Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Methods of creating machines and devices.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.
Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.
Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)
Concentration or quantity that is derived from the smallest measure that can be detected with reasonable certainty for a given analytical procedure.
The analysis of a chemical substance by inserting a sample into a carrier stream of reagent using a sample injection valve that propels the sample downstream where mixing occurs in a coiled tube, then passes into a flow-through detector and a recorder or other data handling device.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
Method of analyzing chemicals using automation.
Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.
Any device or element which converts an input signal into an output signal of a different form. Examples include the microphone, phonographic pickup, loudspeaker, barometer, photoelectric cell, automobile horn, doorbell, and underwater sound transducer. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
A noninvasive technique that uses the differential absorption properties of hemoglobin and myoglobin to evaluate tissue oxygenation and indirectly can measure regional hemodynamics and blood flow. Near-infrared light (NIR) can propagate through tissues and at particular wavelengths is differentially absorbed by oxygenated vs. deoxygenated forms of hemoglobin and myoglobin. Illumination of intact tissue with NIR allows qualitative assessment of changes in the tissue concentration of these molecules. The analysis is also used to determine body composition.
Lack of correspondence between the way a stimulus is commonly perceived and the way an individual perceives it under given conditions.
Measuring and weighing systems and processes.
A principle of estimation in which the estimates of a set of parameters in a statistical model are those quantities minimizing the sum of squared differences between the observed values of a dependent variable and the values predicted by the model.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Graphical representation of a statistical model containing scales for calculating the prognostic weight of a value for each individual variable. Nomograms are instruments that can be used to predict outcomes using specific clinical parameters. They use ALGORITHMS that incorporate several variables to calculate the predicted probability that a patient will achieve a particular clinical endpoint.
Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.
The measurement of radiation by photography, as in x-ray film and film badge, by Geiger-Mueller tube, and by SCINTILLATION COUNTING.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.
The use of electronic equipment to observe or record physiologic processes while the patient undergoes normal daily activities.
A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
Behavior of LIGHT and its interactions with itself and materials.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
Any visible result of a procedure which is caused by the procedure itself and not by the entity being analyzed. Common examples include histological structures introduced by tissue processing, radiographic images of structures that are not naturally present in living tissue, and products of chemical reactions that occur during analysis.
A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.
Method of tissue preparation in which the tissue specimen is frozen and then dehydrated at low temperature in a high vacuum. This method is also used for dehydrating pharmaceutical and food products.
Clotting time of PLASMA recalcified in the presence of excess TISSUE THROMBOPLASTIN. Factors measured are FIBRINOGEN; PROTHROMBIN; FACTOR V; FACTOR VII; and FACTOR X. It is used for monitoring anticoagulant therapy with COUMARINS.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A barbiturate that is used as a sedative. Secobarbital is reported to have no anti-anxiety activity.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
Improvement in the quality of an x-ray image by use of an intensifying screen, tube, or filter and by optimum exposure techniques. Digital processing methods are often employed.
A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.
An extraction method that separates analytes using a solid phase and a liquid phase. It is used for preparative sample cleanup before analysis by CHROMATOGRAPHY and other analytical methods.
Thin strands of transparent material, usually glass, that are used for transmitting light waves over long distances.
A rare metal element with a blue-gray appearance and atomic symbol Ge, atomic number 32, and atomic weight 72.63.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
The narrow passage way that conducts the sound collected by the EAR AURICLE to the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Use of a device (film badge) for measuring exposure of individuals to radiation. It is usually made of metal, plastic, or paper and loaded with one or more pieces of x-ray film.
Chemical analysis based on the phenomenon whereby light, passing through a medium with dispersed particles of a different refractive index from that of the medium, is attenuated in intensity by scattering. In turbidimetry, the intensity of light transmitted through the medium, the unscattered light, is measured. In nephelometry, the intensity of the scattered light is measured, usually, but not necessarily, at right angles to the incident light beam.
The spontaneous transformation of a nuclide into one or more different nuclides, accompanied by either the emission of particles from the nucleus, nuclear capture or ejection of orbital electrons, or fission. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
An increase in the rate of speed.
The condition in which reasonable knowledge regarding risks, benefits, or the future is not available.
The development and use of techniques and equipment to study or perform chemical reactions, with small quantities of materials, frequently less than a milligram or a milliliter.
The visual display of data in a man-machine system. An example is when data is called from the computer and transmitted to a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY or LIQUID CRYSTAL display.
Measuring instruments for determining the temperature of matter. Most thermometers used in the field of medicine are designed for measuring body temperature or for use in the clinical laboratory. (From UMDNS, 1999)
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Laboratory tests demonstrating the presence of physiologically significant substances in the blood, urine, tissue, and body fluids with application to the diagnosis or therapy of disease.
An examination of chemicals in the blood.
Materials used as reference points for imaging studies.
The specialty of ANALYTIC CHEMISTRY applied to assays of physiologically important substances found in blood, urine, tissues, and other biological fluids for the purpose of aiding the physician in making a diagnosis or following therapy.
X-ray image-detecting devices that make a focused image of body structures lying in a predetermined plane from which more complex images are computed.
A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.
Making measurements by the use of stereoscopic photographs.
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum usually sensed as heat. Infrared wavelengths are longer than those of visible light, extending into the microwave frequencies. They are used therapeutically as heat, and also to warm food in restaurants.
The branch of physics that deals with sound and sound waves. In medicine it is often applied in procedures in speech and hearing studies. With regard to the environment, it refers to the characteristics of a room, auditorium, theatre, building, etc. that determines the audibility or fidelity of sounds in it. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Methods for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of an indicator, such as a dye, radionuclide, or chilled liquid, into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)

Validation of the Rockall risk scoring system in upper gastrointestinal bleeding. (1/3865)

BACKGROUND: Several scoring systems have been developed to predict the risk of rebleeding or death in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). These risk scoring systems have not been validated in a new patient population outside the clinical context of the original study. AIMS: To assess internal and external validity of a simple risk scoring system recently developed by Rockall and coworkers. METHODS: Calibration and discrimination were assessed as measures of validity of the scoring system. Internal validity was assessed using an independent, but similar patient sample studied by Rockall and coworkers, after developing the scoring system (Rockall's validation sample). External validity was assessed using patients admitted to several hospitals in Amsterdam (Vreeburg's validation sample). Calibration was evaluated by a chi2 goodness of fit test, and discrimination was evaluated by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. RESULTS: Calibration indicated a poor fit in both validation samples for the prediction of rebleeding (p<0.0001, Vreeburg; p=0.007, Rockall), but a better fit for the prediction of mortality in both validation samples (p=0.2, Vreeburg; p=0.3, Rockall). The areas under the ROC curves were rather low in both validation samples for the prediction of rebleeding (0.61, Vreeburg; 0.70, Rockall), but higher for the prediction of mortality (0.73, Vreeburg; 0.81, Rockall). CONCLUSIONS: The risk scoring system developed by Rockall and coworkers is a clinically useful scoring system for stratifying patients with acute UGIB into high and low risk categories for mortality. For the prediction of rebleeding, however, the performance of this scoring system was unsatisfactory.  (+info)

Performance and specificity of monoclonal immunoassays for cyclosporine monitoring: how specific is specific? (2/3865)

BACKGROUND: Immunoassays designed for the selective measurement of cyclosporin A (CsA) inadvertently show cross-reactivity for CsA metabolites. The extent and clinical significance of the resulting overestimation is controversial. A comprehensive assessment of old and new methods in clinical specimens is needed. METHODS: In a comprehensive evaluation, CsA was analyzed in 145 samples with the new CEDIA assay and compared with the Emit assay with the old and new pretreatments, the TDx monoclonal and polyclonal assays, the AxSYM, and HPLC. All samples were from patients with liver and/or kidney transplants. RESULTS: The CEDIA offered the easiest handling, followed by the AxSYM, which showed the longest calibration stability. The TDx monoclonal assay provided the lowest detection limit and the lowest CVs. The mean differences compared with HPLC were as follows: Emit, 9-12%; CEDIA, 18%; AxSYM, 29%; and TDx monoclonal, 57%. The CycloTrac RIA paralleled the Emit results. In contrast to the mean differences, substantial (>200%) and variable overestimations of the CsA concentration were observed in individual patient samples. Metabolic ratios, estimates of the overall concentrations of several cross-reacting metabolites (nonspecific TDx polyclonal/specific reference method), correlated with the apparent biases of the various monoclonal assays. Metabolic ratios varied up to 10-fold, which translated into biases for individual samples between -7% and +174%. The higher the cross-reactivity of an assay was, the higher was the range of biases observed. The interindividual differences markedly exceeded other factors of influence (organ transplanted, hepatic function). CONCLUSION: Because assay bias cannot be predicted in individual samples, substantially erratic CsA dosing can result. The specificity of CsA assays for parent CsA remains a major concern.  (+info)

TE671 cell-based ELISA for anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody determination in myasthenia gravis. (3/3865)

BACKGROUND: Acetylcholine receptor (AChR) from human muscles is the antigen used currently in radioimmunoprecipitation assays (RIPAs) for the determination of anti-AChR antibodies in the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis (MG). Our aim was to develop and validate an ELISA using TE671 cells as the source of AChR. METHODS: After TE671 cell homogenization, the crude AChR extract was used for plate coating. Anti-AChR antibodies were determined in 207 MG patients and in 77 controls. RESULTS: The mean intra- and interassay CVs (for two samples with different anti-AChR antibody concentrations) were 9.7% and 15.7%, respectively. Test sensitivity and specificity, for generalized MG, were 79.5% (95% confidence interval, 72.8-85.0%) and 96.1% (89.0-99.1%). The detection limit was 2 nmol/L. Anti-AChR antibody concentrations from 53 MG patients, as tested with our ELISA, showed good agreement with an RIPA with a mean difference (SD) of 1.0 (5.6) nmol/L. CONCLUSION: Our ELISA is a simple screening test for the diagnosis of MG and enables rapid and inexpensive patient follow-up.  (+info)

LocaLisa: new technique for real-time 3-dimensional localization of regular intracardiac electrodes. (4/3865)

BACKGROUND: Estimation of the 3-dimensional (3D) position of ablation electrodes from fluoroscopic images is inadequate if a systematic lesion pattern is required in the treatment of complex arrhythmogenic substrates. METHODS AND RESULTS: We developed a new technique for online 3D localization of intracardiac electrodes. Regular catheter electrodes are used as sensors for a high-frequency transthoracic electrical field, which is applied via standard skin electrodes. We investigated localization accuracy within the right atrium, right ventricle, and left ventricle by comparing measured and true interelectrode distances of a decapolar catheter. Long-term stability was analyzed by localization of the most proximal His bundle before and after slow pathway ablation. Electrogram recordings were unaffected by the applied electrical field. Localization data from 3 catheter positions, widely distributed within the right atrium, right ventricle, or left ventricle, were analyzed in 10 patients per group. The relationship between measured and true electrode positions was highly linear, with an average correlation coefficient of 0.996, 0.997, and 0.999 for the right atrium, right ventricle, and left ventricle, respectively. Localization accuracy was better than 2 mm, with an additional scaling error of 8% to 14%. After 2 hours, localization of the proximal His bundle was reproducible within 1.4+/-1.1 mm. CONCLUSIONS: This new technique enables accurate and reproducible real-time localization of electrode positions in cardiac mapping and ablation procedures. Its application does not distort the quality of electrograms and can be applied to any electrode catheter.  (+info)

European interlaboratory comparison of breath 13CO2 analysis. (5/3865)

The BIOMED I programme Stable Isotopes in Gastroenterology and Nutrition (SIGN) has focused upon evaluation and standardisation of stable isotope breath tests using 13C labelled substrates. The programme dealt with comparison of 13C substrates, test meals, test conditions, analysis techniques, and calculation procedures. Analytical techniques applied for 13CO2 analysis were evaluated by taking an inventory of instrumentation, calibration protocols, and analysis procedures. Two ring tests were initiated measuring 13C abundances of carbonate materials. Evaluating the data it was found that seven different models of isotope ratio mass spectrometers (IRMS) were used by the participants applying both the dual inlet system and the continuous flow configuration. Eight different brands of certified 13C reference materials were used with a 13C abundance varying from delta 13CPDB -37.2 to +2.0/1000. CO2 was liberated from certified material by three techniques and different working standards were used varying from -47.4 to +0.4/1000 in their delta 13CPDB value. The standard deviations (SDs) found for all measurements by all participants were 0.25/1000 and 0.50/1000 for two carbonates used in the ring tests. The individual variation for the single participants varied from 0.02 /1000 (dual inlet system) to 0.14/1000 (continuous flow system). The measurement of the difference between two carbonates showed a SD of 0.33/1000 calculated for all participants. Internal precision of IRMS as indicated by the specifications of the different instrument suppliers is < 0.3/1000 for continuous flow systems. In this respect it can be concluded that all participants are working well within the instrument specifications even including sample preparation. Increased overall interlaboratory variation is therefore likely to be due to non-instrumental conditions. It is possible that consistent differences in sample handling leading to isotope fractionation are the causes for interlaboratory variation. Breath analysis does not require sample preparation. As such, interlaboratory variation will be less than observed for the carbonate samples and within the range indicated as internal precision for continuous flow instruments. From this it is concluded that pure analytical interlaboratory variation is acceptable despite the many differences in instrumentation and analytical protocols. Coordinated metabolic studies appear possible, in which different European laboratories perform 13CO2 analysis. Evaluation of compatibility of the analytical systems remains advisable, however.  (+info)

The length and eruption rates of incisor teeth in rats after one or more of them had been unimpeded. (6/3865)

The eruption rate and length of all four incisor teeth in rats were measured under ether anaesthesia by recording the position of marks on their labial surfaces at 2-day intervals, using calibrated graticules in microscope eyepieces. The rats were divided into four groups and either a lower, an upper, both a lower and an upper, or no incisors were unimpeded. This paper describes the changes when the unimpeded incisors returned to the occlusion. Neither the unimpeded nor the impeded incisors simply returned to control values immediately the period of unimpeded eruption ended, but showed transient changes in their lengths and eruption rates. The results confirm that eruption rates are determined by the sum of the lengths of the lower and upper incisors, rather than by their own lengths, with longer teeth erupting more slowly. Specifically, restoring the bevel to the incisors did not slow their eruption below normal impeded rates. The slowing of the eruption of the longer of two adjacent incisors was related to the length differences of the incisors in the same jaw, not to the sum of the differences in both jaws. Contact with the contralateral incisor in the opposite jaw slowed the eruption of an incisor more than contact with the ipsilateral incisor.  (+info)

Fluorimetric determination of aluminum traces in hemodialysis solutions using Mordant Red 19. (7/3865)

A sensitive and accurate method for the spectrofluorimetric determination of trace levels of aluminum in hemodialysis solutions using Mordant Red 19 as the complexation reagent has been developed. The optimal experimental conditions for the concentration of fluorimetric reagent, pH, temperature, and the specific type of matrix are reported. The emission of the fluorescent metal chelate was measured at 555 nm, excitation at 478 nm. Linearity between emission intensity and aluminum concentration was found in the 2-20 ppb range in standard aluminum solutions. Limit of detection was 0.4 ppb. The aluminum amounts in some commercial hemodialysis solutions were determined by means of the extrapolation method. The proposed method proved to be suitable in terms of sensitivity and accuracy for the determination of aluminum in dialysis fluids.  (+info)

Determination of tin, vanadium, iron, and molybdenum in various matrices by atomic absorption spectrometry using a simultaneous liquid-liquid extraction procedure. (8/3865)

An atomic-absorption spectrometric method is described for the determination of tin, vanadium, iron, and molybdenum in two certified reference materials, food samples, and petroleum crude. After treatment with acids, these elements are separated from matrix elements by simultaneous solvent extraction of 5,5'-methylenedisalicylohydroxamic acid complexes from HCl/NaClO4 solution into an isobutyl methyl ketone/tributyl phosphate solution. The detection limits range from 0.018 to 0.19 microg/mL (n = 3), and the relative standard deviations do not exceed 2.0% at levels of 0.5, 0.6, 2.0, and 7.0 microg/mL of Fe, Mo, V, and Sn, respectively. The method is selective and suffers only from interference by Zr(IV), Ti(IV), Th(IV), W(VI), PO4(3-), and F-.  (+info)

In the context of medicine and medical devices, calibration refers to the process of checking, adjusting, or confirming the accuracy of a measurement instrument or system. This is typically done by comparing the measurements taken by the device being calibrated to those taken by a reference standard of known accuracy. The goal of calibration is to ensure that the medical device is providing accurate and reliable measurements, which is critical for making proper diagnoses and delivering effective treatment. Regular calibration is an important part of quality assurance and helps to maintain the overall performance and safety of medical devices.

Reproducibility of results in a medical context refers to the ability to obtain consistent and comparable findings when a particular experiment or study is repeated, either by the same researcher or by different researchers, following the same experimental protocol. It is an essential principle in scientific research that helps to ensure the validity and reliability of research findings.

In medical research, reproducibility of results is crucial for establishing the effectiveness and safety of new treatments, interventions, or diagnostic tools. It involves conducting well-designed studies with adequate sample sizes, appropriate statistical analyses, and transparent reporting of methods and findings to allow other researchers to replicate the study and confirm or refute the results.

The lack of reproducibility in medical research has become a significant concern in recent years, as several high-profile studies have failed to produce consistent findings when replicated by other researchers. This has led to increased scrutiny of research practices and a call for greater transparency, rigor, and standardization in the conduct and reporting of medical research.

Reference standards in a medical context refer to the established and widely accepted norms or benchmarks used to compare, evaluate, or measure the performance, accuracy, or effectiveness of diagnostic tests, treatments, or procedures. These standards are often based on extensive research, clinical trials, and expert consensus, and they help ensure that healthcare practices meet certain quality and safety thresholds.

For example, in laboratory medicine, reference standards may consist of well-characterized samples with known concentrations of analytes (such as chemicals or biological markers) that are used to calibrate instruments and validate testing methods. In clinical practice, reference standards may take the form of evidence-based guidelines or best practices that define appropriate care for specific conditions or patient populations.

By adhering to these reference standards, healthcare professionals can help minimize variability in test results, reduce errors, improve diagnostic accuracy, and ensure that patients receive consistent, high-quality care.

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures used to describe the performance of a diagnostic test or screening tool in identifying true positive and true negative results.

* Sensitivity refers to the proportion of people who have a particular condition (true positives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true positive rate" or "recall." A highly sensitive test will identify most or all of the people with the condition, but may also produce more false positives.
* Specificity refers to the proportion of people who do not have a particular condition (true negatives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true negative rate." A highly specific test will identify most or all of the people without the condition, but may also produce more false negatives.

In medical testing, both sensitivity and specificity are important considerations when evaluating a diagnostic test. High sensitivity is desirable for screening tests that aim to identify as many cases of a condition as possible, while high specificity is desirable for confirmatory tests that aim to rule out the condition in people who do not have it.

It's worth noting that sensitivity and specificity are often influenced by factors such as the prevalence of the condition in the population being tested, the threshold used to define a positive result, and the reliability and validity of the test itself. Therefore, it's important to consider these factors when interpreting the results of a diagnostic test.

"Quality control" is a term that is used in many industries, including healthcare and medicine, to describe the systematic process of ensuring that products or services meet certain standards and regulations. In the context of healthcare, quality control often refers to the measures taken to ensure that the care provided to patients is safe, effective, and consistent. This can include processes such as:

1. Implementing standardized protocols and guidelines for care
2. Training and educating staff to follow these protocols
3. Regularly monitoring and evaluating the outcomes of care
4. Making improvements to processes and systems based on data and feedback
5. Ensuring that equipment and supplies are maintained and functioning properly
6. Implementing systems for reporting and addressing safety concerns or errors.

The goal of quality control in healthcare is to provide high-quality, patient-centered care that meets the needs and expectations of patients, while also protecting their safety and well-being.

Equipment design, in the medical context, refers to the process of creating and developing medical equipment and devices, such as surgical instruments, diagnostic machines, or assistive technologies. This process involves several stages, including:

1. Identifying user needs and requirements
2. Concept development and brainstorming
3. Prototyping and testing
4. Design for manufacturing and assembly
5. Safety and regulatory compliance
6. Verification and validation
7. Training and support

The goal of equipment design is to create safe, effective, and efficient medical devices that meet the needs of healthcare providers and patients while complying with relevant regulations and standards. The design process typically involves a multidisciplinary team of engineers, clinicians, designers, and researchers who work together to develop innovative solutions that improve patient care and outcomes.

An algorithm is not a medical term, but rather a concept from computer science and mathematics. In the context of medicine, algorithms are often used to describe step-by-step procedures for diagnosing or managing medical conditions. These procedures typically involve a series of rules or decision points that help healthcare professionals make informed decisions about patient care.

For example, an algorithm for diagnosing a particular type of heart disease might involve taking a patient's medical history, performing a physical exam, ordering certain diagnostic tests, and interpreting the results in a specific way. By following this algorithm, healthcare professionals can ensure that they are using a consistent and evidence-based approach to making a diagnosis.

Algorithms can also be used to guide treatment decisions. For instance, an algorithm for managing diabetes might involve setting target blood sugar levels, recommending certain medications or lifestyle changes based on the patient's individual needs, and monitoring the patient's response to treatment over time.

Overall, algorithms are valuable tools in medicine because they help standardize clinical decision-making and ensure that patients receive high-quality care based on the latest scientific evidence.

Equipment Failure Analysis is a process of identifying the cause of failure in medical equipment or devices. This involves a systematic examination and evaluation of the equipment, its components, and operational history to determine why it failed. The analysis may include physical inspection, chemical testing, and review of maintenance records, as well as assessment of design, manufacturing, and usage factors that may have contributed to the failure.

The goal of Equipment Failure Analysis is to identify the root cause of the failure, so that corrective actions can be taken to prevent similar failures in the future. This is important in medical settings to ensure patient safety and maintain the reliability and effectiveness of medical equipment.

In medical terms, "fossils" do not have a specific or direct relevance to the field. However, in a broader scientific context, fossils are the remains or impressions of prehistoric organisms preserved in petrified form or as a mold or cast in rock. They offer valuable evidence about the Earth's history and the life forms that existed on it millions of years ago.

Paleopathology is a subfield of paleontology that deals with the study of diseases in fossils, which can provide insights into the evolution of diseases and human health over time.

In the field of medical imaging, "phantoms" refer to physical objects that are specially designed and used for calibration, quality control, and evaluation of imaging systems. These phantoms contain materials with known properties, such as attenuation coefficients or spatial resolution, which allow for standardized measurement and comparison of imaging parameters across different machines and settings.

Imaging phantoms can take various forms depending on the modality of imaging. For example, in computed tomography (CT), a common type of phantom is the "water-equivalent phantom," which contains materials with similar X-ray attenuation properties as water. This allows for consistent measurement of CT dose and image quality. In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), phantoms may contain materials with specific relaxation times or magnetic susceptibilities, enabling assessment of signal-to-noise ratio, spatial resolution, and other imaging parameters.

By using these standardized objects, healthcare professionals can ensure the accuracy, consistency, and reliability of medical images, ultimately contributing to improved patient care and safety.

The 'Limit of Detection' (LOD) is a term used in laboratory medicine and clinical chemistry to describe the lowest concentration or quantity of an analyte (the substance being measured) that can be reliably distinguished from zero or blank value, with a specified level of confidence. It is typically expressed as a concentration or amount and represents the minimum amount of analyte that must be present in a sample for the assay to produce a response that is statistically different from a blank or zero calibrator.

The LOD is an important parameter in analytical method validation, as it helps to define the range of concentrations over which the assay can accurately and precisely measure the analyte. It is determined based on statistical analysis of the data generated during method development and validation, taking into account factors such as the variability of the assay and the signal-to-noise ratio.

It's important to note that LOD should not be confused with the 'Limit of Quantification' (LOQ), which is the lowest concentration or quantity of an analyte that can be measured with acceptable precision and accuracy. LOQ is typically higher than LOD, as it requires a greater level of confidence in the measurement.

Flow Injection Analysis (FIA) is not a medical term, but a technique used in analytical chemistry. However, I can provide you with the definition of this term:

Flow Injection Analysis (FIA) is a method for automated, continuous monitoring and quantitative analysis of chemical substances. It involves the injection of a sample into a flowing carrier stream, which transports it to a detector after mixing and reaction in a flow-through cell or system. The analyte interacts with reagents to produce a signal that can be measured and related to the concentration of the substance being analyzed. FIA is widely used for environmental monitoring, quality control, process control, and clinical analysis.

High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a type of chromatography that separates and analyzes compounds based on their interactions with a stationary phase and a mobile phase under high pressure. The mobile phase, which can be a gas or liquid, carries the sample mixture through a column containing the stationary phase.

In HPLC, the mobile phase is a liquid, and it is pumped through the column at high pressures (up to several hundred atmospheres) to achieve faster separation times and better resolution than other types of liquid chromatography. The stationary phase can be a solid or a liquid supported on a solid, and it interacts differently with each component in the sample mixture, causing them to separate as they travel through the column.

HPLC is widely used in analytical chemistry, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, and other fields to separate, identify, and quantify compounds present in complex mixtures. It can be used to analyze a wide range of substances, including drugs, hormones, vitamins, pigments, flavors, and pollutants. HPLC is also used in the preparation of pure samples for further study or use.

Statistical models are mathematical representations that describe the relationship between variables in a given dataset. They are used to analyze and interpret data in order to make predictions or test hypotheses about a population. In the context of medicine, statistical models can be used for various purposes such as:

1. Disease risk prediction: By analyzing demographic, clinical, and genetic data using statistical models, researchers can identify factors that contribute to an individual's risk of developing certain diseases. This information can then be used to develop personalized prevention strategies or early detection methods.

2. Clinical trial design and analysis: Statistical models are essential tools for designing and analyzing clinical trials. They help determine sample size, allocate participants to treatment groups, and assess the effectiveness and safety of interventions.

3. Epidemiological studies: Researchers use statistical models to investigate the distribution and determinants of health-related events in populations. This includes studying patterns of disease transmission, evaluating public health interventions, and estimating the burden of diseases.

4. Health services research: Statistical models are employed to analyze healthcare utilization, costs, and outcomes. This helps inform decisions about resource allocation, policy development, and quality improvement initiatives.

5. Biostatistics and bioinformatics: In these fields, statistical models are used to analyze large-scale molecular data (e.g., genomics, proteomics) to understand biological processes and identify potential therapeutic targets.

In summary, statistical models in medicine provide a framework for understanding complex relationships between variables and making informed decisions based on data-driven insights.

"Autoanalysis" is not a term that is widely used in the medical field. However, in psychology and psychotherapy, "autoanalysis" refers to the process of self-analysis or self-examination, where an individual analyzes their own thoughts, feelings, behaviors, and experiences to gain insight into their unconscious mind and understand their motivations, conflicts, and emotional patterns.

Self-analysis can involve various techniques such as introspection, journaling, meditation, dream analysis, and reflection on past experiences. While autoanalysis can be a useful tool for personal growth and self-awareness, it is generally considered less reliable and comprehensive than professional psychotherapy or psychoanalysis, which involves a trained therapist or analyst who can provide objective feedback, interpretation, and guidance.

Analytical chemistry techniques are a collection of methods and tools used to identify and quantify the chemical composition of matter. These techniques can be used to analyze the presence and amount of various chemicals in a sample, including ions, molecules, and atoms. Some common analytical chemistry techniques include:

1. Spectroscopy: This technique uses the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and matter to identify and quantify chemical species. There are many different types of spectroscopy, including UV-Vis, infrared (IR), fluorescence, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy.
2. Chromatography: This technique separates the components of a mixture based on their physical or chemical properties, such as size, charge, or polarity. Common types of chromatography include gas chromatography (GC), liquid chromatography (LC), and thin-layer chromatography (TLC).
3. Mass spectrometry: This technique uses the mass-to-charge ratio of ions to identify and quantify chemical species. It can be used in combination with other techniques, such as GC or LC, to provide structural information about unknown compounds.
4. Electrochemical methods: These techniques use the movement of electrons to measure the concentration of chemical species. Examples include potentiometry, voltammetry, and amperometry.
5. Thermal analysis: This technique uses changes in the physical or chemical properties of a sample as it is heated or cooled to identify and quantify chemical species. Examples include differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

These are just a few examples of the many analytical chemistry techniques that are available. Each technique has its own strengths and limitations, and the choice of which to use will depend on the specific needs of the analysis.

A transducer is a device that converts one form of energy into another. In the context of medicine and biology, transducers often refer to devices that convert a physiological parameter (such as blood pressure, temperature, or sound waves) into an electrical signal that can be measured and analyzed. Examples of medical transducers include:

1. Blood pressure transducer: Converts the mechanical force exerted by blood on the walls of an artery into an electrical signal.
2. Temperature transducer: Converts temperature changes into electrical signals.
3. ECG transducer (electrocardiogram): Converts the electrical activity of the heart into a visual representation called an electrocardiogram.
4. Ultrasound transducer: Uses sound waves to create images of internal organs and structures.
5. Piezoelectric transducer: Generates an electric charge when subjected to pressure or vibration, used in various medical devices such as hearing aids, accelerometers, and pressure sensors.

Indicators and reagents are terms commonly used in the field of clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine. Here are their definitions:

1. Indicator: An indicator is a substance that changes its color or other physical properties in response to a chemical change, such as a change in pH, oxidation-reduction potential, or the presence of a particular ion or molecule. Indicators are often used in laboratory tests to monitor or signal the progress of a reaction or to indicate the end point of a titration. A familiar example is the use of phenolphthalein as a pH indicator in acid-base titrations, which turns pink in basic solutions and colorless in acidic solutions.

2. Reagent: A reagent is a substance that is added to a system (such as a sample or a reaction mixture) to bring about a chemical reaction, test for the presence or absence of a particular component, or measure the concentration of a specific analyte. Reagents are typically chemicals with well-defined and consistent properties, allowing them to be used reliably in analytical procedures. Examples of reagents include enzymes, antibodies, dyes, metal ions, and organic compounds. In laboratory settings, reagents are often prepared and standardized according to strict protocols to ensure their quality and performance in diagnostic tests and research applications.

Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a non-invasive optical technique that uses the near-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum (approximately 700-2500 nanometers) to analyze various chemical and physical properties of materials, primarily in the fields of biomedical research and industry. In medicine, NIRS is often used to measure tissue oxygenation, hemodynamics, and metabolism, providing valuable information about organ function and physiology. This technique is based on the principle that different molecules absorb and scatter near-infrared light differently, allowing for the identification and quantification of specific chromophores, such as oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, and cytochrome c oxidase. NIRS can be employed in a variety of clinical settings, including monitoring cerebral or muscle oxygenation during surgery, assessing tissue viability in wound healing, and studying brain function in neuroscience research.

Perceptual distortion is not explicitly defined within the realm of medicine, but it does fall under the broader category of cognitive impairments and abnormalities. It generally refers to the incorrect interpretation or misrepresentation of sensory information by the brain. This can result in various experiences such as hallucinations, illusions, or distorted perceptions of reality. Perceptual distortions are often associated with certain medical conditions like mental disorders (e.g., schizophrenia, bipolar disorder), neurological disorders (e.g., migraines, epilepsy), and substance use disorders.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Weights and Measures" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is a term used in various fields, including science, engineering, and commerce, to refer to systems and standards used to measure weight, length, volume, and other physical quantities.

However, if you're asking about the use of weights and measures in a medical context, it might refer to the standardized units of measurement used to quantify various aspects of health, disease, and treatment. For example:

* Weight: Measured in kilograms (kg) or pounds (lb), this is a measure of a person's mass.
* Height: Measured in meters (m) or feet/inches (ft/in), this is a measure of a person's height.
* Blood pressure: Measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg), this is a measure of the force exerted by blood on the walls of the arteries.
* Temperature: Measured in degrees Celsius (°C) or Fahrenheit (°F), this is a measure of body temperature.
* Laboratory values: Various substances in the body, such as glucose or cholesterol, are measured in standardized units, such as millimoles per liter (mmol/L) or milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL).

These measurements help healthcare professionals assess a person's health status, diagnose medical conditions, and monitor the effects of treatment.

Least-Squares Analysis is not a medical term, but rather a statistical method that is used in various fields including medicine. It is a way to find the best fit line or curve for a set of data points by minimizing the sum of the squared distances between the observed data points and the fitted line or curve. This method is often used in medical research to analyze data, such as fitting a regression line to a set of data points to make predictions or identify trends. The goal is to find the line or curve that most closely represents the pattern of the data, which can help researchers understand relationships between variables and make more informed decisions based on their analysis.

The term "Theoretical Models" is used in various scientific fields, including medicine, to describe a representation of a complex system or phenomenon. It is a simplified framework that explains how different components of the system interact with each other and how they contribute to the overall behavior of the system. Theoretical models are often used in medical research to understand and predict the outcomes of diseases, treatments, or public health interventions.

A theoretical model can take many forms, such as mathematical equations, computer simulations, or conceptual diagrams. It is based on a set of assumptions and hypotheses about the underlying mechanisms that drive the system. By manipulating these variables and observing the effects on the model's output, researchers can test their assumptions and generate new insights into the system's behavior.

Theoretical models are useful for medical research because they allow scientists to explore complex systems in a controlled and systematic way. They can help identify key drivers of disease or treatment outcomes, inform the design of clinical trials, and guide the development of new interventions. However, it is important to recognize that theoretical models are simplifications of reality and may not capture all the nuances and complexities of real-world systems. Therefore, they should be used in conjunction with other forms of evidence, such as experimental data and observational studies, to inform medical decision-making.

A nomogram is a graphical representation of a mathematical formula or equation that allows the user to quickly solve a problem by simply drawing a line between different values on the chart. In the field of medicine, nomograms are often used as a tool for predicting patient outcomes, assessing risk, or making diagnostic decisions based on specific clinical data.

For example, a nomogram may be used to estimate the probability of survival in patients with a particular type of cancer, based on factors such as age, tumor size, and stage of disease. The user would locate the appropriate values for each factor on the nomogram, draw a line connecting them, and read off the estimated probability at the intersection point.

Nomograms can be a useful and intuitive way to communicate complex medical information and help clinicians make informed decisions in a timely manner. However, it is important to note that nomograms are only as accurate as the data they are based on, and should always be used in conjunction with clinical judgment and other relevant factors.

Biosensing techniques refer to the methods and technologies used to detect and measure biological molecules or processes, typically through the use of a physical device or sensor. These techniques often involve the conversion of a biological response into an electrical signal that can be measured and analyzed. Examples of biosensing techniques include electrochemical biosensors, optical biosensors, and piezoelectric biosensors.

Electrochemical biosensors measure the electrical current or potential generated by a biochemical reaction at an electrode surface. This type of biosensor typically consists of a biological recognition element, such as an enzyme or antibody, that is immobilized on the electrode surface and interacts with the target analyte to produce an electrical signal.

Optical biosensors measure changes in light intensity or wavelength that occur when a biochemical reaction takes place. This type of biosensor can be based on various optical principles, such as absorbance, fluorescence, or surface plasmon resonance (SPR).

Piezoelectric biosensors measure changes in mass or frequency that occur when a biomolecule binds to the surface of a piezoelectric crystal. This type of biosensor is based on the principle that piezoelectric materials generate an electrical charge when subjected to mechanical stress, and this charge can be used to detect changes in mass or frequency that are proportional to the amount of biomolecule bound to the surface.

Biosensing techniques have a wide range of applications in fields such as medicine, environmental monitoring, food safety, and biodefense. They can be used to detect and measure a variety of biological molecules, including proteins, nucleic acids, hormones, and small molecules, as well as to monitor biological processes such as cell growth or metabolism.

Radiometry is the measurement of electromagnetic radiation, including visible light. It quantifies the amount and characteristics of radiant energy in terms of power or intensity, wavelength, direction, and polarization. In medical physics, radiometry is often used to measure therapeutic and diagnostic radiation beams used in various imaging techniques and cancer treatments such as X-rays, gamma rays, and ultraviolet or infrared light. Radiometric measurements are essential for ensuring the safe and effective use of these medical technologies.

Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) is a powerful analytical technique that combines the separating power of gas chromatography with the identification capabilities of mass spectrometry. This method is used to separate, identify, and quantify different components in complex mixtures.

In GC-MS, the mixture is first vaporized and carried through a long, narrow column by an inert gas (carrier gas). The various components in the mixture interact differently with the stationary phase inside the column, leading to their separation based on their partition coefficients between the mobile and stationary phases. As each component elutes from the column, it is then introduced into the mass spectrometer for analysis.

The mass spectrometer ionizes the sample, breaks it down into smaller fragments, and measures the mass-to-charge ratio of these fragments. This information is used to generate a mass spectrum, which serves as a unique "fingerprint" for each compound. By comparing the generated mass spectra with reference libraries or known standards, analysts can identify and quantify the components present in the original mixture.

GC-MS has wide applications in various fields such as forensics, environmental analysis, drug testing, and research laboratories due to its high sensitivity, specificity, and ability to analyze volatile and semi-volatile compounds.

Liquid chromatography (LC) is a type of chromatography technique used to separate, identify, and quantify the components in a mixture. In this method, the sample mixture is dissolved in a liquid solvent (the mobile phase) and then passed through a stationary phase, which can be a solid or a liquid that is held in place by a solid support.

The components of the mixture interact differently with the stationary phase and the mobile phase, causing them to separate as they move through the system. The separated components are then detected and measured using various detection techniques, such as ultraviolet (UV) absorbance or mass spectrometry.

Liquid chromatography is widely used in many areas of science and medicine, including drug development, environmental analysis, food safety testing, and clinical diagnostics. It can be used to separate and analyze a wide range of compounds, from small molecules like drugs and metabolites to large biomolecules like proteins and nucleic acids.

An electrode is a medical device that can conduct electrical currents and is used to transmit or receive electrical signals, often in the context of medical procedures or treatments. In a medical setting, electrodes may be used for a variety of purposes, such as:

1. Recording electrical activity in the body: Electrodes can be attached to the skin or inserted into body tissues to measure electrical signals produced by the heart, brain, muscles, or nerves. This information can be used to diagnose medical conditions, monitor the effectiveness of treatments, or guide medical procedures.
2. Stimulating nerve or muscle activity: Electrodes can be used to deliver electrical impulses to nerves or muscles, which can help to restore function or alleviate symptoms in people with certain medical conditions. For example, electrodes may be used to stimulate the nerves that control bladder function in people with spinal cord injuries, or to stimulate muscles in people with muscle weakness or paralysis.
3. Administering treatments: Electrodes can also be used to deliver therapeutic treatments, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) for depression or deep brain stimulation (DBS) for movement disorders like Parkinson's disease. In these procedures, electrodes are implanted in specific areas of the brain and connected to a device that generates electrical impulses, which can help to regulate abnormal brain activity and improve symptoms.

Overall, electrodes play an important role in many medical procedures and treatments, allowing healthcare professionals to diagnose and treat a wide range of conditions that affect the body's electrical systems.

Ambulatory monitoring is a medical practice that involves the continuous or intermittent recording of physiological parameters in a patient who is mobile and able to perform their usual activities while outside of a hospital or clinical setting. This type of monitoring allows healthcare professionals to evaluate a patient's condition over an extended period, typically 24 hours or more, in their natural environment.

Ambulatory monitoring can be used to diagnose and manage various medical conditions such as hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, sleep disorders, and mobility issues. Common methods of ambulatory monitoring include:

1. Holter monitoring: A small, portable device that records the electrical activity of the heart for 24-48 hours or more.
2. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM): A device that measures blood pressure at regular intervals throughout the day and night.
3. Event monitors: Devices that record heart rhythms only when symptoms occur or when activated by the patient.
4. Actigraphy: A non-invasive method of monitoring sleep-wake patterns, physical activity, and circadian rhythms using a wristwatch-like device.
5. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM): A device that measures blood sugar levels continuously throughout the day and night.

Overall, ambulatory monitoring provides valuable information about a patient's physiological status in their natural environment, allowing healthcare professionals to make informed decisions regarding diagnosis, treatment, and management of medical conditions.

Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) is a technique used to identify and quantify specific molecules, such as proteins or metabolites, within complex mixtures. This method uses two or more sequential mass analyzers to first separate ions based on their mass-to-charge ratio and then further fragment the selected ions into smaller pieces for additional analysis. The fragmentation patterns generated in MS/MS experiments can be used to determine the structure and identity of the original molecule, making it a powerful tool in various fields such as proteomics, metabolomics, and forensic science.

An immunoassay is a biochemical test that measures the presence or concentration of a specific protein, antibody, or antigen in a sample using the principles of antibody-antigen reactions. It is commonly used in clinical laboratories to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions such as infections, hormonal disorders, allergies, and cancer.

Immunoassays typically involve the use of labeled reagents, such as enzymes, radioisotopes, or fluorescent dyes, that bind specifically to the target molecule. The amount of label detected is proportional to the concentration of the target molecule in the sample, allowing for quantitative analysis.

There are several types of immunoassays, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), radioimmunoassay (RIA), fluorescence immunoassay (FIA), and chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA). Each type has its own advantages and limitations, depending on the sensitivity, specificity, and throughput required for a particular application.

"Optical processes" is not a specific medical term, but rather a general term that refers to various phenomena and techniques involving the use of light in physics and engineering, which can have applications in medicine. Here are some examples of optical processes that may be relevant to medical fields:

1. Optical imaging: This refers to the use of light to create images of structures within the body. Examples include endoscopy, microscopy, and ophthalmoscopy.
2. Optical spectroscopy: This involves analyzing the interaction between light and matter to identify the chemical composition or physical properties of a sample. It can be used in medical diagnostics to detect abnormalities in tissues or fluids.
3. Laser therapy: Lasers are highly concentrated beams of light that can be used for a variety of medical applications, including surgery, pain relief, and skin treatments.
4. Optogenetics: This is a technique that involves using light to control the activity of specific cells in living organisms. It has potential applications in neuroscience and other fields of medicine.
5. Photodynamic therapy: This is a treatment that uses light to activate a photosensitizing agent, which then produces a chemical reaction that can destroy abnormal cells or tissues.

Overall, optical processes are an important part of many medical technologies and techniques, enabling doctors and researchers to diagnose and treat diseases with greater precision and effectiveness.

Mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (ESI-MS) is an analytical technique used to identify and quantify chemical species in a sample based on the mass-to-charge ratio of charged particles. In ESI-MS, analytes are ionized through the use of an electrospray, where a liquid sample is introduced through a metal capillary needle at high voltage, creating an aerosol of charged droplets. As the solvent evaporates, the analyte molecules become charged and can be directed into a mass spectrometer for analysis.

ESI-MS is particularly useful for the analysis of large biomolecules such as proteins, peptides, and nucleic acids, due to its ability to gently ionize these species without fragmentation. The technique provides information about the molecular weight and charge state of the analytes, which can be used to infer their identity and structure. Additionally, ESI-MS can be interfaced with separation techniques such as liquid chromatography (LC) for further purification and characterization of complex samples.

An artifact, in the context of medical terminology, refers to something that is created or introduced during a scientific procedure or examination that does not naturally occur in the patient or specimen being studied. Artifacts can take many forms and can be caused by various factors, including contamination, damage, degradation, or interference from equipment or external sources.

In medical imaging, for example, an artifact might appear as a distortion or anomaly on an X-ray, MRI, or CT scan that is not actually present in the patient's body. This can be caused by factors such as patient movement during the scan, metal implants or other foreign objects in the body, or issues with the imaging equipment itself.

Similarly, in laboratory testing, an artifact might refer to a substance or characteristic that is introduced into a sample during collection, storage, or analysis that can interfere with accurate results. This could include things like contamination from other samples, degradation of the sample over time, or interference from chemicals used in the testing process.

In general, artifacts are considered to be sources of error or uncertainty in medical research and diagnosis, and it is important to identify and account for them in order to ensure accurate and reliable results.

A Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve is a graphical representation used in medical decision-making and statistical analysis to illustrate the performance of a binary classifier system, such as a diagnostic test or a machine learning algorithm. It's a plot that shows the tradeoff between the true positive rate (sensitivity) and the false positive rate (1 - specificity) for different threshold settings.

The x-axis of an ROC curve represents the false positive rate (the proportion of negative cases incorrectly classified as positive), while the y-axis represents the true positive rate (the proportion of positive cases correctly classified as positive). Each point on the curve corresponds to a specific decision threshold, with higher points indicating better performance.

The area under the ROC curve (AUC) is a commonly used summary measure that reflects the overall performance of the classifier. An AUC value of 1 indicates perfect discrimination between positive and negative cases, while an AUC value of 0.5 suggests that the classifier performs no better than chance.

ROC curves are widely used in healthcare to evaluate diagnostic tests, predictive models, and screening tools for various medical conditions, helping clinicians make informed decisions about patient care based on the balance between sensitivity and specificity.

Freeze-drying, also known as lyophilization, is a method of preservation that involves the removal of water from a frozen product by sublimation, which is the direct transition of a solid to a gas. This process allows for the preservation of the original shape and structure of the material while significantly extending its shelf life. In medical contexts, freeze-drying can be used for various purposes, including the long-term storage of pharmaceuticals, vaccines, and diagnostic samples. The process helps maintain the efficacy and integrity of these materials until they are ready to be reconstituted with water and used.

Prothrombin time (PT) is a medical laboratory test that measures the time it takes for blood to clot. It's often used to evaluate the functioning of the extrinsic and common pathways of the coagulation system, which is responsible for blood clotting. Specifically, PT measures how long it takes for prothrombin (a protein produced by the liver) to be converted into thrombin, an enzyme that converts fibrinogen into fibrin and helps form a clot.

Prolonged PT may indicate a bleeding disorder or a deficiency in coagulation factors, such as vitamin K deficiency or the use of anticoagulant medications like warfarin. It's important to note that PT is often reported with an international normalized ratio (INR), which allows for standardization and comparison of results across different laboratories and reagent types.

Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet (UV-Vis) is a type of spectrophotometry that measures how much ultraviolet (UV) and visible light is absorbed or transmitted by a sample. It uses a device called a spectrophotometer to measure the intensity of light at different wavelengths as it passes through a sample. The resulting data can be used to determine the concentration of specific components within the sample, identify unknown substances, or evaluate the physical and chemical properties of materials.

UV-Vis spectroscopy is widely used in various fields such as chemistry, biology, pharmaceuticals, and environmental science. It can detect a wide range of substances including organic compounds, metal ions, proteins, nucleic acids, and dyes. The technique is non-destructive, meaning that the sample remains unchanged after the measurement.

In UV-Vis spectroscopy, the sample is placed in a cuvette or other container, and light from a source is directed through it. The light then passes through a monochromator, which separates it into its component wavelengths. The monochromatic light is then directed through the sample, and the intensity of the transmitted or absorbed light is measured by a detector.

The resulting absorption spectrum can provide information about the concentration and identity of the components in the sample. For example, if a compound has a known absorption maximum at a specific wavelength, its concentration can be determined by measuring the absorbance at that wavelength and comparing it to a standard curve.

Overall, UV-Vis spectrophotometry is a versatile and powerful analytical technique for quantitative and qualitative analysis of various samples in different fields.

Secobarbital is a barbiturate medication that is primarily used for the treatment of short-term insomnia and as a preoperative sedative. It works by depressing the central nervous system, producing a calming effect and helping to induce sleep. Secobarbital has a rapid onset of action and a relatively short duration of effect.

It is available in various forms, including capsules and injectable solutions, and is typically prescribed for use on an as-needed basis rather than as a regular medication. Secobarbital can be habit-forming and carries a risk of dependence and withdrawal, so it should only be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

It's important to note that Secobarbital is not commonly prescribed in modern medical practice due to its high potential for abuse and the availability of safer and more effective sleep aids.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Linear Models" is actually a term from the field of statistics and machine learning, rather than medicine. A linear model is a type of statistical model that is used to analyze the relationship between two or more variables. In a linear model, the relationship between the dependent variable (the outcome or result) and the independent variable(s) (the factors being studied) is assumed to be linear, meaning that it can be described by a straight line on a graph.

The equation for a simple linear model with one independent variable (x) and one dependent variable (y) looks like this:

y = β0 + β1*x + ε

In this equation, β0 is the y-intercept or the value of y when x equals zero, β1 is the slope or the change in y for each unit increase in x, and ε is the error term or the difference between the actual values of y and the predicted values of y based on the linear model.

Linear models are widely used in medical research to study the relationship between various factors (such as exposure to a risk factor or treatment) and health outcomes (such as disease incidence or mortality). They can also be used to adjust for confounding variables, which are factors that may influence both the independent variable and the dependent variable, and thus affect the observed relationship between them.

Radiographic image enhancement refers to the process of improving the quality and clarity of radiographic images, such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI images, through various digital techniques. These techniques may include adjusting contrast, brightness, and sharpness, as well as removing noise and artifacts that can interfere with image interpretation.

The goal of radiographic image enhancement is to provide medical professionals with clearer and more detailed images, which can help in the diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions. This process may be performed using specialized software or hardware tools, and it requires a strong understanding of imaging techniques and the specific needs of medical professionals.

Bayes' theorem, also known as Bayes' rule or Bayes' formula, is a fundamental principle in the field of statistics and probability theory. It describes how to update the probability of a hypothesis based on new evidence or data. The theorem is named after Reverend Thomas Bayes, who first formulated it in the 18th century.

In mathematical terms, Bayes' theorem states that the posterior probability of a hypothesis (H) given some observed evidence (E) is proportional to the product of the prior probability of the hypothesis (P(H)) and the likelihood of observing the evidence given the hypothesis (P(E|H)):

Posterior Probability = P(H|E) = [P(E|H) x P(H)] / P(E)

Where:

* P(H|E): The posterior probability of the hypothesis H after observing evidence E. This is the probability we want to calculate.
* P(E|H): The likelihood of observing evidence E given that the hypothesis H is true.
* P(H): The prior probability of the hypothesis H before observing any evidence.
* P(E): The marginal likelihood or probability of observing evidence E, regardless of whether the hypothesis H is true or not. This value can be calculated as the sum of the products of the likelihood and prior probability for all possible hypotheses: P(E) = Σ[P(E|Hi) x P(Hi)]

Bayes' theorem has many applications in various fields, including medicine, where it can be used to update the probability of a disease diagnosis based on test results or other clinical findings. It is also widely used in machine learning and artificial intelligence algorithms for probabilistic reasoning and decision making under uncertainty.

Solid-phase extraction (SPE) is a method used in analytical chemistry and biochemistry to extract, separate, or clean up specific components from a complex matrix, such as a biological sample. It involves the use of a solid phase, typically a packed bed of sorbent material, held within a cartridge or column. The sample mixture is passed through the column, and the components of interest are selectively retained by the sorbent while other components pass through.

The analytes can then be eluted from the sorbent using a small volume of a suitable solvent, resulting in a more concentrated and purified fraction that can be analyzed using various techniques such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography (GC), or mass spectrometry.

The solid phase used in SPE can vary depending on the nature of the analytes and the matrix, with different sorbents offering varying degrees of selectivity and capacity for specific compounds. Commonly used sorbents include silica-based materials, polymeric resins, and ion exchange materials.

Overall, solid-phase extraction is a powerful tool in sample preparation, allowing for the isolation and concentration of target analytes from complex matrices, thereby improving the sensitivity and selectivity of downstream analytical techniques.

Medical Definition of Optical Fibers:

Optical fibers are thin, transparent strands of glass or plastic fiber that are designed to transmit light along their length. In the medical field, optical fibers are used in various applications such as illumination, imaging, and data transmission. For instance, they are used in flexible endoscopes to provide illumination and visualization inside the body during diagnostic or surgical procedures. They are also used in optical communication systems for transmitting information in the form of light signals within medical devices or between medical facilities. The use of optical fibers allows for minimally invasive procedures, improved image quality, and increased data transmission rates.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Germanium" is not a medical term. It is a chemical element with the symbol Ge and atomic number 32. Germanium is a lustrous, hard, grayish-white metalloid in the carbon group, chemically similar to its neighbor silicon.

It's primarily used in the electronics industry for semiconductors and fiber optic systems due to its properties as a semiconductor. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, I'd be happy to help with those!

A computer simulation is a process that involves creating a model of a real-world system or phenomenon on a computer and then using that model to run experiments and make predictions about how the system will behave under different conditions. In the medical field, computer simulations are used for a variety of purposes, including:

1. Training and education: Computer simulations can be used to create realistic virtual environments where medical students and professionals can practice their skills and learn new procedures without risk to actual patients. For example, surgeons may use simulation software to practice complex surgical techniques before performing them on real patients.
2. Research and development: Computer simulations can help medical researchers study the behavior of biological systems at a level of detail that would be difficult or impossible to achieve through experimental methods alone. By creating detailed models of cells, tissues, organs, or even entire organisms, researchers can use simulation software to explore how these systems function and how they respond to different stimuli.
3. Drug discovery and development: Computer simulations are an essential tool in modern drug discovery and development. By modeling the behavior of drugs at a molecular level, researchers can predict how they will interact with their targets in the body and identify potential side effects or toxicities. This information can help guide the design of new drugs and reduce the need for expensive and time-consuming clinical trials.
4. Personalized medicine: Computer simulations can be used to create personalized models of individual patients based on their unique genetic, physiological, and environmental characteristics. These models can then be used to predict how a patient will respond to different treatments and identify the most effective therapy for their specific condition.

Overall, computer simulations are a powerful tool in modern medicine, enabling researchers and clinicians to study complex systems and make predictions about how they will behave under a wide range of conditions. By providing insights into the behavior of biological systems at a level of detail that would be difficult or impossible to achieve through experimental methods alone, computer simulations are helping to advance our understanding of human health and disease.

The ear canal, also known as the external auditory canal, is the tubular passage that extends from the outer ear (pinna) to the eardrum (tympanic membrane). It is lined with skin and tiny hairs, and is responsible for conducting sound waves from the outside environment to the middle and inner ear. The ear canal is typically about 2.5 cm long in adults and has a self-cleaning mechanism that helps to keep it free of debris and wax.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Film dosimetry is a method used in radiation therapy to measure the distribution and amount of radiation absorbed by a material or tissue. This is achieved through the use of special photographic films that undergo physical and chemical changes when exposed to ionizing radiation. The changes in the film's optical density, which can be quantified using a densitometer or a film scanner, are directly proportional to the absorbed dose.

The films used in film dosimetry have a sensitive layer composed of silver halide crystals suspended in a gelatin matrix. When exposed to radiation, these crystals undergo a process called "fogging," where some of the silver ions are reduced to silver atoms, creating microscopic specks of metallic silver that scatter light and cause the film to darken. By comparing the optical density of an irradiated film to that of a calibration curve, which relates optical density to absorbed dose for a specific film type and energy, the absorbed dose can be accurately determined.

Film dosimetry has several advantages, including its high spatial resolution, wide dynamic range, and ability to provide 2D or even 3D dose distributions. However, it also has some limitations, such as its energy dependence, non-negligible inherent noise, and the need for careful handling and processing. Despite these challenges, film dosimetry remains a valuable tool in radiation therapy for applications like quality assurance, treatment planning, and dosimeter calibration.

Nephelometry and turbidimetry are methods used in clinical laboratories to measure the amount of particles, such as proteins or cells, present in a liquid sample. The main difference between these two techniques lies in how they detect and quantify the particles.

1. Nephelometry: This is a laboratory method that measures the amount of light scattered by suspended particles in a liquid medium at a 90-degree angle to the path of the incident light. When light passes through a sample containing particles, some of the light is absorbed, while some is scattered in various directions. In nephelometry, a light beam is shone into the sample, and a detector measures the intensity of the scattered light at a right angle to the light source. The more particles present in the sample, the higher the intensity of scattered light, which correlates with the concentration of particles in the sample. Nephelometry is often used to measure the levels of immunoglobulins, complement components, and other proteins in serum or plasma.

2. Turbidimetry: This is another laboratory method that measures the amount of light blocked or absorbed by suspended particles in a liquid medium. In turbidimetry, a light beam is shone through the sample, and the intensity of the transmitted light is measured. The more particles present in the sample, the more light is absorbed or scattered, resulting in lower transmitted light intensity. Turbidimetric measurements are typically reported as percent transmittance, which is the ratio of the intensity of transmitted light to that of the incident light expressed as a percentage. Turbidimetry can be used to measure various substances, such as proteins, cells, and crystals, in body fluids like urine, serum, or plasma.

In summary, nephelometry measures the amount of scattered light at a 90-degree angle, while turbidimetry quantifies the reduction in transmitted light intensity due to particle presence. Both methods are useful for determining the concentration of particles in liquid samples and are commonly used in clinical laboratories for diagnostic purposes.

Radioactivity is not typically considered within the realm of medical definitions, but since it does have medical applications and implications, here is a brief explanation:

Radioactivity is a natural property of certain elements (referred to as radioisotopes) that emit particles or electromagnetic waves due to changes in their atomic nuclei. This process can occur spontaneously without any external influence, leading to the emission of alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, or neutrons. These emissions can penetrate various materials and ionize atoms along their path, which can cause damage to living tissues.

In a medical context, radioactivity is used in both diagnostic and therapeutic settings:

1. Diagnostic applications include imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) scans and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), where radioisotopes are introduced into the body to visualize organ function or detect diseases like cancer.
2. Therapeutic uses involve targeting radioisotopes directly at cancer cells, either through external beam radiation therapy or internal radiotherapy, such as brachytherapy, where a radioactive source is placed near or within the tumor.

While radioactivity has significant medical benefits, it also poses risks due to ionizing radiation exposure. Proper handling and safety measures are essential when working with radioactive materials to minimize potential harm.

Pharmaceutical preparations refer to the various forms of medicines that are produced by pharmaceutical companies, which are intended for therapeutic or prophylactic use. These preparations consist of an active ingredient (the drug) combined with excipients (inactive ingredients) in a specific formulation and dosage form.

The active ingredient is the substance that has a therapeutic effect on the body, while the excipients are added to improve the stability, palatability, bioavailability, or administration of the drug. Examples of pharmaceutical preparations include tablets, capsules, solutions, suspensions, emulsions, ointments, creams, and injections.

The production of pharmaceutical preparations involves a series of steps that ensure the quality, safety, and efficacy of the final product. These steps include the selection and testing of raw materials, formulation development, manufacturing, packaging, labeling, and storage. Each step is governed by strict regulations and guidelines to ensure that the final product meets the required standards for use in medical practice.

Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique used to identify and quantify the chemical components of a mixture or compound. It works by ionizing the sample, generating charged molecules or fragments, and then measuring their mass-to-charge ratio in a vacuum. The resulting mass spectrum provides information about the molecular weight and structure of the analytes, allowing for identification and characterization.

In simpler terms, mass spectrometry is a method used to determine what chemicals are present in a sample and in what quantities, by converting the chemicals into ions, measuring their masses, and generating a spectrum that shows the relative abundances of each ion type.

Drug stability refers to the ability of a pharmaceutical drug product to maintain its physical, chemical, and biological properties during storage and use, under specified conditions. A stable drug product retains its desired quality, purity, strength, and performance throughout its shelf life. Factors that can affect drug stability include temperature, humidity, light exposure, and container compatibility. Maintaining drug stability is crucial to ensure the safety and efficacy of medications for patients.

In the context of medicine and physiology, acceleration refers to the process of increasing or quickening a function or process. For example, heart rate acceleration is an increase in the speed at which the heart beats. It can also refer to the rate at which something increases, such as the acceleration of muscle strength during rehabilitation. In physics terms, acceleration refers to the rate at which an object changes its velocity, but this definition is not typically used in a medical context.

In the context of medicine, uncertainty refers to a state of having limited knowledge or awareness about a specific medical condition, diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, or outcome in a patient. It is a common experience for healthcare professionals when making decisions due to the complexity and variability of human health and disease processes. Uncertainty can arise from various sources, such as:

1. Incomplete or ambiguous information about the patient's medical history, symptoms, examination findings, or diagnostic test results.
2. Limited scientific evidence supporting specific diagnostic or therapeutic approaches.
3. Discrepancies between different sources of information or conflicting expert opinions.
4. Variability in patients' responses to treatments and their individual preferences and values.
5. Rapidly evolving medical knowledge and technology, which can make it challenging for healthcare professionals to stay up-to-date.

Uncertainty is an inherent aspect of medical practice, and managing it effectively is crucial for providing high-quality patient care. Healthcare professionals need to communicate uncertainty openly with their patients, involve them in shared decision-making processes, and seek additional information or consultation when necessary. Embracing uncertainty can also foster curiosity, learning, and innovation in the medical field.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Microchemistry" is not a commonly used term in medicine. It is, however, a branch of chemistry that deals with the separation, identification, and analysis of chemical substances in minute quantities. This field can be applied in various scientific disciplines, including forensic science, environmental science, and materials science.

In the medical field, you might encounter similar concepts under terms like "microanalysis" or "clinical chemistry," which refer to the identification and measurement of chemical components in body fluids (like blood or urine) for diagnostic purposes. But again, "Microchemistry" is not a standard term used in this context.

I couldn't find a medical definition specific to "data display," but I can provide some information related to the visual representation of medical data.

In healthcare and research, data displays are graphical representations of data designed to facilitate understanding, communication, and interpretation of complex information. These visualizations can include various types of charts, graphs, tables, and infographics that present medical data in a more accessible and easily digestible format. Examples of data displays in a medical context may include:

1. Line graphs: Used to show trends over time, such as changes in a patient's vital signs or the progression of a disease.
2. Bar charts: Employed to compare categorical data, like the frequency of different symptoms across various patient groups.
3. Pie charts: Utilized to illustrate proportions or percentages of different categories within a whole, such as the distribution of causes of death in a population.
4. Scatter plots: Applied to display relationships between two continuous variables, like the correlation between age and blood pressure.
5. Heat maps: Used to represent density or intensity of data points across a two-dimensional space, often used for geographical data or large datasets with spatial components.
6. Forest plots: Commonly employed in systematic reviews and meta-analyses to display the effect sizes and confidence intervals of individual studies and overall estimates.
7. Flow diagrams: Used to illustrate diagnostic algorithms, treatment pathways, or patient flow through a healthcare system.
8. Icon arrays: Employed to represent risks or probabilities visually, often used in informed consent processes or shared decision-making tools.

These visual representations of medical data can aid in clinical decision-making, research, education, and communication between healthcare professionals, patients, and policymakers.

A thermometer is a device used to measure temperature. In the medical field, thermometers are commonly used to take the body temperature of patients to assess their health status. There are several types of medical thermometers available, including:

1. Digital thermometers: These are electronic devices that provide a digital readout of the temperature. They can be used orally, rectally, or under the arm (axillary).
2. Temporal artery thermometers: These thermometers use infrared technology to measure the temperature of the temporal artery in the forehead.
3. Infrared ear thermometers: These thermometers measure the temperature of the eardrum using infrared technology.
4. Pacifier thermometers: These are designed for infants and young children, and measure their temperature through the pacifier.
5. Forehead strip thermometers: These are adhesive strips that stick to the forehead and provide a temperature reading.

Medical thermometers should be properly cleaned and disinfected between uses to prevent the spread of infection. It is important to follow the manufacturer's instructions for use and storage to ensure accurate readings.

Regression analysis is a statistical technique used in medicine, as well as in other fields, to examine the relationship between one or more independent variables (predictors) and a dependent variable (outcome). It allows for the estimation of the average change in the outcome variable associated with a one-unit change in an independent variable, while controlling for the effects of other independent variables. This technique is often used to identify risk factors for diseases or to evaluate the effectiveness of medical interventions. In medical research, regression analysis can be used to adjust for potential confounding variables and to quantify the relationship between exposures and health outcomes. It can also be used in predictive modeling to estimate the probability of a particular outcome based on multiple predictors.

Computer-assisted image processing is a medical term that refers to the use of computer systems and specialized software to improve, analyze, and interpret medical images obtained through various imaging techniques such as X-ray, CT (computed tomography), MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), ultrasound, and others.

The process typically involves several steps, including image acquisition, enhancement, segmentation, restoration, and analysis. Image processing algorithms can be used to enhance the quality of medical images by adjusting contrast, brightness, and sharpness, as well as removing noise and artifacts that may interfere with accurate diagnosis. Segmentation techniques can be used to isolate specific regions or structures of interest within an image, allowing for more detailed analysis.

Computer-assisted image processing has numerous applications in medical imaging, including detection and characterization of lesions, tumors, and other abnormalities; assessment of organ function and morphology; and guidance of interventional procedures such as biopsies and surgeries. By automating and standardizing image analysis tasks, computer-assisted image processing can help to improve diagnostic accuracy, efficiency, and consistency, while reducing the potential for human error.

Statistical data interpretation involves analyzing and interpreting numerical data in order to identify trends, patterns, and relationships. This process often involves the use of statistical methods and tools to organize, summarize, and draw conclusions from the data. The goal is to extract meaningful insights that can inform decision-making, hypothesis testing, or further research.

In medical contexts, statistical data interpretation is used to analyze and make sense of large sets of clinical data, such as patient outcomes, treatment effectiveness, or disease prevalence. This information can help healthcare professionals and researchers better understand the relationships between various factors that impact health outcomes, develop more effective treatments, and identify areas for further study.

Some common statistical methods used in data interpretation include descriptive statistics (e.g., mean, median, mode), inferential statistics (e.g., hypothesis testing, confidence intervals), and regression analysis (e.g., linear, logistic). These methods can help medical professionals identify patterns and trends in the data, assess the significance of their findings, and make evidence-based recommendations for patient care or public health policy.

Fluorescent dyes are substances that emit light upon excitation by absorbing light of a shorter wavelength. In a medical context, these dyes are often used in various diagnostic tests and procedures to highlight or mark certain structures or substances within the body. For example, fluorescent dyes may be used in imaging techniques such as fluorescence microscopy or fluorescence angiography to help visualize cells, tissues, or blood vessels. These dyes can also be used in flow cytometry to identify and sort specific types of cells. The choice of fluorescent dye depends on the specific application and the desired properties, such as excitation and emission spectra, quantum yield, and photostability.

Reference values, also known as reference ranges or reference intervals, are the set of values that are considered normal or typical for a particular population or group of people. These values are often used in laboratory tests to help interpret test results and determine whether a patient's value falls within the expected range.

The process of establishing reference values typically involves measuring a particular biomarker or parameter in a large, healthy population and then calculating the mean and standard deviation of the measurements. Based on these statistics, a range is established that includes a certain percentage of the population (often 95%) and excludes extreme outliers.

It's important to note that reference values can vary depending on factors such as age, sex, race, and other demographic characteristics. Therefore, it's essential to use reference values that are specific to the relevant population when interpreting laboratory test results. Additionally, reference values may change over time due to advances in measurement technology or changes in the population being studied.

Clinical chemistry tests are a type of laboratory test that measure the levels of various chemicals or substances in the body. These tests can be used to help diagnose and monitor a wide range of medical conditions, including diabetes, liver disease, heart disease, and kidney disease. Some common clinical chemistry tests include:

1. Blood glucose test: Measures the level of glucose (sugar) in the blood. This test is commonly used to diagnose and monitor diabetes.
2. Electrolyte panel: Measures the levels of important electrolytes such as sodium, potassium, chloride, and bicarbonate in the blood. Imbalances in these electrolytes can indicate a variety of medical conditions.
3. Liver function tests (LFTs): Measure the levels of various enzymes and proteins produced by the liver. Abnormal results can indicate liver damage or disease.
4. Kidney function tests: Measure the levels of various substances such as creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) in the blood. Elevated levels of these substances can indicate kidney dysfunction or disease.
5. Lipid panel: Measures the levels of different types of cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood. Abnormal results can indicate an increased risk of heart disease.
6. Thyroid function tests: Measure the levels of hormones produced by the thyroid gland. Abnormal results can indicate thyroid dysfunction or disease.

Clinical chemistry tests are usually performed on a sample of blood, urine, or other bodily fluid. The results of these tests can provide important information to help doctors diagnose and manage medical conditions.

Blood chemical analysis, also known as clinical chemistry or chemistry panel, is a series of tests that measure the levels of various chemicals in the blood. These tests can help evaluate the function of organs such as the kidneys and liver, and can also detect conditions such as diabetes and heart disease.

The tests typically include:

* Glucose: to check for diabetes
* Electrolytes (such as sodium, potassium, chloride, and bicarbonate): to check the body's fluid and electrolyte balance
* Calcium: to check for problems with bones, nerves, or kidneys
* Creatinine: to check for kidney function
* Urea Nitrogen (BUN): to check for kidney function
* Albumin: to check for liver function and nutrition status
* ALT (Alanine Transaminase) and AST (Aspartate Transaminase): to check for liver function
* Alkaline Phosphatase: to check for liver or bone disease
* Total Bilirubin: to check for liver function and gallbladder function
* Cholesterol: to check for heart disease risk
* Triglycerides: to check for heart disease risk

These tests are usually ordered by a doctor as part of a routine check-up, or to help diagnose and monitor specific medical conditions. The results of the blood chemical analysis are compared to reference ranges provided by the laboratory performing the test, which take into account factors such as age, sex, and race.

Fiducial markers, also known as fiducials, are small markers that are often used in medical imaging to help identify and target specific locations within the body. These markers can be made of various materials, such as metal or plastic, and are typically placed at or near the site of interest through a minimally invasive procedure.

In radiation therapy, fiducial markers are often used to help ensure that the treatment is accurately targeted to the correct location. The markers can be seen on imaging scans, such as X-rays or CT scans, and can be used to align the treatment beam with the target area. This helps to improve the precision of the radiation therapy and reduce the risk of harm to surrounding healthy tissue.

Fiducial markers may also be used in other medical procedures, such as image-guided surgery or interventional radiology, to help guide the placement of instruments or devices within the body.

Clinical chemistry is a branch of medical laboratory science that deals with the chemical analysis of biological specimens such as blood, urine, and tissue samples to provide information about the health status of a patient. It involves the use of various analytical techniques and instruments to measure different chemicals, enzymes, hormones, and other substances in the body. The results of these tests help healthcare professionals diagnose and monitor diseases, evaluate therapy effectiveness, and make informed decisions about patient care. Clinical chemists work closely with physicians, nurses, and other healthcare providers to ensure accurate and timely test results, which are crucial for proper medical diagnosis and treatment.

X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanner is a medical imaging device that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sections can then be manipulated, through either additional computer processing or interactive viewing, to show various bodily structures and functions in 2D or 3D.

In contrast to conventional X-ray imaging, CT scanning provides detailed images of many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT is often used when rapid, detailed images are needed such as in trauma situations or for the detection and diagnosis of stroke, cancer, appendicitis, pulmonary embolism, and musculoskeletal disorders.

CT scanning is associated with some risks, particularly from exposure to ionizing radiation, which can lead to cancer and other diseases. However, the benefits of CT scanning, in particular its ability to detect life-threatening conditions early and accurately, generally outweigh the risks. As a result, it has become an important tool in modern medicine.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Optics and Photonics" is a broad field that encompasses various scientific and engineering disciplines. It doesn't have a specific medical definition, as it's not a term typically used in a medical context.

However, I can provide a general definition:

Optics is the study of light and its interactions with matter. This includes how light is produced, controlled, transmitted, and detected. It involves phenomena such as reflection, refraction, diffraction, and interference.

Photonics, on the other hand, is a branch of optics that deals with the generation, detection, and manipulation of individual photons, the basic units of light. Photonics is often applied to technologies such as lasers, fiber optics, and optical communications.

In a medical context, these fields might be used in various diagnostic and therapeutic applications, such as endoscopes, ophthalmic devices, laser surgery, and imaging technologies like MRI and CT scans. But the terms "Optics" and "Photonics" themselves are not medical conditions or treatments.

Photogrammetry is not typically considered a medical term, but rather it is a technique used in various fields including engineering, architecture, and geology. However, it has found some applications in the medical field, particularly in orthopedics and wound care. Here's a definition that covers its general use as well as its medical applications:

Photogrammetry is the science of making measurements from photographs, especially for recovering the exact positions of surface points on an object. It involves the use of photography to accurately measure and map three-dimensional objects or environments. In the medical field, photogrammetry can be used to create 3D models of body parts (such as bones or wounds) by capturing multiple images from different angles and then processing them using specialized software. These 3D models can help healthcare professionals plan treatments, monitor progress, and assess outcomes in a more precise manner.

Electrochemistry is a branch of chemistry that deals with the interconversion of electrical energy and chemical energy. It involves the study of chemical processes that cause electrons to move, resulting in the transfer of electrical charge, and the reverse processes by which electrical energy can be used to drive chemical reactions. This field encompasses various phenomena such as the generation of electricity from chemical sources (as in batteries), the electrolysis of substances, and corrosion. Electrochemical reactions are fundamental to many technologies, including energy storage and conversion, environmental protection, and medical diagnostics.

Risk assessment in the medical context refers to the process of identifying, evaluating, and prioritizing risks to patients, healthcare workers, or the community related to healthcare delivery. It involves determining the likelihood and potential impact of adverse events or hazards, such as infectious diseases, medication errors, or medical devices failures, and implementing measures to mitigate or manage those risks. The goal of risk assessment is to promote safe and high-quality care by identifying areas for improvement and taking action to minimize harm.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

Infrared rays are not typically considered in the context of medical definitions. They are a type of electromagnetic radiation with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, ranging from 700 nanometers to 1 millimeter. In the field of medicine, infrared radiation is sometimes used in therapeutic settings for its heat properties, such as in infrared saunas or infrared therapy devices. However, infrared rays themselves are not a medical condition or diagnosis.

Acoustics is a branch of physics that deals with the study of sound, its production, transmission, and effects. In a medical context, acoustics may refer to the use of sound waves in medical procedures such as:

1. Diagnostic ultrasound: This technique uses high-frequency sound waves to create images of internal organs and tissues. It is commonly used during pregnancy to monitor fetal development, but it can also be used to diagnose a variety of medical conditions, including heart disease, cancer, and musculoskeletal injuries.
2. Therapeutic ultrasound: This technique uses low-frequency sound waves to promote healing and reduce pain and inflammation in muscles, tendons, and ligaments. It is often used to treat soft tissue injuries, arthritis, and other musculoskeletal conditions.
3. Otology: Acoustics also plays a crucial role in the field of otology, which deals with the study and treatment of hearing and balance disorders. The shape, size, and movement of the outer ear, middle ear, and inner ear all affect how sound waves are transmitted and perceived. Abnormalities in any of these structures can lead to hearing loss, tinnitus, or balance problems.

In summary, acoustics is an important field of study in medicine that has applications in diagnosis, therapy, and the understanding of various medical conditions related to sound and hearing.

In the context of medical terminology, tablets refer to pharmaceutical dosage forms that contain various active ingredients. They are often manufactured in a solid, compressed form and can be administered orally. Tablets may come in different shapes, sizes, colors, and flavors, depending on their intended use and the manufacturer's specifications.

Some tablets are designed to disintegrate or dissolve quickly in the mouth, making them easier to swallow, while others are formulated to release their active ingredients slowly over time, allowing for extended drug delivery. These types of tablets are known as sustained-release or controlled-release tablets.

Tablets may contain a single active ingredient or a combination of several ingredients, depending on the intended therapeutic effect. They are typically manufactured using a variety of excipients, such as binders, fillers, and disintegrants, which help to hold the tablet together and ensure that it breaks down properly when ingested.

Overall, tablets are a convenient and widely used dosage form for administering medications, offering patients an easy-to-use and often palatable option for receiving their prescribed treatments.

Biological models, also known as physiological models or organismal models, are simplified representations of biological systems, processes, or mechanisms that are used to understand and explain the underlying principles and relationships. These models can be theoretical (conceptual or mathematical) or physical (such as anatomical models, cell cultures, or animal models). They are widely used in biomedical research to study various phenomena, including disease pathophysiology, drug action, and therapeutic interventions.

Examples of biological models include:

1. Mathematical models: These use mathematical equations and formulas to describe complex biological systems or processes, such as population dynamics, metabolic pathways, or gene regulation networks. They can help predict the behavior of these systems under different conditions and test hypotheses about their underlying mechanisms.
2. Cell cultures: These are collections of cells grown in a controlled environment, typically in a laboratory dish or flask. They can be used to study cellular processes, such as signal transduction, gene expression, or metabolism, and to test the effects of drugs or other treatments on these processes.
3. Animal models: These are living organisms, usually vertebrates like mice, rats, or non-human primates, that are used to study various aspects of human biology and disease. They can provide valuable insights into the pathophysiology of diseases, the mechanisms of drug action, and the safety and efficacy of new therapies.
4. Anatomical models: These are physical representations of biological structures or systems, such as plastic models of organs or tissues, that can be used for educational purposes or to plan surgical procedures. They can also serve as a basis for developing more sophisticated models, such as computer simulations or 3D-printed replicas.

Overall, biological models play a crucial role in advancing our understanding of biology and medicine, helping to identify new targets for therapeutic intervention, develop novel drugs and treatments, and improve human health.

Indicator dilution techniques are a group of methods used in medicine and research to measure various physiological variables, such as cardiac output or cerebral blood flow. These techniques involve introducing a known quantity of an indicator substance (like a dye or a radioactive tracer) into the system being studied and then measuring its concentration over time at a specific location downstream.

The basic principle behind these techniques is that the concentration of the indicator substance will be inversely proportional to the flow rate of the fluid through which it is moving. By measuring the concentration of the indicator substance at different points in time, researchers can calculate the flow rate using mathematical formulas.

Indicator dilution techniques are widely used in clinical and research settings because they are relatively non-invasive and can provide accurate and reliable measurements of various physiological variables. Some common examples of indicator dilution techniques include thermodilution, dye dilution, and Fick principle-based methods.

Look up calibration in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Calibration curve Calibrated geometry Calibration (statistics) Color ... Calibration methods for modern devices can be manual or automatic. As an example, a manual process may be used for calibration ... The assignment of calibration intervals can be a formal process based on the results of previous calibrations. The standards ... The design has to be able to "hold a calibration" through its calibration interval. In other words, the design has to be ...
... may refer to: Camera resectioning, which is called also geometric camera calibration Color mapping, which is ... camera calibration Radiometric calibration This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Camera calibration ...
In addition, "calibration" is used in statistics with the usual general meaning of calibration. For example, model calibration ... Brown, P.J. (1994) Measurement, Regression and Calibration, OUP. ISBN 0-19-852245-2 Ng, K. H., Pooi, A. H. (2008) "Calibration ... Foundational work includes the Expected Calibration Error (ECE). Recent variants include the Adaptive Calibration Error (ACE) ... calibration, see Naeini, Cooper, Hauskrecht (2015) Beta calibration, see Kull, Filho, Flach (2017) In prediction and ...
A calibration curve is one approach to the problem of instrument calibration; other standard approaches may mix the standard ... "Worksheet for analytical calibration curve". umd.edu. ASTM: Static Calibration of Electronic Transducer-Based Pressure ... a calibration curve is a convenient extension of this approach. The calibration curve for a particular analyte in a particular ... the calibration curve provides a reliable way to calculate the uncertainty of the concentration calculated from the calibration ...
A calibration gas is a reference gas or gas mixture used as comparative standard in the calibration of analytical instruments, ... Therefore, a calibration gas has to be of a precisely defined nature or composition, like zero gas or span gas, for example 500 ... To be a calibration gas, the gas must be traceable to a national or international standard. Traceability is the unbroken chain ... For instance, a calibration gas of 500 ppm CO balance nitrogen having PT +/- 10% contains between 450 ppm and 550 ppm. ...
The calibration target for this kind of calibration is that of print stock paper illuminated by D65 light at 120 cd/m2. The ICC ... This means that three independent calibrations need to be performed: The camera or scanner needs a device-specific calibration ... The camera calibration needs a known calibration target to be photographed and the resulting output from the camera to be ... the color space that serves as a standard is sometimes known as a calibration target.[citation needed] Color calibration is a ...
Level-2 calibration, also known as kinematic calibration, concerns the entire geometric robot calibration which includes angle ... Besides the calibration of the robot, the calibration of its tools and the workpieces it works with (the so-called cell ... Level-3 calibration, also called a non-kinematic calibration, models errors other than geometric defaults such as stiffness, ... Depending on the type of errors modeled, the calibration can be classified in three different ways. Level-1 calibration only ...
The calibration curve itself has an associated error term, which can be seen on the graph labelled "Calibration error and ... Stuiver, M.; Reimer, P.J. Reimer; Reimer, R. (2013). "CALIB Radiocarbon Calibration". CALIB 14C Calibration Program. Queen's ... there is also a separate marine calibration curve. The calibration curve for the southern hemisphere is known as the SHCal as ... which must be converted to calendar ages by a process called calibration. Calibration is needed because the atmospheric 14 C:12 ...
... is a general term used in science and technology for any set of calibration techniques in support of ... "Radiometric Calibration for AgCam" Remote Sens. 2, no. 2: 464-477. D. Hall; G. Riggs; V. Salomonson. (1995). "Development of ... sensor calibration, and image data processing procedures, which tend to change through time. Targets in multi-date scenes are ... requires the use of ground measurements at the time of data acquisition for atmospheric correction and sensor calibration. This ...
In contrast to classic camera calibration, auto-calibration does not require any special calibration objects in the scene. In ... For example, calibration may be obtained if multiple sets of parallel lines or objects with a known shape (e.g. circular) are ... Camera auto-calibration is a form of sensor ego-structure discovery; the subjective effects of the sensor are separated from ... Camera auto-calibration is the process of determining internal camera parameters directly from multiple uncalibrated images of ...
Passive calibration satellites are objects of known shape and size. Examples include the Lincoln Calibration Sphere 1 developed ... "Design and applications of a versatile HF radar calibration target in low Earth orbit: HF RADAR CALIBRATION TARGET IN ORBIT". ... Active calibration satellites are equipped with transponders that emit a signal on command. The ground radar station submits a ... Radar calibration satellites are orbital satellites used to calibrate ground-based space surveillance radars. There are two ...
All video calibration software interfaces with a color analyzer that reads the luminance and the color from a commercial ... Video calibration software is software used to improve the quality of commercial video reproduction. Organizations such as the ... Video calibration software: software that receives the signals from the color analyzer and displays the data in numerical ... It was developed by a partnership between an American video engineer and a programmer with a goal to make video calibration ...
Reciprocity calibration is currently the favoured primary standard for calibration of measurement microphones. The technique ... Reciprocity calibration is a specialist process, and because it forms the basis of the primary standard for sound pressure, ... As such it is more usual to perform reciprocity calibration in an acoustical coupler, and then apply a correction if the ... Microphone calibration by certified laboratories should ultimately be traceable to primary standards a (National) Measurement ...
The Lincoln Calibration Sphere 1, or LCS-1, is a large aluminium sphere in Earth orbit since 6 May 1965. It is still in use, ... LCS-1 has been used for radar calibration since its launch. It was built by Rohr. Corp. for the MIT Lincoln Laboratory. LCS-1 ... "radar calibration via satellites". National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center. Acreibo Observatory. Retrieved 23 July 2015. Krebs ... Nelson, Heather C. "Low-Earth-Orbit Target Design for Optical Calibration of the Falcon Telescope". Electronic Thesis and ...
... webpage IceCube Neutrino Observatory "Award Abstract #0826747, Neutrino Array Radio ... The Neutrino Array Radio Calibration (NARC) experiment was the successor to the Radio Ice Cherenkov Experiment (RICE) which ... Calibration". National Science Foundation. 2009-04-15. Archived from the original on 2013-10-30. Retrieved 2009-04-10. ( ...
In robotics and mathematics, the hand-eye calibration problem (also called the robot-sensor or robot-world calibration problem ... Methods are as follows, Straight edges There is a method using straight edges for hand-eye calibration. Amy Tabb, Khalil M. ... "Solving the Robot-World Hand-Eye(s) Calibration Problem with Iterative Methods." 29 Jul 2019. Mili I. Shah, Roger D. Eastman, ... Xu, Jing; Hoo, Jian Li; Dritsas, Stylianos; Fernandez, Javier Gomez (2022-02-01). "Hand-eye calibration for 2D laser profile ...
In the past, instruments that undergo evolution of calibration files or calibration software often required users to carry out ... The main goals behind the implementation of the OTFC system are to take advantage of better calibration files and the much ... In observational astronomy an On-The-Fly Calibration (OTFC) system calibrates data when a user's request for the data is ... The system can also offer more calibration steps than were available when the data was first released and can implement ...
This calibration is a critical step in ensuring that measurements of internal radiation doses to workers are accurate. The ... The National Calibration Reference Centre for Bioassay and In Vivo Monitoring (NCRC) is administered by the Radiation ... Canadian National Calibration Reference Centre Human Monitoring Laboratory Bioassay Laboratory Canadian Nuclear Safety ... The NCRC provides a national calibration reference service to universities, hospitals, public utilities and private firms in ...
In June, the name was also changed to the 2802nd Inertial Guidance and Calibration Group under HQ Air Force Logisitics Command ... The Dayton Air Force Depot was given the authority to establish a centralized calibration program. Under their plan, the Air ... It retains engineering authority for all calibrations performed in the PMEL labs throughout the Air Force, and oversees the ... The United States Air Force calibration program was initiated in January 1952 to comply with AF Regulation 74-2, which outlined ...
Hill, M.; Tiedeman, C. (2007). Effective Groundwater Model Calibration, with Analysis of Data, Sensitivities, Predictions, and ... Sensitivity analysis has important applications in model calibration. One application of sensitivity analysis addresses the ...
NABL provides accreditation to: Testing laboratories as per ISO/IEC 17025 Calibration laboratories as per ISO/IEC 17025 Medical ... Calibration Laboratories: Electro-Technical, Mechanical, Fluid Flow, Thermal & Optical, Radiological, Thermal. Medical ... 2018). "Current status and way forward for National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories Accreditation ... Such international arrangements facilitate acceptance of test / calibration results between countries to which MRA partners ...
... is the fifth studio album by Omar Rodríguez-López, and the fourth released in the ... According to the label, the original title given to them by Omar was "Calibration Is Pushing Luck and Key Too Far" but the "Is ... D.E.I.M.O.S. Calibration (is Pushing Luck and Key Too Far) - The Comatorium (Articles with short description, Short description ... All tracks are written by Omar Rodríguez-López, unless noted Calibration was Omar's second album to chart on a Billboard music ...
Calibration. In: Perspectives on Science, vol. 5, 1997, pp. 31-80. Millikan´s Oil Drop Experiments. In: The Chemical Educator, ...
Calibration. Many forms of mechanical or electronic equipment require periodic intrusive calibration. Other administrative ...
Calibration equipment. Test equipment. Automatic test equipment. Support equipment for on- and off-equipment maintenance. ... Technical and supply bulletins Transportability guidance technical manuals Maintenance expenditure limits and calibration ...
UK "[BOOK] Multivariate Calibration H Martens, T Naes - 1992". Google Scholar. "Tormod Næs". NTVA (in Norwegian Bokmål). ... His impact on chemometrics is exemplified by the over 8,000 citations to his most well-known book, Multivariate Calibration ( ... Næs, T. , Isaksson, T., Fearn, T. and Davies, T. (2002). A user-friendly guide to multivariate calibration and classification. ... Multivariate calibration. John Wiley and Sons. Chichester, UK. Næs, T. and Risvik, E. (editors) (1996). Multivariate analysis ...
"External Calibration". Archived from the original on 29 January 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2008. Torres, Rebecca E.; William A. ... ISBN 978-3-527-31255-9. "Calibration of dissolution test apparatus (USP apparatus 1 and 2) - SOP". {{cite web}}: Missing or ... in particular items that are shock sensitive and require balancing or calibration, and re-qualification needs to be conducted ...
"Radiocarbon Calibration". University of Oxford. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 28 July 2015. " ...
Techniques in multivariate calibration are often broadly categorized as classical or inverse methods. The principal difference ... classical calibration for small data sets". Fresenius' J. Anal. Chem. 368 (6): 585-588. doi:10.1007/s002160000556. PMID ... Multivariate calibration techniques such as partial-least squares regression, or principal component regression (and near ... Olivieri, A. C.; Faber, N. M.; Ferre, J.; Boque, R.; Kalivas, J. H.; Mark, H. (2006). "Guidelines for calibration in analytical ...
If you have a display calibration device and software, it's a good idea to use them instead of Display Color Calibration ... "The Monitor calibration and Gamma assessment page". Retrieved 2018-11-30. the problem is caused by the risetime of most monitor ... "Monitor calibration and gamma". Retrieved 2018-12-10. The chart below enables you to set the black level (brightness) and ... A good monitor with proper calibration shows the six numbers on the right in both bars, a cheap monitor shows only four numbers ...
Address and Command Calibration Read Calibration Write Calibration 3.3.3. Calibration Algorithms 3.3.4. Calibration Flowchart ... The various stages of calibration perform address and command calibration, read calibration, and write calibration. ... Read Calibration. Read calibration consists of the following parts: *DQSen calibration- Calibrates the timing of the read ... Write Calibration. Write calibration consists of the following parts: *Leveling calibration- Aligns the write strobe and clock ...
Look up calibration in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Calibration curve Calibrated geometry Calibration (statistics) Color ... Calibration methods for modern devices can be manual or automatic. As an example, a manual process may be used for calibration ... The assignment of calibration intervals can be a formal process based on the results of previous calibrations. The standards ... The design has to be able to "hold a calibration" through its calibration interval. In other words, the design has to be ...
Importance of instrument calibration - Download as a PDF or view online for free ... Importance of instrument calibration. *1. IMPORTANCE OF INSTRUMENT CALIBRATION In any kind of manufacturing industry, the ... Whenever a product comes into existence, back of it theres a perfect flow calibration. Calibration is a set of operations, ... Whenever a product comes into existence, behind it there is a perfect flow calibration. Calibration is a set of operations, ...
The S1827 Crea Calibration Solution 1 (944-135) Lot DV-02 is a solution used by the ABL 8x7 series creatine analyzers to ... This will cause the concentration of creatinin and creatin in the calibration solution to be wrong, and results in a bias on ... S1827 Crea Calibration solution 1, 944-135, Lot DV-02 Radiometer Medical, Bronshoj Denmark. Product Usage:. ...
Consequently, the algorithm design and the related calibration effort is becoming more and more challenging. Because of ... Moreover, the number of calibration optimization loops can be significantly reduced, since the effect of different calibration ... OBD Algorithms: Model-based Development and Calibration 2007-01-4222. The OBD II and EOBD legislation have significantly ... Consequently, the algorithm design and the related calibration effort is becoming more and more challenging. Because of ...
... of your calibration needs.Tektronix is the nations leading provider of multi-brand calibration services. With a national ... ELEKTROBIT Calibration Services. Tektronix can manage 100% of your calibration needs.. Tektronix is the nations leading ... Calibration services by instrument type. Our experienced technicians and specialized equipment are ready to calibrate ... A variety of calibration levels matched to meet your specifications.. *Complementary access to CalWeb®, a comprehensive online ...
5). Click OK to start FTSW in calibration mode. *Select the blackbody coefficient file for the 3rd blackbody (c:\3rd body ...
Requesting calibrations. *Whats the difference between calibration (fixed) services and special services?. Calibration or ... Calibrations are handled "first come, first serve.". *Where can I find the NIST Calibration Services Policies?. See Policies ... Over what period of time is the calibration valid?. We do not give a valid calibration interval because it depends on the ... How quickly will my calibration be completed?. Our goal is to return all calibrations to the customer within 90 days from the ...
Background: Whats calibration anyway?. For a good read on battery calibration, see this page. This article on fuel gauges is ... Battery Calibration All newly-installed smart batteries should be calibrated as soon as possible. This helps your phone or ... Calibration occurs by applying a full charge, discharge and charge. This is done in the equipment or with a battery analyzer as ... Without calibration, the battery percentage reading will be incorrect, and your device may behave oddly-shutting down suddenly ...
... R. Coniglione, A. Creusot, I. Di Palma*, D. Guderian, J. Hofestaedt, G. Riccobene, A. Sánchez Losa on ... calibration procedures developed to synchronise the time references of the photomultipliers within an optical module and of ...
NIRSpec calibration image, MOS-SLIT mode. Date: 21 January 2016. Satellite: JWST. Copyright: ESA. Show in archive: true. This ... ESA Science & Technology - NIRSpec calibration image, MOS-SLIT mode. * Missions * Show All Missions ... In NIRSpec, light from one of the internal lamps passes through a filter selected specially for calibration. The image exhibits ... is an example of a NIRSpec calibration exposure obtained during the ISIM CV-3 test campaign. ...
Models: Fluke Calibration 9173 Field Metrology Well. Fluke 9173-A. Fluke Calibration 9173-A Metrology Well. Insert "A", Al-Brnz ... Calibration. NVLAP accredited (built-in reference input only), NIST-traceable calibration provided. ... Specifications: Fluke Calibration 9173 Field Metrology Well. Specifications. Range (at 23°C ambient). 50°C to 700°C1 (122°F to ... Fluke Calibration 9173-E-R Metrology Well. Insert "E", Al-Brnz, Misc Metric Holes, w/ 0.25-inch Ref Hole. 50°C to 700°C ...
Calibration services. With more emphasis being placed on widely recognised, established quality standards, it is important that ...
Our 500g calibration weights can come included in a range of sets from 50 micrograms to five tons. Weights are kept in strong ... 500g Calibration Weights. Fantastic Range of Single Stainless Steel 500g Calibration Weights Vital for Calibrating and Testing ... Weight Calibration Service. Accredited calibration laboratories around the world clean, calibrate and adjust weights and then ... With our global network of accredited mass calibration laboratories, you can be sure of trustworthy calibration services and ...
Cosmic Ray Neutron Sensing: Use, Calibration and Validation for Soil Moisture Estimation. ×. ... INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, Cosmic Ray Neutron Sensing: Use, Calibration and Validation for Soil Moisture Estimation, ... This publication provides background information about this novel technique, and explains in detail the calibration and ... Soil Fertility and Irrigation, Soil Moisture, Measurement, Cosmic Ray Neutrons, Agricultural Innovations, Calibration, ...
... Pelcotec™ LMS-20G Magnification. Calibration Standard Dual, Graduated, Metric and Inch ... magnification calibration and microscope stage calibration. The 20 x10mm pattern is fabricated with Cr lines on clear soda lime ... Pelcotec™ LMS-20G Magnification Calibration Standard. Large area, resolution 0.01mm Details of the Pelcotec™ LMS-20G The ... For the above linear glass scales, a calibration certificate is available at the time of purchase: ...
This video covers the calibration of the EXO Ammonium Ion Selective Electrode in mg/L using Kor Software. ... Now you will see the calibration summary screen where you can choose to redo the calibration or complete the calibration. Ill ... EXO Calibration - Ammonium ISE. This video covers the calibration of the EXO Ammonium Ion Selective Electrode in mg/L using Kor ... 2Fexo-calibration-ammonium-ise&base_url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.ysi.com%2Fexo-university%2Fvideo%2Fexo-calibration-ammonium-ise&user_ ...
Calibration Products. Product. Calibration Item. Approved Calibration Range. Possible Calibration Range. EMI Test Receiver. ... Scope of calibration. Please refer to Scope.. Calibration items. Please refer to Calibration Products. What is ISO/IEC17025?. ... TOYO Calibration Lab extended the upper frequency for its ISO/IEC17025 calibration to 40GHz in July 2009. ... Upon receipt of the accreditation, TOYO Calibration Lab will begin 17025 calibration service for EMI test receivers up to 18 ...
Is Monitor Calibration Worth It?. As youve likely already noticed, a monitor calibration tool is a fairly expensive peripheral ... Install and run the software included with your monitor calibration tool.. *Plug your monitor calibration tool into your PCs ... The Best Monitor Calibration Tools For Perfect Color (2023). Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Share via E-mail More share ... These include the side-by-side display match, StudioMatch across multiple devices, projector calibration, and video calibration ...
simultaneous online camera self-calibration and camera-gyroscope calibration based on an implicit extended Kalman filter, and * ... Online Calibration and Synchronization of Cellphone Camera Gyroscope. Chao Jia and Brian L. Evans Department of Electrical and ...
... and can be used in national calibration laboratories. ... Sound Level Meter Calibration System Type 3630-A complies with ... Sound Level Meter Calibration System. Calibration System for Sound Level Meters designed for accurate instrument calibration in ... Type 7913 + Type 3630-A - Filter Calibration System Type 7792 + 3630-A - Noise Dosimeter Calibration System Type 7794 + 3630-A ... Filter Calibration Software Type 7793 USE SCENARIOS. *Acoustical and electrical calibration of sound level meters to ...
Would the Calibration tv sony w8. by fld - 29 Aug 2013, 10:16 ... Calibration & TV settings. TV calibration, calibration tips, ... calibration for sony KDL55-W955 please ! by toad - 14 Nov 2014, 03:48 ... Calibration of Samsung Q7FN by Miguel Garcia - 15 Sep 2018, 05:36 ... LG 47LM7600 Calibration RGB Note by Cburnett - 25 Apr 2013, 10:41 ...
How to set up color calibration setting of color management: system optimization, monitor profiling, photoshop setting ... Figure 05: ​The next screen let you set which calibration you wish to use; you can set up to two. Leave this on Calibration 1 ... Figure 07: ​After several minutes the calibration will end and the Palette Master Element software will display a Calibration ... Calibration is setting devices to an appropriate set of values. Profiling is a record of the colours available in a device ...
3D Printing & Additive Manufacturing Aerospace Automation Automation Calibration Collaborative Robots and Cobots Composite ... to facilitate active system calibration. The new calibration system will enable the next generation of AFP in-situ inspection ... The AFP calibration system could be very useful to companies that develop and manufacture AFP machines or AFP machine ... Calibration System for Automated Fiber Placement. The system creates accurate defect standards for in-situ inspection systems. ...
The Editors Of Control Review Online Resources About Calibration That Are Available to You at No Cost ... INTRODUCTION TO CALIBRATION. This basic tutorial, "Instrument System Models and Calibration," covers basic calibration terms ... internal versus external calibration; and component versus system calibration. It also covers many options for maintaining your ... getting better calibration results and pre-commissioning calibration. It is free and no registration is required.. EDDL ...
Use this weight to calibrate your electronic scale or balance.
Rerunning the calibration procedure a second time ensures proper calibration.. *Permanently store the New IOUT_CAL_GAIN and New ... When is Calibration Needed?. An ICs IOUT_CAL values should be calibrated at the initial board build and at any time when the ... Figure 1. Current-calibration test setup.. Procedure. This procedure assumes that the user has read the EV kit data sheet and ... Maxims InTune Digital Power Current Calibration Worksheet (XLSX) Precautions. *Verify that the lab supply is configured for a ...
  • Heat sources from Fluke Calibration have long been known as the most stable heat sources in the world. (fluke.com)
  • Los accesorios del calibrador de pistón de Fluke Calibration ayudan a proporcionar una solución completa en la calibración de presión mediante la referencia de un calibrador de pistón. (flukecal.com)
  • Además, Fluke Calibration proporciona accesorios adicionales para aplicaciones únicas, como el Indicador de presión diferencial 2413 que pueden usarse en la separación de medios líquidos a líquidos o líquidos a gas o en la asistencia de aplicaciones flotación cruzada. (flukecal.com)
  • Al seleccionar esta casilla, acepto recibir comunicaciones de marketing y ofertas de productos por correo electrónico y teléfono de Fluke Calibration, una división de Fluke Corporation, o de sus socios de acuerdo con su política de confidencialidad. (flukecal.com)
  • If you already know the sensitivity of your built-in microphone (in Pa/FS), you can enter it directly in the Input Sensitivity text box of the calibration view and skip the rest of the calibration procedure. (faberacoustical.com)
  • In many countries a National Metrology Institute (NMI) will exist which will maintain primary standards of measurement (the main SI units plus a number of derived units) which will be used to provide traceability to customer's instruments by calibration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each cylinder of calibration gas has traceability to NIST standards, ensuring accurate and repeatable calibrations. (gdscorp.com)
  • The related modules of the calibration unit are being calibrated by the global vendors (our partners) each year, and the traceability is ensured continuously. (fotech.com.tr)
  • One of the most significant obstacles for the every-day use of systems based on Brain-Computer Inter-faces (BCIs) is the tediousness of calibration. (lu.se)
  • Finally, I will give an overview of my research on the calibration of BCIs. (lu.se)
  • The effect of adjustment in calibration is explained by the adaptive participation of metacognitive processing. (bvsalud.org)
  • In this work, we present an adaptive approach to BCI systems' calibration with a model that evaluates if more calibration is needed. (lu.se)
  • The difference from the ISO certificate is that the calibration procedure itself is accredited by the SA. (metrel.co.uk)
  • Note: Measurement data cannot be obtained retrospectively after issuing PASS certificate (since it is not saved after the calibration procedure). (metrel.co.uk)
  • The main difference between adjustment and calibration of a measuring device (in layman's terms) is that calibration entails just observing the measuring accuracy of the device during a measuring procedure, without changing/adjusting the said device. (metrel.co.uk)
  • Our technicians are certified and experienced with the re-calibration procedure that is necessary for proper functioning of the system. (apexautoglass.com)
  • In measurement technology and metrology, calibration is the comparison of measurement values delivered by a device under test with those of a calibration standard of known accuracy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The calibration standard is normally traceable to a national or international standard held by a metrology body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Quality management systems call for an effective metrology system which includes formal, periodic, and documented calibration of all measuring instruments. (wikipedia.org)
  • The outcome of the comparison can result in one of the following: no significant error being noted on the device under test a significant error being noted but no adjustment made an adjustment made to correct the error to an acceptable level Strictly speaking, the term "calibration" means just the act of comparison and does not include any subsequent adjustment. (wikipedia.org)
  • On those calibration workflow steps where you need to make a manual display adjustment e. (web.app)
  • For highly corrosive gases with short shelf-life, including chlorine and chlorine dioxide, field-based gas generators such as the CAL 2000 are recommended for long term use where periodic calibration is done more than once a year. (gdscorp.com)
  • Calibration of gauges, hand tools, and measuring equipment is vital to operating at full efficiency and complying with safety standards. (processmeasurementco.com)
  • For proper calibration of hand tools and measuring instruments, contact PMC today. (processmeasurementco.com)
  • Measuring instrument calibration in accordance with EN ISO/IEC 17025 standard. (metrel.co.uk)
  • Thus for North and South Sharqia all measuring equipment was calibrated against health institutions were included in the 60, 100 and 150 cm calibration rods (CMS sample and weighting was carried out to Weighing Equipment, United Kingdom). (who.int)
  • This definition states that the calibration process is purely a comparison, but introduces the concept of measurement uncertainty in relating the accuracies of the device under test and the standard. (wikipedia.org)
  • To improve the quality of the calibration and have the results accepted by outside organizations it is desirable for the calibration and subsequent measurements to be "traceable" to the internationally defined measurement units. (wikipedia.org)
  • this did not affect the national of the methods, description of equipment, estimates because of the small population calibration, recruitment, measurement and size in that region. (who.int)
  • NIST has developed transfer standards and high-accuracy internal standards for wavelength calibration in the 1500 nm region. (nist.gov)
  • We provide instrument calibration services to ensure the reliability and accuracy of your measurements to NIST-traceable standards. (processmeasurementco.com)
  • To contact AMS Instrumentation & Calibration about Rain101A Data Logging Kit use Get a quote. (industrysearch.com.au)
  • Let AMS Instrumentation & Calibration know you found them on IndustrySearch so they can best assist you! (industrysearch.com.au)
  • The Instrumentation Incubation team is responsible for developing technologies, calibration methodologies and prototype instrumentation for the calibration and validation of Apple's products. (connecticum.de)
  • The AFP calibration system could be very useful to companies that develop and manufacture AFP machines or AFP machine inspection equipment to improve the quality of their products in a provable manner. (techbriefs.com)
  • Live video demonstrations of products can be demonstrated with our fully experienced team at our Head Office using the calibrations testing flow-rig. (rshydro.co.uk)
  • As weve come to expect from post2009 panasonic plasma products, the panasonic txp50vt50b has no significant colour errors before, and especially not after, calibration. (web.app)
  • 4 An up-to-date list of WHO international biological reference preparations is available at http://www.who.int/bloodproducts/catalogue/en/ (accessed 11 May 2017). (who.int)
  • Our calibration laboratory is also accredited by Slovenian Accreditation (SA) body which is a full member of EA (European co-operation for Accreditation) and ILAC (International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation) and can offer accredited calibrations. (metrel.co.uk)
  • Whenever this does happen, it must be in writing and authorized by a manager with the technical assistance of a calibration technician. (wikipedia.org)
  • Learn more about Hunter ADAS Calibration Tools or to calculate your profits for other Hunter equipment, click here . (hunter.com)
  • Snapon tqfr50a calibration services total calibration. (web.app)
  • A single and 50turn current clamp adaptor is available for clamp sensor and meter calibration up to 1100 a. (web.app)
  • In-situ inspection systems are emerging but no method exists to create accurate "defect standards" to facilitate active system calibration. (techbriefs.com)
  • Users of AFP machines may find value in the tool for creating their own calibration standards. (techbriefs.com)
  • Innovators at NASA Langley developed a calibration system for automated fiber placement (AFP) machines. (techbriefs.com)
  • Fotech Technology Center has the original calibration unit from the global vendors and thus is at your service with fiber optic and copper test devices' real calibration. (fotech.com.tr)
  • The calibration of a groundwater model with the aid of hydrochemical data has demonstrated that low recharge rates in the Middle Rio Grande Basin may be responsible for a groundwater trough in the center of the basin and for a substantial amount of Rio Grande water in the regional flow system. (usgs.gov)
  • New 4k calibration tool from dvdo by february 20, 2014 calibrating your av equipment is an oftenoverlooked but crucial part of any home theater installation. (web.app)
  • The standard instrument for each test device varies accordingly, e.g., a dead weight tester for pressure gauge calibration and a dry block temperature tester for temperature gauge calibration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most auto glass companies are unable to perform this important re-calibration process and will send their customers back to the dealership after windshield installation. (apexautoglass.com)
  • Aim: To report the challenges faced in a calibration process of examiners for an epidemiological study on malocclusion involving quantitative and ordinal categorical variables, showing the results of inter and intra-examiner diagnostic consistency. (bvsalud.org)
  • The examiners with an agreement of less than 0.60 were considered inept and should be recommended for another calibration process. (bvsalud.org)
  • Conclusion: The calibration process of examiners configured itself as a challenge to researchers, demanding time and effort. (bvsalud.org)
  • Fotech's test device calibration activities are certified by the global vendors, thus have the same quality and accuracy! (fotech.com.tr)
  • We strongly recommend that you confirm the results on your sample by using a good display setup dvd to get as close as possible to an optimum picture short of a full calibration. (web.app)
  • Results: In three calibration exercises, which proved to be lengthy and costly, 33 examiners divided into 7 groups, examined and re-examined 315 students. (bvsalud.org)
  • The calibration analysis results indicated variation in the coefficients from −0.23 ( sodium ) to 1.00 ( folate ). (bvsalud.org)
  • GDS Corp Gas Calibration Kits are designed to provide the most accurate reference source available for single, dual and multiple gas mixtures. (gdscorp.com)
  • Temperature gradients, loading effects, and hysteresis have been minimized to make the calibration of the display much more meaningful. (fluke.com)
  • Use your pc to generate video test patterns for video display calibration. (web.app)
  • The Calibration view displays the current measured input level as a text value as well as in a horizontal bar meter. (faberacoustical.com)
  • To communicate the quality of a calibration the calibration value is often accompanied by a traceable uncertainty statement to a stated confidence level. (wikipedia.org)
  • More and more vehicles now come with advanced safety systems, which require re-calibration after a windshield replacement. (apexautoglass.com)
  • Calibration notes the et60 series from panasonic include both 2pt. (web.app)
  • The new calibration system will enable the next generation of AFP in-situ inspection technologies. (techbriefs.com)
  • t https://unctad.org/system/files/official- document/aldcmisc2020d3_en.pdf. (who.int)
  • Our software offers inventory management, calibration scheduler, easy calibration transaction entry, calibration history manager. (web.app)
  • The portrait displays team now includes spectracal, the worlds leading provider of video display calibration software. (web.app)
  • Hdtv calibration free hdtv calibration software download. (web.app)
  • How picture menus look after performing full isf calibration using calman software see in this video. (web.app)
  • Click on the calibration service to view details, then order. (coleparmer.com)
  • After calibration all the complaints about the skin tones, and odd textures went away, and again she was happy, but we both noticed that the very bright panasonic display was now a little dimmer than before. (web.app)
  • The RS Hydro sales team were happy to organise live-video demonstrations to show how a PT900 can measure flow rates in real time using RS Hydro's calibration testing flow-rig. (rshydro.co.uk)
  • User calibration can be performed for each gain setting independent of the others. (faberacoustical.com)