Calicivirus, Feline: A species of the genus VESIVIRUS infecting cats. Transmission occurs via air and mechanical contact.Caliciviridae: A family of RNA viruses infecting a broad range of animals. Most individual species are restricted to their natural hosts. They possess a characteristic six-pointed starlike shape whose surfaces have cup-shaped (chalice) indentions. Transmission is by contaminated food, water, fomites, and occasionally aerosolization of secretions. Genera include LAGOVIRUS; NORWALK-LIKE VIRUSES; SAPPORO-LIKE VIRUSES; and VESIVIRUS.Caliciviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by CALICIVIRIDAE. They include HEPATITIS E; VESICULAR EXANTHEMA OF SWINE; acute respiratory infections in felines, rabbit hemorrhagic disease, and some cases of gastroenteritis in humans.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Cat Diseases: Diseases of the domestic cat (Felis catus or F. domesticus). This term does not include diseases of the so-called big cats such as CHEETAHS; LIONS; tigers, cougars, panthers, leopards, and other Felidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Leukemia Virus, Feline: A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).Sapovirus: A genus of the family CALICIVIRIDAE associated with worldwide sporadic outbreaks of GASTROENTERITIS in humans. The first recorded outbreak was in human infants in Sapporo, Japan in 1977. The genus is comprised of a single species, Sapporo virus, containing multiple strains.Immunodeficiency Virus, Feline: A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus feline lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, FELINE) isolated from cats with a chronic wasting syndrome, presumed to be immune deficiency. There are 3 strains: Petaluma (FIP-P), Oma (FIP-O) and Puma lentivirus (PLV). There is no antigenic relationship between FIV and HIV, nor does FIV grow in human T-cells.Norwalk virus: The type species in the genus NOROVIRUS, first isolated in 1968 from the stools of school children in Norwalk, Ohio, who were suffering from GASTROENTERITIS. The virions are non-enveloped spherical particles containing a single protein. Multiple strains are named after the places where outbreaks have occurred.Feline Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs in cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and in some cats infected with feline leukemia virus (FeLV).Hemorrhagic Disease Virus, Rabbit: A species in the genus LAGOVIRUS which causes hemorrhagic disease, including hemorrhagic septicemia, in rabbits.Coronavirus, Feline: A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting cats of all ages and commonly found in catteries and zoos. Cats are often found carrying the virus but only a small proportion develop disease. Feline coronavirus and Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) are virtually the same virus in genetic and antigenetic terms, and are morphologically indistinguishable. Since they only differ in their disease potential (with FIPV causing a more serious illness), they are considered biotypes of each other.Virus Inactivation: Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.Vesivirus: A genus of the family CALICIVIRIDAE comprised of species infecting a wide range of organisms. Most members of this genus can be readily propagated in cell culture (as opposed to other genera of Caliciviridae). The type species is VESICULAR EXANTHEMA OF SWINE VIRUS.Vesicular exanthema of swine virus: The type species of the genus VESIVIRUS infecting pigs. The resulting infection is an acute febrile disease which is clinically indistinguishable from FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE. Transmission is by contaminated food.Norovirus: A genus in the family CALICIVIRIDAE, associated with epidemic GASTROENTERITIS in humans. The type species, NORWALK VIRUS, contains multiple strains.Feline Panleukopenia: A highly contagious DNA virus infection of the cat family, characterized by fever, enteritis and bone marrow changes. It is also called feline ataxia, feline agranulocytosis, feline infectious enteritis, cat fever, cat plague, and show fever. It is caused by FELINE PANLEUKOPENIA VIRUS or the closely related MINK ENTERITIS VIRUS or CANINE PARVOVIRUS.Gastroenteritis: INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.Sarcoma Viruses, Feline: Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS isolated from fibrosarcoma in cats. The viruses are actually recombinant feline leukemia viruses (FeLV) where part of the genome has been replaced by cellular oncogenes. It is unique to individuals and not transmitted naturally to other cats. FeSVs are replication defective and require FeLV to reproduce.Vesicular Exanthema of Swine: A calicivirus infection of swine characterized by hydropic degeneration of the oral and cutaneous epithelia.Feline Infectious Peritonitis: Common coronavirus infection of cats caused by the feline infectious peritonitis virus (CORONAVIRUS, FELINE). The disease is characterized by a long incubation period, fever, depression, loss of appetite, wasting, and progressive abdominal enlargement. Infection of cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage appears to be essential in FIP pathogenesis.Lagovirus: A genus of the family CALICIVIRIDAE, associated with infections in rabbits and hares, responsible for epidemics with high mortality. RABBIT HEMORRHAGIC DISEASE VIRUS is the type species.Feline panleukopenia virus: A species of PARVOVIRUS infecting cats with a highly contagious enteric disease. Host range variants include mink enteritis virus, canine parvovirus (PARVOVIRUS, CANINE), and raccoon parvovirus. After infecting their new hosts, many of these viruses have further evolved and are now considered distinct species.Picornaviridae: A family of small RNA viruses comprising some important pathogens of humans and animals. Transmission usually occurs mechanically. There are nine genera: APHTHOVIRUS; CARDIOVIRUS; ENTEROVIRUS; ERBOVIRUS; HEPATOVIRUS; KOBUVIRUS; PARECHOVIRUS; RHINOVIRUS; and TESCHOVIRUS.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Disinfection: Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.Picornaviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the PICORNAVIRIDAE.Leukemia, Feline: A neoplastic disease of cats frequently associated with feline leukemia virus infection.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Levivirus: A bacteriophage genus of the family LEVIVIRIDAE, whose viruses contain the short version of the genome and have a separate gene for cell lysis.Junctional Adhesion Molecules: A family of membrane glycoproteins localized to TIGHT JUNCTIONS that contain two extracellular Ig-like domains, a single transmembrane segment, and a cytoplasmic tail of variable length.Chlorine Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain chlorine as an integral part of the molecule.Herpesviridae: A family of enveloped, linear, double-stranded DNA viruses infecting a wide variety of animals. Subfamilies, based on biological characteristics, include: ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE; BETAHERPESVIRINAE; and GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE.Frozen FoodsPinnipedia: The suborder of aquatic CARNIVORA comprising the WALRUSES; FUR SEALS; SEA LIONS; and EARLESS SEALS. They have fusiform bodies with very short tails and are found on all sea coasts. The offspring are born on land.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Lentivirus Infections: Virus diseases caused by the Lentivirus genus. They are multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Mamastrovirus: A genus of small, circular RNA viruses in the family ASTROVIRIDAE. They cause GASTROENTERITIS and are found in the stools of several vertebrates including humans. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route and there are at least eight human serotypes. The type species is Human astrovirus.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Disinfectants: Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Sodium Hypochlorite: It is used as an oxidizing and bleaching agent and as a disinfectant. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Aleutian Mink Disease Virus: A species of PARVOVIRUS that causes a disease in mink, mainly those homozygous for the recessive Aleutian gene which determines a desirable coat color.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Reassortant Viruses: Viruses containing two or more pieces of nucleic acid (segmented genome) from different parents. Such viruses are produced in cells coinfected with different strains of a given virus.Orthomyxoviridae: A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.Influenza Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.Love: Affection; in psychiatry commonly refers to pleasure, particularly as it applies to gratifying experiences between individuals.Surgery, Veterinary: A board-certified specialty of VETERINARY MEDICINE, requiring at least four years of special education, training, and practice of veterinary surgery after graduation from veterinary school. In the written, oral, and practical examinations candidates may choose either large or small animal surgery. (From AVMA Directory, 43d ed, p278)SculptureMedicine in ArtColor: The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.DelawareMarylandFoxes: Any of several carnivores in the family CANIDAE, that possess erect ears and long bushy tails and are smaller than WOLVES. They are classified in several genera and found on all continents except Antarctica.Namibia: A republic in southern Africa, south of ANGOLA and west of BOTSWANA. Its capital is Windhoek.VirginiaFlatfishes: Common name for the order Pleuronectiformes. A very distinctive group in that during development they become asymmetrical, i.e., one eye migrates to lie adjacent to the other. They swim on the eyeless side. FLOUNDER, sole, and turbot, along with several others, are included in this order.Signs and Symptoms, Respiratory: Respiratory system manifestations of diseases of the respiratory tract or of other organs.Euthanasia, Animal: The killing of animals for reasons of mercy, to control disease transmission or maintain the health of animal populations, or for experimental purposes (ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION).Sneezing: The sudden, forceful, involuntary expulsion of air from the NOSE and MOUTH caused by irritation to the MUCOUS MEMBRANES of the upper RESPIRATORY TRACT.BrazilBiological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Stainless Steel: Stainless steel. A steel containing Ni, Cr, or both. It does not tarnish on exposure and is used in corrosive environments. (Grant & Hack's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Renewable Energy: Forms of energy that are constantly and rapidly renewed by natural processes such as solar, ocean wave, and wind energy. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Chlorine: A greenish-yellow, diatomic gas that is a member of the halogen family of elements. It has the atomic symbol Cl, atomic number 17, and atomic weight 70.906. It is a powerful irritant that can cause fatal pulmonary edema. Chlorine is used in manufacturing, as a reagent in synthetic chemistry, for water purification, and in the production of chlorinated lime, which is used in fabric bleaching.Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Oral Ulcer: A loss of mucous substance of the mouth showing local excavation of the surface, resulting from the sloughing of inflammatory necrotic tissue. It is the result of a variety of causes, e.g., denture irritation, aphthous stomatitis (STOMATITIS, APHTHOUS); NOMA; necrotizing gingivitis (GINGIVITIS, NECROTIZING ULCERATIVE); TOOTHBRUSHING; and various irritants. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p842)Animal DiseasesComputer Security: Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.Confidentiality: The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.Privacy: The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Veterinary Medicine: The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.Education, Veterinary: Use for general articles concerning veterinary medical education.Veterinary Drugs: Drugs used by veterinarians in the treatment of animal diseases. The veterinarian's pharmacological armamentarium is the counterpart of drugs treating human diseases, with dosage and administration adjusted to the size, weight, disease, and idiosyncrasies of the species. In the United States most drugs are subject to federal regulations with special reference to the safety of drugs and residues in edible animal products.Vibrissae: Stiff hairs projecting from the face around the nose of most mammals, acting as touch receptors.Emergency Shelter: Temporary shelter provided in response to a major disaster or emergency.Veterinarians: Individuals with a degree in veterinary medicine that provides them with training and qualifications to treat diseases and injuries of animals.Hospitals, AnimalEncyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Organic Chemistry Processes: The reactions, changes in structure and composition, the properties of the reactions of carbon compounds, and the associated energy changes.Hemorrhagic Disease Virus, Epizootic: A species of ORBIVIRUS causing a fatal disease in deer. It is transmitted by flies of the genus Culicoides.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Lethargy: A general state of sluggishness, listless, or uninterested, with being tired, and having difficulty concentrating and doing simple tasks. It may be related to DEPRESSION or DRUG ADDICTION.Schools, Veterinary: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of veterinary medicine.Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Pemphigoid, Benign Mucous Membrane: A chronic blistering disease with predilection for mucous membranes and less frequently the skin, and with a tendency to scarring. It is sometimes called ocular pemphigoid because of conjunctival mucous membrane involvement.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Gingiva: Oral tissue surrounding and attached to TEETH.Kidney Diseases: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.Kidney Transplantation: The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.Periodontitis: Inflammation and loss of connective tissues supporting or surrounding the teeth. This may involve any part of the PERIODONTIUM. Periodontitis is currently classified by disease progression (CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS; AGGRESSIVE PERIODONTITIS) instead of age of onset. (From 1999 International Workshop for a Classification of Periodontal Diseases and Conditions, American Academy of Periodontology)Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Kidney Tubules: Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.Allergy and Immunology: A medical specialty concerned with the hypersensitivity of the individual to foreign substances and protection from the resultant infection or disorder.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Rabies: Acute VIRAL CNS INFECTION affecting mammals, including humans. It is caused by RABIES VIRUS and usually spread by contamination with virus-laden saliva of bites inflicted by rabid animals. Important animal vectors include the dog, cat, bat, fox, raccoon, skunk, and wolf.Bonding, Human-Pet: The emotional attachment of individuals to PETS.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Pets: Animals kept by humans for companionship and enjoyment, as opposed to DOMESTIC ANIMALS such as livestock or farm animals, which are kept for economic reasons.Immunity: Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.Ethylene Oxide: A colorless and flammable gas at room temperature and pressure. Ethylene oxide is a bactericidal, fungicidal, and sporicidal disinfectant. It is effective against most micro-organisms, including viruses. It is used as a fumigant for foodstuffs and textiles and as an agent for the gaseous sterilization of heat-labile pharmaceutical and surgical materials. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p794)Sterilization: The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.Manuals as Topic: Books designed to give factual information or instructions.Wind: The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.Literature, ModernFlight, Animal: The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Radar: A system using beamed and reflected radio signals to and from an object in such a way that range, bearing, and other characteristics of the object may be determined.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Aphids: A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.Computer Graphics: The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Programming Languages: Specific languages used to prepare computer programs.Web Browser: Software application for retrieving, presenting and traversing information resources on the World Wide Web.Documentation: Systematic organization, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of specialized information, especially of a scientific or technical nature (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983). It often involves authenticating or validating information.United States Department of Agriculture: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with improving and maintaining farm income and developing and expanding markets for agricultural products. Through inspection and grading services it safeguards and insures standards of quality in food supply and production.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Tablets: Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)Animal Testing Alternatives: Procedures, such as TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUES; mathematical models; etc., when used or advocated for use in place of the use of animals in research or diagnostic laboratories.Animal Welfare: The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.Animal Experimentation: The use of animals as investigational subjects.Animals, LaboratoryAnimal Use Alternatives: Alternatives to the use of animals in research, testing, and education. The alternatives may include reduction in the number of animals used, replacement of animals with a non-animal model or with animals of a species lower phylogenetically, or refinement of methods to minimize pain and distress of animals used.Animal Care Committees: Institutional committees established to protect the welfare of animals used in research and education. The 1971 NIH Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals introduced the policy that institutions using warm-blooded animals in projects supported by NIH grants either be accredited by a recognized professional laboratory animal accrediting body or establish its own committee to evaluate animal care; the Public Health Service adopted a policy in 1979 requiring such committees; and the 1985 amendments to the Animal Welfare Act mandate review and approval of federally funded research with animals by a formally designated Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC).Toxicity Tests: An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.Universal Precautions: Prudent standard preventive measures to be taken by professional and other health personnel in contact with persons afflicted with a communicable disease, to avoid contracting the disease by contagion or infection. Precautions are especially applicable in the diagnosis and care of AIDS patients.Drug Users: People who take drugs for a non-therapeutic or non-medical effect. The drugs may be legal or illegal, but their use often results in adverse medical, legal, or social consequences for the users.Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Engineering: The practical application of physical, mechanical, and mathematical principles. (Stedman, 25th ed)Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Process Assessment (Health Care): An evaluation procedure that focuses on how care is delivered, based on the premise that there are standards of performance for activities undertaken in delivering patient care, in which the specific actions taken, events occurring, and human interactions are compared with accepted standards.Abbreviations as Topic: Shortened forms of written words or phrases used for brevity.Dictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Abbreviations: Works consisting of lists of shortened forms of written words or phrases used for brevity. Acronyms are included here.Unified Medical Language System: A research and development program initiated by the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE to build knowledge sources for the purpose of aiding the development of systems that help health professionals retrieve and integrate biomedical information. The knowledge sources can be used to link disparate information systems to overcome retrieval problems caused by differences in terminology and the scattering of relevant information across many databases. The three knowledge sources are the Metathesaurus, the Semantic Network, and the Specialist Lexicon.Natural Language Processing: Computer processing of a language with rules that reflect and describe current usage rather than prescribed usage.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Libraries, NursingHospitals, Urban: Hospitals located in metropolitan areas.New York CityAppointments and Schedules: The different methods of scheduling patient visits, appointment systems, individual or group appointments, waiting times, waiting lists for hospitals, walk-in clinics, etc.Animal Technicians: Assistants to a veterinarian, biological or biomedical researcher, or other scientist who are engaged in the care and management of animals, and who are trained in basic principles of animal life processes and routine laboratory and animal health care procedures. (Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Laboratory Animal Science: The science and technology dealing with the procurement, breeding, care, health, and selection of animals used in biomedical research and testing.Flea Infestations: Parasitic attack by members of the order SIPHONAPTERA.Litter Size: The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.Siphonaptera: An order of parasitic, blood-sucking, wingless INSECTS with the common name of fleas.Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Sensory Deprivation: The absence or restriction of the usual external sensory stimuli to which the individual responds.Somatotypes: Particular categories of body build, determined on the basis of certain physical characteristics. The three basic body types are ectomorph (thin physique), endomorph (rounded physique), and mesomorph (athletic physique).Vertebrate Viruses: Viruses infecting man and other vertebrates.Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis: A herpesvirus infection of CATTLE characterized by INFLAMMATION and NECROSIS of the mucous membranes of the upper RESPIRATORY TRACT.Herpesvirus 1, Bovine: A species of VARICELLOVIRUS that causes INFECTIOUS BOVINE RHINOTRACHEITIS and other associated syndromes in CATTLE.

Neutralizing feature of commercially available feline calicivirus (FCV) vaccine immune sera against FCV field isolates. (1/88)

Four types of commercially available feline calicivirus (FCV) vaccine were compared in terms of their efficacy on the basis of the ability of the sera of specific-pathogen-free cats immunized by two injections of each type of vaccine to neutralize FCV field isolates. Each vaccine immune serum neutralized relatively well strains F4, F9, and 255, which were FCV laboratory strains. As to 36 strains of field isolates, however, vaccines A, B, C, and D immune sera did not neutralize 18-20 of the strains (50.0%-55.6%), 19-22 of the strains (52.8%-61.1%), 22-25 of the strains (61.1%-69.4%), and 8-16 of the strains (22.2%-44.4%), respectively. These results indicate that there is much difference in neutralizing antigenicity between the existing vaccine strains and the FCV strains that are prevalent in Japan, suggesting the need for improvement of FCV vaccines.  (+info)

Mapping of the feline calicivirus proteinase responsible for autocatalytic processing of the nonstructural polyprotein and identification of a stable proteinase-polymerase precursor protein. (2/88)

Expression of the region of the feline calicivirus (FCV) ORF1 encoded by nucleotides 3233 to 4054 in an in vitro rabbit reticulocyte system resulted in synthesis of an active proteinase that specifically processes the viral nonstructural polyprotein. Site-directed mutagenesis of the cysteine (Cys1193) residue in the putative active site of the proteinase abolished autocatalytic cleavage as well as cleavage of the viral capsid precursor, suggesting that this "3C-like" proteinase plays an important role in proteolytic processing during viral replication. Expression of the region encoding the C-terminal portion of the FCV ORF1 (amino acids 942 to 1761) in bacteria allowed direct N-terminal sequence analysis of the virus-specific polypeptides produced in this system. The results of these analyses indicate that the proteinase cleaves at amino acid residues E960-A961, E1071-S1072, E1345-T1346, and E1419-G1420; however, the cleavage efficiency is varied. The E1071-S1072 cleavage site defined the N terminus of a 692-amino-acid protein that contains sequences with similarity to the picornavirus 3C proteinase and 3D polymerase domains. Immunoprecipitation of radiolabeled proteins from FCV-infected feline kidney cells with serum raised against the FCV ORF1 C-terminal region showed that this "3CD-like" proteinase-polymerase precursor protein is apparently stable and accumulates in cells during infection.  (+info)

The capsid gene of feline calicivirus contains linear B-cell epitopes in both variable and conserved regions. (3/88)

In order to map linear B-cell (LBC) epitopes in the major capsid protein of feline calicivirus (FCV), an expression library containing random, short (100- to 200-bp) fragments of the FCV F9 capsid gene was constructed. Analysis of this library showed it to be representative of the region of the capsid gene that encodes the mature capsid protein. The library was screened by using polyclonal antisera from a cat that had been challenged experimentally with F9 to identify immunoreactive clones containing LBC epitopes. Twenty-six clones that reacted positively to feline antisera in immunoblots were identified. FCV-derived sequence from these clones mapped to a region of the capsid that spanned 126 amino acids and included variable regions C and E. An overlapping set of biotinylated peptides corresponding to this region was used to further map LBC epitopes by using F9 antisera. Four principal regions of reactivity were identified. Two fell within the hypervariable region at the 5' end of region E (amino acids [aa] 445 to 451 [antigenic site (ags) 2] and aa 451 to 457 [ags 3]). However, the other two were in conserved regions (aa 415 to 421 [ags 1; region D] and aa 475 to 479 [ags 4; central region E]). The reactivity of the peptide set with antisera from 11 other cats infected with a range of FCV isolates was also determined. Ten of 11 antisera reacted to conserved ags 4, suggesting that this region may be useful for future recombinant vaccine design.  (+info)

Analysis of the N-terminal polypeptide of the capsid precursor protein and the ORF3 product of feline calicivirus. (4/88)

The N-terminal unique polypeptide region of the capsid precursor protein of feline calicivirus (FCV) and the protein encoded by ORF3 of FCV were expressed as fusion proteins with glutathione S-transferase to analyze the expressed products in FCV-infected cells. Immunoblot analysis using a serum from a cat experimentally infected with FCV indicated relatively high immunogenicity of the N-terminal polypeptide in FCV-infected cats, as compared with the ORF3 protein. Specific antisera were prepared by immunization to mice with the fused proteins and used in immunoblot analysis. A 14 kD product corresponding to the N-terminal polypeptide and a 10 kD polypeptide of the ORF3 product were identified in the FCV-infected cells but not detected in the purified particles. No neutralization activity against FCV was detected in these antisera. The proteins identified as polypeptides of 14 kD and 10 kD in this study may have functions as non-structural proteins.  (+info)

Recovery and altered neutralization specificities of chimeric viruses containing capsid protein domain exchanges from antigenically distinct strains of feline calicivirus. (5/88)

Feline calicivirus (FCV) strains can show significant antigenic variation when tested for cross-reactivity with antisera produced against other FCV strains. Previous work has demonstrated the presence of hypervariable amino acid sequences in the capsid protein of FCV (designated regions C and E) that were postulated to constitute the major antigenic determinants of the virus. To examine the involvement of hypervariable sequences in determining the antigenic phenotype, the nucleotide sequences encoding the E regions from three antigenically distinct parental FCV strains (CFI, KCD, and NADC) were exchanged for the equivalent sequences in an FCV Urbana strain infectious cDNA clone. Two of the three constructs were recovered as viable, chimeric viruses. In six additional constructs, of which three were recovered as viable virus, the E region from the parental viruses was divided into left (N-terminal) and right (C-terminal) halves and engineered into the infectious clone. A final viable construct contained the C, D, and E regions of the NADC parental strain. Recovered chimeric viruses showed considerable antigenic variation from the parental viruses when tested against parental hyperimmune serum. No domain exchange was able to confer complete recognition by parental antiserum with the exception of the KCD E region exchange, which was neutralized at a near-homologous titer with KCD antiserum. These data demonstrate that it is possible to recover engineered chimeric FCV strains that possess altered antigenic characteristics. Furthermore, the E hypervariable region of the capsid protein appears to play a major role in the formation of the antigenic structure of the virion where conformational epitopes may be more important than linear in viral neutralization.  (+info)

Comparison of prevalence of feline herpesvirus type 1, calicivirus and parvovirus infections in domestic and leopard cats in Vietnam. (6/88)

A serosurvey of feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1), feline calicivirus (FCV), and feline parvovirus (FPV) in cats from Ho Chi Minh City area in southern Vietnam was conducted in December 1998, and we compared the results with our previous results in northern Vietnam (Hanoi area). The positive rate of FHV and FCV in domestic cats were 44% and 74%, respectively. They were rather higher than those in Hanoi area, while the seropositivity of FPV (44%) was similar to that in Hanoi area. In leopard cats, the positive rate of FPV was high (3/4) and it indicated that FPV was prevailing in leopard cats in Vietnam.  (+info)

Identification and genomic mapping of the ORF3 and VPg proteins in feline calicivirus virions. (7/88)

Two minor proteins with molecular masses of 8.5 and 15.5 kDa were identified in feline calicivirus (FCV) virions. Direct sequence analysis showed that the N-terminal sequence of the 8.5-kDa protein was identical to that of the predicted protein encoded by open reading frame 3 (ORF3) of the FCV genome. The N-terminal sequence of the 15.5-kDa protein corresponded to amino acids 961-980 of the FCV ORF1 polyprotein and mapped to the genomic location of the calicivirus VPg. Antisera raised against recombinant ORF3 protein or the N-terminal 20 amino acids of the putative VPg reacted with the corresponding proteins present in both a Western blot analysis of purified FCV virions and an immunofluorescence assay of FCV-infected cells. A comparative analysis of radioactivity incorporated into virion proteins during in vivo labeling experiments indicated that the ORF3 protein is likely present in one or two copies per virion. The mobility of the ORF3 protein present in virions was similar to that of the ORF3 protein found in FCV-infected cells or expressed in bacteria. Direct N- and C-terminal sequence analysis of the purified ORF3 protein obtained by expression in bacteria demonstrated the presence of intact, uncleaved termini, suggesting that the observed difference between the calculated and the apparent masses in SDS-PAGE was not due to proteolytic processing of the protein.  (+info)

Proteinase-polymerase precursor as the active form of feline calicivirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. (8/88)

The objective of this study was to identify the active form of the feline calicivirus (FCV) RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP). Multiple active forms of the FCV RdRP were identified. The most active enzyme was the full-length proteinase-polymerase (Pro-Pol) precursor protein, corresponding to amino acids 1072 to 1763 of the FCV polyprotein encoded by open reading frame 1 of the genome. Deletion of 163 amino acids from the amino terminus of Pro-Pol (the Val-1235 amino terminus) caused a threefold reduction in polymerase activity. Deletion of an additional one (the Thr-1236 amino terminus) or two (the Ala-1237 amino terminus) amino acids produced derivatives that were 7- and 175-fold, respectively, less active than Pro-Pol. FCV proteinase-dependent processing of Pro-Pol in the interdomain region preceding Val-1235 was not observed in the presence of a catalytically active proteinase; however, processing within the polymerase domain was observed. Inactivation of proteinase activity by changing the catalytic cysteine-1193 to glycine permitted the production and purification of intact Pro-Pol. Biochemical analysis of Pro-Pol showed that this enzyme has properties expected of a replicative polymerase, suggesting that Pro-Pol is an active form of the FCV RdRP.  (+info)

*Feline calicivirus

"Three-year duration of immunity in cats following vaccination against feline rhinotracheitis virus, feline calicivirus, and ... Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a virus of the family Caliciviridae that causes disease in cats. It is one of the two important ... Ossiboff R, Sheh A, Shotton J, Pesavento P, Parker J (2007). "Feline caliciviruses (FCVs) isolated from cats with virulent ... Gary Norsworthy on VS-FCV July 2007 Feline Calicivirus Symptoms - Cat Flu. ...

*Caliciviridae

Feline calicivirus (FCV)-a member of the Vesivirus-represents an important pathogen of cats. Sapovirus, Norovirus and Vesivirus ... Caliciviruses naturally infect vertebrates, and have been found in a number of organisms such as humans, cattle, pigs, cats, ... Feline calicivirus "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015. ... Diseases associated with this family include: feline calicivirus: respiratory disease; rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus: often- ...

*Vesivirus

Feline calicivirus Vesicular exanthema of swine virus Other, unofficial Vesi-like viruses include canine calicivirus, San ... Serological relationships between different members are found (among Feline calicivirus). Cross-reactivity is found. Cross- ... Diseases associated with this genus include: respiratory disease, feline calicivirus (FCV); conjunctivitis, and respiratory ... "Calicivirus isolate Allston 2008/US, complete genome". "Calicivirus isolate Geel 2008/Belgium non-structural polyprotein gene, ...

*Cat

Reubel, Gerhard (November 1992). "Acute and Chronic Faucitis of Domestic Cats: A Feline Calicivirus-Induced Disease". Elsevier ... cat-and-mouse game) Cat burning Cat intelligence Cat lady Cats and the Internet Dried cat List of cat breeds List of cat ... Cats portal Mammals portal Aging in cats Animal testing on cats Animal track Cancer in cats Cat and mouse ( ... self-published source] "Feline Veterinary care by The Boston Cat Hospital/Feline Fast Cats". The Boston Cat Hospital. Retrieved ...

*Disinfectant

Malik YS, Goyal SM (May 2006). "Virucidal efficacy of sodium bicarbonate on a food contact surface against feline calicivirus, ... Lages SL, Ramakrishnan MA, Goyal SM (February 2008). "In-vivo efficacy of hand sanitisers against feline calicivirus: a ... Phenols are toxic to cats and newborn humans Phenol is probably the oldest known disinfectant as it was first used by Lister, ... "Phenol and Phenolic Poisoning in Dogs and Cats". www.peteducation.com. "PHENOL - National Library of Medicine HSDB Database". ...

*Norovirus

Jimenez L, Chiang M (2006). "Virucidal activity of a quaternary ammonium compound disinfectant against feline calicivirus: a ... D'Souza DH, Sair A, Williams K, Papafragkou E, Jean J, Moore C, Jaykus L (2006). "Persistence of caliciviruses on environmental ... Clarke IN, Lambden PR (2000). "Organization and expression of calicivirus genes". J. Infect. Dis. 181 Suppl 2: S309-16. doi: ...

*Picornavirus

"Structures of the Compact Helical Core Domains of Feline Calicivirus and Murine Norovirus VPg Proteins". J. Virol. 87 (10): ... It should be noted that the VPg primers of caliciviruses, whose structures are only beginning to be revealed, are much larger ...

*List of fungicides

Malik YS, Goyal SM (May 2006). "Virucidal efficacy of sodium bicarbonate on a food contact surface against feline calicivirus, ...

*Breath Savers

"Virucidal efficacy of sodium bicarbonate on a food contact surface against feline calicivirus, a norovirus surrogate". ...

*BIA Separations

... feline calicivirus, hepatitis A, lentivirus, influenza A and B, rabies virus, rotavirus, tomato and pepino mosaic virus. Since ... 2009). "A novel method for concentrating hepatitis A virus and caliciviruses from bottled water". Journal of Virological ...

*List of virus species

... a Felid alphaherpesvirus 1 Feline calicivirus Feline foamy virus Feline immunodeficiency virus Feline leukemia virus Feline ... virus HRPV-6 Hamiltonella virus APSE1 Hantaan hantavirus Hardenbergia mosaic virus Hardenbergia virus A Hardy-Zuckerman feline ... siadenovirus A Skunkpox virus Slow bee paralysis virus Snake atadenovirus A Snakehead novirhabdovirus Snyder-Theilen feline ... 22 Gammapapillomavirus 23 Gammapapillomavirus 24 Gammapapillomavirus 25 Gammapapillomavirus 26 Gardner-Arnstein feline sarcoma ...

*Feline viral rhinotracheitis

"Three-year duration of immunity in cats following vaccination against feline rhinotracheitis virus, feline calicivirus, and ... The other important cause of feline respiratory disease is feline calicivirus. FVR is very contagious and can cause severe ... Feline viral rhinotracheitis (FVR) is an upper respiratory or pulmonary infection of cats caused by feline herpesvirus 1, of ... It is also commonly referred to as feline influenza, feline coryza, and feline pneumonia but, as these terms describe other ...

*Grapefruit seed extract

A study that examined the antiviral properties of GSE found that GSE had no efficacy as a disinfectant for feline calicivirus ... and feline parvovirus. Grapefruit seed extract has been advocated to be a powerful antimicrobial with proven activity against ...

*Taxonomic list of viruses

Feline calicivirus Vesicular exanthema of swine virus Family: Carmotetraviridae Genus: Alphacarmotetravirus Providence virus ... Chick syncytial virus Feline leukemia virus Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins murine sarcoma virus Gardner-Arnstein feline sarcoma virus ... African green monkey simian foamy virus Bovine foamy virus Equine foamy virus Feline foamy virus Macaque simian foamy virus ... Bovine immunodeficiency virus Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus Equine infectious anemia virus Feline immunodeficiency virus ...

*List of feline diseases

Bordetella bronchiseptica Chlamydophila felis Feline calicivirus Feline viral rhinotracheitis (FVR) FHV-1 Cat-scratch disease ... Feline acne Feline asthma Feline cognitive dysfunction Feline coronavirus Feline cystitis Feline cutaneous asthenia Feline ... Aspergilloisis Avian influenza in cats Bone cancer in cats and dogs Bladder cancer in cats and dogs Cancer in cats Cat flu, an ... distemper Feline foamy virus Feline hepatic lipidosis Feline hyperaldosteronism Feline hyperesthesia syndrome Feline ...

*List of MeSH codes (B04)

... calicivirus, feline MeSH B04.820.095.887.900 --- vesicular exanthema of swine virus MeSH B04.820.110.150 --- closterovirus MeSH ... calicivirus, feline MeSH B04.909.777.162.887.900 --- vesicular exanthema of swine virus MeSH B04.909.777.270 --- encephalitis ... feline MeSH B04.820.650.589.530.400 --- immunodeficiency virus, feline MeSH B04.820.650.589.600 --- lentiviruses, ovine-caprine ... feline MeSH B04.909.777.731.589.530.400 --- immunodeficiency virus, feline MeSH B04.909.777.731.589.600 --- lentiviruses, ovine ...

*FCV

Germany Feline calicivirus Female copulatory vocalization Flow control valve Ford Crown Victoria Forest City Velodrome, in ...

*VPg

... abrogating the requirement of VPg in initial infection whereas studies with feline calicivirus confirmed that the VPg protein ... Burroughs JN, Brown F. Presence of a covalently linked protein on calicivirus rna. J Gen Virol. 1978;41(2):443-446. Van der ... and later seen in caliciviruses. VPg must undergo post-translational uridylylation before it can act as a primer for ... A protein, vpg, covalently linked to 36s calicivirus rna. J Gen Virol. 1980;47(1):215-220. Goodfellow I, Chaudhry Y, Richardson ...

*Kitten

The usual combination vaccination protects against feline viral rhinotracheitis (FVR), feline calicivirus (C), and feline ... A kitten, also known as a kitty or kitty cat, is a juvenile cat. After being born, kittens are totally dependent on their ... Such early neutering does not appear to have any long-term health risks to cats, and may even be beneficial in male cats. ... Felines are natural carnivores and do not intentionally consume large quantities of carbohydrates. The domestic cat's liver has ...

*Daria Nina Love

In 1970, she commenced PhD work at the University of Sydney, studying host-cell relationships of Feline Calicivirus under ... Love was passionate about the welfare of animals and had a particular love of cats. She was heavily involved with the Cat ... Studies on virus host-cell relationships of a feline calicivirus'. She was also the first woman to become an associate ... she maintained her interest in feline viruses. She was also involved in the detection of Equine Herpes Virus 1 (EHV-1) from an ...

*ATCvet code QI06

... feline rhinotracheitis virus + feline calicivirus QI06AA04 Feline rhinotracheitis virus + feline calicivirus + feline ... feline calicivirus QI06AA06 Feline infectious peritonitis virus QI06AA07 Feline calicivirus QI06AA08 Feline rhinotracheitis ... feline calicivirus QI06AD04 Feline panleucopenia virus/parvovirus + feline rhinotracheitis virus + feline calicivirus QI06AD05 ... feline calicivirus + chlamydia Empty group QI06AH01 Live feline rhinotracheitis virus + live feline calicivirus + inactivated ...

*Cat flu

... cat common cold, this is the disease that is closely similar to cat flu[further explanation needed]) Feline calicivirus-(cat ... Cat Flu Symptoms and Treatment Cat Health (sniksnak.com) Cat Care Vaccination (cats.org.uk) Feline upper respiratory tract ... Cat flu is the common name for a feline upper respiratory tract disease. While feline upper respiratory disease can be caused ... While Avian Flu can also infect cats, Cat flu is generally a misnomer, since it usually does not refer to an infection by an ...

*Feral cat

... feline calicivirus, Chlamydia felis, and Mycoplasma felis). Feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus belong to ... A feral cat advocacy organization's explanation of feral cats Stray Cat Alliance Feral cat control in the UK Study of the feral ... and unowned cats who rely on humans as semi-feral or stray. Farm cats (also called barn cats) are cats that live on ... "History of domestic cats and cat breeds". In Pedersen, Niels C. Feline Husbandry: Diseases and Management in the Multiple Cat ...

*Vaccine-associated sarcoma

Feline rhinotracheitis/panleukopenia/calicivirus vaccines should be given as kittens, a year later and then every three years. ... "Vaccine-Associated Fibrosarcoma in Cats" from Pet Cancer Center 2006 Feline Vaccination Guidelines (Summary) Cat Vaccines Can ... A vaccine-associated sarcoma (VAS) or feline injection-site sarcoma (FISS) is a type of malignant tumor found in cats (and ... Eigner, Diane R. "Feline Vaccine Guidelines". The Winn Feline Foundation. Retrieved 2006-08-27. "VAFSTF Vaccine Site ...

*Bordetella bronchiseptica

However, URI in cats can also be caused by herpesvirus, calicivirus, Mycoplasma species, or Chlamydia psittaci. An intranasal ... It is a serious disease of dogs, pigs, and rabbits, and has been seen in cats, horses, and seals. A PCR test for the pathogen ... Cats infected with B. bronchiseptica have been seen with tracheobronchitis, conjunctivitis, and rhinitis (upper respiratory ... Humans are not natural carriers of B. bronchiseptica, which typically infects the respiratory tracts of smaller mammals (cats, ...

*Domestic rabbit

Today, the domesticated rabbit is the third most popular mammalian pet in Britain after dogs and cats. Rabbits have been, and ... Rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD), also known as viral hemorrhagic disease (VHD) or rabbit calicivirus disease (RCD), is caused ... Rabbit Calicivirus Disease" (PDF). CFSPH.IAState.edu. Iowa State University College of Veterinary Medicine. Retrieved October 3 ... Myxomatosis and Calicivirus". FeralFeast!. Archived from the original on October 17, 2007. Retrieved February 17, 2012. Center ...
PEREIRA, Joylson de Jesus et al. Molecular characterization of feline calicivirus variants from multicat household and public animal shelter in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Braz. J. Microbiol. [online]. 2018, vol.49, n.4, pp.777-784. ISSN 1517-8382. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjm.2018.01.003.. The aim of this study was to perform the molecular characterization of conserved and variable regions of feline calicivirus capsid genome in order to investigate the molecular diversity of variants in Brazilian cat population. Twenty-six conjunctival samples from cats living in five public short-term animal shelters and three multicat life-long households were analyzed. Fifteen cats had conjunctivitis, three had oral ulceration, eight had respiratory signs (cough, sneeze and nasal discharge) and nine were asymptomatic. Feline calicivirus were isolated in CRFK cells and characterized by reverse transcription PCR target to both conserved and variable regions of open reading frame 2. The amplicons obtained were ...
Its efficacy in presence of maternally derived FCV antibodies. References. 1. Baulch-Brown, C., Love, D.N., Meanger, J., 1997. Feline calicivirus: a need for vaccine modification ? Aust. Vet. J. 75(3), 209-213.. 2. Baulch-Brown, C., Love, D.N., Meanger, J., 1999. Sequence variation within the capsid protein of Australian isolates of feline calicivirus. Vet. Microbiol. 68, 107-117.. 3. Binns, S.H., Dawson, S., Speakman, A.J., Cuevas, L.E., Hart, C.A., Gaskell, C.J., Morgan, K.L., Gaskell, R.M., 2000. A study of feline upper respiratory tract disease with reference to prevalence and risk factors for infection with feline calicivirus and feline herpesvirus. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery 2, 123-133.. 4. Chappuis, G., Stellmann, C., 1974. Etude sérologique des picornavirus félins: parenté-dominance des souches. Bull.Soc.Sci.Vet et Med comparée, 76(4), 289-299.. 5. Dawson, S., McArdle, F., Bennett, D., Carter, M., Bennett, M., Ryvar, R., Gaskell, R.M., 1993. Investigation of vaccine ...
Feline Calicivirus Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed Virus which has been established as pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production. All serials of vaccine shall be prepared from the first through the fifth passage from the Master Seed Virus. (a) The Master Seed Virus shall meet the applicable general requirements prescribed in § 113.300. (b) The Master Seed Virus shall be tested for chlamydial agents as prescribed in § 113.43. (c) Each lot of Master Seed Virus used for vaccine production shall be tested for immunogenicity. The selected virus dose from the lot of Master Seed Virus shall be established as follows: (1) Thirty feline calicivirus susceptible cats shall be used as test animals (20 vaccinates and 10 controls). Throat swabs shall be collected from each cat and individually tested on susceptible cell cultures for the presence of feline calicivirus. Blood samples shall be ...
Paws and Whiskers Cat Shelter has temporarily suspended adoptions and intakes of cats and kittens after persistent cases of Feline Calicivirus - commonly known as Calici. This viral infection is common in shelters and presents as an upper respiratory infection. While usually not life-threatening, this viral infection can spread in shelter and veterinary clinics. The closure is expected to last until December 16, 2017, or until the veterinarian gives clearance.. Cats that are unaffected will still be in the main shelter but it will close during this time to allow for any other cats that may have been exposed to show symptoms. Approximately one third of the shelters cats are affected.. Paws and Whiskers is taking veterinary recommended isolation protocols for cats displaying the symptoms - runny nose and eyes, tongue sores - by moving them to their facility next door. The affected cats will be isolated and treated for their symptoms, administered new vaccines, as well as strict cleaning ...
Feline Calicivirus小鼠单克隆抗体[FCV1-43](ab33990)经WB, ELISA, IHC实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
The kinetics and biochemical properties of feline calicivirus (FCV) attachment to Crandell-Reese feline kidney cells were determined. Maximum binding was observed at pH 6.5. Cells in suspension at...
Antigen Background The Caliciviridae are a family of positive-stranded RNA viruses of unique morphology characterized by a series of cup-like depressions on the surface of the virus. Feline Calicivirus (FCV) is a ubiquitous pathogen of cats producing a variety of clinical symptoms, including oral ulceration, upper respiratory tract infection and polyarthritis. FCV has a genome of 7.7kb which encodes several proteins. Product Specific Information NCL-1G9 detects one of these, a capsid protein of 62 kD.. ...
Science & Technology, Life Sciences & Biomedicine, Cell Biology, Medicine, Research & Experimental, Multidisciplinary Sciences, Research & Experimental Medicine, Science & Technology - Other Topics, feline calicivirus, caspase activation, capsid protein, DEATH ...
Al-Molawi, N, Beardmore, VA, Carter, MJ, Kass, GEN and Roberts, LO (2003) Caspase-mediated cleavage of the feline calicivirus capsid protein ...
The two viruses commonly associated with cat flu or snuffles are the Feline Herpesvirus and the Feline Calicivirus. Both cause upper respiratory symptoms such as sneezing, coughing, conjunctivitis and discharge from the nose and eyes. The Herpesvirus tends to cause more severe symptoms. Ulcers on the tongue and chronic inflammation of the gums may also be seen with Calicivirus infection. Cats become infected by close contact with infected cats. Cats are at greatest risk of contracting snuffles at a boarding/breeding cattery or animal shelter. Recovered cats may continue to shed the virus without showing symptoms potentially infecting many animals.. ...
To provide the best protection for your cat, we ask you to provide proof of their current F3 vaccination. This vaccination provides your cat with the best protection for the following: Feline Enteritis, Feline Rhinotracheitis and Feline Calicivirus. An F3 vaccination gives your cat maximum protection against Cat Flu and reduces likelihood of contraction, however does NOT prevent it entirely ...
Ready to use lyophilised master mixes (8-well strips each) for detection of feline calicivirus, feline herpesvirus-1, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Chlamydophila felis, Mycoplasma felis and internal control. ...
Table Top (EPA Reg # 1839-220-17268) has demonstrated effectiveness against viruses similar to 2019 novel coronavirus-Wuhan (also 2019-nCoV) on hard nonporous surfaces. Therefore, this product can be used against 2019 novel coronavirus-Wuhan (also 2019-nCoV) when used in accordance with the directions for use against Human Rotavirus, Feline Calicivirus, Canine Parvovirus, Rhinovirus Type 14, Rhinovirus Type 39 and Poliovirus Type 1 on hard, non-porous surfaces. Wipe surfaces often with Table Top to prevent spread of COVID- ...
Research in Virology and Veterinary Virology are based in new laboratories at three sites, the Ronald Ross Building, IC2 and Leahurst. They encompass studies of the pathogenicity, diagnostics, identification, epidemiology and immune responses to a range of viral pathogens including: Japanese encephalitis virus,HIV,respiratory syncytial virus, cytomegalovirus and other herpesviruses, chicken metapneumovirus, feline calicivirus and Schmallenberg virus. Techniques used include: diagnostic identification methods, flow cytometry, ELISA, epidemiology, PCR and transcriptomic and genomic technologies, including metagenomics, resequencing and genotyping cell separation, proteomics and infection models.. The aims of the research are to investigate the transmission routes and behaviour of pathogens during infections and use this knowledge to design better therapeutic strategies or vaccines in order to improve the health of humans and animals.. ...
A cat can not tell its pet owner when it feels in poor health, so the only solution to know is by proprietors will reveal an sickness in considered one of two ways. While it is difficult to induce long-time period immunity to bacterial infections, vaccines targeted toward viruses are normally more efficient at conferring long-time period immunity in the recipient. If the cat is spayed or neutered, chances are he or she was vaccinated as a kitten.. Dont vaccinate adult cats for FeLV - even if they have entry to the outdoors - since natural immunity to this disease is very sturdy by the point the cat is ~1 yr of age. We definitely should stop vaccinating with FVRCP every year but taking it one step additional, I dont observe the AAFP tips which counsel giving the FVRCP each 3 years because the risks outweigh the benefits ...
WBOC,wboc.com,Delmarva,Delaware,Maryland,Virginia, Eastern Shore,Salisbury,Dover,Ocean City,Cambridge,Delmar,Easton,Seaford,Georgetown,Lewes,Rehoboth,Milford
We report a disease outbreak in a Michigan rabbitry of a rabbit calicivirus distinct from the foreign animal disease agent, rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV). The novel virus has been designated Michigan rabbit calicivirus (MRCV). Caliciviruses of the Lagovirus genus other than RHDV have not been described in US rabbit populations. The case-fatality rate was 32.5% (65/200). Clinical signs included hemorrhage and sudden death, with hepatic necrosis. Analysis of viral RNA sequence from >95% of the viral genome showed an average similarity of 79% with RHDV. Similarity of the predicted MRCV capsid amino acid sequence ranged from 89.8% to 91.3%, much lower than the 98% amino acid similarity between RHDV strains. Experimentally infected rabbits lacked clinical disease, but MRCV was detected in tissues by PCR. We propose that MRCV primarily causes subclinical infection but may induce overt RHD-like disease under certain field conditions.
Ned F. Kuehn, DVM, Diplomate, ACVIM. Feline respiratory disease complex includes those illnesses typified by rhinitis, conjunctivitis, lacrimation, salivation, and oral ulcerations. The principal diseases, Feline Viral Rhinotracheitis (FVR) and Feline Calicivirus (FCV) infections, affect exotic as well as ~domestic species. Feline Pneurnonitis (Chlamydia psittaci) and Mycoplasmal infections ,appear to be of lesser importance. Feline infectious peritonitis and pleuritis typically causes a more generalized condition but may cause signs of mild upper respiratory tract infection. I FVR and calliciviruses are host-specific and pose no known human risk. Human conjunctivitis caused by the feline chlamydial agent has been reported.. Etiology: Probably 40-45% of feline upper respiratory infections are caused by FVR s , which is a herpesvirus; incidence of FCV is similar. Dual infections with these viruses are common. Other organisms such as Chlamydia psittaci, Mycoplasma spp, and reoviruses are believed ...
The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) is the most endangered felid species in the world. Lynx populations have decreased dramatically in size and distribution in the last four decades, thus becoming increasingly vulnerable to catastrophic events such as epizooties. From 1989 to 2000, serum samples were obtained from 48 free-ranging lynx captured in the Doñana National Park (DNP, n = 31) and mountains of Sierra Morena (SM, n = 17) in southern Spain. Samples were tested for antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii, feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1), feline calicivirus (FCV), feline/canine parvovirus (FPV/CPV), feline coronavirus, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), feline leukaemia virus and canine distemper virus (CDV) and for FeLV p27 antigen, to document baseline exposure levels. Antibodies against T. gondii were detected in 44% of lynx, with a significantly greater prevalence in DNP (61%) than in SM (12%). In DNP, prevalence was significantly higher in adult (81%) than in juvenile and sub-adult (41%) ...
DNA aptamers were developed against murine norovirus (MNV) using SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment). Nine rounds of SELEX led to the discovery of AG3, a promising aptamer with very high affinity for MNV as well as for lab-synthesized capsids of a common human norovirus (HuNoV) outbreak strain (GII.3). Using fluorescence anisotropy, AG3 was found to bind with MNV with affinity in the low picomolar range. The aptamer could cross-react with HuNoV though it was selected against MNV. As compared to a non-specific DNA control sequence, the norovirus-binding affinity of AG3 was about a million-fold higher. In further tests, the aptamer also showed nearly a million-fold higher affinity for the noroviruses than for the feline calicivirus (FCV), a virus similar in size and structure to noroviruses. AG3 was incorporated into a simple electrochemical sensor using a gold nanoparticle-modified screen-printed carbon electrode (GNPs-SPCE). The aptasensor could detect MNV with a ...
Calicivirin (EC 3.4.22.66, Camberwell virus processing peptidase, Chiba virus processing peptidase, Norwalk virus processing peptidase, Southampton virus processing peptidase, norovirus virus processing peptidase, calicivirus trypsin-like cysteine protease, calicivirus TCP, calicivirus 3C-like protease, calicivirus endopeptidase, rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus 3C endopeptidase) is an enzyme. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction Endopeptidase with a preference for cleavage when the P1 position is occupied by Glu- and the P1- position is occupied by Gly- Viruses that are members of the Norovirus genus (Caliciviridae family) are a major cause of epidemic acute viral gastroenteritis. Meyers, G.; Rossi, C.; Thiel, H.J. (2004). "Calicivirus endopeptidases". In Barrett, A.J.; Rawlings, N.D.; Woessner, J.F. Handbook of Proteolytic Enzymes (2nd ed.). London: Elsevier. pp. 1380-1382. Wirblich, C.; Sibilia, M.; Boniotti, M.B.; Rossi, C.; Thiel, H.J.; Meyers, G. (1995). "3C-like protease ...
Live vaccine containing per dose of 1 ml 105.2 TCID50 Feline viral rhinotracheitis virus; 104.7 pfu Feline calicivirus; 104.2 TCID50 Feline panleucopenia virus.
Norwalk-like viruses (Feline Calicivirus), the Polio virus and even the common cold virus (Rhinovirus) are resistant to many surface disinfectants. But OPTIM 33 TB Surface Cleaner & Intermediate Level Disinfectant kills them all in one minute. It also has a one minute claim against: Mycobacterium terrae, Human Coronavirus (SARS), HIV-1, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, Avian Influenza (Bird Flu), Salmonella, E.Coli, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus aureus MRSA and other viruses & bacteria*, and can achieve a 99.999% broad-spectrum kill of vegetative bacteria in 30 seconds!. MSDS. Product Brochure. ...
Genetic characterization of a reptilian calicivirus (Cro1) : Vesiviruses in the family Caliciviridae infect a broad range of animal hosts including mammals, birds, fish, amphibians and reptiles. The vesivirus Cro1 strains were isolated from diseased snakes in the San Diego zoo in 1978 and reported as the first caliciviruses found in reptiles. The goal of this study was to characterize the Cro1 strain 780032I that was isolated in cell culture from a rock
Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease otherwise known as Viral Hemorrhagic Disease (VHD) of Rabbits or Rabbit Calicivirus Disease (RCD). Links and articles of interest to pet owners and veterinarians. ...
They additionally have been liberally infecting the species with the Rabbit Calicivirus Disease (RCD) from as far back as 1991 but since the animals have been able to develop immunities to it that has forced them into developing ever new strains of the killer. "What thats (the rabbit eradication biological pipeline plan) trying to do is recognize that we have to put out new strains of the rabbit calicivirus at key points, to keep numbers low, rather than just waiting for numbers to bounce back, going into crisis mode and then trying to do what we can," Andreas Glanzig of the Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre (IACRC) at the University of Canberra told the ABC on November 25, 2015. (See "Rabbit Control Plan Plays the Long Game to Contain Devastating Pest, Protect Threatened Species.") "What the twenty-year plan is all about is making sure weve got new strains of calicivirus coming out every five to eight years, so that when the effectiveness of one strain starts to decrease weve got ...
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The picornavirus genome consists of a single molecule of linear, postitive(+)-sense, single-strand RNA. It is non-segmented. The complete genome is 7000-8500 nucleotides long. At the 5-terminus of the genome has a long untranslated region 600-1200 bases in length, which is important in translation, virulence, and possibly encapsidation. There is a shorter untranslated region (50-100 bases in length) on the 3-terminus, which is important in (-)strand-synthesis. The 5-terminus untranslated region also has a "clover leaf" secondary structure known as the Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES), which distinguishes picornaviruses from other RNA viruses; this structure is important in translation and replication. The 5-terminus is modified by a covalently-attached VPg protein (which takes the place of a cap), while the 3-terminus is modified by polyadenylation. (sources: ICTVdB, Bedard, Flynn) ...
The picornavirus genome consists of a single molecule of linear, postitive(+)-sense, single-strand RNA. It is non-segmented. The complete genome is 7000-8500 nucleotides long. The 5-terminus of the genome has a long untranslated region 600-1200 bases in length, which is important in translation, virulence, and possibly encapsidation. There is a shorter untranslated region (50-100 bases in length) on the 3-terminus, which is important in (-)strand-synthesis. The 5-terminus untranslated region also has a "clover leaf" secondary structure known as the Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES), which distinguishes picornaviruses from other RNA viruses; this structure is important in translation and replication. The 5-terminus is modified by a covalently-attached VPg protein (which takes the place of a cap), while the 3-terminus is modified by polyadenylation. (sources: ICTVdB, Bedard, Flynn) ...
FCV - Formation Continue Vétérinaire. Looking for abbreviations of FCV? It is Formation Continue Vétérinaire. Formation Continue Vétérinaire listed as FCV
The first randomized controlled trial on FCV® has now been published, demonstrating that during laryngeal surgery Tritube improves visibility of the surgical site as compared with a MLT 6.0. Moreover, the group of Prof Schumann showed that FCV® improves lung.... ...
Caliciviridae is a family of viruses, members of Class IV of the Baltimore scheme. They are positive-sense, single stranded RNA which is non-segmented. There are currently seven species in this family, divided among 5 genera. Diseases associated with this family include: feline calicivirus: respiratory disease; rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus: often-fatal hemorrhages; norwalk group of viruses: gastroenteritis. Caliciviruses naturally infect vertebrates, and have been found in a number of organisms such as humans, cattle, pigs, cats, chickens, reptiles, dolphins and amphibians. The caliciviruses have a simple construction and are not enveloped. The capsid appears hexagonal/spherical and has icosahedral symmetry (T=1 or T=3) with a diameter of 35-39 nm. Caliciviruses are not very well studied because until recently they could not be grown in culture, and there is no suitable animal model. However, the recent application of modern genomic technologies has led to an increased understanding of the ...
Human norovirus (NoV) is the leading cause of foodborne illnesses in the United States. Norovirus is shed in high numbers in the feces and vomitous of infected individuals. Contact surfaces contaminated with bodily fluids harboring infectious virus particles serve as vehicles for pathogen transmission. Environmental stability of NoV and its resistance to many conventional disinfectants necessitate effective inactivation strategies to control the spread of virus. We investigated the efficacy of two commercial disinfectants, hydrogen peroxide (7.5%) and a chlorine dioxide (0.2%)-surfactant-based product using a fogging delivery system against human NoV GI.6 and GII.4 Sydney strains as well as the cultivable surrogate, feline calicivirus (FCV) dried on stainless steel coupons. Log10 reductions in human NoV and FCV were calculated utilizing RNase RT-qPCR and infectivity (plaque) assay, respectively. An improved antiviral activity of hydrogen peroxide as a function of disinfectant formulation concentration
Caliciviral infections in humans, among the most common causes of viral-induced vomiting and diarrhea, are caused by the Norwalk group of small round structured viruses, the Sapporo caliciviruses, and the hepatitis E agent. Human caliciviruses have been resistant to in vitro cultivation, and direct study of their origins and reservoirs outside infected humans or water and foods (such as shellfish contaminated with human sewage) has been difficult. Modes of transmission, other than direct fecal-oral routes, are not well understood. In contrast, animal viruses found in ocean reservoirs, which make up a second calicivirus group, can be cultivated in vitro. These viruses can emerge and infect terrestrial hosts, including humans. This article reviews the history of animal caliciviruses, their eventual recognition as zoonotic agents, and their potential usefulness as a predictive model for noncultivatable human and other animal caliciviruses (e.g., those seen in association with rabbit hemorrhagic disease).
To see more information or to purchase click HERE C Cafe-au-Lait Spots: 0.52, 0.60, 2.25, 12.85, 45.03, 222.70, 425.00, 571.00, 839.00, 937.41, Caffey-De Toni-Silvermann Syndrome: (see Hyperostosis, Cortical, Congenital) Caliciviridae Infections: 0.06, 0.49, 0.57, 7.50, 2.50, 30.00, 72.50, 225.75, 419.34, 561.93, Calicivirus Infections: (see Caliciviridae Infections: (Winter Vomiting Disease)) Campylobacter Infections: 0.13, 0.35, 47.50, 159.30,…
Solo-Jec Feline 3 vaccine aids in the prevention of diseases caused by Feline Rhinotracheitis, Calicivirus and Panleukopenia viruses in kittens and cats.
Physiological function, and specifically immunological function, in ectothermic vertebrates is often constrained by thermal environments that may negatively affect performance. North American tortoises (genus Gopherus) have been the source of numerous studies investigating baseline immunological parameters (specifically related to upper respiratory tract disease, URTD), yet little is known regarding the nature of acute immune responses and how immune responses are constrained by thermal environments in this taxon of high conservation concern. Herein, we measured immune responses in gopher tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus) to simulated acute bacterial infection (lipopolysaccharide, LPS). We performed assays in G. polyphemus that had been acclimated to two different seasonal (and thus thermal) acclimation states of winter and summer to test the hypothesis that seasonal context determines the scope of an immunological response. We measured body temperature, bactericidal ability (BA), plasma iron, ...
Fel-O-Guard Plus 4 + Lv-K vaccine prevents diseases caused by Feline Rhinotracheitis, Calicivirus, Panleukopenia, Leukemia and Chlamydia in cats.
Melbourne A VIRUS that could wipe out most of Australias rabbits will be deliberately spread across the country by the end of the month. Australia is pushing ahead with its plan to release the rabbit calicivirus despite warnings by two American scientists that it is playing with dynamite. They argue that the virus could jump …
Publications in 2015 The underlined (otherwise all) authors are from the Institute Papers Alkan F, Karayela I, Catella C, Bodnar L, Lanave G, Bányai K, Di Martino B, Decaro N, Buonavoglia C, Martella V. (2015): Identification of a bovine enteric calicivirus, Kırklareli virus, distantly related to neboviruses, in calves with enteritis in Turkey. Journal of Clinical. Microbiology, 53(11): 3614-3617.
Feline calicivirus (FCV)-a member of the Vesivirus-represents an important pathogen of cats. Sapovirus, Norovirus, and Vesivirus have been detected in pigs, making this animal species of particular interest in the study of calicivirus pathogenesis and host range. The first mouse norovirus, murine norovirus 1 (MNV-1), was discovered in 2003. Since then, numerous murine norovirus strains have been identified and they were assigned a new genogroup in the genus Norovirus. Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus is a pathogen of rabbits that causes major problems throughout the world where rabbits are reared for food and clothing, make a significant contribution to ecosystem ecology, and where they support valued wildlife as a food source.[4]. ...
Looking for Feline herpesvirus? Find out information about Feline herpesvirus. of, relating to, or belonging to the Felidae , a family of predatory mammals, including cats, lions, leopards, and cheetahs, typically having a round head... Explanation of Feline herpesvirus
Subject: Update on RCD Date: Thursday, April 13, 2000 8:55 AM Hi all, Just a few minutes ago information I posted information to the ARBA web site which was faxed here this morning by Chris. A direct link to the USDA-APHIS web site has also been supplied from our site for any wishing to use it. We are sending the articles that were posted this morning in this email. You can view them on the ARBA site also. Dick =================================================== Rabbit Calicivirus Disease: Questions & Answers Q: What is rabbit calicivirus disease? A: Rabbit calicivirus disease (RCD) is a highly infectious viral disease of the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). This is the species from which all U.S. domestic and commercial rabbits are derived. American cottontail rabbits and jackrabbits are not susceptible to infection. Q: Does this disease affect people? A: No. Q: Does RCD affect other animals? A: It is not known to be harmful to other animals. Q: What are the clinical signs of RCD? A: ...
Thankfully we have a vaccine that is effective for this disease. It is effective for the RHDV1 strains, but may have limited protection for the RHDV2 which currently is not in Alice Springs. The recommended vaccine schedule has changed which is different to what the manufacturers of the vaccine had set. For young rabbits, we now recommend vaccination at 4, 8 and 12 weeks of age and then every 6 months. For older rabbits, we recommend 2 vaccinations 1 month apart and then every 6 months ...
This is Hei Hei. Hes a happy young pup.Adoption fee covers:Spay or Neuter surgeryMicrochipWorming treatmentFlea treatmentRabies, Distemper, Rhinotracheitis, Calicivirus, Chlamydia and Panleukopenia vaccines.Feline Leukemia and Aids Test
The invention provides antisense antiviral compounds and methods of their use in inhibition of growth of viruses of the picornavirus, calicivirus, togavirus and flavivirus families, as in treatment of a viral infection. The antisense antiviral compounds are substantially uncharged oligomers having a targeting base sequence that is substantially complementary to a viral target sequence which spans the AUG start site of the first open reading frame of the viral genome.
If your cat lives with feline kidney disease, there are many things you can do each day that will help your furry friend have a better quality of life.
Principal Investigator:MATSUI Yoshihiko, Project Period (FY):2002 - 2004, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B), Section:一般, Research Field:Civil and environmental engineering
A syndrome reported in the USA and Europe, typically affecting multiple cats in a group,3 but individual cats too.4 Associated with high mortality (30-50%), interestingly especially in adult cats. Clinical signs include facial and paw cutaneous oedema and ulceration, bruising, pyrexia, icterus and cat flu signs.. Chlamydophila felis. C. felis is a common cause of conjunctivitis, especially in young (, 1 year of age) cats.5 Conjunctivitis, ocular discharge (initially serous and unilateral, then mucopurulent and bilateral) and chemosis are seen, but corneal ulceration is not a feature. Occasionally may see sneezing and a nasal discharge too.. Mycoplasma spp. and Bordetella bronchiseptica. Both Mycoplasma spp. and B. bronchiseptica can be found in normal cats, but have also been associated with disease. Mycoplasma spp. can cause conjunctivitis, and an association with URTD has been reported,6 whilst B. bronchiseptica can cause ocular and nasal discharge, sneezing, pyrexia ± coughing.7. Carrier ...
American Journal of Veterinary ResearchJanuary 2009, Vol. 70, No. 1, Pages 99-104Assessment of viremia associated with experimental primary feline herpesvirus infection or presumed herpetic recrudescence in catsHans D. Westermeyer, DVM, Sara M. Thomasy, DVM, PhD, Helen Kado-Fong, MS, David J. Maggs, BVScObjective-To detect feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1) in blood of cats undergoing experimental primary…
Australias biocontrol programs using Myxoma virus in 1950 and the Rabbit Calicivirus in 1995 have been extremely successful in drastically reducing pest rabbit numbers in Australia. However, there is no status quo in rabbit biocontrol: the virus and rabbits constantly co-evolve, and changes in virus virulence and innate resistance in the host leads to rabbit numbers increasing yet again. We are continuing research to find new strategies that will help maintain benefits of biocontrol in the future.
Dear Dr. Pitcairn,. I e-mailed you a year ago, but lost my password, so I dont know if you had a chance to answer ~~~ but my questions are different now!. I am desperately trying to save Sagacity, my 11-year old neutered male "boss" cat. He is calm and mellow, except when he is protecting my other 34 cats, and I love him dearly. He was diagnosed with calicivirus about 4 1/2 years ago, and I have been giving him 1/4 tsp. of coconut oil every day; I also gave him Viralys (with l-Lysine and dehydrated fish) powder to boost his immune system and balance the Omega 6 fatty acids in his coconut doses; then I covered them with a turkey "smoothie." I mix one jar of Gerbers turkey baby food with 2 jars of distilled water, shake it, and pour it into the dishes of Sagacity and several other cats. The last time I ran out of Viralys, Sagacity had developed a swelling on the left side of his mouth, so I took him with me to the vet. I thought it was an abcess on one of his remaining teeth, but the vet said ...
Tampa, Florida The Encyclopedia of Medical Genomics and Proteomics provides a comprehensive two-volume source of practical information on molecular medicine ranging from basic methods in gel electrophoresis to more specialized subjects such as fluorescence resonance energy transfer and tissue microarrays. Written by over 400 experts in the field, each article averages about five pages and contains an introduction, several main descriptive sections, conclusion and references. The writing is clear and succinct and there are many photographs, diagrams and tables to illustrate the text. Want outlines of the various types of polymerase chain reaction or details of how to do single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis? How about information on calicivirus, Cryptosporidium or clarithromycin resistance? Its all here in an eminently readable form, quickly accessible and with a reference list included with each article for additional study. Researchers, physicians, educators, students and interested lay ...
Advantages of Medium Pressure Lamps : Permanent microbial inactivation, More efficient in virus inactivation, Fewer UV lamps needed, Effective in cold and warm water
The recent increase in the creation of trans-boundary protected areas and wildlife corridors between them lend importance to information on pathogen prevalence and transmission among wildlife species that will become connected. One such initiative is the Kavango Zambezi Transfrontier Conservation Area (KAZA/TFCA) of which Botswanas Okavango Delta constitute a major contribution in terms of wildlife and ecosystems. Between 2008 and 2011, we collected serum samples from 14 lions (Panthera leo), four leopards (P. pardus), 19 spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta), and six cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in the Okavango. Samples were tested for antibodies against: canine distemper virus (CDV), feline panleukopenia virus, enteric coronavirus, feline calicivirus, feline herpesvirus (FHV-1), and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). Evidence of exposure to all of these pathogens was found to varying degrees in at least one of the species sampled. High seroprevalence (, 90%) was only found for FHV-1 and FIV in ...
What Does the FVRCP Vaccine Protect Against? The FVRCP vaccine (often called the distemper vaccine) actually protects against THREE contagious viral infections in cats. Feline Viral Rhinotracheitis: The rhinotracheitis virus (herpesvirus type 1) is a common cause of upper respiratory tract disease in cats. Infection often results in chronic (life-long) infection with intermittent flares of illness.…
Formaldehyde (FA) fixation of infectious samples is a well-established protocol in diagnostic electron microscopy of viruses. However, published experimental data that demonstrate virus inactivation by these fixation procedures are lacking. Usually, fixation is performed immediately before the sample preparation for microscopy. The fixation procedure should transform viruses in a non-infectious but nonetheless structurally intact form in order to allow a proper diagnosis based on morphology. FA provides an essential advantage in comparison to other disinfectants, because it preserves the ultrastructure of biological material without interfering significantly with the preparation (i.e., the negative staining) and the detection of viruses. To examine the efficiency of FA inactivation, we used Vaccinia virus, Human adenovirus and Murine norovirus as models and treated them with FA under various conditions. Critical parameters for the inactivation efficiency were the temperature, the duration of the FA
Noroviruses (NoVs) belong to the genus Norovirus and are members of the family Caliciviridae. NoVs are the dominant cause of outbreaks of gastroenteritis, but progress in understanding the molecular c
The feline herpesvirus (FHV) is responsible for nasty respiratory infections in cats, and the disease can become chronic just like its human-specific counterpart. You arent at any risk of ...
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Royal Canin Senior Consult Stage 2 is a complete feed foradult cats over 7 years old.Key Benefits: Age support - A selection of nutrients which meets the...
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almost all fading kittens exhibit similar symptoms. Profound lethargy, low body temperature, pale gums, low respiratory rate, and failure to root and nurse or eat are nearly universal signs of the syndrome. However, these signs can be caused by a large number of problems. ( Inadequate mothering, Trauma and hypothermia are two causes of fading kitten syndrome that truly come on suddenly. Trauma occurs most frequently when a kitten falls from height or is crushed. Hypothermia occurs when kittens are separated from one another and the mother in a chilly environment. Note that hypothermia can be either a cause or a result of a fading kitten crisis. Almost all fading kittens in crisis will exhibit hypothermia. Infectious organisms are frequent culprits in fading kitten syndrome. Kittens are at risk of sepsis from bacterial infections. Viral infections with organisms such as feline herpesvirus, calicivirus, panleukopenia, FIV/feline AIDS, and feline leukemia virus may trigger the syndrome. Parasitic ...
Cough is the most common symptom for which patients present for their primary care physicians, and acute bronchitis is the most common diagnosis in these patients. Nevertheless, studies demonstrate that most patients with acute bronchitis are treated with ineffective or incorrect treatments. Although some doctors cite patient expectations and time constraints for using these therapies, recent warnings from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) about the risks of specific commonly employed agents underscore the value of using only evidence-based, effective therapies for bronchitis. A survey revealed that 55 percent of patients believed that antibiotics were effective for treating viral upper respiratory tract diseases, and that almost 25 percent of patients had self-treated an upper respiratory tract illness in the previous year with antibiotics left over from earlier diseases. Studies have shown that the duration of office visits for acute respiratory infection is unchanged or only one ...
There are times when tortoises need a drink of water to flush out toxic accumulations in the bladder. When there is rain during the time of year that tortoises are active, March through September, wild tortoises, look for puddles. Tortoises may drink for 15 minutes or until the puddle is gone. This may be the only drink a wild tortoise gets during a year. The water is stored in the bladder and passes through the bladder wall into the tortoises system when needed. For this reason the tortoise holds that water until there is fresh water to drink. Pet tortoises may drink at any time but particularly when it rains, upon emerging from brumation (hibernation) and just prior to brumation. See that clean, shaded, shallow water is always available. See Provide Water on page 15 of the Adoption and Care booklet. Is it true that the Clark County euthanizes unwanted tortoises? NO. The only tortoises that may be euthanized are those that show signs of Upper Respiratory Tract Disease or whose blood ...
Mami-Dade County Animal Services offers low-cost comprehensive wellness vaccine packages to help keep your furry best friends healthy.. A comprehensive vaccination program, or pet care package, can protect dogs and cats from many common, serious and even fatal diseases. For dogs, the packages contain the legally required rabies vaccine, along with the combination vaccine DHPP which provides protection against Distemper, Hepatitis, Parvovirus and Parainfluenza, as well as the Bordetella vaccine which prevents kennel cough - all highly contagious and sometimes fatal diseases for dogs.. The packages for cats also include the legally required rabies vaccine along with FRCPC. Those letters stand for Feline Rhinotracheitis, Calicivirus, Panleukopenia and Chlamydophila, all viruses that can prove to be fatal in cats.. Below, youll find the pet care package options:. Pet care packages for dogs:. ...
and writes about feline-friendly hospitals, cat behavior and prevention of behavior problems, and recognizing and treating pain in cats. She has been active in the American Association of Feline Practitioners (AAFP) since 1982, and has served in every office, including President. She is most proud of her accomplishments in helping to establish guidelines for feline medicine, which include retrovirus testing, vaccinations, senior care, feline life stages, behavior, pain management, and feline handling guidelines (the latter published in 2011). Dr. Rodan was also an ambassador in the development of a specialist category in feline medicine. In 1995, she became one of the first board-certified feline practitioners. Her hospital is an AAHA-Accredited Feline Specialty Hospital. She and her team are involved in community service, including free spays and neuters for Friends of Ferals. Dr. Rodan also lectures to the public and staff members of the local shelter, Dane County Humane Society.. Dr. Rodan ...
Opens the Highlight Feature Bar and highlights feature annotations from the FEATURES table of the record. The Highlight Feature Bar can be used to navigate to and highlight other features and provides links to display the highlighted region separately. Links in the FEATURES table will also highlight the corresponding region of the sequence. More... ...
Bet your cat knows how to tell you when shes hungry. Most cats have very dramatic and prolonged meows that let their humans know when its time for dinner-and translation assistance is definitely not needed! Those demanding meows tell us exactly what our cats are thinking.. And it turns out that is precisely their point.. Here is the funny thing about those meows…theyre only meant for us. If you have more than one cat, pay attention to the way they interact. Communication is fairly complicated in the feline family, and your cats will talk to one another by using growls, trills, hisses, prrrrps, chirps and even yowls. But what you wont hear is one meowing to another.. Cats also communicate through scent-they head butt, rub against each other, and mark their homes with invisible scent: a feline "X marks the spot" so all other cats will know who lives there. All these unique signposts and signals make up feline language and are how cats talk with one another.. But sometime during those ...
Aerokat Feline Aerosol Chamber has been specifically designed for domestic cats who suffer from feline asthma. The intricate design fits comfortably on...
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Certain changes in behavior, such as irregular sleeping, eating, or grooming habits, may indicate that a cat is lonely and could benefit from some feline companionship.
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These values are for general reference only; refer to the laboratory normals from the lab you are using for specific reference values applicable to your situation.. ...
How informed are you about the furry felines odd nature? Read to discover or confirm your cat knowledge. Picture-heavy article for cat lovers!
Introduction: : In man, latent herpes simplex virus-1 has been detected in ciliary ganglia. Infection of bulbar conjunctiva and cornea with feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1) would allow FHV-1 access to the ciliary ganglia. Purpose: : Determine if active FHV-1 can be isolated from the ciliary ganglia of experimentally infected cats. Methods: : Twelve, juvenile, specific pathogen free (SPF) cats were inoculated with 1x105 TCID50 of the C27 strain of FHV-1 via the ocular and nasal routes. Three, juvenile, SPF cats served as controls. Four infected and 1 control cat were euthanized on day 6 (all animals demonstrating clinical signs), 10 (peak of ocular and respiratory signs), and 30 (virus latent with resolution of clinical signs). The right ciliary ganglia were harvested, placed in 800µl Bovarnicks solution, and homogenized. Cultures were performed in duplicate. A 100µl aliquot of filtered tissue extract was inoculated onto monolayers of Crandall Reese feline kidney cells. The cultures were examined ...
The objective of this study was to characterize the inactivation effects of a pilot-scale continuous-flow intense pulsed light (IPL) system on microorganisms in untreated groundwater used in the food industry. The inactivation effects of laboratory- and pilot-scale IPL systems on murine norovirus (MNV), a human norovirus surrogate, were also investigated. Flow rates of 40, 32, 20 and 12 l/min were tested (corresponding to 89,113, 179, and 290 s of treatment time in a chamber, respectively). A 290-s pilot-scale IPL treatment at an energy dose of 14.02 J/cm(2) resulted in a 4.79-log reduction of Escherichia coli C600 in water with an initial count of 10(5)-10(6) CFU/ml, while a 270-s treatment at an energy dose of 13.05 J/cm(2) resulted in a 2.91-log inactivation of aerobic and facultative anaerobic heterotrophs in untreated groundwater with the initial count of 4.5 x 10(4) CFU/ml. An 89-s treatment at a dose of 4.30 J/cm(2) resulted in a 3.35-log inactivation of MNV in water with the initial ...
Thalwitzer, S; Wachter, B; Robert, N; Wibbelt, G; Müller, T; Lonzer, J; Meli, M L; Bay, G; Hofer, H; Lutz, H (2010). Seroprevalences to viral pathogens in free-ranging and captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) on Namibian farmland. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology : CVI, 17(2):232-238.. Ramsauer, S; Bay, G; Meli, M; Hofmann-Lehmann, R; Lutz, H (2007). Seroprevalence of selected infectious agents in a free-ranging, low-density lion population in the Central Kalahari Game Reserves in Botswana. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology : CVI, 14(6):808-810.. Filoni, C; Catão-Dias, J L; Bay, G; Durigon, E L; Jorge, R S P; Lutz, H; Hofmann-Lehmann, R (2006). First evidence of feline herpesvirus, calicivirus, parvovirus, and Ehrlichia exposure in Brazilian free-ranging felids. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 42(2):470-7.. ...
Seriously? Yes! Evidence is mounting that the common FVRCP (feline viral rhinotracheitis, calicivirus and paneleukopenia) vaccine may cause long-term damage to cats kidneys that increases with every booster. Heres the report from Colorado State University:. The Center for Companion Animal Studies at Colorado State University has shown that cats vaccinated with FVRCP vaccines grown on Crandell-Rees Feline Kidney (CRFK) cell lines can develop antibodies to renal proteins, and that cats hypersensitized to CRFK cell lysates can develop interstitial nephritis…Cats administered FVRCP vaccines parenterally (by injection) have higher levels of circulating antibodies to these antigens than do cats who were administered a FVRCP vaccine for intranasal administration.. Similar antibodies have been implicated in the development of renal disease in humans, and there is every reason to suspect that they do the same in cats. Chronic chronic kidney disease (CKD) in cats is known to be caused by chronic ...
Be associated with severe ards showed three still symptomatic after contrast administration will viagra on court lawsuits help to distinguish from adem. Difficulty in concentrating or persistent upper respiratory tract disease. Burns are classified as either extralobar or intralobar. Pressure-controlled ventilators are used if severe acidosis acts as a modality in treating brain tumors such as insufficient vitamins a and p have already been absorbed from the same site with useful information regarding the anticipated long-term gains should be avoided because of the neck so-called bull neck. This patients problem but ventilatory control mechanisms to keep the aptt, physical examination is accurate. Serologic tests are usually increased. Liver spots or dots are present in small effusions. Management of the results of diagnostic value. Complications poor oxygenation of tissues resulting from hilar adenopathy. B. Laboratory findingsfor superficial candidiasis, opportunistic infections, malignancies, ...
If you have questions about this, please ask your PetRelocation Coordinator about possible exceptions.. Additional Vaccines. It is recommended that all pets have the following vaccines, as well:. Dogs: Distemper, Hepatitis, Leptospirosis, Parainfluenza and Parvovirus (DHLPP) and Bordetella.. Cats: Feline Viral Rhinotracheitis, Calicivirus and Panleukopenia (FVRCP).. These should be valid at the time of import and administered no less than two weeks before export date for maximum effectiveness.. EU Health Certificate. This will be provided by your PetRelocation Specialist. This is the standard Health Certificate to be filled out by your accredited veterinarian and must be signed in a different color than that of the certificates printing (usually blue ink). This certificate is valid for 10 days from the date of issue by the official veterinarian until the date of the checks at the EU point of entry.. For the purpose of further movements within the EU, this certificate will be valid for a total ...
If you have questions about this, please ask your PetRelocation Specialist about possible exceptions.. Additional Vaccines. Dogs: Distemper, Hepatitis, Leptospirosis, Parainfluenza and Parvovirus (DHLPP) and Bordetella.. Cats: Feline Viral Rhinotracheitis, Calicivirus and Panleukopenia (FVRCP).. These should be valid at the time of import and administered no less than two weeks before export date for maximum effectiveness.. EU Health Certificate. This will be provided by your PetRelocation Specialist. This is the standard Health Certificate to be filled out by your accredited veterinarian and must be signed in a different color than that of the certificates printing (usually blue ink). This certificate is valid for 10 days from the date of issue by the official veterinarian until the date of the checks at the EU point of entry.. For the purpose of further movements within the EU, this certificate will be valid for a total of four months from the date of issue or until the date of expiration of ...
Elsa always had runny eyes. The two-year-old cat had been rescued as a kitten by Penn Vet student Jennifer Bortree. Elsa was treated at the time for feline herpesvirus (FHV-1), one of the most common causes of upper respiratory infections in cats. Among other symptoms, FHV-1 infection often impacts the eyes.. ...
Feline T4 total ELISA kit is designed to detect quantitative levels of total thyroxine (T4) using feline (cat) serum or plasma samples. • Reactivity: Feline
A place where members can discuss feline heart conditions and treatments. You are welcome whether your cat was just diagnosed, suddenly passed on, or if you just want to learn more about feline heart conditions. Started April 2000
A place where members can discuss feline heart conditions and treatments. You are welcome whether your cat was just diagnosed, suddenly passed on, or if you just want to learn more about feline heart conditions. Started April 2000
Last week at CES in Las Vegas, Toyota revealed the FCV concept car for the fuel cell vehicle they will be making available next year. I had a chance to see the concept this week at the Detroit Auto Show ...
Put your paws together for the Winn Feline Foundation as it celebrates 50 years of making a very big difference in the lives of cats.
Site dedicated to Fritz, a Siamese cat with Feline Asthma. Includes description of the condition, medications, photos and further web resources. ...
Low Cost Feline Spay & Neuter - All about PetCare is committed to help control the pet overpopulation in Middletown and surrounding areas and bettering our communities. Every cat qualifie
Alibaba.com offers 8,935 anti-bacteria cleaning cloth products. About 8% of these are cleaning cloths, 1% are mops. A wide variety of anti-bacteria cleaning cloth options are available to you, such as home, airplane, and gift.
Morris Animal Foundation announced in May that the organizations new Helping Shelters Help Cats program is funding three studies
Vesicular Exanthema of Swine: A calicivirus infection of swine characterized by hydropic degeneration of the oral and cutaneous epithelia.
From the Department of Environmental and Global Health.. Last week, the Emerging Pathogen Institutes Global Pathogens Laboratory had the privilege of hosting Dr. Jianrong Li of The Ohio State University. During his visit to The University of Florida, Dr. Li delivered a powerful, optimistic seminar titled "New Interventions against Human Norovirus: Progress, Opportunities, and Challenges.". Human norovirus is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus of the family Caliciviridae responsible for more than 90% of nonbacterial gastroenteritis (stomach illness) worldwide and 60% of foodborne illness of a total 23 million cases in the United State every year. The primary difficulty in human norovirus research is the viruss inability to be grown in cell culture and the lack of a small animal model for pathogenesis study, which severely hampers research efforts to generate a vaccine.. To counter this, Dr. Lis group constructed a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) to express VP1, the major ...

Feline Calicivirus SymptomsFeline Calicivirus Symptoms

Diagnosis of Feline Calicivirus. The vet will perform a thorough physical examination of the cat and consider the cats risk of ... Oral ulcers are often a strong clinical indicator of feline calicivirus. If feline calicivirus is undetected, the vet will ... Sick cats should also be kept away from healthy pets. Prognosis. Although feline calicivirus doesnt lead to death if pets are ... Treatment of Feline Calicivirus. The aim of treatment is to support the cat with IV fluids to prevent dehydration. Although ...
more infohttps://www.vetinfo.com/feline-calicivirus-symptoms.html

How to Diagnose and Treat Feline Calicivirus (with Pictures)How to Diagnose and Treat Feline Calicivirus (with Pictures)

The feline calicivirus (FCV) is one of several viruses that can cause upper respiratory infections in cats. Like upper ... respiratory infections in humans, the infection will cause most cats to... ... The feline calicivirus (FCV) is one of several viruses that can cause upper respiratory infections in cats. Like upper ... If they determine your cat has calicivirus, they may give you antibiotics, topical ointment, or eye drops to give your cat. ...
more infohttps://www.wikihow.com/Diagnose-and-Treat-Feline-Calicivirus

Early interaction of feline calicivirus with cells in culture | SpringerLinkEarly interaction of feline calicivirus with cells in culture | SpringerLink

... attachment to Crandell-Reese feline kidney cells were determined. Maximum binding was observed at pH 6.5. Cells in suspension ... The kinetics and biochemical properties of feline calicivirus (FCV) ... The kinetics and biochemical properties of feline calicivirus (FCV) attachment to Crandell-Reese feline kidney cells were ... Love DN (1976) Feline calicivirus: purification of virus and extraction and characterization of its ribonucleic acid. Cornell ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF01538814

9 CFR 113.314 - Feline Calicivirus Vaccine. | US Law | LII / Legal Information Institute9 CFR 113.314 - Feline Calicivirus Vaccine. | US Law | LII / Legal Information Institute

113.314 Feline Calicivirus Vaccine.. Feline Calicivirus Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only ... 1) Thirty feline calicivirus susceptible cats shall be used as test animals (20 vaccinates and 10 controls). Throat swabs shall ... i) If less than 8 of 10 controls show clinical signs of feline calicivirus infection other than fever, the test is a No Test ... be collected from each cat and individually tested on susceptible cell cultures for the presence of feline calicivirus. Blood ...
more infohttps://www.law.cornell.edu/cfr/text/9/113.314

Feline Calicivirus (FCV) Overview -  Calicivirus - HealthCommunities.comFeline Calicivirus (FCV) Overview - Calicivirus - HealthCommunities.com

... common viral disease that affects cats, is characterized by upper respiratory symptoms, pneumonia, oral ulceration (sores in ... Feline calicivirus (pronounced cal-ee-chee virus, also known as FCV), a common viral disease that affects cats, is ... Calicivirus and feline rhinotracheitis virus account for 85 to 90 percent of all URIs in cats. ... Calicivirus is part of the feline upper respiratory infection (URI) complex, a group of viral and bacterial infections (e.g., ...
more infohttp://www.healthcommunities.com/calicivirus/feline-calicivirus-fcv-overview.shtml

Feline calicivirus - WikipediaFeline calicivirus - Wikipedia

"Three-year duration of immunity in cats following vaccination against feline rhinotracheitis virus, feline calicivirus, and ... Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a virus of the family Caliciviridae that causes disease in cats. It is one of the two important ... Ossiboff R, Sheh A, Shotton J, Pesavento P, Parker J (2007). "Feline caliciviruses (FCVs) isolated from cats with virulent ... Gary Norsworthy on VS-FCV July 2007 Feline Calicivirus Symptoms - Cat Flu. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Feline_calicivirus

Feline Calicivirus: A Cat Upper Respiratory InfectionFeline Calicivirus: A Cat Upper Respiratory Infection

Calicivirus and other feline URIs are highly contagious infections that can result in mild to severe clinical signs (especially ... Cats can easily transmit URIs, like calicivirus. URIs are the human equivalent of the common cold. Calicivirus and other feline ... Keep your cat indoors and away from other cats so he wont spread calicivirus or any URI. ... Whats the prognosis for calicivirus?. The prognosis for feline calicivirus and for other URIs is good with supportive care. ...
more infohttp://www.pethealthnetwork.com/cat-health/cat-diseases-conditions-a-z/feline-calicivirus-a-cat-upper-respiratory-infection

Feline Calicivirus Treatment, Symptoms | Cat Calcivirus InfectionFeline Calicivirus Treatment, Symptoms | Cat Calcivirus Infection

Feline calicivirus treatment involves use of antibiotics or any other medication. Symptoms are drastic changes in the animal s ... Feline Calcivirus Feline calicivirus is a virus that causes respiratory infection in cats. This infection is a form of cat flu ... Since calicivirus in cats causes a loss of appetite, it is important to make sure that the cat is well fed. You can coax the ... Keep in mind that the cats immune system is able to fight off feline calicivirus and so you need to ensure that their immune ...
more infohttp://www.pethealthandcare.com/cat-health/feline-calcivirus.html

Feline Calicivirus: A Challenge for Vaccines - WSAVA2004 - VINFeline Calicivirus: A Challenge for Vaccines - WSAVA2004 - VIN

Isolation of feline calicivirus and feline herpesvirus from domestic cats 1980 to 1989. Vet. Rec. 128, 77-80. ... Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a major pathogen of the domestic cat causing upper-respiratory tract infection, oral vesicular ... Vaccination of cats with an attenuated recombinant myxoma virus expressing feline calicivirus capsid protein. Vaccine 20, 2454- ... An isolated epizootic of hemorrhagic-like fever in cats caused by a novel and highly virulent strain of feline calicivirus. Vet ...
more infohttp://www.vin.com/apputil/content/defaultadv1.aspx?id=3852228&pid=11181

Feline Calicivirus radial colour 4M x mag (WY6SACGJV) by DavidBhellaFeline Calicivirus radial colour 4M x mag (WY6SACGJV) by DavidBhella

... on Shapeways. Learn more before you buy, or discover other ... This is a three-dimensional reconstruction of Feline Calicivirus solved by cryo-electron microscopy. It is therefore an exact ... "The cryo-electron microscopy structure of feline calicivirus bound to junctional adhesion molecule A at 9-angstrom resolution ...
more infohttps://www.shapeways.com/product/WY6SACGJV/feline-calicivirus-radial-colour-4m-x-mag

Is Your Cat Protected From Feline Calicivirus? | PetCareRxIs Your Cat Protected From Feline Calicivirus? | PetCareRx

... is a virus that causes most upper respiratory infections found in cats. Luckily there is a way to prevent your cat from ... Causes of Feline Calicivirus. The feline calicivirus is highly contagious and easily spread between cats. Affected cats shed ... Feline Calicivirus at a glance. *1Feline calicivirus is a virus that commonly causes upper respiratory infections in cats ... Feline Calicivirus Prevention. The number one way to protect your cat from FCV is with a vaccination. The feline calicivirus ...
more infohttps://www.petcarerx.com/article/is-your-cat-protected-from-feline-calicivirus/2826

NEWStat | Vaccination and group housing impact likelihood of feline calicivirusNEWStat | Vaccination and group housing impact likelihood of feline calicivirus

Swiss researchers studied both healthy cats and cats suspected of having FCV (FCV-suspect cats) to identify the frequency of ... is a RNA virus that affects both domestic and exotic cats. Some of the clinical symptoms often associated with FCV include ... Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a RNA virus that affects both domestic and exotic cats. Some of the clinical symptoms often ... Swiss researchers studied both healthy cats and cats suspected of having FCV (FCV-suspect cats) to identify the frequency of ...
more infohttp://www.aaha.org/blog/NewStat/post/2015/11/17/736644/Vaccination-and-group-housing-impact-likelihood-of-feline-calicivirus.aspx

Stability of feline caliciviruses in marine water maintained at different temperatures.Stability of feline caliciviruses in marine water maintained at different temperatures.

... feline caliciviruses were employed as a model for the measurement of their stability in marine wat ... Since human caliciviruses are responsible for viral gastroenteritis transmitted by contaminated foods and the viruses barely ... Calicivirus, Feline / growth & development, pathogenicity, physiology*. Cats. Cell Line. Cold Temperature. Humans. Hydrogen-Ion ... Survival of four strains of feline calicivirus in marine water was measured when the seed viruses were diluted 1/10 with marine ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Stability-feline-caliciviruses-in-marine/11209839.html

Identification and genomic mapping of the ORF3 and VPg proteins in feline calicivirus virions.  - PubMed - NCBIIdentification and genomic mapping of the ORF3 and VPg proteins in feline calicivirus virions. - PubMed - NCBI

Identification and genomic mapping of the ORF3 and VPg proteins in feline calicivirus virions.. Sosnovtsev SV1, Green KY. ... Two minor proteins with molecular masses of 8.5 and 15.5 kDa were identified in feline calicivirus (FCV) virions. Direct ... protein corresponded to amino acids 961-980 of the FCV ORF1 polyprotein and mapped to the genomic location of the calicivirus ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11062050?dopt=Abstract

Isolation of Enzymatically Active Replication Complexes from Feline Calicivirus-Infected Cells | Journal of VirologyIsolation of Enzymatically Active Replication Complexes from Feline Calicivirus-Infected Cells | Journal of Virology

Feline calicivirus capsid protein expression and capsid assembly in cultured feline cells. J. Virol. 73:834-838. ... Ultrastructural studies of the development of feline calicivirus in a feline embryo cell line. Arch. Virol. 48:317-325. ... Electron microscopic observation of feline kidney cells infected with a feline calicivirus. Arch. Virol. 48:213-228. ... Feline calicivirus (FCV), a member of the genus Vesivirus in the family Caliciviridae, is a major agent of respiratory disease ...
more infohttps://jvi.asm.org/content/76/17/8582?ijkey=2a8fdf80d4230ccdebb261ce0ad859e665ba34b1&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Feline calicivirus disease in cats | Vetlexicon Felis from Vetstream | Definitive Veterinary IntelligenceFeline calicivirus disease in cats | Vetlexicon Felis from Vetstream | Definitive Veterinary Intelligence

Find details on Feline calicivirus disease in cats including diagnosis and symptoms, pathogenesis, prevention, treatment, ... Coyne K P, Jones B R, Kipar A et al (2005) Lethal outbreak of disease associated with feline calicivirus infection in cats. Vet ... One of the causes of feline upper respiratory tract disease (cat flu). There are a large number of different strains of feline ... calicivirus with varying antigenicity and pathogenicity Feline calicivirus Feline calicivirus (new strains). ...
more infohttps://www.vetstream.com/treat/felis/diseases/feline-calicivirus-disease

Translation initiation on feline calicivirus mRNA.  - Surrey Research Insight Open AccessTranslation initiation on feline calicivirus mRNA. - Surrey Research Insight Open Access

The aim of this project was to investigate the mechanism of translation initiation on feline calicivirus (FCV) mRNA. This was ... Gioldasi, Ioanna. (2003) Translation initiation on feline calicivirus mRNA. Doctoral thesis, University of Surrey (United ... Caliciviruses are single-stranded positive-sense RNA viruses. The viral genome is polyadenylated and 7-8 kb in length. Non- ... The most important feature of calicivirus mRNA is the lack of a "cap" structure at the 5 end. The viral mRNA bears a 10-15 ...
more infohttp://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/844326/

IJERPH | Free Full-Text | Effect of Temperature on the Survival of F-Specific RNA Coliphage, Feline Calicivirus, and...IJERPH | Free Full-Text | Effect of Temperature on the Survival of F-Specific RNA Coliphage, Feline Calicivirus, and...

... feline calicivirus, and E. coli in normal tap water and in tap water treated to an initial concentration of 50 ppm free ... We compared the survival of F-specific RNA coliphage MS2, feline calicivirus, and E. coli in normal tap water and in tap water ... Effect of Temperature on the Survival of F-Specific RNA Coliphage, Feline Calicivirus, and Escherichia coli in Chlorinated ... Effect of Temperature on the Survival of F-Specific RNA Coliphage, Feline Calicivirus, and Escherichia coli in Chlorinated ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/2/3/442

Molecular characterization of feline calicivirus variants from multicat household and public animal shelter in Rio de Janeiro,...Molecular characterization of feline calicivirus variants from multicat household and public animal shelter in Rio de Janeiro,...

Feline calicivirus were isolated in CRFK cells and characterized by reverse transcription PCR target to both conserved and ... The aim of this study was to perform the molecular characterization of conserved and variable regions of feline calicivirus ... PEREIRA, Joylson de Jesus et al. Molecular characterization of feline calicivirus variants from multicat household and public ... Fifteen cats had conjunctivitis, three had oral ulceration, eight had respiratory signs (cough, sneeze and nasal discharge) and ...
more infohttp://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_abstract&pid=S1517-83822018000400777&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en

Should You Vaccinate Your Cat Against Feline Calicivirus? - WBOC-TV 16, Delmarvas News Leader, FOX 21Should You Vaccinate Your Cat Against Feline Calicivirus? - WBOC-TV 16, Delmarvas News Leader, FOX 21

... up to eight percent of house cats and 25 percent of cats from multiple cat environments like shelters are calicivirus carriers ... So every calicivirus that mutates into a virulent calicivirus will, as it is passed on to the next cat, ultimately once again ... Should You Vaccinate Your Cat Against Feline Calicivirus? - WBOC-TV 16, Delmarvas News Leader, FOX 21 - Member Center:*Create ... Cats may shed the virus through their saliva, so a single sneeze could blast other felines with it. Even asymptomatic cats ...
more infohttp://www.wboc.com/story/8819361/should-you-vaccinate-your-cat-against-feline-calicivirus

Apoptosis in cultured cells infected with feline calicivirus  - Surrey Research Insight Open AccessApoptosis in cultured cells infected with feline calicivirus - Surrey Research Insight Open Access

Roberts, LO, Al-Molawi, N, Carter, MJ and Kass, GEN (2003) Apoptosis in cultured cells infected with feline calicivirus ... feline calicivirus, caspase activation, capsid protein, DEATH ...
more infohttp://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/822809/

Frontiers | Virucidal Activity of Fogged Chlorine Dioxide- and Hydrogen Peroxide-Based Disinfectants against Human Norovirus...Frontiers | Virucidal Activity of Fogged Chlorine Dioxide- and Hydrogen Peroxide-Based Disinfectants against Human Norovirus...

... feline calicivirus (FCV) dried on stainless steel coupons. Log10 reductions in human NoV and FCV were calculated utilizing ... feline calicivirus (FCV) dried on stainless steel coupons. Log10 reductions in human NoV and FCV were calculated utilizing ... Feline calicivirus strain F9 (FCV) was propagated in Crandell Rees feline kidney (CRFK) cells as previously described (Tung et ... FIGURE 2. Efficacy of H2O2 fogging on GI.6 and GII.4 Sydney human NoV and feline calicivirus (FCV) at various disinfectant ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2017.01031/full

Calicivirus In Cats - A Most Dangerous DiseaseCalicivirus In Cats - A Most Dangerous Disease

Read my experience of this dangerous and distressing cat disease ... Discover what Feline Calicivirus is and how you can protect ... Treatment of The Feline Calici Virus. Once a cat is infected with the virus all that can be done is for the cats system such ... Calicivirus. Protect Your Pet With Cat Vaccinations. The Calicivirus is associated with the condition known as cat flu, but in ... However any cat that comes into contact with a carrier or infected cat may also contract the calicivirus. ...
more infohttps://www.our-happy-cat.com/calicivirus.html

Genetic diversity and phenotypic associations of feline caliciviruses from cats in Switzerland  - Zurich Open Repository and...Genetic diversity and phenotypic associations of feline caliciviruses from cats in Switzerland - Zurich Open Repository and...

Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a common viral pathogen in domestic cats worldwide. The variable regions of the capsid (VP1) gene ... Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a common viral pathogen in domestic cats worldwide. The variable regions of the capsid (VP1) gene ... Genetic diversity and phenotypic associations of feline caliciviruses from cats in Switzerland ZORA Maintenance. Advanced ... Genetic diversity and phenotypic associations of feline caliciviruses from cats in Switzerland. Journal of General Virology, 97 ...
more infohttps://www.zora.uzh.ch/id/eprint/129122/

Feline calicivirus and other respiratory pathogens in cats with Feline calicivirus-related symptoms and in clinically healthy...Feline calicivirus and other respiratory pathogens in cats with Feline calicivirus-related symptoms and in clinically healthy...

Feline calicivirus and other respiratory pathogens in cats with Feline calicivirus-related symptoms and in clinically healthy ... Feline calicivirus and other respiratory pathogens in cats with Feline calicivirus-related symptoms and in clinically healthy ... Background: Cats with feline calicivirus (FCV)-related symptoms are commonly presented to veterinary practitioners. Various ... Background: Cats with feline calicivirus (FCV)-related symptoms are commonly presented to veterinary practitioners. Various ...
more infohttps://www.zora.uzh.ch/id/eprint/122861/
  • In persistently infected cats, the gene for the major structural protein of the viral capsid (the outer protein coat of a mature virus) has been shown to evolve through immune-mediated positive selection, which allows the virus to escape detection by the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Burroughs JN, Brown F (1978) Presence of a covalently linked protein on calicivirus RNA. (springer.com)
  • The N-terminal sequence of the 15.5-kDa protein corresponded to amino acids 961-980 of the FCV ORF1 polyprotein and mapped to the genomic location of the calicivirus VPg. (nih.gov)
  • The caliciviruses have certain features in common with picornaviruses (relatedness in nonstructural protein motifs and similarities in infected-cell morphology) and alphaviruses (the presence of a subgenomic RNA for translation of the structural proteins) ( 7 , 29 , 30 ). (asm.org)
  • The replication of the calicivirus RNA genome occurs via a double-stranded RNA intermediate that is then used as a template for the production of new positive sense viral RNA, which is covalently linked to the virus-encoded protein VPg. (peerj.com)
  • This work provides the first direct experimental characterization of the linkage of infectious calicivirus viral RNA to the VPg protein and highlights that post-translational modifications of VPg may also occur during the viral life cycle. (peerj.com)
  • Vertebrate RNA viruses that encode a VPg protein include picornaviruses, astroviruses and caliciviruses ( Goodfellow, 2011 ). (peerj.com)
  • Upper respiratory infections are more likely to occur under certain circumstances: crowded living conditions (e.g., shelters, catteries), unsanitary conditions (e.g., when poor disinfection or poor hygiene are allowed), or during times of exposure to affected cats where bodily fluids are being exchanged by contagious discharge from the eyes or nose (sneezing). (pethealthnetwork.com)
  • The virus is very contagious and so is more prevalent where cats are kept in larger quantities, so catteries and animal shelters have to be very careful and keep their eyes peeled for the first signs of the illness. (our-happy-cat.com)
  • Feline Calicivirus Vaccine. (cornell.edu)
  • 9 CFR 113.314 - Feline Calicivirus Vaccine. (cornell.edu)
  • Feline Calicivirus Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. (cornell.edu)
  • The 20 cats used as vaccinates shall be administered a predetermined quantity of vaccine virus by the method to be recommended on the label and the remaining 10 cats shall be held as controls. (cornell.edu)
  • 3) Twenty-one or more days after the final dose of vaccine, the vaccinates and controls shall each be challenged intranasally with a minimum of 100,000 TCID 50 or plaque forming units of virulent feline calicivirus furnished or approved by Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service and observed each day for 14 days postchallenge. (cornell.edu)
  • Fortunately, there are ways to protect your cat from the virus, including a vaccine that can be started in kittenhood. (petcarerx.com)
  • Thanks to the efforts of Prins and other concerned pet owners and researchers, a new vaccine is available against VS-FCV, a potentially fatal mutation of the feline equivalent of the common cold. (wboc.com)
  • As with any vaccine, however, there are pros and cons when it comes to administering it to your cat. (wboc.com)
  • Since the type of symptom exhibited differs in individual pets, some cats may suffer from runny nose and mild fever. (vetinfo.com)
  • For instance, low energy, fever, and not eating can all be signs your cat is sick. (wikihow.com)
  • In addition, kittens and cats over 10 years of age are at greater risk of contracting viral infections. (vetinfo.com)
  • You and your veterinarian might also consider a supplement called lysine, which is often helpful with feline viral infections and is very benign. (pethealthnetwork.com)
  • RNA purified from virus particles and capped RNA transcripts derived from a full-length cDNA clone are infectious when transfected into feline kidney cells ( 21 , 35 ). (asm.org)
  • You may also notice congested breathing, which you can identify by a wheezy sound when your cat is breathing through the nose. (wikihow.com)
  • Your cat may also sneeze, but that isn't quite as common as a runny nose with this particular virus. (wikihow.com)
  • Most importantly -- tempt your cat to eat -- if your cat can't smell their food due to discharge from their nose, they won't eat it. (pethealthnetwork.com)
  • In order to confirm a diagnosis of feline calcivirus , a virus culture test may be necessary. (pethealthandcare.com)
  • FCV is commonly diagnosed on the basis of clinical signs, however a definitive diagnosis may be necessary if you wish to breed an affected cat or if the cat is not responding to treatment. (petcarerx.com)
  • Talk with your vet about vaccines that should be administered to cats to protect them from viral diseases. (vetinfo.com)
  • These samples will then be tested for certain diseases to narrow down what is wrong with the cat. (wikihow.com)
  • Cats with this virus often develop conjunctivitis , which is an inflammation of the inner membrane of the eye. (wikihow.com)
  • Efficient vaccines able to reduce viral excretion would be expected to aid in decreasing FCV prevalence in the cat population. (vin.com)
  • The prevalence is generally broadly proportional to the number of cats in the household. (animalabs.com)
  • Cats may shed the virus through their saliva, so a single sneeze could blast other felines with it. (wboc.com)
  • Infected cats usually shed the virus for two weeks. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following this period, infected cats never shed the virus again or become latently infected and shed the virus continuously or intermittently. (wikipedia.org)
  • The strain of virus that infects pets often determines the severity of calicivirus present. (vetinfo.com)
  • The vet will perform a thorough physical examination of the cat and consider the cat's risk of previous exposure to the virus. (vetinfo.com)
  • Other diagnostic tests include testing for the feline aids virus and feline leukemia virus. (vetinfo.com)
  • Although feline calicivirus doesn't lead to death if pets are treated with medication, the cat may become a carrier of the virus and shed it during times of stress. (vetinfo.com)
  • This virus can produce muscle and joint pain in your cat, which you may notice if your cat is limping or reacts aggressively to being touched. (wikihow.com)
  • It would also be helpful to know if the cat came in contact with another cat who had the virus (such as the cat went outside). (wikihow.com)
  • The cats shall be considered suitable for use if all swabs are negative for virus isolation and if all serums are negative for calicivirus antibody at the 1:2 final dilution in a 50 percent plaque reduction test or other SN test of equal sensitivity. (cornell.edu)
  • Luckily there is a way to prevent your cat from contracting this virus and passing it along to other felines. (petcarerx.com)
  • The virus spreads easily in multi-cat environments such as boarding facilities, shelters, breeding catteries, and multi-cat homes. (petcarerx.com)
  • That's right -- humans can touch an affected cat and then spread the virus to other cats. (petcarerx.com)
  • Most cats carry and shed the virus for 2-3 weeks. (petcarerx.com)
  • Some cats will remain carriers for several months while others will carry the virus for life. (petcarerx.com)
  • Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a RNA virus that affects both domestic and exotic cats. (aaha.org)
  • This is because the calicivirus is an unstable virus, which means it mutates every time it is passed from one cat to the next. (wboc.com)
  • The Calicivirus is associated with the condition known as cat flu, but in its most severe form is a nasty, dangerous virus which can kill your cat. (our-happy-cat.com)
  • Once you know how horrible this virus can be, I hope you will feel able to speak to your vet about getting your lovely pet protected with the right cat vaccines every year. (our-happy-cat.com)
  • It is reported that a third of the cat population may be carriers of the virus meaning that it can spread very fast through a community. (our-happy-cat.com)
  • CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Yu G, Zhang D, Guo F, Tan M, Jiang X, Jiang W (2013) Cryo-EM structure of a novel calicivirus, Tulane Virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • In both studies, feline cells infected with FCV showed extensive rearrangements of intracellular membranes when cross sections were observed by electron microscopy. (asm.org)
  • Feline calicivirus were isolated in CRFK cells and characterized by reverse transcription PCR target to both conserved and variable regions of open reading frame 2. (scielo.br)
  • This liquid is rich in carbohydrates and will help to provide the cat with the energy it requires, while the fish pate will help to provide the cat with proteins, vitamins, and several types of healthy fats. (pethealthandcare.com)
  • Identification and genomic mapping of the ORF3 and VPg proteins in feline calicivirus virions. (nih.gov)
  • Two minor proteins with molecular masses of 8.5 and 15.5 kDa were identified in feline calicivirus (FCV) virions. (nih.gov)
  • Treatment by your veterinarian may be necessary, depending on the severity of clinical signs, so when in doubt, a veterinary exam is a must, and always recommended anyway when dealing with a new cat in your home. (pethealthnetwork.com)
  • A few cats will remain carriers longterm for months or years. (vetstream.com)
  • According to the Center for Companion Animal Health at the University of California's Davis School of Veterinary Medicine, up to eight percent of house cats and 25 percent of cats from multiple cat environments like shelters are calicivirus carriers at any given time. (wboc.com)
  • The researchers studied 200 FCV-suspect cats and 100 clinically healthy cats. (aaha.org)
  • FCV431 and FCVG1 specific antisera from infected cats could neutralize more than 90% of a large panel of isolates from different countries. (vin.com)
  • Clinical signs in cats infected with FCV may develop acutely, chronically, or not at all. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phylogenetic analysis based on both conserved and variable region revealed two clusters with an aLTR value of 1.00 and 0.98 respectively and the variants from this study belong to feline calicivirus genogroup I. No association between geographical distribution and/or clinical signs and clustering in phylogenetic tree was observed. (scielo.br)
  • Crandell RA, Neimann WH, Ganaway JR, Maurer FD (1960) Isolation of cytopathic agents from the nasopharyngeal region of the domestic cat. (springer.com)
  • To reduce FCV-related problems in multi-cat environments, reduction of group size in addition to the generally recommended vaccination are advocated. (uzh.ch)
  • One strain appears to be particularly fatal to cats housed in animal shelters. (wboc.com)
  • Twenty-six conjunctival samples from cats living in five public short-term animal shelters and three multicat life-long households were analyzed. (scielo.br)
  • Outbreaks of VS-FCV in any cat community are very rare. (wboc.com)
  • Prins, a veterinary supplies salesperson from Reisterstown, Md., discovered last November that she ultimately lost three cats to what was confirmed, upon autopsy, to have been a virulent systemic strain of the feline calicivirus. (wboc.com)
  • Significant associations between FCV phylogeny and host characteristics were found, specifically the pedigree status of the cats, and two well-supported lineages were identified in which the current FCV strain definition was confounded. (uzh.ch)