comes with a filling consisting of brown sugar and ground peanuts or sesame seeds. It is generally believed that ... Handful-sized balls of this stiff dough are filled with a sweet mixture, which may contain brown sugar, honey, chopped peanuts ...
... apple juice is high in sugar. It has 28 g carbohydrates (24 g sugars) per 230 g (8 ounces). This results in 130 calories per ... Also like most fruit juice, apple juice contains a similar amount of sugar as the raw fruit, but lacks the fiber content. While ... In the United States, unfiltered fresh apple juice is made by smaller operations in areas of high apple production, in the form ...
... s may contain high levels of sugar and sometimes are called "candy bars" in disguise. To keep calories and ... Athletes generally consume higher levels of protein as compared to the general population for muscular hypertrophy and to ... Protein bars are nutrition bars that contain a high proportion of protein to carbohydrates/fats. Protein bars are targeted to ... Energy bars provide the majority of their food energy (calories) in carbohydrate form. Meal replacement bars are intended to ...
SmartPoints is calculated using calories, saturated fat, sugar and protein. No food is off-limits, but the plan assigns higher ... "the desire to seek out high-sugar, high-fat foods that bring pleasure." The 360 plan also introduced the ActiveLink physical ... The values Calories, Sugar grams, SatFat (saturated fat) grams, and Protein grams are taken off the U.S. or Canadian Nutrition ... points values to foods higher in sugar or saturated fat, and lower points values to lean proteins. Most fruits and vegetables ...
His position is that sugars are not simply empty calories; he rejects the idea that "a calorie is a calorie." Lustig was a co- ... But he maintains that the liver is damaged by the fructose in table sugar and high-fructose corn syrup that are added to food ... sugars' includes intrinsic sugars, which are those incorporated within the structure of intact fruit and vegetables; sugars ... Gary Taube, "Is Sugar Toxic?", The New York Times, 13 April 2011. Ian Leslie, "The sugar conspiracy", The Guardian, 7 April ...
... of all calories were from high-fructose corn syrup. Americans consume more than 13% of their daily calories in the form of ... high-fat dairy products, eggs, refined grains, potatoes, and high-sugar drinks. The modern Western pattern diet was brought ... More recently, food processors began replacing sugar with high-fructose corn syrup. European cuisine (also called Western ... and high consumption of sugar and low plant-based intake is directly correlated with an increase Crohn's disease. Inflammatory ...
The bar contains 201 calories; it is low in cholesterol and sodium, but high in saturated fat and sugar. Its slogan is "That's ... Calories". Self. Condé Nast. Retrieved 2017-01-20. Deitz, Corey. "Radio Bloopers, Screwups, Outtakes and Embarrassments - ...
Generally, confections are low in micronutrients and protein but high in calories. They may be fat-free foods, although some ... These are usually sugars, but it is possible to buy sugar-free sweets, such as sugar-free peppermints. The most common ... Sugar confections include sweet, sugar-based foods, which are usually eaten as snack food. This includes sugar candies, ... Cleave, Paul (2012). "Sugar in Tourism: 'Wrapped in Devonshire Sunshine'". Sugar Heritage and Tourism in Transition. Channel ...
Ponies and miniatures need a diet relatively low in sugars and starches and calories, but higher in fibers. Miniature horses in ... Legume hays are generally higher in protein than the grass hays. They are also higher in minerals, particularly calcium, but ... Sudden ingestion of large amounts of starch or high sugar feeds can cause at the least an indigestion colic, and at the worst ... which is high in energy as well as fiber. Legumes such as clover or alfalfa are usually higher in protein, calcium, and energy ...
This Coke product was marketed as having half the carbohydrates, sugars and calories compared to standard Coca-Cola. It ... Aside from the high fructose corn syrup, one 12-ounce can of Coca Cola C2 contains 19 mg of aspartame, 4 mg of sucralose and 19 ... American sales did not live up to early expectations mainly due to customer disinterest in a mid-calorie soda, and partly due ... to the success of Coca-Cola Zero, a zero-calorie version of Coca-Cola; however, Coca Cola said the brand would remain in its ...
Milo contains 1,680 kJ (402 calories) in every 100 g of the powder, mostly from carbohydrates, mainly sugar. Carbohydrates can ... A higher malt content form also existed in Australia and was marketed in a brown coloured tin which was usually only available ... In May 2013, and after more than 20 years out of the Portuguese market, Nestlé reintroduced the brand aiming at the high-end ... The Milo website states that the drink is high in calcium, iron and the vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12. Milo is advertised as ...
They are also typically higher in calories, fat, and sugar, and lower in dietary fiber. In less developed countries, wheat can ... such as iron and B vitamins and a higher intake of sugars and saturated fats. Some gluten-free commercial replacement products ... Advances towards higher nutrition-content gluten-free bakery products, improved for example in terms of fiber content and ... In addition, some people often deliberately continue eating gluten because of limited availability, inferior taste, higher ...
High-energy foods would have more than three calories per gram and include crackers, cheese, dark chocolate, and peanuts. ... Nutrients with a lower absorption, such as fiber or sugar alcohols, lower the energy density of foods as well. A moderate ... cal/mL, kcal/mL, J/mL, or kJ/mL. The "calorie" commonly used in nutritional contexts is the kilogram-calorie (abbreviated "Cal ... ", "food calorie" or "Calorie" with a capital "C"). This is equivalent to a thousand gram-calories (abbreviated "cal") or one ...
Criteria for unhealthy dishes center on high levels of calories, fat, saturated fat, trans fat, sodium and/or sugar content. ... This restaurant survival guide breaks down each best and worst meal selection by calories, fat, sugar, and/or sodium. Extra ... with 150 calories (630 kJ), are an 'eat this,' while Marshmallow Peeps, with 140 calories (590 kJ), are a 'not that.'" Dawn ... offers readers recipes that don't push 350 calories (1,500 kJ). Instead of overloading the calorie and financial budget by ...
As a result of the use of white sugar and condensed milk in the pastry, excess calories are found. While the pastry contains ... Buko pie is very high in calories and rich in fat, carbohydrates and proteins according to its nutritional value. It is a ... Buko pie also contains a high amount of sugar and magnesium, and an average amount of sodium. A buko pie recipe generally ... First the pie crust is made by mixing flour, salt and sugar in a bowl. Afterwards, the mixture is made into dough by adding and ...
Delights - A low-calorie high protein ice cream product with 260-330 calories and 20 grams of protein per pint. Breyers Yogurt ... caramel swirl: sugar, water, corn syrup, high fructose corn syrup, non fat milk solids, butter, salt, molasses, pectin, soy ... Double Churn No Sugar Added - "Creamy" ice cream with no sugar added. CarbSmart - A low-carb ice cream product with 4 grams of ... Smooth & Dreamy - Uses mostly all-natural ingredients with half the fat and fewer calories than regular ice cream. Double Churn ...
... (T2D), formerly known as adult-onset diabetes, is a form of diabetes that is characterized by high blood sugar ... A diabetic diet which includes calorie restriction to promote weight loss is generally recommended.[95][58] Other ... Intensive blood sugar lowering (HbA1c,6%) as opposed to standard blood sugar lowering (HbA1c of 7-7.9%) does not appear to ... a condition of very high blood sugar associated with a decreased level of consciousness and low blood pressure).[13] ...

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