Sprains and Strains: A collective term for muscle and ligament injuries without dislocation or fracture. A sprain is a joint injury in which some of the fibers of a supporting ligament are ruptured but the continuity of the ligament remains intact. A strain is an overstretching or overexertion of some part of the musculature.Pectoralis Muscles: The pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles that make up the upper and fore part of the chest in front of the AXILLA.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Athletic Injuries: Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.Leg Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the leg.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Leg: The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.Soccer: A game in which a round inflated ball is advanced by kicking or propelling with any part of the body except the hands or arms. The object of the game is to place the ball in opposite goals.Flight, Animal: The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Swimming: An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Muscle Fibers, Skeletal: Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Intermittent Claudication: A symptom complex characterized by pain and weakness in SKELETAL MUSCLE group associated with exercise, such as leg pain and weakness brought on by walking. Such muscle limpness disappears after a brief rest and is often relates to arterial STENOSIS; muscle ISCHEMIA; and accumulation of LACTATE.Muscle Development: Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.Peripheral Arterial Disease: Lack of perfusion in the EXTREMITIES resulting from atherosclerosis. It is characterized by INTERMITTENT CLAUDICATION, and an ANKLE BRACHIAL INDEX of 0.9 or less.Phosphocreatine: An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)Muscular Atrophy: Derangement in size and number of muscle fibers occurring with aging, reduction in blood supply, or following immobilization, prolonged weightlessness, malnutrition, and particularly in denervation.Isometric Contraction: Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.Ankle Brachial Index: Comparison of the BLOOD PRESSURE between the BRACHIAL ARTERY and the POSTERIOR TIBIAL ARTERY. It is a predictor of PERIPHERAL ARTERIAL DISEASE.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Reflex, Stretch: Reflex contraction of a muscle in response to stretching, which stimulates muscle proprioceptors.Peripheral Vascular Diseases: Pathological processes involving any one of the BLOOD VESSELS in the vasculature outside the HEART.Achilles Tendon: A fibrous cord that connects the muscles in the back of the calf to the HEEL BONE.Muscle Fatigue: A state arrived at through prolonged and strong contraction of a muscle. Studies in athletes during prolonged submaximal exercise have shown that muscle fatigue increases in almost direct proportion to the rate of muscle glycogen depletion. Muscle fatigue in short-term maximal exercise is associated with oxygen lack and an increased level of blood and muscle lactic acid, and an accompanying increase in hydrogen-ion concentration in the exercised muscle.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Muscle Fibers, Fast-Twitch: Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type II MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have high ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment. Several fast types have been identified.Ankle: The region of the lower limb between the FOOT and the LEG.Muscle Denervation: The resection or removal of the innervation of a muscle or muscle tissue.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Muscle Fibers, Slow-Twitch: Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type I MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have low ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment.Equinus Deformity: Plantar declination of the foot.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Myocytes, Smooth Muscle: Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Venous Insufficiency: Impaired venous blood flow or venous return (venous stasis), usually caused by inadequate venous valves. Venous insufficiency often occurs in the legs, and is associated with EDEMA and sometimes with VENOUS STASIS ULCERS at the ankle.Mitochondria, Muscle: Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared: A noninvasive technique that uses the differential absorption properties of hemoglobin and myoglobin to evaluate tissue oxygenation and indirectly can measure regional hemodynamics and blood flow. Near-infrared light (NIR) can propagate through tissues and at particular wavelengths is differentially absorbed by oxygenated vs. deoxygenated forms of hemoglobin and myoglobin. Illumination of intact tissue with NIR allows qualitative assessment of changes in the tissue concentration of these molecules. The analysis is also used to determine body composition.Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Ankle Joint: The joint that is formed by the inferior articular and malleolar articular surfaces of the TIBIA; the malleolar articular surface of the FIBULA; and the medial malleolar, lateral malleolar, and superior surfaces of the TALUS.Neck Muscles: The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).Oculomotor Muscles: The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Muscle, Striated: One of two types of muscle in the body, characterized by the array of bands observed under microscope. Striated muscles can be divided into two subtypes: the CARDIAC MUSCLE and the SKELETAL MUSCLE.Muscle Spindles: Skeletal muscle structures that function as the MECHANORECEPTORS responsible for the stretch or myotactic reflex (REFLEX, STRETCH). They are composed of a bundle of encapsulated SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, i.e., the intrafusal fibers (nuclear bag 1 fibers, nuclear bag 2 fibers, and nuclear chain fibers) innervated by SENSORY NEURONS.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Thigh: The portion of the leg in humans and other animals found between the HIP and KNEE.Muscle Relaxation: That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.Torque: The rotational force about an axis that is equal to the product of a force times the distance from the axis where the force is applied.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Respiratory Muscles: These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.Muscle Weakness: A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Papillary Muscles: Conical muscular projections from the walls of the cardiac ventricles, attached to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves by the chordae tendineae.Physical Exertion: Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.Abdominal Muscles: Muscles forming the ABDOMINAL WALL including RECTUS ABDOMINIS, external and internal oblique muscles, transversus abdominis, and quadratus abdominis. (from Stedman, 25th ed)Ischemia: A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.Quadriceps Muscle: The quadriceps femoris. A collective name of the four-headed skeletal muscle of the thigh, comprised of the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis.Immobilization: The restriction of the MOVEMENT of whole or part of the body by physical means (RESTRAINT, PHYSICAL) or chemically by ANALGESIA, or the use of TRANQUILIZING AGENTS or NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS. It includes experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Muscle Cells: Mature contractile cells, commonly known as myocytes, that form one of three kinds of muscle. The three types of muscle cells are skeletal (MUSCLE FIBERS, SKELETAL), cardiac (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC), and smooth (MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE). They are derived from embryonic (precursor) muscle cells called MYOBLASTS.Walking: An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.Oxyhemoglobins: A compound formed by the combination of hemoglobin and oxygen. It is a complex in which the oxygen is bound directly to the iron without causing a change from the ferrous to the ferric state.Masseter Muscle: A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Varicose Ulcer: Skin breakdown or ulceration caused by VARICOSE VEINS in which there is too much hydrostatic pressure in the superficial venous system of the leg. Venous hypertension leads to increased pressure in the capillary bed, transudation of fluid and proteins into the interstitial space, altering blood flow and supply of nutrients to the skin and subcutaneous tissues, and eventual ulceration.Masticatory Muscles: Muscles arising in the zygomatic arch that close the jaw. Their nerve supply is masseteric from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Facial Muscles: Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)OklahomaTendons: Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.Venous Pressure: The blood pressure in the VEINS. It is usually measured to assess the filling PRESSURE to the HEART VENTRICLE.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Intercostal Muscles: Respiratory muscles that arise from the lower border of one rib and insert into the upper border of the adjoining rib, and contract during inspiration or respiration. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Lower Extremity: The region of the lower limb in animals, extending from the gluteal region to the FOOT, and including the BUTTOCKS; HIP; and LEG.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Plethysmography: Recording of change in the size of a part as modified by the circulation in it.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Satellite Cells, Skeletal Muscle: Elongated, spindle-shaped, quiescent myoblasts lying in close contact with adult skeletal muscle. They are thought to play a role in muscle repair and regeneration.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Foot: The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Clubfoot: A deformed foot in which the foot is plantarflexed, inverted and adducted.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Venous Thrombosis: The formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) within a vein.Phosphorus Isotopes: Stable phosphorus atoms that have the same atomic number as the element phosphorus, but differ in atomic weight. P-31 is a stable phosphorus isotope.Muscular Diseases: Acquired, familial, and congenital disorders of SKELETAL MUSCLE and SMOOTH MUSCLE.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Muscle Strength: The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.Mobility Limitation: Difficulty in walking from place to place.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Psoas Muscles: A powerful flexor of the thigh at the hip joint (psoas major) and a weak flexor of the trunk and lumbar spinal column (psoas minor). Psoas is derived from the Greek "psoa", the plural meaning "muscles of the loin". It is a common site of infection manifesting as abscess (PSOAS ABSCESS). The psoas muscles and their fibers are also used frequently in experiments in muscle physiology.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Collateral Circulation: Maintenance of blood flow to an organ despite obstruction of a principal vessel. Blood flow is maintained through small vessels.Myofibrils: The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Veins: The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.Temporal Muscle: A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws; its posterior portion retracts the mandible.Hemoglobins: The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect combined with real-time imaging. The real-time image is created by rapid movement of the ultrasound beam. A powerful advantage of this technique is the ability to estimate the velocity of flow from the Doppler shift frequency.Gait: Manner or style of walking.Postural Balance: A POSTURE in which an ideal body mass distribution is achieved. Postural balance provides the body carriage stability and conditions for normal functions in stationary position or in movement, such as sitting, standing, or walking.Femoral Artery: The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.Arterial Occlusive Diseases: Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Mice, Inbred C57BLBase Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Exercise Tolerance: The exercise capacity of an individual as measured by endurance (maximal exercise duration and/or maximal attained work load) during an EXERCISE TEST.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Myosin Heavy Chains: The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Pharyngeal Muscles: The muscles of the PHARYNX are voluntary muscles arranged in two layers. The external circular layer consists of three constrictors (superior, middle, and inferior). The internal longitudinal layer consists of the palatopharyngeus, the salpingopharyngeus, and the stylopharyngeus. During swallowing, the outer layer constricts the pharyngeal wall and the inner layer elevates pharynx and LARYNX.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Diaphragm: The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).GlycogenMagnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Statistics as Topic: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Weaning: Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Neuromuscular Junction: The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Muscular Dystrophy, AnimalCell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Range of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Muscle Cramp: A sustained and usually painful contraction of muscle fibers. This may occur as an isolated phenomenon or as a manifestation of an underlying disease process (e.g., UREMIA; HYPOTHYROIDISM; MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; etc.). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1398)Single-Blind Method: A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.Myoblasts: Embryonic (precursor) cells of the myogenic lineage that develop from the MESODERM. They undergo proliferation, migrate to their various sites, and then differentiate into the appropriate form of myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL; MYOCYTES, CARDIAC; MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Myostatin: A growth differentiation factor that is a potent inhibitor of SKELETAL MUSCLE growth. It may play a role in the regulation of MYOGENESIS and in muscle maintenance during adulthood.Sarcomeres: The repeating contractile units of the MYOFIBRIL, delimited by Z bands along its length.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.DNA Fingerprinting: A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Mice, Inbred mdx: A strain of mice arising from a spontaneous MUTATION (mdx) in inbred C57BL mice. This mutation is X chromosome-linked and produces viable homozygous animals that lack the muscle protein DYSTROPHIN, have high serum levels of muscle ENZYMES, and possess histological lesions similar to human MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY. The histological features, linkage, and map position of mdx make these mice a worthy animal model of DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY.Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field: Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.Animals, Suckling: Young, unweaned mammals. Refers to nursing animals whether nourished by their biological mother, foster mother, or bottle fed.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
... as are muscle strains to the hamstrings, quads, calves and the abdomen. Concussions are particularly concerning, as repeated ... An estimated 51% of injuries occur during training sessions, while 49% occur elsewhere. Injuries are nearly 5 times more likely ... occur in the upper extremities. The most common types of injuries are strains, sprains, bruises, fractures, dislocations, and ... Injuries occur during both practice and games. Several factors can affect the frequency of injuries: epidemiological studies ...
Tightness in the calf muscles has also been known to be involved in the onset of Achilles tendinitis. During the loading phase ... When an injury occurs to the tendon, cells from surrounding structures migrate into the tendon to assist in repair. Some of ... An overuse injury refers to repeated stress and strain, which is likely the case in endurance runners. Overuse can simply mean ... A study conducted in the city of Oulu found that a peak incidence of 18 injured Achilles occurred in 1994 and was highest in ...
Isolated plantaris muscle strains are rare and ruptures normally occur in concurrence with injury to other muscles in the ... Although pain in the calf can be attributed to a rupture of the plantaris muscle, recent ultrasound research has shown that ... The plantaris is considered an unimportant muscle and mainly acts with the gastrocnemius. The plantaris muscle arises from the ... The plantaris muscle is innervated by the tibial nerve a branch of the sciatic nerve in the sacral plexus. Signaling for ...
A recessive defect occurs when both parents carry a recessive gene that will affect the calf. One in four calves will show the ... However, in the middle of the 20th century a new strain of cattle called the Red Angus emerged. The United States does not ... The cattle have a large muscle content and are regarded as medium-sized. The meat is very popular in Japan for its marbling ... "fawn calf syndrome", which reduces mobility in the hips; and dwarfism, which affects the size of calves. Both parents need to ...
Achilles tendinitis results from stress on calf muscles and Achilles tendon. This strong tendon often gets inflamed while ... A hammer toe occur chiefly because the shoe is too tight at the front or the heels are too high. In such situations, the toe is ... strained against the front of the shoe and results in an abnormal twist. Relieving pain, pressure, changing shoe wear or ... The pain occurs the moment you step out of bed. After a few hours, the pain does subside but can return after prolonged periods ...
... and muscle tightness, particularly in the calves, quadriceps muscle, and hamstrings. The injury occurs to athletes in many ... Patellar tendon rupture Tendinitis Tendinosis Repetitive strain injury http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_117344 ... A physical therapist may also recommend specific exercises and stretches to strengthen the muscles and tendons, eg. cycling or ... Rest Ice Compression Elevation Exercises involving eccentric muscle contractions of the quadriceps on a decline board are ...
Risk of injury from trigenics can occur during manual muscle testing (strains, sprains). Due to the maximal contraction during ... According to the Trigenics Manual, contraindications to treatment include: nerve lesions, unexplained severe calf pain, open ... Minor bruising may also occur in susceptible patients due to manual pressure being applied to the muscles. Training in ... Muscle strength and length testing is used to assess the entire body. Weak muscles are treated to improve strength and short/ ...
Worsens with muscle fatigue as the supporting muscles and ligaments lose their stabilizing function. Calf-knees weaken the ... When this fault occurs then the shoulder muscles become overstretched, and movement of the forearm is decreased. Because ... as the strong forearm muscles absorb concussion from the impact and diffuse the strain on tendons and joints on landing. A long ... The muscles of the front of the forearm are known as extensors and the back of the forearm are known as flexors. The muscling ...
Muscle inflammation, strain, tenderness, swelling and muscle tear from muscle overuse or incorrect movement are several ... occur along a transverse axis; and abduction and adduction occur about a sagittal axis. The anterior dorsal hip muscles are the ... most substantially the gluteal muscles, the extensors of the knee joint, and the calf muscles. The major bones of the leg are ... The leg muscles acting on the foot are called the extrinsic foot muscles whilst the foot muscles located in the foot are called ...
... for the first time in his career with a strained left calf muscle. He hit .320 with 20 home runs, 79 RBI, 92 runs and 45 ... The following season, Helton posted a career-high 49 home runs (22 of them occurred away from Coors Field). The 49 home runs ...
After 17 days of spaceflight or bed rest, no significant measurable changes occurred in maximal isometric calf strength, force- ... MAXFIELD, ME; Brouha, L (November 1963). "Validity of Heart Rate as an Indicator of Cardiac Strain". Journal of Applied ... of the muscle mass can be lost in antigravity muscles of the lower extremity such as the soleus (Sol; a calf muscle) and vastus ... this response is greater in the extensor muscles than in the flexor muscles; third, muscle atrophy occurs quickly (within 7-14 ...
Having tight calf muscles may also increase the risk of Achilles tendinitis. Stretching the calves before starting heavy ... This inflammation occurs a result of the iliotibial band and the outside of the knee join rubbing together. The resulting pain ... such as strains. These are often the result of overuse. Common overuse injuries include stress fractures, Achilles tendinitis, ... During recovery, the muscles on the outside of the hip can be stretched to reduce tightness in the band. So called 'traditional ...
Leg cramps (involuntary spasms in calf muscles) can affect between 30% to 50% of women during pregnancy, especially during the ... Morning sickness occurs in about seventy percent of all pregnant women, and typically improves after the first trimester.[1] ... Haemorrhoids (piles) are swollen veins at or inside the anal area, resulting from impaired venous return, straining associated ... It affects the rectus abdominis muscle. The rectus abdominis muscle is divided down the middle by the tendinous line called the ...
The foot may have limited dorsiflexion due to tightness of the calf muscles or the Achilles tendon. Dorsiflexion of the foot ... When plantar fasciitis occurs, the pain is typically sharp and usually unilateral (70% of cases). Heel pain is worsened by ... are thought to contribute to the development of plantar fasciitis by placing excess strain on the calcaneal tuberosity. Other ... First-line conservative approaches include rest, heat, ice, and calf-strengthening exercises; techniques to stretch the calf ...
Wrapping is started at the ball of the foot and slowly continued up to the base of the calf muscle, which pushes the swelling ... Bruising may occur around the ankle. The most common type of ankle sprain occurs when the foot is inverted too much, affecting ... When the foot is moved past its range of motion, the excess stress puts a strain on the ligaments. If the strain is great ... High ankle sprains commonly occur from a sudden and forceful outward twisting of the foot, which commonly occurs in contact and ...
... and stiffening of the matrix occurs at high strain rates. This deformation of the non-collagenous matrix occurs at all levels ... it is beneficial to have longer than average Achilles tendon and a shorter calf muscle. Tendon length is determined by genetic ... In birds, tendon ossification primarily occurs in the hindlimb, while in ornithischian dinosaurs, ossified axial muscle tendons ... and a longer biceps muscle will have greater potential for muscle mass than a man with a longer tendon and a shorter muscle. ...
But his season was cut short by a tear in his calf muscle on July 19. At the time, Gonzalez was hitting .294 and ranked 3rd in ... However, he was put on the inactive list with an abdominal strain and he returned to Puerto Rico with an invitation to rejoin ... Aside from baseball, he focuses on helping the community, with the condition that no attention from the media occurs when he ... which is believed by some to promote muscle tone and weight loss). Gonzalez said the bag was Presinal's, while Presinal said ...
Muscle inflammation, strain, tenderness, swelling and muscle tear from muscle overuse or incorrect movement are several ... most substantially the gluteal muscles, the extensors of the knee joint, and the calf muscles.[7] ... these muscles are often involved in several very different movements. In the hip joint, lateral and medial rotation occur along ... MusclesEdit. HipEdit. Main article: Muscles of the hip. Function of hip muscles[11]. Movement. Muscles. (In order of. ...
The preferred method of preventing muscle loss is isometric exercises that put zero strain on the knee. Knee extension within ... Common problems during recovery include strengthening of the quadriceps, T-band, and calf muscles. The main surgical wound is ... ACL injuries can be categorized into groups- contact and non-contact based on the nature of the injury Contact injuries occur ... shin muscle), abductor hallucis, abductor digiti minimi, and flexor digitorum brevis (foot muscles). Many of the goals from ...
The subjects were exposed to perturbations via vibratory stimulus on their calf muscles, which caused anteroposterior movement ... It has been shown that as much as a 46% decrease in dendrite spine number and density can occur in humans over 50 years old ... doi:10.1161/01.STR.25.6.1176. PMID 8202976. Collier L; McPherson K; Ellis-Hill C; Staal J; Bucks R (December 2010). " ... It is common for stroke patients to suffer from muscle weakness and loss of muscle function. Some natural recovery has been ...
May 22 - Placed Glen Perkins on the 15-day disabled list with a mild muscle strain in the back of his left shoulder; Purchased ... strained right calf) on the 15-day disabled list, retroactive to April 5; Recalled Alexi Casilla from Triple-A Rochester. April ... The collapse of the I-35W Mississippi River bridge occurred prior to the August 1, 2007 home game against the Kansas City ... May 6 - Placed Joe Mauer on the 15-day disabled list with a strained left quad. May 8 - Recalled Chris Heintz from Triple-A ...
Calf-knees weaken the mechanical efficiency of the forearm muscles as they pull across the back of the carpus, so a horse has ... When this fault occurs then the shoulder muscles become overstretched, and movement of the forearm is decreased. ... as the strong forearm muscles absorb concussion from the impact and diffuse the strain on tendons and joints on landing. ... Minimal fat, muscles should be visible.. *The muscles of the front of the forearm are known as extensors and the back of the ...
This occurred whilst isolating CYN from cyanobacteria taken from Lake Kinneret in Israel. The proposed structure of this ... However, CYN-producing strain of C. raciborskii has not been identified in Europe, several other cyanobacteria species ... An autopsy of one of the calves reported a swollen liver and gall bladder, along with haemorrhages of the heart and small ... and that the crayfish had accumulated this primarily in the liver but also in the muscle tissue. Examination of the gut ...
A single calf is usually born after a gestational period of about 8.5 months. The calf remains with its mother until her next ... The breeding season occurs at the end of the rainy season and lasts a few weeks between February and April. When one of his ... Kohn, T. A.; Curry, J. W.; Noakes, T. D. (9 November 2011). "Black wildebeest skeletal muscle exhibits high oxidative capacity ... consisting of their dropping to their knees and straining against each other powerfully, trying to remain in contact while ...
A single calf is usually born after a gestational period of about eight and a half months. The calf remains with its mother ... The breeding season occurs at the end of the rainy season and lasts a few weeks between February and April. When one of his ... The presence of fast-twitch fibres and the ability of the muscles to use large amounts of oxygen help explain the rapid running ... consisting of their dropping to their knees and straining against each other powerfully, trying to remain in contact while ...
Animal trypanosomiasis, also called nagana when it occurs in bovine cattle or horses or sura when it occurs in domestic pigs, ... The trypanosomes are injected into vertebrate muscle tissue,[citation needed] but make their way, first into the lymphatic ... Strains that infected humans were divided into two subspecies based on their different virulences: Trypanosoma brucei gambiense ... Those cattle that survive produce little milk, pregnant cows often abort their calves, and manure is not available to fertilize ...
How Does a Calf Strain Occur?. If the calf is stretched beyond its capacity, the muscle fibres can become torn. There are three ... How is a Calf Strain Treated?. How a calf strain is treated will depend on how severe the strain is. Immediately after ... The Calf Muscle. The calf is found at the back of the lower leg and is made up of three muscles: the medial and lateral ... in the calf muscle may protrude outwards.. How Can a Calf Strain Be Prevented?. It is vital to stay hydrated at all times and ...
Heres what you need to know about pulled muscle or a tear in your calf, from the things that will help you get back in stride ... When a strain occurs, muscle fibers are torn to some degree.. A pulled calf muscle happens when your internal muscles are ... Pulled calf muscle. A pulled calf muscle refers to strains within the two muscles in the lower back of your leg that make up ... Muscle Strain Treatment. Medically reviewed by George Krucik, MD MBA. A muscle strain, or pulled muscle, occurs when your ...
Calf Strain - Injuries to the muscles in the calf area. Can cause irritation due to torn muscle fibers. ... Pregnancy - Varicose veins that sometimes occur during pregnancy can cause irritation, due to the increase in blood within the ... As we age, our bones and muscles deteriorate. Over time this causes a backflow of blood within the blood valves. ... Folliculitis - When a hair follicle becomes infected, folliculitis can occur, which causes, in some cases, staph infection, due ...
It is actually composed of two muscles, the gastrocnemius and the soleus. These muscles connect the... ... Your triceps surae is more commonly known as your calf. ... Calf cramps usually occur when your muscles are overused, tired ... dehydrated or strained. Soccer players often overuse their muscles with the amount of running they do during games. According ... Massage your cramped calf muscles by rubbing them deeply with your fingers. Stretch your calf by bending over and pulling your ...
You will be asked about your symptoms and how your injury occurred. An examination of your calf muscle will be done to assess ... A calf muscle strain is a partial or complete tear of the small fibers of the muscles. The calf muscles are located in the back ... A calf muscle strain is a partial or complete tear of the small fibers of the muscles. The calf muscles are located in the back ... To reduce the chance of calf muscle strain:. *Keep your calf muscles strong and flexible, so they can absorb the energy of ...
Common leg injuries are muscle strains, particularly in the gastrocnemius (calf muscle) or the quadriceps (thigh muscle). Knee ... Leg injuries can occur to any of the muscles, tendons, or ligaments that are involved in the production of power or the ... which can lead to a variety of strain injuries to the muscles ranging from those in the wrist to those in the shoulder. ... see also Cycling; Exercise and fluid replacement; Heat exhaustion; Lower leg injuries; Muscle cramps; Road rash. ...
... especially if you strain the muscles or injure them in some way. You can treat your calf muscle and even prevent swelling from ... This can sometimes lead to swelling in your calves, ... Calf muscle swelling is rarely a problem that occurs on its own ... especially if you strain the muscles or injure them in some way. You can treat your calf muscle and even prevent swelling from ... The Calf. The calf is comprised of two muscles, the gastrocnemius and the soleus. The gastrocnemius is large and runs from ...
Repetitious strain can cause tiny tears to occur in the ligament. The tears can cause pain and swelling which is more likely to ... Have tight Achilles tendons or calf muscles. *Wear shoes that do not fit well or are worn out ... Do calf stretches and towel stretches several times each day, particularly first thing in the morning. ... Plantar fasciitis is caused by strain on the ligament which supports the arch in a persons foot. ...
Learn more about Calf Muscle Strain at Swedish Medical Center DefinitionCausesRisk ... You will be asked about your symptoms and how your injury occurred. An examination of your calf muscle will be done to assess ... A calf muscle strain is a partial or complete tear of the small fibers of the muscles. The calf muscles are located in the back ... To reduce the chance of calf muscle strain:. *Keep your calf muscles strong and flexible, so they can absorb the energy of ...
This could be the result of injury or a tear to the muscle, muscle spasming (ie: charlie horse), a benign growth or tumor, or a ... What is the cause of a large hard lump in my calf muscle? Injury or growth. ... much more serious problem such as a sarcoma (malignant cancer of the muscle). You need to see a doctor to check this out. ... What is the cause of a large hard lump in my calf muscle - ... Calf discomfort: A strain or muscle cramp in a calf muscle can ...
Muscle strains primarily occur in two-joint muscles such as the hamstrings and calf. This occurs because the muscle can be ... Some muscles such as the gastrocnemius (calf) have more than 1 million fibers, while some of the small muscles of the inner ear ... Muscle hypertrophy refers to the increase in muscle-fiber cross- sectional area that occurs with resistance training. Strength ... Each muscle fiber is made up of a collection of smaller fibers called Myofibrils. Muscle hypertrophy is due to an increase in ...
... just below the knee is known as calf. This article provides information regarding the causes and methods of treatment of calf ... whether it is a calf muscle strain, calf muscle pull, or a calf muscle tear). This painful condition can occur due to a variety ... or massaging the calves to soothe the tired muscles, can help keep calf pain at bay.. If it happens to be a mild calf sprain, ... Regardless of whether it is a pulled or strained calf muscle, you will undoubtedly end up with a sharp, jabbing pain in the ...
The pain causes you to limp, which in turn causes you to strain your calf muscles. "Sometimes hip pain will be associated with ... "The same problem is occurring simultaneously in two locations.". *Hip and leg pain. Just as hip and knee pain are connected, ...
The cause of muscle cramping in the calf continues to be rather obscure, although it tends to occur in less well acclimatised ... Calf muscle strain injuries are common across sports involving high-speed running or high volumes of running load, acceleration ... Muscle strains occur commonly in the medial head of gastrocnemius, or near the musculotendinous junction see figure 1). However ... Accessory muscles. The presence of accessory muscles should be considered in the differential diagnosis of persistent calf pain ...
Most leg pain occurs due to overuse or minor injuries. The discomfort often disappears within a short time and can be eased ... Muscle strain is a common injury that happens when the muscle fibers tear as a result of overstretching. It often occurs in the ... They most often occur in the calves and ankles. *Infection in the bone or tissues of the leg can cause swelling, redness, or ... Muscle fatigue and dehydration may lead to leg cramps, especially in the calf. Certain medications, including diuretics and ...
Speaking as someone recovering from a calf strain I can weigh in on this. There are three levels of strains, I had a level 2 ... In hamstrings, pooling generally occurs just above the knee, calves in the ankles. Levels 1s feel similar to cramps and will ... calf to calf over the last 10 years. yes, it sounds like whats called a micro tear, better referred to as the calf heart ... I dont think Ive ever really torn/tore a muscle. Question... on a six mile run, right at the halfway point, my left calf ...
... calf muscle strain or tear and ankle sprain. Mortons neuroma -a painful condition that occurs as a result of the thickening of ... This can be caused by improper footwear, tight calf muscles or having naturally flat feet and can be avoided to some extent by ... Conditions like Achilles tendinitis are very common, this occurs when the tendons connecting the heel to the lower leg muscles ... Shin splints -amongst the most common of running injuries, this occurs when the muscles, tendons, or the fascia covering the ...
Calf strain or tear. Calf strain or tear is caused by overstretching or tearing of either of the 2 calf muscles. It usually ... A haematoma in the quadriceps muscle may occur.. Exercise & Fitness Recovery position. The recovery position is used for a ... Challenging your muscles with strength training exercises 2 or 3 times each week can improve the strength and tone of your ... Corked thigh is caused by bleeding into the thigh muscle - usually caused by a direct blow to the thigh during contact sports. ...
Different from plantar fasciitis, athletes can also strain the plantar fascia. This strain usually occurs in the early stages ... Athletes who are overweight, have tightness in the muscles of the calf, and weakness in the supporting muscles in the foot are ... and 41 muscles. Basically, the foot dictates the rest of the movements that occur in the lower body. And I would argue that ... Muscle Up Strength. Monster Dumbbell. Ignite: Fat Loss. Olympic Weightlifting. 28 Day Clean Eating Challenge. Rowing for Weight ...
Calf muscle strains can also occur as overuse or trauma. Over training, fatigue, excessive pronation, lack of stretching and ... The groin strain is a tear in one of the adductor muscles that extends from the pubic bone to the knee. Both types of strains ... A side strain is an injury to the internal and external oblique muscles (abdominal muscles), felt like point tenderness at the ... It occurs due to the sudden lengthening of the muscle on the side of the non-bowling arm in order to follow through from a ...
We explain everything that you need to know about calf pain physiotherapy. If youd like to arrange a consultation contact the ... repetitive or acute calf muscle strains and tears. Due to the common nature of these injuries which can occur in sporting ... which may lead to increased work on the calf muscles) it may be appropriate. In some cases of persistent calf muscle strains ... General advice for exercising with calf pain. When suffering from a calf muscle strain the initial line of treatment will be to ...
There can be a number of culprits behind leg cramps, from overworking or straining your muscles during exercise or other ... Leg cramps, which typically occur in your calves and hamstrings, can feel like a spasm - the muscles contract on their own. ... activities, dehydration, or inadequate levels of minerals which work by helping your muscles function. Leg cramps not caused by ... Leg cramps, which typically occur in your calves and hamstrings, can feel like a spasm - the muscles contract on their own. ...
Calf Muscle Strain. (Pulled Calf Muscle; Gastrocnemius Strain; Gastrocnemius Tear; Gastrocnemius Muscle Injury). by Laurie ... You will be asked about your symptoms and how your injury occurred. An examination of your calf muscle will be done to assess ... A calf muscle strain is a partial or complete tear of the small fibers of the muscles. The calf muscles are located in the back ... To reduce the chance of calf muscle strain:. *Keep your calf muscles strong and flexible, so they can absorb the energy of ...
... and serves as the articulating joint between the thigh and calf muscle groups. The knee is held together primarily by small but ... As previously mentioned, a large number of ligament tears occur due to the relative rotation 412 between the femur and the ... The sensors 114 may be accelerometers, inclinometers, strain gauges, or any other suitable sensing device that can sense or ... Electrical muscle stimulator for knee stabilization. US4829994. 27 May 1987. 16 May 1989. Kurth Paul A. Femoral compression ...
occur under the arch, over the. arch, surface of the heel, ball of the foot, outer border of the. foot or in the calf muscles. ... which lessens the strain on the muscles and ligaments and. minimizes the shock of impact. The reverse is true in the. civilized ... developed muscles under the arch as are also the muscles of. the calf of the leg. In locomotion he has his feet parallel the - ... This cfjndilion usually occurs ni the case of the raw re,riin.. from a recent sedentary occupation whose foot muscles have. ,. ...
  • A pulled muscle, a strained back, a turned ankle, a shoulder sprain -- it can happen in the blink of an eye, usually when you least expect it," says Todd Schlifstein, DO, clinical assistant professor of physical medicine and rehabilitation at New York University Medical Center. (medicinenet.com)
  • Soft-tissue mobility of the calf muscles, balance training , and hip/ core strengthening can be a valuable way to improve symptoms and prevent future shin splints. (paleohacks.com)
  • This can occur if you have previously torn some muscle fibres in that area of your shin, and scar tissue has formed which has irritated the movement of the nerve passing through the area. (nirunning.co.uk)
  • bruising will appear after a couple of days and the calf will be sore to touch. (medic8.com)
  • In the first part of his two-piece review on psoas major (PM), Chris Mallac discussed the relevant and complex anatomy and biomechanics of this unique and misunderstood muscle. (sportsinjurybulletin.com)
  • Afterwards, the calf may swell and it will be difficult to rise up onto the toes. (mydr.com.au)
  • Calf strain occurs during activities that involve pushing off on the toes, such as running or jumping, or sports that require explosive muscle contractions, such as tennis, squash or football. (mydr.com.au)
  • Hey all, I know getting an internet diagnosis is stupid but I don't feel like messing with referrals unless it is something other than a calf strain. (exrx.net)