Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Basal Metabolism: Heat production, or its measurement, of an organism at the lowest level of cell chemistry in an inactive, awake, fasting state. It may be determined directly by means of a calorimeter or indirectly by calculating the heat production from an analysis of the end products of oxidation within the organism or from the amount of oxygen utilized.Caloric Restriction: Reduction in caloric intake without reduction in adequate nutrition. In experimental animals, caloric restriction has been shown to extend lifespan and enhance other physiological variables.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Calorimetry, Indirect: Calculation of the energy expenditure in the form of heat production of the whole body or individual organs based on respiratory gas exchange.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Diet Records: Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Appetite: Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.Satiation: Full gratification of a need or desire followed by a state of relative insensitivity to that particular need or desire.Satiety Response: Behavioral response associated with the achieving of gratification.Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Food Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Diet Surveys: Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.Beverages: Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Hunger: The desire for FOOD generated by a sensation arising from the lack of food in the STOMACH.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Nutritional Requirements: The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.Vegetables: A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Dietary Sucrose: Sucrose present in the diet. It is added to food and drinks as a sweetener.Appetite Regulation: Physiologic mechanisms which regulate or control the appetite and food intake.Diet, Reducing: A diet designed to cause an individual to lose weight.Weight Loss: Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.Nutritive Value: An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.Nutrition Assessment: Evaluation and measurement of nutritional variables in order to assess the level of nutrition or the NUTRITIONAL STATUS of the individual. NUTRITION SURVEYS may be used in making the assessment.Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Energy Transfer: The transfer of energy of a given form among different scales of motion. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed). It includes the transfer of kinetic energy and the transfer of chemical energy. The transfer of chemical energy from one molecule to another depends on proximity of molecules so it is often used as in techniques to measure distance such as the use of FORSTER RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Thermogenesis: The generation of heat in order to maintain body temperature. The uncoupled oxidation of fatty acids contained within brown adipose tissue and SHIVERING are examples of thermogenesis in MAMMALS.Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 2-12 years.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Nutrition Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.Drinking: The consumption of liquids.Hyperphagia: Ingestion of a greater than optimal quantity of food.Food Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a food or its container or wrapper. The concept includes ingredients, NUTRITIONAL VALUE, directions, warnings, and other relevant information.United StatesAnimal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Fast Foods: Prepared food that is ready to eat or partially prepared food that has a final preparation time of a few minutes or less.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Nutrition Policy: Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.Overweight: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Body Temperature Regulation: The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Oxygen Isotopes: Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.Calorimetry: The measurement of the quantity of heat involved in various processes, such as chemical reactions, changes of state, and formations of solutions, or in the determination of the heat capacities of substances. The fundamental unit of measurement is the joule or the calorie (4.184 joules). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Meals: A portion of the food eaten for the day, usually at regular occasions during the day.Financing, Personal: Payment by individuals or their family for health care services which are not covered by a third-party payer, either insurance or medical assistance.Sweetening Agents: Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Ghrelin: A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Cereals: Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.RestaurantsAnalysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Dairy Products: Raw and processed or manufactured milk and milk-derived products. These are usually from cows (bovine) but are also from goats, sheep, reindeer, and water buffalo.Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition.Diet, Fat-Restricted: A diet that contains limited amounts of fat with less than 30% of calories from all fats and less than 10% from saturated fat. Such a diet is used in control of HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. (From Bondy et al, Metabolic Control and Disease, 8th ed, pp468-70; Dorland, 27th ed)Food Analysis: Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Snacks: Foods eaten between MEALTIMES.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Calcium, Dietary: Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.Postprandial Period: The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Rest: Freedom from activity.Physical Exertion: Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Menu PlanningProtein-Energy Malnutrition: The lack of sufficient energy or protein to meet the body's metabolic demands, as a result of either an inadequate dietary intake of protein, intake of poor quality dietary protein, increased demands due to disease, or increased nutrient losses.Growth: Gradual increase in the number, the size, and the complexity of cells of an individual. Growth generally results in increase in ORGAN WEIGHT; BODY WEIGHT; and BODY HEIGHT.Food Deprivation: The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.Lunch: The meal taken at midday.Carbonated Beverages: Drinkable liquids combined with or impregnated with carbon dioxide.Coffee: A beverage made from ground COFFEA beans (SEEDS) infused in hot water. It generally contains CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE unless it is decaffeinated.Micronutrients: Essential dietary elements or organic compounds that are required in only small quantities for normal physiologic processes to occur.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children from birth to 2 years of age.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Longevity: The normal length of time of an organism's life.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Drinking Behavior: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.Peptide YY: A 36-amino acid peptide produced by the L cells of the distal small intestine and colon. Peptide YY inhibits gastric and pancreatic secretion.Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of animals.Deuterium Oxide: The isotopic compound of hydrogen of mass 2 (deuterium) with oxygen. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed) It is used to study mechanisms and rates of chemical or nuclear reactions, as well as biological processes.Adiposity: The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.Parenteral Nutrition: The administering of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient who cannot maintain adequate nutrition by enteral feeding alone. Nutrients are administered by a route other than the alimentary canal (e.g., intravenously, subcutaneously).Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Breakfast: The first meal of the day.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Seafood: Marine fish and shellfish used as food or suitable for food. (Webster, 3d ed) SHELLFISH and FISH PRODUCTS are more specific types of SEAFOOD.Food, Formulated: Food and dietary formulations including elemental (chemically defined formula) diets, synthetic and semisynthetic diets, space diets, weight-reduction formulas, tube-feeding diets, complete liquid diets, and supplemental liquid and solid diets.TriglyceridesSmoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Body Water: Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Alcoholic Beverages: Drinkable liquids containing ETHANOL.Digestion: The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Thinness: A state of insufficient flesh on the body usually defined as having a body weight less than skeletal and physical standards. Depending on age, sex, and genetic background, a BODY MASS INDEX of less than 18.5 is considered as underweight.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Mental Recall: The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Adipose Tissue, Brown: A thermogenic form of adipose tissue composed of BROWN ADIPOCYTES. It is found in newborns of many species including humans, and in hibernating mammals. Brown fat is richly vascularized, innervated, and densely packed with MITOCHONDRIA which can generate heat directly from the stored lipids.Vitamins: Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Taste: The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Food, Fortified: Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Catastrophic Illness: An acute or prolonged illness usually considered to be life-threatening or with the threat of serious residual disability. Treatment may be radical and is frequently costly.Inflation, Economic: An increase in the volume of money and credit relative to available goods resulting in a substantial and continuing rise in the general price level.Fats: The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)JapanBody Constitution: The physical characteristics of the body, including the mode of performance of functions, the activity of metabolic processes, the manner and degree of reactions to stimuli, and power of resistance to the attack of pathogenic organisms.Diet, High-Fat: Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.Capital Expenditures: Those funds disbursed for facilities and equipment, particularly those related to the delivery of health care.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Malnutrition: An imbalanced nutritional status resulted from insufficient intake of nutrients to meet normal physiological requirement.Fructose: A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.Food Services: Functions, equipment, and facilities concerned with the preparation and distribution of ready-to-eat food.Enteral Nutrition: Nutritional support given via the alimentary canal or any route connected to the gastrointestinal system (i.e., the enteral route). This includes oral feeding, sip feeding, and tube feeding using nasogastric, gastrostomy, and jejunostomy tubes.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Self Disclosure: A willingness to reveal information about oneself to others.Body Height: The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.Recommended Dietary Allowances: The amounts of various substances in the diet recommended by governmental guidelines as needed to sustain healthy life.Infant Food: Food processed and manufactured for the nutritional health of children in their first year of life.Fat Substitutes: Compounds used in food or in food preparation to replace dietary fats. They may be carbohydrate-, protein-, or fat-based. Fat substitutes are usually lower in calories but provide the same texture as fats.Income: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.Parenteral Nutrition, Total: The delivery of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient whose sole source of nutrients is via solutions administered intravenously, subcutaneously, or by some other non-alimentary route. The basic components of TPN solutions are protein hydrolysates or free amino acid mixtures, monosaccharides, and electrolytes. Components are selected for their ability to reverse catabolism, promote anabolism, and build structural proteins.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Deuterium: Deuterium. The stable isotope of hydrogen. It has one neutron and one proton in the nucleus.Dietary Fats, Unsaturated: Unsaturated fats or oils used in foods or as a food.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Cooking: The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Conservation of Energy Resources: Planned management, use, and preservation of energy resources.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Peptide Hormones: Hormones synthesized from amino acids. They are distinguished from INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS in that their actions are systemic.Mice, Inbred C57BLInsulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Minerals: Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Drug Costs: The amount that a health care institution or organization pays for its drugs. It is one component of the final price that is charged to the consumer (FEES, PHARMACEUTICAL or PRESCRIPTION FEES).Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer: A type of FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY using two FLUORESCENT DYES with overlapping emission and absorption spectra, which is used to indicate proximity of labeled molecules. This technique is useful for studying interactions of molecules and PROTEIN FOLDING.Models, Econometric: The application of mathematical formulas and statistical techniques to the testing and quantifying of economic theories and the solution of economic problems.Glycemic Index: A numerical system of measuring the rate of BLOOD GLUCOSE generation from a particular food item as compared to a reference item, such as glucose = 100. Foods with higher glycemic index numbers create greater blood sugar swings.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Carotenoids: The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Alcoholism: A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)Overnutrition: An imbalanced NUTRITIONAL STATUS resulting from excessive intake of nutrients. Generally, overnutrition generates an energy imbalance between food consumption and energy expenditure leading to disorders such as OBESITY.Anorexia: The lack or loss of APPETITE accompanied by an aversion to food and the inability to eat. It is the defining characteristic of the disorder ANOREXIA NERVOSA.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Diet, Carbohydrate-Restricted: A diet that contains limited amounts of CARBOHYDRATES. This is in distinction to a regular DIET.Skinfold Thickness: The measurement of subcutaneous fat located directly beneath the skin by grasping a fold of skin and subcutaneous fat between the thumb and forefinger and pulling it away from the underlying muscle tissue. The thickness of the double layer of skin and subcutaneous tissue is then read with a caliper. The five most frequently measured sites are the upper arm, below the scapula, above the hip bone, the abdomen, and the thigh. Its application is the determination of relative fatness, of changes in physical conditioning programs, and of the percentage of body fat in desirable body weight. (From McArdle, et al., Exercise Physiology, 2d ed, p496-8)Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.

*Sleep and weight

... albeit with no change in overall calorie intake, hormone levels or energy expenditure across the different sleep schedules ... Previous research by the University of Chicago had also associated short sleep with an increase in calorie consumption from ... These results were consistent even as the subjects were given extra calories to compensate for the amount of energy expended ... which act on the nuclei of the hypothalamus to monitor energy and food intake. Leptin primarily inhibits appetite while ghrelin ...

*Resting metabolic rate

A calorie intake goal(shown on right) was generated from the measured metabolic rate and displayed as 24-hr energy expenditure ... which measured oxygen consumption and reported 24-hr resting energy expenditure. At this time, several health and wellness ... in estimating energy intake. In counting energy expenditure, the use of a resting measurement (RMR) is the most accurate method ... and less often urea production is transformed to energy expenditure and expressed as the ratio between i) energy and ii) the ...

*Wilbur Olin Atwater

Before Atwater's development of the respiration calorimeter, many experiments on calorie intake and expenditure had been ... The calorimeter aided studies in food analysis, dietary evolution, work energy consumption, and digestible foods. It measured ... to measure precisely the energy provided by food and created a system to measure that energy in units, known as food calories ... With this machine, the dynamics of metabolism could be quantified and the balance between food intake and energy output could ...

*Saturated fat

In developing countries, however, where energy intake for some population groups may be inadequate, energy expenditure is high ... The consumption of saturated fat is generally considered a risk factor for dyslipidemia, which in turn is a risk factor for ... of total calories according to its 2006 recommendations.[85][86] This concurs with similar conclusions made by the US ... The traditional target is to restrict the intake of saturated fatty acids to less than 10% of daily energy intake and less than ...

*Weight gain

When energy intake exceeds energy expenditure (when the body is in positive energy balance), the body can store the excess ... The effect that eating has on weight gain can vary greatly depending on the following factors: energy (calorie) density of ... In regard to adipose tissue increases, a person generally gains weight by increasing food consumption, becoming physically ... which inhibits appetite and increases energy expenditure, and ghrelin, which increases appetite and reduces energy expenditure ...

*Specific dynamic action

Meal frequency has little to no effect on TEF; assuming total calorie intake for the days are equivalent. Although some believe ... is the amount of energy expenditure above the resting metabolic rate due to the cost of processing food for use and storage. ... Heat production by brown adipose tissue which is activated after consumption of a meal is an additional component of dietary ... fibre and amylose did not reduce spontaneous food intake but rather was associated with higher subsequent energy intakes ...

*Low-carbohydrate diet

Food and Nutrition Board (2002/2005). Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol ... Taken together, these findings indicate that calorie intake, not macronutrient composition, determines long-term weight loss ... of increased energy expenditure equivalent to 400-600 kcal(kilocalorie)/day, in accord with the promise of the Atkin's diet: a ... Low-carbohydrate diets or carbohydrate-restricted diets (CRDs) are diets that restrict carbohydrate consumption relative to the ...

*Nutrition transition

Consumption of caloric beverages such as soda represented 21% of all calorie intake in Mexico from 1996 to 2002. Processes of ... Nutrition transition is the shift in dietary consumption and energy expenditure that coincides with economic, demographic, and ... The aforementioned increases in calorie are due to increased consumption of edible oils, animal-source foods, caloric ... Even in agricultural work, gas-powered technologies are helping reduce the energy expenditure needed to perform pertinent ...

*Microsomal ethanol oxidizing system

The increase in rest energy expenditure has, according to some studies, been explained by indicating that the MEOS "expends" ... nine calories per gram of ethanol to metabolize versus 7 calories per gram of ethanol ingested. This results in a net loss of 2 ... It has delayed activity in non-chronic alcohol consumption states as increase in MEOS activity is correlated with an increase ... Alcohol and Nutrition: an Integrated Perspective in Nutrition and Alcohol: Linking Nutrient Interactions and Dietary Intake. p ...

*Weight management

Clinical research on capsaicin has showed that consumption of the spice during breakfast can increase energy expenditure by 23 ... The reduction of energy density has been shown to enhance satiety. The water adds weight, without adding calories and the fiber ... Lower energy and fat intake were observed under short-term conditions; however, the effect of the spice was reduced over ... Resistant starch dilutes energy density of food intake, has a bulking effect similar to non-fermentable fiber, and increases ...

*Malnutrition

Source: "Protein Energy Malnutrition"[36]. Cognitive development[edit]. Protein-calorie malnutrition can cause cognitive ... Marasmus ('to waste away') is caused by an inadequate intake of protein and energy. The main symptoms are severe wasting, ... In China, consumption of high-fat foods has increased while consumption of rice and other goods has decreased.[57] ... Malnutrition may also occur due to increased energy expenditure (secondary malnutrition).[36][51] ...

*Protein (nutrient)

... a slight increase in protein intake may be beneficial to endurance athletes by replacing the protein lost in energy expenditure ... have suggested that athletes using restricted-calorie diets for weight loss should further increase their protein consumption, ... The amount of protein required in a person's diet is determined in large part by overall energy intake, the body's need for ... "Some individuals, especially teen boys and adult men, also need to reduce overall intake of protein foods by decreasing intakes ...

*Malnutrition

Protein-energy malnutrition has two severe forms: marasmus (a lack of protein and calories) and kwashiorkor (a lack of just ... Marasmus ('to waste away') is caused by an inadequate intake of protein and energy. The main symptoms are severe wasting, ... In China, consumption of high-fat foods has increased while consumption of rice and other goods has decreased. Overeating leads ... Malnutrition may also occur due to increased energy expenditure (secondary malnutrition). A lack of adequate breastfeeding ...

*Childhood obesity in Australia

... of fat and is predominately caused when there is an energy imbalance between calorie consumption and calorie expenditure. ... "Parental influence on children's food preferences and energy intake (EUFIC)". www.eufic.org. Retrieved 2015-09-01. "Department ... of Australia's history with close regard placed on genetics and an energy imbalance between calorie consumption and expenditure ... Socio-environmental factors that disrupt this energy consumption/ expenditure balance include changes to the economy (food ...

*Nutrition

Recommended intake volumes in the elderly are the same as for adults as despite lower energy consumption, the water requirement ... Some of the amino acids are convertible (with the expenditure of energy) to glucose and can be used for energy production, just ... the average ethanol calorie contributions are 48 and 108 cal/day. Alcoholic beverages are considered empty calorie foods ... a b [1] Nutrient recommendations: Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). *^ Tolerable Upper Intake Levels For Vitamins And Minerals ( ...

*Female athlete triad

Energy availability is defined as energy intake minus energy expended. Energy is taken in through food consumption. Our bodies ... and energy used by the body (through exercise). The treatment includes correcting this imbalance by either increasing calories ... or they may increase their energy expenditure while also eating less. Disordered eating is defined among this situation due to ... Athletes at greatest risk for low energy availability are those who restrict dietary energy intake, who exercise for prolonged ...

*Control of fire by early humans

This caused a significant increase in hominid meat consumption and calorie intake.[26] In addition to cooking, hominids soon ... The control of fire enabled important changes in human behavior, health, energy expenditure, and geographic expansion. As a ... As a result of the increases in net energy gain from food consumption, survival and reproductive rates in hominids increased.[ ... cooking allowed hominids to maximize the energy gained from consuming foods. Studies show that caloric intake from cooking ...

*Social determinants of obesity

It is accepted that calorie consumption in excess of calorie expenditure leads to obesity; however, what has caused shifts in ... In undeveloped countries the ability to afford food, high energy expenditure with physical labor, and cultural values favoring ... Normal-weight subjects ate 29% less with the low-intake model and 25% more with the high-intake model than when alone. In 1979 ... "Fast food chains and vending machines packed with lipid-rich foods as well as high calorie sodas can now be found in Santo ...

*Basal metabolic rate

The Katch-McArdle Formula (Resting Daily Energy Expenditure):. *. P. =. 370. +. (. 21.6. ⋅. L. B. M. ). {\displaystyle P=370+\ ... A decrease in food intake will typically lower the metabolic rate as the body tries to conserve energy.[31] Researcher Gary ... The basal metabolic rate accounts for about 60 to 75% of the daily calorie expenditure by individuals. It is influenced by ... and in energy expended in thermogenesis make it difficult to estimate the dietary consumption any particular individual needs ...

*Diet and obesity

There exists a strong correlation between the consumption of liquid calories and total energy intake. Individuals do not tend ... On average obese people have a greater energy expenditure than normal weight or thin people and actually have higher BMRs. This ... In the United States consumption of fast food meal has tripled and calorie intake from fast food has quadrupled between 1977 ... 1542 calories in 1971 and 1877 calories in 2000). For men, the average increase was 168 calories per day (2450 calories in 1971 ...

*Saturated fat and cardiovascular disease

In developing countries, however, where energy intake for some population groups may be inadequate, energy expenditure is high ... of daily calories, and intake of foods rich in myristic and palmitic acids should be especially reduced. The recommendation was ... Until the picture becomes clearer, experts recommend people stick to the current guidelines on fat consumption.[36] Indeed, ... The traditional target is to restrict the intake of saturated fatty acids to less than 10%, of daily energy intake and less ...

*Basal metabolic rate

... is the rate of energy expenditure per unit time by endothermic animals at rest. It is reported in energy units per unit time ... A decrease in food intake will typically lower the metabolic rate as the body tries to conserve energy. Researcher Gary Foster ... The basal metabolic rate accounts for about 60 to 75% of the daily calorie expenditure by individuals. It is influenced by ... and in energy expended in thermogenesis make it difficult to estimate the dietary consumption any particular individual needs ...

*Caloric deficit

... energy homeostasis). A deficit can be created by reducing input/calories consumed (lower food intake, aka dieting). A deficit ... influence on thermogenesis and daily energy expenditure in lean and postobese human volunteers". The American Journal of ... Dulloo, A. G.; Geissler, C. A.; Horton, T.; Collins, A.; Miller, D. S. (1989-01-01). "Normal caffeine consumption: ... As the calories required for energy homeostasis decreases as the organisms's mass decreases, if a moderate deficit is ...

*Protein (nutrient)

... a slight increase in protein intake may be beneficial to endurance athletes by replacing the protein lost in energy expenditure ... of total calories per day) that may be increased as a result of consumption of certain meats and proteins. While the 2015 DGA ... Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein and Amino Acids, Institute of ... Excess consumptionEdit. The U.S. and Canadian Dietary Reference Intake review for protein concluded that there was not ...

*Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption

found considerable contributions of EPOC to total energy expenditure. In their 2004 survey of the relevant literature, ... Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC, informally called afterburn) is a measurably increased rate of oxygen intake ... even though the subjects expended fewer than half as many calories during exercise. Whether this result was caused by the EPOC ... page needed] Scott, Christopher B; Croteau, Alicia; Ravlo, Tyler (2009). "Energy Expenditure Before, During, and After the ...

*Health in Nepal

Major causes of PEM in Nepal is low birth weight of below 2.5 kg, due to poor maternal nutrition, inadequate dietary intake, ... The most common form of malnutrition is protein energy malnutrition (PEM). The other forms of malnutrition are iodine, iron and ... Substitutes, such as formula, other kinds of milk, and porridge, are often watered down and provide too few calories. ... Approximately 70% of health expenditures came from out-of-pocket contributions. Government allocation for health care was ...
John P. Blass ‡ ‖ ‡ and ... Oxidative energy metabolism is impaired in many neurodegenerative disorders . Search Menu. » Sign up / Log in Mathematical Models for Suspension Bridges av Filippo Gazzola Geliebt Joseph Walsers Maschine Inbunden, 1999. Pris 1433 kr. Köp Oxidative/Energy Metabolism in Neurodegenerative Disorders (9781573312097) av John P Blass på Bokus.com ... Parkinsons disease, Lebers optic neuropathy and other neurodegenerative disorders ... oxidative energy metabolism ... of methylene blue in ... Search database ... ... Dakota in ePub Land of Golden Sunshine av J.Donald Walters Vuur van de engelen Oxidative/Energy Metabolism in Neurodegenerative Disorders av John P. Blass … Pris 3587 kr. Köp Neurochemical Mechanisms in Disease ... av John P Blass på Bokus.com. ... Oxidative/Energy Metabolism in Neurodegenerative Dis... John P Blass Special issue dedicated to John P. Blass. ... a shift away from oxidative ...
1. Our objectives were to measure total energy expenditure, the daily variation in total energy expenditure and the physical activity level in a group of HIV-positive subjects using the bicarbonate-urea method. The study also aimed to asses the practicalities of using the bicarbonate-urea technique in free-living conditions. 2. Total energy expenditure was measured with the bicarbonate-urea method over 2 consecutive days (1 day in one subject) in 10 male patients with HIV infection (median CD4 count = 30). Resting energy expenditure was measured by indirect calorimetry. Physical activity level (total energy expenditure/resting energy expenditure) was calculated from these measurements and from activity diaries. 3. Resting energy expenditure was found to be 7.46 +/- 0.87 ...
The human body needs energy to sustain its various functions and help the individual perform his/her desired actions. This energy comes from the food we consume. When we consume food, we are said to be taking energy or assimilating energy or energy in, and when we work, exercise, or undertake any physical activity, we are said to be dissipating energy or giving out energy or energy out.. Since the rates at which we dissipate and assimilate energy are not the same always, the body is capable of storing energy for future use. The energy stored is generally in the form of fat or white adipose tissue. When the rates of energy intake and energy expenditure are reasonably healthy, there is less energy stored, which is considered a healthy ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of differential gastric evacuation and multispecies prey items on estimates of daily energy intake in juvenile chinook salmon. AU - Kolok, Alan S.. AU - Rondorf, Dennis W.. PY - 1987/6/1. Y1 - 1987/6/1. N2 - The caloric density of stomach contents in juvenile chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, was not affected by gastric evacuation, suggesting a constant caloric density of stomach contents during evacuation. Differences in the caloric density of prey consumed did affect caloric density of stomach contents over a 24-h period. Consumption of the amphipod Corophium sp. was associated with reduced caloric densities of stomach contents. During periods when Corophium contributed more than 4% of the stomach contents, average caloric density declined from 5.56 to 5.33 kcal g-1. Despite this difference, estimates of daily energy intake of juvenile chinook salmon were only 3%, greater when developed from ...
In order to determine your daily caloric intake you must first understand your Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR). Your BMR is the minimum number of calories required for your body to sustain daily functions such as: breathing, heart beat, circulation, brain functions, managing hormones, etc. An individuals BMR can be calculated on a body composition machine or by using a BMR calculator or formula ...
In order to determine your daily caloric intake you must first understand your Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR). Your BMR is the minimum number of calories required for your body to sustain daily functions such as: breathing, heart beat, circulation, brain functions, managing hormones, etc. An individuals BMR can be calculated on a body composition machine or by using a BMR calculator or formula ...
The ability to assess energy expenditure (EE) and estimate physical activity (PA) in free-living individuals is extremely important in the global context of non-communicable diseases including malnutrition, overnutrition (obesity), and diabetes. It is also important to appreciate that PA and EE are different constructs with PA defined as any bodily movement that results in EE and accordingly, energy is expended as a result of PA. However, total energy expenditure, best assessed using the criterion doubly labeled water (DLW) technique, includes components in addition to physical activity energy expenditure, namely resting energy expenditure and the thermic effect of food. Given the large number of assessment techniques currently used to estimate PA in humans, it is imperative to understand the relative merits of each. The goal of this review is to provide ...
Baak, M.A. van; Haan, A. de; Saris, W.H.M.; Kordelaar, E. van; Kuipers, H.; Vusse, G.J. van der, 1995: Beta -Adrenoceptor blockage and skeletal muscle energy metabolism during endurance exercise
The level of dietary energy intake influences metabolism, reproductive function, the development of age-related diseases, and even cognitive behavior. Because males and females typically play different roles in the acquisition and allocation of energy resources, we reasoned that dietary energy intake might differentially affect the brains of males and females at the molecular level. To test this hypothesis, we performed a gene array analysis of the hippocampus in male and female rats that had been maintained for 6 months on either ad libitum (control), 20% caloric restriction (CR), 40% CR, intermittent fasting (IF) or high fat/high glucose (HFG) diets. These diets resulted in expected changes in body weight, and circulating levels of glucose, insulin and leptin. However, the CR diets significantly increased the size of the hippocampus of females, but not males. Multiple genes were regulated coherently in response to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nonprotein caloric requirements for patients with pancreatic abscess as measured by indirect calorimetry. AU - Arouni, M. A.. AU - Fagan, D. R.. AU - Jasnowski, J.. AU - Watson, P.. AU - Lanspa, Stephen J.. PY - 1990. Y1 - 1990. N2 - Few data exist regarding nutritional assessment during pancreatic abscess. We compared nonprotein caloric requirements calculated by Harris-Benedict equation and measured by indirect calorimetry in patients with pancreatic abscess. Seven patients with pancreatitis and pancreatic abscess had determinations of resting energy expenditure via Medicor metabolic cart with 20% added for activity. Caloric requirements were also estimated using the Harris-Benedict equation with stress factors. Determinations from indirect calorimetry ranged from 22.4-46.8 (mean 36.1) kcal/kg/d. Harris-Benedict calculations with stress factor 1.7 differed from indirect calorimetry by at least 15% in seven of ten determinations. Stress factor 1.9 results ...
Prior to the study intervention, the mean ± SD dietary intake for both groups was 2128 ± 993 kcal, 245 ± 136 g of carbohydrate (46% of daily energy intake), 86 ± 33 g of protein (18% of daily energy intake), 88 ± 57 g of fat (36% of daily energy intake). Over the 24-week duration of the intervention, the LCKD group consumed 1550 ± 440 kcal per day, 49 ± 33 g of carbohydrate (13% of daily energy intake), 108 ± 33 g of protein (28% of daily energy intake), 101 ± 35 g of fat (59% of daily energy intake). In comparison, the LGID group consumed 1335 ± 372 kcal per day, 149 ± 46 g of carbohydrate (44% of daily energy intake), 67 ± 20 g of protein (20% of daily energy intake), 55 ± 23 g of fat (36% of daily energy ...
Prior to the study intervention, the mean ± SD dietary intake for both groups was 2128 ± 993 kcal, 245 ± 136 g of carbohydrate (46% of daily energy intake), 86 ± 33 g of protein (18% of daily energy intake), 88 ± 57 g of fat (36% of daily energy intake). Over the 24-week duration of the intervention, the LCKD group consumed 1550 ± 440 kcal per day, 49 ± 33 g of carbohydrate (13% of daily energy intake), 108 ± 33 g of protein (28% of daily energy intake), 101 ± 35 g of fat (59% of daily energy intake). In comparison, the LGID group consumed 1335 ± 372 kcal per day, 149 ± 46 g of carbohydrate (44% of daily energy intake), 67 ± 20 g of protein (20% of daily energy intake), 55 ± 23 g of fat (36% of daily energy ...
Chronic lung disease (CLD) or bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a disease of premature babies who required prolonged support with their breathing and supplemental oxygen. These babies are at high risk of many short and long-term problems with their breathing, growth and development, including death in infancy or childhood. Studies have shown that these babies have higher energy expenditure and lower energy intake compared with babies without CLD/BPD. Increasing energy intake for these babies beyond standard levels may therefore seem beneficial. However, setting high targets for energy intake for these babies may not be achievable. Furthermore, methods of increasing energy intake such as increasing the milk volume or concentration or giving intravenous nutrition may lead to complications of their own. We planned to examine whether ...
The purpose of this study was to validate estimated energy intake from a web-based food recall, designed for children and adolescents. We directly compared energy intake to estimates of total energy expenditure, calculated from accelerometer outputs, combined with data on weight and sex or resting energy expenditure prediction equations. Children (8-9 years) and adolescents (12-14 years) were recruited through schools in Norway in 2013 (N = 253). Results showed that more than one third (36-37%) were identified as under-reporters of energy. In contrast, only 2-4% were defined as over-reporters of energy. The mean energy intake was under-reported with -1.83 MJ/day for the entire study sample. Increased underestimation was observed for overweight and obese participants, the oldest age group (12-14 years), boys, ...
Mechanical Engineering Online course and notes for Thermodynamics,Available Energy. Download Mechanical Engineering, Available Energy in Thermodynamics notes
Energy intake and renal function decrease with age. In patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), spontaneous food intake decreases in parallel with the loss of renal function. The objective of the present study was to evaluate a possible relationship between renal dysfunction and energy intake in elderly community-dwelling men. A cross-sectional study including 1087 men aged 70 years from the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (ULSAM) community-based cohort was carried out. Dietary intake was assessed using 7 d food records, and glomerular filtration rate was estimated from serum cystatin C concentrations. Energy intake was normalised by ideal body weight, and macronutrient intake was energy-adjusted. The median normalised daily energy intake was 105 (interquartile range 88-124) kJ, and directly ...
In order to monitor their energy requirements, athletes may desire to assess energy expenditure (EE) during training and competition. Recent technological advances and increased customer interest have created a market for wearable devices that measure physiological variables and bodily movement over prolonged time periods and convert this information into EE data. This mini-review provides an overview of the applicability of the SenseWear armband (SWA), which combines accelerometry with measurements of heat production and skin conductivity, to measure total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) and its components such as exercise energy expenditure (ExEE) in athletic populations. While the SWA has been shown to provide valid estimates of EE in the general population, validation studies in athletic populations indicate a tendency towards underestimation of ExEE particularly during high-intensity ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of interaction of gender and energy intake on lean body mass and fat mass gain in infant baboons. AU - Lewis, D. S.. AU - Bertrand, H. E.. AU - Masoro, E. J.. AU - McGill, H. C.. AU - Carey, K. D.. AU - McMahan, C. A.. PY - 1984/1/1. Y1 - 1984/1/1. N2 - The hypothesis that energy intake influences differently the composition of mass gain during the preweaning period was tested in male and female baboons. Infant baboons were fed either a high (92 kcal/100 g formula) or a low (49 kcal/100 g formula) caloric formula from birth. Body mass, lean body mass and fat mass of each baboon were measured directly at weaning (18 weeks of age). Lean mass and fat mass gained from birth to 18 weeks was estimated by using body composition data from eight newborn baboons. Both energy intake and gender significantly influenced gain of total mass, lean mass and fat mass. There was a significant gender by ...
There is debate over the casual factors for the rise in body weight in the UK. The present study investigates whether increases between 1986 and 2000 for men and women were a result of increases in mean total energy intake, decreases in mean physical activity levels or both. Estimates of mean total energy intake in 1986 and 2000 were derived from food availability data adjusted for wastage. Estimates of mean body weight for adults aged 19-64 years were derived from nationally representative dietary surveys conducted in 1986-7 and 2000-1. Predicted body weight in 1986 and 2000 was calculated using an equation relating body weight to total energy intake and sex. Differences in predicted mean body weight and actual mean body weight between the two time points were compared. Monte Carlo simulation methods were used to assess the stability of the estimates. The predicted increase in mean body weight due to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Limits to sustained energy intake IX: a review of hypotheses. AU - Speakman, J R AU - Krol, E PY - 2005. Y1 - 2005. N2 - Several lines of evidence indicate that animals in the wild may be limited in their maximal rates of energy intake by their intrinsic physiology rather than food availability. Understanding the limits to sustained energy intake is important because this defines an envelope within which animals must trade-off competing activities. In the first part of this review, we consider the initial ideas that propelled this area and experimental evidence connected with them. An early conceptual advance in this field was the idea that energy intake could be centrally limited by aspects of the digestive process, or peripherally limited at the sites of energy utilisation. A model system that has been widely employed to explore these ideas ...
Americans love food that tastes good and we find that food and drink companies are adding high-fructose corn syrup as a sweetener to enhance flavors. Why are companies choosing this over other sweeteners? Is there a difference between corn syrup and high-fructose corn syrup? Why is it that some brands use high-fructose corn syrup for the U.S. market, yet sugar for Canadian and European markets?. The simple answer as to why high-fructose corn syrup is used is cost. It is a lot cheaper for food manufactures to use high-fructose corn syrup than real sugar. Also the supply of high-fructose corn syrup is almost limitless. Corn subsidies by the government can be the reason for both cost and supply.. Corn syrup and high-fructose corn syrup are two different products even though both products are made from corn starch. Regular corn syrup is 100% glucose yet high-fructose corn syrup has some of its glucose converted to fructose enzymatically. Scientists are examining the potentially negative effects of ...
article{746965, author = {Bilau, Maaike and Matthys, Christophe and Bellemans, Mia and De Neve, Melissa and Willems, Jan and De Henauw, Stefaan}, issn = {0013-9351}, journal = {ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH}, keyword = {Validation,Dietary exposure,Dioxin-like compounds,HEALTH,RECORDS,EXPOSURES,EMPHASIS,FFQ,Estimated dietary record,POPULATION,DIETARY ASSESSMENT,VALIDATION}, language = {eng}, number = {3}, pages = {327--333}, title = {Reproducibility and relative validity of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire designed for assessing the intake of dioxin-like contaminants}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2008.06.003}, volume = {108}, year = {2008 ...
Feel full on fewer calories? It might sound like another gimmick for weight loss, but its not. The concept of energy density really can help with weight loss.. In fact, well-planned weight-loss diets, such as the Mayo Clinic Diet, use the concept of energy density to help you lose weight and keep it off long term.. Simply put, energy density is the number of calories (energy) in a specific amount of food. High energy density means that there are a lot of calories in a little food. Low energy density means there are few calories in a lot of food.. When youre striving for weight loss, the goal is to eat low-energy-dense foods. That is, you want to eat a greater volume of food thats lower in calories. This helps you feel fuller on fewer calories.. Heres a quick example with raisins and grapes. ...
... comes in all shapes and sizes, and sometimes isnt all it promises to be. When you own a dog requiring a high calorie diet, that doesnt mean junk food, treats and high fat content. High calorie dog foods should provide essential minerals and proteins from high quality sources, and not simply contain loads of carbohydrates and fat. Protein derived from grains is considered incomplete, as it does not provide all the the essential amino acids required by a dogs body. Ingredients should always include protein from a real meat source. Avoid meat byproducts or "meat and bone meals." ...
Objectives: The energy density (ED) of the diet is considered an important determinant of total energy intake and thus energy balance and weight change. We aimed to compare relationships between ED and macronutrient content in individual food and beverage items as well as population diet in a typical Western country. Design: Nutrient data for 3673 food items and 247 beverage items came from the Australian Food and Nutrient database (AusNut). Food and beverage intake data came from the 1995 Australian National Nutrition Survey (a 24-h dietary recall survey in 13 858 people over the age of 2). Relationships between ED and macronutrient and water content were analysed by linear regression with 95% prediction bands. Results: For both individual food items and population food intake, there was a positive relationship between ED and percent energy as fat and negative relationships between ED and ...
Free Online Library: Very-low-calorie diets: downsizing the hospitalised obese patient.(CASE STUDY) by Nutrition & Dietetics: The Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia; Food/cooking/nutrition Health, general Albumin Case studies Health aspects Physiological aspects Antihypertensive agents Antihypertensive drugs Bariatric surgery Blood lipids Clinical trials Diabetes therapy Diet industry Medical research Medicine, Experimental Nursing Obesity Care and treatment Surgery Patient care Patients Weight loss Weight loss industry
The effects of breakfast consumption on energy intake and the responses to foods consumed later in the day remain unclear. Twelve men of healthy body weight who reported regularly consuming breakfast (mean ± SD age 23.4 ± 7.3 y; BMI 23.5 ± 1.7 kg/m(2)) completed 2 trials using a randomized crossover design. Participants were provided with a 1050-kJ liquid preload 150 min after consuming a standardized breakfast (B) (10% daily energy requirement and 14, 14, and 72% energy from protein, fat, and carbohydrate, respectively), or no breakfast (NB). Blood glucose and serum insulin responses to the preload (area under the curve) were higher in the NB condition (P | 0.05). Plasma FFA responses to the preload were higher in the NB condition (P | 0.01). Plasma glucagon-like peptide 1 (P | 0.01) and plasma peptide Y (P | 0.05) responses were higher after the preload in the B condition. Desire to eat, fullness, and hunger ratings ...
Overweight, energy expenditure and caloric intake are associated with an increased prevalence of asthma. To measure resting energy expenditure and calculate caloric intake of overweight adolescents with asthma and compare results with those of groups of well-nourished adolescents with asthma and overweight adolescents without asthma. Cross-sectional study with 69 adolescents aged 10 to 18 years divided into three matched groups. Nutritional status was assessed using anthropometric and body composition measurements. Indirect calorimetry was used to measure energy expenditure; caloric intake was estimated from dietary recalls. In each group, there were 23 adolescents (10 girls) aged 12.39±2.40 years. Results for each group (overweight adolescents with asthma; well-nourished adolescents with asthma; and overweight adolescents without asthma) were, respectively: ...
Sodium alginate is a seaweed-derived fibre that has previously been shown to moderate appetite in models of acute feeding. The mechanisms underlying this effect may include slowed gastric clearance and attenuated uptake from the small intestine. In order to assess whether alginate could be effective as a means of appetite control in free-living adults, 68 males and females (BMI range: 18.50-32.81 kgl M-2) completed this randomised, controlled two-way crossover intervention to compare the effects of 7 day daily ingestion of a strong-gelling sodium alginate formulation against a control. A sodium alginate with a high-guluronate content was chosen because, upon ingestion, it forms a strong gel in the presence of calcium ions. Daily preprandial ingestion of the sodium alginate formulation produced a significant 134.8 kcal (7%) reduction in mean daily energy intake. This reduced energy intake was underwritten by significant reductions in mean ...
Effects of high energy diet on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and blood constituents of Hanwoo steers distributed by estimated breeding value for meat quality - High energy diet;EBV;Hanwoo steers;Blood composition;
AIMS: To measure the nutritive value of pasture in terms of digestible energy intake (DEI) and dry matter (DM) digestibility, and the effects of increased calcium (Ca) intakes on apparent mineral absorption and bone characteristics in grazing weanling Thoroughbreds. METHODS: DM intake (DMI) and DEI were determined in 16 weanling Thoroughbreds grazing pasture from their daily faecal DM output, measured over 8 days, divided by the DM indigestible fraction (1-digestible DM) determined in a 6-day digestibility trial. The DM, gross energy content, crude protein, soluble carbohydrate, acid detergent fibre, neutral detergent fibre, lipid, Ca, phosphorus (P), sodium (Na), potassium(K), sulphur (S) and magnesium (Mg) composition of perennial ryegrass/white clover pasture and faeces were determined and their digestibility and/or apparent absorption calculated. Calcium intake and bone growth studies used 17 weanlings, ...
The focus of this research is to optimize the performance of a high energy density active material based upon biological processes. This material uses controlled transport of charge and fluid across a selectively permeable membrane to achieve bulk deformation, similar to nastic movements in the plant kingdom. The membrane utilizes biological ion pumps, ion channels, and ion exchangers surrounding a spherical inclusion in a polymer matrix. This work examines the effect of the geometry of the inclusion and the surrounding matrix on the predictions of the model.. Copyright © 2007 by ASME ...
Tang, Z., Tang, C.-h. and Gong, H. (2012), A High Energy Density Asymmetric Supercapacitor from Nano-architectured Ni(OH)2/Carbon Nanotube Electrodes. Adv. Funct. Mater., 22: 1272-1278. doi: 10.1002/adfm.201102796 ...
Twelve 11-year-old girls (six lean, six overweight) were given meals in the laboratory and at school for 5 days, with exercise imposed for 2 days and sedentary activities on another 2 days in counterbalanced sequences. During a preliminary visit, the FLEX heart rate method was used to predict individual exercise durations eliciting 1.5 MJ energy expenditure. Morning and afternoon cycling exercise was subsequently imposed in the laboratory on 2 consecutive days as part of the 5-day intervention. Energy intake was measured via observation with meals being standardised between conditions, prepared and weighed by the research team. Hunger, fullness and desire to eat were rated by subjects immediately before and after meals and exercise. Energy expenditure was significantly elevated in the exercise condition, compared to sedentary. No exercise-induced differences in total daily or 5-day total ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adherence of Malaysian Adults Energy and Macronutrient Intakes to National Recommendations. T2 - A Review and Meta-Analysis. AU - Shahar, Suzana. AU - Jan Bin Jan Mohamed, Hamid. AU - de Los Reyes, Francisco. AU - Amarra, Maria Sofia. PY - 2018/10/28. Y1 - 2018/10/28. N2 - The present study examined the best available evidence regarding energy and macronutrient intake during adulthood (age 19 to 59 years) in Malaysia and assessed whether intakes adhere to national recommendations, in order to develop recommendations for dietary improvement based on population consumption patterns. A literature review and meta-analysis evaluated intake based on the following characteristics, using information from food balance sheets, national surveys, and individual studies: (1) levels of intake, (2) proportion of the population whose diets adhere to/exceed/fail to meet ...
Liu J, Cao S, Liu M, et al. A high nutrient dense diet alters hypothalamic gene expressions to influence energy intake in pigs born with low birth weight[J]. Scientific reports, 2018, 8(1): 5514.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Factors influencing energy intake of rats fed either a high-fat or a fat mimetic diet. AU - Harris, R. B.S.. PY - 1994/1/1. Y1 - 1994/1/1. N2 - The aim of this study was to compare the effects of chronic feeding of a high-fat diet and a diet containing a fat mimetic on energy intake, body composition and tissue metabolism of mature female Sprague Dawley rats. Rats were fed a control, 25% kJ fat, diet for 10 days. Preference for this diet compared with a high-fat, 45% kJ fat, or fat mimetic, 25% kJ fat, diet was determined by offering rats two diets, in random order, for a period of 13.5 hours on three different occasions at two day intervals. Animals were then divided into three groups, receiving one of the three diets for 42 days. Dietary preference was tested again. Hepatic and muscle glucose and fatty acid utilization were measured in vitro and body composition was determined. Most of the rats preferred the mimetic diet ...
Chickens fed for 35 days with the HF diet displayed decreased food intake, in line with our previous results demonstrating that chickens adjusted their food intake according to the dietary metabolizable energy concentration (Yuan et al., 2008). The HF effect on food intake is likely to be driven mainly by energy needs, because several reports have shown that taste or palatability was relatively less important (Blundell et al., 1993, 1996; Berridge, 1996). The viewpoint that a HF diet induces an increase in body mass has been widely verified in human and animal studies (West and York, 1998; Murtaugh et al., 2007) and was also shown in the present study. The increase in body mass resulted from a higher proportion of adipose tissue rather than skeletal muscle (West and York, 1998; Murtaugh et al., 2007). We observed that the adipose mass in the abdomen and cervical subcutaneous tissues relative to body mass was higher in HF ...
Aim: This trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of high performance inulin on anthropometric indices and appetite status in patient with type 2 diabetes. Methods: Forty six patients with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to two groups. Subjects received 10g/d high performance inulin (n=23) or 10 g/d placebo (n=23) for 8 week. Anthropometric indices were measured at baseline and after 8 weeks. Dietary intakes and appetite status were evaluated by food records and Visual Analogues Scale recpectivly. Results: After 8 weeks, in the high performance inulin group there were a significant decrease in waist circumference, hip circumference, energy intake and Total Satiety score compared to placebo group. Intera- group analysis showed that a significant decrease in energy intake. Conclusion: high performance inulin may improve body weight, anthropometric indices and appetite statues in type 2 diabetic patients.. ...
A fat substitute is a food product with the same functions, stability, physical, and chemical characteristics as regular fat, with fewer Calories per gram than fat. They are utilized in the production of low fat and low calorie foods. Fat is present in most foods. It provides a unique texture, flavor, and aroma to the food it is found in. While fat is essential to life, it can be detrimental to health when consumed in excess of physiological requirements. High fat diets increase risk of heart disease, weight gain, and some cancers. High blood cholesterol is more prevalent in those that consume diets high in saturated fats, and it increases risk for coronary heart disease in those individuals. The use of fat substitutes in food products allows for maintenance of the foods original quality characteristics without the associated risks of fat consumption. In the absence of energy-dense fat molecules, products utilizing fat substitutes are ...
The first law of thermodynamics states that change in weight equals caloric intake minus caloric output. Caloric intake is the number of calories you eat and drink each day, and caloric output is your resting metabolic rate plus any physical activity expenditure. If caloric intake exceeds caloric output, then the excess calories are deposited as fat in your body, and body weight increases. If caloric intake is less than caloric output, then your body fat stores supply the necessary calories and weight loss ensues. Reducing caloric intake has been shown to be more efficient than just simply increasing exercise to induce weight loss. Simply handing a patient a 1,200 or 1,500 calorie diet seldom works. We acknowledge that dietary choices are based on a variety of factors, such as religious and cultural beliefs, a persons socioeconomic status, ...
The Caerphilly Prospective Ischaemic Heart Disease (IHD) Study is based on a sample of 2512 men aged 45-59 years when first seen. Nutrient intakes, estimated using a self-administered semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, are available for 2423 men (96 %). Amongst these, 148 major IHD events occurred during the first 5 years of follow-up. Associations were examined between these events and baseline diet. Incident IHD (new events) was negatively associated with total energy intake: men who went on to experience an IHD event had consumed 560 kJ (134 kcal)/d (6%) less at baseline than men who experienced no event (P = 0.01). The relative odds of an IHD event was 1.5 among men in the lowest fifth of energy intake, compared with 1.3,1.2,0.9 and 1.0 respectively for the other four fifths (P , 0.05). The difference in energy intake was reflected in lower intakes of every ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Satiety and energy intake after single and repeated exposure to gel-forming dietary fiber: post-ingestive effects. AU - Wanders, A.J.. AU - Mars, M.. AU - Borgonjen-van den Berg, K.J.. AU - de Graaf, C.. AU - Feskens, E.J.M.. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Background: Viscous or gel-forming dietary fibers can increase satiety by a more firm texture and increased eating time. Effects of viscous or gel-forming fibers on satiety by post-ingestive mechanisms such as gastric emptying, hormonal signals, nutrient absorption or fermentation are unclear. Moreover, it is unclear whether the effects persist after repeated exposure. Objective: To investigate satiety and energy intake after single and repeated exposure to gelled fiber by post-ingestive mechanisms. Design: In a two-arm crossover design, 32 subjects (24 female subjects, 21±2 y, BMI 21.8±1.9¿kg¿m-2) consumed test foods once daily for 15 consecutive days, with 2 weeks of washout. ...
Overall, there was no change in mean energy content of lunchtime purchases from fast food chains after introduction of calorie information for all menu items. However, this finding was not uniform across all the chains, with some showing significant reductions in mean energy intake, and one showing a significant increase. Analyses by chain are, of course, limited as some chains had small sample sizes based on the study design. The variability that was evident by chain is probably due to several factors, including changes in customer purchasing patterns and changes in menu options and promotions over the two years of the study. For example, reductions in mean energy per purchase were evident at chains with a broader range of menu items, including McDonalds and Wendys. On the industry side, chains that introduced new lower calorie menu items were among those that showed a reduction in mean ...
caloric dose is. Based on expert opinion, observational studies and small RCTs [ 3-7], it has been generally rec- ommended to provide full caloric requirement to critically ill patients [8]. To achieve this goal, interventions to aug- ment caloric intake, such as the implementation of proto- cols [9, 10], prokineteic agents and.. Video game playing increases food intake in teens, study confirms Date: May 19, 2011 Source: American Society for Nutrition Summary: A new study provides preliminary.. A recent study found that saccharin and aspartame cause greater weight gain than sugar, unrelated to caloric intake; Research has repeatedly shown that artificial no.. Aug 22, 2016. You may be consuming too many foods that are healthy but also high in calories, such as nuts and cheese. Watching portion sizes is key. On the other hand, decreasing your calorie intake too much can be counterproductive. Studies on very ...
Fenugreek soaked water helps to boost your metabolism and prevents constipation. No 700 calorie a day diet results in heart risk between long or short-acting sulphonylureas Thu, 07 Sep GET 18 HIGH PROTEIN BREAKFAST RECIPES 700 calorie a day diet results you sign up for the LIVE STRONG. But I know the reduced calories may 700 calorie a day diet results my metabolism 700 calorie a day diet results so thats why Im asking if anyone has followed a diet with calories this low and what your results were? I know that by doing this it isnt healthy and I will gain all the weight back and maybe more afterwards but I dont mind. This is not a negative response by the body but it will be interpreted by her as quite 700 calorie a day diet results when she steps on 700 calorie a day diet results scale. For the moderately active year-old woman who needs about 2, calories a ...
Organisms from yeast to rodents to humans all benefit from cutting calories. In simple organisms, restricting calories can double or even triple lifespan. Its not yet clear just how much longer calorie restriction might help humans live, but those who practice the strict diet hope to survive past 100.. Those on calorie restriction cut their daily caloric intake by 25 percent or more, but they also carefully track vitamins and nutrients in the diet in order to avoid malnutrition. In this study, all of those in the group practicing calorie restriction were members of the CR Society, and they refer to themselves as CRONies (Calorie Restriction with Optimal Nutrition).. A persons core body temperature is the temperature at which all of the functions in the body can operate with maximum efficiency. The temperature of the human body is not uniform throughout, and internal readings tend to be ...
Looking for online definition of resting energy expenditure in the Medical Dictionary? resting energy expenditure explanation free. What is resting energy expenditure? Meaning of resting energy expenditure medical term. What does resting energy expenditure mean?
In a low-fat weight loss plan among the widespread food items to keep away from are whole milk, candy goodies resembling ice-lotions (until theyre low-fats ice-creams), sweets, truffles and biscuits, chips, fried or roasted potatoes, coconut, pastries, croissants, white breads, refined-flour based pancakes and pastas, butter, duck meat, meat pies which detox is the best for weight loss most cream and exhausting cheeses. What thats about is a meals routine thats balanced with all of the protein, carbohydrates, fat, dietary vitamins and minerals your physique needs, reducing the empty carbs and pointless fats from for instance fried meals. A pair of rotations constitutes a spherical. Daily calories for men weight loss this; most diet pills usually are not the reply to real weight loss or fats reduction. Yes, it is the same product that has simply daily calories for men weight loss the approval of the FDA as a capsule which can be purchased over-the-counter. An apple a day is ...
An increase in dietary protein intake has been shown to improve weight loss maintenance in the DIOGenes trial. Here, we analysed whether the source of the dietary proteins influenced changes in body weight, body composition, and cardiometabolic risk factors during the weight maintenance period while following an energy-restricted diet. 489 overweight or obese participants of the DIOGenes trial from eight European countries were included. They successfully lost >8% of body weight and subsequently completed a six month weight maintenance period, in which they consumed an ad libitum diet varying in protein content and glycemic index. Dietary intake was estimated from three-day food diaries. A higher plant protein intake with a proportional decrease in animal protein intake did not affect body weight maintenance or cardiometabolic risk factors. A higher plant protein intake from non-cereal products instead of ...
The overall goal is to determine whether any energy expenditure compensation in response to 16 weeks of aerobic exercise at a higher-dose is greater compared to a lower-dose intervention in older women, and to begin to investigate underlying physiological mechanisms that influence energy expenditure changes in older women. Changes in all components of energy expenditure, as well as concentrations of plasma leptin and serum free T3, in response to the two different exercise programs (14 and 8 kcal/kg body weight weekly, 60-65% VO2max, 4 days/wk) will be compared in older, non-obese women (60-75 yrs, BMI=18-30 kg/m2).. Specific Aim 1: To determine whether differential changes in total daily energy expenditure and its components occur in older women in response to two exercise programs of different doses. State-of-the-art methods will be used (total daily ...
Studies on the exposure of children to sugar sweetened beverages-SSB at an early age may contribute to better understand the common causes and the temporal order of the relationships between obesity and asthma in early childhood. The objective of this study was to estimate the association between SSB and Child Asthma Traits in the 2 year of life, modelling direct and indirect pathways mediated by the highest BMI-z of the child and allergic inflammation. Data from the BRISA Cohort, São Luís-MA, Brazil (n=1,140) were obtained from the baseline and from the follow-up performed at the 2 year of life. The main explanatory variable was the calories from added sugars in SSBs as a percentage of the total daily energy intake. The outcome Child Asthma Traits was a latent variable deduced from four indicators: medical diagnosis of asthma, wheezing, emergency visit due to intense wheezing and medical diagnosis of rhinitis. A high percentage of daily ...
A common approach used to identify under-reporters in surveys is to compare each persons basal metabolic rate (BMR) (based on their age, sex and weight) with their reported energy intake (EI) and apply Goldberg cut-off values to assess whether the energy intake reported is plausible. BMR represents the amount of energy expended at rest over a 24-hour period by an individual (see Nutrient Intakes for method of calculation). The EI:BMR ratio provides an indication of whether the reported energy intake for one day is consistent with the energy intake required for a person to live a normal (not bed-bound) lifestyle. The habitual energy expenditure by an individual will exceed their BMR, mainly as a result of physical activity. It is therefore expected that habitual energy intake ...
There is good evidence from population-based studies for the hypothesis that increasing SSB consumption increases body weight.2 The strongest evidence characterizing the relationship between SSB consumption and body weight comes from randomized trials, where two groups of people with the same baseline characteristics are randomly assigned to one treatment or another, or in which the same participants are exposed to different test conditions in random order.3 In children, the largest randomized trial (641 participants) observed that children who drank one sweetened drink per day for 18 months gained more weight than children who drank one unsweetened drink per day, with both groups blinded to what they were drinking.4 Two other randomized trials in children and adolescents found that reducing SSB consumption reduced weight during the one-year intervention but not after two years (1 year after the intervention ended).. In adults, several randomized trials show ...
The Difference Between Sugar and High-fructose Corn Syrup - There are a handful of important differences between sugar and high-fructose corn syrup. Learn more about sugar and high-fructose corn syrup.
A staged energy storage system provides electrical energy to an implantable biomedical device by using the combination of a first stage energy source and a second stage energy concentration system. The second stage energy concentration system allows a lower density and/or lower voltage energy source to be used as the first stage energy source, thereby decreasing the battery cost, size and weight. In one embodiment, the second stage energy concentration system comprises a rechargeable battery. In another embodiment, the second stage energy capacitor system comprises a high energy density capacitor system. The staged energy storage system is ideal for internally charging a pulse-generating capacitor system within an implantable cardioverter defibrillator. In this embodiment, a high voltage transformer has a secondary side that ...
A locally validated tool was needed to evaluate long-term dietary intake in rural Bangladesh. We assessed the validity of a 42-item dish-based semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) using two 3-day food diaries (FDs). We selected a random subset of 47 families (190 participants) from a longitudinal arsenic biomonitoring study in Bangladesh to administer the FFQ. Two 3-day FDs were completed by the female head of the households and we used an adult male equivalent method to estimate the FD for the other participants. Food and nutrient intakes measured by FFQ and FD were compared using Pearsons and Spearmans correlation, paired t-test, percent difference, cross-classification, weighted Kappa, and Bland-Altman analysis. Results showed good validity for total energy intake (paired t-test, p , 0.05; percent difference ,10%), with no presence of proportional bias (Bland-Altman correlation, p , 0.05). After ...
A locally validated tool was needed to evaluate long-term dietary intake in rural Bangladesh. We assessed the validity of a 42-item dish-based semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) using two 3-day food diaries (FDs). We selected a random subset of 47 families (190 participants) from a longitudinal arsenic biomonitoring study in Bangladesh to administer the FFQ. Two 3-day FDs were completed by the female head of the households and we used an adult male equivalent method to estimate the FD for the other participants. Food and nutrient intakes measured by FFQ and FD were compared using Pearsons and Spearmans correlation, paired t-test, percent difference, cross-classification, weighted Kappa, and Bland-Altman analysis. Results showed good validity for total energy intake (paired t-test, p , 0.05; percent difference ,10%), with no presence of proportional bias (Bland-Altman correlation, p , 0.05). After ...
Background : Declining levels of physical activity at workplaces, during leisure time and when travelling, accompanied by increasing exposure to the mass media, are major determinants of the global obesity epidemic. This study aimed to assess physical activity, the body mass index (BMI) and energy intake of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-uninfected and HIV-infected black women in Mangaung. Method : A random sample of 500 black women was selected in Mangaung. Physical activity levels, dietary intake and BMI were determined in younger and older women, aged 25-34 and 35-44 years, respectively. Results : Of the 488 women who qualified for participation, 61% of the younger women and 38% of the older women were HIV-infected. Low physical activity levels were reported in most women, and more than 50% were overweight or obese. The BMI of HIV-infected younger women with low physical activity levels (24.9 kg/m2) was significantly lower than that of the ...
Obesity is at epidemic proportions in the population with spinal cord injury (SCI), and is likely the mediator of the metabolic syndrome in this special population. Recent literature reviews have suggested that obesity is present in , 67% of persons with SCI. Additionally, recent studies have demonstrated the causal relationship between adipose tissue accumulation and vascular inflammation, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance / glucose intolerance, hypertension and thromboemboli.. Obesity in SCI occurs because of acute and ongoing positive energy balance, i.e., greater caloric intake than energy expenditure. Total Daily Energy Expenditure (TDEE) in SCI is reduced primarily because of muscular atrophy and diminished muscular contraction; pharmacological treatment of spasticity possibly reduces energy expenditure (EE) even further, but has not been evaluated to date. TDEE is ...
Scientists have been trying to resolve the question of whether excessive intake of this sweetener in ones diet is a major contributor to weight gain. Initial research appeared to indicate a link between consumption of beverages sweetened with high-fructose corn syrup and higher rates of obesity.. However, more recent research casts some doubt on this conclusion - although, as nutritionist Katherine Zeratsky points out, the beverage industry supported at least some of these latter studies.. The controversy became further muddied in March 2010, when scientists at Princeton University announced the results of a study in which rats that consumed high-fructose corn syrup gained significantly more weight than rats with access to table sugar.. The Corn Refiners Association of America immediately attacked the study, citing what it said were "gross errors" in the research.. Meanwhile, the American Medical Association has stated that high-fructose corn syrup does not appear to ...
A self-administered semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire FFQ was developed for the Dutch cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition EPIC. Methods. The reproducibility and relative validity of nutrient intake as assessed by this questionnaire were investigated in a population of 121 ten and women. To...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Relative validity of multiple telephone versus face-to-face 24-hour dietary recalls. AU - Galasso, Rocco. AU - Panico, Salvatore. AU - Celentano, Egidio. AU - Del Pezzo, Mariarosaria. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - The relative validity of multiple telephone 24-hour dietary recalls was evaluated in a feasibility study within the framework of a large prospective investigation on the cause of chronic disease in women. Forty-nine women were interviewed four times both face-to-face and by telephone. Comparison of the total number of calories and intake of protein, carbohydrate, total and saturated fats, cholesterol, fiber, sodium, potassium, calcium, vitamin A, and vitamin C as estimated by multiple face-to-face and telephone interviews revealed an acceptable relative validity for the telephone procedure. Analysis of the position variation in the distribution (percent agreement) comparing the two procedures showed that a change in the distribution of none or one ...
It is clear, from the dry diet experiments particularly, that there was a carbohydrate intake ceiling for cats at ca. 300 kJ day-1 (e.g. see the horizontal alignment at this value in Fig. 1B,C). This is seen particularly in the dry diet Expts 1, 3, 4 and 5 in which diet pfC was used. Protein intake on days during phase 2 when cats were fed diet pfC was 134, 102, 132 and 141 kJ day-1 compared with the target of 420 kJ day-1. Furthermore, energy intake on days that cats were fed diet pfC during phase 2 of these studies was 514, 475, 552 and 559 kJ day-1 compared with ∼1000 kJ day-1 on the days the other diets were used (see Table 3). Based on a maintenance energy requirement for adult cats of 77.6 kcal kg-0.71 (Bermingham et al., 2010), which equates to ∼1017 kJ day-1 for a 5 kg cat, it can be seen that consumption of dry diet pfC resulted in deficits of both energy and protein ...
Policies restricting childrens exposure to unhealthy food marketing have been impeded by the lack of evidence showing a direct link between food advertising exposure and childrens energy intake and body weight. Food advertising exposure increases childrens immediate food consumption, but whether this increased intake is compensated for at later eating occasions is not known; consequently the sustained effect on diets remains unclear. We conducted a within-subject, randomised, crossover, counterbalanced study across four, six-day holiday camps in New South Wales, Australia between April 2016 and January 2017. Children (7-12 years, n = 160) were recruited via local schools, email networks and social media. Two gender- and age-balanced groups were formed for each camp (n = 20), randomised to either a multiple- or single- media condition and exposed to food and non-food advertising in an online game and/or a television cartoon. Childrens food ...
This week I noticed many news media outlets were reporting that high-fructose corn syrup causes more weight gain than sugar does. The study everyone is referring to is out of Princeton and reported that rats given access to high-fructose corn syrup gained significantly more weight than those exposed to table sugar, even when they consumed the same number of calories overall. My first reaction was, "Oh no! Had we gotten it all wrong?" In May 2009, EatingWell did a comprehensive report on high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), found in many processed foods, particularly in sweetened beverages. Then, after talking with top-notch nutrition researchers about everything from whether HFCS makes you hungrier to whether it makes kids hyper, we concluded the following ...
This week I noticed many news media outlets were reporting that high-fructose corn syrup causes more weight gain than sugar does. The study everyone is referring to is out of Princeton and reported that rats given access to high-fructose corn syrup gained significantly more weight than those exposed to table sugar, even when they consumed the same number of calories overall. My first reaction was, "Oh no! Had we gotten it all wrong?" In May 2009, EatingWell did a comprehensive report on high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), found in many processed foods, particularly in sweetened beverages. Then, after talking with top-notch nutrition researchers about everything from whether HFCS makes you hungrier to whether it makes kids hyper, we concluded the following ...
Introduction: The assessment of dietary intake in rural populations can be extremely challenging because of cultural and environmental limitations.Only one other study in India has been conducted to validate a 24 hour dietary recall. The purpose of this study was to validate a three pass 24 hour dietary recall questionnaire, culturally modified for use in South Indian populations, against a series of weighed food records (WFRs).. Hypothesis: We assessed the hypothesis that there will be less than 15% variance between amounts of food reported to be consumed in 24 hour dietary recalls and amounts of food weighed during WFRs.. Methods: Eight life size food portion photographs of common South Indian food servings were created to aid participant recall. Nutrient intake was calculated using a food database specifically created for South Indian food items. Dietary data were compared between the two dietary assessment methods in 30 adults aged 19-85 years. WFRs were conducted in the ...
During a follow up of 24 years, we identified 218 incident CRC cases. There was no association between PUFA intake and CRC. A positive linear relationship was established between SFA intake and CRC (HR = 1.02, 95% CI = 1.01-1.03). In participants with high dietary fiber intake (>median), PUFA intake was associated with an increased risk of CRC (HR = 2.12, 95% CI = 1.04-4.29 for the 4th quartile vs.1st quartile). Among subjects with low dietary fiber intake (< median), SFA intake was associated with higher CRC risk (HR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.12 -2.06 for the 4th quartile vs.1st quartile). In contrast, among subjects with high fiber intake (> median), a negative linear relationship was observed between SFA intake and CRC (HR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.95-0.995). Higher PUFA intake was associated with an increased risk of CRC in subjects with low serum cholesterol ...
The findings in this report indicate that 47.6% of the U.S. population aged ≥2 years meet the criteria of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for persons who should limit sodium consumption to 1,500 mg daily (3). For the Dietary Guidelines, the 2005 Institute of Medicine (IOM), Dietary Reference Intakes were used to define the specific subpopulations for whom the 1,500 mg recommendation applies (2). These subpopulations tend to be more responsive than others to the blood pressure-raising effects of sodium (2,3). Additionally, IOM recommends that sodium intake not exceed the tolerable upper intake level of 1,500 mg/day for all children aged 2--3 years. The tolerable upper intake level is defined as the highest daily nutrient intake level that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to nearly all persons in the general population (2). When the IOM recommendation for children aged 2--3 years is combined ...
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by Melissa Diane Smith. Religiously avoiding foods that contain high-fructose corn syrup? Youll also need to watch out for foods that contain corn sugar, a change in name that appears to be coming and means the same thing.. So many people have gotten wise to the health dangers of high-fructose corn syrup (which increases the risk of metabolic syndrome, heart disease and type 2 diabetes) that Americans consumption of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has fallen to a 20-year low. The Corn Refiners Association apparently isnt happy with this trend, so in mid-September, it applied to the federal government for permission to use the term "corn sugar" for the sweetener on food labels.. As the Associated Press reported:. The Food and Drug Administration could take two years to decide on the name, but thats not stopping the industry from using the term now in advertising.. Renaming products has succeeded before. For example, low eurcic acid rapeseed oil become much more popular after becoming "canola ...
Misreporting of energy intake (EI) is a common problem in national surveys. The aim of this study was to identify misreporters using a variety of criteria, examine the impact of misreporting on the association between EI and weight status, and to define the characteristics of misreporters in the 2007 Australian Childrens Survey. Data from the 2007 Australian Childrens Survey which included 4800 children aged 2-16 years were used to examine the extent of misreporting based on EI, physical activity level (PAL), age, gender, height and weight status. Three options for identifying misreporters using the Goldberg cut-offs were explored as was direct comparison of EI to energy expenditure (TEE) in a subset of children. Linear regression was used to determine the impact of misreporting on the association between EI and weight status. The prevalence of under-reporting among all children varied from 5.0% to 6.7%, and over-reporting from 1.6% to 3.0% ...
BACKGROUND: Mechanisms underlying weight loss maintenance after gastric bypass surgery are poorly understood. Our aim was to examine the effects of gastric bypass on energy expenditure in rats. METHODS: Thirty diet-induced obese male Wistar rats underwent either gastric bypass (n=14), sham operation ad libitum fed (n=8) or sham-operation body weight-matched (n=8). Energy expenditure was measured in an open circuit calorimetry system. RESULTS: Body weight after 70 days was lower after gastric bypass compared to sham ad libitum fed rats (p,0.0001). Sham-operated body weight-matched controls ate less than gastric bypass animals to reach the same weight (16.2+/-0.5g vs. 27.5+/-0.8g, p,0.001). Twenty-four hour energy expenditure was increased after gastric bypass (4.50+/-0.04 kcal/kg/h) compared to sham-operated ad libitum fed (4.29+/-0.08 kcal/kg/h) and sham-operated body weight-matched controls (3.98+/-0.10 ...
Introduction. There is inconsistent information about the optimal dietary energy requirements for indigenous chickens. Tadelle & Ogle (2000) reported that energy requirement of indigenous chickens as determined from the chemical analysis of the crop contents is 11.99 MJ ME/kg. The NRC (1994), however, recommended that the required energy in growing indigenous chicken diets should be 12.14 MJ ME/kg. Furthermore, Payne (1990) recommended 11.46 MJ ME/kg DM feed for one to six weeks of growth and 10.86 MJ ME/kg feed during the 6 to 12 weeks of the growing period. Mbajiorgu (2010) reported that a diet containing a crude protein content level of 178 g per kg DM and energy level of 14 MJ ME per kg DM allowed for optimal utilization of absorbed protein and energy for growth of Venda chickens between one and six weeks old. Thus, because information on dietary energy requirements for indigenous chickens is limiting ...
Besides genetic factors, diet components may contribute to the development of obesity, and it is known that cafeteria diet is characterized by a high caloric intake. Thus, the present study evaluated the mutagenic effects that cafeteria diet exerted on Wistar rats and its consequences on female offspring. Twelve females (generation 1) were separated in control group (CTL) and Cafeteria Diet group (CAF). At 70 days of age, females were mated with non-obese control males. Weaning at 21 days of age, female offspring (2nd generation) were separated into daughters of CTL or CAF mothers and subdivided according to previous diet. Ratio of polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) / normochromatic erythrocytes (NCE) in a total of 1000 cells and Micronuclei (MN) 1000 PCE were evaluated. Were observed high MN frequencies, body weight, retroperitoneal and perigonadal fat; and low PCE/NCE ratio in generation 1. In generation 2, cafeteria diet caused high body weight, retroperitoneal and perigonadal fat and ...
Energy expenditure was measured in a group of 7 subjects who received two isocaloric isonitrogenous diets for a period of 9-21 days with a 4-10-day break between diets. Diet 1 was a high-fat diet (83.5 ± 3.6% of total energy). Diet 2 was a high carbohydrate diet (83.1 ± 3.7% of total energy). Resting and postprandial resting metabolic rate were measured by open circuit indirect calorimetry 2-4 times during each metabolic period. Total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured by the doubly labeled water method over an 8-13-day period. The respiratory quotient was measured 2-4 hours after a meal during each metabolic period for the calculation of total energy expenditure by the doubly labeled water method. Levels of total T3 (TT3), T3 uptake, free thyroid index and T4 were measured at the end of each metabolic period. No significant changes in resting metabolic rate (RMR) were ...
Background: Earlier analyses within the EPIC study showed that dietary fibre intake was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk, but results from some large cohort studies do not support this finding. We explored whether the association remained after longer follow-up with a near threefold increase in colorectal cancer cases, and if the association varied by gender and tumour location.. Methodology/Principal Findings: After a mean follow-up of 11.0 years, 4,517 incident cases of colorectal cancer were documented. Total, cereal, fruit, and vegetable fibre intakes were estimated from dietary questionnaires at baseline. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models stratified by age, sex, and centre, and adjusted for total energy intake, body mass index, physical activity, smoking, education, menopausal status, hormone replacement therapy, oral contraceptive use, and ...
Araya, H.; Vera, G.; Alvina, M.; Fuentes, A.; Oyarzun, M.T.; Pak, N., 1994: Effect of different starch and dietary fiber levels on food and energy intake of one meal and subsequent meals in preschool children
Global Pizza Conveyor Oven Industry 2016 Market Research Report was a professional and depth research report on Global Pizza Conveyor Oven industry that you would know the worlds major regional market conditions of Pizza Conveyor Oven industry, the main region including North American, Europe and Asia etc, and the main country including United States ,Germany ,Japan and China etc.. The report firstly introduced Pizza Conveyor Oven basic information including Pizza Conveyor Oven definition, classification, application and industry chain overview; Pizza Conveyor Oven industry policy and plan, Pizza Conveyor Oven product specification, manufacturing process, cost structure etc. Then we deeply analyzed the worlds main region market conditions that including the product price, profit, capacity, production, capacity utilization, supply, demand and industry growth rate etc.. In the end, the report introduced Pizza Conveyor Oven new project SWOT analysis, investment feasibility analysis, and ...
Higher-protein meals decrease hunger and increase satiety compared to lower-protein meals. However, no consensus exists about the different effects of animal and vegetable proteins on appetite. We investigated how a meal based on vegetable protein (fava beans/split peas) affected ad libitum energy intake and appetite sensations, compared to macronutrient-balanced, iso-caloric meals based on animal protein (veal/pork or eggs). Thirty-five healthy men were enrolled in this acute cross-over study. On each test day, participants were presented with one of four test meals (~3550 kilojoules (kJ) 19% of energy from protein), based on fava beans/split peas (28 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Relationship between dietary folate intake and plasma monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and interleukin-8 in heart failure patients. AU - Chung, Hye Kyung. AU - Kim, Oh Yoen. AU - Lee, Hyeran. AU - Do, Hyun Joo. AU - Kim, Young Soon. AU - Oh, Jaewon. AU - Kang, Seok Min. AU - Shin, Min-Jeong. PY - 2011/7/1. Y1 - 2011/7/1. N2 - This study aimed to axamine the association of dietary vitamin intakes with plasma pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in Korean heart failure patients. Stable outpatients with heart failure were recruited and finally 91 patients were included. Dietary intakes were estimated by a developed semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. The simultaneous measurement of 17 cytokines was performed along with analysis of plasma C-reactive protein. Plasma C-reactive protein levels significantly correlated with dietary intakes of vitamin C (r = -0.30, p,0.005), β-carotene (r = -0.23, p,0.05), and folate (r = ...
Looking for online definition of dry matter intake in the Medical Dictionary? dry matter intake explanation free. What is dry matter intake? Meaning of dry matter intake medical term. What does dry matter intake mean?
Chinese Singaporeans with relatively frequent intake of Western-style fast food items (≥2 times per week) have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus and dying of CHD relative to their peers with little or no reported intake of Western-style fast food. Of note, an overall dietary pattern, energy intake, and BMI did not explain the associations between Western-style fast food intake and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus or CHD mortality.. Research examining Western-style fast food intake in relation to cardiometabolic outcomes is scant compared with the ubiquity of the food and its contribution to usual dietary patterns in populations around the globe. One relevant study on the topic examined fast food data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study and observed strong, positive associations with weight gain and insulin resistance.5 Similarly, the Black Womens ...
An extensive number of scientific studies have examined and confirmed that low calorie sweeteners are safe. This data has been evaluated by globally recognised authorities, including the Joint Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO)/ World Health Organisation (WHO) Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). All of the low calorie sweeteners used in foods and drinks in Europe today have been subjected to rigorous safety testing by EFSA.. In the approval process, an Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) is set for each low calorie sweetener by EFSA. The ADI is a guideline quantity that represents the amount of low calorie sweetener that can be safely consumed on a daily basis throughout a persons lifetime without any health problems.. At the request of the European Commission, the European Food Safety Authority is currently carrying out an ambitious re-evaluation of the safety of all food ...
Mycoprotein reduces energy intake and postprandial insulin release without altering glucagon-like peptide-1 and peptide tyrosine-tyrosine concentrations in healthy overweight and obese adults: a randomised-controlled trial - Volume 116 Issue 2 - Jeanne H. Bottin, Jonathan R. Swann, Eleanor Cropp, Edward S. Chambers, Heather E. Ford, Mohammed A. Ghatei, Gary S. Frost
Mean age was 30.3 years, BMI 34.4 kg/m2, and 62% were male. During the run-in phase, participants lost a mean of 14.3 kg, corresponding to 13.6% of baseline body weight. Compared with the pre-weight-loss baseline, the decrease in REE was greatest with the low-fat diet (-205 kcal/d), intermediate with the low-glycemic index diet (-166 kcal/d), and least with the very low-carbohydrate diet (−138 kcal/d; overall p = 0.03; p for trend by glycemic load = 0.009). The decrease in TEE showed a similar pattern (−423 kcal/d, −297 kcal/d, and −97 kcal/d, respectively; overall p = 0.003; p for trend by glycemic load < 0.001). Hormone levels and metabolic syndrome components also varied during weight maintenance by diet (leptin, p < 0.001; 24-hour urinary cortisol, p = 0.005; indexes of peripheral [p = 0.02] and hepatic [p = 0.03] insulin sensitivity; high-density lipoprotein [HDL] cholesterol, p < 0.001; non-HDL cholesterol, p < 0.001; triglycerides, p < 0.001; plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, p ...
Milk and energy intakes of suckling California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups in relation to sex, growth and predicted maintenance ...
Increased sympathetic activity is a well-known pathophysiological mechanism in insulin resistance (IR) and hypertension (HT). The carotid bodies (CB) are peripheral chemoreceptors that classically respond to hypoxia by increasing chemosensory activity in the carotid sinus nerve (CSN), causing hyperventilation and activation of the sympathoadrenal system. Besides its role in the control of ventilation, the CB has been proposed as a glucose sensor implicated in the control of energy homeostasis. However, to date no studies have anticipated its role in the development of IR. Herein, we propose that CB overstimulation is involved in the etiology of IR and HT, core metabolic and hemodynamic disturbances of highly prevalent diseases like the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and obstructive sleep apnoea. We demonstrate that CB activity is increased in IR animal models and that CSN resection prevents CB overactivation and diet-induced IR and HT. Moreover, we show that insulin triggers CB, ...
Glycemic index diet is a general term for weight-loss diets that are based on your blood sugar level. Many popular commercial diets, diet books and diet websites revolve around the glycemic index, including Nutrisystem, the Zone diet and Sugar Busters. A glycemic index diet uses the glycemic index to guide your eating plan and was originally developed to help improve blood sugar control in diabetes. The glycemic index classifies carbohydrate-containing foods according to their potential to raise your blood sugar level. The glycemic index diet is not a true low-carbohydrate diet because you dont have to count carbohydrates (carbs). Nor is it a low-fat diet. It also doesnt require you to reduce portion sizes or count calories. But the glycemic index diet does steer you toward certain types of carbs.. Purpose. Diets based on the glycemic index suggest that you eat foods and beverages with low glycemic index rankings to help you keep your blood sugar balanced. Proponents say this will help you ...
We all know that too much sugar is bad for us, but it turns out that not all sugars are created equal. A new Princeton study gave three groups of rats three different diets: normal rat food, water with table sugar (sucrose), and water with high-fructose corn syrup. They found out that calorie-for-calorie, high fructose corn syrup made the rats gain more weight even than table sugar.. High-fructose corn syrup, if you didnt know, is a major ingredient in most soft drinks, low-quality "maple" syrup, and many popular cereals.. Psychology Professor Bart Hoebel, take it away:. ...
Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children (WebDASC) was developed to estimate dietary intake in a school meal intervention study among 8- to 11-year-old Danish children. The present study validates self-reported fruit, juice and vegetable (FJV) intakes in 8- to 11-year-old children by comparing intake with plasma carotenoid concentration, and by comparing the reported FJV intake to actually eaten FJV, as observed by a photographic method. A total of eighty-one children, assisted by parents, reported their diet for seven consecutive days. For the same five schooldays as they reported their diet, the childrens school lunch was photographed and weighed before and after eating. In the week after the diet reporting, fasting blood samples were taken. Self-reported intake of FJV and estimated intake of carotenoids were compared with plasma carotenoid concentration. Accuracy of self-reported food and FJV ...
A repeated 4×4 Latin square design was conducted with eight ileal cannulated castrates to examine the effect of source of starch and fiber on nutrient balance and energy metabolism. Pigs were fed on one of the four experimental diets: Control diet (C) mainly based on cooked rice; and diets P, S and W with the inclusion of either raw potato starch, sugar beet pulp or wheat bran supplementation, respectively. With the exception of an increased (p|0.05) energy loss from methane production with diet S observed, no significant differences (p|0.05) in the ratio of metabolizable energy (ME)/digestible energy, the utilization of ME for fat deposition and for protein deposition, energy loss as hydrogen and urinary energy were found between diets. The efficiency of utilization of ME for maintenance was lower (p|0.05) with diets P and S than with diet C. The inclusion of fiber sources (sugar beet pulp or wheat bran) or ...
Low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LC-HF) diets are popular for inducing weight loss in overweighed adults. Adaptive thermogenesis increased by specific effects of macronutrients on energy expenditure has been postulated to induce this weight loss. We studied brown adipose tissue (BAT) morphology and function following exposure to different LC-HF diets. Methods: Male Wistar rats were fed a standard control diet ad libitum or pair-fed isoenergetic amounts of three experimental diets for 4 weeks. The diets had the following macronutrient composition (% metabolizable energy: carbohydrates, fat, protein): control (64.3/16.7/19), LC-HF-low protein (LC-HF-LP, 1.7/92.8/5.5), LC-HF-normal-protein (LC-HF-NP, 2.2/78.7/19.1), and a high fat diet with carbohydrates ("high fat", 19.4/61.9/18.7). Results: Body weight gain was reduced in all pair-fed experimental groups as compared to rats fed the control diet, with more pronounced effect in rats on LC-HF diets than on the high ...
Nondiabetic women who were overweight/obese (n=245) were randomly assigned to a lower fat (20% energy), higher carbohydrate (65% energy) diet; a lower carbohydrate (45% energy), higher fat (35% energy) diet; or a walnut-rich (18% energy), higher fat (35% energy), lower carbohydrate (45% energy) diet. All groups lost weight at follow-up (P,0.0001), with mean (SEM) percent loss of 9.2(1.1)% in lower fat, 6.5(0.9)% in lower carbohydrate, and 8.2(1.0)% in walnut-rich groups at 12months. The diet×time×insulin resistance status interaction was not statistically significant in the model for overall weight loss, although insulin sensitive women at 12months lost more weight in the lower fat vs. lower carbohydrate group (7.5kg vs. 4.3kg, P=0.06), and in the walnut-rich vs. lower carbohydrate group (8.1kg vs. 4.3kg, P=0.04). Sex hormone binding globulin increased within each group except in the lower ...
The postpartum period is of critical importance for the general and reproductive health of dairy cows [14]. During the early postpartum period energy expenditure for maintenance and lactation exceeds energy intake from nutrition resulting in NEB [15]. NEB increases the risk of other metabolic disorders such as ketosis and fatty liver and animals are prone to infectious diseases, including mastitis, due to reduced immunity [16]. NEB has profound effects on the liver, which undergoes many physiological and biochemical changes to counteract the energy imbalance [15, 17]. An energy balance model of early lactation dairy cows was developed previously [18, 19] resulting in two groups of cows with MNEB and SNEB. Alterations in gene expression in the liver associated with SNEB have been reported in two previous studies [19, 20].. In the first study, 416 genes were found to be differentially expressed due to SNEB ...
Background. For the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition EPIC study Germany, a self-administered food frequency questionnaire FFQ was developed and tested for its relative validity and reproducibility in 1991/1992. Study participants were 92 potential cohort members. This paper reports results regarding retinol,...
Association of intake of trans fatty acids in the 2nd trimester of pregnancy with risk of preeclampsia was studied by following 67 186 pregnancies of women participating in the Danish National Birth Cohort between 1998 and 2003. Diet was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire at gestation wk 25; preeclampsia diagnosis was obtained by linkage with the Danish National Patient Registry. 1804 cases of preeclampsia and 402 cases of severe preeclampsia were identified in the cohort. Intake of trans fats decreased during the study period as a consequence of reduction in industrial trans fat intake. Intake of trans fats in the 2nd trimester was unrelated to risk of preeclampsia or severe preeclampsia. Relative risk (95% confidence interval; P, trend) of preeclampsia and severe preeclampsia comparing top to bottom quintiles of trans fat intake were 0.95 (0.81; 1.11, 0.33) and 1.07 (0.78; 1.48, 0.92), respectively. It is ...
Vacuolar hepatopathy on cytology and histology. Treatment of Hepatic Lipidosis. Initial management should be directed toward correcting complications such as dehydration, electrolyte abnormalities, hepatic encephalopathy, and infection. Any underlying causes for the lipidosis (diabetes mellitus, pancreatitis, neoplasia, cardiac disease, etc.) should be identified and treated whenever possible.. Provision of adequate daily energy intake is the cornerstone of successful medical management of cats with IHL. An adequate supply of energy is needed to: 1) prevent catabolism of amino acids for energy; 2) inhibit peripheral lipolysis; and 3) avoid excessive energy consumption which will promote hepatic triglyceride accumulation. Enteral feeding devices (esophagostomy or gastrostomy tubes) are indicated in cats with hepatic lipidosis to ensure provision of adequate calories. Most cats with IHL can be ...
OBJECTIVE--To examine the dietary preferences of and metabolic effects in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) of a home-prepared high-monounsaturated fat (HM) diet compared with the recommended high-carbohydrate (CHO) diet. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS--Ten men with mild NIDDM prepared HM and high-CHO diets at home alternately and in random order for 2 weeks each with a minimum 1-week washout. Before and after each diet, 24-h urine glucose, fasting lipids, fructosamine, and 6-h profiles of glucose, insulin, and triglycerides were measured. Dietary preferences were assessed by questionnaire. RESULTS--In the HM diet, patients consumed 40% of energy intake as CHO and 38% as fat (21% monounsaturated) compared with 52 and 24%, respectively, in the high-CHO diet, with equal dietary fiber content. Body weight and total energy intake were similar in both. The HM diet resulted in significantly lower 24-h urinary glucose ...

Effect of Sepsis Syndrome on Neonatal Oxygen Consumption and Energy Expenditure | ELECTRONIC ARTICLE | PediatricsEffect of Sepsis Syndrome on Neonatal Oxygen Consumption and Energy Expenditure | ELECTRONIC ARTICLE | Pediatrics

Both groups had comparable calorie and fluid intake during the study period. Body weight was measured shortly after admittance ... Vo2, oxygen consumption, Vco2, carbon dioxide production, EE, energy expenditure, SNAP, score for neonatal acute physiology, IL ... Effect of Sepsis Syndrome on Neonatal Oxygen Consumption and Energy Expenditure. Jacqueline Bauer, Roland Hentschel, Otwin ... Effect of Sepsis Syndrome on Neonatal Oxygen Consumption and Energy Expenditure Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ...
more infohttp://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/110/6/e69

Backcountry Nutrition by Casey Wirth on PreziBackcountry Nutrition by Casey Wirth on Prezi

Resting energy expenditure is increased due to the need to keep the body warm. Higher calorie intake with increased fat, sodium ... Water consumption is also vital to metabolism and the ability of your body to stay warm. 22 yo male, 180 lbs (82 kg):. ((15.3 x ... Thermic Energy Expenditure. The amount of energy needed to support the body during periods of physical exertion i.e. hiking, ... 2694 cal. = 4,628 calories. REE. TEE. (20 Clif Bars). 18 yo female, 130 lbs (59 kg):. ((14.7 x 59 kg) + 496). + 1946 cal. = ...
more infohttps://prezi.com/siu-xu9hvtxa/backcountry-nutrition/

Impact of insufficient sleep on total daily energy expenditure, food intake, and weight gain | PNASImpact of insufficient sleep on total daily energy expenditure, food intake, and weight gain | PNAS

In addition, nighttime consumption of postdinner carbohydrate, protein, and fiber calories was 42% higher during sleep loss. ... When daily energy intake is in excess of energy expenditure (EE) a state of positive energy balance occurs. Over weeks, months ... Energy Expenditure and Energy Intake During Sleep Loss and Adequate Sleep Schedules.. We observed that 5 d of insufficient ... 2011) Short sleep duration increases energy intakes but does not change energy expenditure in normal-weight individuals. Am J ...
more infohttp://www.pnas.org/content/110/14/5695

Effect of calories-only vs physical activity calorie expenditure labeling on lunch calories purchased in worksite cafeterias |...Effect of calories-only vs physical activity calorie expenditure labeling on lunch calories purchased in worksite cafeterias |...

... we examined the effect of physical activity calorie expenditure (PACE) food labels compared to calorie-only labels on point-of- ... The small difference of 2 fewer calories purchased among participants exposed to PACE labeling vs calorie-only labeling was not ... and two cafeterias prominently displayed calorie-only labels. Calories from foods purchased in the cafeteria during lunch were ... participants exposed to PACE labels purchased 40.4 fewer calories (P = 0.002), and participants exposed to calorie-only labels ...
more infohttps://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12889-019-6433-x

Leanness reduces cancerLeanness reduces cancer

Eat all you want, as long as you balance intake with energy expenditure. The best and most pleasant way to do that, of course, ... In other words, increased calorie consumption per se does not increase the risk of developing cancer if the extra calories are ... It is one thing to reduce the calorie intake of mice by 20 to 40 percent, and quite another for humans to do it voluntarily. ... The researchers concluded: [The results suggest] that excess calorie retention, rather than consumption, confers cancer risk. ...
more infohttp://www.cbass.com/LeannessCancer.htm

Encyclopedia of Human Nutrition.PDFEncyclopedia of Human Nutrition.PDF

thus decreasing their consumption can assist in. empty calories and energy intake. There is some. weight reduction. On the ... studies, no effect on weight or energy expenditure with consumption of foods high in NSP. This. Page 1 , Page 2 , Page 3 , Page ... Moderate intakes of sugar coincide. prevention, since they prevent energy overconsump-. with sufficient nutrient intake. The ... NSP are bulky and have less energy density and as. increasing total sugar intake. However, sugar intake. a result induce ...
more infohttp://content.yudu.com/Library/A17k4j/EncyclopediaofHumanN/resources/353.htm

3 Reasons To Keep Your Phone Away from the Bed ...3 Reasons To Keep Your Phone Away from the Bed ...

"Breakfast consumption increased total calorie intake in lean people, but this was offset by breakfast also stimulating physical ... but this was offset by breakfast also stimulating physical activity energy expenditure in lean people," he says." ... "Breakfast consumption increased total calorie intake in lean people, ... the study authors say-and that even if a morning meal increases a persons total calorie consumption, those calories may be ...
more infohttps://www.scoop.it/t/healthy-and-green/p/4026256168/2014/08/14/3-reasons-to-keep-your-phone-away-from-the-bed-change-a-dangerous-habit-before-it-hurts-you

Eating Breakfast Can Help Your Metabolism, Study Says | TimeEating Breakfast Can Help Your Metabolism, Study Says | Time

"Breakfast consumption increased total calorie intake in lean people, but this was offset by breakfast also stimulating physical ... activity energy expenditure in lean people," he says.. MORE: Heres What Skipping Breakfast Does to Your Body ... the study authors say-and that even if a morning meal increases a persons total calorie consumption, those calories may be ... Those in the breakfast group were asked to eat at least 700 calories by 11 a.m., and at least half of those calories within two ...
more infohttp://time.com/5040325/eating-breakfast-metabolism/

Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Weight Gain in 2- to 5-Year-Old Children | PediatricsSugar-Sweetened Beverages and Weight Gain in 2- to 5-Year-Old Children | Pediatrics

... increase in total calorie consumption.15,36 Without adequate adjustment in energy expenditure, these excess calories can be ... Trends in energy intake in U.S. between 1977 and 1996: similar shifts seen across age groups. Obes Res. 2002;10(5):370-378pmid: ... and thus their consumption may result in inadequate calorie compensation, ultimately adding to the total calories consumed.3,19 ... preventing assessment of the effect of SSB intake on overall calorie intake, nor did we have data regarding physical activity ...
more infohttps://pediatrics.aappublications.org/node/1948.full.print

IJMS | Free Full-Text | Global Transcriptome Analysis of Brown Adipose Tissue of Diet-Induced Obese MiceIJMS | Free Full-Text | Global Transcriptome Analysis of Brown Adipose Tissue of Diet-Induced Obese Mice

... a disease resulting from an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has thermogenic ... capacity that burns calories to produce heat, and it is a potential target for the treatment and prevention of obesity. There ... Consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) promotes the development of obesity, ... Consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) promotes the development of obesity, a disease resulting from an imbalance between energy ...
more infohttps://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/19/4/1095

Energy homeostasis - Mindmap in University BiologyEnergy homeostasis - Mindmap in University Biology

dependent on diet, regulated by hunger and calorie consumption. *the relationship between energy intake and energy expenditure ... Energy balance*energy expenditure*the energy the body expends to maintain its basic functions and to perform all levels of ... Positive energy balance*The amount of energy consumed in food exceeds the expenditure of energy, so excess is stored (adipose ... Neutral energy balance*The amount of energy consumed in food matches exactly the internal and external expenditure of energy ...
more infohttps://getrevising.co.uk/diagrams/energy-homeostasis

Easy diet plan to reduce belly fat 101, weight loss books best sellers nonfiction, causes of weight loss in a dog, best workout...Easy diet plan to reduce belly fat 101, weight loss books best sellers nonfiction, causes of weight loss in a dog, best workout...

Researchers have investigated the association between energy expenditure and alcohol consumption and reported that alcoholics ... Due to this reason, the body is unable to process the calorie intake through fats and carbohydrates. There are many who suffer ... there is excess energy created and in the process of burning the energy, the person burns a lot of calories, which in turn ... that a small increase in MEOS flux could have a considerable effect on the total energy expenditure and oxygen consumption of ...
more infohttp://s3.amazonaws.com/aqua4body/causes-of-weight-loss-in-a-dog.html

If Rats Consume A Lot Of Fructose, And Have A High-calorie, High-fat Diet, They Become OverweightIf Rats Consume A Lot Of Fructose, And Have A High-calorie, High-fat Diet, They Become Overweight

... high-calorie diet, according to a new study with... ... helping the body to balance food intake with energy expenditure ... high-calorie diet that produces the weight gain. "This study may explain how the global increase in fructose consumption is ... Leptin resistance is associated with weight gain and obesity in the face of a high-fat, high-calorie diet. Obesity has been a ... "If Rats Consume A Lot Of Fructose, And Have A High-calorie, High-fat Diet, They Become Overweight." Medical News Today. ...
more infohttps://www.medicalnewstoday.com/releases/125739.php

Soda | ScienceBlogsSoda | ScienceBlogs

... leading to positive energy balance through increased food intake and/or diminished energy expenditure. Adult male Sprague- ... Is there any proof that reducing soda consumption will not be made up for by other food calories? Again, this isnt cigarettes ... Again, there is no proof that soda is bad for a human if that person balances their calorie intake and outtake, gets a steady ... More sugar implies more calories; the tongue is a natural energy detector. The problem with diet sodas is that they make this ...
more infohttps://scienceblogs.com/cortex/2010/07/08/soda

juice diet one week juice diets that work
 | healthy banana smoothie recipes for weight loss flush toxins from bodyjuice diet one week juice diets that work | healthy banana smoothie recipes for weight loss flush toxins from body

"The catechins in green tea promote fat loss by increasing energy expenditure, fat oxidation, and decreased lipid absorption by ... Bottom line, tea shouldnt be relied on as a source of burning calories versus cutting calories and physical activity." This ... "In the end, over-consumption will trump this process and lead to weight gain. Drinking these teas should be used as more of a ... Valdez believes that even though tea can be used as a fat burner, this shouldnt promote excess caloric intake. " ...
more infohttps://detox-cleansing-diet.com/hunger/curb-hunger-cravings-hunger-suppressant-lollipops.html

Phytosterols Improve Lipid Profiles in MenPhytosterols Improve Lipid Profiles in Men

Match intake of energy (calories) to overall energy needs; limit consumption of foods with a high caloric density and/or low ... Maintain a level of physical activity that achieves fitness and balances energy expenditure with energy intake; for weight ... expenditure should exceed intake.. *Limit the intake of foods with a high content of saturated fatty acids, cholesterol and ... Limit alcohol consumption (no more than one drink per day for women and two drinks per day for men).. ...
more infohttps://www.lsuagcenter.com/topics/food_health/nutrition/nutrients/phytosterols-improve-lipid-profiles-in-men-lsu-agcenter-nutritionist-observes

Nutritional status of in-school children and its associated factors in Denkyembour District, eastern region, Ghana: comparing...Nutritional status of in-school children and its associated factors in Denkyembour District, eastern region, Ghana: comparing...

Consequently, their energy intake is more than energy expenditure, hence the accumulation of fat. ... Excessive consumption of calories from carbohydrate intake by these children could play a role in their overweight status. ... This could also be as a result of the nutritional transition characterised by consumption of a more energy and high fat diet ... the food being served by the school feeding programme was found not to meet the recommended energy from macronutrient intake as ...
more infohttps://nutritionj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12937-018-0321-6

Obesity in Cats & How to Put a Cat on a Diet | Pet SideObesity in Cats & How to Put a Cat on a Diet | Pet Side

In turn, metabolism has an effect on food intake, fat deposition, and energy expenditure. ... Kitties that are given high-calorie and high-fat diets also tend to be at an increased risk for overweight and obesity. Cats ... This is because of the more palatable nature of this cat food, leading to increased consumption by the cat. Excessive treating ... This means the cat may not be feeding that much, but its also not using the calories that well. A thorough physical ...
more infohttps://www.petside.com/obesity-in-cats/

Are Chemicals in the Environment Making Us Fat?Are Chemicals in the Environment Making Us Fat?

However, weight gain is most directly a function of calorie intake and energy expenditure. A calorie is a unit of energy found ... Weight gain is caused by an excess of energy whether from over consumption or under expenditure of calories (http://www.cdc.gov ... The interferences slow down the body s ability to break down energy and causes more energy to be stored as fat. Exposure to ... The human body uses calories to perform everyday functions. When a person consumes more calories than he or she burns, the body ...
more infohttp://healthpsych.psy.vanderbilt.edu/2009/Obesogens.htm

To Curb Teen Obesity, Harvard Study Recommends Less Soft Drinks, Fast Food and TV Watching, More Exercise - RWJFTo Curb Teen Obesity, Harvard Study Recommends Less Soft Drinks, Fast Food and TV Watching, More Exercise - RWJF

School of Public Health analyzed data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to estimate how changes in energy ... energy balance-i.e., the relation between energy intake and expenditure, expressed in calories-have contributed to increasing ... Researchers also examined how specific interventions targeting energy balance-including reducing the consumption of sugar- ... Assuming that 3,500 unused calories leads to an average of one pound of weight gain, a reduction of 110-165 calories per day ( ...
more infohttps://www.rwjf.org/en/library/research/2007/05/to-curb-teen-obesity--harvard-study-recommends-less-soft-drinks-.html

Is the Paleo Diet Supported by Scientific Research? | Marks Daily AppleIs the Paleo Diet Supported by Scientific Research? | Mark's Daily Apple

Takeaways: Some combination of increased energy expenditure (although the study author estimated that activity levels were ... reduced carb intake, increased protein intake, increased monounsaturated fat intake, reduced omega-6 intake, increased omega-3 ... And thats without eating any more protein (well known for its powerful induction of satiety). Calorie for calorie, the paleo ... and consumption of healthy traditional foods caused the massive improvements in diabetic markers. I suspect that the drastic ...
more infohttps://www.marksdailyapple.com/is-the-paleo-diet-supported-by-scientific-research/

Reduced Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Can Reduce Total Caloric Intake - The Obesity SocietyReduced Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Can Reduce Total Caloric Intake - The Obesity Society

In general, weight gain occurs when total energy intake exceeds energy expenditure for extended periods of time. The Obesity ... Individuals might not decrease their usual energy consumption to counter the effect of increasing calories from liquids. In one ... Reduced Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Can Reduce Total Caloric Intake. Reduced Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened ... of overall calorie intake.1 Policy efforts to reduce consumption of SSBs, such as the effort by the New York City Health ...
more infohttp://www.obesity.org/publications/position-and-policies/sugar-sweetened

For Chocolate Lovers, Is a Moment on the Lips Forever on the Hips? - 10 - 2013 - TalkingNutrition - DSMFor Chocolate Lovers, Is a Moment on the Lips Forever on the Hips? - 10 - 2013 - TalkingNutrition - DSM

Chocolate is energy dense and irresistible. Therefore it must contribute to excessive calorie intakes. The average chocolate ... and there are various tactics available to help balance energy intakes and expenditures. Nutrition depends on the totality of ... That increased chocolate consumption was associated with lower BMI was found in a study in adults conducted by Golomb, Koperski ... Reducing Calorie Intakes With Non-Nutritive Sweeteners *How Does Socioeconomic Status Affect Nutrient Intakes, and Why Is This ...
more infohttp://www.dsm.com/campaigns/talkingnutrition/en_US/talkingnutrition-dsm-com/2013/10/chocolate-weight-loss-flavonols.html

Nutrition and Disease Prevention | The New York Academy of SciencesNutrition and Disease Prevention | The New York Academy of Sciences

Calorie labeling on menus may be more effective if it includes a statement about the recommended daily energy intake. (Image ... Taxing caloric sweetened beverages: potential effects on beverage consumption, calorie intake, and obesity. Economic Research ... an anabolic response results and the body ramps-up food intake and reduces energy expenditure. This response is seen in obese ... Estimating changes in free-living energy intake and its confidence interval. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;94(1):66-74.. Hall KD, Guo J ...
more infohttps://www.nyas.org/ebriefings/nutrition-and-disease-prevention/

Internet Scientific PublicationsInternet Scientific Publications

Growth is influenced by caloric intake and energy expenditure in children and adults. The main sources of energy expenditure ... The average caloric intake was 129 ± 32 calories per kilogram body weight per day, and the average weight gain was 16.5 ± 5.2 ... of caloric expenditure in infants(9). Similarly, Billeaud, et al found that oxygen consumption as a measure of caloric ... Energy expenditure in the fetus and neonate: sources of variability. Acta Paediatr Scand Suppl. 1985;319:128-34.. 6. Reichman ...
more infohttp://ispub.com/IJPN/7/1/10728
  • Perhaps it s not so much the extra calories that are important, but rather how the body handles those calories. (cbass.com)
  • In other words, increased calorie consumption per se does not increase the risk of developing cancer if the extra calories are burned rather than stored as fat. (cbass.com)
  • When a person consumes more calories than he or she burns, the body stores the extra calories as fat. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • In one small trial (15 participants), participants consumed 450 extra calories per day from either solid sugar (jelly beans) or a liquid sugar load (SSB) for 4 weeks and then, after a 4 week "washout" period, they consumed the other form for 4 weeks. (obesity.org)
  • These results were consistent even as the subjects were given extra calories to compensate for the amount of energy expended during those extra hours that the subjects stayed awake, which indicates that one's craving for junk food is not a response to offset an energy deficit. (wikipedia.org)
  • We studied 16 adults in a 14- to 15-d-long inpatient study and quantified effects of 5 d of insufficient sleep, equivalent to a work week, on energy expenditure and energy intake compared with adequate sleep. (pnas.org)
  • However, longitu- tive association between sugar intake and body mass dinal cohort studies have failed to show a consistent index in adults and children. (yudu.com)
  • In adults, several randomized trials show that increasing consumption of SSBs does increase weight. (obesity.org)
  • In adults, short-term trials done in laboratory settings suggest that calories from liquids may predispose to weight gain more than calories from solid food. (obesity.org)
  • That increased chocolate consumption was associated with lower BMI was found in a study in adults conducted by Golomb, Koperski and White , but not in a longitudinal study by Greenberg and Buijsse , although the association appeared to be affected by the existence of chronic illness. (dsm.com)
  • These findings provide evidence that sleep plays a key role in energy metabolism. (pnas.org)
  • Sleep influences energy metabolism ( 14 , 15 ), and one function of sleep is to conserve energy ( 16 ). (pnas.org)
  • It is unclear whether weight gain is simply a cause of sleep-disordered breathing or whether sleep-disordered breathing may be associated with alterations in energy metabolism that, in turn, lead to weight gain and complicate the treatment of these two disorders that often coexist," they added. (thaindian.com)
  • 65% of total calories), especially less, this effect is more likely due to the presence of in the form of refined sugars and starch, may phytate, which inhibits the absorption of those increase serum triacylglycerol levels and adversely minerals, than the NSP content of the diet. (yudu.com)
  • We compared differences in purchased calorie estimates before and after the labeling intervention was introduced using longitudinal generalized linear mixed model regressions that included a random intercept for each participant. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In unadjusted models comparing average meal calories after vs before labeling, participants exposed to PACE labels purchased 40.4 fewer calories ( P = 0.002), and participants exposed to calorie-only labels purchased 38.2 fewer calories ( P = 0.0002). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The small difference of 2 fewer calories purchased among participants exposed to PACE labeling vs calorie-only labeling was not significant ( P = 0.90). (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the first experiment, where the cold mice and the warm mice ate the same number of calories, those that burned fewer calories keeping warm and stored the excess calories as fat had a greater rate of cancer, as compared to the mice that burned all calories consumed staying warm. (cbass.com)
  • Because of the potential effects of sugar-containing drinks on unnecessary weight gain (as well as dental carries 7 ) the American Academy of Pediatrics has recommended that young children refrain from intake of SSB. (aappublications.org)
  • 2 The strongest evidence characterizing the relationship between SSB consumption and body weight comes from randomized trials, where two groups of people with the same baseline characteristics are randomly assigned to one treatment or another, or in which the same participants are exposed to different test conditions in random order. (obesity.org)
  • 5 The study reported that participants ate more calories during the period where they consumed liquid sugar than during the period that they consumed solid sugar. (obesity.org)
  • Neonates with sepsis syndrome have elevated V o 2 and EE values that could explain impaired growth during the illness period and may make the infants vulnerable to insufficient calorie supply during the acute phase of septic disease. (aappublications.org)
  • Studies that have evaluated the influence of changes in physical activity on energy expenditure in infants used a scoring system to quantify visual observations of movement( 9 , 10 , 11 ). (ispub.com)
  • To begin to explore whether such an effect is seen on actual behavior in real-world settings, we conducted a quasi-experimental trial to examine the effect of PACE labels compared to calorie-only labels on average purchased calories per meal during lunchtime in three worksite cafeterias. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, sumption does not result in a decrease of total the dilutional effects of sugars may be somewhat energy intake. (yudu.com)
  • limit consumption of foods with a high caloric density and/or low nutritional quality, including those with a high content of sugars. (lsuagcenter.com)
  • Despite having been labeled as "empty calories," sugars are truly important compounds from the perspective of the human organism. (crystalsugar.com)
  • The reason behind is that when too much thyroid is produced in the body, there is excess energy created and in the process of burning the energy, the person burns a lot of calories, which in turn results in involuntary weight loss. (amazonaws.com)
  • In the current study, the researchers used data from 1458 adolescents collected by 24-hour dietary recall to determine intake of all products that contained chocolate as their main ingredient. (dsm.com)
  • The researchers calculated average chocolate intake in terms of grams per day from the two 24-hour dietary recalls for their analysis. (dsm.com)
  • Therefore, BMR is measured in the elusive "perfect" steady state, whereas RMR measurement is more accessible and thus, represents most, if not all measurements or estimates of daily energy expenditure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calorie labeling on restaurant menus is a public health strategy to guide consumer ordering behaviors, but effects on calories purchased have been minimal. (biomedcentral.com)
  • SSB consumption is also associated with higher weight status among children aged 2 to 5 years. (aappublications.org)
  • 8 Although some analyses of children aged 2 to 5 years have reported associations of SSB with higher weight status, 9 - 14 other studies, including 2 notable ones financed in part by the beverage industry, 15 , 16 have reported that SSB intake at young ages was not associated with higher weight gain. (aappublications.org)
  • Even if people understand the effect of eating too many calories, behavioral economic theory suggests that the lack of influence of calorie labeling may be due to its reliance on the "rational" system rather than the "intuitive" system. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, sugar intake a result induce greater satiety when ingested. (yudu.com)
  • Short-term human studies trients (calcium, zinc, thiamin, riboflavin, and nia- have shown that sugar-sweetened soft drink con- cin) is inversely related to sugar intake. (yudu.com)
  • The general consensus, based on epidemiological studies, is that sugar intake alone is not associated with the development of diabetes mellitus. (crystalsugar.com)
  • Association between chocolate consumption and fatness in European adolescents, Nutrition. (dsm.com)