Sea Lions: A group comprised of several species of aquatic carnivores in different genera, in the family Otariidae. In comparison to FUR SEALS, they have shorter, less dense hair.Los AngelesSan FranciscoPeromyscus: A genus of the subfamily SIGMODONTINAE consisting of 49 species. Two of these are widely used in medical research. They are P. leucopus, or the white-footed mouse, and P. maniculatus, or the deer mouse.Encephalitis, California: A viral infection of the brain caused by serotypes of California encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, CALIFORNIA) transmitted to humans by the mosquito AEDES triseriatus. The majority of cases are caused by the LA CROSSE VIRUS. This condition is endemic to the midwestern United States and primarily affects children between 5-10 years of age. Clinical manifestations include FEVER; VOMITING; HEADACHE; and abdominal pain followed by SEIZURES, altered mentation, and focal neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13)Asian Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent.Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.MexicoEncephalitis, Arbovirus: Infections of the brain caused by arthropod-borne viruses (i.e., arboviruses) primarily from the families TOGAVIRIDAE; FLAVIVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; and RHABDOVIRIDAE. Life cycles of these viruses are characterized by ZOONOSES, with birds and lower mammals serving as intermediate hosts. The virus is transmitted to humans by the bite of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) or TICKS. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, alterations of mentation, focal neurologic deficits, and COMA. (From Clin Microbiol Rev 1994 Jan;7(1):89-116; Walton, Brain's Diseases of the Nervous System, 10th ed, p321)United StatesGeography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Hospitals, County: Hospitals controlled by the county government.Health Maintenance Organizations: Organized systems for providing comprehensive prepaid health care that have five basic attributes: (1) provide care in a defined geographic area; (2) provide or ensure delivery of an agreed-upon set of basic and supplemental health maintenance and treatment services; (3) provide care to a voluntarily enrolled group of persons; (4) require their enrollees to use the services of designated providers; and (5) receive reimbursement through a predetermined, fixed, periodic prepayment made by the enrollee without regard to the degree of services provided. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Eschscholzia: A plant genus of the family PAPAVERACEAE that contains benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloids.Pacific OceanEthnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.NevadaRisk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Pesticides: Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Uncompensated Care: Medical services for which no payment is received. Uncompensated care includes charity care and bad debts.Medically Uninsured: Individuals or groups with no or inadequate health insurance coverage. Those falling into this category usually comprise three primary groups: the medically indigent (MEDICAL INDIGENCY); those whose clinical condition makes them medically uninsurable; and the working uninsured.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)State Health Plans: State plans prepared by the State Health Planning and Development Agencies which are made up from plans submitted by the Health Systems Agencies and subject to review and revision by the Statewide Health Coordinating Council.Sciuridae: A family of the order Rodentia which contains 49 genera. Some of the more common genera are MARMOTA, which includes the marmot and woodchuck; Sciurus, the gray squirrel, S. carolinensis, and the fox squirrel, S. niger; Tamias, the eastern and western chipmunk; and Tamiasciurus, the red squirrel. The flying squirrels, except the scaly-tailed Anomaluridae, also belong to this family.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Coccidioidomycosis: Infection with a fungus of the genus COCCIDIOIDES, endemic to the SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES. It is sometimes called valley fever but should not be confused with RIFT VALLEY FEVER. Infection is caused by inhalation of airborne, fungal particles known as arthroconidia, a form of FUNGAL SPORES. A primary form is an acute, benign, self-limited respiratory infection. A secondary form is a virulent, severe, chronic, progressive granulomatous disease with systemic involvement. It can be detected by use of COCCIDIOIDIN.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Medicaid: Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XIX, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, administered by the states, that provides health care benefits to indigent and medically indigent persons.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Continental Population Groups: Groups of individuals whose putative ancestry is from native continental populations based on similarities in physical appearance.Independent Practice Associations: A partnership, corporation, association, or other legal entity that enters into an arrangement for the provision of services with persons who are licensed to practice medicine, osteopathy, and dentistry, and with other care personnel. Under an IPA arrangement, licensed professional persons provide services through the entity in accordance with a mutually accepted compensation arrangement, while retaining their private practices. Services under the IPA are marketed through a prepaid health plan. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Quercus: A plant genus of the family FAGACEAE that is a source of TANNINS. Do not confuse with Holly (ILEX).Legislation, Medical: Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of medicine, proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Bunyaviridae: A family of viruses, mainly arboviruses, consisting of a single strand of RNA. Virions are enveloped particles 90-120 nm diameter. The complete family contains over 300 members arranged in five genera: ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS; HANTAVIRUS; NAIROVIRUS; PHLEBOVIRUS; and TOSPOVIRUS.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Bird Diseases: Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.Persea: A plant genus in the LAURACEAE family. The tree, Persea americana Mill., is known for the Avocado fruit, the food of commerce.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.Hawaii: A group of islands in Polynesia, in the north central Pacific Ocean, comprising eight major and 114 minor islands, largely volcanic and coral. Its capital is Honolulu. It was first reached by Polynesians about 500 A.D. It was discovered and named the Sandwich Islands in 1778 by Captain Cook. The islands were united under the rule of King Kamehameha 1795-1819 and requested annexation to the United States in 1893 when a provisional government was set up. Hawaii was established as a territory in 1900 and admitted as a state in 1959. The name is from the Polynesian Owhyhii, place of the gods, with reference to the two volcanoes Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa, regarded as the abode of the gods. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p493 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p2330)Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Culex: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Pinnipedia: The suborder of aquatic CARNIVORA comprising the WALRUSES; FUR SEALS; SEA LIONS; and EARLESS SEALS. They have fusiform bodies with very short tails and are found on all sea coasts. The offspring are born on land.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Social Control Policies: Decisions for determining and guiding present and future objectives from among alternatives.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Christianity: The religion stemming from the life, teachings, and death of Jesus Christ: the religion that believes in God as the Father Almighty who works redemptively through the Holy Spirit for men's salvation and that affirms Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior who proclaimed to man the gospel of salvation. (From Webster, 3d ed)Umbellularia: A plant genus in the LAURACEAE family. The tree, Umbellularia californica (Hook. & Arn.) Nutt., is known for aromatic leaves used in SPICES having a similar flavor to LAURUS.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Law Enforcement: Organized efforts to insure obedience to the laws of a community.Nitric Acid: Nitric acid (HNO3). A colorless liquid that is used in the manufacture of inorganic and organic nitrates and nitro compounds for fertilizers, dye intermediates, explosives, and many different organic chemicals. Continued exposure to vapor may cause chronic bronchitis; chemical pneumonitis may occur. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Capitation Fee: A method of payment for health services in which an individual or institutional provider is paid a fixed, per capita amount without regard to the actual number or nature of services provided to each patient.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Introduced Species: Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Mexican Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican descent.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Acculturation: Process of cultural change in which one group or members of a group assimilate various cultural patterns from another.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Bays: An area of water mostly surrounded by land, usually smaller than a gulf, and affording access to the sea.Encephalomyelitis, Western Equine: A form of arboviral encephalitis (which primarily affects horses) endemic to western and central regions of NORTH AMERICA. The causative organism (ENCEPHALOMYELITIS VIRUS, WESTERN EQUINE) may be transferred to humans via the bite of mosquitoes (CULEX tarsalis and others). Clinical manifestations include headache and influenza-like symptoms followed by alterations in mentation, SEIZURES, and COMA. DEATH occurs in a minority of cases. Survivors may recover fully or be left with residual neurologic dysfunction, including PARKINSONISM, POSTENCEPHALITIC. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp8-9)Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.PhilippinesInsurance Coverage: Generally refers to the amount of protection available and the kind of loss which would be paid for under an insurance contract with an insurer. (Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2d ed)Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Economics, Hospital: Economic aspects related to the management and operation of a hospital.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Mytilus: A genus of marine mussels in the family MYTILIDAE, class BIVALVIA. The species MYTILUS EDULIS is the highly edible common mussel.TexasHealth Benefit Plans, Employee: Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Sequoia: A plant genus of the family TAXODIACEAE known for including some of the tallest trees.Epidemiological Monitoring: Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.Faculty: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in an educational institution.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Pacific States: The geographic designation for states bordering on or located in the Pacific Ocean. The states so designated are Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington. (U.S. Geologic Survey telephone communication)Medical Indigency: The condition in which individuals are financially unable to access adequate medical care without depriving themselves and their dependents of food, clothing, shelter, and other essentials of living.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Managed Care Programs: Health insurance plans intended to reduce unnecessary health care costs through a variety of mechanisms, including: economic incentives for physicians and patients to select less costly forms of care; programs for reviewing the medical necessity of specific services; increased beneficiary cost sharing; controls on inpatient admissions and lengths of stay; the establishment of cost-sharing incentives for outpatient surgery; selective contracting with health care providers; and the intensive management of high-cost health care cases. The programs may be provided in a variety of settings, such as HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS and PREFERRED PROVIDER ORGANIZATIONS.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Taxes: Governmental levies on property, inheritance, gifts, etc.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)ArizonaInsurance, Hospitalization: Health insurance providing benefits to cover or partly cover hospital expenses.Encephalomyelitis, Equine: A group of ALPHAVIRUS INFECTIONS which affect horses and man, transmitted via the bites of mosquitoes. Disorders in this category are endemic to regions of South America and North America. In humans, clinical manifestations vary with the type of infection, and range from a mild influenza-like syndrome to a fulminant encephalitis. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp8-10)Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Arthropod Vectors: Arthropods, other than insects and arachnids, which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Ozone: The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).Beauty CultureInfluenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Mandatory Programs: Programs in which participation is required.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.FiresFirearms: Small-arms weapons, including handguns, pistols, revolvers, rifles, shotguns, etc.Encephalitis Virus, Western Equine: A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines in the United States, southern Canada, and parts of South America.New YorkCase-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.West Nile Fever: A mosquito-borne viral illness caused by the WEST NILE VIRUS, a FLAVIVIRUS and endemic to regions of Africa, Asia, and Europe. Common clinical features include HEADACHE; FEVER; maculopapular rash; gastrointestinal symptoms; and lymphadenopathy. MENINGITIS; ENCEPHALITIS; and MYELITIS may also occur. The disease may occasionally be fatal or leave survivors with residual neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13; Lancet 1998 Sep 5;352(9130):767-71)Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Eligibility Determination: Criteria to determine eligibility of patients for medical care programs and services.Water Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.Managed Competition: A strategy for purchasing health care in a manner which will obtain maximum value for the price for the purchasers of the health care and the recipients. The concept was developed primarily by Alain Enthoven of Stanford University and promulgated by the Jackson Hole Group. The strategy depends on sponsors for groups of the population to be insured. The sponsor, in some cases a health alliance, acts as an intermediary between the group and competing provider groups (accountable health plans). The competition is price-based among annual premiums for a defined, standardized benefit package. (From Slee and Slee, Health Care Reform Terms, 1993)Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Fisheries: Places for cultivation and harvesting of fish, particularly in sea waters. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers: Compounds that contain two halogenated benzene rings linked via an OXYGEN atom. Many polybrominated diphenyl ethers are used as FLAME RETARDANTS.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Emigrants and Immigrants: People who leave their place of residence in one country and settle in a different country.Nymph: The immature stage in the life cycle of those orders of insects characterized by gradual metamorphosis, in which the young resemble the imago in general form of body, including compound eyes and external wings; also the 8-legged stage of mites and ticks that follows the first moult.Tobacco Industry: The aggregate business enterprise of agriculture, manufacture, and distribution related to tobacco and tobacco-derived products.Rodent Diseases: Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).Oceanic Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the islands of the central and South Pacific, including Micronesia, Melanesia, Polynesia, and traditionally Australasia.Hospitals: Institutions with an organized medical staff which provide medical care to patients.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Communication Barriers: Those factors, such as language or sociocultural relationships, which interfere in the meaningful interpretation and transmission of ideas between individuals or groups.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Death Certificates: Official records of individual deaths including the cause of death certified by a physician, and any other required identifying information.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Economic Competition: The effort of two or more parties to secure the business of a third party by offering, usually under fair or equitable rules of business practice, the most favorable terms.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Culicidae: A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.State Health Planning and Development Agencies: Agencies established under PL93-641 to coordinate, conduct, and implement state health planning activities. Two primary responsibilities are the preparation of an annual State Health Plan and giving assistance to the Statewide Health Coordinating Council.Medical Assistance: Financing of medical care provided to public assistance recipients.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)OregonAir Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Legislation, Nursing: Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of nursing, proposed for enactment by a legislative body.Insurance Carriers: Organizations which assume the financial responsibility for the risks of policyholders.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Coyotes: The species Canis latrans in the family CANIDAE, a smaller relative of WOLVES. It is found in the Western hemisphere from Costa Rica to Alaska.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.VietnamCoccidioides: A mitosporic fungal genus which causes COCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Group Practice: Any group of three or more full-time physicians organized in a legally recognized entity for the provision of health care services, sharing space, equipment, personnel and records for both patient care and business management, and who have a predetermined arrangement for the distribution of income.Jurisprudence: The science or philosophy of law. Also, the application of the principles of law and justice to health and medicine.Mortality: All deaths reported in a given population.Schools, Health Occupations: Schools which offer training in the area of health.Geographic Information Systems: Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.Phytophthora: A genus of destructive parasitic OOMYCETES in the family Peronosporaceae, order Peronosporales, affecting numerous fruit, vegetable, and other crops. Differentiation of zoospores usually takes place in the sporangium and no vesicle is formed. It was previously considered a fungus.Cultural Diversity: Coexistence of numerous distinct ethnic, racial, religious, or cultural groups within one social unit, organization, or population. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d college ed., 1982, p955)West Nile virus: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.Economics, Medical: Economic aspects of the field of medicine, the medical profession, and health care. It includes the economic and financial impact of disease in general on the patient, the physician, society, or government.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Horse Diseases: Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Food Chain: The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.Housing: Living facilities for humans.Cupressus: A plant genus of the family CUPRESSACEAE. Cypress ordinarily refers to this but also forms part of the name of plants in other genera.Healthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.Vehicle Emissions: Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Eagles: Large members of the FALCONIFORMES order of birds, family Accipitridae, most especially the genera Aquila, Haliaeetus, Harpia, and Circaetus. They are characterized by their powerful talons, which carry long, curved, pointed claws and by their opposable hindtoe.Governing Board: The group in which legal authority is vested for the control of health-related institutions and organizations.Schools: Educational institutions.Local Government: Smallest political subdivisions within a country at which general governmental functions are carried-out.Rhamnaceae: The buckthorn plant family, of the order Rhamnales, includes some species with edible fruits and some that are medicinal.Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Crime: A violation of the criminal law, i.e., a breach of the conduct code specifically sanctioned by the state, which through its administrative agencies prosecutes offenders and imposes and administers punishments. The concept includes unacceptable actions whether prosecuted or going unpunished.North AmericaSpecies Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Paternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a father.Sigmodontinae: A subfamily of the family MURIDAE comprised of 69 genera. New World mice and rats are included in this subfamily.Agrochemicals: Chemicals used in agriculture. These include pesticides, fumigants, fertilizers, plant hormones, steroids, antibiotics, mycotoxins, etc.Insurance Benefits: Payments or services provided under stated circumstances under the terms of an insurance policy. In prepayment programs, benefits are the services the programs will provide at defined locations and to the extent needed.State Government: The level of governmental organization and function below that of the national or country-wide government.Verbal Learning: Learning to respond verbally to a verbal stimulus cue.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Wetlands: Environments or habitats at the interface between truly terrestrial ecosystems and truly aquatic systems making them different from each yet highly dependent on both. Adaptations to low soil oxygen characterize many wetland species.Central AmericaKelp: Large, robust forms of brown algae (PHAEOPHYCEAE) in the order Laminariales. They are a major component of the lower intertidal and sublittoral zones on rocky coasts in temperate and polar waters. Kelp, a kind of SEAWEED, usually refers to species in the genera LAMINARIA or MACROCYSTIS, but the term may also be used for species in FUCUS or Nereocystis.Mushroom Poisoning: Poisoning from ingestion of mushrooms, primarily from, but not restricted to, toxic varieties.Endangered Species: An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.La Crosse virus: A serotype of the species California encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, CALIFORNIA), in the genus ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS, causing human MENINGOENCEPHALITIS. This is the agent most responsible for California encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, CALIFORNIA), the most prevalent mosquito-borne disease recognized in the United States.Encephalitis, St. Louis: A viral encephalitis caused by the St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), a FLAVIVIRUS. It is transmitted to humans and other vertebrates primarily by mosquitoes of the genus CULEX. The primary animal vectors are wild birds and the disorder is endemic to the midwestern and southeastern United States. Infections may be limited to an influenza-like illness or present as an ASEPTIC MENINGITIS or ENCEPHALITIS. Clinical manifestations of the encephalitic presentation may include SEIZURES, lethargy, MYOCLONUS, focal neurologic signs, COMA, and DEATH. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p750)Area Health Education Centers: Education centers authorized by the Comprehensive Health Manpower Training Act, 1971, for the training of health personnel in areas where health needs are the greatest. May be used for centers other than those established by the United States act.
University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources; California Fish Website; California Fish Species. ... Peter B. Moyle, Inland Fishes of California (University of California Press, 2002), pp. 424-428 Froese, Rainer and Pauly, ... The formal description of the tule perch was first read by W. P. Gibbons at a meeting of the California Academy of Natural ... The tule perch Hysterocarpus traskii is a surfperch (Embiotocidae) native to the rivers and estuaries of central California, ...
web application]. Berkeley, California: AmphibiaWeb. 2016. Retrieved 8 March 2016. "Species Hyla heinzsteinitzi". UniProt. ... The species has been the subject of some controversy regarding its validity. The species was described in 2007 by Constantin ... Grach also claimed the species may have become extinct at the time it was described. Hyla heinzsteinitzi was listed by the ... Ofri Ilani (19 August 2007). "Who's to blame for disappearance of a new species of amphibian?". Haaretz. Retrieved 8 October ...
Females of some species are polymorphic, some being orangish and darkening with age, while others resemble the male. The genus ... ISBN 0-643-09073-8. "California Damselflies". Dragonflies (Odonata) of the Southwest. Archived from the original on 2009-09-23 ... "Odonata species list". Swedish Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 11 August 2010. Günther Theischinger; John Hawking (2006). ... "Species List: Damselflies". Abbott, John (2008). Dragonflies and Damselflies (Odonata) of Texas, Vol 3. ...
"Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Initiation of 5-Year Reviews of 58 Species in California and Nevada". frwebgate. ... "Article: Antioch Dunes National Wildlife Refuge (NWR).(Antioch, California)". Endangered Species Bulletin. Retrieved 2009-11-26 ... Naumovich, Lech (April 16, 2007). "California Native Plant Society - USFWS 5 year review comments" (PDF). PDF. California ... "Species Profile for Antioch Dunes evening-primrose (Oenothera deltoides howellii)". Retrieved 2009-11-24. " ...
Pickart, A.; Sawyer, J. (1998). Invasive Plant Species. California Native Plant Society. pp. 41-55. Bierman, P.; Montgomery, D ... Understanding how invasive species change and manipulate landscapes and the characteristics of specific invasive species, is ... Pickart, A.; Sawyer, J. (1998). Ecology and Restoration of Northern California Coastal Dunes. California Native Plant Society. ... Northern California coastal dune environments are subject to high velocity winds at all times throughout the year. This strong ...
There are six species listed as threatened or California species of special concern (SSC) under the CESA that regularly occur ... Resources, University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural. "Fish Species by Location". ... The San Andreas Fault line crosses the Pajaro River at the Pajaro Gap near Aromas, California and California State Route 129. ... South Central California Coast Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and Thicktail Chub (Siphatales crassicauda). Four species are ...
Calif. Insect Sur. 6: 51-57. Powell, Jerry A.; Hogue, Charles L. (1980). California Insects. University of California Press. p ... The adult of this species tends to be entirely dark brown or black. They reach approximately 9mm in length. Females tend to be ... In America, it can be found from Texas to California up to Utah, covering much of the southwest region of the United States. It ... Oligotoma nigra, also known as the black webspinner, is a species of insect in the order Embiidina, also known as Embioptera. ...
University of California Press. Retrieved 2011-04-27. Otte, Daniel (1995). Orthoptera Species File 4. The Orthopterists' ... actively mounting females and males of the species as well as individuals from other grasshopper and lizard species. Males ... The species can allocate resources to reproduction instead of wings and flight muscles. As with many other chemically defended ... A female of the species can reach 7 centimeters long and weigh 9 grams. The mature male weighs 3 grams on average. There is a ...
San Francisco, California, United States. 2905. ISBN 0-940228-47-5. Hardy, J.D. Jr. 2003. Coral reef fish species. NOAA\ ... California Academy of Sciences. San Francisco, California, United States. iii + 697. ISBN 0-940228-23-8. Any 1990. Eschmeyer, ... This species typically lives in small groups on outer reef slopes at depths of 2-25 m (6 ft 7 in-82 ft 0 in). It is ... Exclusive of species from the continental waters of the United States and Canada. Am. Fish. Soc. Spec. Publ. (21):243 p. ...
New species from California. Mycotaxon 12: 419-434. Kerrigan, Richard W. (1986). The Agaricales (Gilled Fungi) of California. 6 ... List of Agaricus species Arora, David (1986). Mushrooms Demystified (2 ed.). Specific Arora, p. 313, p. 326 Kerrigan, Richard W ... Mad River Press: Eureka, CA. 62 p. Wood, Michael; Fred Stevens (1998). "Bovista aestivalis". Retrieved 2009-07-07. Arora, p. ...
The oldest name for the species is Amphianthus pusillus,coined in 1837. D.Estes & R.L.Small wanted to transfer the species to ... California Native Plant Society. NatureServe Torrey, John 1837. Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York 4(1): 82-83 ... There are few other plants that grow in the vernal pools of the outcrops, except for local endemic species of Isoëtes, such as ... It is a fast-growing species, germinating immediately with sufficient rain and maturing to flower in 17 days. Its life cycle is ...
... and southern California; also the Baja Peninsula, both Baja California-(north), and Baja California Sur where they are only ... Phainopeplas have been found to imitate the calls of twelve other species, such as the red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) and ... Weathers, Wesley W. (1983). Birds of Southern California's Deep Canyon. University of California Press. p. 185. ISBN 0-520- ... The phainopepla ranges as far north as central California with the San Joaquin Valley and southern Utah, and south to central ...
An introduced control does not always target only the intended pest species; it can also target native species. In Hawaii ... In California, prune trees are sometimes planted in grape vineyards to provide an improved overwintering habitat or refuge for ... The first report of the use of an insect species to control an insect pest comes from "Nanfang Caomu Zhuang" (南方草木狀 Plants of ... Effects on invasive species Cofrancesco, A. 2007. U.S. National Management Plan: An Action Plant for the Nation- Control and ...
"Species: Myrmecia nigriceps". AntWeb. California Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 26 August 2015. Schnell, M. R.; Pik, A. J.; ... List of Myrmecia species List of ants of Australia Some tested Myrmecia species have an LD50 value of 0.18-0.35 mg/kg. Johnson ... gulosa species group, which is the largest species group of the nine groups described. The specific name, nigriceps, is a ... Like other Myrmecia species, M. nigriceps ants possess a powerful and painful sting, and the venom is capable of inducing ...
An Introduction to the Animal Life of California Beaches South of Santa Barbara. University of California Press. pp. 63-64. ... Marine Species Information Portal. Retrieved 16 September 2017. M.J. de Kluijver. "Lineus ruber". Macrobenthos of the North Sea ... Marine Species Information Portal. Retrieved 16 September 2017. Gibson, R.; Moore, J.; Lundberg, Per (2012). Advances in ... Lineus sanguineus, the banded nemertean or social lineus, is a species of nemertean ribbon worm in the family Lineidae. It ...
University of California Press. p. 27. van der Spoel, S.; Newman, L.J.; Estep, K.W. "Carinaria cristata cristata". Pellagic ... Marine Species Identification Portal. Retrieved 2015-04-17. Seapy, Roger R. (2008-07-12). "Carinaria Lamarck 1801". Tree of ... Carinaria cristata, commonly known as the glassy nautilus, is a species of pelagic marine gastropod mollusc in the family ... There are two forms of this species, Carinaria cristata form cristata, and Carinaria cristata form japonica. The former is ...
This species is normally found attached by its disc to the surface of a marlin or sailfish, but sometimes it attaches to ... University of California Press. p. 38. ISBN 978-0-520-26433-5. Perrin, William F.; Wursig, Bernd; Thewissen, J.G.M. 'Hans' ( ... Compared to other species of remora, Remora osteochir is sturdy with a small mouth, stiff, rounded pectoral fins and wide-base ... The marlin sucker or spear-fish remora (Remora osteochir) is a species of remora found all over the world in tropical and ...
The alpine chipmunk (Tamias alpinus) is a species of chipmunk native to the high elevations of the Sierra Nevada of California ... Johnson, D.H. (1943). Systematic review of the chipmunks (genus Eutamias) of California. University of California Publications ... University of California Press. Clawson, Robin G.; Clawson, Joseph A.; Best, Troy L. (1994). "Tamias alpinus". Mammalian ... Overall the pattern is much paler compared to most species. They weigh 27-45 grams. Alpine chipmunks only live in high Sierra ...
The species is commonly found in shallow silty reefs and sometimes in estuarine areas. The coral grouper resembles both ... 31 May 2017). "Catalog of Fishes". California Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 20 June 2017. Heemstra, P.C.; Randall, J.E. (1993 ... 2008). "Epinephelus corallicola". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008: e.T132763A3444891. Retrieved 20 June 2017. ... FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and ...
"California Floater (Anodonta californiensis)". Endangered Species Information Network. Archived from the original on February ... Anodonta californiensis commonly called the California floater is a species of mussel which was formerly found throughout ... The severe reduction in range has resulted in the species' listing as a federal and state species of concern. The masked ... This isolated range has placed them on state and federal watchlists as critically imperiled species. Curlew Lake is one of ...
"Lana's Sawshark". California Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 2017-12-10. "Pristiophorus lanae: New Species of Sawshark ... "Marine Species Identification Portal : Japanese sawshark - Pristiophorus japonicus". Retrieved 2017 ... Among the different species of saw shark, all are listed on the IUCN Red List of 2017 as either data deficient or of least ... The species reproduction is ovoviviparous and tends to give birth to a litter of 7-14 pups biannually. They swim on the ocean ...
University of California, Berkeley. Retrieved December 28, 2012. "Gutierrezia microcephala (de Candolle) A. Gray". Flora of ... Gutierrezia microcephala is a species of flowering plant in the daisy family known by the common names sticky snakeweed, ... "Fire Effects". Species: Gutierrezia microcephala. United States Forest Service. Retrieved December 29, 2012. USDA Plants ... "Distribution and Occurrence". Species: Gutierrezia microcephala. United States Forest Service. Retrieved December 28, 2012. ...
"Giant Reed". Center for Invasive Species Research. University of California Riverside. Retrieved 2009-12-17. "Invasive Species ... The watershed supports up to 200 bird species, fifty mammal species, 13 reptile species, 7 amphibian species, and 15 fish ... One of the most troublesome invasive species is the giant reed, which plagues many coastal Southern California waterways. The ... Greater Los Angeles portal California portal List of rivers of Orange County, California List of tributaries of the Santa Ana ...
"Species: Meranoplus levis". AntWeb. California Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 2 September 2015. "Meranoplus levis". at antwiki. ... Meranoplus levis, is a species of ant of the subfamily Myrmicinae. It is found in Sri Lanka, and India. Bolton, Barry. " ...
Engraulis anchoita themselves are prey to other species, and constitute a main diet component of important commercial species ... Eschmeyer, W. N. (2 June 2015). "Catalog of Fishes". California Academy of Sciences. Archived from the original on 3 May 2015. ... FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Rome: FAO. pp. 312-313. Pájaro, M.; Curelovich, J. S.; Macchi, G. J. (2007). "Egg cannibalism in ... Engraulis anchoita is a key species in the pelagic ecosystem of the Argentine waters. They are zooplanktivores, and prey ...
Lourie, S. A., Amanda C.J. Vincent i Heather J. Hall: Seahorses: An Identification Guide to the World's Species and their ... 1-3. California Academy of Sciences. San Francisco, Califòrnia, Estats Units. ISBN 0-940228-47-5. ... Coral reef fish species. NOAA\National Oceanographic Data Center. NODC Coral Reef Data and Information Management System. ... Obtingut de «» ...
California Sea Lion Pictures and Photographs by Professional Natural History Photographer Phillip Colla / ... Species permalink: Zalophus californianus. Common name permalink: California sea lion. ... California Sea Lion Photos, Zalophus californianus Photos, ... California Sea Lion Photos, Zalophus californianus. Photos of ...
They are known to haul out with other Otariid species such as Northern Fur Seals (pictured above) and California Sea Lions. ... Found along the coast and outer continental shelf along the North Pacific Rim from California to Japan, the Steller Sea Lion ... can be found along the coast and outer continental shelf along the North Pacific Rim from California to Japan. The population ...
... and now total over 150,000 animals between California and southeast Alaska.They are considered to be a species of Special ... Threatened Species. More than 80% of the Steller sea lion population disappeared from Russian and most Alaskan waters (Gulf of ... Steller sea lions range throughout the Pacific Rim (from southern California to Northern Honshu in Japan, and to the Bering ... The United States listed Steller sea lions as "threatened" under the Endangered Species Act in 1990, and reclassified this ...
As mentioned above, California law states that no permit may be issued for take of fully protected species, under almost any ... California laws relating to fully protected species were among the first attempts in the nation to give protection to wildlife ... The Fish and Game Code sections dealing with Fully Protected species state that these species "....may not be taken or ... of these species. In 2003 the code sections dealing with fully protected species were amended to allow CDFG to authorize take ...
... the California Species Preservation Act, and the California Endangered Species Act. The Species Preservation Act tasked the ... "California Endangered Species Act (CESA)". California Department of Fish and Wildlife Habitat Conservation Planning Branch. CA. ... No species are currently candidates for listing. Californias endangered species act is considered superior to similar acts ... The California Endangered Species Act (CESA) declares that, "all native species of fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals ...
... took a snapshot with his flip phone and sent it to a friend whos studying the species at UC Davis. ... In 1980, the fox was listed as threatened under the California Endangered Species Act. McKinnons group is petitioning the U.S ... ... Gray and red foxes abound in California, but the Sierra Nevada red fox is the only one that lives in the often frozen higher ...
... they were sure theyd find a new species. ... When a pair of herpetologists in California set out recently to ... Missing Slinks: 4 New Species of Legless Lizards Uncovered in California. When a pair of herpetologists in California set out ... Missing Slinks: 4 New Species of Legless Lizards Uncovered in CaliforniaWhen a pair of herpetologists in California set out ... Along with Theodore Papenfuss of the University of California, Berkeley, Parham published findings on the new species in ...
Hundreds of thousands of Dudleya farinosa have been stripped from the California coast and sold overseas in black market trade ... Plant smugglers take massive toll on Californias Dudleya farinosa succulent species. Hundreds of thousands of Dudleya ... in some cases stripping whole areas of the plant species, said Adrian Foss, a captain with the California Department of Fish ... California Department of Fish and Wildlife officers hope the public will serve as their eyes and ears out on the landscape and ...
We have drafted scorecards for over 200 species. Please select review next to the species you know, and use the comment form on ... If you dont see a scorecard here for a species that you think should have a scorecard drafted, please choose Review Species ... We have developed a scorecard template to help us rate, for a given species, its impacts and our ability to respond to the ... For a tabular presentation of scorecard values for multiple species, choose View Scorecard Summary. ...
"The odds of discovering a new species are pretty high," Wall told the Times. "But … generally, (most) new species discovered ... with very few species in Baja California Sur.". They knew that wandering spiders are often nocturnal, so Berrian and his ... "The first evidence we found of this species was a shed exoskeleton in the cracks of a rock overhang," Berrian, a field ... They found it in 2013 during an expedition in a small mountain range outside of La Paz in Baja California Sur, Mexico. ...
Southern California Species. The Cabrillo Marine Aquarium is home to more than 200 species of animals that live in and around ... This particular species is very widely distributed. It can be found from Southern California down to Mexico, across Panama, ... Do you have a question about these and other Southern California species? Ask a Biologist. All Species. Algae. Birds. Fish. ... California Brown Sea Hare Aplysia californica. Each Sea hare may lay up to eighty million eggs. However, most of the eggs are ...
Southern California Species. The Cabrillo Marine Aquarium is home to more than 200 species of animals that live in and around ... Do you have a question about these and other Southern California species? Ask a Biologist. All Species. Algae. Birds. Fish. ... California Brown Sea Hare Aplysia californica. Each Sea hare may lay up to eighty million eggs. However, most of the eggs are ... California Grunion Leuresthes tenuis. Unlike other fish, grunion come completely out of the water to lay their eggs in the sand ...
The Invasive Species Council of California may establish the California Invasive Species Advisory Committee, which shall ... a) California is home to more species of plants and animals in the world and the highest number of species found nowhere else ... g) To host an annual California Invasive Species Summit to develop new recommendations and to coordinate invasive species ... the Invasive Species Council of California may make recommendations on invasive species projects and activities, including, but ...
California swordfish fishery: Maximizing the catch rate of a target species simultaneously minimizes bycatch rates. View ORCID ... California swordfish fishery: Maximizing the catch rate of a target species simultaneously minimizes bycatch rates ... California swordfish fishery: Maximizing the catch rate of a target species simultaneously minimizes bycatch rates ... California swordfish fishery: Maximizing the catch rate of a target species simultaneously minimizes bycatch rates ...
Because endemic species - native species not found outside the state - make up nearly half of all Californias native plants, a ... Californias native plant species are so vulnerable to global climate change that two-thirds of them could suffer 80 percent ... Climate Modeling Shows Californias Native Plant Species in Peril from Global Warming. 26.06.2008 ... Coast Redwoods may range farther north, for example, while California oaks could disappear from central California in favor of ...
California University of California, Santa Barbara Why California harbors so many plant species. Posted by George Foulsham-UC ... California has more species and more endemic species than any other US state, and is more species-rich than most other places ... Although many new species have evolved in California, the rate at which plant lineages gave rise to new species has not been ... "Because California has so many unique and relatively young plant species, it was long assumed by biogeographers and naturalists ...
Learn more about Disqus on and your privacy here. Please keep in mind: Do. *Tell the truth and avoid rumours. *Add ... Ash trees have now joined a growing list of native trees in our area affected by invasive species from other continents. The ... Eastern hemlock may be next to fall victim to an invasive alien species. Most Eastern and Carolina hemlocks in the United ... More people are reading than ever and unlike many news organizations, we have never put up a paywall - at rabble ...
National Pest Alert Soybean Aphid Aphis glycines Matsumura. USDA North Central Pest Management Center. ...
University of California San Diego, and the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute have discovered ... Two fish species can survive in areas of the Gulf of California with little oxygen. Shane McGlaun - Jan 21, 2019, 7:50 am CDT ... The two fish species are catsharks and cusk eels. The researchers found high abundances of fish living in deep Gulf of ... However, they believe its due to both species having a small body size in relation to large gill surfaces. The team also ...
The new species described here is the second for the genus Ascarophis reported as adult in the Southern California Bight, and ... A New Species Of Ascarophis (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae) Parasitizing Clinocottus analis (Pisces: Cottidae) From Baja California ... A New Species Of Ascarophis (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae) Parasitizing Clinocottus analis (Pisces: Cottidae) From Baja California ... A New Species Of Ascarophis (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae) Parasitizing Clinocottus analis (Pisces: Cottidae) From Baja California ...
Exceptions for Invasive Species and Noxious Weed Programs. The injunction generally applies to invasive species and noxious ... Exceptions for Invasive Species and Noxious Weed Programs. Exceptions Resulting in No Buffer Areas. If your proposed pesticide ... Exceptions for Endangered Species Act Approved Use. If your proposed pesticide use is permissible under one or more of the ... How to Comply with Requirements to Protect California Red-legged Frog from Pesticides. Information to Assist Pesticide Users in ...
In the heavily invaded serpentine grasslands of central California, many native species appear to be restricted to... ... Invasions by non-native taxa can have severe consequences for native species. ... Native and alien species diversity at the local and regional scales in a grazed California grassland. Oecologia 121: 99-106. ... In the heavily invaded serpentine grasslands of central California, many native species appear to be restricted to isolated ...
An update on Phytophthora species in California native plant nurseries - Suzanne Rooney Latham, CA Department of Food & ... Other Phytophthora species in Californias Native Habitats. Photo by Janell Hillman, Santa Clara Valley Water District ... Phytophthora Species in Restoration Nurseries, Plantings, and Wildlands II. San Jose, CA; May 18, 2017. ... Phytophthora species in the field: life cycle, distribution, dispersal, impacts in California - Ted Swiecki, Phytosphere ...
californias gold. Californias Gold with Huell Howser. Huell Books It to Chico for the Snow Goose Festival. Huell travels to ... californias gold. Californias Gold with Huell Howser. Huell Spends the Day at Angel Stadium with the Baseball Sod Crew. Spend ... Fox Populi: Near-Extinct Species Makes a Comeback on CA Islands , KCET. Redefine ... californias gold. Huell Books It to Chico for the Snow Goose Festival. Huell travels to Chico to join the celebration of the ...
Catalysis by Michel Chanon at, Canadas largest bookstore. + Get Free Shipping on Science and Nature books over $25! ... Buy the Paperback Book Paramagnetic Organometallic Species in Activation/Selectivity, ...
  • Steller Sea Lions ( Eumetopias jubatus ) can be found along the coast and outer continental shelf along the North Pacific Rim from California to Japan. (
  • They are known to haul out with other Otariid species such as Northern Fur Seals (pictured above) and California Sea Lions. (
  • California Fish and Wildlife Warden Pat Freeling returned to the Mendocino coast location where he discovered two Korean men with 850 wild Dudleya farinosa in their van in March 2018. (
  • Recently, the Department of the Interior announced that new data shows the 2018 California wildfire season is estimated to have released emissions equal to about one year of power use . (
  • The 2011-2016 Forest Management Plan for the Renfrew County Forest identifies white pine blister rust as the most important of these harmful alien species. (
  • Yellow Fever, Dengue, Chikungunya and Zika are not locally transmitted in California as of February 2016, but the mosquitoes that can spread these diseases are now found in parts of California. (
  • Smoke rises from a burned out grove of trees at the Blue Cut wildfire in Wrightwood, California on August 17, 2016. (
  • A New Species Of Ascarophis (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae) Parasitizing Clinocottus analis (Pisces: Cottidae) From Baja California, Mexico," Journal of Parasitology 105(4), 524-532, (12 July 2019). (
  • Horses are led to paddocks past the Seabiscuit statue during workouts at Santa Anita Park, in Arcadia, Calif., Thursday, March 28, 2019. (
  • The University of California announced today (July 22) that it has offered an all-time record number of incoming students a spot on at least one of its nine undergraduate campuses for the 2019-20 academic year. (
  • California's endangered species act is considered superior to similar acts enacted in other states due to its comprehensive design, its involvement in the pursuit of prevention, and for its cooperative relationships with programs such as Natural Community Conservation Planning (NCCP). (
  • California's native plant species are so vulnerable to global climate change that two-thirds of them could suffer 80 percent reduction in their geographic range by the end of the 21st century. (
  • Climate scientist Katharine Hayhoe, who contributed to the Nobel-Prize-winning United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, prepared high-resolution projections for California's future climate for an ecological study by researchers at the University of California, Berkeley, and Duke University. (
  • The bad news is that the climate change we may experience in the future could have this kind of drastic impact on California's native plant species," Hayhoe said. (
  • Because California has so many unique and relatively young plant species, it was long assumed by biogeographers and naturalists that high speciation rates were the cause of California's biodiversity," says first author Lesley Lancaster, who conducted the study when she was a postdoctoral scholar at University of California, Santa Barbara's National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS). (
  • Instead, features of California's climate, topography, and latitude have preserved these species, allowing us to see them today, when they may have simply gone extinct if they had arisen elsewhere. (
  • Some of the study's key findings differ from longstanding ideas about the origins of California's extraordinary species richness set forth in a 1978 study by Peter Raven and Daniel Axelrod. (
  • Raven and Axelrod also hypothesized that the onset of the Mediterranean climate in California 3 to 5 million years ago was a key factor that promoted high rates of speciation and led to the species richness that now characterizes California's flora. (
  • According to Kay, California's topographical diversity likely has played a critical role in preserving species richness. (
  • Because California has so many unique and relatively young plant species , it was long assumed by biogeographers and naturalists that high speciation rates were the cause of California's biodiversity," Lancaster said. (
  • Some of the study's key findings differ from long-standing ideas about the origins of California's extraordinary species richness that were set forth in a landmark study published in 1978, "Origin and relationships of the California flora," by Peter Raven and Daniel Axelrod. (
  • Raven and Axelrod also hypothesized that the onset of the wet-winter, dry-summer Mediterranean climate in California 3 to 5 million years ago was a key factor that promoted high rates of speciation and led to the species richness that now characterizes California's flora. (
  • LOS ANGELES (AP) - Federal wildlife officials recommended Friday that three fox subspecies native to California's Channel Islands be removed from the endangered species, saying their populations have made an historic recovery. (
  • The study's findings indicate that the paleobotanical record of California's plant species can inform managers and ecologists today about the potential future of forests in the state. (
  • California's on the front lines of the amphibian and reptile extinction crisis, so we're relieved these unique salamanders, lizards and snake are being considered for endangered species protection," said Jenny Loda, a Center biologist and lawyer who works to protect amphibians and reptiles. (
  • As a native Californian, a scientist who has studied amphibians and now a lawyer working to protect these special and important animals, I would be deeply saddened if even one of California's herpetofauna species were lost. (
  • Unlike California's more native and nocturnal mosquitoes, which can also be dangerous with their spread of the West Nile Virus, these new species are known to bite during the day. (
  • But California's official emissions score will not be affected by the extraordinary amount of carbon released during wildfires this year, because the agency that calculates emissions-the California Air Resources Board-considers wildfires to be a part of the earth's natural carbon cycle. (
  • Perennial pepperweed ( Lepidium latifolium ) has invaded thousands of hectares of marshland in the San Francisco Estuary, California, United States of America, while the effects of invasion and removal of this weed remain poorly studied. (
  • In 2009, the first recognized occurrence of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in southern California in April was followed by a surge of cases during October through November ( 4 ). (
  • The descriptions document the occurrence of dwarf males in five of the new species. (
  • Botanists have long recognized California as a biodiversity hotspot. (
  • These findings speak to the importance of protecting areas in California so that it can continue to be a refuge for biodiversity in the future. (
  • That classic work, which was based on fossil data and current distribution of plants, emphasized high speciation rates as an important contributor to high plant biodiversity in California. (
  • All the regions of the world with a Mediterranean climate (California, the Cape of Africa, Southwestern Australia, the west coast of Chile, and around the Mediterranean Sea) are currently plant biodiversity hotspots, and California does have a large number of relatively young species. (
  • Assented to in 2002, the Species at Risk Act (SARA) is a cornerstone of the Government of Canada's Federal Sustainable Development Strategy and represents Canada's commitment to the protection and management of biodiversity within Canada's borders. (
  • It was one of 800 species found in that research trip, said discoverer Pedro Martinez Arbizu, a department head at the German Centre for Marine Biodiversity Research. (
  • The captive breeding program turned out to be surprisingly successful, and flocks of released condors are surviving in several areas of California and in the region of the Grand Canyon. (
  • This site has been established as a central repository for accurate and spatially referenced biogeographic accounts of nonindigenous aquatic species. (
  • The Nonindigenous Aquatic Species (NAS) program has developed a new tool, the NAS Alert Risk Mapper (ARM), to characterize waterbodies in the conterminous U.S. and Hawaii at potential risk of invasion from a new nonindigenous species sighting. (
  • The USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species (NAS) Program is working with partners to define native ranges of inland fishes in the United States to help identify which species should be included in the. (
  • The USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species program has developed an innovative mapping tool to help natural resource managers with post-storm nonindigenous aquatic species detection and assessment efforts. (
  • We have developed a scorecard template to help us rate, for a given species, its impacts and our ability to respond to the species. (
  • The bill would authorize the council to establish advisory committees and ad hoc working groups, including the California Invasive Species Advisory Committee, with a prescribed membership, to advise the council on a broad array of issues related to preventing the introduction of invasive species and providing for their control or eradication, as well as minimizing the economic, ecological, and human health impacts that invasive species cause, as specified. (
  • But that cannot mean they are given carte blanche to site their projects irrespective of impacts on protected species. (
  • The court's injunction puts in place buffer areas around certain habitats of the California red-legged frog, and disallows use of certain pesticides within those habitats and buffer zones. (
  • Many of these Phytophthora species appear to have wide host ranges, capable of causing disease on plants across many families and in many different habitats. (
  • Talaromyces species are common in air, soil, and human habitats. (
  • The lawsuit requested the court apply "appropriate restrictions on the use of pesticides where they may affect endangered and threatened species and critical habitats" until consultations had been completed and the product registrations were in compliance with the Endangered Species Act. (
  • The environmental goal is to create a variety of habitats to increase and maintain fish and wildlife, and ensure protection of endangered species. (
  • Scientists hope to use the restoration project as a model of how best to help species colonize man-made habitats. (
  • Joshua Tree National Park, in Southern California, has a stunning array of scenery because it's at the meeting point of two different desert habitats, the Mojave and the Colorado. (
  • On October 20, 2006, the Federal District Court for the Northern District of California issued a Stipulated Injunction that resolves a case brought against EPA by the Center for Biological Diversity. (
  • Native and alien species diversity at the local and regional scales in a grazed California grassland. (
  • Our understanding of sustainable ecosystems--and the diversity of species comprising them--will help us chart a successful way forward for the future of all life on Earth. (
  • Tierra Curry, senior scientist at the Center for Biological Diversity, credited the Endangered Species Act for saving the island foxes. (
  • Vroom said environmental groups such as PANNA and the Center for Biological Diversity have been challenging crop protection product registrations based on alleged Endangered Species Act violations for more than a decade. (
  • 2009). In this sense Osedax resembles the radiation of vestimentiferans, but no records exist for such high species diversity among vestimentiferan or frenulate siboglinids in comparably small geographic areas as in Monterey Bay. (
  • In response to a petition from the Center for Biological Diversity, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service today announced that five amphibians and two reptiles in California, and one reptile in Arizona, may qualify for Endangered Species Act protection. (
  • The Book of Beetles," edited by Patrice Bouchard, celebrates the beauty and diversity of this marvelous group of insects, covering 600 significant beetle species. (
  • Huell travels to the westernmost point in California in search of the Cape Mendocino Lighthouse. (
  • A blastn search ( ) through the GenBank database, pairwise comparison alignment through the CBS database, or both showed 99%-100% homology for ITS, 97%-100% for BenA, and 91%-100% for RPB1 sequences with the best-matched sequences of known Talaromyces species isolates. (
  • A search-and-rescue team pulled a rare half-ton whale fossil from a Southern California backyard Friday, a feat that the team agreed to take on as a makeshift training mission. (
  • A newly described species of brown-and-white, charismatic butterflyfish made a fantastic, 7,000-mile journey before surprising scientists with its unknown status. (
  • The Center was joined in its petition for these four species and dozens of other amphibians and reptiles by several renowned scientists and herpetologists, including E.O. Wilson, Thomas Lovejoy and Michael Lannoo. (
  • Some species were counted several or even dozens of times, said Jesse Ausubel of the Alfred Sloan Foundation, the co-founder of the effort that involved 2,700 scientists. (
  • Now scientists have mapped just which critters normally live in or on us and where, calculating that healthy people can share their bodies with more than 10,000 species of microbes. (
  • Our study projects that climate change will profoundly impact the future of the native flora in California," said David Ackerly, a professor of integrative biology at University of California, Berkeley. (
  • The study begins to fill in the picture of the dangers of climate change, and the importance of preserving large vertical swaths of forest for species migration as we continue to warm. (
  • The California Fish and Game Commission's action reflects a difficult reality: Climate change represents a clear threat to both public health in California and to the long-term sustainability of the western Joshua tree. (
  • WASHINGTON (AP) - The federal government is protecting 20 types of colorful coral by putting them on the list of threatened species, partly because of climate change. (
  • Climate Change, Atmospheric Rivers, and Floods in California-A Multimodel Analysis of Storm Frequency and Magnitude Changes. (
  • The Minister of Fisheries and Oceans is the Competent Minister under SARAfor aquatic species, other than those individuals who are in or on federal lands administered by the Parks Canada Agency. (
  • Storm-related flooding can lead to the potential spread of nonindigenous (or non-native) aquatic species into waterways they have not been seen in before. (
  • Two-thirds of the plants native to the state of California could suffer more than an 80 percent reduction in geographic range by the end of the century, according to a recent study. (
  • Ash trees have now joined a growing list of native trees in our area affected by invasive species from other continents. (
  • The deadliness of the canker means that Butternut has disappeared from most of its native range and is now listed as an endangered species. (
  • Distribution of plants in a California serpentine grassland: are rocky hummocks spatial refuges for native species? (
  • Invasions by non-native taxa can have severe consequences for native species. (
  • In the heavily invaded serpentine grasslands of central California, many native species appear to be restricted to isolated outcrops of shallow serpentine soil, or "hummocks," although the extent to which these hummocks function as refuges for native vegetation has never been quantified. (
  • Importantly, both the hummock and matrix specialist groups included native species. (
  • Several first-in-the-USA detections and newly identified species of Phytophthora in both native plant nurseries and restoration areas have occurred in recent years. (
  • Buying healthy plants: What to look for at a nursery - guidelines created for the California Native Plant Society but useful to anyone wanting to work with plant growers on producing and purchasing healthy nursery stock. (
  • Native species accounted for 21 % of total abundance and 45 % of total species richness. (
  • Compared to native species, NIS occurred more frequently among samples and also explained more of the variation in community structure among sites. (
  • Cutting dry deciduous forest (preserved site) for wood supply in semi-arid Brazil has led to invasion of a pioneer shrub vegetation called " Carrasco " (disturbed site), which inhibits the sprouting of native species. (
  • A land restoration project was undertaken in a cleared Carrasco area where a mixed plantation of native species and Eucalyptus spp. (
  • As an alternative to re-vegetation with native species, an agroforestry system was proposed that uses a mixture of Eucalyptus spp. (
  • and native species (experimental site), thereby combining harmonious and concomitant wood production with land rehabilitation and preservation. (
  • The focus is on non-native invasive plant species impacting natural areas, excluding agricultural and other heavily developed and managed lands. (
  • Understanding the native versus non-native range of a species can provide useful information about dispersal, population distribution patterns, and human mediated movement across hydrologic barriers. (
  • Still, wetland losses continue to fuel declines in marsh species native to the US Southeast. (
  • Hawaii remains a hotspot of concern, with 23 of its 33 native species on the Endangered Species List. (
  • Its 3.0 m (9.8 ft) wingspan is the widest of any North American bird, and its weight of up to 12 kg (26 lb) nearly equals that of the trumpeter swan , the heaviest among native North American bird species. (
  • All animals had some level of contact with caretakers or veterinarians and were housed separately from other wildlife species. (
  • The House resumed from June 13 consideration of the motion that Bill C-33, an act respecting the protection of wildlife species at risk in Canada, be read the second time and referred to a committee, and of the amendment. (
  • Given that Osedax was first described in 2004, it seems likely that many more species remain to be discovered in the world's oceans. (
  • Co-author Kathleen Kay, assistant professor of ecology and evolutionary biology at UC Santa Cruz, adds: "It seems that California has been an important refuge for plant lineages for a long time. (
  • Morphological descriptions are complemented with mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences as barcodes for both species and with notes on their ecology. (
  • This language arguably makes the "Fully Protected" designation the strongest and most restrictive regarding the "take" of these species. (
  • There is debate within conservation biology circles as to the modern-day applicability of the fully protected designation due to its inflexibility, the fact that new conservation laws have been enacted, and the fact that some fully protected species have undergone moderate population recovery while many other species that deserve the fully protected status have not been designated as such. (
  • The California Endangered Species Act put into effect the Department's authority to determine the designation under which wildlife was labeled as "rare" or "endangered" and provided restrictions on the importing and moving of those species except by permit. (
  • Sequence fragments for 18S rDNA molecular markers were obtained from the new nematode species, in order to test its position within the family Cystidicolidae under a phylogenetic context. (
  • Phylogenetic analysis of Talaromyces species based on concatenated nucleotide alignments of internal transcribed spacer, partial β-tubulin gene, and partial RNA polymerase II largest subunit gene regions, showing the relationship among clinical. (
  • Using three independent molecular markers we showed that Niphargusgebhardti belongs to the clade distributed between Central and Eastern Europe, whereas phylogenetic relationship of Niphargusmolnari to the rest of Niphargus species is not clear.The two species from the Mecsek Mts. (
  • I included the new species in a phylogenetic analysis to find out more about the relationships between otariids. (
  • Vroom said the dismissal provides an opportunity to renew discussions on the role of modern farming technologies in endangered species protection. (
  • In removal plots, resident plant cover significantly increased during the 2-year study period, particularly in the densest and oldest parts of the perennial pepperweed colonies, while species richness did not change significantly. (
  • Gardens with higher crop richness and that are surrounded by agricultural land had greater carabid activity density, while species and functional group richness did not respond to any local or landscape factor. (
  • This study illustrates that it is important to consider invasion age, along with exotic species removal, when developing a restoration strategy in wetland ecosystems. (
  • 1 ) identify a pattern of increased catch densities of swordfish, as well as other economically valuable and vulnerable species, in association with attracting LCS-that is, areas with low backward-in-time Finite-Time Lyapunov Exponent (FTLE b ) values. (
  • are phylogenetically not closely related.Both species need to be treated as vulnerable according to IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. (
  • The consortium, formally known as the U.S. Committee of the North American Bird Conservation Initiative, has set up a watch list of about 230 species, out of 800 overall, that are the most vulnerable, Rosenberg says. (
  • f) The Legislature fully recognizes that any prediction of which invasive pests will enter California cannot be precise because of the many entry mechanisms. (
  • Black-crowned night herons feed at night in the same areas that other heron species feed in the day. (
  • While it is true that areas of higher FTLE b have lower catch rates of bycatch species, the number of bycatch caught per swordfish could increase ( Fig. 1 ). (
  • Many species may have to move to cooler areas in order to survive. (
  • These geographic areas are within one or more of 33 counties within California. (
  • Clinical laboratories in areas to which this fungus is not endemic often do not perform identification of T . marneffei and other Talaromyces species ( 2 ). (
  • This sharply-marked bird with the curving topknot is common along the California coast and in a few other areas of the west. (
  • Mosquito and vector control districts in the affected areas of California are aggressively trying to control these mosquitoes using a multitude of integrated pest management tools. (
  • Herbaceous species typical in these areas include common lambsquarters ( Chenopodium album ) , narrowleaf globemallow ( Sphaeralcea angustifolia ), white sweetclover ( Melilotus alba ), and silverleaf nightshade ( Solanum elaeagnifolium ) [ 99 ]. (
  • Classification from Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: April 2013 selected by C. Michael Hogan - see more . (
  • The California condor ( Gymnogyps californianus ) is a New World vulture , the largest North American land bird. (
  • The generic name Gymnogyps is derived from the Greek gymnos /γυμνος "naked" or "bare", and gyps /γυψ "vulture", while the specific name californianus comes from its location in California. (
  • They are moving at least two more cases through the court system, one involving three South Korean nationals arrested for poaching in Del Norte County last fall and another involving suspects from Southern California who have targeted plants in Marin County, the Mendocino Headlands and Point Reyes National Seashore, officials said. (
  • A changing climate that promotes more frequently burned forests could result in a shift from northern temperate plants to more drought-tolerant southern species, Stevens noted. (
  • The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species™ is a global effort that provides comprehensive data on the conservation status of plants and animals. (
  • The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) is an international trade agreement that aims to ensure international trade in species of wild plants and animals does not threaten their survival. (
  • It was approved for biological control in California and was used to inoculate YST plants in 2003. (
  • In addition, Plants Database lists screwbean mesquite as a salvage assessed species [ 102 ]. (