Phenolic metacyclophanes derived from condensation of PHENOLS and ALDEHYDES. The name derives from the vase-like molecular structures. A bracketed [n] indicates the number of aromatic rings.

Sulphonic acid derivatives as probes of pore properties of volume-regulated anion channels in endothelial cells. (1/86)

1. We have used the whole-cell patch-clamp technique to study the effects of 4-sulphonic-calixarenes and some other poly-sulphonic acid agents, such as suramin and basilen blue, on volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC) currents in cultured endothelial cells (CPAE cells). 2. The 4-sulphonic-calixarenes induced a fast inhibition at positive potentials but were ineffective at negative potentials. At small positive potentials, 4-sulphonic-calix[4]arene was a more effective inhibitor than 4-sulphonic-calix[6]arene and -calix[8]arene, which became more effective at more positive potentials. 3. Also suramin and basilen blue induced a voltage dependent current inhibition, reaching a maximum around +40 mV and declining at more positive potentials. 4. The voltage dependence of inhibition was modelled by assuming that these negatively charged molecules bind to a site inside VRAC that senses a fraction delta of the applied electrical field, ranging beween 0.16 to 0.32. 4-Sulphonic-calix[4]arene, suramin and basilen blue bind and occlude VRAC at moderate potentials, but permeate the channel at more positive potentials. 4-Sulphonic-calix[6]arene and -calix[8]arene however do not permeate the channel. From the structural information of the calixarenes, we estimate a lower and upper limit of 11*12 and 17*12 A2 respectively for the cross-sectional area of the pore.  (+info)

Anatomy, physiology, and synaptic responses of rat layer V auditory cortical cells and effects of intracellular GABA(A) blockade. (2/86)

The varied extracortical targets of layer V make it an important site for cortical processing and output, which may be regulated by differences in the pyramidal neurons found there. Two populations of projection neurons, regular spiking (RS) and intrinsic bursting (IB), have been identified in layer V of some sensory cortices, and differences in their inhibitory inputs have been indirectly demonstrated. In this report, IB and RS cells were identified in rat auditory cortical slices, and differences in thalamocortical inhibition reaching RS and IB cells were demonstrated directly using intracellular GABA(A) blockers. Thalamocortical synaptic input to RS cells was always a combination of excitation and both GABA(A) and GABA(B) inhibition. Stimulation seldom triggered a suprathreshold response. IB cell synaptic responses were mostly excitatory, and stimulation usually triggered action potentials. This apparent difference was confirmed directly using intracellular chloride channel blockers. Before intracellular diffusion, synaptic responses were stable and similar to control conditions. Subsequently, GABA(A) was blocked, revealing a cell's total excitatory input. On GABA(A) blockade, RS cells responded to synaptic stimulation with large, suprathreshold excitatory events, indicating that excitation, while always present in these cells, is masked by GABA(A). In IB cells that had visible GABA(A) input, it often masked an excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) that could lead to additional suprathreshold events. These findings indicate that IB cells receive less GABA(A)-mediated inhibitory input and are able to spike or burst in response to thalamocortical synaptic stimulation far more readily than RS cells. Such differences may have implications for the influence each cell type exerts on its postsynaptic targets.  (+info)

Permeabilization via the P2X7 purinoreceptor reveals the presence of a Ca2+-activated Cl- conductance in the apical membrane of murine tracheal epithelial cells. (3/86)

Calcium-activated Cl(-) secretion is an important modulator of regulated ion transport in murine airway epithelium and is mediated by an unidentified Ca(2+)-stimulated Cl(-) channel. We have transfected immortalized murine tracheal epithelial cells with the cDNA encoding the permeabilizing P2X(7) purinoreceptor (P2X(7)-R) to selectively permeabilize the basolateral membrane and thereby isolate the apical membrane Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) current. In P2X(7)-R-permeabilized cells, we have demonstrated that UTP stimulates a Cl(-) current across the apical membrane of CF and normal murine tracheal epithelial cells. The magnitude of the UTP-stimulated current was significantly greater in CF than in normal cells. Ion substitution studies demonstrated that the current exhibited a permselectivity sequence of Cl(-) > I(-) > Br(-) > gluconate(-). We have also determined a rank order of potency for putative Cl(-) channel blockers: niflumic acid > or = 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid > 4, 4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonate > glybenclamide >> diphenlyamine-2-carboxylate, tamoxifen, and p-tetra-sulfonato-tetra-methoxy-calix[4]arene. Complete characterization of this current and the corresponding single channel properties could lead to the development of a new therapy to correct the defective airway surface liquid in cystic fibrosis patients.  (+info)

Emergent mechanical properties of self-assembled polymeric capsules. (4/86)

Synthetic self-assembled systems combine responsiveness and reversibility with the ability to perform chemical tasks such as molecular recognition and catalysis. An unmet challenge is the construction of polymeric materials that, like nature's tubulin, are simultaneously reversible and capable of useful physical tasks. We report here a class of reversibly formed polymers that show covalent-polymer mechanical integrity in solution and in the solid state. Non-Newtonian, polymeric behavior is observed despite the low molecular weight of the individual subunits and the seemingly weak forces holding the assemblies together. These polymers assemble through self-complementary hydrogen bonding and by physical encapsulation of small molecules; accordingly, the emergent macroscopic structure and function can be controlled by appropriate chemical signals.  (+info)

An improved Na+-selective microelectrode for intracellular measurements in plant cells. (5/86)

The high background K+ concentration in plant cells is a problem for intracellular measurements of Na+ using ion-selective microelectrodes. The discrimination between Na+ and K+ of the microelectrode ionophore molecule limits the usefulness of this technique. A new Na+-selective microelectrode with an ionophore incorporating a tetramethoxyethyl ester derivative of p-t-butyl calix[4]arene has been developed. Microelectrodes made with this new sensor have superior selectivity for Na+ over K+ resulting in a lower limit of detection when compared with microelectrodes made using a commercially available ionophore (ETH227). Both types of microelectrodes were insensitive to changes in ionic strength and physiological ranges of pH, but only the calixarene-based electrodes showed no protein interference. To test the suitability of the calixarene-based microelectrodes for measurements in plants, they were used to measure Na+ in epidermal cells in the zone 10-20 mm from the root apex of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Seedlings were grown in a nutrient solution containing 200 mM NaCl for 1-6 d. The range of intracellular Na+ activity (a(Na)) measured varied from < or =0.1 mM (limit of detection) to over 100 mM, and these values increased significantly with time. The membrane potential (E(m)) of these cells was variable, but the values became significantly more negative with time, although there was no significant correlation between E(m) and a(Na). These intracellular measurements could not be separated into distinct populations that might be representative of subcellular compartments.  (+info)

Interchain hydrogen-bonding interactions may facilitate translocation of K+ ions across the potassium channel selectivity filter, as suggested by synthetic modeling chemistry. (6/86)

A 4-fold symmetric arrangement of TVGYG polypeptides forms the selectivity filter of the K+ channel from Streptomyces lividans (KcsA). We report the synthesis and properties of synthetic models for the filter, p-tert-butyl-calix[4]arene-(OCH(2)CO-XOBz)(4) (X = V, VG, VGY), 1-3. The first cation (Na+, K+) binds to the four -[OCH(2)CO]- units, a region devised to mimic the metal-binding site formed by the four T residues in KcsA. NMR studies reveal that cations and valine amide protons compete for the carbonyl oxygen atoms, converting NH(Val)...O=C hydrogen bonds to M+ ...O=C bonds (M+ = Na+ or K+). The strength of these interchain NH(Val)...O=C hydrogen bonds varies in the order 3 > 2 > 1. We propose that such interchain H-bonding may destabilize metal binding in the selectivity filter and thus help create the low energy barrier needed for rapid cation translocation.  (+info)

Facile formation of chiral calixarene analogs incorporating cystine peptide into the macrocyclic ring. (7/86)

Chiral calixarene analogs incorporating cystine peptide into their macrocyclic ring were easily prepared by the cyclization reactions of bis(chloromethyl)phenol-formaldehyde oligomers with cystine peptides in moderate yields. Circular dichroism (CD) spectra indicated the existence of the transmission of the chirality from peptide unit to phenol-formaldehyde oligomer moiety.  (+info)

Cytosine substituted calix[4]pyrroles: neutral receptors for 5'-guanosine monophosphate. (8/86)

The synthesis and characterization of two cytosine-substituted calix[4]pyrrole conjugates, bearing the appended cytosine attached at either a beta- or meso-pyrrolic position, is described. These systems were tested as nucleotide-selective carriers and as active components of nucleotide-sensing ion-selective electrodes at pH 6.6. Studies of carrier selectivity were made using a Pressman-type model membrane system consisting of an initial pH 6.0 aqueous phase, an intervening dichloromethane barrier containing the calix[4]pyrrole conjugate, and a receiving basic aqueous phase. Good selectivity for the Watson-Crick complementary nucleotide, 5'-guanosine monophosphate (5'-GMP), was seen in the case of the meso-linked conjugate with the relative rates of through-membrane transport being 7.7:4.1:1 for 5'-GMP, 5'-AMP, and 5'-CMP, respectively. By contrast, the beta-substituted conjugate, while showing a selectivity for 5'-GMP that was enhanced relative to unsubstituted calix[4]pyrrole, was found to transport 5'-CMP roughly 4.5 times more quickly than 5'-GMP. Higher selectivities were also found for 5'-CMP when both the beta- and meso-substituted conjugates were incorporated into polyvinyl chloride membranes and tested as ion selective electrodes at pH 6.6, whereas near-equal selectivities were observed for 5'-CMP and 5'-GMP in the case of unsubstituted calix[4]pyrroles. These seemingly disparate results are consistent with a picture wherein the meso-substituted cytosine calix[4]pyrrole conjugate, but not its beta-linked congener, is capable of acting as a ditopic receptor, binding concurrently both the phosphate anion and nucleobase portions of 5'-GMP to the calixpyrrole core and cytosine "tails" of the molecule, respectively, with the effect of this binding being most apparent under the conditions of the transport experiments.  (+info)

Calixarenes are a type of macrocyclic compound, which are formed by the condensation of certain phenolic compounds. The name "calixarene" comes from the Latin word "calyx," meaning "cup-shaped structure," and "arene," referring to the aromatic components of the molecule.

Calixarenes have a cup-like shape, with a hydrophobic cavity that can bind to various guest molecules through non-covalent interactions such as van der Waals forces, hydrogen bonding, and π-π stacking. The size and functionality of the cavity can be modified by changing the number and type of aromatic rings and substituents, making calixarenes useful in a variety of applications, including molecular recognition, catalysis, and drug delivery.

In medical contexts, calixarenes have been explored for their potential as drug delivery vehicles, due to their ability to encapsulate drugs within their hydrophobic cavities and release them in response to specific stimuli. They have also been studied for their potential use in diagnostic imaging, as they can be functionalized with radioactive isotopes or other contrast agents. However, further research is needed to fully understand the potential benefits and risks of using calixarenes in medical applications.

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