A family of RNA viruses infecting a broad range of animals. Most individual species are restricted to their natural hosts. They possess a characteristic six-pointed starlike shape whose surfaces have cup-shaped (chalice) indentions. Transmission is by contaminated food, water, fomites, and occasionally aerosolization of secretions. Genera include LAGOVIRUS; NORWALK-LIKE VIRUSES; SAPPORO-LIKE VIRUSES; and VESIVIRUS.
Virus diseases caused by CALICIVIRIDAE. They include HEPATITIS E; VESICULAR EXANTHEMA OF SWINE; acute respiratory infections in felines, rabbit hemorrhagic disease, and some cases of gastroenteritis in humans.
A species of the genus VESIVIRUS infecting cats. Transmission occurs via air and mechanical contact.
A genus of the family CALICIVIRIDAE associated with worldwide sporadic outbreaks of GASTROENTERITIS in humans. The first recorded outbreak was in human infants in Sapporo, Japan in 1977. The genus is comprised of a single species, Sapporo virus, containing multiple strains.
A genus of the family CALICIVIRIDAE comprised of species infecting a wide range of organisms. Most members of this genus can be readily propagated in cell culture (as opposed to other genera of Caliciviridae). The type species is VESICULAR EXANTHEMA OF SWINE VIRUS.
A genus in the family CALICIVIRIDAE, associated with epidemic GASTROENTERITIS in humans. The type species, NORWALK VIRUS, contains multiple strains.
The type species in the genus NOROVIRUS, first isolated in 1968 from the stools of school children in Norwalk, Ohio, who were suffering from GASTROENTERITIS. The virions are non-enveloped spherical particles containing a single protein. Multiple strains are named after the places where outbreaks have occurred.
A species in the genus LAGOVIRUS which causes hemorrhagic disease, including hemorrhagic septicemia, in rabbits.
The type species of the genus VESIVIRUS infecting pigs. The resulting infection is an acute febrile disease which is clinically indistinguishable from FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE. Transmission is by contaminated food.
INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The reactions, changes in structure and composition, the properties of the reactions of carbon compounds, and the associated energy changes.

Identification of further proteolytic cleavage sites in the Southampton calicivirus polyprotein by expression of the viral protease in E. coli. (1/175)

Southampton virus (SV) is a human enteric calicivirus with a positive-sense RNA genome which encodes a protease as part of a large precursor polyprotein. Expression vectors based on pRSET were constructed carrying the entire 3C-like viral protease (3Cpro) sequence together with flanking sequences from a region of the viral genome 3'-distal to the putative helicase-encoding region. Expression from these vectors in E. coli resulted in discrete protein products with smaller than expected molecular sizes. This confirmed that an active viral protease was produced in E. coli and that the protease was capable of cleaving the expressed protein at defined sites. Expressed cleavage products surrounding the protease region of the viral polyprotein were separated by SDS-PAGE, transferred to PVDF membranes and subjected to N-terminal sequence analysis. Cleavage occurred at an EG dipeptide at the N terminus of the putative VPg (961E/GKNKG) and also at the protease/polymerase boundary (1280E/GGDKG). The N terminus of the protease was released from the VPg C terminus at an EA dipeptide in the sequence 1099E/APPTL. These studies demonstrate that SV enteric calicivirus encodes a 3C-like protease with a specificity similar to the picornaviral 3C protease and that the SV polyprotein is cleaved into at least six mature products.  (+info)

Organization of the canine calicivirus genome from the RNA polymerase gene to the poly(A) tail. (2/175)

In recent years a wealth of data has become available about the caliciviruses that infect humans, as well as those which infect a range of animal species, notably cats, rabbits, pigs and marine animals. However, in the two decades since the earliest reports of calicivirus infection in dogs, very little has become known about the epidemiology, pathogenicity and molecular biology of the caliciviruses that may infect canines. In 1990, a canine calicivirus (CaCV) was isolated from a 2-month-old diarrhoeic domestic dog in Japan. This virus, which can be grown in cultured cells of canine origin, has the classic 'Star of David' morphology of caliciviruses, and the one major structural protein was shown to be immunogenic in dogs. In this study, a 3.8 kb region of the genome of this CaCV isolate from the RNA polymerase gene to the 3' poly(A) tail was cloned and sequenced, and phylogenetic analysis was undertaken in order to establish the relationship of CaCV to other animal and human caliciviruses. This CaCV isolate had a nucleotide sequence, genomic organization and phylogenetic position closest to, but clearly distinct from, both feline calicivirus and San Miguel sea lion virus isolates. These findings suggest that CaCV represents a new clade of animal caliciviruses, presumably as a member of the recently proposed new genus Vesivirus.  (+info)

Isolation of small viruses resembling astroviruses and caliciviruses from acute enteritis of calves. (3/175)

Small round viruses (SRV) were isolated from the faeces of diarrhoeic calves from three farms. All three SRV preparations caused diarrhoea experimentally in gnotobiotic calves. Each preparation contained viral particles of two morphological types, "astrovirus-like" and "calicivirus-like", and from one preparation the two particle types were separated from each other. The calicivirus-like agent ("Newbury agent") was 33 nm in diameter, and caused diarrhoea in gnotobiotic calves with villous atrophy and D-xylose malabsorption. This virus did not infect cell cultures. The astrovirus-like agent did not cause diarrhoea in two gnotobiotic calves; however, it infected cell cultures (primary calf kidney) and the infected cells immunofluoresced with convalescent gnotobiotic-calf antiserum. The astrovirus-like agents in the three preparations were antigenically related. Experiments in calves showed that there was a degree of cross-protection between the three SRV preparations, as judged by the presence or absence of diarrhoea, but that at least three unrelated pathogens were present.  (+info)

Genetic analysis of the RNA polymerase gene of caliciviruses from dogs and cats. (4/175)

Caliciviruses that infect animals including humans cause a specific disease syndrome in their respective hosts. Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a major pathogen of respiratory disease of cats, and human caliciviru is a causative agent of diarrhea. It has been suggested, furthermore, that FCV and newly recognized canine calicivirus (CaCV) may also be possible causes of diarrhea in these animal species. In this study nucleotide sequence of the RNA polymerase gene of two caliciviruses of canine origin, namely CaCV strain No. 48 and FCV-like strain Sapporo/283, and a number of FCV strains of respiratory and enteric origins was examined. The length of sequenced region, from the 5'LKDEL motif through the 3'YGDD motif of the gene, was 555 bp for CaCV No. 48 strain and 552 bp for the other FCV strains including Sapporo/283 strain. In phylogenetic analysis, CaCV No. 48 strain grouped as a distinct branch sharing ancestral roots with San Miguel sea lion virus, and FCVs formed one compact group in which Sapporo/283 strain was included.  (+info)

Molecular characterization of a porcine enteric calicivirus genetically related to Sapporo-like human caliciviruses. (5/175)

Porcine enteric calicivirus (PEC) is associated with diarrhea in pigs, and to date it is the only cultivable enteric calicivirus (tissue culture-adapted [TC] PEC/Cowden). Based on sequence analysis of cDNA clones and reverse transcription-PCR products, TC PEC/Cowden has an RNA genome of 7,320 bp, excluding its 3' poly(A)(+) tail. The genome is organized in two open reading frames (ORFs), similar to the organizations of the human Sapporo-like viruses (SLVs) and the lagoviruses. ORF1 encodes the polyprotein that is fused to and contiguous with the capsid protein. ORF2 at the 3' end encodes a small basic protein of 164 amino acids. Among caliciviruses, PEC has the highest amino acid sequence identities in the putative RNA polymerase (66%), 2C helicase (49.6%), 3C-like protease (43.7%), and capsid (39%) regions with the SLVs, indicating that PEC is genetically most closely related to the SLVs. The complete RNA genome of wild-type (WT) PEC/Cowden was also sequenced. Sequence comparisons revealed that the WT and TC PEC/Cowden have 100% nucleotide sequence identities in the 5' terminus, 2C helicase, ORF2, and the 3' nontranslated region. TC PEC/Cowden has one silent mutation in its protease, two amino acid changes and a silent mutation in its RNA polymerase, and five nucleotide substitutions in its capsid that result in one distant and three clustered amino acid changes and a silent mutation. These substitutions may be associated with adaptation of TC PEC/Cowden to cell culture. The cultivable PEC should be a useful model for studies of the pathogenesis, replication, and possible rescue of uncultivable human enteric caliciviruses.  (+info)

A review of virus infections of cataceans and the potential impact of morbilliviruses, poxviruses and papillomaviruses on host population dynamics. (6/175)

Viruses belonging to 9 families have been detected in cetaceans. We critically review the clinical features, pathology and epidemiology of the diseases they cause. Cetacean morbillivirus (family Paramyxoviridae) induces a serious disease with a high mortality rate and persists in several populations. It may have long-term effects on the dynamics of cetacean populations either as enzootic infection or recurrent epizootics. The latter presumably have the more profound impact due to removal of sexually mature individuals. Members of the family Poxviridae infect several species of odontocetes, resulting in ring and tattoo skin lesions. Although poxviruses apparently do not induce a high mortality, circumstancial evidence suggests they may be lethal in young animals lacking protective immunity, and thus may negatively affect net recruitment. Papillomaviruses (family Papovaviridae) cause genital warts in at least 3 species of cetaceans. In 10% of male Burmeister's porpoises Phocoena spinipinnis from Peru, lesions were sufficiently severe to at least hamper, if not impede, copulation. Members of the families Herpesviridae, Orthomyxoviridae and Rhabdoviridae were demonstrated in cetaceans suffering serious illnesses, but with the exception of a 'porpoise herpesvirus' their causative role is still tentative. Herpes-like viruses and caliciviruses (Caliciviridae) give rise to cutaneous diseases in Monodontidae and Delphinidae. Antibodies to several serotypes of caliciviruses were found in odontocetes and mysticetes. An unrecognized Hepadnaviridae was detected by serology in a captive Pacific white-sided dolphin Lagenorhynchus obliquidens with chronic persistent hepatitis. Adenoviruses (Adenoviridae) were isolated from the intestinal tracts of mysticeti and a beluga Delphinapterus leucas but were not associated with any pathologies. We discuss the potential impact of Paramyxoviridae, Poxviridae and Papovaviridae on the dynamics of several odontocete populations.  (+info)

Development of methods to detect "Norwalk-like viruses" (NLVs) and hepatitis A virus in delicatessen foods: application to a food-borne NLV outbreak. (7/175)

"Norwalk-like viruses" (NLVs) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) are the most common causes of virus-mediated food-borne illness. Epidemiological investigations of outbreaks associated with these viruses have been hindered by the lack of available methods for the detection of NLVs and HAV in foodstuffs. Although reverse transcription (RT)-PCR methods have been useful in detecting NLVs and HAV in bivalve mollusks implicated in outbreaks, to date such methods have not been available for other foods. To address this need, we developed a method to detect NLVs and HAV recovered from food samples. The method involves washing of food samples with a guanidinium-phenol-based reagent, extraction with chloroform, and precipitation in isopropanol. Recovered viral RNA is amplified with HAV- or NLV-specific primers in RT-PCRs, using a viral RNA internal standard control to identify potential sample inhibition. By this method, 10 to 100 PCR units (estimated to be equivalent to 10(2) to 10(3) viral genome copies) of HAV and Norwalk virus seeded onto ham, turkey, and roast beef were detected. The method was applied to food samples implicated in an NLV-associated outbreak at a university cafeteria. Sliced deli ham was positive for a genogroup II NLV as determined by using both polymerase- and capsid-specific primers and probes. Sequence analysis of the PCR-amplified capsid region of the genome indicated that the sequence was identical to the sequence from virus detected in the stools of ill students. The developed method is rapid, simple, and efficient.  (+info)

Expression and processing of the canine calicivirus capsid precursor. (8/175)

The ORF2 product of canine calicivirus (CaCV) was identified and its processing in mammalian cells was analysed. Immunoblot analysis revealed the presence of the 75 kDa capsid precursor in addition to a 57 kDa capsid protein and a 22 kDa N-terminal polypeptide in CaCV-infected cells treated at an elevated temperature. When the CaCV ORF2 was expressed in a transient mammalian expression system, only the 75 kDa precursor was detected in immunoblot analysis, suggesting that no post-translational processing occurred in this system. However, the precursor was processed to a 57 kDa protein and a 22 kDa polypeptide by the proteinase of feline calicivirus (FCV) when this was co-expressed with ORF2. Processing was blocked by site-directed mutagenesis of the putative cleavage site in the capsid precursor. The results indicate that the proteinase of FCV can cleave the capsid precursor of CaCV to produce the mature capsid protein and that CaCV may have a similar proteinase.  (+info)

Caliciviridae is a family of single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses that primarily infect animals, including humans. In humans, Caliciviridae causes gastroenteritis, commonly known as stomach flu, and is responsible for a significant portion of foodborne illnesses worldwide. The name "Caliciviridae" comes from the Latin word "calyx," meaning "cup," which refers to the cup-shaped depressions on the surface of some members of this virus family.

There are five genera within Caliciviridae that infect humans: Norovirus, Sapovirus, Lagovirus, Vesivirus, and Nebovirus. Among these, Norovirus is the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis in humans, accounting for approximately 90% of all cases.

Caliciviruses are small, non-enveloped viruses that range from 27 to 40 nanometers in diameter. They have a simple structure, consisting of a single protein shell (capsid) that encloses the RNA genome. The capsid proteins of Caliciviridae are organized into two major domains: the shell domain and the protruding domain. The protruding domain contains binding sites for host cell receptors and is responsible for eliciting an immune response in the host.

Caliciviruses are highly contagious and can be transmitted through various routes, including fecal-oral transmission, ingestion of contaminated food or water, and direct contact with infected individuals or surfaces. They are resistant to many common disinfectants and can survive for extended periods on environmental surfaces, making them difficult to eliminate from healthcare settings and other high-touch areas.

In addition to their medical importance, Caliciviridae also has significance in veterinary medicine, as several members of this family infect animals such as cats, dogs, pigs, and rabbits, causing a range of clinical symptoms from gastroenteritis to respiratory illnesses.

Caliciviridae is a family of single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses that includes several important pathogens causing gastrointestinal illness in humans and animals. The most well-known human calicivirus is norovirus, which is the leading cause of acute viral gastroenteritis worldwide.

Calicivirus infections typically cause symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, nausea, and fever. The infection is usually self-limiting and lasts for a few days, but in some cases, it can lead to dehydration, especially in young children, older adults, and people with weakened immune systems.

Norovirus is highly contagious and can spread through close contact with an infected person, consumption of contaminated food or water, or touching contaminated surfaces and then touching the mouth. Prevention measures include frequent handwashing, proper food handling and preparation, and cleaning and disinfection of contaminated surfaces.

There is no specific treatment for calicivirus infections, and antibiotics are not effective against viral infections. Treatment is generally supportive and includes hydration to replace lost fluids and electrolytes. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary for intravenous fluid replacement and monitoring.

Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus that belongs to the family Caliciviridae. It is a common pathogen in cats and can cause a variety of clinical signs, including upper respiratory disease, oral ulcers, pneumonia, and limping syndrome. FCV is highly contagious and can be spread through direct contact with infected cats or contaminated objects.

FCV infection typically causes mild to moderate symptoms, such as sneezing, nasal discharge, conjunctivitis, and ulcers in the mouth. However, some strains of the virus can cause more severe disease, including virulent systemic disease (VSD), which is characterized by severe pneumonia, jaundice, and multi-organ failure. VSD is a rare but often fatal complication of FCV infection.

There are several vaccines available to protect cats against FCV infection. However, because there are many different strains of the virus, vaccination may not prevent infection altogether, but it can reduce the severity of clinical signs and the risk of complications. It is important to note that some vaccinated cats can still become infected with FCV and shed the virus, so it is still possible for them to transmit the virus to other cats.

In addition to vaccination, good hygiene practices, such as regular cleaning and disinfection of surfaces and cages, can help prevent the spread of FCV in multi-cat environments. It is also important to isolate sick cats from healthy ones to reduce the risk of transmission.

Sapovirus is a type of single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the family Caliciviridae. It is a major cause of gastroenteritis (also known as stomach flu) in humans, particularly in young children and older adults. The infection typically results in vomiting and diarrhea, which can last for several days. Sapovirus is usually spread through the fecal-oral route, often through contaminated food or water. It is named after the city of Sapporo in Japan, where it was first identified in 1977.

Vesivirus is a genus of non-enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses in the family Caliciviridae. These viruses are known to cause gastroenteritis in animals, particularly in primates and swine. They have been associated with mild to severe enteritis, vomiting, and diarrhea. However, they are not known to cause disease in humans. The name "vesivirus" is derived from the Latin word "vesica," meaning bladder or sac, which refers to the characteristic vesicle-like structures seen on the surface of infected cells.

Norovirus is a highly contagious virus that causes gastroenteritis, an inflammation of the stomach and intestines. It is often referred to as the "stomach flu" or "winter vomiting bug." Symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. It can spread easily through contaminated food or water, contact with an infected person, or touching contaminated surfaces. Norovirus outbreaks are common in closed settings such as hospitals, nursing homes, schools, and cruise ships. The virus is hardy and can survive for weeks on surfaces, making it difficult to eliminate. It is also resistant to many disinfectants. There is no specific treatment for norovirus infection other than managing symptoms and staying hydrated. Vaccines are under development but not yet available.

Per the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Norovirus is a highly contagious virus that often causes vomiting and diarrhea. It is a common cause of gastroenteritis, which is an inflammation of the stomach and intestines. This infection is often referred to as the "stomach flu," although it is not related to the influenza virus.

Norovirus spreads easily from person to person, through contaminated food or water, or by touching contaminated surfaces. Symptoms usually develop 12 to 48 hours after exposure and include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, stomach pain, fever, and headache.

The Norwalk virus is named after Norwalk, Ohio, where an outbreak of the illness occurred in 1968. It was first identified during an investigation into an outbreak of gastroenteritis among school children. The virus was later renamed norovirus in 2002 to reflect its broader range of hosts and clinical manifestations.

It's important to note that while Norwalk virus is a common cause of viral gastroenteritis, there are many other viruses, bacteria, and parasites that can also cause similar symptoms. If you suspect you have norovirus or any other foodborne illness, it's important to seek medical attention and avoid preparing food for others until your symptoms have resolved.

Hemorrhagic disease virus (RDV) in rabbits refers to a highly virulent calicivirus that causes a severe and often fatal disease in rabbits. The disease is characterized by acute onset of fever, loss of appetite, lethargy, and various hemorrhagic symptoms such as bleeding from the nose, mouth, and rectum. In severe cases, it can lead to internal organs' necrosis and death within 12-36 hours after the onset of clinical signs.

There are two main strains of RDV: the European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV) and the rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV). Both viruses are highly contagious and can be transmitted through direct contact with infected rabbits, their feces or urine, or contaminated objects. The virus can also be spread through insects such as flies and mosquitoes.

Preventive measures include vaccination, strict biosecurity protocols, and limiting exposure to wild rabbits and insects. There is no specific treatment for RDV infection, and antibiotics are generally not effective against the virus. Supportive care, such as fluid therapy and symptomatic treatment, may be provided to help alleviate clinical signs and improve the rabbit's chances of survival.

Vesicular exanthema of swine (VES) is a viral disease that affects pigs, characterized by the formation of blisters or vesicles on the skin and mucous membranes. The causative agent of VES is a member of the Caliciviridae family, specifically the vesicular exanthema of swine virus (VESV).

The disease is highly contagious and can spread rapidly in pig populations through direct contact with infected animals or contaminated fomites. The incubation period for VES is typically 2-6 days, after which affected pigs may develop fever, lethargy, loss of appetite, and lameness. Within a few days, small fluid-filled vesicles appear on the snout, lips, ears, and coronary bands of the hooves. These vesicles can rupture, leading to the formation of raw, painful erosions that may become secondarily infected with bacteria.

While VES is not a direct threat to human health, it can cause significant economic losses in the swine industry due to decreased growth rates, reduced feed conversion, and increased mortality in affected animals. Additionally, the clinical signs of VES are similar to those of other vesicular diseases, such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), which can lead to costly trade restrictions and quarantines.

Historically, VES was a significant problem in the United States swine industry, but extensive vaccination programs and eradication efforts have largely eliminated the disease from domestic pig populations. However, VESV continues to circulate in wild pig populations and remains a potential threat to the swine industry.

Gastroenteritis is not a medical condition itself, but rather a symptom-based description of inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract, primarily involving the stomach and intestines. It's often referred to as "stomach flu," although it's not caused by influenza virus.

Medically, gastroenteritis is defined as an inflammation of the mucous membrane of the stomach and intestines, usually resulting in symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, fever, and dehydration. This condition can be caused by various factors, including viral (like rotavirus or norovirus), bacterial (such as Salmonella, Shigella, or Escherichia coli), or parasitic infections, food poisoning, allergies, or the use of certain medications.

Gastroenteritis is generally self-limiting and resolves within a few days with proper hydration and rest. However, severe cases may require medical attention to prevent complications like dehydration, which can be particularly dangerous for young children, older adults, and individuals with weakened immune systems.

A viral genome is the genetic material (DNA or RNA) that is present in a virus. It contains all the genetic information that a virus needs to replicate itself and infect its host. The size and complexity of viral genomes can vary greatly, ranging from a few thousand bases to hundreds of thousands of bases. Some viruses have linear genomes, while others have circular genomes. The genome of a virus also contains the information necessary for the virus to hijack the host cell's machinery and use it to produce new copies of the virus. Understanding the genetic makeup of viruses is important for developing vaccines and antiviral treatments.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

A capsid is the protein shell that encloses and protects the genetic material of a virus. It is composed of multiple copies of one or more proteins that are arranged in a specific structure, which can vary in shape and symmetry depending on the type of virus. The capsid plays a crucial role in the viral life cycle, including protecting the viral genome from host cell defenses, mediating attachment to and entry into host cells, and assisting with the assembly of new virus particles during replication.

An open reading frame (ORF) is a continuous stretch of DNA or RNA sequence that has the potential to be translated into a protein. It begins with a start codon (usually "ATG" in DNA, which corresponds to "AUG" in RNA) and ends with a stop codon ("TAA", "TAG", or "TGA" in DNA; "UAA", "UAG", or "UGA" in RNA). The sequence between these two points is called a coding sequence (CDS), which, when transcribed into mRNA and translated into amino acids, forms a polypeptide chain.

In eukaryotic cells, ORFs can be located in either protein-coding genes or non-coding regions of the genome. In prokaryotic cells, multiple ORFs may be present on a single strand of DNA, often organized into operons that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that not all ORFs necessarily represent functional proteins; some may be pseudogenes or result from errors in genome annotation. Therefore, additional experimental evidence is typically required to confirm the expression and functionality of a given ORF.

A viral RNA (ribonucleic acid) is the genetic material found in certain types of viruses, as opposed to viruses that contain DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). These viruses are known as RNA viruses. The RNA can be single-stranded or double-stranded and can exist as several different forms, such as positive-sense, negative-sense, or ambisense RNA. Upon infecting a host cell, the viral RNA uses the host's cellular machinery to translate the genetic information into proteins, leading to the production of new virus particles and the continuation of the viral life cycle. Examples of human diseases caused by RNA viruses include influenza, COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2), hepatitis C, and polio.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Viral proteins are the proteins that are encoded by the viral genome and are essential for the viral life cycle. These proteins can be structural or non-structural and play various roles in the virus's replication, infection, and assembly process. Structural proteins make up the physical structure of the virus, including the capsid (the protein shell that surrounds the viral genome) and any envelope proteins (that may be present on enveloped viruses). Non-structural proteins are involved in the replication of the viral genome and modulation of the host cell environment to favor viral replication. Overall, a thorough understanding of viral proteins is crucial for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

Organic chemistry processes refer to the chemical reactions, pathways, and mechanisms that involve organic compounds. These are primarily made up of carbon atoms bonded to hydrogen atoms, often along with other elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, halogens, phosphorus, and silicon. Organic chemistry processes can include various types of reactions, such as substitution, addition, elimination, and rearrangement reactions, which may occur under mild conditions and can be influenced by factors like temperature, pressure, catalysts, and solvents.

These processes are essential in understanding the behavior and transformation of natural and synthetic organic compounds, including pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, polymers, dyes, and materials with unique properties. They form the basis for various industrial applications and scientific research in fields such as medicinal chemistry, biochemistry, materials science, and environmental studies.

... Viralzone: Caliciviridae 3D macromolecular structures of Caliciviridae from the EM Data Bank(EMDB) ICTV (Articles ... The Caliciviridae are a family of "small round structured" viruses, members of Class IV of the Baltimore scheme. Caliciviridae ... "Caliciviridae - Caliciviridae - Positive-sense RNA Viruses - ICTV". talk.ictvonline.org. Retrieved 12 March 2021. Vinjé, J; ... ICTV Report: Caliciviridae Caliciviridae description page from the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses site ...
"Caliciviridae". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). Retrieved 4 May 2020. Gleeson, M; Petritz, OA (May 2020 ... Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is a virus in the genus Lagovirus and the family Caliciviridae. It is a nonenveloped ... The disease is caused by strains of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV), a lagovirus in the family Caliciviridae. ... Rabbits in Australia "ICTV 9th Report (2011) Caliciviridae". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). Retrieved 9 ...
"Family: Caliciviridae , ICTV". www.ictv.global. Archived from the original on 29 August 2021. Retrieved 2 October 2019. Public ... Caliciviridae Archived 2019-09-13 at the Wayback Machine 3D macromolecular structures of Noroviruses from the EM Data Bank ( ... ICTV consulted widely with members of the Caliciviridae Study Group and carefully discussed the case.[citation needed] In ... non-enveloped viruses belonging to the family Caliciviridae. According to the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, ...
Caliciviridae "Limping Calici". Kitten Lady. "Kittens suddenly limping? Here's how to help kittens with limping calici" - via ...
... is a genus of viruses, in the family Caliciviridae. Lagomorphs serve as natural hosts. There are two species in this ... "ICTV Report Caliciviridae". "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. "Virus Taxonomy: 2020 Release". International ... Caliciviridae". The Journal of General Virology. 100 (11): 1469-1470. doi:10.1099/jgv.0.001332. PMID 31573467. " ... Caliciviridae Viralzone: Lagovirus (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Articles with 'species ...
... in the family Caliciviridae. "Currently, the family Caliciviridae consists of five established genera: Sapovirus, Norovirus, ... ICTV Report: Caliciviridae Viralzone: Sapovirus (CS1: long volume value, Articles with short description, Short description ... "ICTV Report Caliciviridae". Oka, Tomoichiro; Wang, Qiuhong; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Saif, Linda J. (1 January 2015). "Comprehensive ... Caliciviridae". The Journal of General Virology. 100 (11): 1469-1470. doi:10.1099/jgv.0.001332. PMC 7011698. PMID 31573467. " ...
"ICTV Report Caliciviridae". "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. Farles. The Free Dictionary. Accessed 02-Mar-2010. ... Vesivirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Caliciviridae. Swine, sea mammals, and felines serve as natural hosts. There are ... ICTV Report: Caliciviridae Viralzone: Vesivirus (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Articles ...
"ICTV Report Caliciviridae". "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 13 August 2015. ICTV Report: Caliciviridae Viralzone: Nebovirus ( ... Nebovirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Caliciviridae. Bovine serve as natural hosts. There is only one species in this ... Caliciviridae". The Journal of General Virology. 100 (11): 1469-1470. doi:10.1099/jgv.0.001332. PMID 31573467. " ...
"ICTV 9th Report (2011) Caliciviridae". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). Retrieved 9 January 2019.[dead ...
To date s2m has been described in four families of positive sense single-stranded RNA viruses; Astroviridae, Caliciviridae, ...
Examples include the ones found in poliovirus and in rhinovirus (both are members of genus Enterovirus). Caliciviridae have a ...
"Genus: Recovirus - Caliciviridae - Positive-sense RNA Viruses". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). Archived ...
It was previously classified in the family Caliciviridae. However, its genome more closely resembles rubella virus. It is now ...
It is also used in general Caliciviridae research due to its being one of the few of that group of viruses that grows well in ... Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a virus of the family Caliciviridae that causes disease in cats. It is one of the two important ...
The following families are recognized: Caliciviridae Dicistroviridae Iflaviridae Marnaviridae Picornaviridae Polycipiviridae ...
The most significant zoonotic pathogens causing foodborne diseases are Escherichia coli O157:H7, Campylobacter, Caliciviridae, ...
Positive single-stranded RNA families: three non-enveloped (Astroviridae, Caliciviridae and Picornaviridae) and four enveloped ...
The ViPR database includes genomes from these viral families: Arenaviridae, Bunyaviridae, Caliciviridae, Coronaviridae, ...
... (RaV) is a Caliciviridae virus that was first isolated in the Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory at Oregon State ...
Along with the Picornaviridae and the Caliciviridae, the Astroviridae comprise a third family of nonenveloped viruses whose ...
This virus belongs to the family Caliciviridae, which includes other viruses such as:[citation needed] Norovirus, a common ...
She is a member of the American Society for Virology, American Society for Microbiology and the Caliciviridae study group of ...
... family Caliciviridae) are a major cause of epidemic acute viral gastroenteritis. Meyers G, Rossi C, Thiel HJ (2004). " ...
... caliciviridae MeSH B04.909.777.162.500 - lagovirus MeSH B04.909.777.162.500.380 - hemorrhagic disease virus, rabbit MeSH ...
... part of the virus family Caliciviridae, by targeting both its structural and non-structural genes. By targeting the NTPase gene ...
... may refer to: Čalići, a village in Bosnia and Herzegovina Caliciviridae, a family of viruses Limping calici, a disease ...
Potyviridae and Caliciviridae. There are some studies showing that a possible VPg protein is also present in astroviridae, ...
One study has suggested that there are two large clades: One includes the families Caliciviridae, Flaviviridae, and ... Family Astroviridae Family Barnaviridae Family Benyviridae Family Botourmiaviridae Family Bromoviridae Family Caliciviridae - ...
Caliciviridae, and Astroviridae are responsible for a huge percentage of gastrointestinal disease worldwide. Rotaviruses (of ...
... family Caliciviridae). This virus is highly contagious and spreads rapidly. Norovirus is the most common cause of ...
Caliciviridae Viralzone: Caliciviridae 3D macromolecular structures of Caliciviridae from the EM Data Bank(EMDB) ICTV (Articles ... The Caliciviridae are a family of "small round structured" viruses, members of Class IV of the Baltimore scheme. Caliciviridae ... "Caliciviridae - Caliciviridae - Positive-sense RNA Viruses - ICTV". talk.ictvonline.org. Retrieved 12 March 2021. Vinjé, J; ... ICTV Report: Caliciviridae Caliciviridae description page from the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses site ...
"Family: Caliciviridae , ICTV". www.ictv.global. Archived from the original on 29 August 2021. Retrieved 2 October 2019. Public ... Caliciviridae Archived 2019-09-13 at the Wayback Machine 3D macromolecular structures of Noroviruses from the EM Data Bank ( ... ICTV consulted widely with members of the Caliciviridae Study Group and carefully discussed the case.[citation needed] In ... non-enveloped viruses belonging to the family Caliciviridae. According to the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, ...
Caliciviridae (50). Other genera in the Caliciviridae family include Sapporo-like viruses, which also cause gastroenteritis ... Human enteric Caliciviridae: the complete genome sequence and expression of virus-like particles from a genetic group II small ... Members of the family Caliciviridae\t (Norwalk virus and Sapporo virus) are the most prevalent cause of gastroenteritis ...
Characterization of a rhesus monkey calicivirus representing a new genus of Caliciviridae. J Virol. 2008;82:5408-16. DOIPubMed ... Caliciviridae: the noroviruses. In: Knipe DM, Howley PM, editors. Fields virology. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & ... Viruses in the family Caliciviridae are nonenveloped, polyadenylated, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses (1). They ... Complete genomes of strains representing different Caliciviridae genera were selected for a phylogenetic tree (Figure 1). The ...
Norovirus (NoV) is a major cause of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide. A comprehensive understanding of the transmission mode is of great significance for the prevention and control of the NoV infection. Currently, the transmission modes of NoV include contact, food-borne, water-borne and ae …
Norovirus belongs to the Caliciviridae family of viruses. It is the leading cause. of vomiting, diarrhea, and foodborne illness ... Sapovirus also belongs to the Caliciviridae family of viruses. While it can cause viral gastroenteritis in all age groups, it ...
Caliciviridae Infections. 1. 2020. 29. 0.180. Why? Risk Factors. 10. 2022. 71972. 0.180. Why? ...
Categories: Caliciviridae Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted 28 ...
Sapoviruses, a cause of gastroenteritis, predominantly in children, are also in the Caliciviridae family. Five norovirus ... are members of the Caliciviridae family of viruses. The norovirus is a small, 26-40 nm, nonenveloped, single-stranded RNA virus ...
Animals, Caliciviridae Infections/epidemiology, Cluster Analysis, DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases/genetics, Europe/epidemiology, ... Porcine sapovirus is an enteric calicivirus in domestic pigs that belongs to the family Caliciviridae. Some porcine sapoviruses ... Porcine sapovirus is an enteric calicivirus in domestic pigs that belongs to the family Caliciviridae. Some porcine sapoviruses ... Caliciviridae Infections/epidemiology; Cluster Analysis; DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases/genetics; Europe/epidemiology; Feces/ ...
It was declared a member of the Caliciviridae family of viruses in 1993. [7] It now is considered the most common cause of ...
Characteristics: Noroviruses are a group of viruses belonging to the Norovirus genus and the Caliciviridae familyFootnote 14. ... Noroviruses are slightly smaller than other viruses in the Caliciviridae family, with a diameter of approximately 27 nmFootnote ...
Caliciviridae (sapovirus), Picornaviridae (cocksackievirus), Reoviridae (rotavirus), Parvoviridae and Circoviridae. Based on ...
RNA viruses of the Caliciviridae family, which is divided into six genogroups and further divided into over 30 genotypes; ...
ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Caliciviridae. Vinjé, Jan; Estes, Mary K; Esteves, Pedro; Green, Kim Y; Katayama, Kazuhiko; ...
82; was CALICIVIRUSES 1979-81; CALICIVIRUSES was see CALICIVIRIDAE 1993. Online Note:. use CALICIVIRIDAE to search ... Caliciviridae - Preferred Concept UI. M0003197. Scope note. A family of RNA viruses infecting a broad range of animals. Most ... infection = CALICIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS. Allowable Qualifiers:. CH chemistry. CL classification. DE drug effects. EN enzymology. ...
Norovirus is part of the caliciviridae family of viruses. They are naked viruses surrounded by an icosahedral capsid, which is ...
TOP 20+ Hepatitis Viruses Interview Questions and Answers: Question 1: What are the 5 different hepatitis viruses?, Question 2: What are the early symptoms of hepatitis?, Question 3: What are the different hepatitis viruses?
The CDC Public Health Genomics and Precision Health Knowledge Base (PHGKB) is an online, continuously updated, searchable database of published scientific literature, CDC resources, and other materials that address the translation of genomics and precision health discoveries into improved health care and disease prevention. The Knowledge Base is curated by CDC staff and is regularly updated to reflect ongoing developments in the field. This compendium of databases can be searched for genomics and precision health related information on any specific topic including cancer, diabetes, economic evaluation, environmental health, family health history, health equity, infectious diseases, Heart and Vascular Diseases(H), Lung Diseases(L), Blood Diseases(B), and Sleep Disorders(S), rare dieseases, health equity, implementation science, neurological disorders, pharmacogenomics, primary immmune deficiency, reproductive and child health, tier-classified guideline, CDC pathogen advanced molecular detection, human
CALICIVIRIDAE. CORONAVIRUS, HUMAN. CORONAVIRUS. COXSACKIEVIRUSES. ENTEROVIRUS. COXSACKIEVIRUSES A. ENTEROVIRUS. ...
CALICIVIRIDAE. CORONAVIRUS, HUMAN. CORONAVIRUS. COXSACKIEVIRUSES. ENTEROVIRUS. COXSACKIEVIRUSES A. ENTEROVIRUS. ...
Caliciviridae; Norovirus; Norwalk virus. REFERENCE 1 AUTHORS Motomura,K., Yokoyama,M., Ode,H., Nakamura,H., Mori,H., Kanda,T., ...
Subsection 2 (RNA) - Caliciviridae. 169. Calicivirus (Norovirus, Sapovirus, Vesivirus, Lagovirus, Nebovirus). 170. Hepatitis E ...
Caliciviridae, Astrovindae, Flaviviridae, Togaviridae, Coronaviridae, Paramyxoviridae, Rhabdoviridae, Filoviridae, ...
Caliciviridae Infections. *Calicivirus Infections. *Campylobacter Infections. *Canavan Disease. *Canavan-van Bogaert-Bertrand ...
Porcine enteric calicivirus (PEC) is a member of the genus Sapovirus in the family Caliciviridae. This virus causes diarrheal ...
It was declared a member of the Caliciviridae family of viruses in 1993. [7] It is now considered the most common cause of ...
Norovirusurile, membri ai familiei Caliciviridae, sunt un grup de peste 40 de virusuri extrem de eterogene. Infecția se ...
  • Norovirus belongs to the Caliciviridae family of viruses. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Noroviruses are a group of viruses belonging to the Norovirus genus and the Caliciviridae family Footnote 14 . (canada.ca)
  • Instead, the norovirus is a viral infection caused by a group of viruses in the Caliciviridae family. (njitvector.com)
  • Norovirus is part of the caliciviridae family of viruses. (osmosis.org)
  • Noroviruses are slightly smaller than other viruses in the Caliciviridae family, with a diameter of approximately 27 nm Footnote 5 . (canada.ca)
  • Viruses in the family Caliciviridae are nonenveloped, polyadenylated, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • No article was found for Caliciviridae Infections and ABO[original query] . (cdc.gov)
  • Caliciviridae bear resemblance to enlarged picornavirus and was formerly a separate genus within the picornaviridae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polymerases from Picornaviridae and Caliciviridae that use a primer to initiate nucleotide synthesis have small thumb domains and thus have wider template-binding channels necessary to accommodate both a template teleport a primer splitgate hacks free systems usually achieve high levels of apex bunny hop buy efficiency with high insulation levels. (multifly.aero)
  • The NC-WGP93C strain grouped with the Canadian St-Valerien-like viruses to form a potentially new genus within the Caliciviridae family. (cdc.gov)
  • Porcine enteric calicivirus (PEC) is a member of the genus Sapovirus in the family Caliciviridae. (nih.gov)
  • Porcine sapovirus is an enteric calicivirus in domestic pigs that belongs to the family Caliciviridae. (lu.se)
  • The Caliciviridae are a family of "small round structured" viruses, members of Class IV of the Baltimore scheme. (wikipedia.org)
  • Later, the nonhuman primate Tulane virus ( 2 ) and the porcine St-Valerien-like viruses ( 3 ) were characterized as potential new genera in the Caliciviridae family. (cdc.gov)
  • It was declared a member of the Caliciviridae family of viruses in 1993. (medscape.com)
  • Viruses in the family Caliciviridae are nonenveloped, polyadenylated, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Later, the nonhuman primate Tulane virus ( 2 ) and the porcine St-Valerien-like viruses ( 3 ) were characterized as potential new genera in the Caliciviridae family. (cdc.gov)
  • The NC-WGP93C strain grouped with the Canadian St-Valerien-like viruses to form a potentially new genus within the Caliciviridae family. (cdc.gov)
  • It was declared a member of the Caliciviridae family of viruses in 1993. (medscape.com)
  • En 2019-2020 houbo un gromo de pneumonía en Wuhan (COVID-19), China, que se estendeu por case todo o mundo, causado por un novo coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). (wikipedia.org)