Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.
Cation-transporting proteins that utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis for the transport of CALCIUM. They differ from CALCIUM CHANNELS which allow calcium to pass through a membrane without the use of energy.
Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.
Proton-translocating ATPases that are involved in acidification of a variety of intracellular compartments.
Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.
Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.
Stable calcium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element calcium, but differ in atomic weight. Ca-42-44, 46, and 48 are stable calcium isotopes.
A salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.
Long-lasting voltage-gated CALCIUM CHANNELS found in both excitable and nonexcitable tissue. They are responsible for normal myocardial and vascular smooth muscle contractility. Five subunits (alpha-1, alpha-2, beta, gamma, and delta) make up the L-type channel. The alpha-1 subunit is the binding site for calcium-based antagonists. Dihydropyridine-based calcium antagonists are used as markers for these binding sites.
Calcium-transporting ATPases found on the PLASMA MEMBRANE that catalyze the active transport of CALCIUM from the CYTOPLASM into the extracellular space. They play a role in maintaining a CALCIUM gradient across plasma membrane.
The calcium salt of oxalic acid, occurring in the urine as crystals and in certain calculi.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
The calcium salt of gluconic acid. The compound has a variety of uses, including its use as a calcium replenisher in hypocalcemic states.
Unstable isotopes of calcium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ca atoms with atomic weights 39, 41, 45, 47, 49, and 50 are radioactive calcium isotopes.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.
Calcium-transporting ATPases that catalyze the active transport of CALCIUM into the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM vesicles from the CYTOPLASM. They are primarily found in MUSCLE CELLS and play a role in the relaxation of MUSCLES.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.
Inorganic compounds that contain calcium as an integral part of the molecule.
CALCIUM CHANNELS that are concentrated in neural tissue. Omega toxins inhibit the actions of these channels by altering their voltage dependence.
A sesquiterpene lactone found in roots of THAPSIA. It inhibits CA(2+)-TRANSPORTING ATPASE mediated uptake of CALCIUM into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.
Agents that increase calcium influx into calcium channels of excitable tissues. This causes vasoconstriction in VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE and/or CARDIAC MUSCLE cells as well as stimulation of insulin release from pancreatic islets. Therefore, tissue-selective calcium agonists have the potential to combat cardiac failure and endocrinological disorders. They have been used primarily in experimental studies in cell and tissue culture.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
Integral membrane proteins that transport protons across a membrane. This transport can be linked to the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. What is referred to as proton pump inhibitors frequently is about POTASSIUM HYDROGEN ATPASE.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
A species of extremely thermophilic, sulfur-reducing archaea. It grows at a maximum temperature of 95 degrees C. in marine or deep-sea geothermal areas.
An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A white powder prepared from lime that has many medical and industrial uses. It is in many dental formulations, especially for root canal filling.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A potent vasodilator agent with calcium antagonistic action. It is a useful anti-anginal agent that also lowers blood pressure.
A calcium salt that is used for a variety of purposes including: building materials, as a desiccant, in dentistry as an impression material, cast, or die, and in medicine for immobilizing casts and as a tablet excipient. It exists in various forms and states of hydration. Plaster of Paris is a mixture of powdered and heat-treated gypsum.
Oxyvanadium ions in various states of oxidation. They act primarily as ion transport inhibitors due to their inhibition of Na(+)-, K(+)-, and Ca(+)-ATPase transport systems. They also have insulin-like action, positive inotropic action on cardiac ventricular muscle, and other metabolic effects.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A fluorescent calcium chelating agent which is used to study intracellular calcium in tissues.
A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.
A colorless crystalline or white powdery organic, tricarboxylic acid occurring in plants, especially citrus fruits, and used as a flavoring agent, as an antioxidant in foods, and as a sequestrating agent. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.
Chemical agents that increase the permeability of biological or artificial lipid membranes to specific ions. Most ionophores are relatively small organic molecules that act as mobile carriers within membranes or coalesce to form ion permeable channels across membranes. Many are antibiotics, and many act as uncoupling agents by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.
A calbindin protein found in many mammalian tissues, including the UTERUS, PLACENTA, BONE, PITUITARY GLAND, and KIDNEYS. In intestinal ENTEROCYTES it mediates intracellular calcium transport from apical to basolateral membranes via calcium binding at two EF-HAND MOTIFS. Expression is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.
A tetrameric calcium release channel in the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM membrane of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, acting oppositely to SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES. It is important in skeletal and cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and studied by using RYANODINE. Abnormalities are implicated in CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS and MUSCULAR DISEASES.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
An inorganic pyrophosphate which affects calcium metabolism in mammals. Abnormalities in its metabolism occur in some human diseases, notably HYPOPHOSPHATASIA and pseudogout (CHONDROCALCINOSIS).
Disorders in the processing of calcium in the body: its absorption, transport, storage, and utilization.
A calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent.
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A family of soluble metal binding proteins that are involved in the intracellular transport of specific metal ions and their transfer to the appropriate metalloprotein precursor.
Pyridine moieties which are partially saturated by the addition of two hydrogen atoms in any position.
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Lanthanum. The prototypical element in the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol La, atomic number 57, and atomic weight 138.91. Lanthanide ion is used in experimental biology as a calcium antagonist; lanthanum oxide improves the optical properties of glass.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
CALCIUM CHANNELS located within the PURKINJE CELLS of the cerebellum. They are involved in stimulation-secretion coupling of neurons.
A benzothiazepine derivative with vasodilating action due to its antagonism of the actions of CALCIUM ion on membrane functions.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Stones in the KIDNEY, usually formed in the urine-collecting area of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS). Their sizes vary and most contains CALCIUM OXALATE.
Reduction of the blood calcium below normal. Manifestations include hyperactive deep tendon reflexes, Chvostek's sign, muscle and abdominal cramps, and carpopedal spasm. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A large group of bacteria including those which oxidize ammonia or nitrite, metabolize sulfur and sulfur compounds, or deposit iron and/or manganese oxides.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A photoprotein isolated from the bioluminescent jellyfish Aequorea. It emits visible light by an intramolecular reaction when a trace amount of calcium ion is added. The light-emitting moiety in the bioluminescence reaction is believed to be 2-amino-3-benzyl-5-(p-hydroxyphenyl)pyrazine (AF-350).
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
The fluid inside CELLS.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A class of G-protein-coupled receptors that react to varying extracellular CALCIUM levels. Calcium-sensing receptors in the PARATHYROID GLANDS play an important role in the maintenance of calcium HOMEOSTASIS by regulating the release of PARATHYROID HORMONE. They differ from INTRACELLULAR CALCIUM-SENSING PROTEINS which sense intracellular calcium levels.
CALCIUM CHANNELS located in the neurons of the brain.
An element of the alkaline earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sr, atomic number 38, and atomic weight 87.62.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Intracellular receptors that bind to INOSITOL 1,4,5-TRISPHOSPHATE and play an important role in its intracellular signaling. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors are calcium channels that release CALCIUM in response to increased levels of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in the CYTOPLASM.
Abnormally high level of calcium in the blood.
Proteins that catalyze the unwinding of duplex DNA during replication by binding cooperatively to single-stranded regions of DNA or to short regions of duplex DNA that are undergoing transient opening. In addition DNA helicases are DNA-dependent ATPases that harness the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate DNA strands.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.
A divalent calcium ionophore that is widely used as a tool to investigate the role of intracellular calcium in cellular processes.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
CALCIUM CHANNELS located in the neurons of the brain. They are inhibited by the marine snail toxin, omega conotoxin MVIIC.
Intracellular messenger formed by the action of phospholipase C on phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, which is one of the phospholipids that make up the cell membrane. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate is released into the cytoplasm where it releases calcium ions from internal stores within the cell's endoplasmic reticulum. These calcium ions stimulate the activity of B kinase or calmodulin.
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
Proton-translocating ATPases which produce ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE in plants. They derive energy from light-driven reactions that develop high concentrations of protons within the membranous cisternae (THYLAKOIDS) of the CHLOROPLASTS.
A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
An ATP-dependent protease found in prokaryotes, CHLOROPLASTS, and MITOCHONDRIA. It is a soluble multisubunit complex that plays a role in the degradation of many abnormal proteins.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
An element with atomic symbol Cd, atomic number 48, and atomic weight 114. It is a metal and ingestion will lead to CADMIUM POISONING.
A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
A neurotoxic peptide, which is a cleavage product (VIa) of the omega-Conotoxin precursor protein contained in venom from the marine snail, CONUS geographus. It is an antagonist of CALCIUM CHANNELS, N-TYPE.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.
Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.
A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.
A rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by the deposition of copper in the BRAIN; LIVER; CORNEA; and other organs. It is caused by defects in the ATP7B gene encoding copper-transporting ATPase 2 (EC, also known as the Wilson disease protein. The overload of copper inevitably leads to progressive liver and neurological dysfunction such as LIVER CIRRHOSIS; TREMOR; ATAXIA and intellectual deterioration. Hepatic dysfunction may precede neurologic dysfunction by several years.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
An inherited disorder of copper metabolism transmitted as an X-linked trait and characterized by the infantile onset of HYPOTHERMIA, feeding difficulties, hypotonia, SEIZURES, bony deformities, pili torti (twisted hair), and severely impaired intellectual development. Defective copper transport across plasma and endoplasmic reticulum membranes results in copper being unavailable for the synthesis of several copper containing enzymes, including PROTEIN-LYSINE 6-OXIDASE; CERULOPLASMIN; and SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE. Pathologic changes include defects in arterial elastin, neuronal loss, and gliosis. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p125)
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A carbodiimide that is used as a chemical intermediate and coupling agent in peptide synthesis. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
A calcium channel blocker with marked vasodilator action. It is an effective antihypertensive agent and differs from other calcium channel blockers in that it does not reduce glomerular filtration rate and is mildly natriuretic, rather than sodium retentive.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
A ubiquitous family of proteins that transport PHOSPHOLIPIDS such as PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL and PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE between membranes. They play an important role in phospholipid metabolism during vesicular transport and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
A methylpyrrole-carboxylate from RYANIA that disrupts the RYANODINE RECEPTOR CALCIUM RELEASE CHANNEL to modify CALCIUM release from SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM resulting in alteration of MUSCLE CONTRACTION. It was previously used in INSECTICIDES. It is used experimentally in conjunction with THAPSIGARGIN and other inhibitors of CALCIUM ATPASE uptake of calcium into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
A calcium channel blockader with preferential cerebrovascular activity. It has marked cerebrovascular dilating effects and lowers blood pressure.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A network of tubules and sacs in the cytoplasm of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that assist with muscle contraction and relaxation by releasing and storing calcium ions.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)
A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
Two pairs of small oval-shaped glands located in the front and the base of the NECK and adjacent to the two lobes of THYROID GLAND. They secrete PARATHYROID HORMONE that regulates the balance of CALCIUM; PHOSPHORUS; and MAGNESIUM in the body.
A family of structurally related neurotoxic peptides from mollusk venom that inhibit voltage-activated entry of calcium into the presynaptic membrane. They selectively inhibit N-, P-, and Q-type calcium channels.
Derivatives of OXALIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are derived from the ethanedioic acid structure.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Membrane-bound proton-translocating ATPases that serve two important physiological functions in bacteria. One function is to generate ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE by utilizing the energy provided by an electrochemical gradient of protons across the cellular membrane. A second function is to counteract a loss of the transmembrane ion gradient by pumping protons at the expense of adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis.
Elements with partially filled d orbitals. They constitute groups 3-12 of the periodic table of elements.
An electrogenic ion exchange protein that maintains a steady level of calcium by removing an amount of calcium equal to that which enters the cells. It is widely distributed in most excitable membranes, including the brain and heart.
A potent antagonist of CALCIUM CHANNELS that is highly selective for VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE. It is effective in the treatment of chronic stable angina pectoris, hypertension, and congestive cardiac failure.
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Protein-lipid combinations abundant in brain tissue, but also present in a wide variety of animal and plant tissues. In contrast to lipoproteins, they are insoluble in water, but soluble in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The protein moiety has a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. The associated lipids consist of a mixture of GLYCEROPHOSPHATES; CEREBROSIDES; and SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS; while lipoproteins contain PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and TRIGLYCERIDES.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Proteins found in any species of archaeon.
Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
Calcium-binding proteins that are found in DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES, INTESTINES, BRAIN, and other tissues where they bind, buffer and transport cytoplasmic calcium. Calbindins possess a variable number of EF-HAND MOTIFS which contain calcium-binding sites. Some isoforms are regulated by VITAMIN D.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Derivative of 7-dehydroxycholesterol formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. It differs from ERGOCALCIFEROL in having a single bond between C22 and C23 and lacking a methyl group at C24.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Compounds with three aromatic rings in linear arrangement with an OXYGEN in the center ring.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A potent calcium channel blockader with marked vasodilator action. It has antihypertensive properties and is effective in the treatment of angina and coronary spasms without showing cardiodepressant effects. It has also been used in the treatment of asthma and enhances the action of specific antineoplastic agents.
Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.
A genus of facultatively anaerobic heterotrophic archaea, in the order THERMOPLASMALES, isolated from self-heating coal refuse piles and acid hot springs. They are thermophilic and can grow both with and without sulfur.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Proteases that contain proteolytic core domains and ATPase-containing regulatory domains. They are usually comprised of large multi-subunit assemblies. The domains can occur within a single peptide chain or on distinct subunits.

A novel interaction mechanism accounting for different acylphosphatase effects on cardiac and fast twitch skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pumps. (1/3607)

In cardiac and skeletal muscle Ca2+ translocation from cytoplasm into sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) is accomplished by different Ca2+-ATPases whose functioning involves the formation and decomposition of an acylphosphorylated phosphoenzyme intermediate (EP). In this study we found that acylphosphatase, an enzyme well represented in muscular tissues and which actively hydrolyzes EP, had different effects on heart (SERCA2a) and fast twitch skeletal muscle SR Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA1). With physiological acylphosphatase concentrations SERCA2a exhibited a parallel increase in the rates of both ATP hydrolysis and Ca2+ transport; in contrast, SERCA1 appeared to be uncoupled since the stimulation of ATP hydrolysis matched an inhibition of Ca2+ pump. These different effects probably depend on phospholamban, which is associated with SERCA2a but not SERCA1. Consistent with this view, the present study suggests that acylphosphatase-induced stimulation of SERCA2a, in addition to an enhanced EP hydrolysis, may be due to a displacement of phospholamban, thus to a removal of its inhibitory effect.  (+info)

Expression of skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase is reduced in rats with postinfarction heart failure. (2/3607)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether heart failure in rats is associated with altered expression of the skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA). METHODS: SERCA protein and mRNA were examined in the soleus muscles of eight female rats with heart failure induced by coronary artery ligation, six weeks after the procedure (mean (SEM) left ventricular end diastolic pressure 20.4 (2.2) mm Hg) and in six sham operated controls by western and northern analyses, respectively. RESULTS: SERCA-2a isoform protein was reduced by 16% (112 000 (4000) v 134 000 (2000) arbitrary units, p < 0.001), and SERCA-2a messenger RNA was reduced by 59% (0.24 (0. 06) v 0.58 (0.02) arbitrary units, p < 0.001). Although rats with heart failure had smaller muscles (0.54 mg/g v 0.66 mg/g body weight), no difference in locomotor activity was observed. CONCLUSIONS: These results may explain the previously documented abnormalities in calcium handling in skeletal muscle from animals with the same model of congestive heart failure, and could be responsible for the accelerated muscle fatigue characteristic of patients with heart failure.  (+info)

Mutations of Arg198 in sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase cause inhibition of hydrolysis of the phosphoenzyme intermediate formed from inorganic phosphate. (3/3607)

Arg198 of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase was substituted with lysine, glutamine, glutamic acid, alanine, and isoleucine by site-directed mutagenesis. Kinetic analysis was performed with microsomal membranes isolated from COS-1 cells which were transfected with the mutated cDNAs. The rate of dephosphorylation of the ADP-insensitive phosphoenzyme was determined by first phosphorylating the Ca2+-ATPase with 32Pi and then diluting the sample with non-radioactive Pi. This rate was reduced substantially in the mutant R198Q, more strongly in the mutants R198A and R1981, and most strongly in the mutant R198E, but to a much lesser extent in R198K. The reduction in the rate of dephosphorylation was consistent with the observed decrease in the turnover rate of the Ca2+-ATPase accompanied by the steady-state accumulation of the ADP-insensitive phosphoenzyme formed from ATP. These results indicate that the positive charge and high hydrophilicity of Arg198 are critical for rapid hydrolysis of the ADP-insensitive phosphoenzyme.  (+info)

Small conductance potassium channels cause an activity-dependent spike frequency adaptation and make the transfer function of neurons logarithmic. (4/3607)

We made a computational model of a single neuron to study the effect of the small conductance (SK) Ca2+-dependent K+ channel on spike frequency adaptation. The model neuron comprised a Na+ conductance, a Ca2+ conductance, and two Ca2+-independent K+ conductances, as well as a small and a large (BK) Ca2+-activated K+ conductance, a Ca2+ pump, and mechanisms for Ca2+ buffering and diffusion. Sustained current injection that simulated synaptic input resulted in a train of action potentials (APs) which in the absence of the SK conductance showed very little adaptation with time. The transfer function of the neuron was nearly linear, i.e., both asymptotic spike rate as well as the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) were approximately linear functions of the input current. Adding an SK conductance with a steep nonlinear dependence on [Ca2+]i (. Pflugers Arch. 422:223-232; Kohler, Hirschberg, Bond, Kinzie, Marrion, Maylie, and Adelman. 1996. Science. 273:1709-1714) caused a marked time-dependent spike frequency adaptation and changed the transfer function of the neuron from linear to logarithmic. Moreover, the input range the neuron responded to with regular spiking increased by a factor of 2.2. These results can be explained by a shunt of the cell resistance caused by the activation of the SK conductance. It might turn out that the logarithmic relationships between the stimuli of some modalities (e.g., sound or light) and the perception of the stimulus intensity (Fechner's law) have a cellular basis in the involvement of SK conductances in the processing of these stimuli.  (+info)

Intracellular EDTA mimics parvalbumin in the promotion of skeletal muscle relaxation. (5/3607)

Parvalbumin (PA) is an intracellular Ca2+-binding protein found in some muscle and nerves. Its ability to bind Ca2+ and facilitate skeletal muscle relaxation is limited by its Mg2+ off-rate. EDTA serves as an "artificial" PA in that it exhibited similar rate constants for Mg2+ (3 s-1) and Ca2+ (0.7 s-1) dissociation at 10 degrees C. When introduced into frog skeletal muscle, EDTA increased the relaxation rate by approximately 2.7-fold, and with increasing tetanus duration, EDTA lost its ability to contribute to relaxation (and Ca2+ sequestration) at its Mg2+ off-rate. Intracellular EDTA recovered its ability to contribute to muscle relaxation and Ca2+ sequestration at its Ca2+ off-rate. Like PA, EDTA's contribution to muscle relaxation and Ca2+ sequestration was more clearly observed when the SR Ca-ATPase was inhibited. Introduction of EDTA into rat soleus muscle, which has low [PA], increased the relaxation rate in a manner that was analogous to the way in which PA facilitates relaxation of frog skeletal muscle. Thus intracellular EDTA serves as an effective mimic of PA, and its use should aid in our understanding of PA's function in muscle and nerve.  (+info)

Short-time effects of neuroactive steroids on rat cortical Ca2+-ATPase activity. (6/3607)

Recent experimental evidence indicates that some steroid hormones, apart from their well-documented genomic actions, could produce non-genomic rapid effects, and are potent modulators of the plasma membrane proteins, including voltage- and ligand-operated ion channels or G protein-coupled receptors. Neuroactive steroids, 17beta-estradiol, testosterone, pregnenolone sulfate and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, after a short-time incubation directly modulated the activity of plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase purified from synaptosomal membranes of rat cortex. The sulfate derivatives of dehydroepiandrosterone and pregnenolone applied at concentrations of 10-11-10-6 M, showed an inverted U-shape potency in the regulation of Ca2+-ATPase activity. At physiologically relevant concentrations (10-8-10-9 M) a maximal enhancement of the basal activity reached 200%. Testosterone (10-11-10-6 M) and 17beta-estradiol (10-12-10-9 M) caused a dose-dependent increase in the hydrolytic ability of Ca2+-ATPase, and the activity with the highest concentration of steroids reached 470% and 200%, respectively. All examined steroids decreased the stimulatory effect of a naturally existing activator of the calcium pump, calmodulin. The present study strongly suggests that the plasma membrane calcium pump could be one of the possible membrane targets for a non-genomic neuroactive steroid action.  (+info)

The sarcoplasmic reticulum and the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger both contribute to the Ca2+ transient of failing human ventricular myocytes. (7/3607)

Our objective was to determine the respective roles of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger in the small, slowly decaying Ca2+ transients of failing human ventricular myocytes. Left ventricular myocytes were isolated from explanted hearts of patients with severe heart failure (n=18). Cytosolic Ca2+, contraction, and action potentials were measured by using indo-1, edge detection, and patch pipettes, respectively. Selective inhibitors of SR Ca2+ transport (thapsigargin) and reverse-mode Na+/Ca2+ exchange activity (No. 7943, Kanebo Ltd) were used to define the respective contribution of these processes to the Ca2+ transient. Ca2+ transients and contractions induced by action potentials (AP transients) at 0.5 Hz exhibited phasic and tonic components. The duration of the tonic component was determined by the action potential duration. Ca2+ transients induced by caffeine (Caf transients) exhibited only a phasic component with a rapid rate of decay that was dependent on extracellular Na+. The SR Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin abolished the phasic component of the AP Ca2+ transient and of the Caf transient but had no significant effect on the tonic component of the AP transient. The Na+/Ca2+ exchange inhibitor No. 7943 eliminated the tonic component of the AP transient and reduced the magnitude of the phasic component. In failing human myocytes, Ca2+ transients and contractions exhibit an SR-related, phasic component and a slow, reverse-mode Na+/Ca2+ exchange-related tonic component. These findings suggest that Ca2+ influx via reverse-mode Na+/Ca2+ exchange during the action potential may contribute to the slow decay of the Ca2+ transient in failing human myocytes.  (+info)

Phospholamban-to-SERCA2 ratio controls the force-frequency relationship. (8/3607)

The force-frequency relationship (FFR) describes the frequency-dependent potentiation of cardiac contractility. The interaction of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-adenosinetriphosphatase (SERCA2) with its inhibitory protein phospholamban (PLB) might be involved in the control of the FFR. The FFR was analyzed in two systems in which the PLB-to-SERCA2 ratio was modulated. Adult rabbit cardiac myocytes were transduced with adenovirus encoding for SERCA2, PLB, and beta-galactosidase (control). After 3 days, the relative PLB/SERCA2 values were significantly different between groups (SERCA2, 0.5; control, 1.0; PLB, 4.5). SERCA2 overexpression shortened relaxation by 23% relative to control, whereas PLB prolonged relaxation by 39% and reduced contractility by 47% (0.1 Hz). When the stimulation frequency was increased to 1.5 Hz, myocyte contractility was increased by 30% in control myocytes. PLB-overexpressing myocytes showed an augmented positive FFR (+78%), whereas SERCA2-transduced myocytes displayed a negative FFR (-15%). A more negative FFR was also found in papillary muscles from SERCA2 transgenic mice. These findings demonstrate that the ratio of phospholamban to SERCA2 is an important component in the control of the FFR.  (+info)

The finding that negatively charged phospholipids activate the plasma-membrane (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase and that polycations counteract this stimulation suggest that negative charges in the environment of the ATPase protein could be important for its function. The aim of the present work was to investigate whether changing the charges on the ATPase protein itself by modifying the pH within the physiological range affects the activity of the purified plasma-membrane Ca2+ pump from stomach smooth muscle. Increasing the pH from 6.9 to 7.4 and using 1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N′,N′-tetra-acetic acid (BAPTA) as a Ca2+ buffer, doubled the ATPase activity at 0.3 microM-Ca2+ in the presence of 100% phosphatidylcholine (PC) or after substituting 20% of the PC by negatively charged phospholipids PtdIns, PtdIns4P, phosphatidylserine and phosphatidic acid. This stimulatory effect was due to an increased affinity of the enzyme for Ca2+, while the Vmax. remained unaffected. In the case of ...
Although many aspects of capacitative Ca2+ entry remain unknown or controversial, the store-dependent generation of the plasma membrane Ca2+ influx appears to be certain and well documented. The first direct experimental proof of the capacitative Ca2+ entry model was demonstrated by Hallam et al. (5). They determined that depletion of the intracellular stores activated Ca2+ entry by a mechanism independent of receptor occupation or inositol phosphates. Depletion of the intracellular stores by repetitive agonist stimulation in a Ca2+-free environment triggered a large influx of Ca2+ when the ion was returned to the extracellular environment. This large Ca2+ influx or overshoot is now the characteristic trademark of capacitative Ca2+ entry. This influx pathway can also be activated by inhibition of the sarcoplasmic-endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase pump using thapsigargin, cyclopiazonic acid, or 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1,4-benzohydroquinone. These inhibitors block the sequestration of Ca2+, thereby ...
A molecular ribbon model of a calcium pump, a structure responsible for coordinating muscular contraction or signalling other cells along the cell membrane. Calcium pumps are embedded in the sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle cells, transferring two calcium ions for each molecule of ATP broken down. - Stock Image C017/6296
ATPase molecule. Computer model showing the structure of the catalytic F1 unit of an ATP synthase (ATPase) molecule from a rat mitochondrion. ATPase is an important enzyme that provides energy for cells through the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate. - Stock Image C015/3983 Principles of Programming Languages: Design, Evaluation, and Implementation (9780195113068) by Bruce J. MacLennan and a great selection of similar New, Used and Collectible Books available now at great prices.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of Melittin on Molecular Dynamics and Ca-ATPase Activity in Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Membranes. T2 - Electron Paramagnetic Resonance. AU - Mahaney, James E.. AU - Thomas, David D. PY - 1991/7/1. Y1 - 1991/7/1. N2 - We have performed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) experiments on nitroxide spin labels incorporated into rabbit skeletal sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), in order to investigate the physical and functional interactions between melittin, a small basic membrane-binding peptide, and the Ca-ATPase of SR. Melittin binding to SR substantially inhibits Ca2+-dependent ATPase activity at 25 °C, with half-maximal inhibition at 9 mol of melittin bound per mole of Ca-ATPase. Saturation transfer EPR (ST-EPR) of maleimide spin-labeled Ca-ATPase showed that melittin decreases the submillisecond rotational mobility of the enzyme, with a 4-fold increase in the effective rotational correlation time (τr) at a melittin/Ca-ATPase mole ratio of 10:1. This decreased rotational ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ca2+ signalling in cardiovascular disease. T2 - the role of the plasma membrane calcium pumps. AU - Cartwright, Elizabeth J. AU - Oceandy, Delvac. AU - Austin, Clare. AU - Neyses, Ludwig. PY - 2011/8. Y1 - 2011/8. N2 - The plasma membrane calcium ATPases (PMCA) are a family of genes which extrude Ca(2+) from the cell and are involved in the maintenance of intracellular free calcium levels and/or with Ca(2+) signalling, depending on the cell type. In the cardiovascular system, Ca(2+) is not only essential for contraction and relaxation but also has a vital role as a second messenger in signal transduction pathways. A complex array of mechanisms regulate intracellular free calcium levels in the heart and vasculature and a failure in these systems to maintain normal Ca(2+) homeostasis has been linked to both heart failure and hypertension. This article focuses on the functions of PMCA, in particular isoform 4 (PMCA4), in the heart and vasculature and the reported links between PMCAs ...
Paramecium, a unicellular ciliate, can be attracted by various chemical stimuli. Chemoattractants such as glutamate, folate, cAMP, and acetate activate different receptor mediated signal transduction pathways. The final event in these signal transductions is a hyperpolarization of membrane potential, which makes Paramecium swim smoothly and fast. There is evidence that the effecter of this hyperpolarization is the plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA), that when activated, expels Ca2+ from the cell. In Paramecium three PMCA isoforms, named PMCA2, 3, and 4, have been cloned. PMCA2 is associated with lipid rafts, which is demonstrated by its resistance to cold detergent solubilization and distribution in sucrose density gradients in ultracentrifugation. PMCA3 and 4 are not associated with lipid rafts. On the cell surface, PMCAs are localized to the bases of cilia. Sterol-depletion by methyl-ß-cyclodextrin (MßCD) treatment disrupts the distribution of PMCA2 in sucrose density gradients and ciliary base
A dysfunctioning of Ca2+ pump ATPase in the sarcoplasmic reticulum in vascular smooth muscle has been proposed as a contributing factor for the development of genetic hypertension. In this study, we determined whether in vitro inhibition of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ pump in vascular smooth muscle tissues and cultured cells isolated from aortas of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats would elicit the known alterations of contractile function and cell growth. We found the following common vascular effects of thapsigargin and cyclopiazonic acid, which are known to be selective inhibitors of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase in a number of tissues including smooth muscle: (1) Both sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ pump inhibitors diminished agonist-induced transient contraction in Ca(2+)-free medium (ie, contraction due to intracellular release of Ca2+) and enhanced nifedipine-sensitive contraction on readmission of Ca2+ (ie, Ca2+ influx via L-type channels); and (2) ...
Angiogenesis, the de novo growth of blood vessels from pre-existing vessels, is an imperative, tightly-regulated process that underpins the expansion and refinement of the developing vascular network. However, in some pathological conditions, such as after a myocardial infarction, the vascular network can be destroyed necessitating the need for angiogenesis. Therefore stimulating angiogenesis could be therapeutically advantageous. Recently, plasma membrane calcium ATPase 4 (PMCA) has been established as a novel mediator of angiogenesis through its role in endothelial cell migration and tubule formation. In addition to PMCA4, both PMCA1 and PMCA2 are also expressed in human endothelial cells but their contribution to angiogenesis remains unknown. Therefore, we hypothesise that PMCA1 also modulates angiogenesis by altering endothelial cell behaviours.. Transient knockdown of PMCA1 was achieved in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) using siRNA (si-PMCA1) and confirmed with qPCR and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The role of ganglioside GM3 in the modulation of conformation and activity of sarcoplasmic reticulum CA2+-ATPase. AU - Yang, F. Y.. AU - Wang, L. H.. AU - Yang, X. Y.. AU - Tsui, Z. C.. AU - Tu, Yaping. PY - 1997/10. Y1 - 1997/10. N2 - Rabbit sarcoplasmic reticulum does contain trace amounts of gangliosides, and the main species is GM3. Incorporation of GM3 into the SR vesicles or addition of it to the soybean phospholipid used for reconstitution of proteoliposomes obviously increased ATP hydrolysis, as well as, Ca2+ uptake activity of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase. Conformation changes of Ca2+-ATPase induced by GM3 were also observed by circular dichroism, intrinsic fluorescence and fluorescence quenching measurements.. AB - Rabbit sarcoplasmic reticulum does contain trace amounts of gangliosides, and the main species is GM3. Incorporation of GM3 into the SR vesicles or addition of it to the soybean phospholipid used for reconstitution of proteoliposomes obviously increased ...
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of calcium. Transports calcium ions from the cytosol into the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum lumen. Contributes to calcium sequestration involved in muscular excitation/contraction.
The autoinhibition/activation of the PMCA (plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase) involves conformational changes in the membrane region of the protein that affect the amount of lipids directly associated with the transmembrane domain. The lipid-protein-dependence of PMCA isoforms 2 and 4 expressed and obtained in purified form from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated using the phosphatidylcholine analogue [125I]TID-PC/16 {l-O-hexadecanoyl-2-O-[9-[[[2-[125I]iodo-4-(trifluoromemyl-3H-diazirin-3-yl)benzyl]oxy]carbonyl]nonanoyl]-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine}, which was incorporated into mixtures of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine and the non-ionic detergent C12E10 [deca(ethylene glycol) dodecyl ether]. We found no differences between the recombinant PMCA4 and PMCA purified from erythrocytes (ePMCA). However, titration of the half-maximal activation by Ca2+/calmodulin of PMCA2 showed 30-fold higher affinity than PMCA4. PMCA2 exhibited a lower level of labelling in the autoinhibited conformation relative ...
It has been proposed that breakdown of the excitation-contraction coupling system plays a pivotal role in myocardial dysfunction during the course of acute ischemia. We tested this hypothesis by characterizing the function of the sarcoplasmic reticulum at pH 7.1 and 6.4 after 7.5, 15, and 30 minutes of canine normothermic global ischemia. At pH 7.1, whole heart homogenate sarcoplasmic reticulum demonstrated a 49% depression of oxalate-supported calcium uptake at 7.5 minutes of ischemia, which progressed to 85% at 30 minutes of ischemia. At pH 6.4, control homogenate calcium uptake rates were significantly depressed, accompanied by a further depression in the ischemic groups. Isolated sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium uptake mirrored the effects of the whole heart homogenate. Calcium-stimulated magnesium-dependent ATPase (calcium-ATPase) activity was significantly depressed by both ischemia and acidosis, with a decrease in the coupling ratio (mumol calcium/mumol ATP) at 15 and 30 minutes of ...
Calcium management differs in T and B lymphocytes. [Ca2+]i elevation in response to calcium ionophores is up to 10 times greater in T cells than B cells. There is no difference between them in ionophore uptake. T cells, but not B cells, possess a calcium-sensitive potassium channel which produces membrane hyperpolarization at [Ca2+]i above 200 nM. This alters T cell density providing a rapid and easy method of cell separation. In contrast, B cells depolarize when [Ca2+]i is increased. Isolated B cell membrane vesicle ATP-dependent calcium pump activity is higher than T cell vesicles. Membrane depolarization reduces the [Ca2+]i response to ionomycin, most dramatically in T cells because they are hyperpolarized by increased [Ca2+]i. The most likely basis of this behavior is an effect of membrane potential on lymphocyte membrane calcium pump activity. This mechanism provides an explanation of the inhibitory effect of membrane depolarization on T lymphocyte responses. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of the ATP-binding domain of the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase. T2 - Probing nucleotide binding by multidimensional NMR. AU - Abu-Abed, Mona. AU - Mal, Tapas K.. AU - Kainosho, Masatsune. AU - MacLennan, David H.. AU - Ikura, Mitsuhiko. PY - 2002/1/29. Y1 - 2002/1/29. N2 - The skeletal muscle sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA1a) mediates muscle relaxation by pumping Ca2+ from the cytosol to the ER/SR lumen. In efforts aimed at understanding the structural basis for the conformational changes accompanying the reaction cycle catalyzed by SERCA1a, we have studied the ATP-binding domain of SERCA1a in both nucleotide-bound and -free forms by NMR. Limited proteolysis analyses guided us to express a 28 kDa stably folded fragment containing the nucleotide-binding domain of SERCA1a spanning residues Thr357-Leu600. ATP binding activity was demonstrated for this fragment by a FITC competition assay. A nearly complete backbone resonance assignment of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The regulation of ATPase-ATPase interactions in sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane. I. The effects of Ca2+, ATP, and inorganic phosphate.. AU - Dux, L.. AU - Martonosi, A.. PY - 1983/10/10. Y1 - 1983/10/10. N2 - Two-dimensional crystalline arrays of Ca2+-ATPase molecules develop after treatment of sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles with Na3VO4 in calcium-free medium (Dux, L., and Martonosi, A. (1983) J. Biol. Chem. 258, 2599-2603). The formation of Ca2+-ATPase crystals is inhibited by Ca2+ (2 microM), or ATP (5 mM), but not by ADP, 5-adenylylimidodiphosphate, or adenylylmethylenediphosphonate. ATPase crystals did not form at 37 degrees C and exposure of preformed crystals to 37 degrees C for 1 h caused the disappearance of crystal lattice. Inorganic orthophosphate (1 mM at pH 6.0) promoted the formation of a distinct crystal form of Ca2+-ATPase, which was different from that produced by Na3VO4. These observations indicate that Ca2+, ATP, inorganic phosphate, pH, and temperature ...
In this study, we have analysed the relationship between Ca2+ pumps and Ins(1,4,5)P3-sensitive Ca2+ channels in myeloid cells. To study whether sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA)-type Ca2+-ATPases are responsible for Ca2+ uptake into Ins(1,4,5)P3-sensitive Ca2+ stores, we used the three structurally unrelated inhibitors thapsigargin, 2,5-di-t-butylhydroquinone and cyclopiazonic acid. In HL-60 cells, all three compounds precluded formation of the phosphorylated intermediate of SERCA-type Ca2+-ATPases. They also decreased, in parallel, ATP-dependent Ca2+ accumulation and the amount of Ins(1,4,5)P3-releasable Ca2+. Immunoblotting with subtype-directed antibodies demonstrated that HL-60 cells contain the Ca2+ pump SERCA2 (subtype b), and the Ca2+-release-channel type-1 Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptor. In subcellular fractionation studies, SERCA2 and type-1 Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptor co-purified. Immunofluorescence studies demonstrated that both type-1 Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptor and SERCA2 were ...
Unregulated increases in cellular Ca2+ homeostasis are a hallmark of pathophysiological conditions and a key trigger of cell death. Endothelial cells cultured under physiologic O2 conditions (5% O2) exhibit a reduced cytosolic Ca2+ response to stimulation. The mechanism for reduced plateau [Ca2+]i upon stimulation was due to increased sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA)-mediated reuptake rather than changes in Ca2+ influx capacity. Agonist-stimulated phosphorylation of the SERCA regulatory protein phospholamban was increased in cells cultured under 5% O2 Elevation of cytosolic and mitochondrial [Ca2+] and cell death after prolonged ionomycin treatment, as a model of Ca2+ overload, were lower when cells were cultured long-term under 5% compared with 18% O2 This protection was abolished by cotreatment with the SERCA inhibitor cyclopiazonic acid ...
The transfer of the terminal phosphate of ATP to a material from the sarcoplasmic reticulum of cardiac muscle which can be precipitated by trichloroacetic acid was studied, and the relationship of this biochemical event to active Ca2+ transport was examined. A component of the phosphoryl transfer reaction was stimulated specifically by Ca2+. Both the phosphorylation of the reticulum and the active sequestering of Ca2+ were proportional to the Ca2+ concentration between 10-7 and 10-5M. The time course of both phenomena was similar. These and other observations relating Ca2+-dependent phosphorylation of the membrane of the sarcoplasmic reticulum with the activesequestering of Ca2+ suggest that the phosphoryl transfer reaction may represent the formation of a carrier system which facilitates the inward flux of Ca2+ against a concentration gradient. Cyclic AMP, theophylline, or the combination of these two agents did not influence the rate or extent of the phosphorylation of the sarcoplasmic ...
The regulatory function of α1B-adrenoceptors in mammalian heart homeostasis is controversial. The objective of the present study was to characterize the expression/activity of key proteins implicated in cardiac calcium handling (Na+/K+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPases) and growth (ERK1/2, JNK1/2 and p38) in mice with cardiac-selective overexpression of constitutively active mutant α1B-adrenoceptor (CAMα1B-AR), which present a mild cardiac hypertrophy phenotype. Immunoblot assays showed that myocardial plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA) expression was increased by 30% in CAMα1B-AR mice (N = 6, P , 0.05), although there was no change in sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA2) expression. Moreover, total Ca2+-ATPase activity was not modified, but a significant increase in the activity of the thapsigargin-resistant (PMCA) to thapsigargin-sensitive (SERCA) ratio was detected. Neither Na+/K+-ATPase activity nor the expression of α1 and α2 subunit isoforms was changed in CAMα1B-AR mouse hearts. ...
Xu, K.Y.; Vandegaer, K.; Becker, L.C., 1999: The sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase is depressed in stunned myocardium after ischemia-reperfusion, but remains functionally coupled to sarcoplasmic reticulum-bound glycolytic enzymes
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Claire Harper, Laura Wootton, Francesco Michelangeli, Linda Lefièvre, Christopher Barratt, Stephen Publicover].
The structure, function and molecular biology of Ca2+ dependent regulatory proteins (particularly calmodulin) and the target proteins which they regulate is under study. One primary focus is the plasma membrane Ca2+-pumping ATPase (PMCA) in eucaryotes. Multiple isoforms of this enzyme are produced by alternative splicing of primary transcripts of four distinct genes. By artificial manipulation of expression through recombinant DNA methods, we have shown that products of one of these genes is required for proper cell adhesion, expression of a specific cell adhesion moleucle and for proper nerve growth factor action in a neuronal cell paradigm. We have also shown that the plasma membrane calcium pump is regulated by contact mediated tyrosine phosphorylation in both excitable cells and platelets. Studies are currently in progress using a variety of biochemical, immunological and molecular biological approaches to further elucidate the functions, expression, localization and physiological roles of ...
Evidence against inhibition of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-pump as mechanism of H2O2-induced contraction of rat aorta. Academic Article ...
Buy our Recombinant Human Phospholamban protein. Ab114227 is a protein fragment produced in Wheat germ and has been validated in WB, ELISA, SDS-PAGE. Abcam…
Identification of novel regulators of cardiac hypertrophy is key in understanding the mechanisms of heart failure. The plasma membrane calcium ATPase 4 (PMCA4)...
The sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ -ATPase, SERCA2b or ATP2A2, is encoded by the ATP2A2 gene. Mutatioins give rise to Dariers disease; the spectrum of mutations have been related to patients phenotypes (Ahn et al., 2003; Godic et al. 2010). SERCA1 functions as a heat generator in mitochondria of brown adipose tissue (de Meis et al., 2006). It normally functions as a Ca2+:H+ antiporter (Karjalainen et al., 2007). Capsaicin converts SERCA to a Ca2+ non-transporting ATPase that generates heat, and is thus a natural drug that augments uncoupled SERCA, resulting in thermogenesis (Mahmmoud, 2008b). Oligomeric interactions of the N-terminus of sarcolipin with the Ca-ATPase have been documented (Autry et al., 2011), and these interactions also uncouple ATP hydrolysis from Ca2+ transport (Sahoo et al. 2015) resulting in thermogenesis. TMS 11, absent in SERCA1a and SERCA2a, functions in regulation (Gorski et al. 2012). The bovine SERCA has also been crystallized (2.9 Å resolution; Sacchetto et al., ...
Plasma Membrane Calcium ATPase 4, PMCA4, is the major Ca2+ efflux pump in murine sperm where its deletion leads to a severe loss of hyperactivated motility and to male infertility. Here I show that Pmca4 mRNA, 4a and 4b ...
In both cardiac and slow-twitch skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) there are several systems involved in the regulation of Ca2+-ATPase function. T
As a consequence of their vital importance, impaired activity of the ion pumps - such as by mutations or toxic compounds inhibiting them - is associated with diseases. Oppositely, the ion pumps can be targeted by medical drugs to alleviate ionic imbalances associated with disease, or they can be targeted in cancer cells or pathogenic organisms that then die. It is therefore very important to know how they work at an atomic level. To gain such insight, the research team used X-ray crystallography after having crystallized the calcium pump in a state that mimics the last step of the ATP cleaving reaction. In this state, a phosphoenzyme middle-product is cleaved to liberate free phosphate as the final product of the ATPase reaction, and after calcium has been released into the sarco-endoplasmic reticulum store. This step is closely mimicked by vanadate, where the phosphorus atom is replaced by vanadium and therefore produces a stable complex instead of a short-lived transition state. Like this a ...
Buy, download and read The Development of the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum ebook online in PDF format for iPhone, iPad, Android, Computer and Mobile readers. Author: Anthony Martonosi. ISBN: 9781482283624. Publisher: CRC Press. Sarcoplasmic reticulum is a form of endoplasmic reticulum found in large quantities in mature muscle cells. Anthony Martonosi presents general information about the development and function of the sar
DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de lULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
Mitsugumin 23 (MG23), also called TM protein 109 (Venturi et al., 2011). MG23 is a Ca2+ channel protein that is regulated by cytoplasmic Zn2+, and dysregulation of this ion channel plays a role in diastolic sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ homeostasis, promoting leakage from the SR (Reilly-ODonnell et al. 2017 ...
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Introduction ATPase proteins are enzymes which are able to supply energy by cleaving ATP into ADP and phosphate. This energy can be used for…
Looking for online definition of Plasma membrane calcium pump isoform 4 in the Medical Dictionary? Plasma membrane calcium pump isoform 4 explanation free. What is Plasma membrane calcium pump isoform 4? Meaning of Plasma membrane calcium pump isoform 4 medical term. What does Plasma membrane calcium pump isoform 4 mean?
Looking for online definition of plasma membrane calcium pump in the Medical Dictionary? plasma membrane calcium pump explanation free. What is plasma membrane calcium pump? Meaning of plasma membrane calcium pump medical term. What does plasma membrane calcium pump mean?
HAILEY-HAILEY DISEASE. What are the aims of this leaflet?. This leaflet has been written to help you understand more about Hailey-Hailey disease. It tells you what it is, what causes it, what can be done about it, and where you can find out more about it.. What is Hailey-Hailey disease?. Hailey-Hailey disease is also known as familial benign chronic pemphigus, as originally described by the Hailey brothers. It is a rare inherited skin condition in which red scaly areas that can be itchy and sore, can lead to superficial blisters and eroded (broken) areas of the skin folds of the groin, armpits, neck and under the breasts. The condition flares intermittently and tends to come and go. Many patients are able to lead full and normal lives, with their condition being a nuisance rather than a serious problem. Some patients are more severely affected and experience more persistent painful raw areas of the skin with development of superficial blisters.. What causes Hailey-Hailey disease?. A small error ...
Ion pumps are integral membrane proteins responsible for transporting ions against concentration gradients across biological membranes. Sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA), a member of the P-type ATPases family, transports two calcium ions per hydrolyzed ATP molecule via an alternating-access mechanism. High-resolution crystallographic structures provide invaluable insight on the structural mechanism of the ion pumping process. However, to understand the molecular details of how ATP hydrolysis is coupled to calcium transport, it is necessary to gain knowledge about the conformational transition pathways connecting the crystallographically resolved conformations. Large-scale transitions in SERCA occur at time-scales beyond the current reach of unbiased molecular dynamics simulations. Here, we overcome this challenge by employing the string method, which represents a transition pathway as a chainofstates linking two conformational endpoints. Using a multiscale methodology, we have ...
2015 by the American Thoracic Society. Autopsy specimens from human victims or experimental animals that die due to acute chlorine gas exposure present features of cardiovascular pathology. We demonstrate acute chlorine inhalation-induced reduction in heart rate and oxygen saturation in rats. Chlorine inhalation elevated chlorine reactants, such as chlorotyrosine and chloramine, in blood plasma. Using heart tissue and primary cardiomyocytes, we demonstrated that acute highconcentration chlorine exposure in vivo (500 ppm for 30 min) caused decreased total ATP content and loss of sarcoendoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA) activity. Loss of SERCA activity was attributed to chlorination of tyrosine residues and oxidation of an important cysteine residue, cysteine-674, in SERCA, as demonstrated by immunoblots and mass spectrometry. Using cardiomyocytes, we found that chlorine-induced cell death and damage to SERCA could be decreased by thiocyanate, an important biological antioxidant, and by ...
Tryptic peptides of Ca-ATPase in Et and E2 conformational states (Andersen, J. P., Jørgensen, P. L.,J. Membrane Biol. 88:187-198 (1985)) have been isolated by size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography in sodium dodecyl sulfate. This permitted unambiguous localization of a conformational sensitive tryptic split at Arg 198 by N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis. Other splits at Arg 505 and at Arg 819-Lys 825 were insensitive to E1-E2 transitions. Tryptic cleavage of Ca-ATPase after phosphorylation by inorganic phosphate showed that this enzyme form has a conformation similar to that of the vanadate-bound E2 state, both in membranous and in soluble monomeric Ca-ATPase. Hydrophobic labeling of Ca-ATPase in sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles with the photoactivable reagent trifluoromethyl-[125I]iodophenyl-diazirine indicated that E2 and E2V states are more exposed to the membrane phase than E1 and E1P (Ca2+-occluded) states. The preferetial hydrophobic labeling in E2 forms was found to be
Hailey-Hailey disease is a rare genetic condition that is characterized by blistering or scaling of the skin, usually over the neck, skin folds, armpits and genitals. The condition usually becomes apparent between the ages of 15 and 40 years, although symptoms may develop at any age.
The sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA) family of proteins function as calcium pumps in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) membranes. SERCA1a is found exclusively in fast-twitch muscle cells and mediates muscle relaxation by pumping calcium back into the SR after calcium has been released into the cytoplasm to elicit muscle contraction. The mechanism which allows SR biogenesis is not known, but SR membrane is believed to bud from the ER. One hypothesis is that SERCA1a proteins play a significant role in SR biogenesis in fast-twitch skeletal muscle due the proteins large size and clustering into large arrays in the SR membrane. SERCA1a arrays could recruit lipids which would allow for a large increase in membrane size that could result in the formation of the SR. Also, SERCA1a is highly expressed during the early stages of myogenesis, at the same time the first emergence of the SR is observed. It is known that SERCA1a contains ER targeting information ...
In previous efforts to characterize sarcoplasmic reticulum function in human muscles, it has not been possible to distinguish the relative contributions of fast-twitch and slow-twitch fibers. In this study, we have used light scattering and 45Ca to monitor Ca accumulation by the sarcoplasmic reticulum of isolated, chemically skinned human muscle fibers in the presence and absence of oxalate. Oxalate (5 mM) increased the capacity for Ca accumulation by a factor of 35 and made it possible to assess both rate of Ca uptake and relative sarcoplasmic reticulum volume in individual fibers. At a fixed ionized Ca concentration, the rate and maximal capacity (an index of sarcoplasmic reticulum volume) both varied over a wide range, but fibers fell into two distinct groups (fast and slow). Between the two groups, there was a 2- to 2.5-fold difference in oxalate-supported Ca uptake rates, but no difference in average sarcoplasmic reticulum volumes. Intrinsic differences in sarcoplasmic reticulum function ...
In muscle cells, the excitation-contraction cycle is triggered by an increase in the concentration of free cytoplasmic Ca(2+). The Ca(2+)-ATPase present in the membrane of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) pumps Ca(2+) from the cytosol into this intracellular compartment, thus promoting muscle relaxation. The microsomal fraction derived from the longitudinal smooth muscle of the body wall from the sea cucumber Ludwigothurea grisea retains a membrane-bound Ca(2+)-ATPase that is able to transport Ca(2+) mediated by ATP hydrolysis. Immunological analyses reveal that monoclonal antibodies against sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA1 and SERCA2a) cross-react with a 110 kDa band, indicating that the sea cucumber Ca(2+)-ATPase is a SERCA-type ATPase. Like the mammalian Ca(2+)-ATPase isoforms so far described, the enzyme also shows a high affinity for Ca(2+) and ATP, has an optimum pH of approximately 7.0 and is sensitive to thapsigargin and cyclopiazonic acid, specific inhibitors of the ...
The major finding of the present study is that type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with the cleavage of platelet PECAM-1 through a mechanism involving the tyrosine nitration of SERCA-2, an increase in [Ca2+]i, and the activation of the Ca2+-dependent protease μ-calpain. Moreover, treating subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus with the PPAR-γ agonist rosiglitazone successfully reversed many of these changes and restored platelet [Ca2+]i, calpain activity, and PECAM-1 to levels comparable to those detected in nondiabetic subjects. From these results, it is clear that megakaryocytes/platelets are an additional cellular target for PPAR-γ agonists.. Intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis in platelets from patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus is reported to be altered, leading to an increased adhesiveness and spontaneous aggregation. One factor that contributes to the disturbed platelet [Ca2+]i in diabetic subjects is a marked reduction in Ca2+-ATPase activity.3,4 Although human platelets coexpress ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Transmembrane Ca2+ gradient-mediated change of fluidity in the inner layer of phospholipids modulates Ca2+-ATPase of sarcoplasmic reticulum. AU - Tu, Yaping. AU - Xu, H.. AU - Yang, F. Y.. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - Sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) vesicles with (1000 folds) or without transmembrane Ca2+ gradient have been prepared. Different fluorescence probes (DPH, TMA-DPH and n-AS), were used to determine the effect of transmembrane Ca2+ gradient on the lipid fluidity both in outer and inner layer of Ca2+-ATPase-containing SR vesicles. The results showed that transmembrane Ca2+ gradient could significantly decrease the fluidity of the inner layer of SR membrane, while no obvious change was monitored in the outer layer. This may be deduced that Ca2+-ATPase might be modulated mainly by the transmembrane Ca2+ gradient-mediated alteration of physical state of phospholipid in the inner layer of SR membrane.. AB - Sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) vesicles with (1000 folds) or without ...
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Localized, transient elevations in cytosolic Ca2+, known as Ca2+ sparks, caused by Ca2+ release from sarcoplasmic reticulum, are thought to trigger the opening of large conductance Ca2+-activated potassium channels in the plasma membrane resulting in spontaneous transient outward currents (STOCs) in smooth muscle cells. But the precise relationships between Ca2+ concentration within the sarcoplasmic reticulum and a Ca2+ spark and that between a Ca2+ spark and a STOC are not well defined or fully understood. To address these problems, we have employed two approaches using single patch-clamped smooth muscle cells freshly dissociated from toad stomach: a high speed, wide-field imaging system to simultaneously record Ca2+ sparks and STOCs, and a method to simultaneously measure free global Ca2+ concentration in the sarcoplasmic reticulum ([Ca2+]SR) and in the cytosol ([Ca2+]CYTO) along with STOCs. At a holding potential of 0 mV, cells displayed Ca2+ sparks and STOCs. Ca2+ sparks were associated with STOCs;
Buy anti-ATP2A2 antibody, Mouse ATPase 2, Ca2+ Transporting, Sarcoplasmic Endoplasmic Reticulum Monoclonal Antibody (Clone 6D141)-NP_999030.1 (MBS604309) product datasheet at MyBioSource, Primary Antibodies. Application: Western Blot (WB), Immunohistochemistry (IHC), Immunocytochemistry (ICC)
The sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) pumps are approximately 100 kDa transmembranous proteins that catalyze the ATP-dependent transport of cytosolic Ca2+ [Ca2+]i into the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), thereby maintaining low concentrations of resting [Ca2+]i. Reactive free- and non-radical oxygen and nitrogen species regulate SERCA function. Additionally, free radicals can oxidize lipids producing bioactive lipid-peroxidation end-products which are capable of modifying membranous proteins, resulting in protein inactivation. Here, in order to characterize the effect of 4-HNE, a lipid-peroxidation end-product, on SERCA structure and function, mouse WG and LV tissues were treated with 4-HNE and subsequently assayed for maximal Ca2+-dependent SERCA activity and SERCA post-translational structural modifications. Ca2+-dependent, maximal SERCA activity assays demonstrate a dose-dependent functional impairment of the SERCA pumps following 4-HNE treatment; interestingly, western blotting ...
Strehler EE and Zacharias DA. Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Mayo Graduate School, Mayo Clinic/Foundation, Rochester, Minnesota, USA. [email protected] Calcium pumps of the plasma membrane (also known as plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPases or PMCAs) are responsible for the expulsion of Ca(2+) from the cytosol of all eukaryotic cells. Together with Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchangers, they are the major plasma membrane transport system responsible for the long-term regulation of the resting intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. Like the Ca(2+) pumps of the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum (SERCAs), which pump Ca(2+) from the cytosol into the endoplasmic reticulum, the PMCAs belong to the family of P-type primary ion transport ATPases characterized by the formation of an aspartyl phosphate intermediate during the reaction cycle. Mammalian PMCAs are encoded by four separate genes, and additional isoform variants are generated via alternative RNA splicing of the primary gene transcripts. The ...
Recent studies have been directed towards the potential therapeutic value of improving the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) function in the failing myocardium. Overexpression of SERCA pump or inhibiting the function of phospholamban (PLB) has been shown to improve the cardiac function in failing myocardium. Towards this goal, we enhanced the SERCA pump activity in both atria and ventricle by ablating its key regulators, PLB and sarcolipin (SLN). The homozygous double knockout (dKO) pups were delivered in Mendelian ratio and reached adulthood without any visible abnormalities. However, these mice develop cardiac hypertrophy. The heart weight to body weight ratio significantly increased in 3- 4 months old dKO mice (WT-3.08±0.11 vs. dKO-4.14±0.14) and is associated with enlargement of myocytes (WT-117±8 μm2 vs. dKO-166±10 μm2). Ablation of PLB and SLN did not affect the expression of major Ca2+ handling proteins including SERCA2a, calsequestrin, L-type Ca2+ channel and ...
Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology. Stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) regulates sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ -ATPase 1a (SERCA1a) in skeletal muscle Keon Jin Lee 1 , Changdo Hyun 1 , Jin Seok Woo 1 , Chang Sik Park 2 , Do Han Kim 2 , Eun Hui Lee 1,* Slideshow...
We describe for the first time that SERCA1 truncated proteins encoded by new splice variants (S1T) of the SERCA1 gene. S1T are characterized by exon 4 and/or exon 11 splicing, leading to COOH-terminally truncated proteins with deletion of transmembrane segments M2 and/or M5 to M10 including six out of seven transmembrane calcium-binding residues (Toyoshima et al. 2000). Consistent with the analysis of previously reported SERCA1 mutants (MacLennan et al. 1998), they are unable to pump calcium. We show that S1T protein overexpression is associated with a reduction in the ER Ca2+ steady state level and an increase in ER Ca2+ leakage. Our results also demonstrate that these proteins modulate SERCA-dependent ER calcium accumulation and induce apoptotic cell death.. S1T splice variants were detectable by RT-PCR at variable levels in different adult tissues, including spleen, thymus, pancreas, kidney, and liver, but not in adult and fetal skeletal muscle and heart. The relative amount of S1T, as ...
Ischemic cardiovascular disease shows trends of increasing morbidity and mortality in the United States and around the world. Current therapeutic options are limited, but the identification of key disease mechanisms and targets will inform novel therapeutic development to help decrease disease burden. One potential target is the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA), a key regulator of Ca2+ homeostasis which plays multiple roles in the cardiovascular system. SERCA catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP and couples it to the translocation of free cytosolic Ca2+ into SR/ER stores. SERCA is redox-regulated, and is susceptible to both stimulatory and inhibitory oxidative post-translational modification. For example, oxidation of SERCA by physiological levels of nitric oxide (NO) causes reversible oxidative modification of SERCA cysteine thiols by introducing glutathione adducts. S-glutathiolation enhances SERCA Ca2+ uptake activity, which results in rapid reductions in cytoplasmic Ca2+ levels, ...
SR Ca2+ depletion, Ca2+-dependent inactivation of Ca2+ release channels, and voltage-dependent inactivation of voltage sensors are the three mechanisms that have been put forward to produce the decline of Ca2+ signals and of force, as a consequence, during continuous stimulation, whereas store-operated, voltage-gated, or excitation-coupled Ca2+ influxes, which are possibly activated during stimulation of long duration, might contribute to favor force recovery (Melzer et al., 1995; Berbey and Allard, 2009; Launikonis et al., 2010). In this study, our experimental conditions allowed us to preclude the possible involvement of sarcolemmal Ca2+ influx, and our recording conditions with a time scale of over tens of seconds did not offer the required resolution to investigate Ca2+-dependent inactivation that is known to fully develop in a few tens of milliseconds after the onset of depolarization (Schneider and Simon, 1988). These conditions allowed us to focus on SR Ca2+ depletion and ...
The secretory pathway Ca\(^{2+}\)-ATPase (SPCA) provides the Golgi apparatus with a luminal Ca\(^{2+}\) store, which is used to modulate the activity of Ca\(^{2+}\)-dependent enzymes involved in controlling the secretory pathway and post-translational modification of proteins. This Ca\(^{2+}\) store controlled by SPCA is also believed to be agonist-releasable. Regucalcin (RGN), (also known as senescence marker protein 30 (SMP30)) is believed to be a Ca\(^{2+}\)-binding protein expressed in an age-dependent manner, whereby its protein levels decrease in a number of organs as aging progresses. It has been suggested to be able to affect the activities of the sarco/endo-plasmic reticulum Ca\(^{2+}\)-ATPase (SERCA), as well as other Ca\(^{2+}\)-dependent enzymes. On the other hand, RGNs ability to bind Ca\(^{2+}\) has been argued against and this protein has been shown to modulate the activities of enzymes not involved in Ca\(^{2+}\) homeostasis, as well as have intrinsic enzymatic activity in ...
Introduction: Alzheimers disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder, clinically characterized by memory dysfunction and progressive loss of cognition. No curative therapeutic or drug is available for the complete cure of this disease. The present study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Lactobacillus plantarum MTCC1325 in ATPases activity in the selected brain regions of rats induced with Alzheimers. Methods: For the study, 48 healthy Wistar rats were divided into four groups: group I as control group, group II as AD model (AD induced by intraperitoneal injection of D-Galactose, 120 mg/kg body weight for 6 weeks), group III as normal control rats which were orally administered only with L. plantarum MTCC1325 for 60 days, and group IV where the AD-induced rats simultaneously received oral treatment of L. plantarum MTCC1325 (10ml/kg body weight, 12×108 CFU/mL) for 60 days. The well known membrane bound transport enzymes including Na+, K+-ATPases, Ca2+-ATPases, and Mg2+-ATPases were assayed in the
These results show that vasostatin, an NH2-terminal fragment of human calreticulin, can inhibit endothelial cell proliferation in vitro, suppress neovascularization in vivo, and prevent or reduce growth of experimental tumors. Calreticulin, a ubiquitous and highly conserved protein originally identified in skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum, serves as one of the major storage depots for calcium ions within the endoplasmic reticulum and participates in calcium signaling ((34)-(36)). The NH2-domain of calreticulin, which includes aa 1-180, is the most conserved domain among the calreticulins so far cloned and has no homology to other protein sequences ((34), (35)). Although it does not bind calcium, it can bind the cytoplasmic domain of α subunits of integrins regulating cell attachment ((37)), can interact with the nuclear receptors for glucocorticoid, androgen, and retinoic acid, regulating their binding to DNA ((38)), and can, once phosphorylated, bind stem-loop structures at the 3′-end ...
Reversibly inhibits the activity of ATP2A2 in cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum by decreasing the apparent affinity of the ATPase for Ca(2+). Modulates the contractility of the heart muscle in response to physiological stimuli via its effects on ATP2A2. Modulates calcium re-uptake during muscle relaxation and plays an important role in calcium homeostasis in the heart muscle. The degree of ATP2A2 inhibition depends on the oligomeric state of PLN. ATP2A2 inhibition is alleviated by PLN phosphorylation (By similarity).
Phospholamban Phospholamban pentamer Identifiers Symbol Phospholamban Pfam PF04272 InterPro IPR005984 SCOP 1fjk TCDB 8.A.11 OPM family 70 OPM protein 1zll
Phospholamban兔多克隆抗体(ab85146)可与小鼠, 大鼠, 人样本反应并经WB, IHC实验严格验证。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
Phospholamban兔多克隆抗体(ab15000)可与小鼠, 大鼠, 兔, 仓鼠, 牛, 人, 猪, 中国仓鼠样本反应并经WB, IHC, ICC/IF实验严格验证,被7篇文献引用并得到11个独立的用户反馈。
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Unlike caffeine, paraxanthine acts as an enzymatic effector of Na+/K+ ATPase. As a result, it is responsible for increased ... transport of potassium ions into skeletal muscle tissue. Similarly, the compound also stimulates increases in calcium ion ... Hawke TJ, Willmets RG, Lindinger MI (November 1999). "K+ transport in resting rat hind-limb skeletal muscle in response to ...
... or SR Ca2+-ATPase, is a calcium ATPase-type P-ATPase. Its major function is to transport calcium from the cytosol into the ... Sarcoplasmic+Reticulum+Calcium-Transporting+ATPases at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ... In addition to its calcium-transporting functions, SERCA1 generates heat in brown adipose tissue and in skeletal muscles. Along ... Bal, Naresh C.; Periasamy, Muthu (2020-03-02). "Uncoupling of sarcoendoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase pump activity by ...
... also slows cardiac metabolism via calcium transport delay by blockade of magnesium-dependent calcium transport ATPase. It also ... Prenylamine (Segontin) is a calcium channel blocker of the amphetamine chemical class which was used as a vasodilator in the ... Godfraind T, Herman AG, Wellens D (2012). Calcium Entry Blockers in Cardiovascular and Cerebral Dysfunctions. Springer Science ...
This typically occurs through active transport. Water uptake. This follows the osmotic gradient established by Na+/K+ ATPase on ... The major functions of enterocytes include: Ion uptake, including sodium, calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, and copper. ... This facilitates transport of numerous small molecules into the enterocyte from the intestinal lumen. These include broken down ... Smaller lipids are transported into intestinal capillaries, while larger lipids are processed by the Golgi and smooth ...
Calcium-transporting ATPase type 2C member 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ATP2C1 gene. This gene encodes one ... "Entrez Gene: ATP2C1 ATPase, Ca++ transporting, type 2C, member 1". Human ATP2C1 genome location and ATP2C1 gene details page in ... This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of the calcium. Defects in this gene ... ATPase SPCA1". Cell Calcium. 34 (2): 157-62. doi:10.1016/S0143-4160(03)00070-8. PMID 12810057. Aronchik I, Behne MJ, Leypoldt L ...
The protein is thought to be a P-type ATPase involved in calcium ion transport. It was suggested in 2003 that PfATP6 is a ... PfATP6, also known as PfSERCA or PfATPase6, is a calcium ATPase gene encoded by the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. ... Kimura, M.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Takada, S.; Tanabe, K. (1993). "Cloning of a Ca(2+)-ATPase gene of Plasmodium falciparum and ... The authors suggested that the original results might have been affected by low ATPase signals, few experimental repeats and ...
Plasma membrane calcium-transporting ATPase 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ATP2B2 gene. The protein encoded by ... "Entrez Gene: ATP2B2 ATPase, Ca++ transporting, plasma membrane 2". Human ATP2B2 genome location and ATP2B2 gene details page in ... The mammalian plasma membrane calcium ATPase isoforms are encoded by at least four separate genes and the diversity of these ... Møller JV, Juul B, le Maire M (1996). "Structural organization, ion transport, and energy transduction of P-type ATPases". ...
Plasma membrane calcium-transporting ATPase 4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ATP2B4 gene. The protein encoded by ... "Entrez Gene: ATP2B4 ATPase, Ca++ transporting, plasma membrane 4". Schuh K, Uldrijan S, Gambaryan S, Roethlein N, Neyses L ( ... The mammalian plasma membrane calcium ATPase isoforms are encoded by at least four separate genes and the diversity of these ... Møller JV, Juul B, le Maire M (May 1996). "Structural organization, ion transport, and energy transduction of P-type ATPases". ...
Plasma membrane calcium-transporting ATPase 3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ATP2B3 gene. The protein encoded by ... 2004). "Expression and role of calcium-ATPase pump and sodium-calcium exchanger in differentiated trophoblasts from human term ... "Entrez Gene: ATP2B3 ATPase, Ca++ transporting, plasma membrane 3". Human ATP2B3 genome location and ATP2B3 gene details page in ... The mammalian plasma membrane calcium ATPase isoforms are encoded by at least four separate genes and the diversity of these ...
Proton or sodium translocating F-type and V-type ATPases. P-P-bond hydrolysis-driven transporters[edit]. *P-type calcium ATPase ... FadL outer membrane protein transport family, including Fatty acid transporter FadL (n=14,S=14) ... Many transmembrane proteins function as gateways to permit the transport of specific substances across the membrane. They ...
The Na+,K+-ATPase creates the ion gradient between the intra- and extracellular domains of a cell. It does this by transporting ... Potassium accumulation will inhibit the calcium from exiting the cell, causing calcium accumulation as well. If calcium ... However, a dose of 10 nM convallatoxin can reduce A549 non small cell lung cancer cells by inhibiting the Na+,K+-ATPase. ... It will inhibit the Na+-K+-ATPase pump which decreases the sodium concentration outside the cell, and thus limiting cotransport ...
... plays a role in the promotion of urinary calcium transport in the epithelial cells of kidney cortex. Overexpression ... Regucalcin has been shown to have an activatory effect on Ca pumping enzyme (Ca-ATPase) in heart sarcoplasmic reticulum. ... Shimokawa N, Yamaguchi M (June 1992). "Calcium administration stimulates the expression of calcium-binding protein regucalcin ... It may have an important role in calcium homeostasis. Studies in rats indicate that this protein may also play a role in aging ...
Na+/K+-ATPase is an ion transport system of sodium and potassium ions and requires energy. It is often used in many types of ... increased intracellular calcium causes more calcium to be released, thereby making more calcium available to bind to troponin-C ... The transport of Na+ and K+ is important for cell survival. Cardiac glycosides, such as cerberin, alter the transport of ions ... This is because the calcium-sodium exchange pump's activity decreases. The calcium-sodium exchange pump exchanges Ca2+ and Na+ ...
Plasma membrane calcium-transporting ATPase 1 is a plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase, an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ... a calcium pump EC The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of P-type primary ion transport ATPases ... "Entrez Gene: ATP2B1 ATPase, Ca++ transporting, plasma membrane 1". Lau MT, Manion J, Littleboy JB, Oyston L, Khuong TM, Wang QP ... The mammalian plasma membrane calcium ATPase isoforms are encoded by at least four separate genes and the diversity of these ...
2005). "The loss of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium transport ATPase 3 expression is an early event during the multistep ... "Entrez Gene: ATP2A3 ATPase, Ca++ transporting, ubiquitous". Rotondo JC, Bosi S, Bassi C, Ferracin M, Lanza G, Gafà R, Magri E, ... Sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ATP2A3 gene. This gene ... Borge PD, Wolf BA (2003). "Insulin receptor substrate 1 regulation of sarco-endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 3 in insulin- ...
This increases the reabsorption of divalent cations by secondary active transport. It is currently unknown why calcium ... continued action of the basolateral Na+/K+-ATPase creates a favourable sodium gradient across the basolateral membrane. ... Secondary derangement of calcium, magnesium, and potassium concentrations are caused by secondary effects in the distal tubule ... This has been suggested to be the result of a putative basolateral Na+/Ca2+ exchanger and apical calcium channel.[citation ...
A major cation transporter in cells is calcium ATPase. In the Ca++-bound crystal structures the two calcium ions side-by-side ... within the transmembrane domain are thought to be at the halfway stage of being transported. As well as being bound by various ... Toyoshima, C; Mizutani (2004). "Crystal structure of the calcium pump with a bound ATP analogue". Nature. 430 (6999): 529-535. ... side chain carbonyl groups, one of these calcium ions is bound by a niche3/niche4 (both in the one motif) at residues 304-307 ...
Tada M, Kirchberger MA, Repke DI, Katz AM (October 1974). "The stimulation of calcium transport in cardiac sarcoplasmic ... When phosphorylated (by PKA) - disinhibition of Ca2+-ATPase of SR leads to faster Ca2+ uptake into the sarcoplasmic reticulum, ... which transports calcium from cytosol into the sarcoplasmic reticulum. ... In addition, since SERCA2 is more active, the next action potential will cause an increased release of calcium, resulting in ...
... thereafter it is known to interfere with many physiological processes including the uptake and transport of calcium and other ... The proton pump, H+-ATPase, of the plasmalemma of root cells works to maintain the near-neutral pH of their cytoplasm. A high ... Manganese is an essential plant nutrient, so plants transport Mn into leaves. Classic symptoms of Mn toxicity are crinkling or ... For example, increasing the amount of sodium in an alkaline soil tends to induce dissolution of calcium carbonate, which ...
Osmotic pressure Outer mitochondrial membrane Outline of biophysics Overhead throwing motion P-type ATPase P-type calcium ... Sarcolemma Sarcomere SecY protein Secondary active transport Secretory pathway Semipermeable membrane Sergei Kovalev Serotonin ... Calcium-activated potassium channel Calcium-activated potassium channel subunit alpha-1 Calcium 2-aminoethylphosphate Calcium ... Protein-lipid interaction Protomer Protoplast Pseudopeptidoglycan Pseudopodia Pterygium Q-type calcium channel R-type calcium ...
The gene codes for a P-type (cation transport enzyme) ATPase that transports copper into bile and incorporates it into ... calcium accumulation in the kidneys), a weakening of bones (due to calcium and phosphate loss), and occasionally aminoaciduria ... This protein transports excess copper into bile, where it is excreted in waste products. The condition is autosomal recessive; ... which is active in the brain and other tissues and also appears to be involved in transporting copper. A role for the ApoE gene ...
Osmolyte Myo-Inositol Taurine and Taurine-transporting ATPase Creatine Betaines Trimethylglycine - A Betaine and metabolite of ... In eukaryotes, calcium acts as one of the primary regulators of osmotic stress. Intracellular calcium levels rise during hypo- ... Extracellular calcium removal was found to prevent Taurine efflux by 50%, and removal of extracellular Ca2+ and simultaneous ... extracellular sequestering of Calcium by blood Albumin. Transient intracellular Ca2+ increase. intracellular Ca2+ increase and ...
Once transported into the tubule cells, sodium ions are actively transported across the basolateral membrane by Na+/K+-ATPases ... Magnesium deficiency and calcium deficiency: These patients will also have low serum and urine magnesium and calcium. Patients ... The basolateral calcium-sensing receptor has the ability to downregulate the activity of this transporter upon activation. ... The Na-K-2Cl cotransporter is involved in electroneutral transport of one sodium, one potassium, and two chloride ions across ...
ARGLU1: encoding protein Arginine and glutamate-rich protein 1 ATP7B: ATPase, Cu++ transporting, beta polypeptide (Wilson ... disease) BRCA2: breast cancer 2, early onset BRCA3 encoding protein Breast cancer 3 CAB39L: encoding protein Calcium-binding ...
... a calcium transporting ATPase, as one host factor required for box jellyfish venom cytotoxicity. Antitoxin Antivenom Snakebite ... "Calcium channel blocker poisoning". UpToDate. Retrieved 2019-07-09. ...
... on the calcium transport ATPase in skeletal muscle. He received postdoctoral training in the laboratory of Karin Mölling at the ... His work highlighted the spatial aspects of calcium signals and in particular the importance of nuclear calcium in governing ... He identified calcium as the principal second messenger in the coupling of neuronal activity to gene expression and ... His work on neuronal calcium signaling and gene regulation in the nervous system has been widely cited. He described the role ...
An underlying mechanism by which lead is able to cause harm is its ability to be transported by calcium ATPase pumps across the ... This is important as neurotransmitter transport can be impaired through vesicular transport inhibition, resulting in diminished ... "Neuronal Calcium Channel Antagonists. Discrimination between Calcium Channel Subtypes Using .omega.-conotoxin from Conus Magus ... As calcium flux is necessary for proper excitability of a cell, any significant inhibition could prevent a large amount of ...
DDE inhibits calcium ATPase in the membrane of the shell gland and reduces the transport of calcium carbonate from blood into ... DDT and its breakdown products are transported from warmer areas to the Arctic by the phenomenon of global distillation, where ... Lundholm CD (October 1997). "DDE-induced eggshell thinning in birds: effects of p,p'-DDE on the calcium and prostaglandin ...
A Na-K-Cl cotransporter and Na/K ATPase found on the surface of the choroid endothelium, appears to play a role in regulating ... Cilia on the apical surfaces of the ependymal cells beat to help transport the CSF. Water and carbon dioxide from the ... As a result, CSF contains a higher concentration of sodium and chloride than blood plasma, but less potassium, calcium and ... Johnston M (2003). "The importance of lymphatics in cerebrospinal fluid transport". Lymphatic Research and Biology. 1 (1): 41-4 ...
NMDA receptor activation by rapid successive firing allows calcium influx in addition to sodium. The calcium influx triggered ... Yoshii A, Constantine-Paton M (June 2007). "BDNF induces transport of PSD-95 to dendrites through PI3K-AKT signaling after NMDA ... increasing its ATPase activity which downregulates GABAA receptor surface expression and subsequently attenuates inhibitory ... Promoter IV activity, leading to the translation of exon IV-containing mRNA, is strongly stimulated by calcium and is primarily ...
This increases the reabsorption of divalent cations by secondary active transport. It is currently unknown why calcium ... When the sodium-chloride cotransporter is inactivated, continued action of the basolateral Na+/K+-ATPase creates a favorable ... This symporter is a channel responsible for the transport of multiple electrolytes such as sodium, chloride, calcium, magnesium ... A model of transport mechanisms in the distal convoluted tubule. Sodium chloride (NaCl) enters the cell via the apical thiazide ...
Zlokovic BV, Frangione B (2003). Transport-clearance hypothesis for Alzheimer's disease and potential therapeutic implications ... Como resultado o amiloide beta promove a despolarización da membrana sináptica, un fluxo excesivo de calcio e a alteración ... altera a función das ATPases iónicas, transportadores de glicosa e transportadores de glutamato. ... Yao ZX, Papadopoulos V (October 2002). "Function of beta-amyloid in cholesterol transport: a lead to neurotoxicity". FASEB J. ...
ion transport. • retina homeostasis. • iron ion transport. • cellular iron ion homeostasis. • membrane organization. • ferrous ... ATPases) to about 5.5, causing transferrin to release its iron ions. The receptor with its ligand bound transferrin is then ... Transport mechanism[edit]. When a transferrin protein loaded with iron encounters a transferrin receptor on the surface of a ... Crichton RR, Charloteaux-Wauters M (May 1987). "Iron transport and storage". European Journal of Biochemistry / FEBS. 164 (3): ...
Membrane transport *ion channels. *vesicular transport. *solute carrier. *ABC transporters. *ATPase. *oxidoreduction-driven ...
heme transport. • drug transmembrane transport. • xenobiotic transport. • transmembrane transport. • cholesterol efflux. • ... ATPase activity. • GO:0001948 protein binding. • ATP binding. • ATPase-coupled transmembrane transporter activity. • GO:0017127 ... It is inhibited by some calcium channel blockers such as amlodipine, felodipine and nifedipine.[10] ... ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct ...
Garrett, Donald (2004) Handbook of Lithium and Natural Calcium, Academic Press, cited in The Trouble with Lithium 2 互聯網檔案館的存檔,存 ... transport properties. [29 September 2010]. (原始內容存檔於21 July 2011 dmy-all).. 請檢查. ,archive-date=. 中的 ... Na/K ATPase)、腺苷環化酶(adenylcyclase)、enzymes of the prostaglandins E1 synthesis、和inositol-1-phosphatase等[95]。 鋰亦具有抗發炎(anti- ... Garrett, Donald E. Handbook of Lithium and Natural Calcium Chloride.
To transport the Mg2+ ion into the vacuole requires a Mg2+/H+ antiport transporter (such as AtMHX). The H+-ATPases are ... Mg2+ ions close certain types of calcium channels, which conduct positively charged calcium ions into neurons. With an excess ... H+-ATPases maintain a constant ΔpH across the plasma membrane and the vacuole membrane. Mg2+ is transported into the vacuole ... Magnesium transportEdit. Main article: Magnesium transport. The chemical and biochemical properties of Mg2+ present the ...
Absorption and transportEdit. AbsorptionEdit. Thiamine is released by the action of phosphatase and pyrophosphatase in the ... Calcium and magnesium have been shown to affect the distribution of thiamine in the body and magnesium deficiency has been ... discharge of the vitamin by those cells is dependent on Na+-dependent ATPase.[11] ... Active transport is greatest in the jejunum and ileum, but it can be inhibited by alcohol consumption or by folate deficiency.[ ...
calcium ion transport. • cellular response to hydrogen peroxide. • positive regulation of calcium ion transport. • ... calcium channel activity. • cation channel activity. • protein homodimerization activity. • ATPase binding. Cellular component ... positive regulation of cytosolic calcium ion concentration. • aging. • cation transport. • ion transport. • single ... calcium ion transmembrane transport. • positive regulation of neuron differentiation. • neuron differentiation. • manganese ion ...
Na/K-ATPase Tethers Phospholipase C and IP3 Receptor into a Calcium-regulatory Complex by Zhaokan Yuan, Ting Cai, Jiang Tian, ... 丹麥科學家延斯·克里斯蒂安·斯科(Jens Christian Skou)在1957年發現鈉鉀幫浦[5],並在1997年獲得諾貝爾化學獎。"for the first discovery of an ion-transporting enzyme, ... 鈉鉀泵(也可稱為鈉鉀-ATPase, Na+/K+-ATPase),是一種位於細胞膜上的酶(EC或說得更精確一點,離子匣式跨膜ATP酶)可在人類細胞及後生
... which normally imports three extracellular sodium ions into the cell and transports one intracellular calcium ion out of the ... Digoxin's primary mechanism of action involves inhibition of the sodium potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na+/K+ ATPase), ... Increased intracellular calcium lengthens phase 4 and phase 0 of the cardiac action potential, which leads to a decrease in ... This effect is contrary to effects that should be seen as a result of increased intracellular calcium levels, but this occurs ...
... 鎂激活Na+/K+-ATPase 之活性,維持細胞內外鈉、鉀之平衡。鎂控制心肌細胞內鉀往外移出作用,維持細胞內鉀恆定,避免產生心率不整。在鎂缺乏時,Na+/K+-ATPase 發生功能障礙,從而影響心肌而導致心律失常。鎂對神經肌肉正常興奮的維持亦有一定作 ... Gardner, R.C. (2003). "Genes for magnesium transport". Current Opinion in Plant Biology 6: 263-267. doi:10.1016/S1369-
... s also lower urinary calcium excretion, making them useful in preventing calcium-containing kidney stones. This effect ... This facilitates the transport of Ca2+ from the epithelial cells into the renal interstitium. This movement of Ca2+, in turn, ... When the urine reaches the collecting duct, the increase in sodium and chloride availability activates Na+/K+-ATPase, which ... Thiazides are also thought to increase the reabsorption of Ca2+ by a mechanism involving the reabsorption of sodium and calcium ...
PTH - Increases blood calcium levels. This is accomplished via the Parathyroid hormone 1 receptor (PTH1) in the kidneys and ... 3.6.3-4: ATPase. 3.6.3. Cu++ ( *Menkes/ATP7A. *Wilson/ATP7B ... Calcitonin - Decreases blood calcium levels (via the calcitonin receptor in the intestines, bones, kidneys, and brain) ...
actin-dependent ATPase activity. • calmodulin binding. • ATPase activity. • protein domain specific binding. • actin binding. • ... protein transport. • monocyte differentiation. • uropod organization. • cell adhesion. • cell morphogenesis involved in ... but most prominently by Rho-dependent kinase and/or by the calcium-calmodulin-dependent myosin light chain kinase, not only ... Moos C, Feng IN (October 1980). "Effect of C-protein on actomyosin ATPase". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 632 (2): 141-9. doi: ...
Skou for the first discovery of an ion-transporting enzyme, Na+, K+ -ATPase.[35] ... which is involved in triggering calcium signals by the release of calcium from intracellular stores.[24] This form of signal ... Transporting chemicals out of a cell against a gradient is often associated with ATP hydrolysis. Transport is mediated by ATP ... Two equivalents of NADH are also produced, which can be oxidized via the electron transport chain and result in the generation ...
The calcium from a dense granule accounts for the majority of the calcium within the platelets and plays a role in the binding ... To maintain the low pH within the granule, there is a Hydrogen ion pumping ATPase. Ral has been found within the granule's ... study of cargo transport and function of Rab32 and Rab38 in a model system. Blood, 120(19), 4072-4081. doi:10.1182/blood-2012- ... Serotonin is picked up by the dense granules where it interacts with ATP and calcium.[3] The serotonin that is then released by ...
ATPase Vs. MHC Fiber Types[22][24][25] ATPase type MHC Heavy Chain(s) ... The sarcoplasmic reticulum serves as reservoir for calcium ions, so when an action potential spreads over the T tubule, it ... Very quickly Ca2+ is actively transported back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum, which blocks the interaction between the thin ... These mainly include the ATPase type I and MHC type I fibers. They tend to have a low activity level of ATPase, a slower speed ...
Centerin and components of the outer axonemal dynein arms detect fluctuations in calcium concentration. Calcium fluctuations ... The force-generating ATPase activity of each dynein heavy chain is located in its large doughnut-shaped "head", which is ... Dynein transports various cellular cargos, provides forces and displacements important in mitosis, and drives the beat of ... Cytoplasmic dynein helps to position the Golgi complex and other organelles in the cell.[1] It also helps transport cargo ...
... the endothelial cells at the blood brain barrier because it can substitute for calcium ions and be uptaken by calcium-ATPase ... "Transplacental transport of lead". Environ Health Perspect. 89: 101-105. doi:10.2307/3430905. JSTOR 3430905. PMC 1567784. PMID ... Bradberry, S; Vale, A (2009). "A comparison of sodium calcium edetate (edetate calcium disodium) and succimer (DMSA) in the ... First, the calcium carbonate deposit that formed so thickly inside the aqueduct channels also formed inside the pipes, ...
... thereafter it is known to interfere with many physiological processes including the uptake and transport of calcium and other ... The proton pump, H+-ATPase, of the plasmalemma of root cells works to maintain the near-neutral pH of their cytoplasm. A high ... calcium silicate), and oyster shells. These products increase the pH of soils through various acid-base reactions. Calcium ... However, in high-pH soils with a high calcium carbonate content (more than 2%), it can be very costly and/or ineffective to ...
... but that Fpn does not transport calcium.[8] Thus, Fpn does not function as an iron/calcium antiporter. The thermodynamic ... In addition to iron, ferroportin has been shown to transport cobalt & zinc,[9] as well as nickel.[8] Ferroportin may also ... Human Fpn consists of 571 amino acid residues.[5] When H32 is mutated in mice, iron transport activity is impaired.[6] ... Ferroportin-mediated iron efflux is calcium-activated; studies of human Fpn expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes demonstrated ...
... including calcium ATPase, adenylyl cyclase, and glucose transporters.[18] ... This is an ion channel on the cell membrane which in the same action transports two sodium ions and an iodide ion into the cell ... Parafollicular cells produce calcitonin in response to high blood calcium. Calcitonin decreases the release of calcium from ... Calcitonin plays a role in calcium homeostasis.[1] Hormonal output from the thyroid is regulated by thyroid-stimulating hormone ...
"Effects of calcium antagonists on serotonin-dependent aggregation and serotonin transport in platelets of patients with ... Cinnarizine and flunarizine are potent uncouplers of the vacuolar H+-ATPase in catecholamine storage vesicles"। ... Arab, S. F.; Düwel, P.; Jüngling, E.; Westhofen, M.; Lückhoff, A. (২০০৪)। "Inhibition of voltage-gated calcium currents in type ... Efficacy and safety of two calcium antagonists in a 12-week, multinational, double-blind study"। Otology & neurotology : ...
The Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase helps maintain resting potential, affects transport, and regulates cellular volume.[2] It also functions as a ... "Na/K-ATPase tethers phospholipase C and IP3 receptor into a calcium-regulatory complex". Molecular Biology of the Cell. 16 (9 ... The Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase is upregulated by cAMP.[26] Thus, substances causing an increase in cAMP upregulate the Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase. These ... apart from the population of Na/K-ATPase in the plasma membrane-responsible for ion transport --, there is another population ...
It is now becoming clear that ankyrin-B exists in a biomolecular complex with the sodium potassium ATPase, sodium calcium ... which showed that reduction of ankyrin-B alters the transport of sodium and calcium and enhances the coupled openings of ... folds as an amphipathic alpha helix is required for normal levels of sodium-calcium exchanger, sodium potassium ATPase and ... as well as abnormal distribution of the sarcomplasmic reticular calcium ATPase, SERCA2, and ryanodine receptors; effects that ...
Metal ion transport and storage[edit]. This topic covers a diverse collection of ion channels, ion pumps (e.g. NaKATPase), ... About 99% of mammals' mass are the elements carbon, nitrogen, calcium, sodium, chlorine, potassium, hydrogen, phosphorus, ... Other oxygen transport systems include myoglobin, hemocyanin, and hemerythrin. Oxidases and oxygenases are metal systems found ... Heme is utilized by red blood cells in the form of hemoglobin for oxygen transport and is perhaps the most recognized metal ...
Ca2+-transporting ATPase activity, calcium ABC transporter, calcium efflux ATPase, calcium pump, calcium transporting ATPase ... ATP phosphohydrolase (Ca2+-transporting), Ca(2+)-transporting ATPase activity, Ca2+-pumping ATPase activity, ... Gene Ontology Term: calcium-transporting ATPase activity. GO ID. GO:0005388 Aspect. Molecular Function. Description. Catalysis ... calcium-translocating P-type ATPase activity, plasma membrane Ca-ATPase, sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase, sarcoplasmic ...
Protein target information for Calcium-transporting ATPase (zebrafish). Find diseases associated with this biological target ...
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This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the translocation of calcium from the cytosol to ... IPR023299 ATPase_P-typ_cyto_dom_N. IPR018303 ATPase_P-typ_P_site. IPR023298 ATPase_P-typ_TM_dom_sf. IPR008250 ATPase_P-typ_ ... IPR023299 ATPase_P-typ_cyto_dom_N. IPR018303 ATPase_P-typ_P_site. IPR023298 ATPase_P-typ_TM_dom_sf. IPR008250 ATPase_P-typ_ ... Calcium-transporting ATPase 4, endoplasmic reticulum-typeAdd BLAST. 1061. Proteomic databases. PaxDb, a database of protein ...
What is calcium-transporting ATPase? Meaning of calcium-transporting ATPase medical term. What does calcium-transporting ATPase ... Looking for online definition of calcium-transporting ATPase in the Medical Dictionary? calcium-transporting ATPase explanation ... Calcium-transporting ATPase , definition of calcium-transporting ATPase by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary. ... calcium pump. (redirected from calcium-transporting ATPase). Also found in: Encyclopedia. pump. [pump] 1. an apparatus for ...
Investigation of the Calcium-Transporting ATPases at the Endoplasmic Reticulum and Plasma Membrane of Red Beet (Beta vulgaris) ... Investigation of the Calcium-Transporting ATPases at the Endoplasmic Reticulum and Plasma Membrane of Red Beet (Beta vulgaris) ... Investigation of the Calcium-Transporting ATPases at the Endoplasmic Reticulum and Plasma Membrane of Red Beet (Beta vulgaris) ... Investigation of the Calcium-Transporting ATPases at the Endoplasmic Reticulum and Plasma Membrane of Red Beet (Beta vulgaris) ...
P. Catty, A. Goffeau; Identification and phylogenetic classification of eleven putative P-type calcium transport ATPase genes ... Identification and phylogenetic classification of eleven putative P-type calcium transport ATPase genes in the yeasts ... So far, only four genes coding for calcium translocating ATPases had been discovered in yeast. The recent completion of the ... Two of them comprises seven proteins which might belong to a new class of P-type ATPases of unknown subcellular location and of ...
Phosphorylation of the calcium transport atpase of cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum by ortho phosphate ... Transient state kinetic studies of calcium dependent atpase and calcium transport by cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum effect of ... carnitine on cardiac plasma membrane sodium potassium atpase and sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium atpase and calcium transport. ... Calcium transport ATPase of canine cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum. A comparison with that of rabbit fast skeletal muscle ...
The Plasmodium falciparum ATPase 6 (Pfatp6), homolog of sarco-endoplasmic reticulum, calcium-dependent ATPase in malaria ... Artemisinin also inhibits calcium-dependent ATPase activity in T. cruzi membranes, suggesting a mode of action via membrane ... a sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase and proposed target for semisynthetic peroxidic artemisinin derivatives. RBX11160 ... ATPase (SERCA) in the malaria parasite. Artemisinin is also effective against Toxoplasma in vitro and in vivo, although it is ...
"Calcium-Transporting ATPases" by people in this website by year, and whether "Calcium-Transporting ATPases" was a major or ... Cation-transporting proteins that utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis for the transport of CALCIUM. They differ from CALCIUM ... "Calcium-Transporting ATPases" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... Calcium-Transporting ATPases*Calcium-Transporting ATPases. *ATPases, Calcium-Transporting. *Calcium Transporting ATPases ...
Here we present the structure of a PIB-ATPase, a Legionella pneumophila CopA Cu(+)-ATPase, in … ... P-type ATPases of the class IB (PIB) are essential in these processes, actively extruding heavy metals from the cytoplasm of ... Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium-Transporting ATPases * ATP7A protein, human * ATP7B protein, human * Copper-Transporting ATPases ... Crystal structure of a copper-transporting PIB-type ATPase Nature. 2011 Jun 29;475(7354):59-64. doi: 10.1038/nature10191. ...
The beta subunit regulates, through assembly of alpha/beta heterodimers, the number of sodium pumps transported to the plasma ... positive regulation of calcium:sodium antiporter activity Source: Ensembl. *positive regulation of potassium ion import Source ... Cell adhesion, Ion transport, Potassium transport, Sodium transport, Sodium/potassium transport, Transport. ... Sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit beta-1Add BLAST. 304. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). ...
Calcium-transporting ATPases (Ca(2+) pumps) are major players in maintaining calcium homeostasis in the cell and have been ... A functional calcium transporting ATPase encoded by Chlorella viruses.. Anno. 2010. Autori. Bonza MC, Martin H, Kang M, Lewis G ... To our knowledge this is the first report of a functional P-type Ca(2+)-transporting ATPase encoded by a virus. ... Complementation analysis of the triple yeast mutant K616 confirmed that M535L transports calcium ions and, unusually for group ...
IPR034304 Plasma membrane calcium-transporting ATPase 4. IPR022141 Plasma membrane calcium transporting P-type ATPase, C- ... IPR006068 Cation-transporting P-type ATPase, C-terminal. IPR004014 Cation-transporting P-type ATPase, N-terminal ...
2002) Structural changes in the calcium pump accompanying the dissociation of calcium. Nature 418:605-611. ... Mechanism of Cu+-transporting ATPases: Soluble Cu+ chaperones directly transfer Cu+ to transmembrane transport sites. Manuel ... Mechanism of Cu+-transporting ATPases: Soluble Cu+ chaperones directly transfer Cu+ to transmembrane transport sites ... Mechanism of Cu+-transporting ATPases: Soluble Cu+ chaperones directly transfer Cu+ to transmembrane transport sites ...
IPR023298 P-type ATPase, transmembrane domain superfamily. IPR030332 Sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 1/2 ... ATP2A2, ATPase sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ transporting 2. Orthology source: HGNC, HomoloGene ... IPR005782 P-type ATPase, subfamily IIA, SERCA-type. ... IPR006068 Cation-transporting P-type ATPase, C-terminal. ...
Sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 1/2 (IPR030332). *Calcium-transporting ATPase type 2C member 2 (IPR030334) ... There are many different classes of P-ATPases, which transport specific types of ion: H+, Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Ag+ and Ag2+, Zn ... P-ATPases (also known as E1-E2 ATPases) (EC:3.6.3.-) are found in bacteria and in a number of eukaryotic plasma membranes and ... P-type ATPase, cytoplasmic domain N (IPR023299). Short name: ATPase_P-typ_cyto_dom_N ...
Calcium / metabolism* * Calcium-Transporting ATPases / metabolism * Carbocyanines / metabolism * Cell Line * Fanconi Anemia / ... Due to the importance of the intracellular calcium signaling and its key function in the control of intracellular functions we ... We found that FANCA cells display a dramatically low intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in resting conditions. ... those related to the unbalanced oxidative metabolism in FA cells underlining a contiguity between oxidative stress and calcium ...
ATPase sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ transporting 3), Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol ... calcium-transporting ATPase activity calcium-transporting ATPase activity ATP binding endoplasmic reticulum endoplasmic ... calcium-transporting ATPase activity calcium-transporting ATPase activity ATP binding endoplasmic reticulum endoplasmic ... ATPase_P-typ_cation-transptr_C ATPase_P-typ_cation-transptr_N ATPase_P-typ_cyto_dom_N ATPase_P-typ_P_site ATPase_P-typ_TM_dom_ ...
Calcium ion-regulated thin filaments from vascular smooth muscle Biochem J (February, 1980) ... A Comparative Study of Erythrocyte Sodium-Potassium Atpase and Sodium Transport in Obese and thin Normal Subjects M.A. Mir M.A ... A Comparative Study of Erythrocyte Sodium-Potassium Atpase and Sodium Transport in Obese and thin Normal Subjects. Clin Sci ( ...
Sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium- transporting ATPases 769 S AGT 153 0.1-31.8 S→N AAT 1 0.83 263 L TTA 154 0.1-31.8 L→S TCA 0 243 ...
... which uses energy from ATP molecules to pump charged calcium atoms (calcium ions) across cell membranes. Learn about this gene ... This protein is an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-powered calcium pump, ... ATPase, Ca++ transporting, type 2C, member 1. *BCPM. *calcium-transporting ATPase type 2C member 1 ... calcium ions) across cell membranes. Specifically, the hSPCA1 protein transports calcium ions into a cell structure called the ...
59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; CALCIUM COMPOUNDS; MEMBRANE TRANSPORT; DOPAMINE; SECRETION; OUABAIN; BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS; ATP-ASE ... In addition the Na+-Ca++ exchange antiporter appears to be the membrane system which transports Ca++ ions into the neuronal ...
... a potential calcium ATPase binding protein. A proteomic interaction screen with PISP/PDZK11 identified the calcium transporting ... PISP/PDZK11-pY7 Peptide Pull-Down Revealed Interaction with Myosins and with the Calcium Transporting ATPase SERCA2A.. Among ... 6 and SI Tables 9 and 10). Because PISP/PDZK11 is a potential calcium ATPase binding partner and we find that it interacts with ... which in turn is quickly removed by calcium-pumps that either eject the calcium ions into the lumen of the endoplasmic ...
Calcium pump 2; Endoplasmic reticulum class 1/2 Ca(2+) ATPase; Calcium-transporting ATPase sarcoplasmic reticulum type, slow ... Ca++ Transporting, Cardiac Muscle, Slow Twitch 2 (ATP2A2), ATP2B; DAR; SERCA2; ... ATP2B; DAR; SERCA2; Calcium pump 2; Endoplasmic reticulum class 1/2 Ca(2+) ATPase; Calcium-transporting ATPase sarcoplasmic ... ELISA Kit for ATPase, Ca++ Transporting, Cardiac Muscle, Slow Twitch 2 (ATP2A2). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for Antigen ...
Calcium pump 2; Endoplasmic reticulum class 1/2 Ca(2+) ATPase; Calcium-transporting ATPase sarcoplasmic reticulum type, slow ... Ca++ Transporting, Cardiac Muscle, Slow Twitch 2 (ATP2A2), ATP2B; DAR; SERCA2; ... ATP2B; DAR; SERCA2; Calcium pump 2; Endoplasmic reticulum class 1/2 Ca(2+) ATPase; Calcium-transporting ATPase sarcoplasmic ... ELISA Kit for ATPase, Ca++ Transporting, Cardiac Muscle, Slow Twitch 2 (ATP2A2). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for Antigen ...
T2 - Calcium transporters (Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, calcium binding proteins, Ca channels, Ca-ATPase) ... Takeuchi K. Molecular mechanism in biological transport in the kidney: Calcium transporters (Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, calcium ... Takeuchi, K 2006, Molecular mechanism in biological transport in the kidney: Calcium transporters (Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, calcium ... Molecular mechanism in biological transport in the kidney: Calcium transporters (Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, calcium binding proteins, ...
Calcium accumulation in the endoplasmic reticulum is accomplished by sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium transport ATPases ( ...
... calcium-transporting ATPase (targeted by miR4376), conserved hypothetical protein (targeted by miR4376), MYB-like transcription ... factor (targeted by miR159), heavy metal transport (targeted by novel-121), and N-acetyltransferase (targeted by novel-71) were ...
Here we focus on the most recent information in the long distance transport and partitioning of K+ within the grapevine and ... Valuable contributions to the study of K+ in membrane stabilization, turgor maintenance and phloem transport have allowed us to ... Valuable contributions to the study of K+ in membrane stabilisation, turgor maintenance and phloem transport have allowed us to ... Here we focus on the most recent information in the long distance transport and partitioning of K+ within the grapevine and ...
  • The loss of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium transport ATPase 3 expression is an early event during the multistep process of colon carcinogenesis. (
  • MA3-919 detects sarcoplasmic or endoplasmic reticulum calcium (SERCA) 2 ATPase from canine, porcine, human, mouse, rabbit and rat tissues. (
  • Recognizes canine SERCA2a (sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 2a) and SERCA2b isoforms. (
  • The ATP pumps that reside in intracellular organelles are encoded by a family of structurally related enzymes, termed the sarcoplasmic or endoplasmic reticulum calcium (SERCA) ATPases. (
  • a membranal protein that can transport calcium ions across the membrane using energy from ATP. (
  • Protein sequence homology analysis and phylogenetic classification of all putative Ca ++ -ATPase gene products from the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosacchraomyces pombe reveal three clusters of homologous proteins. (
  • However, Cu + does not access Cu + -ATPases in a free (hydrated) form but is bound to a chaperone protein. (
  • This protein is an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-powered calcium pump, which uses energy from ATP molecules to pump charged calcium atoms (calcium ions) across cell membranes. (
  • Specifically, the hSPCA1 protein transports calcium ions into a cell structure called the Golgi apparatus, where they are stored until needed. (
  • The hSPCA1 protein also transports manganese ions into the Golgi apparatus. (
  • Mutations in this gene reduce the amount of functional hSPCA1 protein, which impairs the storage of calcium ions in the Golgi apparatus. (
  • Of 40 identified insulin-induced effectors, 7 have not previously been described in insulin signaling, including SDR, PKCδ binding protein, LRP-6, and PISP/PDZK11, a potential calcium ATPase binding protein. (
  • Usually used of the calcium-pumping ATPase present in high concentration as an integral membrane protein of the sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle. (
  • The plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase (PMCA) is a transport protein in the plasma membrane of cells and functions to remove calcium (Ca2+) from the cell. (
  • Another protein, calsequestrin, binds calcium within the SR and helps to reduce the concentration of free calcium within the SR, which assists SERCA so that it does not have to pump against such a high concentration gradient. (
  • The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of Na+/K+ and H+/K+ ATPases beta chain proteins, and to the subfamily of Na+/K+ -ATPases. (
  • Na+/K+ -ATPase is an integral membrane protein responsible for establishing and maintaining the electrochemical gradients of Na and K ions across the plasma membrane. (
  • ATP13A2 (ATPase 13A2) is a Protein Coding gene. (
  • The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of P-type primary ion transport ATPases characterized by the formation of an aspartyl phosphate intermediate during the reaction cycle. (
  • ATP2B1 (ATPase Plasma Membrane Ca2+ Transporting 1) is a Protein Coding gene. (
  • The catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase stimulated Ca2+ transport 2-fold, but had no effect on Ca2+-dependent ATPase activity. (
  • Isolation and characterization of the calcium- and phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase C) subtypes from bovine heart. (
  • 133 and 129 kDA protein representing PMCA4a and PMCA4b ATPase respectively. (
  • By Western blot, this antibody detects an ~110 kDa protein representing SERCA2 ATPase in rat cardiac tissue. (
  • To better understand the mechanistic basis of ABCC10 action, we characterized the biochemical and vectorial transport properties of this protein. (
  • These include substrate level regulation, covalent modification via phosphorylation-dephosphorylation of phospholamban by both cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) as well as direct CaM kinase phosphorylation of the Ca 2+ -ATPase. (
  • Xu A, Hawkins C, Narayanan N: Phosphorylation and activation of the Ca 2+ -pumping ATPase of cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum by Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase. (
  • proton pump a system for transporting protons across cell membranes, often exchanging them for other positively charged ions. (
  • sodium pump ( sodium-potassium pump ) the mechanism of active transport driven by the energy generated by Na + ,K + -ATP ase , by which sodium (Na + ) is extruded from a cell and potassium (K + ) is brought in, so as to maintain the low concentration of sodium and the high concentration of potassium within the cell with respect to the surrounding medium. (
  • The data suggested that the phosphoprotein of the Ca-dependent ATPase formed from Pi represented a high-energy intermediate of the reverse reaction of the Ca pump of cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum. (
  • The enzyme forms a (32)P-phosphorylated intermediate, which is inhibited by vanadate and not stimulated by the transported substrate Ca(2+), thus confirming the peculiar properties of this viral pump. (
  • Lumenal gating mechanism revealed in calcium pump crystal structures with phosphate analogues. (
  • Additionally, calcium pump activity and calbindin-D28k expression were dramatically increased after GHE treatment, implicating that the modulation of calcium homeostasis could be involved in the mechanism underlying neuroprotection of GHE against ibotenic acid-induced excitotoxicity. (
  • This pump lowers the cytoplasmic calcium level and causes contraction to stop. (
  • Alkylating Toxins and the Liver Plasma Membrane Calcium Pump/Calcium ATPase. (
  • and uniporters, if nutrients are transported as such without being accompanied by H + ) and (2) large amounts of the plasma membrane H + -ATPase, a proton pump. (
  • This class includes the Na + /K + ATPase in the plasma membrane , which maintains the Na + and K + gradients typical of animal cells, and several Ca 2+ ATPases, which pump Ca 2+ ions out of the cytosol into the external medium or into the lumen of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of muscle cells. (
  • As a major Ca 2+ pump in the sarcoplasmic reticulum of the cardiomyocyte, SERCA2a (sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ -ATPase 2a) controls the relaxation and contraction of the cardiomyocyte. (
  • The structures of the related SERCA1a Ca 2+ pump and the Na + /K + -ATPase of the plasma membrane exposed the pumping mechanism and conserved domain architecture of these ion pumps. (
  • James P, Inui M, Tada M, Chiesi M, Carafoli E: Nature and site of phospholamban regulation of the calcium pump of sarcoplasmic reticulum. (
  • Kirchberger MA, Borchman D, Kasinathan C: Proteolytic activation of the canine cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pump. (
  • Sasaki T, Inui M, Kimura Y, Kuzuya T, Tada M: Molecular mechanisms of regulation of Ca 2+ pump ATPase by phospholamban in cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum: Effects of synthetic phospholamban peptides on Ca 2+ pump ATPase. (
  • Suzuki T, Wang JH: Stimulation of bovine cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pump and blocking of phospholamban phosphorylation and dephosphorylation by a phospholamban monoclonal antibody. (
  • Most of the energy expended by a cell in active transport is used to pump ions out of the cell across the plasma membrane. (
  • One of the best understood active transport systems is the sodium-potassium pump, or NA + -K + pump. (
  • Other membrane transporters use the energy from ATP to pump ions like calcium, amino acids , and other electrically charged molecules either into or out of the cell. (
  • 1] "Peptide sequence analysis and molecular cloning reveal two calcium pump isoforms in the human erythrocyte membrane. (
  • 8] "Quantitative analysis of alternative splicing options of human plasma membrane calcium pump genes. (
  • A gene on chromosome 12q24.11 that encodes a SERCA Ca2+-ATPase, an intracellular pump located in the sarcoplasmic or endoplasmic reticula of muscle cells, which catalyses the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the translocation of calcium from the cytosol to the sarcoplasmic reticulum lumen, and is involved in muscle contraction and relaxation. (
  • Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase ( sodium - potassium adenosine triphosphatase , also known as the Na⁺/K⁺ pump or sodium-potassium pump ) is an enzyme (an electrogenic transmembrane ATPase ) found in the membrane of all animal cells. (
  • In the gut , for example, sodium is transported out of the reabsorbing cell on the blood (interstitial fluid) side via the Na⁺-K⁺ pump, whereas, on the reabsorbing (lumenal) side, the Na⁺-glucose symporter uses the created Na⁺ gradient as a source of energy to import both Na⁺ and glucose, which is far more efficient than simple diffusion. (
  • When the pump works right, calcium flows smoothly as needed and triggers the necessary cellular activity. (
  • When it's time to relax, the pump reverses and the calcium ions get pumped back until they're needed again. (
  • Problems start when the pump doesn't work right, if there aren't enough pumps, or if the membrane, the wall that keeps the calcium ions "in", is weak and allows calcium ions to escape. (
  • This gene encodes the plasma membrane calcium ATPase isoform 1. (
  • The secretory pathway Ca 2+ -ATPase isoform 1 (SPCA1) is found in the Golgi apparatus where it is actively involved in the transport of Ca 2+ or Mn 2+ from the cytosol to the Golgi lumen. (
  • a theorized, energy-requiring mechanism for transmitting calcium ions across a plasma membrane from a region of low calcium ion concentration to one of higher concentration. (
  • 3. a mechanism or structure that mediates active transport of ions or molecules across a biological membrane. (
  • Complementation analysis of the triple yeast mutant K616 confirmed that M535L transports calcium ions and, unusually for group IIB pumps, also manganese ions. (
  • P-ATPases function to transport a variety of different compounds, including ions and phospholipids, across a membrane using ATP hydrolysis for energy. (
  • In addition the Na+-Ca++ exchange antiporter appears to be the membrane system which transports Ca++ ions into the neuronal cytoplasm during Na+,K+-adenosine triphosphatase inhibition. (
  • Thapsigargin inhibits Ca 2+ -transporting ATPase mediated uptake of calcium ions into sarcoplasmic reticulum and is used in experimentation examining the impacts of increasing cytosolic calcium concentrations. (
  • This enzyme belongs to a family of ATPase enzymes that help control the level of positively charged calcium atoms (calcium ions) inside cells. (
  • This structure plays a major role in muscle contraction and relaxation by storing and releasing calcium ions. (
  • The SERCA1 enzyme transports calcium ions from the cell into the sarcoplasmic reticulum, triggering muscle relaxation. (
  • As a result, calcium ions are slow to enter the sarcoplasmic reticulum and muscle relaxation is delayed. (
  • Scientists believe that other proteins or other pathways may function in the absence of a fully functional SERCA1 enzyme to transport calcium ions into the sarcoplasmic reticulum and help with muscle relaxation. (
  • Among its related pathways are Cardiac conduction and Transport of glucose and other sugars, bile salts and organic acids, metal ions and amine compounds . (
  • These enzymes remove bivalent calcium ions from eukaryotic cells against very large concentration gradients and play a critical role in intracellular calcium homeostasis. (
  • We turn now to the ATP-powered pumps that transport ions and various small molecules against their concentration gradients. (
  • Note that the P, F, and V classes transport ions only, whereas the ABC superfamily class transports small molecules as well as ions. (
  • During the transport process, at least one of the α subunits is phosphorylated (hence the label "P"), and the transported ions are thought to move through the phosphorylated subunit. (
  • Another member of the P class, found in acid -secreting cells of the mammalian stomach, transports protons (H + ions) out of and K + ions into the cell. (
  • Although these proteins are often called ATPases, they normally do not hydrolyze ATP into ADP and P i unless ions or other molecules are simultaneously transported. (
  • Each membrane contains different transport proteins that allow the RPE to mediate the vectorial movement of metabolites, ions, and fluid between the subretinal space and the blood supply. (
  • This enzyme transports Cu(+) or Ag(+), and cannot transport the divalent ions, contrary to EC, which mainly transports the divalent copper ion. (
  • Structural changes induced by the binding of rutin arachidonate to SERCA1a may shift proton balance near the titrable residues Glu771 and Glu309 into neutral species, hence preventing the binding of calcium ions to the transmembrane binding sites and thus affecting calcium homeostasis ( Rodríguez and Májeková 2020 ). (
  • The Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase, as well as effects of diffusion of the involved ions maintain the resting potential across the membranes. (
  • They reduce the influx of calcium ions through the cell membrane, which normally occurs when the cell is depolarized. (
  • It also releases calcium ions when the muscle cell is triggered by nerve stimuli, resulting in muscle contraction. (
  • It will also briefly discuss how ions such as strontium get into calcium carbonate skeletons, and how phosphate inhibits calcification. (
  • NORMAN W. GABEL* Phosphates, both organic and inorganic, and the metal ions of calcium, magnesium , sodium, and potassium are known to play a significant role in neural function. (
  • The human body uses calcium ions (written as Ca2+) to tell every cell what to do next. (
  • Calcium ions have a special role in muscle tissue. (
  • When a muscle needs to contract (flex), calcium ions get pumped from a little storage area, or organelle, inside a muscle cell. (
  • When it's time to relax, those calcium ions get pumped back into the SERCA. (
  • If levels of these calcium ions become unbalanced, cells go haywire. (
  • This requires the body to strictly regulate the flow of calcium ions within all cells. (
  • The ATP2A1 gene provides instructions for making an enzyme called sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase 1 (SERCA1). (
  • SERCA, or sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase, or SR Ca2+-ATPase, is a calcium ATPase-type P-ATPase. (
  • The sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ -ATPase, SERCA2b or ATP2A2, is encoded by the ATP2A2 gene. (
  • Regulation of sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase and calseq. (
  • A calcium-pumping enzyme which is present in high concentrations (up to 90%) in the membrane of sarcoplasmic reticulum and activated by cATPase, which reduces cytoplasmic Ca2+, ends muscle contraction and allows muscle relaxation. (
  • Calcium-transporting ATPases were compared in endoplasmic reticulum (ER)- and plasma membrane-enriched fractions of red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) storage tissue by measuring 45Ca uptake and calcium-dependent phosphoenzyme formation. (
  • Calcium uptake showed saturation kinetics for calcium with Km values of 0.92 mmol m-3 for the ER fraction and 1.24 mmol m-3 for the plasma membrane fraction. (
  • The plasma membrane system was less substrate-specific for ATP than the ER system, since it was able to use GTP and ITP to drive calcium transport at up to 50% of the level obtained with ATP. (
  • Following phosphorylation with [[gamma]-32P]ATP, two high molecular mass, calcium-dependent phosphoproteins (119 and 124 kD) and a low molecular mass, calcium-independent phosphoprotein (17 kD) were observed in the plasma membrane fraction. (
  • Because they showed calcium-dependent phosphorylation and were sensitive to erythrosin B, the 119- and 124-kD phosphoproteins may be phosphorylated intermediates of the ER and plasma membrane calcium ATPases. (
  • Comparisons to Ca(2+)-ATPase suggest an ATPase-coupled copper release mechanism from the binding sites in the membrane via an extracellular exit site. (
  • Artemisinin also inhibits calcium-dependent ATPase activity in T. cruzi membranes, suggesting a mode of action via membrane pumps. (
  • They differ from CALCIUM CHANNELS which allow calcium to pass through a membrane without the use of energy. (
  • Valuable contributions to the study of K + in membrane stabilization, turgor maintenance and phloem transport have allowed us to propose a mechanistic model for the role of this cation in grape berry development. (
  • The beta subunit regulates, through assembly of alpha/beta heterodimers, the number of sodium pumps transported to the plasma membrane. (
  • Calcium-transporting ATPases found on the PLASMA MEMBRANE that catalyze the active transport of CALCIUM from the CYTOPLASM into the extracellular space. (
  • The mammalian plasma membrane calcium ATPase isoforms are encoded by at least four separate genes and the diversity of these enzymes is further increased by alternative splicing of transcripts. (
  • In Membrane Transport in Red Cells (J. C. Ellory and V. L. Lew, eds. (
  • Sodium-Calcium Exchange in Platelet Plasma Membrane Vesicles (Extended Abstract). (
  • Altered Calcium Homeostasis and Membrane Integrity in Myocardial Cell Injury. (
  • Thus, there is only one way that solutes can be transported from the outside medium, the apoplast, into a cell, and this is by specific transport proteins that span the plasma membrane. (
  • Overview of main transport barriers in the plant body and the energization of cellular nutrient uptake by plasma membrane H + -ATPase. (
  • Specialized cells throughout the plant body serve as transport interfaces between symplast and apoplast, and intense transport occurs across the plasma membrane of these cells. (
  • The results were compared with the effects of these regulators on the high affinity Ca2+-ATPase found in this membrane preparation. (
  • Calcium-stimulated ATPase activity in plasma membrane vesicles from pancreatic acinar cells. (
  • All ABC transport proteins share a common organization consisting of four "core" domains: two transmembrane (T) domains, forming the passageway through which transported molecules cross the membrane , and two cytosolic ATP-binding (A) domains. (
  • In bovine RPE, this Cl transport pathway can be upregulated by the nanomolar addition of epinephrine to Ringer's solution bathing the apical membrane. (
  • Methoxyflurane also activates calcium dependent ATPase in the sarcoplasmic reticulum by increasing the fluidity of the lipid membrane. (
  • Enflurane also activates calcium dependent ATPase in the sarcoplasmic reticulum by increasing the fluidity of the lipid membrane. (
  • The induction of Ca(i) decrease by ABA is consistent with activation of the plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase by ABA. (
  • Illustration showing a cell membrane (phospholipid bilayer, blue) and a membrane channel (orange), relating to the mechanism of primary active transport across the membrane. (
  • In the years just prior to that, Dr. Fambrough's research group studied the mechanisms by which cells regulate the number and spatial distribution of their membrane proteins, focusing upon integral membrane proteins that come to reside in the lysosomal membrane (LAMP-1and LAMP 2), the sarcoplasmic reticulum (Ca-ATPase), and the plasma membrane (Na,K-ATPase). (
  • The alternate carboxyl termini of avian cardiac and brain SR/ER Ca-ATPases are on opposite sides of the membrane. (
  • The plasma membrane is not the only cellular membrane that requires active transport. (
  • 2] "Analysis of the tissue-specific distribution of mRNAs encoding the plasma membrane calcium-pumping ATPases and characterization of an alternately spliced form of PMCA4 at the cDNA and genomic levels. (
  • 5] "Analysis of mRNA expression and cloning of a novel plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase splice variant in human heart. (
  • 7] "A C-terminal, calmodulin-like regulatory domain from the plasma membrane Ca2+-pumping ATPase. (
  • Export of sodium from the cell provides the driving force for several secondary active transporters membrane transport proteins , which import glucose , amino acids , and other nutrients into the cell by use of the sodium gradient. (
  • As in other P-type ATPases, metal binding to transmembrane metal-binding sites (TM-MBS) in Cu + -ATPases is required for enzyme phosphorylation and subsequent transport. (
  • These data are consistent with a model where MBDs serve a regulatory function without participating in metal transport and the chaperone delivers Cu + directly to transmembrane transport sites of Cu + -ATPases. (
  • Within these constraints, Cu + chaperones route Cu + to various intracellular targets, and Cu + transmembrane transport systems maintain the total copper quota within the 10-100 μM range ( 1 ⇓ ⇓ - 4 ). (
  • How the Cu + chaperones transfer the metal to and from transmembrane transport sites is a central feature of transmembrane Cu + transport. (
  • acid anhydride hydrolase catalysing transmembrane movement of substances) inhibitor that interferes with the action of Ca 2+ -transporting ATPase (EC (
  • 1994. Assembly of the Na,K-ATPase a-subunit isoforms with the Na,K- and H,K-ATPase b-subunit isoforms. (
  • So far, only four genes coding for calcium translocating ATPases had been discovered in yeast. (
  • The recent completion of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome allowed us to identify six new putative Ca ++ -ATPases encoding genes. (
  • For instance, mutations in the two Cu + -ATPase genes present in humans, ATP7A and ATP7B, lead to Menkes syndrome and Wilson's disease, respectively ( 8 , 9 ). (
  • The glycoprotein subunit of Na+/K+ -ATPase is encoded by multiple genes. (
  • The overexpression of calcium ion channels and transporter genes is seen in the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. (
  • Functional studies of various Cu + -ATPases have characterized the Cu + transport, Cu + -dependent ATPase activity, phosphorylation, and dephosphorylation partial reactions ( 5 , 13 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 19 ). (
  • Unlike ATP2C1, ATP2C2 has a much more restricted expression pattern and displays a higher maximal turnover rate for overall Ca2+-ATPase reaction and a lower apparent affinity for cytosolic Ca2+ activation of phosphorylation. (
  • It should be noted that, since CaM kinase is now known to phosphorylate the Ca 2+ -ATPase in addition to phospholamban, further studies are required to determine the relative contributions of phospholamban versus Ca 2+ -ATPase phosphorylation in the stimulation of Ca 2+ -ATPase function by CaM kinase. (
  • Also, earlier studies attributing all of the effects of CaM kinase stimulation of Ca 2+ uptake and Ca 2+ -ATPase activity to phospholamban phosphorylation need to be re-examined. (
  • P-type ATPase that undergoes covalent phosphorylation during the transport cycle. (
  • 1993. Ca2+ dependence and thapsigargin inhibited phosphorylation of Na,K-ATPase catalytic domain following chimeric recombination with the Ca2+-ATPase. (
  • Synthetic peptide corresponding to Human SERCA2 ATPase aa 658-671 (internal sequence). (
  • The following antibody was used in this experiment: SERCA2 ATPase Monoclonal Antibody (2A7-A1) from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # MA3-919, RRID AB_325502. (
  • Does not crossreact with frog SERCA2 ATPase. (
  • Note: For detection of rat SERCA2 ATPase use A4000-93A. (
  • The identity of these proteins is unknown, but they do not have the properties of phosphorylated intermediates of calcium-ATPases. (
  • Two of them comprises seven proteins which might belong to a new class of P-type ATPases of unknown subcellular location and of unknown physiological function. (
  • Cation-transporting proteins that utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis for the transport of CALCIUM. (
  • Phylogenetic and sequence analyses place the viral proteins in group IIB of P-type ATPases even though they lack a typical feature of this class, a calmodulin-binding domain. (
  • Role of Guanine Nucleotide Regulatory Proteins and Inositol Phosphates in the Hormone Induced Mobilization of Hepatocyte Calcium. (
  • Here again, uptake needs to be energized and occurs through specialized transport proteins. (
  • The general structures of the four principal classes of these transport proteins are depicted in Figure 15-10 , and their properties are summarized in Table 15-2 . (
  • The four classes of ATP-powered transport proteins. (
  • The final class of ATP-powered transport proteins is larger and more diverse than the other classes. (
  • Referred to as the ABC (ATP-binding cassette) superfamily, this class includes more than 100 different transport proteins found in organisms ranging from bacteria to humans. (
  • Strikingly, the intramembrane interaction site of the 2b-tail in SERCA2b shares sequence and structural homology with the binding site of the β-subunit on the α Na + /K + -ATPase. (
  • Sorting signals and, for the Na,K-ATPase the sites for inter-subunit interaction, were mapped and further defined. (
  • 1993. Assembly of the extracellular domain of the Na,K-ATPase b subunit with the a subunit. (
  • 1993. Structural analysis and expression of a chromosomal gene encoding an avian (Na+ + K+)- ATPase b1-subunit. (
  • 1993. Sequence analysis of DNA encoding an avian Na+,K+-ATPase b2-subunit. (
  • 1993. Mutation of a conserved proline residue in the b-subunit ectodomain prevents Na,K-ATPase oligomerization. (
  • 26 Amnino acids of an extracellular domain of the Na,K-ATPase a-subunit are sufficient for assembly with the Na,K-ATPase b-subunit. (
  • Analysis of subunit assembly of the Na-K-ATPase. (
  • Mutations in the Caenorhabditis elegans Na,K-ATPase a-subunit gene, eat-6, disrupt excitable cell function. (
  • Cu + -ATPases are essential to maintain Cu + homeostasis. (
  • Calcium-transporting ATPases (Ca(2+) pumps) are major players in maintaining calcium homeostasis in the cell and have been detected in all cellular organisms. (
  • Due to the importance of the intracellular calcium signaling and its key function in the control of intracellular functions we were interested to study calcium homeostasis in FA. (
  • The defects associated with the altered Ca(2+) homeostasis appear consistently overlapping those related to the unbalanced oxidative metabolism in FA cells underlining a contiguity between oxidative stress and calcium homeostasis. (
  • ATPase that plays a role in intracellular cation homeostasis and the maintenance of neuronal integrity (PubMed:22186024). (
  • This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the translocation of calcium from the cytosol to an endomembrane compartment. (
  • This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of calcium. (
  • This enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the translocation of calcium from the cytosol to the sarcoplasmic reticulum lumen, and is involved in calcium sequestration associated with muscular excitation and contraction. (
  • The calcium ion is attached to the ATP enzyme ATPase. (
  • Function: This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the translocation of calcium from the cytosol to the sarcoplasmic reticulum lumen. (
  • Enzyme regulation: Reversibly inhibited by phospholamban (PLN) at low calcium concentrations. (
  • The Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase enzyme is active (i.e. it uses energy from ATP ). (
  • [1] This enzyme belongs to the family of P-type ATPases . (
  • This superfamily represents the cytoplasmic domain N found in P-type ATPases. (
  • Evolution of substrate specificities in the P-type ATPase superfamily. (
  • 1993. Differential distribution of the alternative forms of the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase, SERCA2b and SERCA2a, in the avian brain. (
  • Accordingly, mutational disruption of the interactions between TMS11 and its neighboring residues caused SERCA2b to display SERCA2a-like ATPase activity. (
  • This gene encodes a member of the P5 subfamily of ATPases which transports inorganic cations as well as other substrates. (
  • Members of this subfamily confer resistance to and transport several classes of chemotherapeutics including taxanes, vinca alkaloids, camptothecans, and nucleoside analogs, as well as physiologic substrates including leukotrienes and glutathione ( 1, 2 ). (
  • It belongs to a class of enzymes known as ATPases that use the energy stored in ATP to carry out another action. (
  • They're enzymes called Ca2+ATPase. (
  • We found that FANCA cells display a dramatically low intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in resting conditions. (
  • [2] It also functions as a signal transducer/integrator to regulate the MAPK pathway , reactive oxygen species (ROS), as well as intracellular calcium. (
  • She obtained a Ph.D in Biochemistry at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in 2005 with a dissertation on the molecular basis of intracellular calcium regulation. (
  • In vitro assays show basal ATPase activity. (
  • Ton VK , Mandal D, Vahadj C and Rao R (2002) Functional expression in yeast of the human secretory pathway calcium / manganese ATPase (hSPCA1) defective in Hailey Hailey disease. (
  • Cu + transfer from Cu + chaperones to regulatory cytoplasmic metal-binding domains (MBDs) present in these ATPases has been described, but there is no evidence of a proposed subsequent Cu + movement from the MBDs to the TM-MBS. (
  • The cytoplasmic loops of the P-type ATPases form three separate modules, commonly named the A, P and N-domains [ PMID: 15448704 ]. (
  • The Activation of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase by Glucagon in Hepatocytes Is Diminished by Phorbol Myristate Acetate: A Role for Cytoplasmic Calcium in Dehydrogenase Regulation. (
  • ATP dependent calcium pumps are responsible, in part, for the maintenance of low cytoplasmic free calcium concentrations. (
  • This gene encodes one of the SERCA Ca(2+)-ATPases, which are intracellular pumps located in the sarcoplasmic or endoplasmic reticula of muscle cells. (
  • The PMCA and the sodium calcium exchanger (NCX) are together the main regulators of intracellular Ca2+ concentrations. (
  • These gradients are essential for osmoregulation, for sodium-coupled transport of a variety of organic and inorganic molecules, and for electrical excitability of nerve and muscle. (
  • Since it transports Ca2+ into the extracellular space, the PMCA is also an important regulator of the calcium concentration in the extracellular space. (
  • In brain tissue, it has been postulated that certain types of PMCA are important for regulating synaptic activity, since the PMCA is involved in regulating the amount of calcium within the cell at the synapse, and Ca2+ is involved in release of synaptic vesicles. (
  • The structure of the PMCA is similar to that of the SERCA calcium pumps, which are responsible for removing calcium from the cytoplasm into the lumen of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. (
  • Calcium tends to have a slightly lower affinity for PMCA pumps than for SERCA pumps. (
  • One of a class of drugs that acts by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cell membranes or on the release and binding of calcium in intracellular pools. (
  • In summarizing current research in this area, this volume considers first the properties of indi- vidual cation transporting activities located in various cell membranes. (
  • Ca2+ Transport Mechanisms in Microsomes and Membranes. (
  • Purification of Ca2+-ATPase from Rat Pancreatic Acinar Plasma Membranes Using Calmodulin-Affinity Chromatography (Extended Abstract). (
  • The Mechanism of Gated Calcium Transport Across Biological Membranes presents the proceedings of a symposium, which was an unprecedented attempt to bring together diverse groups working on various aspects of the problem of gated Ca2+ transport. (
  • Using crude membranes in an ABCC10 overexpression system, we found that the ABCC10 transport substrates estrogen estradiol-glucuronide (E 2 17βG) and leukotriene C4 (LTC 4 ) significantly stimulated ABCC10 beryllium fluoride (BeFx)-sensitive ATPase activity. (
  • On the other hand, prephosphorylation of the SR by the endogenous CaM kinase and subsequent transfer of the membranes to the Ca 2+ transport assay medium results in stimulation of Ca 2+ uptake activity (202% of control). (
  • While the mechanism of action is debated, artemisinin has been reported to inhibit the sarcoplasmic endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA) in the malaria parasite. (
  • Mechanism and Regulation of Mitochondrial Ca2+ Transport. (
  • Inesi G: Mechanism of calcium transport. (
  • Mutations in the gene-encoding SERCA1, the fast-twitch skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase, are associated with Brody disease. (
  • In both cardiac and slow-twitch skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) there are several systems involved in the regulation of Ca 2+ -ATPase function. (
  • It has been suggested recently, however, that phospholamban is not tightly coupled to the Ca 2+ -ATPase in SR vesicles from slow-twitch skeletal muscle. (
  • Our results indicate that assay conditions strongly influence the extent of CaM kinase-dependent Ca 2+ -ATPase stimulation seen in both cardiac and slow-twitch skeletal muscle. (
  • These findings imply that (a) phospholamban is coupled to the Ca 2+ -ATPase in slow-twitch skeletal muscle SR (as in cardiac SR), and (b) the amount of Ca 2+ uptake stimulation seen upon the addition of calmodulin or PKA depends strongly on the assay conditions employed. (
  • Ionized magnesium and calcium concentration and their ratio in equine plasma samples as determined by a regulatory laboratory compared to a clinical reference laboratory. (
  • The primary objective of this study is to determine whether geriatric inpatients with severe behavioral disorders exhibit higher serum ionized calcium concentration than geriatric inpatien. (
  • Relationship Between Cytosolic Free Calcium Ion Concentration and the Control of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase in Isolated Cardiac Myocytes and Synaptosomes. (
  • As cells tend to accumulate nutrients, this transport is most often uphill, i.e. against a concentration gradient and/or an electrical gradient, and needs to be energized. (
  • Active transport is the movement of molecules up their concentration gradient , using energy. (
  • This energetic cost may be associated with cyclical calcium transport, where rate-limiting of crossbridge attachments may require greater sarcoplasmic calcium concentration at high frequencies of leg swinging to produce the same amplitude of muscle force. (
  • The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) plays a key role controlling calcium concentration in the cytosol. (
  • This activity is inhibited by vanadate, but, unlike that of other Ca(2+) pumps, is not significantly stimulated by either calcium or manganese. (
  • GO annotations related to this gene include nucleotide binding and cation-transporting ATPase activity . (
  • Importantly, we found that the clinically valuable multikinase inhibitor sorafenib, and a natural alkaloid, cepharanthine, inhibited ABCC10 docetaxel transport activity. (
  • Addition of calmodulin (0.2 μM) directly to the Ca 2+ transport assay medium results in minimal (∼ 112-130% of control) stimulation of Ca 2+ uptake activity when the Ca 2+ uptake reaction is initiated by the addition of either ATP or Ca 2+ /EGTA. (
  • [7] Recently, glycolysis has also been shown to be of particular importance for Na⁺/K⁺-ATPases in skeletal muscles, where inhibition of glycogen breakdown (a substrate for glycolysis ) leads to reduced Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase activity and lower force production. (
  • Its major function is to transport calcium from the cytosol into the sarcoplasmic reticulum. (
  • It is a Ca2+ ATPase that transfers Ca2+ from the cytosol of the cell to the lumen of the SR. This uses energy from ATP hydrolysis during muscle relaxation. (
  • In addition to proliferation and adhesion, calcium regulation in these cells appears to play an important role in maintaining the skin's barrier function, helping to keep foreign invaders such as bacteria out of the body. (
  • Problems with calcium regulation impair many cell functions, including cell adhesion. (
  • In addition, abnormal calcium regulation disrupts the barrier function of the skin, making it more susceptible to infections. (
  • Although ATP2C1 gene mutations probably also affect the transport of manganese within cells, abnormal manganese regulation is not thought to contribute to the signs and symptoms of Hailey-Hailey disease. (
  • Role of ATP and Na+ in the Regulation of Cytosolic Free Calcium in Kidney Cells. (
  • In this Update, we will focus on those entry points within the plant body where nutrient transport is intense, and we will discuss their energization and regulation by proton pumps. (
  • Thus P-type ATPases seem to have developed related mechanisms of regulation, and it is a future challenge for us to discover these general principles of P-type regulation. (
  • The energy for this ion transport comes from hydrolysis of molecules of ATP (adenosine triphosphate). (
  • Calcium is an essential second messenger in yeast metabolism and physiology. (
  • To study the possible mechanisms of action of RBX11160, we have examined its ability to inhibit PfATP6, a sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase and proposed target for semisynthetic peroxidic artemisinin derivatives. (
  • Feher JJ, Fabiato A: Cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum: Calcium uptake and release. (
  • P-type ATPases of the class IB (PIB) are essential in these processes, actively extruding heavy metals from the cytoplasm of cells. (
  • In this way, the sarcoplasmic reticulum helps regulate calcium ion concentrations in the cytoplasm of skeletal muscle cells. (
  • The ER fraction showed one high molecular mass phosphoprotein (119 kD) in the presence of calcium and two low molecular mass phosphoproteins (17 and 20 kD) that showed no calcium dependence. (
  • Inesi G, Submilla C, Kirtley ME: Relationships of molecular structure and function in Ca 2+ -transport ATPase. (
  • 1994. Molecular evolution of the calcium-transporting ATPases analyzed by the maximum parsimony method. (
  • We now know that ATP-consuming proton pumps drive nutrient transport at several entry points in the plant body. (
  • P-class pumps are composed of two different polypeptides, α and β, and become phosphorylated as part of the transport cycle. (
  • All known V and F pumps transport only protons in a process that does not involve a phosphoprotein intermediate. (
  • To control calcium ion levels, the body uses pumps. (
  • The ATP-dependent calcium uptake observed in both fractions was released by the calcium ionophore A23187. (
  • Cytosolic calcium concentrations (Ca(i)) of barley aleurone protoplasts after stimulation with the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) were measured by using the calcium-sensitive fluorescent dye Indo-1. (
  • In addition to its calcium-transporting functions, SERCA1 generates heat in brown adipose tissue and in skeletal muscles. (
  • Chronic anthracycline administration to rabbits causes impairment of cardiac contractility and decreased gene expression of the calcium-induced calcium release channel of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), the ryanodine receptor (RYR2). (