A species of the genus VESIVIRUS infecting cats. Transmission occurs via air and mechanical contact.
A family of RNA viruses infecting a broad range of animals. Most individual species are restricted to their natural hosts. They possess a characteristic six-pointed starlike shape whose surfaces have cup-shaped (chalice) indentions. Transmission is by contaminated food, water, fomites, and occasionally aerosolization of secretions. Genera include LAGOVIRUS; NORWALK-LIKE VIRUSES; SAPPORO-LIKE VIRUSES; and VESIVIRUS.
Virus diseases caused by CALICIVIRIDAE. They include HEPATITIS E; VESICULAR EXANTHEMA OF SWINE; acute respiratory infections in felines, rabbit hemorrhagic disease, and some cases of gastroenteritis in humans.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
Diseases of the domestic cat (Felis catus or F. domesticus). This term does not include diseases of the so-called big cats such as CHEETAHS; LIONS; tigers, cougars, panthers, leopards, and other Felidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).
A genus of the family CALICIVIRIDAE associated with worldwide sporadic outbreaks of GASTROENTERITIS in humans. The first recorded outbreak was in human infants in Sapporo, Japan in 1977. The genus is comprised of a single species, Sapporo virus, containing multiple strains.
A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus feline lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, FELINE) isolated from cats with a chronic wasting syndrome, presumed to be immune deficiency. There are 3 strains: Petaluma (FIP-P), Oma (FIP-O) and Puma lentivirus (PLV). There is no antigenic relationship between FIV and HIV, nor does FIV grow in human T-cells.
The type species in the genus NOROVIRUS, first isolated in 1968 from the stools of school children in Norwalk, Ohio, who were suffering from GASTROENTERITIS. The virions are non-enveloped spherical particles containing a single protein. Multiple strains are named after the places where outbreaks have occurred.
Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs in cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and in some cats infected with feline leukemia virus (FeLV).
A species in the genus LAGOVIRUS which causes hemorrhagic disease, including hemorrhagic septicemia, in rabbits.
A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting cats of all ages and commonly found in catteries and zoos. Cats are often found carrying the virus but only a small proportion develop disease. Feline coronavirus and Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) are virtually the same virus in genetic and antigenetic terms, and are morphologically indistinguishable. Since they only differ in their disease potential (with FIPV causing a more serious illness), they are considered biotypes of each other.
Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.
A genus of the family CALICIVIRIDAE comprised of species infecting a wide range of organisms. Most members of this genus can be readily propagated in cell culture (as opposed to other genera of Caliciviridae). The type species is VESICULAR EXANTHEMA OF SWINE VIRUS.
The type species of the genus VESIVIRUS infecting pigs. The resulting infection is an acute febrile disease which is clinically indistinguishable from FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE. Transmission is by contaminated food.
A genus in the family CALICIVIRIDAE, associated with epidemic GASTROENTERITIS in humans. The type species, NORWALK VIRUS, contains multiple strains.
A highly contagious DNA virus infection of the cat family, characterized by fever, enteritis and bone marrow changes. It is also called feline ataxia, feline agranulocytosis, feline infectious enteritis, cat fever, cat plague, and show fever. It is caused by FELINE PANLEUKOPENIA VIRUS or the closely related MINK ENTERITIS VIRUS or CANINE PARVOVIRUS.
INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.
Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS isolated from fibrosarcoma in cats. The viruses are actually recombinant feline leukemia viruses (FeLV) where part of the genome has been replaced by cellular oncogenes. It is unique to individuals and not transmitted naturally to other cats. FeSVs are replication defective and require FeLV to reproduce.
A calicivirus infection of swine characterized by hydropic degeneration of the oral and cutaneous epithelia.
Common coronavirus infection of cats caused by the feline infectious peritonitis virus (CORONAVIRUS, FELINE). The disease is characterized by a long incubation period, fever, depression, loss of appetite, wasting, and progressive abdominal enlargement. Infection of cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage appears to be essential in FIP pathogenesis.
A genus of the family CALICIVIRIDAE, associated with infections in rabbits and hares, responsible for epidemics with high mortality. RABBIT HEMORRHAGIC DISEASE VIRUS is the type species.
A species of PARVOVIRUS infecting cats with a highly contagious enteric disease. Host range variants include mink enteritis virus, canine parvovirus (PARVOVIRUS, CANINE), and raccoon parvovirus. After infecting their new hosts, many of these viruses have further evolved and are now considered distinct species.
A family of small RNA viruses comprising some important pathogens of humans and animals. Transmission usually occurs mechanically. There are nine genera: APHTHOVIRUS; CARDIOVIRUS; ENTEROVIRUS; ERBOVIRUS; HEPATOVIRUS; KOBUVIRUS; PARECHOVIRUS; RHINOVIRUS; and TESCHOVIRUS.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.
Virus diseases caused by the PICORNAVIRIDAE.
A neoplastic disease of cats frequently associated with feline leukemia virus infection.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
A bacteriophage genus of the family LEVIVIRIDAE, whose viruses contain the short version of the genome and have a separate gene for cell lysis.
A family of membrane glycoproteins localized to TIGHT JUNCTIONS that contain two extracellular Ig-like domains, a single transmembrane segment, and a cytoplasmic tail of variable length.
Inorganic compounds that contain chlorine as an integral part of the molecule.
A family of enveloped, linear, double-stranded DNA viruses infecting a wide variety of animals. Subfamilies, based on biological characteristics, include: ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE; BETAHERPESVIRINAE; and GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE.
'Frozen foods' in a medical context typically refers to prepared or raw food items that have been rapidly cooled then stored at freezing temperatures, typically below -18 degrees Celsius, to minimize microbial growth and enzymatic reactions, thereby extending their shelf life.
The suborder of aquatic CARNIVORA comprising the WALRUSES; FUR SEALS; SEA LIONS; and EARLESS SEALS. They have fusiform bodies with very short tails and are found on all sea coasts. The offspring are born on land.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Virus diseases caused by the Lentivirus genus. They are multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A genus of small, circular RNA viruses in the family ASTROVIRIDAE. They cause GASTROENTERITIS and are found in the stools of several vertebrates including humans. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route and there are at least eight human serotypes. The type species is Human astrovirus.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
It is used as an oxidizing and bleaching agent and as a disinfectant. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.

Neutralizing feature of commercially available feline calicivirus (FCV) vaccine immune sera against FCV field isolates. (1/88)

Four types of commercially available feline calicivirus (FCV) vaccine were compared in terms of their efficacy on the basis of the ability of the sera of specific-pathogen-free cats immunized by two injections of each type of vaccine to neutralize FCV field isolates. Each vaccine immune serum neutralized relatively well strains F4, F9, and 255, which were FCV laboratory strains. As to 36 strains of field isolates, however, vaccines A, B, C, and D immune sera did not neutralize 18-20 of the strains (50.0%-55.6%), 19-22 of the strains (52.8%-61.1%), 22-25 of the strains (61.1%-69.4%), and 8-16 of the strains (22.2%-44.4%), respectively. These results indicate that there is much difference in neutralizing antigenicity between the existing vaccine strains and the FCV strains that are prevalent in Japan, suggesting the need for improvement of FCV vaccines.  (+info)

Mapping of the feline calicivirus proteinase responsible for autocatalytic processing of the nonstructural polyprotein and identification of a stable proteinase-polymerase precursor protein. (2/88)

Expression of the region of the feline calicivirus (FCV) ORF1 encoded by nucleotides 3233 to 4054 in an in vitro rabbit reticulocyte system resulted in synthesis of an active proteinase that specifically processes the viral nonstructural polyprotein. Site-directed mutagenesis of the cysteine (Cys1193) residue in the putative active site of the proteinase abolished autocatalytic cleavage as well as cleavage of the viral capsid precursor, suggesting that this "3C-like" proteinase plays an important role in proteolytic processing during viral replication. Expression of the region encoding the C-terminal portion of the FCV ORF1 (amino acids 942 to 1761) in bacteria allowed direct N-terminal sequence analysis of the virus-specific polypeptides produced in this system. The results of these analyses indicate that the proteinase cleaves at amino acid residues E960-A961, E1071-S1072, E1345-T1346, and E1419-G1420; however, the cleavage efficiency is varied. The E1071-S1072 cleavage site defined the N terminus of a 692-amino-acid protein that contains sequences with similarity to the picornavirus 3C proteinase and 3D polymerase domains. Immunoprecipitation of radiolabeled proteins from FCV-infected feline kidney cells with serum raised against the FCV ORF1 C-terminal region showed that this "3CD-like" proteinase-polymerase precursor protein is apparently stable and accumulates in cells during infection.  (+info)

The capsid gene of feline calicivirus contains linear B-cell epitopes in both variable and conserved regions. (3/88)

In order to map linear B-cell (LBC) epitopes in the major capsid protein of feline calicivirus (FCV), an expression library containing random, short (100- to 200-bp) fragments of the FCV F9 capsid gene was constructed. Analysis of this library showed it to be representative of the region of the capsid gene that encodes the mature capsid protein. The library was screened by using polyclonal antisera from a cat that had been challenged experimentally with F9 to identify immunoreactive clones containing LBC epitopes. Twenty-six clones that reacted positively to feline antisera in immunoblots were identified. FCV-derived sequence from these clones mapped to a region of the capsid that spanned 126 amino acids and included variable regions C and E. An overlapping set of biotinylated peptides corresponding to this region was used to further map LBC epitopes by using F9 antisera. Four principal regions of reactivity were identified. Two fell within the hypervariable region at the 5' end of region E (amino acids [aa] 445 to 451 [antigenic site (ags) 2] and aa 451 to 457 [ags 3]). However, the other two were in conserved regions (aa 415 to 421 [ags 1; region D] and aa 475 to 479 [ags 4; central region E]). The reactivity of the peptide set with antisera from 11 other cats infected with a range of FCV isolates was also determined. Ten of 11 antisera reacted to conserved ags 4, suggesting that this region may be useful for future recombinant vaccine design.  (+info)

Analysis of the N-terminal polypeptide of the capsid precursor protein and the ORF3 product of feline calicivirus. (4/88)

The N-terminal unique polypeptide region of the capsid precursor protein of feline calicivirus (FCV) and the protein encoded by ORF3 of FCV were expressed as fusion proteins with glutathione S-transferase to analyze the expressed products in FCV-infected cells. Immunoblot analysis using a serum from a cat experimentally infected with FCV indicated relatively high immunogenicity of the N-terminal polypeptide in FCV-infected cats, as compared with the ORF3 protein. Specific antisera were prepared by immunization to mice with the fused proteins and used in immunoblot analysis. A 14 kD product corresponding to the N-terminal polypeptide and a 10 kD polypeptide of the ORF3 product were identified in the FCV-infected cells but not detected in the purified particles. No neutralization activity against FCV was detected in these antisera. The proteins identified as polypeptides of 14 kD and 10 kD in this study may have functions as non-structural proteins.  (+info)

Recovery and altered neutralization specificities of chimeric viruses containing capsid protein domain exchanges from antigenically distinct strains of feline calicivirus. (5/88)

Feline calicivirus (FCV) strains can show significant antigenic variation when tested for cross-reactivity with antisera produced against other FCV strains. Previous work has demonstrated the presence of hypervariable amino acid sequences in the capsid protein of FCV (designated regions C and E) that were postulated to constitute the major antigenic determinants of the virus. To examine the involvement of hypervariable sequences in determining the antigenic phenotype, the nucleotide sequences encoding the E regions from three antigenically distinct parental FCV strains (CFI, KCD, and NADC) were exchanged for the equivalent sequences in an FCV Urbana strain infectious cDNA clone. Two of the three constructs were recovered as viable, chimeric viruses. In six additional constructs, of which three were recovered as viable virus, the E region from the parental viruses was divided into left (N-terminal) and right (C-terminal) halves and engineered into the infectious clone. A final viable construct contained the C, D, and E regions of the NADC parental strain. Recovered chimeric viruses showed considerable antigenic variation from the parental viruses when tested against parental hyperimmune serum. No domain exchange was able to confer complete recognition by parental antiserum with the exception of the KCD E region exchange, which was neutralized at a near-homologous titer with KCD antiserum. These data demonstrate that it is possible to recover engineered chimeric FCV strains that possess altered antigenic characteristics. Furthermore, the E hypervariable region of the capsid protein appears to play a major role in the formation of the antigenic structure of the virion where conformational epitopes may be more important than linear in viral neutralization.  (+info)

Comparison of prevalence of feline herpesvirus type 1, calicivirus and parvovirus infections in domestic and leopard cats in Vietnam. (6/88)

A serosurvey of feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1), feline calicivirus (FCV), and feline parvovirus (FPV) in cats from Ho Chi Minh City area in southern Vietnam was conducted in December 1998, and we compared the results with our previous results in northern Vietnam (Hanoi area). The positive rate of FHV and FCV in domestic cats were 44% and 74%, respectively. They were rather higher than those in Hanoi area, while the seropositivity of FPV (44%) was similar to that in Hanoi area. In leopard cats, the positive rate of FPV was high (3/4) and it indicated that FPV was prevailing in leopard cats in Vietnam.  (+info)

Identification and genomic mapping of the ORF3 and VPg proteins in feline calicivirus virions. (7/88)

Two minor proteins with molecular masses of 8.5 and 15.5 kDa were identified in feline calicivirus (FCV) virions. Direct sequence analysis showed that the N-terminal sequence of the 8.5-kDa protein was identical to that of the predicted protein encoded by open reading frame 3 (ORF3) of the FCV genome. The N-terminal sequence of the 15.5-kDa protein corresponded to amino acids 961-980 of the FCV ORF1 polyprotein and mapped to the genomic location of the calicivirus VPg. Antisera raised against recombinant ORF3 protein or the N-terminal 20 amino acids of the putative VPg reacted with the corresponding proteins present in both a Western blot analysis of purified FCV virions and an immunofluorescence assay of FCV-infected cells. A comparative analysis of radioactivity incorporated into virion proteins during in vivo labeling experiments indicated that the ORF3 protein is likely present in one or two copies per virion. The mobility of the ORF3 protein present in virions was similar to that of the ORF3 protein found in FCV-infected cells or expressed in bacteria. Direct N- and C-terminal sequence analysis of the purified ORF3 protein obtained by expression in bacteria demonstrated the presence of intact, uncleaved termini, suggesting that the observed difference between the calculated and the apparent masses in SDS-PAGE was not due to proteolytic processing of the protein.  (+info)

Proteinase-polymerase precursor as the active form of feline calicivirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. (8/88)

The objective of this study was to identify the active form of the feline calicivirus (FCV) RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP). Multiple active forms of the FCV RdRP were identified. The most active enzyme was the full-length proteinase-polymerase (Pro-Pol) precursor protein, corresponding to amino acids 1072 to 1763 of the FCV polyprotein encoded by open reading frame 1 of the genome. Deletion of 163 amino acids from the amino terminus of Pro-Pol (the Val-1235 amino terminus) caused a threefold reduction in polymerase activity. Deletion of an additional one (the Thr-1236 amino terminus) or two (the Ala-1237 amino terminus) amino acids produced derivatives that were 7- and 175-fold, respectively, less active than Pro-Pol. FCV proteinase-dependent processing of Pro-Pol in the interdomain region preceding Val-1235 was not observed in the presence of a catalytically active proteinase; however, processing within the polymerase domain was observed. Inactivation of proteinase activity by changing the catalytic cysteine-1193 to glycine permitted the production and purification of intact Pro-Pol. Biochemical analysis of Pro-Pol showed that this enzyme has properties expected of a replicative polymerase, suggesting that Pro-Pol is an active form of the FCV RdRP.  (+info)

Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus that belongs to the family Caliciviridae. It is a common pathogen in cats and can cause a variety of clinical signs, including upper respiratory disease, oral ulcers, pneumonia, and limping syndrome. FCV is highly contagious and can be spread through direct contact with infected cats or contaminated objects.

FCV infection typically causes mild to moderate symptoms, such as sneezing, nasal discharge, conjunctivitis, and ulcers in the mouth. However, some strains of the virus can cause more severe disease, including virulent systemic disease (VSD), which is characterized by severe pneumonia, jaundice, and multi-organ failure. VSD is a rare but often fatal complication of FCV infection.

There are several vaccines available to protect cats against FCV infection. However, because there are many different strains of the virus, vaccination may not prevent infection altogether, but it can reduce the severity of clinical signs and the risk of complications. It is important to note that some vaccinated cats can still become infected with FCV and shed the virus, so it is still possible for them to transmit the virus to other cats.

In addition to vaccination, good hygiene practices, such as regular cleaning and disinfection of surfaces and cages, can help prevent the spread of FCV in multi-cat environments. It is also important to isolate sick cats from healthy ones to reduce the risk of transmission.

Caliciviridae is a family of single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses that primarily infect animals, including humans. In humans, Caliciviridae causes gastroenteritis, commonly known as stomach flu, and is responsible for a significant portion of foodborne illnesses worldwide. The name "Caliciviridae" comes from the Latin word "calyx," meaning "cup," which refers to the cup-shaped depressions on the surface of some members of this virus family.

There are five genera within Caliciviridae that infect humans: Norovirus, Sapovirus, Lagovirus, Vesivirus, and Nebovirus. Among these, Norovirus is the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis in humans, accounting for approximately 90% of all cases.

Caliciviruses are small, non-enveloped viruses that range from 27 to 40 nanometers in diameter. They have a simple structure, consisting of a single protein shell (capsid) that encloses the RNA genome. The capsid proteins of Caliciviridae are organized into two major domains: the shell domain and the protruding domain. The protruding domain contains binding sites for host cell receptors and is responsible for eliciting an immune response in the host.

Caliciviruses are highly contagious and can be transmitted through various routes, including fecal-oral transmission, ingestion of contaminated food or water, and direct contact with infected individuals or surfaces. They are resistant to many common disinfectants and can survive for extended periods on environmental surfaces, making them difficult to eliminate from healthcare settings and other high-touch areas.

In addition to their medical importance, Caliciviridae also has significance in veterinary medicine, as several members of this family infect animals such as cats, dogs, pigs, and rabbits, causing a range of clinical symptoms from gastroenteritis to respiratory illnesses.

Caliciviridae is a family of single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses that includes several important pathogens causing gastrointestinal illness in humans and animals. The most well-known human calicivirus is norovirus, which is the leading cause of acute viral gastroenteritis worldwide.

Calicivirus infections typically cause symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, nausea, and fever. The infection is usually self-limiting and lasts for a few days, but in some cases, it can lead to dehydration, especially in young children, older adults, and people with weakened immune systems.

Norovirus is highly contagious and can spread through close contact with an infected person, consumption of contaminated food or water, or touching contaminated surfaces and then touching the mouth. Prevention measures include frequent handwashing, proper food handling and preparation, and cleaning and disinfection of contaminated surfaces.

There is no specific treatment for calicivirus infections, and antibiotics are not effective against viral infections. Treatment is generally supportive and includes hydration to replace lost fluids and electrolytes. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary for intravenous fluid replacement and monitoring.

"Cat" is a common name that refers to various species of small carnivorous mammals that belong to the family Felidae. The domestic cat, also known as Felis catus or Felis silvestris catus, is a popular pet and companion animal. It is a subspecies of the wildcat, which is found in Europe, Africa, and Asia.

Domestic cats are often kept as pets because of their companionship, playful behavior, and ability to hunt vermin. They are also valued for their ability to provide emotional support and therapy to people. Cats are obligate carnivores, which means that they require a diet that consists mainly of meat to meet their nutritional needs.

Cats are known for their agility, sharp senses, and predatory instincts. They have retractable claws, which they use for hunting and self-defense. Cats also have a keen sense of smell, hearing, and vision, which allow them to detect prey and navigate their environment.

In medical terms, cats can be hosts to various parasites and diseases that can affect humans and other animals. Some common feline diseases include rabies, feline leukemia virus (FeLV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and toxoplasmosis. It is important for cat owners to keep their pets healthy and up-to-date on vaccinations and preventative treatments to protect both the cats and their human companions.

There are many diseases that can affect cats, and the specific medical definitions for these conditions can be quite detailed and complex. However, here are some common categories of feline diseases and examples of each:

1. Infectious diseases: These are caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites. Examples include:
* Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), also known as feline parvovirus, which can cause severe gastrointestinal symptoms and death in kittens.
* Feline calicivirus (FCV), which can cause upper respiratory symptoms such as sneezing and nasal discharge.
* Feline leukemia virus (FeLV), which can suppress the immune system and lead to a variety of secondary infections and diseases.
* Bacterial infections, such as those caused by Pasteurella multocida or Bartonella henselae, which can cause abscesses or other symptoms.
2. Neoplastic diseases: These are cancerous conditions that can affect various organs and tissues in cats. Examples include:
* Lymphoma, which is a common type of cancer in cats that can affect the lymph nodes, spleen, liver, and other organs.
* Fibrosarcoma, which is a type of soft tissue cancer that can arise from fibrous connective tissue.
* Squamous cell carcinoma, which is a type of skin cancer that can be caused by exposure to sunlight or tobacco smoke.
3. Degenerative diseases: These are conditions that result from the normal wear and tear of aging or other factors. Examples include:
* Osteoarthritis, which is a degenerative joint disease that can cause pain and stiffness in older cats.
* Dental disease, which is a common condition in cats that can lead to tooth loss, gum inflammation, and other problems.
* Heart disease, such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), which is a thickening of the heart muscle that can lead to congestive heart failure.
4. Hereditary diseases: These are conditions that are inherited from a cat's parents and are present at birth or develop early in life. Examples include:
* Polycystic kidney disease (PKD), which is a genetic disorder that causes cysts to form in the kidneys and can lead to kidney failure.
* Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), which can be inherited as an autosomal dominant trait in some cats.
* Progressive retinal atrophy (PRA), which is a group of genetic disorders that cause degeneration of the retina and can lead to blindness.

Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) is a retrovirus that primarily infects cats, causing a variety of diseases and disorders. It is the causative agent of feline leukemia, a name given to a syndrome characterized by a variety of symptoms such as lymphoma (cancer of the lymphatic system), anemia, immunosuppression, and reproductive disorders. FeLV is typically transmitted through close contact with infected cats, such as through saliva, nasal secretions, urine, and milk. It can also be spread through shared litter boxes and feeding dishes.

FeLV infects cells of the immune system, leading to a weakened immune response and making the cat more susceptible to other infections. The virus can also integrate its genetic material into the host's DNA, potentially causing cancerous changes in infected cells. FeLV is a significant health concern for cats, particularly those that are exposed to outdoor environments or come into contact with other cats. Vaccination and regular veterinary care can help protect cats from this virus.

Sapovirus is a type of single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the family Caliciviridae. It is a major cause of gastroenteritis (also known as stomach flu) in humans, particularly in young children and older adults. The infection typically results in vomiting and diarrhea, which can last for several days. Sapovirus is usually spread through the fecal-oral route, often through contaminated food or water. It is named after the city of Sapporo in Japan, where it was first identified in 1977.

Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) is a lentivirus that primarily affects felines, including domestic cats and wild cats. It is the feline equivalent of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). The virus attacks the immune system, specifically the CD4+ T-cells, leading to a decline in the immune function over time.

This makes the infected cat more susceptible to various secondary infections and diseases. It is usually transmitted through bite wounds from infected cats during fighting or mating. Mother to offspring transmission can also occur, either in utero, during birth, or through nursing.

There is no cure for FIV, but antiretroviral therapy can help manage the disease and improve the quality of life for infected cats. It's important to note that while FIV-positive cats can live normal lives for many years, they should be kept indoors to prevent transmission to other cats and to protect them from opportunistic infections.

Per the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Norovirus is a highly contagious virus that often causes vomiting and diarrhea. It is a common cause of gastroenteritis, which is an inflammation of the stomach and intestines. This infection is often referred to as the "stomach flu," although it is not related to the influenza virus.

Norovirus spreads easily from person to person, through contaminated food or water, or by touching contaminated surfaces. Symptoms usually develop 12 to 48 hours after exposure and include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, stomach pain, fever, and headache.

The Norwalk virus is named after Norwalk, Ohio, where an outbreak of the illness occurred in 1968. It was first identified during an investigation into an outbreak of gastroenteritis among school children. The virus was later renamed norovirus in 2002 to reflect its broader range of hosts and clinical manifestations.

It's important to note that while Norwalk virus is a common cause of viral gastroenteritis, there are many other viruses, bacteria, and parasites that can also cause similar symptoms. If you suspect you have norovirus or any other foodborne illness, it's important to seek medical attention and avoid preparing food for others until your symptoms have resolved.

Feline Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (FAIDS) is a progressive immune disorder in cats caused by infection with the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). The virus attacks and weakens the cat's immune system, making it difficult for the animal to fight off other infections and diseases.

The initial infection with FIV may cause symptoms such as fever, swollen lymph nodes, and loss of appetite. However, many cats do not show any signs of illness for years after the initial infection. As the immune system becomes weaker over time, the cat becomes more susceptible to various secondary infections, cancers, and other diseases. Common symptoms in advanced stages of FAIDS include weight loss, chronic or recurring infections (such as respiratory, skin, or gastrointestinal infections), dental disease, anemia, and neurological disorders.

FAIDS is most commonly spread through bite wounds from infected cats, as the virus is present in their saliva. It can also be transmitted through sexual contact or from mother to kitten during pregnancy or nursing. There is no cure for FAIDS, but antiretroviral therapy (ART) can help manage the infection and slow down its progression. Supportive care, such as proper nutrition, regular veterinary check-ups, and monitoring for secondary infections, is essential for maintaining the cat's quality of life.

It is important to note that FIV is species-specific and cannot be transmitted from cats to humans or other animals, except non-human primates.

Hemorrhagic disease virus (RDV) in rabbits refers to a highly virulent calicivirus that causes a severe and often fatal disease in rabbits. The disease is characterized by acute onset of fever, loss of appetite, lethargy, and various hemorrhagic symptoms such as bleeding from the nose, mouth, and rectum. In severe cases, it can lead to internal organs' necrosis and death within 12-36 hours after the onset of clinical signs.

There are two main strains of RDV: the European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV) and the rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV). Both viruses are highly contagious and can be transmitted through direct contact with infected rabbits, their feces or urine, or contaminated objects. The virus can also be spread through insects such as flies and mosquitoes.

Preventive measures include vaccination, strict biosecurity protocols, and limiting exposure to wild rabbits and insects. There is no specific treatment for RDV infection, and antibiotics are generally not effective against the virus. Supportive care, such as fluid therapy and symptomatic treatment, may be provided to help alleviate clinical signs and improve the rabbit's chances of survival.

Feline coronavirus (FCoV) is a type of virus that primarily infects cats. It is part of the Coronaviridae family and has a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome. There are two types of feline coronavirus: feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) and feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV).

FECV is a relatively harmless virus that primarily causes mild to no symptoms in infected cats, and it is spread through fecal-oral transmission. FECV mainly affects the intestines and can cause diarrhea in some cases.

FIPV, on the other hand, is a mutated form of FECV that can cause a severe and often fatal disease called feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). FIP is an immune-mediated disease characterized by inflammation and accumulation of fluid in the abdomen or chest. It can also affect other organs, such as the eyes, brain, and liver.

It's important to note that not all cats infected with FECV will develop FIP. The development of FIP depends on various factors, including the cat's age, immune system, and the specific strain of the virus. There is no cure for FIP, but supportive care can help manage the symptoms and improve the cat's quality of life.

Virus inactivation is the process of reducing or eliminating the infectivity of a virus, making it no longer capable of replicating and causing infection. This can be achieved through various physical or chemical methods such as heat, radiation, chemicals (like disinfectants), or enzymes that damage the viral genome or disrupt the viral particle's structure.

It is important to note that virus inactivation does not necessarily mean complete destruction of the viral particles; it only implies that they are no longer infectious. The effectiveness of virus inactivation depends on factors such as the type and concentration of the virus, the inactivation method used, and the duration of exposure to the inactivating agent.

Virus inactivation is crucial in various settings, including healthcare, laboratory research, water treatment, food processing, and waste disposal, to prevent the spread of viral infections and ensure safety.

Vesivirus is a genus of non-enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses in the family Caliciviridae. These viruses are known to cause gastroenteritis in animals, particularly in primates and swine. They have been associated with mild to severe enteritis, vomiting, and diarrhea. However, they are not known to cause disease in humans. The name "vesivirus" is derived from the Latin word "vesica," meaning bladder or sac, which refers to the characteristic vesicle-like structures seen on the surface of infected cells.

Vesicular exanthema of swine (VES) is a viral disease that affects pigs, characterized by the formation of blisters or vesicles on the skin and mucous membranes. The causative agent of VES is a member of the Caliciviridae family, specifically the vesicular exanthema of swine virus (VESV).

The disease is highly contagious and can spread rapidly in pig populations through direct contact with infected animals or contaminated fomites. The incubation period for VES is typically 2-6 days, after which affected pigs may develop fever, lethargy, loss of appetite, and lameness. Within a few days, small fluid-filled vesicles appear on the snout, lips, ears, and coronary bands of the hooves. These vesicles can rupture, leading to the formation of raw, painful erosions that may become secondarily infected with bacteria.

While VES is not a direct threat to human health, it can cause significant economic losses in the swine industry due to decreased growth rates, reduced feed conversion, and increased mortality in affected animals. Additionally, the clinical signs of VES are similar to those of other vesicular diseases, such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), which can lead to costly trade restrictions and quarantines.

Historically, VES was a significant problem in the United States swine industry, but extensive vaccination programs and eradication efforts have largely eliminated the disease from domestic pig populations. However, VESV continues to circulate in wild pig populations and remains a potential threat to the swine industry.

Norovirus is a highly contagious virus that causes gastroenteritis, an inflammation of the stomach and intestines. It is often referred to as the "stomach flu" or "winter vomiting bug." Symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. It can spread easily through contaminated food or water, contact with an infected person, or touching contaminated surfaces. Norovirus outbreaks are common in closed settings such as hospitals, nursing homes, schools, and cruise ships. The virus is hardy and can survive for weeks on surfaces, making it difficult to eliminate. It is also resistant to many disinfectants. There is no specific treatment for norovirus infection other than managing symptoms and staying hydrated. Vaccines are under development but not yet available.

Feline Panleukopenia is a highly contagious and often fatal viral disease in cats, also known as feline parvovirus infection. It is caused by the feline parvovirus (FPV), which belongs to the same family as the canine parvovirus. The virus primarily affects the rapidly dividing cells in the cat's body, such as those found in the intestinal lining, bone marrow, and fetal tissues.

The term "panleukopenia" refers to the severe decrease in white blood cells (leukopenia) that occurs in infected cats. This profound immune suppression makes the cat highly susceptible to secondary bacterial and viral infections, further complicating its condition.

Clinical signs of Feline Panleukopenia may include:

1. Vomiting
2. Diarrhea (often containing blood)
3. Loss of appetite
4. Lethargy
5. High fever
6. Abdominal pain
7. Dehydration

The virus is transmitted through direct contact with infected cats or their feces, as well as contaminated environments, food, and water bowls. Feline Panleukopenia can be prevented through vaccination, which is a critical component of routine cat healthcare. If you suspect your cat may have contracted this virus, consult a veterinarian immediately for appropriate diagnosis and treatment.

Gastroenteritis is not a medical condition itself, but rather a symptom-based description of inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract, primarily involving the stomach and intestines. It's often referred to as "stomach flu," although it's not caused by influenza virus.

Medically, gastroenteritis is defined as an inflammation of the mucous membrane of the stomach and intestines, usually resulting in symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, fever, and dehydration. This condition can be caused by various factors, including viral (like rotavirus or norovirus), bacterial (such as Salmonella, Shigella, or Escherichia coli), or parasitic infections, food poisoning, allergies, or the use of certain medications.

Gastroenteritis is generally self-limiting and resolves within a few days with proper hydration and rest. However, severe cases may require medical attention to prevent complications like dehydration, which can be particularly dangerous for young children, older adults, and individuals with weakened immune systems.

Sarcoma viruses in cats, also known as feline sarcoma viruses (FeSVs), are a group of retroviruses that can cause tumors and other diseases in felines. There are two main types of FeSVs: the feline leukemia virus (FeLV)-related sarcoma viruses and the independent feline sarcoma viruses.

The FeLV-related sarcoma viruses are formed when a cat is infected with FeLV, and the FeLV genome integrates into the host's DNA in such a way that it becomes rearranged and acquires new oncogenic properties. These rearranged FeLV proviruses can then cause various types of tumors, including fibrosarcomas, lymphosarcomas, and leukemias.

The independent feline sarcoma viruses, on the other hand, are not associated with FeLV infection. They contain their own unique oncogenes that can induce the formation of fibrosarcomas, a type of soft tissue cancer. These viruses are typically transmitted through direct contact with an infected cat or its saliva and can cause rapidly growing tumors at the site of inoculation.

It is important to note that not all cats infected with FeSVs will develop tumors, and other factors such as the cat's age, immune status, and genetic background may also play a role in the development of disease.

Vesicular Exanthema of Swine (VES) is a viral disease that affects pigs, characterized by the formation of blisters or vesicles on the skin and mucous membranes. The causative agent is an RNA virus known as Vesicular Exanthema of Swine Virus (VESV), which belongs to the family Caliciviridae.

The disease is primarily transmitted through direct contact with infected pigs or contaminated fomites, and it can also be spread through the ingestion of contaminated food or water. The incubation period for VES ranges from 2-6 days, after which affected animals develop fever, lethargy, loss of appetite, and lameness.

The most notable clinical sign of VES is the development of vesicles on the snout, coronary bands, and hooves of infected pigs. These lesions can rupture and form crusts or scabs, leading to secondary bacterial infections. In severe cases, lameness can progress to the point where affected animals are unable to stand or walk.

VES is a highly contagious disease that can cause significant economic losses for pig farmers. While it does not pose a direct threat to human health, VESV can cause a mild self-limiting illness in humans who come into contact with infected pigs or their secretions.

It's worth noting that Vesicular Exanthema of Swine has been eradicated from the United States since 1952, and it is now considered a foreign animal disease. However, it remains a significant concern for the global swine industry due to its potential to cause significant economic losses.

Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP) is a viral disease in cats caused by certain strains of the feline coronavirus. It is not to be confused with the common feline enteric coronavirus, which usually only causes mild diarrhea or is asymptomatic. FIP is a severe and often fatal disease, particularly in young cats.

The virus that causes FIP is spread through fecal-oral contact, often through mutual grooming or sharing of litter boxes. Once ingested, the virus typically infects the intestinal cells, but in some cases, it can mutate into a form that enters the bloodstream and spreads to other organs, such as the liver, lungs, and brain. This is when the disease becomes systemic and causes the severe symptoms associated with FIP.

There are two forms of FIP: wet (effusive) and dry (noneffusive). The wet form is characterized by an accumulation of fluid in the abdominal or chest cavity, while the dry form is characterized by granulomatous lesions in various organs. Both forms can cause a variety of symptoms, including fever, weight loss, lethargy, jaundice, vomiting, diarrhea, and neurological signs.

Currently, there is no reliable cure for FIP, and treatment is generally supportive and aimed at managing the symptoms. However, recent advances in antiviral therapy have shown promise in treating some cases of FIP, particularly those caused by the wet form of the disease.

Lagovirus is a genus of viruses in the family *Caliciviridae* that primarily infect lagomorphs, which include rabbits and hares. The most well-known species within this genus is the Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus (RHDV), which can cause a severe and often fatal disease in rabbits known as Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease (RHD).

RHD is characterized by symptoms such as high fever, internal bleeding, liver damage, and sudden death. The virus is highly contagious and can be transmitted through direct contact with infected rabbits or their feces, as well as through contaminated food, water, and bedding.

There are several strains of Lagovirus, some of which can also infect other species such as cattle, sheep, and goats, although these infections are less common and typically less severe. Currently, there are no specific treatments or vaccines available for Lagovirus infections in rabbits, and prevention measures such as strict biosecurity and quarantine protocols are essential to controlling the spread of the virus.

Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) is a highly contagious and deadly viral disease that primarily affects domestic cats, as well as other members of the Felidae family. It is also known as feline parvovirus or feline distemper. The virus attacks the rapidly dividing cells in the body, including those found in the intestines, bone marrow, and fetus.

The primary mode of transmission of FPV is through direct contact with infected cats or their feces. The virus can also be spread indirectly through contaminated objects such as clothing, food bowls, and litter boxes. FPV is resistant to many disinfectants and can survive in the environment for long periods, making it a challenging disease to control.

The symptoms of FPV include severe vomiting, diarrhea (often containing blood), loss of appetite, high fever, lethargy, and sudden death. The virus can also cause abortion in pregnant cats. Diagnosis is typically made based on clinical signs and laboratory tests that detect the presence of the virus in feces or other bodily fluids.

Treatment for FPV is primarily supportive, as there are no antiviral medications available to treat the disease. Treatment may include fluid therapy, nutritional support, antibiotics to prevent secondary bacterial infections, and medication to control vomiting and diarrhea. The prognosis for cats with FPV is guarded, and many die despite aggressive treatment.

Prevention of FPV is through vaccination, which is recommended for all cats. Kittens should receive their first FPV vaccine at 6-8 weeks of age, followed by boosters every 3-4 weeks until they are 16-20 weeks old. Adult cats should be vaccinated annually or as recommended by a veterinarian. It is also important to practice good hygiene and sanitation to prevent the spread of FPV in multi-cat households or shelters.

Picornaviridae is a family of small, single-stranded RNA viruses that are non-enveloped and have an icosahedral symmetry. The name "picornavirus" is derived from "pico," meaning small, and "RNA." These viruses are responsible for a variety of human and animal diseases, including the common cold, poliomyelitis, hepatitis A, hand-foot-and-mouth disease, and myocarditis. The genome of picornaviruses is around 7.5 to 8.5 kilobases in length and encodes a single polyprotein that is processed into structural and nonstructural proteins by viral proteases. Picornaviridae includes several important genera, such as Enterovirus, Rhinovirus, Hepatovirus, Cardiovirus, Aphthovirus, and Erbovirus.

A capsid is the protein shell that encloses and protects the genetic material of a virus. It is composed of multiple copies of one or more proteins that are arranged in a specific structure, which can vary in shape and symmetry depending on the type of virus. The capsid plays a crucial role in the viral life cycle, including protecting the viral genome from host cell defenses, mediating attachment to and entry into host cells, and assisting with the assembly of new virus particles during replication.

Disinfection is the process of eliminating or reducing harmful microorganisms from inanimate objects and surfaces through the use of chemicals, heat, or other methods. The goal of disinfection is to reduce the number of pathogens to a level that is considered safe for human health. Disinfection is an important step in preventing the spread of infectious diseases in healthcare settings, food processing facilities, and other environments where there is a risk of infection transmission.

It's important to note that disinfection is not the same as sterilization, which is the complete elimination of all microorganisms, including spores. Disinfection is generally less effective than sterilization but is often sufficient for most non-critical surfaces and objects. The choice between disinfection and sterilization depends on the level of risk associated with the item or surface being treated and the intended use of that item or surface.

Picornaviridae is a family of small, single-stranded RNA viruses that include several important human pathogens. Picornaviridae infections refer to the illnesses caused by these viruses.

The most well-known picornaviruses that cause human diseases are:

1. Enteroviruses: This genus includes poliovirus, coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, and enterovirus 71. These viruses can cause a range of illnesses, from mild symptoms like the common cold to more severe diseases such as meningitis, myocarditis, and paralysis (in the case of poliovirus).
2. Rhinoviruses: These are the most common cause of the common cold. They primarily infect the upper respiratory tract and usually cause mild symptoms like runny nose, sore throat, and cough.
3. Hepatitis A virus (HAV): This picornavirus is responsible for acute hepatitis A infection, which can cause jaundice, fatigue, abdominal pain, and loss of appetite.

Transmission of Picornaviridae infections typically occurs through direct contact with infected individuals or contaminated objects, respiratory droplets, or fecal-oral routes. Preventive measures include maintaining good personal hygiene, practicing safe food handling, and getting vaccinated against poliovirus and hepatitis A (if recommended). Treatment for most picornaviridae infections is generally supportive, focusing on relieving symptoms and ensuring proper hydration.

Feline Leukemia (FeLV) is a retroviral infection that affects cats, causing a variety of potential symptoms and health problems. It is the most common cause of cancer in cats and can also lead to immune suppression, making the cat more susceptible to other infections. The virus is transmitted through close contact with infected cats, especially through saliva and nasal secretions. There is no known cure for FeLV, but supportive care and medications can help manage the symptoms and secondary infections. Regular testing and vaccination of at-risk cats is recommended to control the spread of this disease.

A viral genome is the genetic material (DNA or RNA) that is present in a virus. It contains all the genetic information that a virus needs to replicate itself and infect its host. The size and complexity of viral genomes can vary greatly, ranging from a few thousand bases to hundreds of thousands of bases. Some viruses have linear genomes, while others have circular genomes. The genome of a virus also contains the information necessary for the virus to hijack the host cell's machinery and use it to produce new copies of the virus. Understanding the genetic makeup of viruses is important for developing vaccines and antiviral treatments.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Levivirus" is not a term commonly used in medical definitions. It is actually a type of small, icosahedral, single-stranded RNA virus that infects bacteria. They are also known as "Leviviridae" and are studied in the field of virology, not typically in medical practice. If you have any questions about bacteriophages or other types of viruses that might be more medically relevant, I'd be happy to help with those!

Junctional Adhesion Molecules (JAMs) are a group of proteins that play crucial roles in cell-cell adhesion, formation and maintenance of tight junctions, and regulation of trafficking of various molecules across the epithelial and endothelial barriers. They belong to the immunoglobulin superfamily and are typically composed of a single transmembrane domain, an extracellular domain with variable numbers of immunoglobulin-like motifs, and a cytoplasmic tail that interacts with intracellular signaling molecules.

JAMs are involved in various cellular processes, such as leukocyte migration, angiogenesis, and maintenance of epithelial polarity. Dysregulation of JAMs has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including inflammatory bowel disease, cancer, and viral infections.

Some examples of Junctional Adhesion Molecules include JAM-A, JAM-B, JAM-C, JAM-4, and coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR). These proteins are differentially expressed in various tissues and cells, and they have distinct functions and binding partners.

Chlorine compounds refer to chemical substances that contain chlorine (Cl), which is a member of the halogen group in the periodic table. Chlorine is a highly reactive element that readily forms compounds with many other elements and molecules.

Chlorine compounds can be found in various forms, including inorganic and organic compounds. Inorganic chlorine compounds include salts of hydrochloric acid, such as sodium chloride (table salt), and chlorides of metals, such as copper chloride and silver chloride. Other inorganic chlorine compounds include chlorine gas (Cl2), hypochlorous acid (HClO), and chlorine dioxide (ClO2).

Organic chlorine compounds are those that contain carbon atoms bonded to chlorine atoms. Examples of organic chlorine compounds include chlorinated solvents, such as trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene, and pesticides, such as DDT and lindane.

Chlorine compounds have a wide range of uses in various industries, including water treatment, disinfection, pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and manufacturing. However, some chlorine compounds can be harmful or toxic to humans and the environment, particularly if they are released into the air, water, or soil in large quantities. Therefore, it is essential to handle and dispose of chlorine compounds properly to minimize potential health and environmental risks.

Herpesviridae is a family of large, double-stranded DNA viruses that includes several important pathogens affecting humans and animals. The herpesviruses are characterized by their ability to establish latency in infected host cells, allowing them to persist for the lifetime of the host and leading to recurrent episodes of disease.

The family Herpesviridae is divided into three subfamilies: Alphaherpesvirinae, Betaherpesvirinae, and Gammaherpesvirinae. Each subfamily includes several genera and species that infect various hosts, including humans, primates, rodents, birds, and reptiles.

Human herpesviruses include:

* Alphaherpesvirinae: Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), and Varicella-zoster virus (VZV)
* Betaherpesvirinae: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), Human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A), Human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B), and Human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7)
* Gammaherpesvirinae: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, also known as HHV-8)

These viruses are responsible for a wide range of clinical manifestations, from mild skin lesions to life-threatening diseases. Primary infections usually occur during childhood or adolescence and can be followed by recurrent episodes due to virus reactivation from latency.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "frozen foods" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It generally refers to food that has been frozen and preserved at low temperatures. While there may be some medical concerns related to the consumption of certain types of frozen foods (such as those high in sodium or fat), it's not a term that would be used within a medical context. If you have any questions about the safety or nutritional content of specific frozen foods, I'd recommend consulting with a healthcare provider or a nutritionist.

Pinnipedia is not a medical term, but a taxonomic category in zoology. It refers to a group of marine mammals that include seals, sea lions, walruses, and related extinct species. These animals are characterized by their limbs being modified into flippers, which makes them well-adapted for life in the water. They are often studied in fields such as marine biology and veterinary medicine.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

Antibodies, viral are proteins produced by the immune system in response to an infection with a virus. These antibodies are capable of recognizing and binding to specific antigens on the surface of the virus, which helps to neutralize or destroy the virus and prevent its replication. Once produced, these antibodies can provide immunity against future infections with the same virus.

Viral antibodies are typically composed of four polypeptide chains - two heavy chains and two light chains - that are held together by disulfide bonds. The binding site for the antigen is located at the tip of the Y-shaped structure, formed by the variable regions of the heavy and light chains.

There are five classes of antibodies in humans: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Each class has a different function and is distributed differently throughout the body. For example, IgG is the most common type of antibody found in the bloodstream and provides long-term immunity against viruses, while IgA is found primarily in mucous membranes and helps to protect against respiratory and gastrointestinal infections.

In addition to their role in the immune response, viral antibodies can also be used as diagnostic tools to detect the presence of a specific virus in a patient's blood or other bodily fluids.

Capsid proteins are the structural proteins that make up the capsid, which is the protective shell of a virus. The capsid encloses the viral genome and helps to protect it from degradation and detection by the host's immune system. Capsid proteins are typically arranged in a symmetrical pattern and can self-assemble into the capsid structure when exposed to the viral genome.

The specific arrangement and composition of capsid proteins vary between different types of viruses, and they play important roles in the virus's life cycle, including recognition and binding to host cells, entry into the cell, and release of the viral genome into the host cytoplasm. Capsid proteins can also serve as targets for antiviral therapies and vaccines.

A viral RNA (ribonucleic acid) is the genetic material found in certain types of viruses, as opposed to viruses that contain DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). These viruses are known as RNA viruses. The RNA can be single-stranded or double-stranded and can exist as several different forms, such as positive-sense, negative-sense, or ambisense RNA. Upon infecting a host cell, the viral RNA uses the host's cellular machinery to translate the genetic information into proteins, leading to the production of new virus particles and the continuation of the viral life cycle. Examples of human diseases caused by RNA viruses include influenza, COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2), hepatitis C, and polio.

An open reading frame (ORF) is a continuous stretch of DNA or RNA sequence that has the potential to be translated into a protein. It begins with a start codon (usually "ATG" in DNA, which corresponds to "AUG" in RNA) and ends with a stop codon ("TAA", "TAG", or "TGA" in DNA; "UAA", "UAG", or "UGA" in RNA). The sequence between these two points is called a coding sequence (CDS), which, when transcribed into mRNA and translated into amino acids, forms a polypeptide chain.

In eukaryotic cells, ORFs can be located in either protein-coding genes or non-coding regions of the genome. In prokaryotic cells, multiple ORFs may be present on a single strand of DNA, often organized into operons that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that not all ORFs necessarily represent functional proteins; some may be pseudogenes or result from errors in genome annotation. Therefore, additional experimental evidence is typically required to confirm the expression and functionality of a given ORF.

Lentivirus infections refer to the infectious disease caused by lentiviruses, a genus of retroviruses. These viruses are characterized by their ability to cause persistent and long-term infections, often leading to chronic diseases. They primarily target cells of the immune system, such as T-cells and macrophages, and can cause significant immunosuppression.

Lentiviruses have a slow replication cycle and can remain dormant in the host for extended periods. This makes them particularly effective at evading the host's immune response and can result in progressive damage to infected tissues over time.

One of the most well-known lentiviruses is the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). HIV infects and destroys CD4+ T-cells, leading to a weakened immune system and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections.

Other examples of lentiviruses include simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV). While these viruses primarily infect non-human animals, they are closely related to HIV and serve as important models for studying lentivirus infections and developing potential therapies.

Feces are the solid or semisolid remains of food that could not be digested or absorbed in the small intestine, along with bacteria and other waste products. After being stored in the colon, feces are eliminated from the body through the rectum and anus during defecation. Feces can vary in color, consistency, and odor depending on a person's diet, health status, and other factors.

Mamastrovirus is a genus of viruses in the family Astroviridae, which infect mammals. These non-enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses are responsible for gastroenteritis in various mammalian species, including humans. The name "mamastrovirus" is derived from "mammal astrovirus."

Human mastastroviruses (HAstV) are further divided into eight major serotypes (HAstV-1 to HAstV-8), with additional genotypes and variants identified. Infection usually occurs through the fecal-oral route, leading to symptoms such as diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and fever. While mastastrovirus infections are often self-limiting, they can cause severe dehydration and other complications, particularly in young children, immunocompromised individuals, and the elderly.

Research into mamastroviruses continues to advance our understanding of their epidemiology, pathogenesis, and potential therapeutic targets for treating astrovirus-induced gastroenteritis.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

Disinfectants are antimicrobial agents that are applied to non-living objects to destroy or irreversibly inactivate microorganisms, but not necessarily their spores. They are different from sterilizers, which kill all forms of life, and from antiseptics, which are used on living tissue. Disinfectants work by damaging the cell wall or membrane of the microorganism, disrupting its metabolism, or interfering with its ability to reproduce. Examples of disinfectants include alcohol, bleach, hydrogen peroxide, and quaternary ammonium compounds. They are commonly used in hospitals, laboratories, and other settings where the elimination of microorganisms is important for infection control. It's important to use disinfectants according to the manufacturer's instructions, as improper use can reduce their effectiveness or even increase the risk of infection.

Sodium hypochlorite is a chemical compound with the formula NaOCl. It is a pale greenish-yellow liquid that is highly reactive and unstable in its pure form. However, it is commonly available as a dilute aqueous solution known as bleach, which has the characteristic smell of chlorine.

In medical terms, sodium hypochlorite is widely used for its disinfectant and antiseptic properties. It is effective against a broad range of microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and spores. Sodium hypochlorite solution is commonly used to disinfect surfaces, medical instruments, and wounds.

When applied to wounds or skin infections, sodium hypochlorite can help reduce bacterial load, promote healing, and prevent infection. It is also a component of some mouthwashes and toothpastes, where it helps to kill bacteria and freshen breath. However, it can be irritating to the skin and mucous membranes, so it should be used with caution and at appropriate concentrations.

Viral proteins are the proteins that are encoded by the viral genome and are essential for the viral life cycle. These proteins can be structural or non-structural and play various roles in the virus's replication, infection, and assembly process. Structural proteins make up the physical structure of the virus, including the capsid (the protein shell that surrounds the viral genome) and any envelope proteins (that may be present on enveloped viruses). Non-structural proteins are involved in the replication of the viral genome and modulation of the host cell environment to favor viral replication. Overall, a thorough understanding of viral proteins is crucial for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

An antigen is any substance that can stimulate an immune response, particularly the production of antibodies. Viral antigens are antigens that are found on or produced by viruses. They can be proteins, glycoproteins, or carbohydrates present on the surface or inside the viral particle.

Viral antigens play a crucial role in the immune system's recognition and response to viral infections. When a virus infects a host cell, it may display its antigens on the surface of the infected cell. This allows the immune system to recognize and target the infected cells for destruction, thereby limiting the spread of the virus.

Viral antigens are also important targets for vaccines. Vaccines typically work by introducing a harmless form of a viral antigen to the body, which then stimulates the production of antibodies and memory T-cells that can recognize and respond quickly and effectively to future infections with the actual virus.

It's worth noting that different types of viruses have different antigens, and these antigens can vary between strains of the same virus. This is why there are often different vaccines available for different viral diseases, and why flu vaccines need to be updated every year to account for changes in the circulating influenza virus strains.

Diarrhea is a condition in which an individual experiences loose, watery stools frequently, often exceeding three times a day. It can be acute, lasting for several days, or chronic, persisting for weeks or even months. Diarrhea can result from various factors, including viral, bacterial, or parasitic infections, food intolerances, medications, and underlying medical conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease or irritable bowel syndrome. Dehydration is a potential complication of diarrhea, particularly in severe cases or in vulnerable populations like young children and the elderly.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Virus replication is the process by which a virus produces copies or reproduces itself inside a host cell. This involves several steps:

1. Attachment: The virus attaches to a specific receptor on the surface of the host cell.
2. Penetration: The viral genetic material enters the host cell, either by invagination of the cell membrane or endocytosis.
3. Uncoating: The viral genetic material is released from its protective coat (capsid) inside the host cell.
4. Replication: The viral genetic material uses the host cell's machinery to produce new viral components, such as proteins and nucleic acids.
5. Assembly: The newly synthesized viral components are assembled into new virus particles.
6. Release: The newly formed viruses are released from the host cell, often through lysis (breaking) of the cell membrane or by budding off the cell membrane.

The specific mechanisms and details of virus replication can vary depending on the type of virus. Some viruses, such as DNA viruses, use the host cell's DNA polymerase to replicate their genetic material, while others, such as RNA viruses, use their own RNA-dependent RNA polymerase or reverse transcriptase enzymes. Understanding the process of virus replication is important for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

"Three-year duration of immunity in cats following vaccination against feline rhinotracheitis virus, feline calicivirus, and ... Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a virus of the family Caliciviridae that causes disease in cats. It is one of the two important ... Feline vaccination "ICTV Taxonomy history: Feline calicivirus". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). ... Ossiboff R, Sheh A, Shotton J, Pesavento P, Parker J (2007). "Feline caliciviruses (FCVs) isolated from cats with virulent ...
Feline calicivirus Vesicular exanthema of swine virus Other, unofficial Vesi-like viruses include canine calicivirus, San ... Serological relationships between different members are found (among Feline calicivirus). Cross-reactivity is found. Cross- ... Diseases associated with this genus include: respiratory disease, Feline calicivirus (FCV); conjunctivitis, and respiratory ... "Calicivirus isolate Allston 2008/US, complete genome". Retrieved 29 October 2016. "Calicivirus isolate Geel 2008/Belgium non- ...
... feline calicivirus, H. influenzae, infectious bursal disease virus, Neisseria meningitidis, Newcastle disease virus, and ... "The challenge for the next generation of feline calicivirus vaccines". Veterinary Microbiology. 117 (1): 14-18. doi:10.1016/j. ...
"Three-year duration of immunity in cats following vaccination against feline rhinotracheitis virus, feline calicivirus, and ... The other important cause of feline respiratory disease is feline calicivirus. FVR is very contagious and can cause severe ... It is also commonly referred to as feline influenza, feline coryza, and feline pneumonia but, as these terms describe other ... Effectiveness was demonstrated in a clinical study with cats experimentally infected with feline herpesvirus: 20 cats were ...
Feline calicivirus (FCV), a common viral cause of respiratory infection in cats. Feline parvovirus, which causes feline ... Epilepsy in cats is rare likely because there is no hereditary component to epilepsy in cats. Feline asthma Feline hepatic ... feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1), feline calicivirus (FCV), and feline panleukopenia virus (FPV). The decision on whether to ... Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV), a mutation of feline enteric coronavirus (FECV/FeCoV) that causes feline infectious ...
Cats receive a vaccination that protects them against feline enteritis, rhinotracheitis and Calicivirus. Dogs receive ... Cat breeds such as the Savannah cat, Safari cat, Chausie and Bengal cat are banned from entering Australia, according to the ... Dogs and cats are the most popular types of pets that are shipped. From the total amount of pets shipped via aeroplane each ... "Fees for cat and dog import permit applications - Department of Agriculture". www.agriculture.gov.au. 4 February 2020. "What is ...
Malik YS, Goyal SM (May 2006). "Virucidal efficacy of sodium bicarbonate on a food contact surface against feline calicivirus, ... Lages SL, Ramakrishnan MA, Goyal SM (February 2008). "In-vivo efficacy of hand sanitisers against feline calicivirus: a ... Phenols are toxic to cats and newborn humans Phenol is probably the oldest known disinfectant as it was first used by Lister, ... "Phenol and Phenolic Poisoning in Dogs and Cats". peteducation.com. Archived from the original on 19 September 2016. "PHENOL - ...
Feline calicivirus (FCV)-a member of the Vesivirus-represents an important pathogen of cats.[citation needed] Sapovirus, ... Diseases associated with this family include feline calicivirus (respiratory disease), rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (often ... cats, chickens, reptiles, dolphins and amphibians. The caliciviruses have a simple construction and are not enveloped. The ... Caliciviruses Human caliciviruses Stanford University Virus Pathogen Database and Analysis Resource (ViPR): Caliciviridae ...
Jimenez L, Chiang M (2006). "Virucidal activity of a quaternary ammonium compound disinfectant against feline calicivirus: a ... D'Souza DH, Sair A, Williams K, Papafragkou E, Jean J, Moore C, Jaykus L (2006). "Persistence of caliciviruses on environmental ... Clarke IN, Lambden PR (May 2000). "Organization and expression of calicivirus genes". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 181 ( ...
May 2013). "Structures of the compact helical core domains of feline calicivirus and murine norovirus VPg proteins" (PDF). ... The VPg primers of caliciviruses, whose structures are only beginning to be revealed, are much larger than those of the ...
Some examples are canine distemper virus, adenovirus type 1 and 2, parainfluenza virus and feline calicivirus. Those viral ... parainfluenza virus and feline calicivirus benefit a bacterial infection which ends in pneumonia. Parasites, for example lung ... Dogs and cats who develop pneumonia usually show symptoms like moist or productive cough, followed by nasal discharge and ... This life-threatening illness is more common in cats than in dogs and the complication "Kennel Cough" can occur in young pets. ...
Malik YS, Goyal SM (May 2006). "Virucidal efficacy of sodium bicarbonate on a food contact surface against feline calicivirus, ...
RFeIFN-ω, delivered topically, is ineffective against feline upper respiratory tract disease caused by feline calicivirus. Yang ... It is used to treat a range of viral diseases in cats and dogs, including canine parvovirus, feline leukemia virus (FeLV), and ... "Limited efficacy of topical recombinant feline interferon-omega for treatment of cats with acute upper respiratory viral ... The feline interferon "omega" gene was first cloned in 1992. It was first produced in silkworms by Ueda and coworkers in 1993. ...
However, URI in cats can also be caused by herpesvirus, calicivirus, Mycoplasma species, or Chlamydia psittaci. An intranasal ... It is a serious disease of dogs, pigs, and rabbits, and has been seen in cats, horses, and seals. A PCR test for the pathogen ... Cats infected with B. bronchiseptica have been seen with tracheobronchitis, conjunctivitis, and rhinitis (upper respiratory ... Humans are not natural carriers of B. bronchiseptica, which typically infects the respiratory tracts of smaller mammals (cats, ...
Malik, Y; Goyal, S (2006). "Virucidal efficacy of sodium bicarbonate on a food contact surface against feline calicivirus, a ...
... feline calicivirus,hepatitis A,lentivirus, influenza A and B,rabies virus,rotavirus,tomato and pepino mosaic virus. Since 2004 ... 2009). "A novel method for concentrating hepatitis A virus and caliciviruses from bottled water". Journal of Virological ...
"Evaluation of silver-infused polylactide films for inactivation of Salmonella and feline calicivirus in vitro and on fresh-cut ...
Feline rhinotracheitis/panleukopenia/calicivirus vaccines should be given as kittens, a year later and then every three years. ... from Pet Cancer Center 2006 Feline Vaccination Guidelines (Summary) Cat Vaccines Can Lead to Cancer (Cat diseases, Sarcoma, ... A vaccine-associated sarcoma (VAS) or feline injection-site sarcoma (FISS) is a type of malignant tumor found in cats (and, ... Vaccine-Associated Feline Sarcoma Task Force (VAFSTF) Vaccines and Sarcomas Informational Brochure from the Cornell Feline ...
Feline calicivirus-(cat respiratory disease) Bordetella bronchiseptica-(cat kennel cough) Chlamydia felis-(chlamydia) Cat flu ... Cat flu is the common name for a feline upper respiratory tract disease. Feline upper respiratory disease can be caused by one ... Feline herpes virus causing feline viral rhinotracheitis (cat common cold). This is the disease most commonly associated with ... If a feline is already infected, it must be isolated from other cats for at least two weeks. All objects touched by the ...
"Most deaths have resulted from the calicivirus, secondary infections such as upper respiratory infections and pneumonia, and ... "We take in cats that others reject. We take in cats that others will not take," Bruno added. "I am giving these cats a chance ... including sick and dehydrated cats and dead cats in litter boxes, burial pits and freezers. Over 600 cats were removed from the ... Tiger Ranch Cat Sanctuary was a 27-acre (110,000 m2) cat sanctuary located in Frazer Township, Pennsylvania and operated by ...
Domestic cats also transmit diseases to the Scottish wildcat such as feline calicivirus, feline coronavirus, feline foamy virus ... feline herpesvirus, feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukemia virus. Scottish wildcats have also often been killed to ... The final report of the Cat Classification Task Force of the IUCN Cat Specialist Group" (PDF). Cat News. Special Issue 11: 16- ... Since 2017, the Cat Classification Task Force of the Cat Specialist Group recognizes Felis silvestris silvestris as the valid ...
... feline calicivirus, leptospirosis, bovine brucellosis, rinderpest and anaplasmosis. During the canine distemper outbreak of ... 357-358 Macdonald 1992, p. 118 Hunter, Luke & Hinde, Gerald (2005) Cats of Africa, Struik, ISBN 1-77007-063-X Savage, R. J. G ... 138-139 Jonathan Scott & Angela Scott (2006). Big Cat Diary: Leopard. p. 108. ISBN 978-0-00-721181-4. Balme, Guy; Hunter, Luke ... estimated to have up to a thousand resident hyenas which survive by scavenging rubbish tips and preying on feral dogs and cats ...
Bordetella bronchiseptica Chlamydophila felis Feline calicivirus Feline viral rhinotracheitis (FVR) FHV-1 Cat-scratch disease ... Feline acne Feline asthma Feline cognitive dysfunction Feline coronavirus Feline cystitis Feline cutaneous asthenia Feline ... Aspergillosis Avian influenza in cats Bladder cancer in cats and dogs Bone cancer in cats and dogs Cancer in cats Cat worm ... distemper Feline foamy virus Feline hepatic lipidosis Feline hyperadrenocorticism Feline hyperaldosteronism Feline ...
"Prevalence of antibodies to feline parvovirus, calicivirus, herpesvirus, coronavirus, and immunodeficiency virus and of feline ... Also, while the feline leukemia virus may cause symptomatic illness in an infected cat, an FIV infected cat can remain ... Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a Lentivirus that affects cats worldwide, with 2.5% to 4.4% of felines being infected. ... Early detection helps maintain the cat's health and prevents spreading infection to other cats. With proper care, infected cats ...
... calicivirus, feline MeSH B04.820.095.887.900 - vesicular exanthema of swine virus MeSH B04.820.110.150 - closterovirus MeSH ... calicivirus, feline MeSH B04.909.777.162.887.900 - vesicular exanthema of swine virus MeSH B04.909.777.270 - encephalitis ... feline MeSH B04.820.650.589.530.400 - immunodeficiency virus, feline MeSH B04.820.650.589.600 - lentiviruses, ovine-caprine ... feline MeSH B04.909.777.731.589.530.400 - immunodeficiency virus, feline MeSH B04.909.777.731.589.600 - lentiviruses, ovine- ...
... accelerated hydrogen peroxide has been reported to show effectiveness against feline calicivirus, a surrogate for norovirus. ...
Germany Feline calicivirus Female copulatory vocalization Flow control valve Ford Crown Victoria Forest City Velodrome, in ...
Canine distemper Canine influenza Canine parvovirus Chlamydia Feline calicivirus Feline distemper Feline leukemia Feline viral ...
... abrogating the requirement of VPg in initial infection whereas studies with feline calicivirus confirmed that the VPg protein ... Burroughs JN, Brown F. Presence of a covalently linked protein on calicivirus rna. J Gen Virol. 1978;41(2):443-446. Van der ... and later seen in caliciviruses. VPg must undergo post-translational uridylylation before it can act as a primer for ... A protein, vpg, covalently linked to 36s calicivirus rna. J Gen Virol. 1980;47(1):215-220. Goodfellow I, Chaudhry Y, Richardson ...
The usual combination vaccination protects against feline viral rhinotracheitis (FVR), feline calicivirus (C), and feline ... Such early neutering does not appear to have any long-term health risks to cats, and may even be beneficial in male cats. ... Felines are natural carnivores and do not intentionally consume large quantities of carbohydrates. The domestic cat's liver has ... The enzymes that breakdown amino acids are constantly active in cats. Thus, cats need a constant source of protein in their ...
"Three-year duration of immunity in cats following vaccination against feline rhinotracheitis virus, feline calicivirus, and ... Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a virus of the family Caliciviridae that causes disease in cats. It is one of the two important ... Feline vaccination "ICTV Taxonomy history: Feline calicivirus". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). ... Ossiboff R, Sheh A, Shotton J, Pesavento P, Parker J (2007). "Feline caliciviruses (FCVs) isolated from cats with virulent ...
Radford AD, Addie D, Belak S et al.: Feline calicivirus infection ABCD guidelines on prevention and management, J Feline Med ... Feline calicivirus (FCV) is generally associated with mild upper respiratory disease. In recent years, a more severe disease ... Huang C, Hess J, Gill M et al.: A dual-strain feline calicivirus vaccine stimulates broader cross-neutralization antibodies ... Serum from cats vaccinated with both FCV strains neutralized more FCV isolates than that from cats vaccinated with a single FCV ...
How does a cat get feline calicivirus(FCV) infection?. Posted on November 2, 2022. July 14, 2023. by admin ... Cats can contract the virus directly through contact with the saliva, nasal and ocular secretions of sick cats or cats with the ... or cat bedding, can also be a source of infection and can lead to FCV transmission in healthy cats. If the mother cat is ... In addition, objects that come into contact with a cats bodily fluids, such as food bowls, litter boxes, ...
Disinfection of Feline calicivirus a surrogate for Norovirus in wastewaters. by IUVA ERC Team , Aug 19, 2023 , 0 comments ...
Taking your cat to the vet for regular vet visits will help your cat live as happy and healthy of a life that they can. ... Female Cat Names: Unique and Cute Girl Cat Name Options Can a Cat Be a Service Animal? Emotional Support Cat Registration ... Feline Non-Recognition Aggression: Duration, Causes, & Why Your Cat Hisses at Cats After a Vet Visit How to Take Care of ... How often do senior cats need to go to the vet?. Older cats dont usually need to visit the vet as often as young kittens, but ...
Inactivation of feline calicivirus, a Norwalk virus surrogate. J Hosp Infect 1999;41(1):51-7. ... Gehrke C, Steinmann J, Goroncy-Bermes P. Inactivation of feline calicivirus, a surrogate of norovirus (formerly Norwalk-like ... Duizer E, Bijkerk P, Rockx B, De Groot A, Twisk F, Koopmans M. Inactivation of caliciviruses. Appl Environ Microbiol 2004;70(8 ... Nosocomial ringworm in a neonatal intensive care unit: a nurse and her cat. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2000;21(9):605-7. ...
Cats with any oral inflammatory disease were more likely than orally healthy cats to have a positive test result for FeLV. ... Results-Of 5,179 cats, 237 (4.6%) and 186 (3.6%) were seropositive for FIV and FeLV, respectively, and of these, 12 (0.2%) were ... Of all 5,179 cats, 1,073 (20.7%) had gingivitis, 576 (11.1%) had periodontitis, 203 (3.9%) had stomatitis, and 252 (4.9%) had ... Animals-5,179 cats. Procedures-Veterinarians at veterinary clinics and animal shelters completed online training on oral ...
TEMPERATURE AND TREATMENT TIME INFLUENCES PRESSURE INACTIVATION OF FELINE CALICIVIRUS, A NOROVIRUS SURROGATE - (Peer Reviewed ... Temperature and treatment time influences pressure inactivation of feline calicivirus, a norovirus surrogate. Journal of Food ... INACTIVATION OF HEPATITIS A AND A CALICIVIRUS BY HIGH HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE - (Peer Reviewed Journal) ...
Jimenez L, Chiang M (2006). "Virucidal activity of a quaternary ammonium compound disinfectant against feline calicivirus: a ... DSouza DH, Sair A, Williams K, Papafragkou E, Jean J, Moore C, Jaykus L (2006). "Persistence of caliciviruses on environmental ... Clarke IN, Lambden PR (May 2000). "Organization and expression of calicivirus genes". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 181 ( ...
Cats: feline viral rhinotracheitis, calicivirus, panleukopenia, and rabies.. *Birds: Newcastle disease, avian influenza, and ... Dogs, cats, birds, and rodents are allowed. Other types of animals may require additional permits and documentation. ...
Feline Calicivirus. 128. Norovirus. 129. Feline Infectious Peritonitis Virus. 130. Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis Virus (IBR ... Odors Caused by Dogs, Cats and Other Domestic Animals. * Carpet Deodorizer Against Odor-Causing Bacteria, for Home, ... Patient care rooms & facilities, recovery (rooms), anesthesia, Emergency Rooms, X-ray cat labs, newborn nurseries, orthopedics ... Veterinary clinics, animal life science laboratories, kennels, dog/cat animal kennels, breeding and grooming establishments, ...
Categories: Calicivirus, Feline Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted ...
Feline Calicivirus: A Challenge for Vaccines MAIN : Browse by Speaker : G. Chappuis ...
Feline calicivirus, another member of this family, with similar structure, can survive on glass surfaces for 21-28 days at room ... Jimenez, L., & Chiang, M. (2006). Virucidal activity of a quaternary ammonium compound disinfectant against feline calicivirus ... At 37°C, feline calcinivirus survives over 24 hoursFootnote 11.. Section V: First aid and medical. Surveillance: Monitor for ... Duizer, E., Bijkerk, P., Rockx, B., De Groot, A., Twisk, F., & Koopmans, M. (2004). Inactivation of caliciviruses. Applied and ...
Felocell 3 inoculates against the feline herpes virus, parvovirus, and calicivirus. Felocell 4 vaccinates against all of these ... Felocell FIP protects cats against infectious peritonitis caused by the feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) ... Felocell is a line of feline vaccines. Felocell 3 immunizes against rhinotracheitis caused by feline herpesvirus-1, ... Felocell vaccines are only intended for use in healthy cats of the indicated age. Do not administer to other species. Not for ...
Giving core vaccines to cats (panleukopenia, rhinotracheitis, calicivirus and rabies). *Starting a vaccine program between 6 ... Canine and Feline Diabetes * Canine and Feline Diabetes * * Canine and Feline Diabetes * Cat Diabetes ...
CATS: rabies vaccination and vaccination against herpes, calicivirus, panleukopenia and feline leukemia ... Dog/s must have also have DHLPPi vaccination while cats should have vaccinations against feline panleukopenia; ... Dog/s and/or cat/s to imported must have updated Rabies vaccinations, not ,14days or more than 1 year prior to travel; ... Effective June 01, 2018, dogs and cats imported without the required identification will be declined entry and returned to its ...
Thermal inactivation of feline calicivirus and herpes simplex virus type 1: side-by-side suspension and carrier studies. ... Characterization of a temperature sensitive feline infectious peritonitis coronavirus. Archives of Virology. 1989;. 109. :185- ... feline, and bovine coronaviruses (this list is not all-inclusive). For the present review chapter, the authors searched the ... caliciviruses, astroviruses, reoviruses, picornaviruses, and adenoviruses) [1, 2]. Coronaviruses are not considered viruses of ...
Feline calicivirus (FCV), to assess the efficacy of disinfectants and other mitigation strategies. Some researchers have ... The norovirus is a small, 26-40 nm, nonenveloped, single-stranded RNA virus classified as a Calicivirus. Sapoviruses, a cause ... Various caliciviruses, other than norovirus, are likely responsible for many outbreaks of previously unidentified viral ... In January 1995, 322 cases of norovirus, formerly known as Norwalk virus (calicivirus), infection-associated acute ...
Read on for information about diseases and other medical inflictions that frequently impact cats. ... it is important to recognize the signs and symptoms of common illnesses so you can seek veterinary help for your feline friend ... Feline calicivirus and feline herpesvirus account for 80 to 90% of all contagious upper respiratory problems, and are prevalent ... Cats More Prone to Cancer. *Though cancer can be diagnosed in cats of all ages and breeds, it is much more common in older cats ...
Feline calicivirus (FCV), to assess the efficacy of disinfectants and other mitigation strategies. Some researchers have ... The norovirus is a small, 26-40 nm, nonenveloped, single-stranded RNA virus classified as a Calicivirus. Sapoviruses, a cause ... Various caliciviruses, other than norovirus, are likely responsible for many outbreaks of previously unidentified viral ... In January 1995, 322 cases of norovirus, formerly known as Norwalk virus (calicivirus), infection-associated acute ...
Feline tonsillitis is a somewhat frequent illness that affects cats tonsils. Here are more details on this disease. ... such as feline calicivirus or feline herpesvirus, can also cause tonsillitis in cats. ... Cat Wellness Content Cat Flea & Tick Cat Food & Nutrition Cat Arthritis & Joint Pain Kitten Senior Cat View All Cat Wellness ... Cat Food and Nutrition Dry Food Wet Food Freeze Dried Food Food Storage Snacks & Treats Vitamins & Supplements View All Cat ...
So, since going to the veterinary clinic is stressful for cats, its smart to know when veterinary care is necessary and when a ... Viruses cause most feline upper-respiratory infections (URIs). While many of these infections are mild and resolve without ... The two most common respiratory viruses in cats are feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1) and feline calicivirus (FCV). ... Your cat may have had a mild viral upper respiratory infection that self-resolved. Its a common scenario. Cats whose symptoms ...
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Calicivirus, Cat, cat advise, Cat Care, cat conditions, cat health, cat help, cat issues, cat medical conditions, cat problems ... Cat, cat advise, Cat Care, cat conditions, cat health, cat help, cat issues, cat kidney, cat medical conditions, cat problems, ... Cat, cat advise, Cat Care, cat conditions, cat health, cat help, cat hygiene, cat issues, cat medical conditions, cat problems ... Cat, cat advise, Cat Care, cat conditions, cat health, cat help, cat issues, cat medical conditions, cat problems, cat welfare ...
Cats must have valid vaccination against cat flu (feline calicivirus and feline viral rhinotracheitis) and cat enteritis (i.e. ... Ensure your dog or cat is allowed at your intended residence in Singapore. Type of dog or cat. Number of dogs or cats allowed ... Dog and cat flowchart for Category D countries.. You may also use our Dog and Cat Import Requirement Calculator to search for ... For a detailed timeline on when to book an inspection for your dog or cat, please refer to the dog and cat import flowchart in ...
Talk with your vet about scheduling these pet vaccines in Flat Rock: panleukopenia (feline distemper), feline calicivirus, ... Common Vaccinations for Cats. Your feline friends have other demands. ... feline herpesvirus type I (rhinotracheitis), and rabies are believed core vaccines. Vaccines are given depending on the cats ... For cats that are nursed by a healthy mum whose immune system is strong, it is typically not required until your kitten is as ...
But almost every cat owner has likely asked this familiar question: ... Cat parents like you are very much aware of the importance of vaccines for your feline friend. Theres no debate about that. ... feline calicivirus and feline panleukopenia.. This type of vaccination is usually repeated at 3 week intervals until the cat ... For example, adult cats are at risk of feline leukemia. Hence, feline leukemia shot are usually administered to mature cats and ...
Transporting Your Manx Cat: Feline Friends on the Move. Breed Characteristics. The Manx cat, a breed known for its distinctive ... Essential vaccinations, such as rabies, distemper, and calicivirus, should be administered well in advance of the journey. Make ... How much does it cost to transport your cats. Your cat. is so much more than four legs and a tail - theyre members of your ... Travel Comforts for Manx Cat. To make the journey as comfortable as possible for your Manx cat, include familiar items in their ...
  • TruFel HCP, also known as Feloguard Plus 3, is a vaccine that protects cats against three core health issues - feline r hinotracheitis, calicivirus and panleukopenia. (revivalanimal.com)
  • Felocell 3 immunizes against rhinotracheitis caused by feline herpesvirus-1, panleukopenia caused by parvovirus, and respiratory ailments caused by calicivirus. (vetdepot.com)
  • Diagnosis of FCV is difficult without specific tests, because the signs are similar to other feline respiratory diseases, especially feline viral rhinotracheitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Felocell 3 inoculates against the feline herpes virus, parvovirus, and calicivirus. (vetdepot.com)
  • Vaccines or immunization shots are needed much more often in kittens than in adult cats. (embracepetinsurance.com)
  • Yearly checkups, even if vaccines are not due, help to make sure your cat is healthy overall. (embracepetinsurance.com)
  • Vaccinations for dogs and cats are classified into two easy-to-understand categories: core and non-core vaccines. (readersdigest.ca)
  • The 2015 WSAVA Vaccination Guidelines define core vaccines as those which protect animals from severe, life-threatening diseases that have global distribution and which ALL dogs and cats, regardless of circumstances or geographical location, should receive. (bsava.com)
  • Felocell is a line of feline vaccines. (vetdepot.com)
  • Felocell vaccines protect cats against a variety of illnesses associated with particular viral or bacterial origins. (vetdepot.com)
  • Parker, a faculty member at the Baker Institute, is trying to determine why the virus has such variable effects, work that promises not only to help cats but might also eventually lead to treatments or vaccines for a familiar human disease: stomach flu. (cornell.edu)
  • His work to define how calicivirus binds to cells may lead to drugs and vaccines for feline calicivirus, and those strategies could eventually be carried over to treat and prevent infection with norovirus or other pathogens. (cornell.edu)
  • Pets can contract rabies when they're bitten by an infected animal-a raccoon, skunk, bat even another dog or cat. (readersdigest.ca)
  • As part of a large family of viruses called Caliciviridae , feline calicivirus is related to human norovirus, a pathogen perhaps best known for causing well-publicized outbreaks of gastroenteritis on cruise ships. (cornell.edu)
  • Parker says that studies of the feline virus can inform studies of norovirus, a notoriously difficult pathogen to study in the lab. (cornell.edu)
  • Feline calicivirus and norovirus may have different hosts and cause different types of disease, but they share a great deal in common at the molecular level. (cornell.edu)
  • If you google 'winter vomiting bug', you will find a lot of articles that give three different names for the virus: calicivirus, norovirus and sapovirus. (lu.se)
  • Now we know that norovirus, sapovirus and others are part of the calicivirus group. (lu.se)
  • A dual-strain feline calicivirus vaccine stimulates broader cross-neutralization antibodies than a single-strain vaccine and lessens clinical signs in vaccinated cats when challenged with a homologous feline calicivirus strain associated with virulent systemic disease, J Feline Med Surg 12:129, 2010. (everycat.org)
  • Ability of antibodies to two new caliciviral vaccine strains to neutralise feline calicivirus isolates from the UK, Vet Rec 163:355, 2008. (everycat.org)
  • This vaccine is highly recommended and primarily used as a subcutaneous injection for cats 8 weeks of age or older. (revivalanimal.com)
  • Feline leukaemia vaccine (FeLV) (this may be considered a core vaccine for all cats that go outdoors or are in contact with cats which go outdoors). (bsava.com)
  • It is one of the two important viral causes of respiratory infection in cats, the other being Felid alphaherpesvirus 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • In persistently infected cats, the gene for the major structural protein of the viral capsid (the outer protein coat of a mature virus) has been shown to evolve through immune-mediated positive selection, which allows the virus to escape detection by the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a common viral pathogen found in domestic cats. (bvsalud.org)
  • You've probably heard about chlamydia, but maybe not in reference to your feline friends. (catster.com)
  • In fact, Chlamydia felis is the most common infectious organism found in feline conjunctivitis, otherwise known as pink eye. (catster.com)
  • So, what does chlamydia look like in cats, and how can you protect your furry family member? (catster.com)
  • What Is Chlamydia in Cats? (catster.com)
  • Also, chlamydia has been found in healthy cats and those with conjunctivitis. (catster.com)
  • What Are the Causes of Chlamydia in Cats? (catster.com)
  • How Do I Care for a Cat With Chlamydia? (catster.com)
  • They may recommend treatment for the whole group, since chlamydia can be passed around fairly easily, and adult cats may harbor the infection without showing any signs. (catster.com)
  • Co-infection with either feline herpesvirus or feline immunodeficiency virus causes a more severe disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cats on corticosteroids must be monitored carefully for worsening of any upper respiratory infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Feline calicivirus infection ABCD guidelines on prevention and management, J Feline Med Surg 11:556, 2009. (everycat.org)
  • How does a cat get feline calicivirus(FCV) infection? (petrapidtest.com)
  • In addition, objects that come into contact with a cat's bodily fluids, such as food bowls, litter boxes, or cat bedding, can also be a source of infection and can lead to FCV transmission in healthy cats. (petrapidtest.com)
  • For most cats, this is when treatment starts and the infection is stopped. (catster.com)
  • Lu is examining feline genes to find clues about why some cats experience severe symptoms from calicivirus infection while others do not. (cornell.edu)
  • In this study, we monitored a small outbreak of FCV infection in two household cats, in which limping disease was monitored with a 12-day lag time. (bvsalud.org)
  • Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a virus of the family Caliciviridae that causes disease in cats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Read more in the ABCD guidelines on the management of infectious diseases in cat shelters . (abcdcatsvets.org)
  • This virus has been called virulent systemic feline calicivirus (VS-FCV) or FCV-associated virulent systemic disease (VSD). (wikipedia.org)
  • Confused about which dog and cat vaccinations are absolutely essential? (readersdigest.ca)
  • The WSAVA guidelines also refer to high- and low-risk cats and advise that booster intervals for certain vaccinations may need to be considered on the basis of risk of exposure to diseases such as feline calicivirus and feline herpesvirus-1. (bsava.com)
  • In addition, these viruses differ in antigenicity, or how they appear to the immune system of the cat. (everycat.org)
  • Later, when we learned about the genetics behind it, we realised that these viruses belong to the calicivirus group, and at first they were called calicivirus. (lu.se)
  • Some vets and pet owners will opt to run yearly blood work on their cats to screen for internal organ issues or diseases that are not obvious on an exam. (embracepetinsurance.com)
  • These bacteria are responsible for several diseases, not only in cats but also in humans, livestock, and even wildlife. (catster.com)
  • A simple and effective way to keep diseases at bay - and this is particularly true for barrier care in cat shelters. (abcdcatsvets.org)
  • Felocell FIP immunizes against infectious peritonitis caused by the feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV). (vetdepot.com)
  • Felocell FIP inoculates against feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV). (vetdepot.com)
  • Serum from cats vaccinated with both FCV strains neutralized more FCV isolates than that from cats vaccinated with a single FCV strain. (everycat.org)
  • FCV can be isolated from about 50% of cats with upper respiratory infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Feline calicivirus (FCV) is generally associated with mild upper respiratory disease. (everycat.org)
  • Latent or subclinical infections often become clinical when the cat is stressed, such as at the time of adoption. (wikipedia.org)
  • Untreated infections may wax and wane in cats and can continue for weeks or even months. (catster.com)
  • Infections tend to be found more often in kittens and young cats, making this population more at risk. (catster.com)
  • Infected cats usually shed the virus for two weeks. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following this period, infected cats never shed the virus again or become latently infected and shed the virus continuously or intermittently. (wikipedia.org)
  • Not surprisingly, cats vaccinated with the VSD-producing strain were protected against challenge with the same, virulent virus. (everycat.org)
  • Cats can contract the virus directly through contact with the saliva, nasal and ocular secretions of sick cats or cats with the virus, and may also transmit the virus through aerosol droplets when the cat sneezes. (petrapidtest.com)
  • They are examining genes responsible for creating receptor proteins on the outsides of cells to see if differences in these receptors might play a role in how the virus attaches and infects different cats. (cornell.edu)
  • Caliciviruses are similar to picornaviruses in the pres- image reconstruction of recombinant Norwalk virus-like particles ence of VPg and in sequence similarity of their RNA-directed (left). (cdc.gov)
  • Mothers can pass it on to kittens, and kitties that are allowed to mingle with other cats, such as outside and in shelters, can be more at risk. (catster.com)
  • If the mother cat is infected, the newborn kittens will also inherit. (petrapidtest.com)
  • Older cats don't usually need to visit the vet as often as young kittens, but they are more likely to develop health problems as they get older. (embracepetinsurance.com)
  • Felocell 3 and Felocell 4 are recommended for healthy kittens at 12 weeks of age and Felocell FIP is for use in healthy cats at least 16 weeks old. (vetdepot.com)
  • Sadly, thousands of cats and kittens are handed over to rescue organisations every year by owners bored of caring for them. (animalrescueandcare.org.uk)
  • This is also the time that the vet can help you figure out behavior issues, bathroom issues , when to spay or neuter your cat , getting along with human and animal family members, and keeping your cat on the right foods/preventive medications for him. (embracepetinsurance.com)
  • This means kitties must have close contact with each other to pass it around, making multi-cat households a prime space for transmission. (catster.com)
  • A form of FCV has been found to cause a particularly severe systemic disease in cats, similar to rabbit hemorrhagic disease (which is also caused by a calicivirus). (wikipedia.org)
  • Parker is working on a project to determine why some cats that contract calicivirus experience mild flu-like symptoms while other cats experience severe oral symptoms. (cornell.edu)
  • Feline calicivirus has a range of different effects in cats: temporary and mild flu-like symptoms in most, more chronic mouth and throat symptoms in others, and, in rare cases, severe life-threatening disease throughout the body. (cornell.edu)
  • If your cat starts showing new symptoms, such as not eating, limping, drinking or urinating a lot, throwing up , or having loose stool , go ahead and call your vet to schedule a checkup. (embracepetinsurance.com)
  • Parker is searching for possible explanations for why some cats with feline calicivirus experience short-term flu-like symptoms while others develop a chronic mouth condition in which their gums grow thick and inflamed, making it painful to eat. (cornell.edu)
  • These signs tend to be fairly mild for most cats, but they shouldn't be ignored. (catster.com)
  • Effective June 01, 2018, dogs and cats imported without the required identification will be declined entry and returned to its origin. (philippine-embassy.de)
  • This common unwanted guest presents in cats as red, watery eyes and/or a case of the sneezes. (catster.com)
  • Stay up to date on the latest feline health research and advances. (everycat.org)
  • To learn more about insurance coverage for your cat contact Embrace Pet Insurance to learn more about getting cat health insurance today. (embracepetinsurance.com)
  • Box-and-whisker plots of age of cats with various types of oral health. (avma.org)
  • Seroprevalence of FIV in cats with various types of oral health, analyzed on the basis of 6 quantiles in age. (avma.org)
  • Seroprevalence of FeLV in cats with various types of oral health. (avma.org)
  • Cats can live for up to 20 years and by that time they will be more like a member of the family and a friend than a pet. (animalrescueandcare.org.uk)
  • Once you feel that your new cat or kitten has gained confidence, you can gradually introduce other members of the family. (animalrescueandcare.org.uk)
  • The structure of the calicivirus capsid exemplified by a cryo- family. (cdc.gov)
  • Nursing care and rehydration are used for dehydrated and anorexic cats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Taking them in for regular vet visits will help your cat live as happy and healthy of a life that they can. (embracepetinsurance.com)
  • High-risk cats: cats which spend any time outdoors or live with cats which go outside, and/or go to a cattery. (bsava.com)
  • In addition to stomatitis, some cats may develop a polyarthritis, both probably immune-mediated through immune complex deposition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Representative photographs of the mouths of cats with gingivitis (A), periodontitis (B), and stomatitis (C). (avma.org)
  • Clinical signs in cats infected with FCV may develop acutely, chronically, or not at all. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depending on your cats personality they could become comfortable with you and in your home in a few hours, days or a couple of weeks. (animalrescueandcare.org.uk)
  • VPg), 10-15 kDa] is covalently linked to the 5-terminus of General y, caliciviruses are stable in the environment and enteric genomic RNAs, which are also polyadenylated at their 3-termini caliciviruses are acid-stable. (cdc.gov)
  • After graduating with her Doctor of Veterinary Medicine from the University of Illinois, College of Veterinary Medicine in 2007, Dr. Rebecca Lederer worked at the Cat Hospital of Chicago, the Tree House Humane Society, and Paws Chicago. (wihumane.org)
  • If your cat has a chronic disease , something he was diagnosed with at a previous visit (e.g. diabetes , kidney disease , heart disease, hyperthyroidism , cancer, etc.), they will probably need to be checked out more than once a year. (embracepetinsurance.com)