A family of RNA viruses infecting a broad range of animals. Most individual species are restricted to their natural hosts. They possess a characteristic six-pointed starlike shape whose surfaces have cup-shaped (chalice) indentions. Transmission is by contaminated food, water, fomites, and occasionally aerosolization of secretions. Genera include LAGOVIRUS; NORWALK-LIKE VIRUSES; SAPPORO-LIKE VIRUSES; and VESIVIRUS.
Virus diseases caused by CALICIVIRIDAE. They include HEPATITIS E; VESICULAR EXANTHEMA OF SWINE; acute respiratory infections in felines, rabbit hemorrhagic disease, and some cases of gastroenteritis in humans.
A species of the genus VESIVIRUS infecting cats. Transmission occurs via air and mechanical contact.
A genus of the family CALICIVIRIDAE associated with worldwide sporadic outbreaks of GASTROENTERITIS in humans. The first recorded outbreak was in human infants in Sapporo, Japan in 1977. The genus is comprised of a single species, Sapporo virus, containing multiple strains.
A genus of the family CALICIVIRIDAE comprised of species infecting a wide range of organisms. Most members of this genus can be readily propagated in cell culture (as opposed to other genera of Caliciviridae). The type species is VESICULAR EXANTHEMA OF SWINE VIRUS.
A genus in the family CALICIVIRIDAE, associated with epidemic GASTROENTERITIS in humans. The type species, NORWALK VIRUS, contains multiple strains.
The type species in the genus NOROVIRUS, first isolated in 1968 from the stools of school children in Norwalk, Ohio, who were suffering from GASTROENTERITIS. The virions are non-enveloped spherical particles containing a single protein. Multiple strains are named after the places where outbreaks have occurred.
A species in the genus LAGOVIRUS which causes hemorrhagic disease, including hemorrhagic septicemia, in rabbits.
The type species of the genus VESIVIRUS infecting pigs. The resulting infection is an acute febrile disease which is clinically indistinguishable from FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE. Transmission is by contaminated food.
INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The reactions, changes in structure and composition, the properties of the reactions of carbon compounds, and the associated energy changes.

An outbreak of viral gastroenteritis associated with consumption of sandwiches: implications for the control of transmission by food handlers. (1/743)

Although food handlers are often implicated as the source of infection in outbreaks of food-borne viral gastroenteritis, little is known about the timing of infectivity in relation to illness. We investigated a gastroenteritis outbreak among employees of a manufacturing company and found an association (RR = 14.1, 95% CI = 2.0-97.3) between disease and eating sandwiches prepared by 6 food handlers, 1 of whom reported gastroenteritis which had subsided 4 days earlier. Norwalk-like viruses were detected by electron microscopy or reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in stool specimens from several company employees, the sick food handler whose specimen was obtained 10 days after resolution of illness, and an asymptomatic food handler. All RT-PCR product sequences were identical, suggesting a common source of infection. These data support observations from recent volunteer studies that current recommendations to exclude food handlers from work for 48-72 h after recovery from illness may not always prevent transmission of Norwalk-like viruses because virus can be shed up to 10 days after illness or while exhibiting no symptoms.  (+info)

A community outbreak of food-borne small round-structured virus gastroenteritis caused by a contaminated water supply. (2/743)

In August 1994, 30 of 135 (23%) bakery plant employees and over 100 people from South Wales and Bristol in the United Kingdom, were affected by an outbreak of gastroenteritis. Epidemiological studies of employees and three community clusters found illness in employees to be associated with drinking cold water at the bakery (relative risk 3.3, 95%, CI 1.6-7.0), and in community cases with eating custard slices (relative risk 19.8, 95%, CI 2.9-135.1) from a variety of stores supplied by one particular bakery. Small round-structured viruses (SRSV) were identified in stool specimens from 4 employees and 7 community cases. Analysis of the polymerase and capsid regions of the SRSV genome by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) demonstrated viruses of both genogroups (1 and 2) each with several different nucleotide sequences. The heterogeneity of the viruses identified in the outbreak suggests that dried custard mix may have been inadvertently reconstituted with contaminated water. The incident shows how secondary food contamination can cause wide-scale community gastroenteritis outbreaks, and demonstrates the ability of molecular techniques to support classical epidemiological methods in outbreak investigations.  (+info)

Immunization with potato plants expressing VP60 protein protects against rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus. (3/743)

The major structural protein VP60 of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) has been produced in transgenic potato plants under the control of a cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter or a modified 35S promoter that included two copies of a strong transcriptional enhancer. Both types of promoters allowed the production of specific mRNAs and detectable levels of recombinant VP60, which were higher for the constructs carrying the modified 35S promoter. Rabbits immunized with leaf extracts from plants carrying this modified 35S promoter showed high anti-VP60 antibody titers and were fully protected against the hemorrhagic disease.  (+info)

Norwalk-like viral gastroenteritis in U.S. Army trainees--Texas, 1998. (4/743)

During August 27-September 1, 1998, 99 (12%) of 835 soldiers in one unit at a U.S. Army training center in El Paso, Texas, were hospitalized for acute gastroenteritis (AGE). Their symptoms included acute onset of vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and fever. Review of medical center admission records for AGE during the previous year indicated that fewer than five cases occurred each month. This report describes the outbreak investigation initiated on August 30 by a U.S. Army Epidemiologic Consultation Service (EPICON) team; the findings indicated the outbreak was caused by a Norwalk-like virus (NLV).  (+info)

Identification of a distinct common strain of "Norwalk-like viruses" having a global distribution. (5/743)

"Norwalk-like viruses" (NLVs) are the most common cause of outbreaks of nonbacterial gastroenteritis. During molecular surveillance of NLV strains from 152 outbreaks of gastroenteritis that occurred in the US between August 1993 and July 1997, we identified an NLV strain that predominated during the 1995-1996 season. The "95/96-US" strain caused 60 outbreaks in geographically distant locations within the US and was identified, by sequence comparisons, in an additional 7 countries on 5 continents during the same period. This is the first demonstration linking a single NLV strain globally and suggests that the circulation of these strains might involve patterns of transmission not previously considered. The diagnostic techniques are now available to establish a global network for surveillance of NLV strains that would highlight the importance of NLVs worldwide and allow molecular identification of common strains having a global distribution so as to consider interventions for their control.  (+info)

Neutralizing feature of commercially available feline calicivirus (FCV) vaccine immune sera against FCV field isolates. (6/743)

Four types of commercially available feline calicivirus (FCV) vaccine were compared in terms of their efficacy on the basis of the ability of the sera of specific-pathogen-free cats immunized by two injections of each type of vaccine to neutralize FCV field isolates. Each vaccine immune serum neutralized relatively well strains F4, F9, and 255, which were FCV laboratory strains. As to 36 strains of field isolates, however, vaccines A, B, C, and D immune sera did not neutralize 18-20 of the strains (50.0%-55.6%), 19-22 of the strains (52.8%-61.1%), 22-25 of the strains (61.1%-69.4%), and 8-16 of the strains (22.2%-44.4%), respectively. These results indicate that there is much difference in neutralizing antigenicity between the existing vaccine strains and the FCV strains that are prevalent in Japan, suggesting the need for improvement of FCV vaccines.  (+info)

Immunoglobulin M antibody test to detect genogroup II Norwalk-like virus infection. (7/743)

Sera obtained from adult volunteers inoculated with genogroup II Norwalk-like viruses (NLVs), Hawaii virus, and Snow Mountain virus and from patients involved in outbreaks of gastroenteritis were tested for genogroup II NLV Mexico virus-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) by use of a monoclonal antibody, recombinant Mexico virus antigen (rMXV)-based IgM capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Sera from genogroup I Norwalk virus (NV)-inoculated volunteers and from patients involved in a genogroup I NLV outbreak were also tested. In sera from those infected with genogroup I NV or NLVs in volunteer and outbreak studies, only 3 of 25 were rMXV IgM positive; in contrast, 24 of 25 were IgM positive for recombinant NV (rNV). In sera from those infected with genogroup II NLVs in volunteer and outbreak studies, 28 of 47 were rMXV IgM positive and none were IgM positive for rNV, showing the specificity of each IgM test for its respective genogroup. In an outbreak of gastroenteritis not characterized as being of viral etiology but suspected to be due to NV, 7 of 13 persons had IgM responses to rMXV, whereas none had IgM responses to rNV, thus establishing the diagnosis as genogroup II NLV infection. The rMXV-based IgM capture ELISA developed is specific for the diagnosis of genogroup II NLV infections.  (+info)

Prevalence of group A rotavirus, human calicivirus, astrovirus, and adenovirus type 40 and 41 infections among children with acute gastroenteritis in Dijon, France. (8/743)

Group A rotaviruses, human caliciviruses, astroviruses, and adenovirus types 40 and 41 were detected by enzyme immunoassay or reverse transcription-PCR in 61, 14, 6, and 3% of stool specimens from 414 children consulting for gastroenteritis between 1995 and 1998. These data highlight the importance of caliciviruses in infantile gastroenteritis. Among these, Norwalk-like viruses belonging to genogroup II were predominant.  (+info)

Caliciviridae is a family of single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses that primarily infect animals, including humans. In humans, Caliciviridae causes gastroenteritis, commonly known as stomach flu, and is responsible for a significant portion of foodborne illnesses worldwide. The name "Caliciviridae" comes from the Latin word "calyx," meaning "cup," which refers to the cup-shaped depressions on the surface of some members of this virus family.

There are five genera within Caliciviridae that infect humans: Norovirus, Sapovirus, Lagovirus, Vesivirus, and Nebovirus. Among these, Norovirus is the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis in humans, accounting for approximately 90% of all cases.

Caliciviruses are small, non-enveloped viruses that range from 27 to 40 nanometers in diameter. They have a simple structure, consisting of a single protein shell (capsid) that encloses the RNA genome. The capsid proteins of Caliciviridae are organized into two major domains: the shell domain and the protruding domain. The protruding domain contains binding sites for host cell receptors and is responsible for eliciting an immune response in the host.

Caliciviruses are highly contagious and can be transmitted through various routes, including fecal-oral transmission, ingestion of contaminated food or water, and direct contact with infected individuals or surfaces. They are resistant to many common disinfectants and can survive for extended periods on environmental surfaces, making them difficult to eliminate from healthcare settings and other high-touch areas.

In addition to their medical importance, Caliciviridae also has significance in veterinary medicine, as several members of this family infect animals such as cats, dogs, pigs, and rabbits, causing a range of clinical symptoms from gastroenteritis to respiratory illnesses.

Caliciviridae is a family of single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses that includes several important pathogens causing gastrointestinal illness in humans and animals. The most well-known human calicivirus is norovirus, which is the leading cause of acute viral gastroenteritis worldwide.

Calicivirus infections typically cause symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, nausea, and fever. The infection is usually self-limiting and lasts for a few days, but in some cases, it can lead to dehydration, especially in young children, older adults, and people with weakened immune systems.

Norovirus is highly contagious and can spread through close contact with an infected person, consumption of contaminated food or water, or touching contaminated surfaces and then touching the mouth. Prevention measures include frequent handwashing, proper food handling and preparation, and cleaning and disinfection of contaminated surfaces.

There is no specific treatment for calicivirus infections, and antibiotics are not effective against viral infections. Treatment is generally supportive and includes hydration to replace lost fluids and electrolytes. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary for intravenous fluid replacement and monitoring.

Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus that belongs to the family Caliciviridae. It is a common pathogen in cats and can cause a variety of clinical signs, including upper respiratory disease, oral ulcers, pneumonia, and limping syndrome. FCV is highly contagious and can be spread through direct contact with infected cats or contaminated objects.

FCV infection typically causes mild to moderate symptoms, such as sneezing, nasal discharge, conjunctivitis, and ulcers in the mouth. However, some strains of the virus can cause more severe disease, including virulent systemic disease (VSD), which is characterized by severe pneumonia, jaundice, and multi-organ failure. VSD is a rare but often fatal complication of FCV infection.

There are several vaccines available to protect cats against FCV infection. However, because there are many different strains of the virus, vaccination may not prevent infection altogether, but it can reduce the severity of clinical signs and the risk of complications. It is important to note that some vaccinated cats can still become infected with FCV and shed the virus, so it is still possible for them to transmit the virus to other cats.

In addition to vaccination, good hygiene practices, such as regular cleaning and disinfection of surfaces and cages, can help prevent the spread of FCV in multi-cat environments. It is also important to isolate sick cats from healthy ones to reduce the risk of transmission.

Sapovirus is a type of single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the family Caliciviridae. It is a major cause of gastroenteritis (also known as stomach flu) in humans, particularly in young children and older adults. The infection typically results in vomiting and diarrhea, which can last for several days. Sapovirus is usually spread through the fecal-oral route, often through contaminated food or water. It is named after the city of Sapporo in Japan, where it was first identified in 1977.

Vesivirus is a genus of non-enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses in the family Caliciviridae. These viruses are known to cause gastroenteritis in animals, particularly in primates and swine. They have been associated with mild to severe enteritis, vomiting, and diarrhea. However, they are not known to cause disease in humans. The name "vesivirus" is derived from the Latin word "vesica," meaning bladder or sac, which refers to the characteristic vesicle-like structures seen on the surface of infected cells.

Norovirus is a highly contagious virus that causes gastroenteritis, an inflammation of the stomach and intestines. It is often referred to as the "stomach flu" or "winter vomiting bug." Symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. It can spread easily through contaminated food or water, contact with an infected person, or touching contaminated surfaces. Norovirus outbreaks are common in closed settings such as hospitals, nursing homes, schools, and cruise ships. The virus is hardy and can survive for weeks on surfaces, making it difficult to eliminate. It is also resistant to many disinfectants. There is no specific treatment for norovirus infection other than managing symptoms and staying hydrated. Vaccines are under development but not yet available.

Per the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Norovirus is a highly contagious virus that often causes vomiting and diarrhea. It is a common cause of gastroenteritis, which is an inflammation of the stomach and intestines. This infection is often referred to as the "stomach flu," although it is not related to the influenza virus.

Norovirus spreads easily from person to person, through contaminated food or water, or by touching contaminated surfaces. Symptoms usually develop 12 to 48 hours after exposure and include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, stomach pain, fever, and headache.

The Norwalk virus is named after Norwalk, Ohio, where an outbreak of the illness occurred in 1968. It was first identified during an investigation into an outbreak of gastroenteritis among school children. The virus was later renamed norovirus in 2002 to reflect its broader range of hosts and clinical manifestations.

It's important to note that while Norwalk virus is a common cause of viral gastroenteritis, there are many other viruses, bacteria, and parasites that can also cause similar symptoms. If you suspect you have norovirus or any other foodborne illness, it's important to seek medical attention and avoid preparing food for others until your symptoms have resolved.

Hemorrhagic disease virus (RDV) in rabbits refers to a highly virulent calicivirus that causes a severe and often fatal disease in rabbits. The disease is characterized by acute onset of fever, loss of appetite, lethargy, and various hemorrhagic symptoms such as bleeding from the nose, mouth, and rectum. In severe cases, it can lead to internal organs' necrosis and death within 12-36 hours after the onset of clinical signs.

There are two main strains of RDV: the European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV) and the rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV). Both viruses are highly contagious and can be transmitted through direct contact with infected rabbits, their feces or urine, or contaminated objects. The virus can also be spread through insects such as flies and mosquitoes.

Preventive measures include vaccination, strict biosecurity protocols, and limiting exposure to wild rabbits and insects. There is no specific treatment for RDV infection, and antibiotics are generally not effective against the virus. Supportive care, such as fluid therapy and symptomatic treatment, may be provided to help alleviate clinical signs and improve the rabbit's chances of survival.

Vesicular exanthema of swine (VES) is a viral disease that affects pigs, characterized by the formation of blisters or vesicles on the skin and mucous membranes. The causative agent of VES is a member of the Caliciviridae family, specifically the vesicular exanthema of swine virus (VESV).

The disease is highly contagious and can spread rapidly in pig populations through direct contact with infected animals or contaminated fomites. The incubation period for VES is typically 2-6 days, after which affected pigs may develop fever, lethargy, loss of appetite, and lameness. Within a few days, small fluid-filled vesicles appear on the snout, lips, ears, and coronary bands of the hooves. These vesicles can rupture, leading to the formation of raw, painful erosions that may become secondarily infected with bacteria.

While VES is not a direct threat to human health, it can cause significant economic losses in the swine industry due to decreased growth rates, reduced feed conversion, and increased mortality in affected animals. Additionally, the clinical signs of VES are similar to those of other vesicular diseases, such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), which can lead to costly trade restrictions and quarantines.

Historically, VES was a significant problem in the United States swine industry, but extensive vaccination programs and eradication efforts have largely eliminated the disease from domestic pig populations. However, VESV continues to circulate in wild pig populations and remains a potential threat to the swine industry.

Gastroenteritis is not a medical condition itself, but rather a symptom-based description of inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract, primarily involving the stomach and intestines. It's often referred to as "stomach flu," although it's not caused by influenza virus.

Medically, gastroenteritis is defined as an inflammation of the mucous membrane of the stomach and intestines, usually resulting in symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, fever, and dehydration. This condition can be caused by various factors, including viral (like rotavirus or norovirus), bacterial (such as Salmonella, Shigella, or Escherichia coli), or parasitic infections, food poisoning, allergies, or the use of certain medications.

Gastroenteritis is generally self-limiting and resolves within a few days with proper hydration and rest. However, severe cases may require medical attention to prevent complications like dehydration, which can be particularly dangerous for young children, older adults, and individuals with weakened immune systems.

A viral genome is the genetic material (DNA or RNA) that is present in a virus. It contains all the genetic information that a virus needs to replicate itself and infect its host. The size and complexity of viral genomes can vary greatly, ranging from a few thousand bases to hundreds of thousands of bases. Some viruses have linear genomes, while others have circular genomes. The genome of a virus also contains the information necessary for the virus to hijack the host cell's machinery and use it to produce new copies of the virus. Understanding the genetic makeup of viruses is important for developing vaccines and antiviral treatments.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

A capsid is the protein shell that encloses and protects the genetic material of a virus. It is composed of multiple copies of one or more proteins that are arranged in a specific structure, which can vary in shape and symmetry depending on the type of virus. The capsid plays a crucial role in the viral life cycle, including protecting the viral genome from host cell defenses, mediating attachment to and entry into host cells, and assisting with the assembly of new virus particles during replication.

An open reading frame (ORF) is a continuous stretch of DNA or RNA sequence that has the potential to be translated into a protein. It begins with a start codon (usually "ATG" in DNA, which corresponds to "AUG" in RNA) and ends with a stop codon ("TAA", "TAG", or "TGA" in DNA; "UAA", "UAG", or "UGA" in RNA). The sequence between these two points is called a coding sequence (CDS), which, when transcribed into mRNA and translated into amino acids, forms a polypeptide chain.

In eukaryotic cells, ORFs can be located in either protein-coding genes or non-coding regions of the genome. In prokaryotic cells, multiple ORFs may be present on a single strand of DNA, often organized into operons that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that not all ORFs necessarily represent functional proteins; some may be pseudogenes or result from errors in genome annotation. Therefore, additional experimental evidence is typically required to confirm the expression and functionality of a given ORF.

A viral RNA (ribonucleic acid) is the genetic material found in certain types of viruses, as opposed to viruses that contain DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). These viruses are known as RNA viruses. The RNA can be single-stranded or double-stranded and can exist as several different forms, such as positive-sense, negative-sense, or ambisense RNA. Upon infecting a host cell, the viral RNA uses the host's cellular machinery to translate the genetic information into proteins, leading to the production of new virus particles and the continuation of the viral life cycle. Examples of human diseases caused by RNA viruses include influenza, COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2), hepatitis C, and polio.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Viral proteins are the proteins that are encoded by the viral genome and are essential for the viral life cycle. These proteins can be structural or non-structural and play various roles in the virus's replication, infection, and assembly process. Structural proteins make up the physical structure of the virus, including the capsid (the protein shell that surrounds the viral genome) and any envelope proteins (that may be present on enveloped viruses). Non-structural proteins are involved in the replication of the viral genome and modulation of the host cell environment to favor viral replication. Overall, a thorough understanding of viral proteins is crucial for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

Organic chemistry processes refer to the chemical reactions, pathways, and mechanisms that involve organic compounds. These are primarily made up of carbon atoms bonded to hydrogen atoms, often along with other elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, halogens, phosphorus, and silicon. Organic chemistry processes can include various types of reactions, such as substitution, addition, elimination, and rearrangement reactions, which may occur under mild conditions and can be influenced by factors like temperature, pressure, catalysts, and solvents.

These processes are essential in understanding the behavior and transformation of natural and synthetic organic compounds, including pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, polymers, dyes, and materials with unique properties. They form the basis for various industrial applications and scientific research in fields such as medicinal chemistry, biochemistry, materials science, and environmental studies.

Most calicivirus infections do not require medical intervention, but those who are immunocompromised may need to be ... Caliciviridae Viralzone: Caliciviridae 3D macromolecular structures of Caliciviridae from the EM Data Bank(EMDB) ICTV (Articles ... The Caliciviridae are a family of "small round structured" viruses, members of Class IV of the Baltimore scheme. Caliciviridae ... "Caliciviridae - Caliciviridae - Positive-sense RNA Viruses - ICTV". talk.ictvonline.org. Retrieved 12 March 2021. Vinjé, J; ...
can cause a vast number of new infections. Infection may occur if the particles are inhaled, such as when the particles are ... in the family Caliciviridae. "Currently, the family Caliciviridae consists of five established genera: Sapovirus, Norovirus, ... Fifty five faculty members of a college in Taipei County had been diagnosed with sapovirus infection. "Using data from the ... ICTV Report: Caliciviridae Viralzone: Sapovirus (CS1: long volume value, Articles with short description, Short description ...
... can cause infection. However, usually after the age of three years, FCV infections are mild or asymptomatic. FCV vaccination ... It is also used in general Caliciviridae research due to its being one of the few of that group of viruses that grows well in ... Latent or subclinical infections often become clinical when the cat is stressed, such as at the time of adoption. Acute signs ... Co-infection with either feline herpesvirus or feline immunodeficiency virus causes a more severe disease. Clinical signs in ...
Gastroenteritis can be caused by viral, bacterial, or parasitic infections. Common routes of infection include: Food ... family Caliciviridae). This virus is highly contagious and spreads rapidly. Norovirus is the most common cause of ... for gastroenteritis because they tend to prolong infection, especially in children. Parasitic infections are difficult to treat ... With most infections, the key is to block the spread of the organism. Wash hands frequently Eat properly prepared and stored ...
"Caliciviridae". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). Retrieved 4 May 2020. Gleeson, M; Petritz, OA (May 2020 ... "Rabbit calicivirus infection confirmed in Iowa rabbitry". www.avma.org. American Veterinary Medical Association. Retrieved 22 ... Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is a virus in the genus Lagovirus and the family Caliciviridae. It is a nonenveloped ... RHD outbreaks tend to be seasonal in wild rabbit populations, where most adults have survived infection and are immune. As ...
... one dose of siRNA 4 hours pre-infection was shown to control Tulane virus replication for 48 hours post-infection, reducing the ... part of the virus family Caliciviridae, by targeting both its structural and non-structural genes. By targeting the NTPase gene ... However, bacterial infections can still be suppressed by siRNA by targeting the host genes that are involved in the immune ... Qin XF, An DS, Chen IS, Baltimore D (January 2003). "Inhibiting HIV-1 infection in human T cells by lentiviral-mediated ...
These infections can be with or without symptoms. In severe cases, persistent infections can lead to norovirus‐associated ... "Family: Caliciviridae , ICTV". www.ictv.global. Archived from the original on 29 August 2021. Retrieved 2 October 2019. Public ... More than 70% of the diners at an adjacent table fell ill; at a table on the other side of the restaurant, the infection rate ... Norovirus infection is characterized by nausea, vomiting, watery diarrhea, abdominal pain, and in some cases, loss of taste. A ...
Premises that are heavily contaminated with vesivirus can be a source of infection for several months. As part of the family ... "ICTV Report Caliciviridae". "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. Farles. The Free Dictionary. Accessed 02-Mar-2010. ... Vesivirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Caliciviridae. Swine, sea mammals, and felines serve as natural hosts. There are ... ICTV Report: Caliciviridae Viralzone: Vesivirus (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Articles ...
The occurrence of astrovirus infections vary depending on the season. In temperate climates, infection is highest during winter ... Along with the Picornaviridae and the Caliciviridae, the Astroviridae comprise a third family of nonenveloped viruses whose ... Astrovirus infection is not usually a severe situation and only in some rare cases leads to dehydration. The severity and ... The viral particles can be detected in fecal matter within 2 days and peak virus shedding occurs 4-5 days after infection. The ...
Caliciviridae, and Astroviridae are responsible for a huge percentage of gastrointestinal disease worldwide. Rotaviruses (of ... "Rotavirus infection". Nature Reviews Disease Primers. 3 (1): 17083. doi:10.1038/nrdp.2017.83. PMC 5858916. PMID 29119972. Horie ... diarrheal disease mimicking that caused by Rotavirus infection commenced. A putative mode of toxicity is that NSP4 activates a ...
About 15-110 million individuals have recent or ongoing HEV infection. The virus particle was first seen in 1983, but was only ... It was previously classified in the family Caliciviridae. However, its genome more closely resembles rubella virus. It is now ... Hepatitis E Virus Infection. Clin Micro Reviews 27 (1) 116-138 "Hepeviridae - Hepeviridae - Positive-sense RNA Viruses". ... "The global epidemiology of hepatitis E virus infection: A systematic review and meta-analysis". Liver International. 40 (7): ...
The unidentified infection of these pigs amplified the force of infection, transmitting the virus to farmers, and eventually ... The most significant zoonotic pathogens causing foodborne diseases are Escherichia coli O157:H7, Campylobacter, Caliciviridae, ... Close contact with cattle can lead to cutaneous anthrax infection, whereas inhalation anthrax infection is more common for ... Toxocariasis is the infection of humans by any of species of roundworm, including species specific to dogs (Toxocara canis) or ...
A viral disease (or viral infection) occurs when an organism's body is invaded by pathogenic viruses, and infectious virus ... Positive single-stranded RNA families: three non-enveloped (Astroviridae, Caliciviridae and Picornaviridae) and four enveloped ... "Babies Born with CMV (Congenital CMV Infection)". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. April 13, 2017. Retrieved June 17 ... Page 273 in: Lennette's Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Infections (Fourth ed.). CRC Press. 2010. ISBN 978-1420084962. Murillo A ...
The protease 3CLpro is used as a drug target for coronavirus infections due to its essential role in processing the ... Examples include the ones found in poliovirus and in rhinovirus (both are members of genus Enterovirus). Caliciviridae have a ... Possible Urgent Prevention and Treatment Options for Severe Acute Respiratory Infections Caused by 2019-nCoV". ChemBioChem. 21 ... with an α-ketoamide inhibitor provides a basis for design of α-ketoamide inhibitors for a treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection. A ...
Since the virus is spread mostly by direct contact with an object or surface that has been contaminated by the infection and ... This virus belongs to the family Caliciviridae, which includes other viruses such as:[citation needed] Norovirus, a common ... By this number Britain has the largest number of infections of all countries in Western Europe.[citation needed] Meningitis is ... fungal or other viral infections. Many people may forget the potential for bacteria to thrive on door handles, and after ...
Potyviridae and Caliciviridae. There are some studies showing that a possible VPg protein is also present in astroviridae, ... abrogating the requirement of VPg in initial infection whereas studies with feline calicivirus confirmed that the VPg protein ...
Purified RNA of a positive-sense virus can directly cause infection though it may be less infectious than the whole virus ... One study has suggested that there are two large clades: One includes the families Caliciviridae, Flaviviridae, and ... Kondo H, Chiba S, Toyoda K, Suzuki N (January 2013). "Evidence for negative-strand RNA virus infection in fungi". Virology. 435 ... The resulting recombinant viruses may sometimes cause an outbreak of infection in humans. Classification is based principally ...
Caliciviridae Infections / epidemiology * Caliciviridae Infections / etiology * Caliciviridae Infections / prevention & control ... These results should guide infection control policy and support the design of hospitals with smaller care units. ...
Categories: Caliciviridae Infections Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
Animals, Caliciviridae Infections/epidemiology, Cluster Analysis, DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases/genetics, Europe/epidemiology, ... Caliciviridae Infections/epidemiology; Cluster Analysis; DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases/genetics; Europe/epidemiology; Feces/ ... Porcine sapovirus is an enteric calicivirus in domestic pigs that belongs to the family Caliciviridae. Some porcine sapoviruses ... Porcine sapovirus is an enteric calicivirus in domestic pigs that belongs to the family Caliciviridae. Some porcine sapoviruses ...
Noroviruses, formerly referred to as Norwalk-like viruses, are members of the Caliciviridae family. These agents are ... Burn wound infections and colonization, as well as bloodstream infections, caused by multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa 361, A. ... Infections of home care providers, that could pose a risk to home care patients include infections transmitted by the airborne ... alert icon Interim Measles Infection Control [July 2019]. See Interim Infection Prevention and Control Recommendations for ...
The hepatitis E virus (HEV) is classified in the Caliciviridae family and has many similarities with HAV. The common mode of ... What is the risk of transfusion-transmitted HAV and HEV infection?. What is the risk of transfusion-transmitted HCV infection? ... The risk of severe infection is particularly high in patients who have HIV infection, have had a splenectomy, or are ... What is the risk of transfusion-transmitted arbovirus infection? HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 infection and how is it prevented? ...
The hepatitis E virus (HEV) is classified in the Caliciviridae family and has many similarities with HAV. The common mode of ... What is the risk of transfusion-transmitted HAV and HEV infection?. What is the risk of transfusion-transmitted HCV infection? ... The risk of severe infection is particularly high in patients who have HIV infection, have had a splenectomy, or are ... What is the risk of transfusion-transmitted arbovirus infection? HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 infection and how is it prevented? ...
Guntapong R, Hansman GS, Oka T, Ogawa S, Kageyama T, Pongsuwanna Y, Norovirus and sapovirus infections in Thailand. Jpn J ... Sapovirus (SaV), a member of the genus Sapovirus in the family Caliciviridae, is an etiologic agent of human gastroenteritis. ... Little is known about SaV infections in Australia (11-14). Data from these reports indicate that SaV is an uncommon cause of ... SaV-associated infections can cause both mild and acute gastroenteritis. Symptoms include watery stool, mild and or acute ...
infection = CALICIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS. Allowable Qualifiers:. CH chemistry. CL classification. DE drug effects. EN enzymology. ... 82; was CALICIVIRUSES 1979-81; CALICIVIRUSES was see CALICIVIRIDAE 1993. Online Note:. use CALICIVIRIDAE to search ... Caliciviridae - Preferred Concept UI. M0003197. Scope note. A family of RNA viruses infecting a broad range of animals. Most ...
Most calicivirus infections do not require medical intervention, but those who are immunocompromised may need to be ... Caliciviridae Viralzone: Caliciviridae 3D macromolecular structures of Caliciviridae from the EM Data Bank(EMDB) ICTV (Articles ... The Caliciviridae are a family of "small round structured" viruses, members of Class IV of the Baltimore scheme. Caliciviridae ... "Caliciviridae - Caliciviridae - Positive-sense RNA Viruses - ICTV". talk.ictvonline.org. Retrieved 12 March 2021. Vinjé, J; ...
Both of you are vulnerable to falling ill by infection from the norovirus. As of writing of this article, almost 250 cases of ... Instead, the norovirus is a viral infection caused by a group of viruses in the Caliciviridae family. Norovirus can be ... One of the first lines of defense that one can use to prevent infection is to wash ones hands thoroughly and often with soap ... Given how highly contagious norovirus infection can be, it can spread very quickly on college campuses, especially in ...
Caliciviridae Infections 97% * Gastroenteritis 85% * Gastrointestinal Microbiome 76% * Virus Shedding 34% 2 引文 斯高帕斯(Scopus) ...
Caliciviridae Infections - Virology. en_US. dc.subject.mesh. Dna, Complementary - Isolation & Purification. en_US. ... These findings provide information on the pathogenesis and transmission of norovirus infections.. en_US. ... These findings provide information on the pathogenesis and transmission of norovirus infections.. ...
MeSH headings : Caliciviridae Infections / prevention & control; Caliciviridae Infections / transmission; Disease Reservoirs / ...
A potently neutralizing antibody protects mice against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Alsoussi, W. B., Turner, J. S., Case, J. B., Zhao ... A SARS-CoV-2 Infection Model in Mice Demonstrates Protection by Neutralizing Antibodies. Hassan, A. O., Case, J. B., Winkler, E ... Astrocytes promote a protective immune response to brain Toxoplasma gondii infection via IL-33-ST2 signaling. Still, K. M., ... Antibodies targeting epitopes on the cell-surface form of NS1 protect against Zika virus infection during pregnancy. Wessel, A ...
Intestinal reovirus infection can trigger T helper 1 (T1) immunity to dietary antigen, raising the question of whether other ... Transcriptional profiling of mesenteric lymph nodes following infection reveals an immunopathological signature that does not ... for the development of therapeutic strategies to prevent T1-mediated complex immune disorders triggered by viral infections. ...
Caliciviridae Infections/epidemiology Caliciviridae Infections/prevention & Control Caliciviridae Infections/transmission Cross ... Key infection control recommendations for the control of norovirus outbreaks in healthcare settings Cite ... 2012). Key infection control recommendations for the control of norovirus outbreaks in healthcare settings. National Center for ... "Key infection control recommendations for the control of norovirus outbreaks in healthcare settings" (2012). National Center ...
The survey additionally identified frequent infection of wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus) with genetically divergent variants of ... The detection of MNV in wild-mouse populations suggests that MNV infection of laboratory mice and show mice (from which ... Animals, Caliciviridae Infections, Cluster Analysis, Gene Order, Genetic Variation, Genotype, Mice, Molecular Sequence Data, ... The detection of MNV in wild-mouse populations suggests that MNV infection of laboratory mice and show mice (from which ...
Cell Line, Animals, Humans, Mice, Norovirus, Caliciviridae Infections, DNA Helicases, RNA Helicases, Viral Proteins, Protein ... to identify host factors required for norovirus infection. The core stress granule component G3BP1 was identified as a host ... factor essential for efficient human and murine norovirus infection, demonstrating a conserved function across the Norovirus ...
Article Caliciviridae Infections Child Child, Preschool Children Diarrhea Feces Gastroenteritis Genotype Humans Immunity Infant ...
Animals, Antibodies, Viral, Base Sequence, Caliciviridae Infections, Calicivirus, Feline, Cat Diseases, Cats, Cell Line, Cross- ...
Infections [C01] * Virus Diseases [C01.925] * RNA Virus Infections [C01.925.782] * Caliciviridae Infections [C01.925.782.160] * ... A calicivirus infection of swine characterized by hydropic degeneration of the oral and cutaneous epithelia.. Terms. Vesicular ... A calicivirus infection of swine characterized by hydropic degeneration of the oral and cutaneous epithelia.. Previous Indexing ...
Chapter 3.4 Animal Models of Norovirus Infection C.E. Wobus* J.B. Cunha* M.D. Elftman** A.O. Kolawole** Department of ... Caliciviridae: the noroviruses. In: Knipe DM, Howley PM, Cohen JI, Griffin DI, Lamb RA, Martin MA, Racaniello VR, Roizman B, ... Productive infection routes are indicated by green arrows and presence of a virion, while nonproductive infections are ... Infected chimpanzees were protected against re-infection with homologous HuNoV when rechallenged after the first infection or ...
... an RNA virus of the family Caliciviridae, is a human enteric pathogen. Norovirus infection ... Severe norovirus infection: description: An unusually severe course of infection with Human norovirus, previously known as ...
Infection Control Solutions to Reduce Transmission. Sychem are experts in Infection Control solutions and supply a range of ... Caliciviridae, Picornaviridae, Reoviridae.. FUNGI: Alternaria, Aspergillus, Blastomyces, Candida, Coccidioides, Histoplasma, ... At Sychem, we provide a variety of Infection Control consumables designed for use in va... ...
Caliciviridae Infections * Calicivirus, Feline * Varicellovirus Explore _. Co-Authors (1) People in Profiles who have published ...
Bunyaviridae Infections. Caliciviridae Infections. Encephalitis, Arbovirus. Flaviviridae Infections. Hemorrhagic Fevers, Viral ...
  • Instead, the norovirus is a viral infection caused by a group of viruses in the Caliciviridae family. (njitvector.com)
  • The Caliciviridae are a family of "small round structured" viruses, members of Class IV of the Baltimore scheme. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 1940s and 1950s in the United States and Japan, caliciviridae could not be grown in culture, but as an experiment bacterial free filtrate of diarrhea was given to volunteers to check if viruses were present in volunteers' stool. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intestinal reovirus infection can trigger T helper 1 (T1) immunity to dietary antigen, raising the question of whether other viruses can have a similar impact. (broadinstitute.org)
  • The family Caliciviridae includes viruses with single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genomes of 7.4-8.3 kb. (cdc.gov)
  • The viruses continue to be shed after symptoms have subsided and shedding can still be detected many weeks after infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a member of the Caliciviridae family of viruses that is very contagious and passes easily through direct and indirect contact with an infected person. (completehealthnews.com)
  • Infections with viruses of the family FLAVIVIRIDAE. (uams.edu)
  • Viruses are obligatory intracellular parasites, and so must deliver their genetic material into host cells to initiate infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This meeting, which is organized every 3 years, brings together scientists studying basic, applied, and environmental aspects of viruses belonging to the family Caliciviridae . (faingroup.com)
  • Noroviruses are a group of viruses that can cause infection of the gut (intestines), called gastroenteritis. (d6driveresponsibly.it)
  • Of the viruses, only the common cold is reported more often than a norovirus infection-also referred to as viral gastroenteritis. (foodpoisonjournal.com)
  • The family of Caliciviridae consists of several distinct groups of viruses that were first named after the places where outbreaks occurred. (foodpoisonjournal.com)
  • The results do, however, indicate that known mammalian viruses were present in the intestine as early as 24-48 hours after birth, indicating immediate infection post-partum or possibly transplacental infection. (slu.se)
  • Norovirus (NoV) is a small non-enveloped, positive-sense RNA virus belonging to the Caliciviridae family of viruses. (thenativeantigencompany.com)
  • 1 Members of the Family Caliciviridae, noroviruses are non-enveloped positive strand RNA viruses. (health.gov.au)
  • It was declared a member of the Caliciviridae family of viruses in 1993. (medscape.com)
  • Stimulation with a class A CpG oligonucleotide enhances resistance to infection with feline viruses from five different families. (everycat.org)
  • As a member of the family Caliciviridae , NoV is a single strand, positive-sense RNA virus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Caliciviridae bear resemblance to enlarged picornavirus and was formerly a separate genus within the picornaviridae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sapovirus (SaV), a member of the genus Sapovirus in the family Caliciviridae , is an etiologic agent of human gastroenteritis. (cdc.gov)
  • SaV-associated infections can cause both mild and acute gastroenteritis. (cdc.gov)
  • Calicivirus infections commonly cause moderate to severe gastroenteritis, which is the inflammation of the stomach and intestines (e.g. the Norwalk virus). (wikipedia.org)
  • Human noroviruses cause the majority of acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis infections worldwide, resulting in significant morbidity, mortality, and economic losses. (basicmedicalkey.com)
  • Norovirus infections are a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide and across all age groups, with two main genogroups (GI and GII) infecting humans. (bvsalud.org)
  • This virus, also known as the winter vomiting virus, belongs to the Caliciviridae family and is responsible for causing acute gastroenteritis. (spartanewspapers.com)
  • These findings provide information on the pathogenesis and transmission of norovirus infections. (hku.hk)
  • Norovirus infections occur more commonly during winter months. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, after the prevalence of new GII.17 variant in South China, a sharply increase in the number of norovirus infections associated with sporadic acute diarrhea was detected. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Norovirus infections cause widespread morbidity and have significant economic impact on the community. (health.gov.au)
  • Norovirus (previously called "Norwalk-like virus" or NLV) is a member of the family Caliciviridae. (foodpoisonjournal.com)
  • Norwalk virus from Caliciviridae family was one of the answers. (jolenelai.com)
  • The core stress granule component G3BP1 was identified as a host factor essential for efficient human and murine norovirus infection, demonstrating a conserved function across the Norovirus genus. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • However, HuNoVs are members of the genetically diverse Norovirus genus within the Caliciviridae family that exhibit very narrow species specificity. (basicmedicalkey.com)
  • Collectively, these data provide a foundation for the development of therapeutic strategies to prevent T1-mediated complex immune disorders triggered by viral infections. (broadinstitute.org)
  • Most calicivirus infections do not require medical intervention, but those who are immunocompromised may need to be hospitalized due to serious fluid loss. (wikipedia.org)
  • In recent years significant progress has been made in understanding the burden and biology of calicivirus infections in humans including the complex relationships between intestinal microbial communities, mucosal immunity, environmental factors, and host genetics. (faingroup.com)
  • Flaviviridae Infections" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (uams.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Flaviviridae Infections" by people in UAMS Profiles by year, and whether "Flaviviridae Infections" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (uams.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Flaviviridae Infections" by people in Profiles over the past ten years. (uams.edu)
  • Norovirus infects humans in a pathway similar to the influenza virus' mode of infection. (foodpoisonjournal.com)
  • Later evidence linking dogs with HuNoV infections in humans followed in an epidemiological study that showed that seropositivity to HuNoV in humans was higher if there was a dog in the household (15), and anti-HuNoV antibodies have recently been identified in dogs across Europe (16). (hal.science)
  • Porcine sapovirus is an enteric calicivirus in domestic pigs that belongs to the family Caliciviridae. (lu.se)
  • The purpose of this study was to describe sapovirus-associated infections in Australia. (cdc.gov)
  • The detection of MNV in wild-mouse populations suggests that MNV infection of laboratory mice and show mice (from which laboratory mice are derived) derives from contact with or their origins from wild-mouse progenitors. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The survey additionally identified frequent infection of wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus) with genetically divergent variants of MNV. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Murine norovirus (MNV) is a common viral infection of mice in many research facilities. (kitpcr.com)
  • MNV infects hematopoietic cells and alters their cellular morphology and causes subclinical chronic infections in adult immunocompetent mice. (kitpcr.com)
  • With regard to this, a recombinant feline type I IFN marketed in both Japan (Intercat®) and Europe (Virbagen Omega®) has made its way into therapeutic protocols for FCV, FHV, FeLV and canine parvovirus infections and has demonstrated preventive capacities in a cattery developing an outbreak of FPV. (everycat.org)
  • Ideally, the best HuNoV animal model would use HuNoV or a virus with high genetic similarity that closely mirrors the biology and clinical features of HuNoV infection in an animal host. (basicmedicalkey.com)
  • The results showed that seven different genotypes of HuNoV virus-like particles (VLPs) can bind to canine gastrointestinal tissue, suggesting that infection is at least theoretically possible. (hal.science)
  • Though entry and replication within cells have not been demonstrated, the canine serological data indicate that dogs produce an immune response to HuNoV, implying productive infection. (hal.science)
  • HuNoV are members of the Caliciviridae family, which have a single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome and can cause a variety of disease manifestations in a wide range of species. (hal.science)
  • Zoonotic transmission of HuNoV has also been proposed as a hypothetical route of infection (9). (hal.science)
  • Cardiac cell-specific apoptotic and cytokine responses to reovirus infection: determinants of myocarditic phenotype. (ctsicn.org)
  • An important concept in the evaluation of data regarding transfusion-transmitted bacterial infections (TTBIs) is the definition of a case. (medscape.com)
  • Norovirus, an RNA virus of the family Caliciviridae, is a human enteric pathogen. (cncb.ac.cn)
  • They are extremely contagious, and fewer than twenty virus particles can cause an infection (some research suggests as few as five). (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a single-stranded RNA virus, member of the family Caliciviridae. (kitpcr.com)
  • Norovirus is a stomach and intestinal virus that causes infection during the month of winter. (completehealthnews.com)
  • This virus spreads through feces and the vomit of people and animals with infection. (completehealthnews.com)
  • Los norovirus son un grupo de virus relacionados que pertenecen a la familia caliciviridae. (d6driveresponsibly.it)
  • These recommendations evolved from observations during the SARS epidemic that failure to implement basic source control measures with patients, visitors, and healthcare personnel with signs and symptoms of respiratory tract infection may have contributed to SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) transmission. (cdc.gov)
  • Maureen Marshall] Please tell us about the signs and symptoms of an infection with noroviruses. (cdc.gov)
  • These infections can be with or without symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the symptoms typically subside within 24 hours, the dehydration caused by Norovirus infection can be dangerous. (spartanewspapers.com)
  • Symptoms of NoV infection develop rapidly and include vomiting, nausea, abdominal cramps and diarrhoea ( Robilotti, E. et al ). (thenativeantigencompany.com)
  • 9 It has been proposed that noroviruses associated wth human infection be divided into a number of genogroups namely GI, GII and GIV. (health.gov.au)
  • In severe cases, persistent infections can lead to norovirus‐associated enteropathy, intestinal villous atrophy, and malabsorption. (wikipedia.org)
  • These results should guide infection control policy and support the design of hospitals with smaller care units. (nih.gov)
  • This guideline is designed for use by individuals who are charged with administering infection control programs in hospitals and other healthcare settings. (cdc.gov)
  • The term nosocomial infection is retained to refer only to infections acquired in hospitals. (cdc.gov)
  • The term healthcare-associated infection (HAI) is used to refer to infections associated with healthcare delivery in any setting (e.g., hospitals, long-term care facilities, ambulatory settings, home care). (cdc.gov)
  • Infection is most common in health care institutions such as hospitals and long-term-care facilities (6), but outbreaks are often reported in association with schools, restaurants, cruise ships, and other settings such as military bases (7). (hal.science)
  • This term reflects the inability to determine with certainty where the pathogen is acquired since patients may be colonized with or exposed to potential pathogens outside of the healthcare setting, before receiving health care, or may develop infections caused by those pathogens when exposed to the conditions associated with delivery of healthcare. (cdc.gov)
  • Given how highly contagious norovirus infection can be, it can spread very quickly on college campuses, especially in residential dorms. (njitvector.com)
  • Norovirus can establish a long-term infection in people who are immunocompromised, such as those with common variable immunodeficiency or with a suppressed immune system after organ transplantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Murine Norovirus Infection Induces T1 Inflammatory Responses to Dietary Antigens. (broadinstitute.org)
  • Secretor status strongly influences the incidence of symptomatic norovirus infection in a genotype-dependent manner in a Nicaraguan birth cohort. (cdc.gov)