Caloric Restriction: Reduction in caloric intake without reduction in adequate nutrition. In experimental animals, caloric restriction has been shown to extend lifespan and enhance other physiological variables.Longevity: The normal length of time of an organism's life.Sirtuins: A homologous family of regulatory enzymes that are structurally related to the protein silent mating type information regulator 2 (Sir2) found in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Sirtuins contain a central catalytic core region which binds NAD. Several of the sirtuins utilize NAD to deacetylate proteins such as HISTONES and are categorized as GROUP III HISTONE DEACETYLASES. Several other sirtuin members utilize NAD to transfer ADP-RIBOSE to proteins and are categorized as MONO ADP-RIBOSE TRANSFERASES, while a third group of sirtuins appears to have both deacetylase and ADP ribose transferase activities.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Sirtuin 1: A sirtuin family member found primarily in the CELL NUCLEUS. It is an NAD-dependent deacetylase with specificity towards HISTONES and a variety of proteins involved in gene regulation.Diet, Reducing: A diet designed to cause an individual to lose weight.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Sirtuin 2: A sirtuin family member found primarily in the CYTOPLASM. It is a multifunctional enzyme that contains a NAD-dependent deacetylase activity that is specific for HISTONES and a mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase activity.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Food Deprivation: The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Sirtuin 3: A sirtuin family member found primarily in MITOCHONDRIA. It is a multifunctional enzyme that contains a NAD-dependent deacetylase activity that is specific for HISTONES and a mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase activity.Stilbenes: Organic compounds that contain 1,2-diphenylethylene as a functional group.Rats, Inbred F344Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Ketogenic Diet: A course of food intake that is high in FATS and low in CARBOHYDRATES. This diet provides sufficient PROTEINS for growth but insufficient amount of carbohydrates for the energy needs of the body. A ketogenic diet generates 80-90% of caloric requirements from fats and the remainder from proteins.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Insulins: Peptide hormones that cause an increase in the absorption of GLUCOSE by cells within organs such as LIVER, MUSCLE and ADIPOSE TISSUE. During normal metabolism insulins are produced by the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS in response to increased GLUCOSE. Natural and chemically-modified forms of insulin are also used in the treatment of GLUCOSE METABOLISM DISORDERS such as DIABETES MELLITUS.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Weight Loss: Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.Mitochondrial Turnover: The cellular processes involved in adjustments to the MITOCHONDRIAL VOLUME, content, and activity, that depend on the energy demands of the cell.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Mice, Inbred C57BLMitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Silent Information Regulator Proteins, Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A set of nuclear proteins in SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE that are required for the transcriptional repression of the silent mating type loci. They mediate the formation of silenced CHROMATIN and repress both transcription and recombination at other loci as well. They are comprised of 4 non-homologous, interacting proteins, Sir1p, Sir2p, Sir3p, and Sir4p. Sir2p, an NAD-dependent HISTONE DEACETYLASE, is the founding member of the family of SIRTUINS.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Overweight: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".Histone Deacetylases: Deacetylases that remove N-acetyl groups from amino side chains of the amino acids of HISTONES. The enzyme family can be divided into at least three structurally-defined subclasses. Class I and class II deacetylases utilize a zinc-dependent mechanism. The sirtuin histone deacetylases belong to class III and are NAD-dependent enzymes.Food Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a food or its container or wrapper. The concept includes ingredients, NUTRITIONAL VALUE, directions, warnings, and other relevant information.Deoxyribonucleases, Type II Site-Specific: Enzyme systems containing a single subunit and requiring only magnesium for endonucleolytic activity. The corresponding modification methylases are separate enzymes. The systems recognize specific short DNA sequences and cleave either within, or at a short specific distance from, the recognition sequence to give specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. Enzymes from different microorganisms with the same specificity are called isoschizomers. EC 3.1.21.4.Energy-Generating Resources: Materials or phenomena which can provide energy directly or via conversion.Insulin-Like Growth Factor I: A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.Rats, Inbred BNExercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Life Expectancy: Based on known statistical data, the number of years which any person of a given age may reasonably expected to live.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Adiposity: The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Ghrelin: A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.Mitochondrial Proteins: Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Yeasts: A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases: A serine threonine kinase that controls a wide range of growth-related cellular processes. The protein is referred to as the target of RAPAMYCIN due to the discovery that SIROLIMUS (commonly known as rapamycin) forms an inhibitory complex with TACROLIMUS BINDING PROTEIN 1A that blocks the action of its enzymatic activity.Adipose Tissue, White: Fatty tissue composed of WHITE ADIPOCYTES and generally found directly under the skin (SUBCUTANEOUS FAT) and around the internal organs (ABDOMINAL FAT). It has less vascularization and less coloration than the BROWN FAT. White fat provides heat insulation, mechanical cushion, and source of energy.RestaurantsFast Foods: Prepared food that is ready to eat or partially prepared food that has a final preparation time of a few minutes or less.Menu PlanningHealth: The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.NAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Intra-Abdominal Fat: Fatty tissue inside the ABDOMINAL CAVITY, including visceral fat and retroperitoneal fat. It is the most metabolically active fat in the body and easily accessible for LIPOLYSIS. Increased visceral fat is associated with metabolic complications of OBESITY.Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate: The circulating form of a major C19 steroid produced primarily by the ADRENAL CORTEX. DHEA sulfate serves as a precursor for TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Adiponectin: A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Fetal Growth Retardation: The failure of a FETUS to attain its expected FETAL GROWTH at any GESTATIONAL AGE.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Enzyme Activators: Compounds or factors that act on a specific enzyme to increase its activity.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Insulin Receptor Substrate Proteins: A structurally-related group of signaling proteins that are phosphorylated by the INSULIN RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE. The proteins share in common an N-terminal PHOSPHOLIPID-binding domain, a phosphotyrosine-binding domain that interacts with the phosphorylated INSULIN RECEPTOR, and a C-terminal TYROSINE-rich domain. Upon tyrosine phosphorylation insulin receptor substrate proteins interact with specific SH2 DOMAIN-containing proteins that are involved in insulin receptor signaling.Mitochondria, Muscle: Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.Glucose Tolerance Test: A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.TriglyceridesBlotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Cell Aging: The decrease in the cell's ability to proliferate with the passing of time. Each cell is programmed for a certain number of cell divisions and at the end of that time proliferation halts. The cell enters a quiescent state after which it experiences CELL DEATH via the process of APOPTOSIS.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Protein-Energy Malnutrition: The lack of sufficient energy or protein to meet the body's metabolic demands, as a result of either an inadequate dietary intake of protein, intake of poor quality dietary protein, increased demands due to disease, or increased nutrient losses.Acetylation: Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Deoxyribonuclease EcoRI: One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence G/AATTC at the slash. EcoRI is from E coliRY13. Several isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Rest: Freedom from activity.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Sirolimus: A macrolide compound obtained from Streptomyces hygroscopicus that acts by selectively blocking the transcriptional activation of cytokines thereby inhibiting cytokine production. It is bioactive only when bound to IMMUNOPHILINS. Sirolimus is a potent immunosuppressant and possesses both antifungal and antineoplastic properties.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Autophagy: The segregation and degradation of damaged or unwanted cytoplasmic constituents by autophagic vacuoles (cytolysosomes) composed of LYSOSOMES containing cellular components in the process of digestion; it plays an important role in BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS of amphibians, in the removal of bone by osteoclasts, and in the degradation of normal cell components in nutritional deficiency states.Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Nutritive Value: An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.DNA Fragmentation: Splitting the DNA into shorter pieces by endonucleolytic DNA CLEAVAGE at multiple sites. It includes the internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, which along with chromatin condensation, are considered to be the hallmarks of APOPTOSIS.Beverages: Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Dietary Sucrose: Sucrose present in the diet. It is added to food and drinks as a sweetener.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Parenteral Nutrition: The administering of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient who cannot maintain adequate nutrition by enteral feeding alone. Nutrients are administered by a route other than the alimentary canal (e.g., intravenously, subcutaneously).DNA Restriction-Modification Enzymes: Systems consisting of two enzymes, a modification methylase and a restriction endonuclease. They are closely related in their specificity and protect the DNA of a given bacterial species. The methylase adds methyl groups to adenine or cytosine residues in the same target sequence that constitutes the restriction enzyme binding site. The methylation renders the target site resistant to restriction, thereby protecting DNA against cleavage.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Electrophoresis, Agar Gel: Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.Deoxyribonuclease HindIII: One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence A/AGCTT at the slash. HindIII is from Haemophilus influenzae R(d). Numerous isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
The term "calorie restriction" as used in the study of aging refers to dietary regimens that reduce calorie intake without ... and that the effect would be small to negligible.[41] Effects of calorie restriction in humans over multiple years or decades ... but caloric restriction affects many other health indicators, and it is still undecided whether insulin is the main concern.[28 ... Calorie restriction, caloric restriction, or energy restriction, is a dietary regimen that reduces calorie intake without ...
Caloric restriction substantially affects lifespan in many animals, including the ability to delay or prevent many age-related ... "Effect of 6-month calorie restriction and exercise on serum and liver lipids and markers of liver function". Obesity (Silver ... These age specifications include voting age, drinking age, age of consent, age of majority, age of criminal responsibility, ... Around age 50, hair turns grey.[21] Pattern hair loss by the age of 50 affects about 30-50% of males[22] and a quarter of ...
Depreciation Biodemography Calorie restriction Demography DNA damage theory of aging Glasgow effect Healthcare inequality ... Samaras Thomas T., Heigh Gregory H. "How human size affects longevity and mortality from degenerative diseases". Townsend ... to age 64 1300-1400: to age 45 (because of the bubonic plague) 1400-1500: to age 69 1500-1550: to age 71 17th-century English ... Another measure, such as life expectancy at age 5 (e5), can be used to exclude the effect of infant mortality to provide a ...
Sohal RS, Agarwal S, Candas M, Forster MJ, Lal H (1994). "Effect of age and caloric restriction on DNA oxidative damage in ... but caloric restriction affects many other health indicators, and it is still undecided whether insulin is the main concern. ... Calorie restriction, or caloric restriction, or energy restriction, is a dietary regimen that reduces calorie intake without ... while some strains respond to calorie restriction with increased lifespan, in others calorie restriction shortens it Calorie ...
Calorie Restriction Society. Damage-Based Theories of Aging Includes a discussion of the free radical theory of aging.. ... Specifically, an increase in superoxide affects aging whereas a decrease in nitric oxide formation, or its bioavailability, ... the question of the net effect of reactive oxygen species on aging is even less clear. Recent epidemiological findings support ... American Aging Association Life extension List of life extension-related topics Senescence Calorie restriction Denham Harman ...
2008). "Effect of 6-month calorie restriction and exercise on serum and liver lipids and markers of liver function". Obesity ( ... Caloric restriction substantially affects lifespan in many animals, including the ability to delay or prevent many age-related ... These age specifications include voting age, drinking age, age of consent, age of majority, age of criminal responsibility, ... They conclude that moderate calorie restriction rather than extreme calorie restriction is sufficient to produce the observed ...
2003). "Caloric restriction promotes genomic stability by induction of base excision repair and reversal of its age-related ... 2004). "Calorie restriction promotes mammalian cell survival by inducing the SIRT1 deacetylase". Science. 305 (5682): 390-2. ... 2004). "Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA base excision repair are affected differently by caloric restriction". FASEB J. 18 (3): ... The vast majority of DNA damage affects the primary structure of the double helix; that is, the bases themselves are chemically ...
Age, weight, activity levels, culture, and food preferences all affect the meal plan. First, the energy requirements are set at ... and then lifting all calorie restrictions.[46] This timing and method of discontinuation mimics that of anticonvulsant drug ... Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders after stroke,[7] and affects around 50 million people worldwide.[8] ... In this article, kcal stands for calories as a unit of measure (4.1868 kJ), and calories stands for "energy" from food. ...
Temperature is increased after eating or drinking anything with calories. Caloric restriction, as for a weight-loss diet, ... With increased age, both average body temperature and the amount of daily variability in the body temperature tend to decrease ... Other circumstances also affect the body's temperature. The core body temperature of an individual tends to have the lowest ... as the temperature affects the rate of chemical reactions. In humans, the average internal temperature is 37.0 °C (98.6 °F), ...
One such effort is an attempt to find a "mimetic" that would "mime" the anti-ageing effect of calorie restriction without ... How Evolutionary Thinking Affects People's Ideas About Aging Interventions AnAge Animal Ageing and Longevity Database Provides ... Overview of caloric restriction and aging. Kriete, A. (2013). "Robustness and aging-a systems-level perspective". Biosystems. ... Evolutionary Theories of Aging and Longevity The Evolutionary Theory of Aging by João Pedro de Magalhães. Programmed-Aging.Org ...
Calorie restriction and reduced thyroid hormone levels, both of which decrease the metabolic rate, have been associated with ... as may happen with aging). Increasing muscle mass has the effect of increasing BMR. Aerobic (resistance) fitness level, a ... Basal metabolic rate (BMR) affects the rate that a person burns calories and ultimately whether that individual maintains, ... Thermic effect of food. References[edit]. *^ a b c McNab BK (1997). "On the Utility of Uniformity in the Definition of Basal ...
Calorie restriction. *Demography. *DNA damage theory of aging. *Glasgow effect. *Healthcare inequality ... Samaras Thomas T., Heigh Gregory H. "How human size affects longevity and mortality from degenerative diseases". Townsend ... to age x. +. n. {\displaystyle x+n}. is denoted n. p. x. {\displaystyle \,_{n}p_{x}\!}. and the probability of dying during age ... Bronze Age and Iron Age[14]. 26. Based on Early and Middle Bronze Age data, total life expectancy at 15 would be 28-36 years[10 ...
Temperature is increased after eating or drinking anything with calories. Caloric restriction, as for a weight-loss diet, ... With increased age, both average body temperature and the amount of daily variability in the body temperature tend to decrease. ... Many outside factors affect the measured temperature as well. "Normal" values are generally given for an otherwise healthy, non ... as the temperature affects the rate of chemical reactions. In humans, the average internal temperature is 37.0 °C (98.6 °F), ...
... calorie restriction) ames dwarf, rapamycin, metformin and resveratrol. One study found that Myc and p53 genes were key to the ... A major effect of Myc is B cell proliferation.[14]. c-Myc induces MTDH(AEG-1) gene expression and in turn itself requires AEG-1 ... The phenotypes seen oppose the effects of normal aging and are shared with many other long-lived mouse models such as CR ( ... "CRD-BP/IMP1 expression characterizes cord blood CD34+ stem cells and affects c-myc and IGF-II expression in MCF-7 cancer cells ...
Calorie restriction and reduced thyroid hormone levels, both of which decrease the metabolic rate, have been associated with ... as may happen with aging). Increasing muscle mass has the effect of increasing BMR. Aerobic (resistance) fitness level, a ... Basal metabolic rate (BMR) affects the rate that a person burns calories and ultimately whether that individual maintains, ... Researcher Gary Foster estimates that a very low calorie diet of fewer than 800 calories a day would reduce the metabolic rate ...
It differs from calorie restriction in that calorie restriction may not result in negative health effects. The term ... Iron deficiency anemia in children under two years of age likely affects brain function acutely and probably also chronically. ... Roughly $300 million of aid goes to basic nutrition each year, less than $2 for each child below two in the 20 worst affected ... Rates of malnutrition tend to increase with age with less than 10 percent of the "young" elderly (up to age 75) malnourished, ...
Between the ages of 8 and 11 children only have a partial understanding of selling intent, and it is not until at least the age ... Television can affect how children see advertising for junk food, through deceptive advertising. One way of doing this is by ... The legal restrictions placed on advertising to children vary dramatically, based on the country in which you live. The most ... It affects people's values, social outlook, and outlook on life, social relations and cultural psychology. Comprehensive and ...
It differs from calorie restriction in that calorie restriction may not result in negative health effects. The term ... Iron deficiency anemia in children under two years of age likely affects brain function acutely and probably also chronically. ... People affected[edit]. There were 793 million undernourished people in the world in 2015. This was 216 million fewer people ... Rates of malnutrition tend to increase with age with less than 10 percent of the "young" elderly (up to age 75) malnourished, ...
... despite their need for nutrients and calories. Once these babies become school-aged children, they are more likely to be ... It is known that MA readily crosses the placenta that feeds the developing fetus, yet the ways in which the drug affects the ... Yet, MA use in utero is believed to affect the development of a baby's brain, spinal cord, heart, and kidney. Studies have ... have revealed short-term neonatal outcomes to include small deficits in infant neurobehavioral function and growth restriction ...
... calorie restriction and longevity and reproductive lifespan, oxidative stress and ageing, mitochondrial bioenergetics with ... Trustee Age UK Brighton and Hove, Executive Director American Aging Association, member BBSRC Bioscience for Health strategy ... The research envisaged will tackle memory loss and senile dementia, which affects 27 per cent of those over 85; it will tackle ... Human Biology), University of Aston (PhD The effect of oral hypoglycaemic drugs and obesity on insulin receptor binding). ...
Calorie restriction in this way has many long-term benefits. After reaching the desired body weight, the calories consumed per ... Malnutrition can affect every function of the human body, from the cells to the most complex body functions, including: immune ... Surgery affects nutritional status indirectly, particularly during the recovery period, as it can interfere with wound healing ... aging. 16 (2): 148-54. doi:10.1007/s12603-011-0083-8. PMID 22323350. Itoh, M; Tsuji, T; Nemoto, K; Nakamura, H; Aoshiba, K (Apr ...
Braverman, Eric R. (2004). The Edge Effect. p. 142.. *^ "Sleep and Disease Risk". Healthy Sleep. Harvard Medical School. 2007. ... Insomnia, one of the six types of dyssomnia, affects 21%-37% of the adult population.[82][83] Many of its symptoms are easily ... Studies show that sleep restriction has some potential in the treatment of depression.[4] Those who suffer from depression tend ... The National Sleep Foundation cites a 1996 paper showing that college/university-aged students got an average of less than 6 ...
The American Cancer Society states that fasting or calorie restriction is not used to treat cancer.[5] ... All persons above the age of 13 are expected to observe the church fasts. Most children over age seven are expected to observe ... In more recent years, many churches affected by liturgical renewal movements have begun to encourage fasting as part of Lent ... and they believe that what happens to one affects the other (this is known as the psychosomatic union between the body and the ...
Though hypothesized that vitamin D supplementation may be an effective treatment for obesity apart from calorie restriction, ... to 2,500 IU per day for ages 1-3 years, 3,000 IU per day for ages 4-8 years and 4,000 IU per day for ages 9-71+ years ( ... Effect of excessEdit. Vitamin D overdose causes hypercalcemia, which is a strong indication of vitamin D toxicity - this can be ... Vitamin D also affects the immune system, and VDRs are expressed in several white blood cells, including monocytes and ...
... with age but brake-movement time did not change with age. Gender did not affect perception-reaction time but did affect brake- ... 91 Cal. App. 2d 142, Berlin v. Violett, 129 Cal.App. 337, Reaugh v. Cudahy Packing Co., 189 Cal. 335, and Official Reports ... "Code § 321.285 Speed restrictions". The State of Iowa. Retrieved August 6, 2013. Any person driving a motor vehicle on a ... Horizontal sight distance "dhsd" affects the ACDA because the time ti=dhsd/Vi it takes for an intercepting object, animal, ...
All persons above the age of 13 are expected to observe the church fasts. Most children over age 7 are expected to observe at ... many churches affected by liturgical renewal movements have begun to encourage fasting as part of Lent and sometimes Advent, ... and they believe that what happens to one affects the other (this is known as the psychosomatic union between the body and the ... the American Cancer Society recommended that people undergoing chemotherapy increase their intake of protein and calories. ...
In effect, the KD provokes a physiological stimulus, i.e., CHO restriction, that mimics starvation. Due to the limited ability ... 3,928 calories. In marked contrast, the KD would recommend a maximum of just 50 grams (~ 200 calories) per day for the same ... Carmine Grieco received his Doctoral degree from Old Dominion University at the age of 43 and is now an Assistant Professor of ... In sporting terms hypoglycemia is referred to as "bonking" or "hitting the wall" and significantly affects athletic performance ...
Han ES, Evans TR, Lee S, Nelson JF: Food restriction differentially affects pituitary hormone mRNAs throughout the adult life ... effect of calorie-restriction. *Significant (P , 0.05) effect of calorie-restriction. D: Effects of caloric-restriction and ... Sexual Differentiation, Pregnancy, Calorie Restriction, and Aging Affect the Adipocyte-Specific Secretory Protein Adiponectin. ... aging, and calorie restriction affect Acrp30. In mice, Acrp30 levels increase during sexual maturation by 4-fold in males and ...
Han ES, Evans TR, Lee S, Nelson JF: Food restriction differentially affects pituitary hormone mRNAs throughout the adult life ... effect of calorie-restriction. *Significant (P , 0.05) effect of calorie-restriction. D: Effects of caloric-restriction and ... Sexual Differentiation, Pregnancy, Calorie Restriction, and Aging Affect the Adipocyte-Specific Secretory Protein Adiponectin. ... Sexual Differentiation, Pregnancy, Calorie Restriction, and Aging Affect the Adipocyte-Specific Secretory Protein Adiponectin ...
Calorie Restriction) to determine how each of them affects the following: gene expression profile, cholesterol (lipids), how ... Ages 35 Years to 70 Years (Adult, Senior). Accepts Healthy Volunteers Yes. ... Effect of Resvida, a Comparison With Calorie Restriction Regimen. Official Title ICMJE Effect of Resvida(tm) Dietary ... Calorie restriction (CR) is a low calorie diet (about 30% fewer calories than the American Dietetic Association (ADA) ...
NIH study finds calorie restriction does not affect survival. August 16, 2012. Federal report details health, economic status ... NIH-funded research provides new clues on how ApoE4 affects Alzheimers risk ...
A ketone molecule produced by the body during calorie restriction keeps blood vessels young, staving off age-related chronic ... Thats actually providing a chemical link between calorie restriction and fasting and the anti-aging effect." ... How diet quality affects the colons microbiome. New research has now examined the bacterial composition of the colonic mucosa ... Specifically, the researchers looked at the link between calorie restriction and vascular aging. Dr. Zou used mouse models of ...
... like phenotype in aged mice - posted in BioscienceNews: . S O U R C E : Aging Cell 0 ABSTRACT Aging is a negative regulator of ... Changes in organismal energy levels and physiology, through systemic manipulations such as calorie restriction and young blood ... Systemic GDF11 stimulates the secretion of adiponectin and induces a calorie restriction‐ ... Here, we report that systemic GDF11 triggers a calorie restriction‐like phenotype without affecting appetite or GDF15 levels in ...
We challenged experts across fields to imagine a new way to solve the problems of human aging. Our question: What if Humans ... SENSELESS AGING: The effects of calorie restriction on longevity in several animal species are well documented. Increasingly, ... The Fix: Age-related changes in endocrine function greatly affect bone mass and fracture risk. Decreasing the sensitivity of ... LONGER IN TOOTH: The deterioration and loss of teeth that comes with old age affects more than smiles; gum disease has been ...
... and it can mimic calorie restriction/dietary restriction (DR) effects [51]. DR with adequate nutrition is the only nongenetic ... that royal contains longevity-promoting agents for queens which may perhaps affect the longevity of other species if it affects ... Effect of Antioxidants Supplementation on Aging and Longevity. Izabela Sadowska-Bartosz1 and Grzegorz Bartosz1,2 ... 3. Reversal of Age-Related Changes by Antioxidants. Apart from the effect of prolongation of lifespan by antioxidant ...
... that food calorie content directly affects the level of Indy expression and that either CR or Indy expression can affect ... 2008) Drosophila lifespan control by dietary restriction independent of insulin-like signaling. Aging Cell 7:199-206. ... Decreases in the Calorie Content of Food Induce a Decrease in Indy Expression.. To explore whether low calorie food affects ... Genetic background is known to affect the calorie restriction life span-extension response in Drosophila. For example, the ...
... we investigated the effect of diet, physical exercise, and caloric restriction (40% reduction compared to ad libitum intake) on ... we investigated the effect of diet, physical exercise, and caloric restriction (40% reduction compared to ad libitum intake) on ... which might be an underlying mechanism for the protective role of caloric restriction during aging-associated decline. ... However, the effects of diet and lifestyle on microglia during aging are only partly understood. Here, we report alterations in ...
Whether prolonged calorie restriction affects biomarkers of longevity or markers of oxidative stress, or reduces metabolic rate ... Studies of longer duration are required to determine if calorie restriction attenuates the aging process in humans. TRIAL ... calorie restriction (25% calorie restriction of baseline energy requirements); calorie restriction with exercise (12.5% calorie ... calorie restriction, -10.4% (0.9%); calorie restriction with exercise, -10.0% (0.8%); and very low-calorie diet, -13.9% (0.7 ...
Effect of calorie restriction and refeeding on skin wound healing in the rat. Age. 2012;34(6):1453-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007 ... Malnutrition particularly affects thousands of pregnant women, newborns, and pre-school children worldwide [1]. In Brazil, the ... The effect of low-intensity laser therapy (LILT) on cutaneous wound healing and pain relief in rats. J Phys Ther Sci. 2015;27( ... The results of this study indicate that protein malnutrition has a negative effect on wound healing. The classic model of ...
calorie restriction. physical exercises. brain training - no retirement please!. Gábor et al. in prep. MR volumetry: 40-60% ... age-dependent increase of fMRI adaptation effect for processing speech. Interventions. medical. physiotherapy. cognitive. ... ageing affects every organ. adapting is possible as long as the brain remains healthy. focus on healthy brain ageing. ... calorie restriction. touch screen training. Wallis et al. 2017. DISCRIMINATION LEARNING:. Old (,6 years): 5-55 visits, mean: 22 ...
Caloric restriction substantially affects lifespan in many animals, including the ability to delay or prevent many age-related ... "Effect of 6-month calorie restriction and exercise on serum and liver lipids and markers of liver function". Obesity (Silver ... These age specifications include voting age, drinking age, age of consent, age of majority, age of criminal responsibility, ... Around age 50, hair turns grey.[21] Pattern hair loss by the age of 50 affects about 30-50% of males[22] and a quarter of ...
It causes the elongation of the lifespan of model organisms, alleviates ageing symptoms and postpones the progression of age- ... It is believed that postponing ageing is more effective and less expensive than the treatment of particular age-related ... Bagherniya, M.; Butler, A.E.; Barreto, G.E.; Sahebkar, A. The effect of fasting or calorie restriction on autophagy induction: ... Curcumin Affects Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell Aging Through TERT Gene Expression. Drug Res. 2018, 68, 213-221 ...
But if you give them growth hormone, it actually abolishes the longevity effect of the calorie restriction. So, at least in ... But how much of this do you think is also related to the APOE gene because I mean it affects the size of our chylomicrons and ... Transcript] - How to Die Young at a Ripe Old Age: The Longevity Paradox & The 7 Deadly Myths Of Aging. Home » Transcripts » ... Steven Gundry proposes in his new book "The Longevity Paradox: How to Die Young at a Ripe Old Age", that the "diseases of aging ...
... but does not increase longevity when started at middle age. ... Scientists have found that the compound resveratrol slows age- ... some of the effects of dietary or calorie restriction, the most effective and reproducible way found to date to alleviate age- ... suggesting that the intervention did not affect all aspects of the basic aging process. Mice on a high-calorie diet without ... "We are learning a great deal about how resveratrol affects the health and survival of mammals," said Sinclair. "Continued study ...
Calorie restriction reduces fat mass, delays the development of age-associated diseases such as type 2 diabetes, and increases ... Whether increased FCS affects insulin sensitivity by increased spillover of triglyceride into visceral fat or into muscle, ... calorie restriction (CR), 12.5% calorie restriction +12.5% energy expenditure through structured exercise (CREX), or 15% weight ... Effect of Calorie Restriction With or Without Exercise on Insulin Sensitivity, β-Cell Function, Fat Cell Size, and Ectopic ...
... of mitochondrial membrane lipids is one of the key aspects of mitochondrial functionality affecting yeast chronological aging. ... Studies in the yeast ,i,Saccharomyces cerevisiae,/i, have provided evidence that age-related changes in some aspects of ... Several aspects of mitochondrial functionality are known to impact the replicative and/or chronological modes of yeast aging. ... We demonstrated that exogenously added lithocholic bile acid can delay chronological aging in yeast because it elicits specific ...
... red wine and nuts-may ward off several age-related diseases. The findings could help in the development of drugs to curtail ... SIRT1 Mimics Calorie Restriction - the only scientifically proven method to extend age. The scientists tested SIRT1 substrates ... Some believe that this may be how STACs affect age-related diseases. In mouse cells with the mutant SIRT1, the effects of STACs ... Resveratrol affects the activity of enzymes called sirtuins. Sirtuins control several biological pathways and are known to be ...
Calorie restriction increases longevity - or does it?. Good nose. Lowjumpingfrog Heres to wine, chocolate and a long healthy ... We dont know much about how resveratrol affects humans. Grapes via www.shutterstock.com. Grapes, nuts and resveratrol. Finding ... You have 100 trillion microorganisms living in your gut so its no surprise they affect your overall health. PNNL - Pacific ... Klotho is an aging suppressor gene. Researchers have discovered that mice without Klotho age faster and are more prone to age- ...
... red wine and nuts-may ward off certain age-related diseases. The findings could help in the development of new treatments. ... Over a decade ago, researchers found that resveratrol can mimic calorie restriction in some ways and extend the lifespans of ... Some believe that this may be how STACs affect age-related diseases. In mouse cells with the mutant SIRT1, the effects of STACs ... Resveratrol affects the activity of enzymes called sirtuins. Sirtuins control several biological pathways and are known to be ...
Effect of Calorie Restriction and Refeeding on Skin Wound Healing in the Rat Age (Dordrecht, Netherlands). Dec, 2012 , Pubmed ... However, how COX-2 signaling affects colonic carcinogenesis at cellular level is not clear. In this article, we investigated ... Calorie restriction (CR) is a reliable anti-aging intervention that attenuates the onset of a number of age-related diseases, ... The Effect of Age on Osteogenic, Adipogenic and Proliferative Potential of Female Adipose-derived Stem Cells Journal of Tissue ...
Effect of Calorie Restriction on Mood, Quality of Life, Sleep, and Sexual Function in Healthy Nonobese Adults. ... They naturally shorten with age, but oxidative stress may accelerate this, possibly contributing to aging. ... This week we reviewed one study about the effects of sugar on brain activity and another about how sugar affects inflammation. ... Calorie restriction increases longevity in many animals and reduces disease risk. This 2-year, randomized controlled trial ...
  • As an example, the recommended daily intake for a 180-lb athlete would be 246 - 982 grams, with a caloric equivalent of 984 - 3,928 calories. (nsca.com)
  • In marked contrast, the KD would recommend a maximum of just 50 grams (~ 200 calories) per day for the same individual. (nsca.com)
  • The findings could help prevent age-related chronic diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and Alzheimer's. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The basic idea of the FRTA is that free radicals and other ROS, formed unavoidably in the course of metabolism and arising due to the action of various exogenous factors, damage biomolecules, and accumulation of this damage are the cause of age-related diseases and aging. (hindawi.com)
  • Meanwhile, subtle changes and imperfections at every level of biological organization give rise to the diseases and disorders associated with aging and impose limits on the duration of life, but ultimately, these changes and imperfections drive the evolutionary process itself. (the-scientist.com)
  • It is believed that postponing ageing is more effective and less expensive than the treatment of particular age-related diseases. (mdpi.com)
  • It is commonly accepted that cellular senescence plays a very important role in organismal ageing and age-related diseases [ 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Moreover, senescent cells contribute to the onset and progression of diseases, the frequency of which increases with age. (mdpi.com)
  • Breakthrough experiments, which have definitely proved the involvement of cell senescence in the progression of ageing and age-related diseases, came from animal studies. (mdpi.com)
  • A new study gives insight into how resveratrol-a compound found in grapes, red wine and nuts-may ward off several age-related diseases. (nih.gov)
  • Certain metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes and heart disease, tend to strike as we age. (nih.gov)
  • In animal studies, severely restricting calories can help prevent some of these diseases. (nih.gov)
  • Some believe that this may be how STACs affect age-related diseases. (nih.gov)
  • Rather than trying to extend life by individually targeting prevention and treatment of common age-related diseases such as heart disease, stroke and cancer, scientists are looking for a " master control switch " that can regulate the divergent and overlapping pathways that contribute to aging itself. (theconversation.com)
  • Since aging is the biggest risk factor for developing such diseases, an anti-aging medication that can flip this switch would theoretically not only slow or stop aging but would also defer many diseases associated with aging. (theconversation.com)
  • It is one of the master switches researchers have been hoping to find - a unifying pathway in all of our cells that can control the rate of aging as well as the risk of diseases such as heart disease, cancer and Alzheimer's dementia. (theconversation.com)
  • If we could identify the gene or genes that serve as its master controllers and thereby act as master regulators of an organism's life span, these natural defense mechanisms might be turned into weapons against the diseases and decline that are now apparently synonymous with human aging. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Dietary approaches like low calorie diets and increased physical activity are recommended for weight management and prevention of diseases . (omicsonline.org)
  • Diets and feeding regimens affect many physiological systems in the organism and may contribute to the development or prevention of various pathologies including cardiovascular diseases or metabolic syndromes. (iospress.com)
  • Epidemiological studies indicate that low protein diets are associated with lower risk of chronic and age-related diseases such as CVDs, diabetes, and cancer. (syromonoed.com)
  • In the last year, calorie-restricted diets have been shown in various animals to affect molecular pathways likely to be involved in the progression of Alzheimer's disease, diabetes , heart disease , Parkinson's disease and cancer . (nytimes.com)
  • Recent tests show that the animals on restricted diets, including Canto and Eeyore, two other rhesus monkeys at the primate research center, are in indisputably better health as they near old age than Matthias and other normally fed lab mates like Owen and Johann. (nytimes.com)
  • My methods for quantifying the amount of fat stored in the liver and pancreas are playing a key role in Newcastle research to reverse type 2 diabetes through very low calorie diets (available here ). (ncl.ac.uk)
  • In parallel to changes in estrogen action, Acrp30 decreased in late gestation but increased in both calorie-restricted and old (anovulatory) mice. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Here, we report alterations in microglia phenotype and functions in different brain regions of mice on a high-fat diet (HFD) or low-fat diet (LFD) during aging and in response to voluntary running wheel exercise. (frontiersin.org)
  • The report confirms previous results suggesting the compound, found naturally in foods like grapes and nuts, may mimic, in mice, some of the effects of dietary or calorie restriction, the most effective and reproducible way found to date to alleviate age-associated disease in mammals. (scienceblog.com)
  • The lipid profile of the livers of DR mice is correspondingly shifted towards lowered triglyceride content and shorter chain length of triglyceride-associated fatty acids, and these effects become more pronounced with age. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The chronological mode of yeast aging is believed to mimic aging of human cells that are temporarily or permanently unable to divide [ 20 , 25 , 26 , 28 - 31 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • It has been suggested that the interplay between environmental factors and genetic alterations may affect this near universal process. (pnas.org)
  • Aging is an unavoidable, universal, biological phenomenon affecting all multicellular organisms (with few apparent exceptions) and probably common also among unicellular organisms, including protozoa, yeast, and bacteria [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Studies in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have provided evidence that age-related changes in some aspects of mitochondrial functionality can create certain molecular signals. (hindawi.com)
  • Several aspects of mitochondrial functionality are known to impact the replicative and/or chronological modes of yeast aging. (hindawi.com)
  • Our recent findings have revealed that the composition of mitochondrial membrane lipids is one of the key aspects of mitochondrial functionality affecting yeast chronological aging. (hindawi.com)
  • We demonstrated that exogenously added lithocholic bile acid can delay chronological aging in yeast because it elicits specific changes in mitochondrial membrane lipids. (hindawi.com)
  • These changes allow mitochondria to operate as signaling platforms that delay yeast chronological aging by orchestrating an institution and maintenance of a distinct cellular pattern. (hindawi.com)
  • Yeast replicative aging is assessed by measuring the maximum number of mitotic divisions that a mother cell can undergo before it enters a senescent state [ 16 - 18 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Yeast chronological aging is evaluated by measuring the length of time during which a cell remains viable after becoming quiescent [ 12 , 20 , 25 - 27 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • It needs to be noted, however, that the chronological and replicative modes of yeast aging are likely to converge into a single aging process [ 12 , 31 - 37 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • These traits in replicatively and chronologically aging yeast include mitochondrial electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation, membrane potential, reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis, protein synthesis and proteostasis, iron-sulfur cluster formation, and synthesis of amino acids and NADPH [ 12 - 15 , 20 , 37 - 46 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Until recently, it was unknown if such trait of mitochondrial functionality as the composition of mitochondrial membrane lipids can influence aging in yeast. (hindawi.com)
  • Our recent studies have revealed that lithocholic bile acid (LCA) can delay the onset and decrease the rate of yeast chronological aging [ 12 , 13 , 47 - 54 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The notion that an understanding of yeast life span would tell us anything about human aging was deemed preposterous by many. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Aging in yeast is measured by counting how many times mother cells divide to produce daughters before dying. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Studies in yeast have shown that addition of serine, threonine, and valine in media promotes cellular sensitization and aging by activating different but connected pathways. (syromonoed.com)
  • Sirtuins control several biological pathways and are known to be involved in the aging process. (nih.gov)
  • Another hypothesis, however, is that visceral fat may simply covary with other causal factors that affect insulin sensitivity, namely, fat cell size (FCS) and ectopic fat in muscle and liver. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Whether increased FCS affects insulin sensitivity by increased spillover of triglyceride into visceral fat or into muscle, liver, or other nonadipose tissues is unclear. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Seen from that perspective, the "Free Radical Theory of Aging" (FRTA) [ 10 ], now more commonly termed the oxidative damage theory of ageing, seems to address a key facet of intrinsic biological instability of living systems [ 11 , 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Cells continually receive cues from your body and the environment that can accelerate age-driving processes such as oxidative damage and inflammation. (theconversation.com)
  • Malnutrition particularly affects thousands of pregnant women, newborns, and pre-school children worldwide [ 1 ]. (scielo.br)
  • Together with his team, Doug uses modern genomics approaches, such as next generation sequencing, to obtain a global picture of age-related gene expression changes to inform their directions in the lab. (edu.au)
  • DNA methylation could play an important role in mediating the effects of DR because it is sensitive to the effects of nutrition and can affect gene expression memory over time. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we profile genome-wide changes in DNA methylation, gene expression and lipidomics in response to DR and aging in female mouse liver. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, the effects of diet and lifestyle on microglia during aging are only partly understood. (frontiersin.org)
  • This week we reviewed one study about the effects of sugar on brain activity and another about how sugar affects inflammation. (foodsecurity.org)
  • Extrapolating from recent animal findings, Dr. Richard A. Miller, a pathologist at the University of Michigan, estimated that a pill mimicking the effects of calorie restriction might increase human life span to about 112 healthy years, with the occasional senior living until 140, though some experts view that projection as overly optimistic. (nytimes.com)
  • John Q. Trojanowski, professor at the University of Pennsylvania, and director of the Institute on Aging and the Alzheimer's Disease Center suggests that the problems of neurodegenerative disease could be avoided if neurogenesis in the brain worked better, replacing spent neurons before they begin to cause problems for themselves and surrounding tissue. (the-scientist.com)
  • Comparison of a normal aged brain (left) and a brain affected by Alzheimer's disease (right). (wikipedia.org)
  • They found that it protected their brain synapses from age-related wear and tear, which is one of the early signs of Alzheimer's disease. (naturalnews.com)
  • Such age-related deterioration of mitochondrial functionality is the universal feature of aging in evolutionarily distant eukaryotic organisms [ 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The same appears to be true of aging in people, but the analogy is flawed because of a crucial difference between inanimate machines and living creatures: deterioration is not inexorable in biological systems, which can respond to their environments and use their own energy to defend and repair themselves. (scientificamerican.com)
  • We demonstrated that the robust geroprotective effect of exogenously added LCA is due to its ability to cause certain changes in lipid compositions of both mitochondrial membranes. (hindawi.com)
  • It appears that during this period of "latency" HIV is not silent, that CD4 levels may not indicate what is happening inside the body, and that inflammation may be affecting many organ systems. (thebodypro.com)
  • The accumulation of senescent cells has been observed in the course of almost all age-related disorders [ 9 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • This classic biological idea has however been perturbed recently by the discovery that the bacterium E. coli may split into distinguishable daughter cells, which opens the theoretical possibility of "age classes" among bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Again, your physical shape seems to depend on the ratio between your hunger and satiety hormones and so is your biological age. (mercola.com)
  • ii) the detection of subclinical differences in physically active and inactive women of different ages, published in Circulation: Cardiovascular Imaging ( available here ). (ncl.ac.uk)
  • These signals can then define the rate of cellular aging by altering unidirectional and bidirectional communications between mitochondria and other organelles. (hindawi.com)
  • The efficiencies with which these organelles generate the bulk of cellular ATP and make biosynthetic intermediates for amino acids, nucleotides, and lipids are known to deteriorate with age [ 1 , 3 , 5 , 9 , 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Studies have suggested that alterations in the activity of these genes may mediate elements of the normal CR life span extending effect. (pnas.org)
  • Admittedly, none of these studies have produced yet enough compelling evidence that there is indeed a direct causal relationship between the food we eat and our mental capacities - neither at old age nor at any other stage in life. (seattlepi.com)