Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.
Cation-transporting proteins that utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis for the transport of CALCIUM. They differ from CALCIUM CHANNELS which allow calcium to pass through a membrane without the use of energy.
Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.
Proton-translocating ATPases that are involved in acidification of a variety of intracellular compartments.
Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.
Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.
Stable calcium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element calcium, but differ in atomic weight. Ca-42-44, 46, and 48 are stable calcium isotopes.
A salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.
Long-lasting voltage-gated CALCIUM CHANNELS found in both excitable and nonexcitable tissue. They are responsible for normal myocardial and vascular smooth muscle contractility. Five subunits (alpha-1, alpha-2, beta, gamma, and delta) make up the L-type channel. The alpha-1 subunit is the binding site for calcium-based antagonists. Dihydropyridine-based calcium antagonists are used as markers for these binding sites.
Calcium-transporting ATPases found on the PLASMA MEMBRANE that catalyze the active transport of CALCIUM from the CYTOPLASM into the extracellular space. They play a role in maintaining a CALCIUM gradient across plasma membrane.
The calcium salt of oxalic acid, occurring in the urine as crystals and in certain calculi.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
The calcium salt of gluconic acid. The compound has a variety of uses, including its use as a calcium replenisher in hypocalcemic states.
Unstable isotopes of calcium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ca atoms with atomic weights 39, 41, 45, 47, 49, and 50 are radioactive calcium isotopes.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.
Calcium-transporting ATPases that catalyze the active transport of CALCIUM into the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM vesicles from the CYTOPLASM. They are primarily found in MUSCLE CELLS and play a role in the relaxation of MUSCLES.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.
Inorganic compounds that contain calcium as an integral part of the molecule.
CALCIUM CHANNELS that are concentrated in neural tissue. Omega toxins inhibit the actions of these channels by altering their voltage dependence.
A sesquiterpene lactone found in roots of THAPSIA. It inhibits CA(2+)-TRANSPORTING ATPASE mediated uptake of CALCIUM into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.
Agents that increase calcium influx into calcium channels of excitable tissues. This causes vasoconstriction in VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE and/or CARDIAC MUSCLE cells as well as stimulation of insulin release from pancreatic islets. Therefore, tissue-selective calcium agonists have the potential to combat cardiac failure and endocrinological disorders. They have been used primarily in experimental studies in cell and tissue culture.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
Integral membrane proteins that transport protons across a membrane. This transport can be linked to the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. What is referred to as proton pump inhibitors frequently is about POTASSIUM HYDROGEN ATPASE.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
A species of extremely thermophilic, sulfur-reducing archaea. It grows at a maximum temperature of 95 degrees C. in marine or deep-sea geothermal areas.
An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A white powder prepared from lime that has many medical and industrial uses. It is in many dental formulations, especially for root canal filling.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A potent vasodilator agent with calcium antagonistic action. It is a useful anti-anginal agent that also lowers blood pressure.
A calcium salt that is used for a variety of purposes including: building materials, as a desiccant, in dentistry as an impression material, cast, or die, and in medicine for immobilizing casts and as a tablet excipient. It exists in various forms and states of hydration. Plaster of Paris is a mixture of powdered and heat-treated gypsum.
Oxyvanadium ions in various states of oxidation. They act primarily as ion transport inhibitors due to their inhibition of Na(+)-, K(+)-, and Ca(+)-ATPase transport systems. They also have insulin-like action, positive inotropic action on cardiac ventricular muscle, and other metabolic effects.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A fluorescent calcium chelating agent which is used to study intracellular calcium in tissues.
A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.
A colorless crystalline or white powdery organic, tricarboxylic acid occurring in plants, especially citrus fruits, and used as a flavoring agent, as an antioxidant in foods, and as a sequestrating agent. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.
Chemical agents that increase the permeability of biological or artificial lipid membranes to specific ions. Most ionophores are relatively small organic molecules that act as mobile carriers within membranes or coalesce to form ion permeable channels across membranes. Many are antibiotics, and many act as uncoupling agents by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.
A calbindin protein found in many mammalian tissues, including the UTERUS, PLACENTA, BONE, PITUITARY GLAND, and KIDNEYS. In intestinal ENTEROCYTES it mediates intracellular calcium transport from apical to basolateral membranes via calcium binding at two EF-HAND MOTIFS. Expression is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.
A tetrameric calcium release channel in the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM membrane of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, acting oppositely to SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES. It is important in skeletal and cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and studied by using RYANODINE. Abnormalities are implicated in CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS and MUSCULAR DISEASES.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
An inorganic pyrophosphate which affects calcium metabolism in mammals. Abnormalities in its metabolism occur in some human diseases, notably HYPOPHOSPHATASIA and pseudogout (CHONDROCALCINOSIS).
Disorders in the processing of calcium in the body: its absorption, transport, storage, and utilization.
A calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent.
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A family of soluble metal binding proteins that are involved in the intracellular transport of specific metal ions and their transfer to the appropriate metalloprotein precursor.
Pyridine moieties which are partially saturated by the addition of two hydrogen atoms in any position.
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Lanthanum. The prototypical element in the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol La, atomic number 57, and atomic weight 138.91. Lanthanide ion is used in experimental biology as a calcium antagonist; lanthanum oxide improves the optical properties of glass.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
CALCIUM CHANNELS located within the PURKINJE CELLS of the cerebellum. They are involved in stimulation-secretion coupling of neurons.
A benzothiazepine derivative with vasodilating action due to its antagonism of the actions of CALCIUM ion on membrane functions.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Stones in the KIDNEY, usually formed in the urine-collecting area of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS). Their sizes vary and most contains CALCIUM OXALATE.
Reduction of the blood calcium below normal. Manifestations include hyperactive deep tendon reflexes, Chvostek's sign, muscle and abdominal cramps, and carpopedal spasm. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A large group of bacteria including those which oxidize ammonia or nitrite, metabolize sulfur and sulfur compounds, or deposit iron and/or manganese oxides.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A photoprotein isolated from the bioluminescent jellyfish Aequorea. It emits visible light by an intramolecular reaction when a trace amount of calcium ion is added. The light-emitting moiety in the bioluminescence reaction is believed to be 2-amino-3-benzyl-5-(p-hydroxyphenyl)pyrazine (AF-350).
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
The fluid inside CELLS.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A class of G-protein-coupled receptors that react to varying extracellular CALCIUM levels. Calcium-sensing receptors in the PARATHYROID GLANDS play an important role in the maintenance of calcium HOMEOSTASIS by regulating the release of PARATHYROID HORMONE. They differ from INTRACELLULAR CALCIUM-SENSING PROTEINS which sense intracellular calcium levels.
CALCIUM CHANNELS located in the neurons of the brain.
An element of the alkaline earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sr, atomic number 38, and atomic weight 87.62.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Intracellular receptors that bind to INOSITOL 1,4,5-TRISPHOSPHATE and play an important role in its intracellular signaling. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors are calcium channels that release CALCIUM in response to increased levels of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in the CYTOPLASM.
Abnormally high level of calcium in the blood.
Proteins that catalyze the unwinding of duplex DNA during replication by binding cooperatively to single-stranded regions of DNA or to short regions of duplex DNA that are undergoing transient opening. In addition DNA helicases are DNA-dependent ATPases that harness the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate DNA strands.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.
A divalent calcium ionophore that is widely used as a tool to investigate the role of intracellular calcium in cellular processes.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
CALCIUM CHANNELS located in the neurons of the brain. They are inhibited by the marine snail toxin, omega conotoxin MVIIC.
Intracellular messenger formed by the action of phospholipase C on phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, which is one of the phospholipids that make up the cell membrane. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate is released into the cytoplasm where it releases calcium ions from internal stores within the cell's endoplasmic reticulum. These calcium ions stimulate the activity of B kinase or calmodulin.
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
Proton-translocating ATPases which produce ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE in plants. They derive energy from light-driven reactions that develop high concentrations of protons within the membranous cisternae (THYLAKOIDS) of the CHLOROPLASTS.
A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
An ATP-dependent protease found in prokaryotes, CHLOROPLASTS, and MITOCHONDRIA. It is a soluble multisubunit complex that plays a role in the degradation of many abnormal proteins.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
An element with atomic symbol Cd, atomic number 48, and atomic weight 114. It is a metal and ingestion will lead to CADMIUM POISONING.
A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
A neurotoxic peptide, which is a cleavage product (VIa) of the omega-Conotoxin precursor protein contained in venom from the marine snail, CONUS geographus. It is an antagonist of CALCIUM CHANNELS, N-TYPE.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.
Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.
A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.
A rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by the deposition of copper in the BRAIN; LIVER; CORNEA; and other organs. It is caused by defects in the ATP7B gene encoding copper-transporting ATPase 2 (EC, also known as the Wilson disease protein. The overload of copper inevitably leads to progressive liver and neurological dysfunction such as LIVER CIRRHOSIS; TREMOR; ATAXIA and intellectual deterioration. Hepatic dysfunction may precede neurologic dysfunction by several years.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
An inherited disorder of copper metabolism transmitted as an X-linked trait and characterized by the infantile onset of HYPOTHERMIA, feeding difficulties, hypotonia, SEIZURES, bony deformities, pili torti (twisted hair), and severely impaired intellectual development. Defective copper transport across plasma and endoplasmic reticulum membranes results in copper being unavailable for the synthesis of several copper containing enzymes, including PROTEIN-LYSINE 6-OXIDASE; CERULOPLASMIN; and SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE. Pathologic changes include defects in arterial elastin, neuronal loss, and gliosis. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p125)
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A carbodiimide that is used as a chemical intermediate and coupling agent in peptide synthesis. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
A calcium channel blocker with marked vasodilator action. It is an effective antihypertensive agent and differs from other calcium channel blockers in that it does not reduce glomerular filtration rate and is mildly natriuretic, rather than sodium retentive.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
A ubiquitous family of proteins that transport PHOSPHOLIPIDS such as PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL and PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE between membranes. They play an important role in phospholipid metabolism during vesicular transport and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
A methylpyrrole-carboxylate from RYANIA that disrupts the RYANODINE RECEPTOR CALCIUM RELEASE CHANNEL to modify CALCIUM release from SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM resulting in alteration of MUSCLE CONTRACTION. It was previously used in INSECTICIDES. It is used experimentally in conjunction with THAPSIGARGIN and other inhibitors of CALCIUM ATPASE uptake of calcium into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
A calcium channel blockader with preferential cerebrovascular activity. It has marked cerebrovascular dilating effects and lowers blood pressure.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A network of tubules and sacs in the cytoplasm of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that assist with muscle contraction and relaxation by releasing and storing calcium ions.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)
A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
Two pairs of small oval-shaped glands located in the front and the base of the NECK and adjacent to the two lobes of THYROID GLAND. They secrete PARATHYROID HORMONE that regulates the balance of CALCIUM; PHOSPHORUS; and MAGNESIUM in the body.
A family of structurally related neurotoxic peptides from mollusk venom that inhibit voltage-activated entry of calcium into the presynaptic membrane. They selectively inhibit N-, P-, and Q-type calcium channels.
Derivatives of OXALIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are derived from the ethanedioic acid structure.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Membrane-bound proton-translocating ATPases that serve two important physiological functions in bacteria. One function is to generate ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE by utilizing the energy provided by an electrochemical gradient of protons across the cellular membrane. A second function is to counteract a loss of the transmembrane ion gradient by pumping protons at the expense of adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis.
Elements with partially filled d orbitals. They constitute groups 3-12 of the periodic table of elements.
An electrogenic ion exchange protein that maintains a steady level of calcium by removing an amount of calcium equal to that which enters the cells. It is widely distributed in most excitable membranes, including the brain and heart.
A potent antagonist of CALCIUM CHANNELS that is highly selective for VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE. It is effective in the treatment of chronic stable angina pectoris, hypertension, and congestive cardiac failure.
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Protein-lipid combinations abundant in brain tissue, but also present in a wide variety of animal and plant tissues. In contrast to lipoproteins, they are insoluble in water, but soluble in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The protein moiety has a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. The associated lipids consist of a mixture of GLYCEROPHOSPHATES; CEREBROSIDES; and SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS; while lipoproteins contain PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and TRIGLYCERIDES.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Proteins found in any species of archaeon.
Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
Calcium-binding proteins that are found in DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES, INTESTINES, BRAIN, and other tissues where they bind, buffer and transport cytoplasmic calcium. Calbindins possess a variable number of EF-HAND MOTIFS which contain calcium-binding sites. Some isoforms are regulated by VITAMIN D.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Derivative of 7-dehydroxycholesterol formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. It differs from ERGOCALCIFEROL in having a single bond between C22 and C23 and lacking a methyl group at C24.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Compounds with three aromatic rings in linear arrangement with an OXYGEN in the center ring.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A potent calcium channel blockader with marked vasodilator action. It has antihypertensive properties and is effective in the treatment of angina and coronary spasms without showing cardiodepressant effects. It has also been used in the treatment of asthma and enhances the action of specific antineoplastic agents.
Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.
A genus of facultatively anaerobic heterotrophic archaea, in the order THERMOPLASMALES, isolated from self-heating coal refuse piles and acid hot springs. They are thermophilic and can grow both with and without sulfur.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Proteases that contain proteolytic core domains and ATPase-containing regulatory domains. They are usually comprised of large multi-subunit assemblies. The domains can occur within a single peptide chain or on distinct subunits.

A novel interaction mechanism accounting for different acylphosphatase effects on cardiac and fast twitch skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pumps. (1/3607)

In cardiac and skeletal muscle Ca2+ translocation from cytoplasm into sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) is accomplished by different Ca2+-ATPases whose functioning involves the formation and decomposition of an acylphosphorylated phosphoenzyme intermediate (EP). In this study we found that acylphosphatase, an enzyme well represented in muscular tissues and which actively hydrolyzes EP, had different effects on heart (SERCA2a) and fast twitch skeletal muscle SR Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA1). With physiological acylphosphatase concentrations SERCA2a exhibited a parallel increase in the rates of both ATP hydrolysis and Ca2+ transport; in contrast, SERCA1 appeared to be uncoupled since the stimulation of ATP hydrolysis matched an inhibition of Ca2+ pump. These different effects probably depend on phospholamban, which is associated with SERCA2a but not SERCA1. Consistent with this view, the present study suggests that acylphosphatase-induced stimulation of SERCA2a, in addition to an enhanced EP hydrolysis, may be due to a displacement of phospholamban, thus to a removal of its inhibitory effect.  (+info)

Expression of skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase is reduced in rats with postinfarction heart failure. (2/3607)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether heart failure in rats is associated with altered expression of the skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA). METHODS: SERCA protein and mRNA were examined in the soleus muscles of eight female rats with heart failure induced by coronary artery ligation, six weeks after the procedure (mean (SEM) left ventricular end diastolic pressure 20.4 (2.2) mm Hg) and in six sham operated controls by western and northern analyses, respectively. RESULTS: SERCA-2a isoform protein was reduced by 16% (112 000 (4000) v 134 000 (2000) arbitrary units, p < 0.001), and SERCA-2a messenger RNA was reduced by 59% (0.24 (0. 06) v 0.58 (0.02) arbitrary units, p < 0.001). Although rats with heart failure had smaller muscles (0.54 mg/g v 0.66 mg/g body weight), no difference in locomotor activity was observed. CONCLUSIONS: These results may explain the previously documented abnormalities in calcium handling in skeletal muscle from animals with the same model of congestive heart failure, and could be responsible for the accelerated muscle fatigue characteristic of patients with heart failure.  (+info)

Mutations of Arg198 in sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase cause inhibition of hydrolysis of the phosphoenzyme intermediate formed from inorganic phosphate. (3/3607)

Arg198 of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase was substituted with lysine, glutamine, glutamic acid, alanine, and isoleucine by site-directed mutagenesis. Kinetic analysis was performed with microsomal membranes isolated from COS-1 cells which were transfected with the mutated cDNAs. The rate of dephosphorylation of the ADP-insensitive phosphoenzyme was determined by first phosphorylating the Ca2+-ATPase with 32Pi and then diluting the sample with non-radioactive Pi. This rate was reduced substantially in the mutant R198Q, more strongly in the mutants R198A and R1981, and most strongly in the mutant R198E, but to a much lesser extent in R198K. The reduction in the rate of dephosphorylation was consistent with the observed decrease in the turnover rate of the Ca2+-ATPase accompanied by the steady-state accumulation of the ADP-insensitive phosphoenzyme formed from ATP. These results indicate that the positive charge and high hydrophilicity of Arg198 are critical for rapid hydrolysis of the ADP-insensitive phosphoenzyme.  (+info)

Small conductance potassium channels cause an activity-dependent spike frequency adaptation and make the transfer function of neurons logarithmic. (4/3607)

We made a computational model of a single neuron to study the effect of the small conductance (SK) Ca2+-dependent K+ channel on spike frequency adaptation. The model neuron comprised a Na+ conductance, a Ca2+ conductance, and two Ca2+-independent K+ conductances, as well as a small and a large (BK) Ca2+-activated K+ conductance, a Ca2+ pump, and mechanisms for Ca2+ buffering and diffusion. Sustained current injection that simulated synaptic input resulted in a train of action potentials (APs) which in the absence of the SK conductance showed very little adaptation with time. The transfer function of the neuron was nearly linear, i.e., both asymptotic spike rate as well as the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) were approximately linear functions of the input current. Adding an SK conductance with a steep nonlinear dependence on [Ca2+]i (. Pflugers Arch. 422:223-232; Kohler, Hirschberg, Bond, Kinzie, Marrion, Maylie, and Adelman. 1996. Science. 273:1709-1714) caused a marked time-dependent spike frequency adaptation and changed the transfer function of the neuron from linear to logarithmic. Moreover, the input range the neuron responded to with regular spiking increased by a factor of 2.2. These results can be explained by a shunt of the cell resistance caused by the activation of the SK conductance. It might turn out that the logarithmic relationships between the stimuli of some modalities (e.g., sound or light) and the perception of the stimulus intensity (Fechner's law) have a cellular basis in the involvement of SK conductances in the processing of these stimuli.  (+info)

Intracellular EDTA mimics parvalbumin in the promotion of skeletal muscle relaxation. (5/3607)

Parvalbumin (PA) is an intracellular Ca2+-binding protein found in some muscle and nerves. Its ability to bind Ca2+ and facilitate skeletal muscle relaxation is limited by its Mg2+ off-rate. EDTA serves as an "artificial" PA in that it exhibited similar rate constants for Mg2+ (3 s-1) and Ca2+ (0.7 s-1) dissociation at 10 degrees C. When introduced into frog skeletal muscle, EDTA increased the relaxation rate by approximately 2.7-fold, and with increasing tetanus duration, EDTA lost its ability to contribute to relaxation (and Ca2+ sequestration) at its Mg2+ off-rate. Intracellular EDTA recovered its ability to contribute to muscle relaxation and Ca2+ sequestration at its Ca2+ off-rate. Like PA, EDTA's contribution to muscle relaxation and Ca2+ sequestration was more clearly observed when the SR Ca-ATPase was inhibited. Introduction of EDTA into rat soleus muscle, which has low [PA], increased the relaxation rate in a manner that was analogous to the way in which PA facilitates relaxation of frog skeletal muscle. Thus intracellular EDTA serves as an effective mimic of PA, and its use should aid in our understanding of PA's function in muscle and nerve.  (+info)

Short-time effects of neuroactive steroids on rat cortical Ca2+-ATPase activity. (6/3607)

Recent experimental evidence indicates that some steroid hormones, apart from their well-documented genomic actions, could produce non-genomic rapid effects, and are potent modulators of the plasma membrane proteins, including voltage- and ligand-operated ion channels or G protein-coupled receptors. Neuroactive steroids, 17beta-estradiol, testosterone, pregnenolone sulfate and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, after a short-time incubation directly modulated the activity of plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase purified from synaptosomal membranes of rat cortex. The sulfate derivatives of dehydroepiandrosterone and pregnenolone applied at concentrations of 10-11-10-6 M, showed an inverted U-shape potency in the regulation of Ca2+-ATPase activity. At physiologically relevant concentrations (10-8-10-9 M) a maximal enhancement of the basal activity reached 200%. Testosterone (10-11-10-6 M) and 17beta-estradiol (10-12-10-9 M) caused a dose-dependent increase in the hydrolytic ability of Ca2+-ATPase, and the activity with the highest concentration of steroids reached 470% and 200%, respectively. All examined steroids decreased the stimulatory effect of a naturally existing activator of the calcium pump, calmodulin. The present study strongly suggests that the plasma membrane calcium pump could be one of the possible membrane targets for a non-genomic neuroactive steroid action.  (+info)

The sarcoplasmic reticulum and the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger both contribute to the Ca2+ transient of failing human ventricular myocytes. (7/3607)

Our objective was to determine the respective roles of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger in the small, slowly decaying Ca2+ transients of failing human ventricular myocytes. Left ventricular myocytes were isolated from explanted hearts of patients with severe heart failure (n=18). Cytosolic Ca2+, contraction, and action potentials were measured by using indo-1, edge detection, and patch pipettes, respectively. Selective inhibitors of SR Ca2+ transport (thapsigargin) and reverse-mode Na+/Ca2+ exchange activity (No. 7943, Kanebo Ltd) were used to define the respective contribution of these processes to the Ca2+ transient. Ca2+ transients and contractions induced by action potentials (AP transients) at 0.5 Hz exhibited phasic and tonic components. The duration of the tonic component was determined by the action potential duration. Ca2+ transients induced by caffeine (Caf transients) exhibited only a phasic component with a rapid rate of decay that was dependent on extracellular Na+. The SR Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin abolished the phasic component of the AP Ca2+ transient and of the Caf transient but had no significant effect on the tonic component of the AP transient. The Na+/Ca2+ exchange inhibitor No. 7943 eliminated the tonic component of the AP transient and reduced the magnitude of the phasic component. In failing human myocytes, Ca2+ transients and contractions exhibit an SR-related, phasic component and a slow, reverse-mode Na+/Ca2+ exchange-related tonic component. These findings suggest that Ca2+ influx via reverse-mode Na+/Ca2+ exchange during the action potential may contribute to the slow decay of the Ca2+ transient in failing human myocytes.  (+info)

Phospholamban-to-SERCA2 ratio controls the force-frequency relationship. (8/3607)

The force-frequency relationship (FFR) describes the frequency-dependent potentiation of cardiac contractility. The interaction of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-adenosinetriphosphatase (SERCA2) with its inhibitory protein phospholamban (PLB) might be involved in the control of the FFR. The FFR was analyzed in two systems in which the PLB-to-SERCA2 ratio was modulated. Adult rabbit cardiac myocytes were transduced with adenovirus encoding for SERCA2, PLB, and beta-galactosidase (control). After 3 days, the relative PLB/SERCA2 values were significantly different between groups (SERCA2, 0.5; control, 1.0; PLB, 4.5). SERCA2 overexpression shortened relaxation by 23% relative to control, whereas PLB prolonged relaxation by 39% and reduced contractility by 47% (0.1 Hz). When the stimulation frequency was increased to 1.5 Hz, myocyte contractility was increased by 30% in control myocytes. PLB-overexpressing myocytes showed an augmented positive FFR (+78%), whereas SERCA2-transduced myocytes displayed a negative FFR (-15%). A more negative FFR was also found in papillary muscles from SERCA2 transgenic mice. These findings demonstrate that the ratio of phospholamban to SERCA2 is an important component in the control of the FFR.  (+info)

The finding that negatively charged phospholipids activate the plasma-membrane (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase and that polycations counteract this stimulation suggest that negative charges in the environment of the ATPase protein could be important for its function. The aim of the present work was to investigate whether changing the charges on the ATPase protein itself by modifying the pH within the physiological range affects the activity of the purified plasma-membrane Ca2+ pump from stomach smooth muscle. Increasing the pH from 6.9 to 7.4 and using 1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N′,N′-tetra-acetic acid (BAPTA) as a Ca2+ buffer, doubled the ATPase activity at 0.3 microM-Ca2+ in the presence of 100% phosphatidylcholine (PC) or after substituting 20% of the PC by negatively charged phospholipids PtdIns, PtdIns4P, phosphatidylserine and phosphatidic acid. This stimulatory effect was due to an increased affinity of the enzyme for Ca2+, while the Vmax. remained unaffected. In the case of ...
Although many aspects of capacitative Ca2+ entry remain unknown or controversial, the store-dependent generation of the plasma membrane Ca2+ influx appears to be certain and well documented. The first direct experimental proof of the capacitative Ca2+ entry model was demonstrated by Hallam et al. (5). They determined that depletion of the intracellular stores activated Ca2+ entry by a mechanism independent of receptor occupation or inositol phosphates. Depletion of the intracellular stores by repetitive agonist stimulation in a Ca2+-free environment triggered a large influx of Ca2+ when the ion was returned to the extracellular environment. This large Ca2+ influx or overshoot is now the characteristic trademark of capacitative Ca2+ entry. This influx pathway can also be activated by inhibition of the sarcoplasmic-endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase pump using thapsigargin, cyclopiazonic acid, or 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1,4-benzohydroquinone. These inhibitors block the sequestration of Ca2+, thereby ...
A molecular ribbon model of a calcium pump, a structure responsible for coordinating muscular contraction or signalling other cells along the cell membrane. Calcium pumps are embedded in the sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle cells, transferring two calcium ions for each molecule of ATP broken down. - Stock Image C017/6296
ATPase molecule. Computer model showing the structure of the catalytic F1 unit of an ATP synthase (ATPase) molecule from a rat mitochondrion. ATPase is an important enzyme that provides energy for cells through the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate. - Stock Image C015/3983 Principles of Programming Languages: Design, Evaluation, and Implementation (9780195113068) by Bruce J. MacLennan and a great selection of similar New, Used and Collectible Books available now at great prices.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of Melittin on Molecular Dynamics and Ca-ATPase Activity in Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Membranes. T2 - Electron Paramagnetic Resonance. AU - Mahaney, James E.. AU - Thomas, David D. PY - 1991/7/1. Y1 - 1991/7/1. N2 - We have performed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) experiments on nitroxide spin labels incorporated into rabbit skeletal sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), in order to investigate the physical and functional interactions between melittin, a small basic membrane-binding peptide, and the Ca-ATPase of SR. Melittin binding to SR substantially inhibits Ca2+-dependent ATPase activity at 25 °C, with half-maximal inhibition at 9 mol of melittin bound per mole of Ca-ATPase. Saturation transfer EPR (ST-EPR) of maleimide spin-labeled Ca-ATPase showed that melittin decreases the submillisecond rotational mobility of the enzyme, with a 4-fold increase in the effective rotational correlation time (τr) at a melittin/Ca-ATPase mole ratio of 10:1. This decreased rotational ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ca2+ signalling in cardiovascular disease. T2 - the role of the plasma membrane calcium pumps. AU - Cartwright, Elizabeth J. AU - Oceandy, Delvac. AU - Austin, Clare. AU - Neyses, Ludwig. PY - 2011/8. Y1 - 2011/8. N2 - The plasma membrane calcium ATPases (PMCA) are a family of genes which extrude Ca(2+) from the cell and are involved in the maintenance of intracellular free calcium levels and/or with Ca(2+) signalling, depending on the cell type. In the cardiovascular system, Ca(2+) is not only essential for contraction and relaxation but also has a vital role as a second messenger in signal transduction pathways. A complex array of mechanisms regulate intracellular free calcium levels in the heart and vasculature and a failure in these systems to maintain normal Ca(2+) homeostasis has been linked to both heart failure and hypertension. This article focuses on the functions of PMCA, in particular isoform 4 (PMCA4), in the heart and vasculature and the reported links between PMCAs ...
Paramecium, a unicellular ciliate, can be attracted by various chemical stimuli. Chemoattractants such as glutamate, folate, cAMP, and acetate activate different receptor mediated signal transduction pathways. The final event in these signal transductions is a hyperpolarization of membrane potential, which makes Paramecium swim smoothly and fast. There is evidence that the effecter of this hyperpolarization is the plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA), that when activated, expels Ca2+ from the cell. In Paramecium three PMCA isoforms, named PMCA2, 3, and 4, have been cloned. PMCA2 is associated with lipid rafts, which is demonstrated by its resistance to cold detergent solubilization and distribution in sucrose density gradients in ultracentrifugation. PMCA3 and 4 are not associated with lipid rafts. On the cell surface, PMCAs are localized to the bases of cilia. Sterol-depletion by methyl-ß-cyclodextrin (MßCD) treatment disrupts the distribution of PMCA2 in sucrose density gradients and ciliary base
A dysfunctioning of Ca2+ pump ATPase in the sarcoplasmic reticulum in vascular smooth muscle has been proposed as a contributing factor for the development of genetic hypertension. In this study, we determined whether in vitro inhibition of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ pump in vascular smooth muscle tissues and cultured cells isolated from aortas of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats would elicit the known alterations of contractile function and cell growth. We found the following common vascular effects of thapsigargin and cyclopiazonic acid, which are known to be selective inhibitors of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase in a number of tissues including smooth muscle: (1) Both sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ pump inhibitors diminished agonist-induced transient contraction in Ca(2+)-free medium (ie, contraction due to intracellular release of Ca2+) and enhanced nifedipine-sensitive contraction on readmission of Ca2+ (ie, Ca2+ influx via L-type channels); and (2) ...
Angiogenesis, the de novo growth of blood vessels from pre-existing vessels, is an imperative, tightly-regulated process that underpins the expansion and refinement of the developing vascular network. However, in some pathological conditions, such as after a myocardial infarction, the vascular network can be destroyed necessitating the need for angiogenesis. Therefore stimulating angiogenesis could be therapeutically advantageous. Recently, plasma membrane calcium ATPase 4 (PMCA) has been established as a novel mediator of angiogenesis through its role in endothelial cell migration and tubule formation. In addition to PMCA4, both PMCA1 and PMCA2 are also expressed in human endothelial cells but their contribution to angiogenesis remains unknown. Therefore, we hypothesise that PMCA1 also modulates angiogenesis by altering endothelial cell behaviours.. Transient knockdown of PMCA1 was achieved in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) using siRNA (si-PMCA1) and confirmed with qPCR and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The role of ganglioside GM3 in the modulation of conformation and activity of sarcoplasmic reticulum CA2+-ATPase. AU - Yang, F. Y.. AU - Wang, L. H.. AU - Yang, X. Y.. AU - Tsui, Z. C.. AU - Tu, Yaping. PY - 1997/10. Y1 - 1997/10. N2 - Rabbit sarcoplasmic reticulum does contain trace amounts of gangliosides, and the main species is GM3. Incorporation of GM3 into the SR vesicles or addition of it to the soybean phospholipid used for reconstitution of proteoliposomes obviously increased ATP hydrolysis, as well as, Ca2+ uptake activity of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase. Conformation changes of Ca2+-ATPase induced by GM3 were also observed by circular dichroism, intrinsic fluorescence and fluorescence quenching measurements.. AB - Rabbit sarcoplasmic reticulum does contain trace amounts of gangliosides, and the main species is GM3. Incorporation of GM3 into the SR vesicles or addition of it to the soybean phospholipid used for reconstitution of proteoliposomes obviously increased ...
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of calcium. Transports calcium ions from the cytosol into the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum lumen. Contributes to calcium sequestration involved in muscular excitation/contraction.
The autoinhibition/activation of the PMCA (plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase) involves conformational changes in the membrane region of the protein that affect the amount of lipids directly associated with the transmembrane domain. The lipid-protein-dependence of PMCA isoforms 2 and 4 expressed and obtained in purified form from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated using the phosphatidylcholine analogue [125I]TID-PC/16 {l-O-hexadecanoyl-2-O-[9-[[[2-[125I]iodo-4-(trifluoromemyl-3H-diazirin-3-yl)benzyl]oxy]carbonyl]nonanoyl]-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine}, which was incorporated into mixtures of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine and the non-ionic detergent C12E10 [deca(ethylene glycol) dodecyl ether]. We found no differences between the recombinant PMCA4 and PMCA purified from erythrocytes (ePMCA). However, titration of the half-maximal activation by Ca2+/calmodulin of PMCA2 showed 30-fold higher affinity than PMCA4. PMCA2 exhibited a lower level of labelling in the autoinhibited conformation relative ...
It has been proposed that breakdown of the excitation-contraction coupling system plays a pivotal role in myocardial dysfunction during the course of acute ischemia. We tested this hypothesis by characterizing the function of the sarcoplasmic reticulum at pH 7.1 and 6.4 after 7.5, 15, and 30 minutes of canine normothermic global ischemia. At pH 7.1, whole heart homogenate sarcoplasmic reticulum demonstrated a 49% depression of oxalate-supported calcium uptake at 7.5 minutes of ischemia, which progressed to 85% at 30 minutes of ischemia. At pH 6.4, control homogenate calcium uptake rates were significantly depressed, accompanied by a further depression in the ischemic groups. Isolated sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium uptake mirrored the effects of the whole heart homogenate. Calcium-stimulated magnesium-dependent ATPase (calcium-ATPase) activity was significantly depressed by both ischemia and acidosis, with a decrease in the coupling ratio (mumol calcium/mumol ATP) at 15 and 30 minutes of ...
Calcium management differs in T and B lymphocytes. [Ca2+]i elevation in response to calcium ionophores is up to 10 times greater in T cells than B cells. There is no difference between them in ionophore uptake. T cells, but not B cells, possess a calcium-sensitive potassium channel which produces membrane hyperpolarization at [Ca2+]i above 200 nM. This alters T cell density providing a rapid and easy method of cell separation. In contrast, B cells depolarize when [Ca2+]i is increased. Isolated B cell membrane vesicle ATP-dependent calcium pump activity is higher than T cell vesicles. Membrane depolarization reduces the [Ca2+]i response to ionomycin, most dramatically in T cells because they are hyperpolarized by increased [Ca2+]i. The most likely basis of this behavior is an effect of membrane potential on lymphocyte membrane calcium pump activity. This mechanism provides an explanation of the inhibitory effect of membrane depolarization on T lymphocyte responses. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of the ATP-binding domain of the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase. T2 - Probing nucleotide binding by multidimensional NMR. AU - Abu-Abed, Mona. AU - Mal, Tapas K.. AU - Kainosho, Masatsune. AU - MacLennan, David H.. AU - Ikura, Mitsuhiko. PY - 2002/1/29. Y1 - 2002/1/29. N2 - The skeletal muscle sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA1a) mediates muscle relaxation by pumping Ca2+ from the cytosol to the ER/SR lumen. In efforts aimed at understanding the structural basis for the conformational changes accompanying the reaction cycle catalyzed by SERCA1a, we have studied the ATP-binding domain of SERCA1a in both nucleotide-bound and -free forms by NMR. Limited proteolysis analyses guided us to express a 28 kDa stably folded fragment containing the nucleotide-binding domain of SERCA1a spanning residues Thr357-Leu600. ATP binding activity was demonstrated for this fragment by a FITC competition assay. A nearly complete backbone resonance assignment of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The regulation of ATPase-ATPase interactions in sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane. I. The effects of Ca2+, ATP, and inorganic phosphate.. AU - Dux, L.. AU - Martonosi, A.. PY - 1983/10/10. Y1 - 1983/10/10. N2 - Two-dimensional crystalline arrays of Ca2+-ATPase molecules develop after treatment of sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles with Na3VO4 in calcium-free medium (Dux, L., and Martonosi, A. (1983) J. Biol. Chem. 258, 2599-2603). The formation of Ca2+-ATPase crystals is inhibited by Ca2+ (2 microM), or ATP (5 mM), but not by ADP, 5-adenylylimidodiphosphate, or adenylylmethylenediphosphonate. ATPase crystals did not form at 37 degrees C and exposure of preformed crystals to 37 degrees C for 1 h caused the disappearance of crystal lattice. Inorganic orthophosphate (1 mM at pH 6.0) promoted the formation of a distinct crystal form of Ca2+-ATPase, which was different from that produced by Na3VO4. These observations indicate that Ca2+, ATP, inorganic phosphate, pH, and temperature ...
In this study, we have analysed the relationship between Ca2+ pumps and Ins(1,4,5)P3-sensitive Ca2+ channels in myeloid cells. To study whether sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA)-type Ca2+-ATPases are responsible for Ca2+ uptake into Ins(1,4,5)P3-sensitive Ca2+ stores, we used the three structurally unrelated inhibitors thapsigargin, 2,5-di-t-butylhydroquinone and cyclopiazonic acid. In HL-60 cells, all three compounds precluded formation of the phosphorylated intermediate of SERCA-type Ca2+-ATPases. They also decreased, in parallel, ATP-dependent Ca2+ accumulation and the amount of Ins(1,4,5)P3-releasable Ca2+. Immunoblotting with subtype-directed antibodies demonstrated that HL-60 cells contain the Ca2+ pump SERCA2 (subtype b), and the Ca2+-release-channel type-1 Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptor. In subcellular fractionation studies, SERCA2 and type-1 Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptor co-purified. Immunofluorescence studies demonstrated that both type-1 Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptor and SERCA2 were ...
Unregulated increases in cellular Ca2+ homeostasis are a hallmark of pathophysiological conditions and a key trigger of cell death. Endothelial cells cultured under physiologic O2 conditions (5% O2) exhibit a reduced cytosolic Ca2+ response to stimulation. The mechanism for reduced plateau [Ca2+]i upon stimulation was due to increased sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA)-mediated reuptake rather than changes in Ca2+ influx capacity. Agonist-stimulated phosphorylation of the SERCA regulatory protein phospholamban was increased in cells cultured under 5% O2 Elevation of cytosolic and mitochondrial [Ca2+] and cell death after prolonged ionomycin treatment, as a model of Ca2+ overload, were lower when cells were cultured long-term under 5% compared with 18% O2 This protection was abolished by cotreatment with the SERCA inhibitor cyclopiazonic acid ...
The transfer of the terminal phosphate of ATP to a material from the sarcoplasmic reticulum of cardiac muscle which can be precipitated by trichloroacetic acid was studied, and the relationship of this biochemical event to active Ca2+ transport was examined. A component of the phosphoryl transfer reaction was stimulated specifically by Ca2+. Both the phosphorylation of the reticulum and the active sequestering of Ca2+ were proportional to the Ca2+ concentration between 10-7 and 10-5M. The time course of both phenomena was similar. These and other observations relating Ca2+-dependent phosphorylation of the membrane of the sarcoplasmic reticulum with the activesequestering of Ca2+ suggest that the phosphoryl transfer reaction may represent the formation of a carrier system which facilitates the inward flux of Ca2+ against a concentration gradient. Cyclic AMP, theophylline, or the combination of these two agents did not influence the rate or extent of the phosphorylation of the sarcoplasmic ...
The regulatory function of α1B-adrenoceptors in mammalian heart homeostasis is controversial. The objective of the present study was to characterize the expression/activity of key proteins implicated in cardiac calcium handling (Na+/K+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPases) and growth (ERK1/2, JNK1/2 and p38) in mice with cardiac-selective overexpression of constitutively active mutant α1B-adrenoceptor (CAMα1B-AR), which present a mild cardiac hypertrophy phenotype. Immunoblot assays showed that myocardial plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA) expression was increased by 30% in CAMα1B-AR mice (N = 6, P , 0.05), although there was no change in sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA2) expression. Moreover, total Ca2+-ATPase activity was not modified, but a significant increase in the activity of the thapsigargin-resistant (PMCA) to thapsigargin-sensitive (SERCA) ratio was detected. Neither Na+/K+-ATPase activity nor the expression of α1 and α2 subunit isoforms was changed in CAMα1B-AR mouse hearts. ...
Xu, K.Y.; Vandegaer, K.; Becker, L.C., 1999: The sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase is depressed in stunned myocardium after ischemia-reperfusion, but remains functionally coupled to sarcoplasmic reticulum-bound glycolytic enzymes
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Claire Harper, Laura Wootton, Francesco Michelangeli, Linda Lefièvre, Christopher Barratt, Stephen Publicover].
The structure, function and molecular biology of Ca2+ dependent regulatory proteins (particularly calmodulin) and the target proteins which they regulate is under study. One primary focus is the plasma membrane Ca2+-pumping ATPase (PMCA) in eucaryotes. Multiple isoforms of this enzyme are produced by alternative splicing of primary transcripts of four distinct genes. By artificial manipulation of expression through recombinant DNA methods, we have shown that products of one of these genes is required for proper cell adhesion, expression of a specific cell adhesion moleucle and for proper nerve growth factor action in a neuronal cell paradigm. We have also shown that the plasma membrane calcium pump is regulated by contact mediated tyrosine phosphorylation in both excitable cells and platelets. Studies are currently in progress using a variety of biochemical, immunological and molecular biological approaches to further elucidate the functions, expression, localization and physiological roles of ...
Evidence against inhibition of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-pump as mechanism of H2O2-induced contraction of rat aorta. Academic Article ...
Buy our Recombinant Human Phospholamban protein. Ab114227 is a protein fragment produced in Wheat germ and has been validated in WB, ELISA, SDS-PAGE. Abcam…
Identification of novel regulators of cardiac hypertrophy is key in understanding the mechanisms of heart failure. The plasma membrane calcium ATPase 4 (PMCA4)...
The sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ -ATPase, SERCA2b or ATP2A2, is encoded by the ATP2A2 gene. Mutatioins give rise to Dariers disease; the spectrum of mutations have been related to patients phenotypes (Ahn et al., 2003; Godic et al. 2010). SERCA1 functions as a heat generator in mitochondria of brown adipose tissue (de Meis et al., 2006). It normally functions as a Ca2+:H+ antiporter (Karjalainen et al., 2007). Capsaicin converts SERCA to a Ca2+ non-transporting ATPase that generates heat, and is thus a natural drug that augments uncoupled SERCA, resulting in thermogenesis (Mahmmoud, 2008b). Oligomeric interactions of the N-terminus of sarcolipin with the Ca-ATPase have been documented (Autry et al., 2011), and these interactions also uncouple ATP hydrolysis from Ca2+ transport (Sahoo et al. 2015) resulting in thermogenesis. TMS 11, absent in SERCA1a and SERCA2a, functions in regulation (Gorski et al. 2012). The bovine SERCA has also been crystallized (2.9 Å resolution; Sacchetto et al., ...
Plasma Membrane Calcium ATPase 4, PMCA4, is the major Ca2+ efflux pump in murine sperm where its deletion leads to a severe loss of hyperactivated motility and to male infertility. Here I show that Pmca4 mRNA, 4a and 4b ...
In both cardiac and slow-twitch skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) there are several systems involved in the regulation of Ca2+-ATPase function. T
As a consequence of their vital importance, impaired activity of the ion pumps - such as by mutations or toxic compounds inhibiting them - is associated with diseases. Oppositely, the ion pumps can be targeted by medical drugs to alleviate ionic imbalances associated with disease, or they can be targeted in cancer cells or pathogenic organisms that then die. It is therefore very important to know how they work at an atomic level. To gain such insight, the research team used X-ray crystallography after having crystallized the calcium pump in a state that mimics the last step of the ATP cleaving reaction. In this state, a phosphoenzyme middle-product is cleaved to liberate free phosphate as the final product of the ATPase reaction, and after calcium has been released into the sarco-endoplasmic reticulum store. This step is closely mimicked by vanadate, where the phosphorus atom is replaced by vanadium and therefore produces a stable complex instead of a short-lived transition state. Like this a ...
Buy, download and read The Development of the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum ebook online in PDF format for iPhone, iPad, Android, Computer and Mobile readers. Author: Anthony Martonosi. ISBN: 9781482283624. Publisher: CRC Press. Sarcoplasmic reticulum is a form of endoplasmic reticulum found in large quantities in mature muscle cells. Anthony Martonosi presents general information about the development and function of the sar
DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de lULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
Mitsugumin 23 (MG23), also called TM protein 109 (Venturi et al., 2011). MG23 is a Ca2+ channel protein that is regulated by cytoplasmic Zn2+, and dysregulation of this ion channel plays a role in diastolic sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ homeostasis, promoting leakage from the SR (Reilly-ODonnell et al. 2017 ...
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Introduction ATPase proteins are enzymes which are able to supply energy by cleaving ATP into ADP and phosphate. This energy can be used for…
Looking for online definition of Plasma membrane calcium pump isoform 4 in the Medical Dictionary? Plasma membrane calcium pump isoform 4 explanation free. What is Plasma membrane calcium pump isoform 4? Meaning of Plasma membrane calcium pump isoform 4 medical term. What does Plasma membrane calcium pump isoform 4 mean?
Looking for online definition of plasma membrane calcium pump in the Medical Dictionary? plasma membrane calcium pump explanation free. What is plasma membrane calcium pump? Meaning of plasma membrane calcium pump medical term. What does plasma membrane calcium pump mean?
HAILEY-HAILEY DISEASE. What are the aims of this leaflet?. This leaflet has been written to help you understand more about Hailey-Hailey disease. It tells you what it is, what causes it, what can be done about it, and where you can find out more about it.. What is Hailey-Hailey disease?. Hailey-Hailey disease is also known as familial benign chronic pemphigus, as originally described by the Hailey brothers. It is a rare inherited skin condition in which red scaly areas that can be itchy and sore, can lead to superficial blisters and eroded (broken) areas of the skin folds of the groin, armpits, neck and under the breasts. The condition flares intermittently and tends to come and go. Many patients are able to lead full and normal lives, with their condition being a nuisance rather than a serious problem. Some patients are more severely affected and experience more persistent painful raw areas of the skin with development of superficial blisters.. What causes Hailey-Hailey disease?. A small error ...
Ion pumps are integral membrane proteins responsible for transporting ions against concentration gradients across biological membranes. Sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA), a member of the P-type ATPases family, transports two calcium ions per hydrolyzed ATP molecule via an alternating-access mechanism. High-resolution crystallographic structures provide invaluable insight on the structural mechanism of the ion pumping process. However, to understand the molecular details of how ATP hydrolysis is coupled to calcium transport, it is necessary to gain knowledge about the conformational transition pathways connecting the crystallographically resolved conformations. Large-scale transitions in SERCA occur at time-scales beyond the current reach of unbiased molecular dynamics simulations. Here, we overcome this challenge by employing the string method, which represents a transition pathway as a chainofstates linking two conformational endpoints. Using a multiscale methodology, we have ...
2015 by the American Thoracic Society. Autopsy specimens from human victims or experimental animals that die due to acute chlorine gas exposure present features of cardiovascular pathology. We demonstrate acute chlorine inhalation-induced reduction in heart rate and oxygen saturation in rats. Chlorine inhalation elevated chlorine reactants, such as chlorotyrosine and chloramine, in blood plasma. Using heart tissue and primary cardiomyocytes, we demonstrated that acute highconcentration chlorine exposure in vivo (500 ppm for 30 min) caused decreased total ATP content and loss of sarcoendoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA) activity. Loss of SERCA activity was attributed to chlorination of tyrosine residues and oxidation of an important cysteine residue, cysteine-674, in SERCA, as demonstrated by immunoblots and mass spectrometry. Using cardiomyocytes, we found that chlorine-induced cell death and damage to SERCA could be decreased by thiocyanate, an important biological antioxidant, and by ...
Tryptic peptides of Ca-ATPase in Et and E2 conformational states (Andersen, J. P., Jørgensen, P. L.,J. Membrane Biol. 88:187-198 (1985)) have been isolated by size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography in sodium dodecyl sulfate. This permitted unambiguous localization of a conformational sensitive tryptic split at Arg 198 by N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis. Other splits at Arg 505 and at Arg 819-Lys 825 were insensitive to E1-E2 transitions. Tryptic cleavage of Ca-ATPase after phosphorylation by inorganic phosphate showed that this enzyme form has a conformation similar to that of the vanadate-bound E2 state, both in membranous and in soluble monomeric Ca-ATPase. Hydrophobic labeling of Ca-ATPase in sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles with the photoactivable reagent trifluoromethyl-[125I]iodophenyl-diazirine indicated that E2 and E2V states are more exposed to the membrane phase than E1 and E1P (Ca2+-occluded) states. The preferetial hydrophobic labeling in E2 forms was found to be
Hailey-Hailey disease is a rare genetic condition that is characterized by blistering or scaling of the skin, usually over the neck, skin folds, armpits and genitals. The condition usually becomes apparent between the ages of 15 and 40 years, although symptoms may develop at any age.
The sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA) family of proteins function as calcium pumps in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) membranes. SERCA1a is found exclusively in fast-twitch muscle cells and mediates muscle relaxation by pumping calcium back into the SR after calcium has been released into the cytoplasm to elicit muscle contraction. The mechanism which allows SR biogenesis is not known, but SR membrane is believed to bud from the ER. One hypothesis is that SERCA1a proteins play a significant role in SR biogenesis in fast-twitch skeletal muscle due the proteins large size and clustering into large arrays in the SR membrane. SERCA1a arrays could recruit lipids which would allow for a large increase in membrane size that could result in the formation of the SR. Also, SERCA1a is highly expressed during the early stages of myogenesis, at the same time the first emergence of the SR is observed. It is known that SERCA1a contains ER targeting information ...
In previous efforts to characterize sarcoplasmic reticulum function in human muscles, it has not been possible to distinguish the relative contributions of fast-twitch and slow-twitch fibers. In this study, we have used light scattering and 45Ca to monitor Ca accumulation by the sarcoplasmic reticulum of isolated, chemically skinned human muscle fibers in the presence and absence of oxalate. Oxalate (5 mM) increased the capacity for Ca accumulation by a factor of 35 and made it possible to assess both rate of Ca uptake and relative sarcoplasmic reticulum volume in individual fibers. At a fixed ionized Ca concentration, the rate and maximal capacity (an index of sarcoplasmic reticulum volume) both varied over a wide range, but fibers fell into two distinct groups (fast and slow). Between the two groups, there was a 2- to 2.5-fold difference in oxalate-supported Ca uptake rates, but no difference in average sarcoplasmic reticulum volumes. Intrinsic differences in sarcoplasmic reticulum function ...
In muscle cells, the excitation-contraction cycle is triggered by an increase in the concentration of free cytoplasmic Ca(2+). The Ca(2+)-ATPase present in the membrane of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) pumps Ca(2+) from the cytosol into this intracellular compartment, thus promoting muscle relaxation. The microsomal fraction derived from the longitudinal smooth muscle of the body wall from the sea cucumber Ludwigothurea grisea retains a membrane-bound Ca(2+)-ATPase that is able to transport Ca(2+) mediated by ATP hydrolysis. Immunological analyses reveal that monoclonal antibodies against sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA1 and SERCA2a) cross-react with a 110 kDa band, indicating that the sea cucumber Ca(2+)-ATPase is a SERCA-type ATPase. Like the mammalian Ca(2+)-ATPase isoforms so far described, the enzyme also shows a high affinity for Ca(2+) and ATP, has an optimum pH of approximately 7.0 and is sensitive to thapsigargin and cyclopiazonic acid, specific inhibitors of the ...
The major finding of the present study is that type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with the cleavage of platelet PECAM-1 through a mechanism involving the tyrosine nitration of SERCA-2, an increase in [Ca2+]i, and the activation of the Ca2+-dependent protease μ-calpain. Moreover, treating subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus with the PPAR-γ agonist rosiglitazone successfully reversed many of these changes and restored platelet [Ca2+]i, calpain activity, and PECAM-1 to levels comparable to those detected in nondiabetic subjects. From these results, it is clear that megakaryocytes/platelets are an additional cellular target for PPAR-γ agonists.. Intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis in platelets from patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus is reported to be altered, leading to an increased adhesiveness and spontaneous aggregation. One factor that contributes to the disturbed platelet [Ca2+]i in diabetic subjects is a marked reduction in Ca2+-ATPase activity.3,4 Although human platelets coexpress ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Transmembrane Ca2+ gradient-mediated change of fluidity in the inner layer of phospholipids modulates Ca2+-ATPase of sarcoplasmic reticulum. AU - Tu, Yaping. AU - Xu, H.. AU - Yang, F. Y.. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - Sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) vesicles with (1000 folds) or without transmembrane Ca2+ gradient have been prepared. Different fluorescence probes (DPH, TMA-DPH and n-AS), were used to determine the effect of transmembrane Ca2+ gradient on the lipid fluidity both in outer and inner layer of Ca2+-ATPase-containing SR vesicles. The results showed that transmembrane Ca2+ gradient could significantly decrease the fluidity of the inner layer of SR membrane, while no obvious change was monitored in the outer layer. This may be deduced that Ca2+-ATPase might be modulated mainly by the transmembrane Ca2+ gradient-mediated alteration of physical state of phospholipid in the inner layer of SR membrane.. AB - Sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) vesicles with (1000 folds) or without ...
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Localized, transient elevations in cytosolic Ca2+, known as Ca2+ sparks, caused by Ca2+ release from sarcoplasmic reticulum, are thought to trigger the opening of large conductance Ca2+-activated potassium channels in the plasma membrane resulting in spontaneous transient outward currents (STOCs) in smooth muscle cells. But the precise relationships between Ca2+ concentration within the sarcoplasmic reticulum and a Ca2+ spark and that between a Ca2+ spark and a STOC are not well defined or fully understood. To address these problems, we have employed two approaches using single patch-clamped smooth muscle cells freshly dissociated from toad stomach: a high speed, wide-field imaging system to simultaneously record Ca2+ sparks and STOCs, and a method to simultaneously measure free global Ca2+ concentration in the sarcoplasmic reticulum ([Ca2+]SR) and in the cytosol ([Ca2+]CYTO) along with STOCs. At a holding potential of 0 mV, cells displayed Ca2+ sparks and STOCs. Ca2+ sparks were associated with STOCs;
Buy anti-ATP2A2 antibody, Mouse ATPase 2, Ca2+ Transporting, Sarcoplasmic Endoplasmic Reticulum Monoclonal Antibody (Clone 6D141)-NP_999030.1 (MBS604309) product datasheet at MyBioSource, Primary Antibodies. Application: Western Blot (WB), Immunohistochemistry (IHC), Immunocytochemistry (ICC)
The sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) pumps are approximately 100 kDa transmembranous proteins that catalyze the ATP-dependent transport of cytosolic Ca2+ [Ca2+]i into the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), thereby maintaining low concentrations of resting [Ca2+]i. Reactive free- and non-radical oxygen and nitrogen species regulate SERCA function. Additionally, free radicals can oxidize lipids producing bioactive lipid-peroxidation end-products which are capable of modifying membranous proteins, resulting in protein inactivation. Here, in order to characterize the effect of 4-HNE, a lipid-peroxidation end-product, on SERCA structure and function, mouse WG and LV tissues were treated with 4-HNE and subsequently assayed for maximal Ca2+-dependent SERCA activity and SERCA post-translational structural modifications. Ca2+-dependent, maximal SERCA activity assays demonstrate a dose-dependent functional impairment of the SERCA pumps following 4-HNE treatment; interestingly, western blotting ...
Strehler EE and Zacharias DA. Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Mayo Graduate School, Mayo Clinic/Foundation, Rochester, Minnesota, USA. [email protected] Calcium pumps of the plasma membrane (also known as plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPases or PMCAs) are responsible for the expulsion of Ca(2+) from the cytosol of all eukaryotic cells. Together with Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchangers, they are the major plasma membrane transport system responsible for the long-term regulation of the resting intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. Like the Ca(2+) pumps of the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum (SERCAs), which pump Ca(2+) from the cytosol into the endoplasmic reticulum, the PMCAs belong to the family of P-type primary ion transport ATPases characterized by the formation of an aspartyl phosphate intermediate during the reaction cycle. Mammalian PMCAs are encoded by four separate genes, and additional isoform variants are generated via alternative RNA splicing of the primary gene transcripts. The ...
Recent studies have been directed towards the potential therapeutic value of improving the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) function in the failing myocardium. Overexpression of SERCA pump or inhibiting the function of phospholamban (PLB) has been shown to improve the cardiac function in failing myocardium. Towards this goal, we enhanced the SERCA pump activity in both atria and ventricle by ablating its key regulators, PLB and sarcolipin (SLN). The homozygous double knockout (dKO) pups were delivered in Mendelian ratio and reached adulthood without any visible abnormalities. However, these mice develop cardiac hypertrophy. The heart weight to body weight ratio significantly increased in 3- 4 months old dKO mice (WT-3.08±0.11 vs. dKO-4.14±0.14) and is associated with enlargement of myocytes (WT-117±8 μm2 vs. dKO-166±10 μm2). Ablation of PLB and SLN did not affect the expression of major Ca2+ handling proteins including SERCA2a, calsequestrin, L-type Ca2+ channel and ...
Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology. Stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) regulates sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ -ATPase 1a (SERCA1a) in skeletal muscle Keon Jin Lee 1 , Changdo Hyun 1 , Jin Seok Woo 1 , Chang Sik Park 2 , Do Han Kim 2 , Eun Hui Lee 1,* Slideshow...
We describe for the first time that SERCA1 truncated proteins encoded by new splice variants (S1T) of the SERCA1 gene. S1T are characterized by exon 4 and/or exon 11 splicing, leading to COOH-terminally truncated proteins with deletion of transmembrane segments M2 and/or M5 to M10 including six out of seven transmembrane calcium-binding residues (Toyoshima et al. 2000). Consistent with the analysis of previously reported SERCA1 mutants (MacLennan et al. 1998), they are unable to pump calcium. We show that S1T protein overexpression is associated with a reduction in the ER Ca2+ steady state level and an increase in ER Ca2+ leakage. Our results also demonstrate that these proteins modulate SERCA-dependent ER calcium accumulation and induce apoptotic cell death.. S1T splice variants were detectable by RT-PCR at variable levels in different adult tissues, including spleen, thymus, pancreas, kidney, and liver, but not in adult and fetal skeletal muscle and heart. The relative amount of S1T, as ...
Ischemic cardiovascular disease shows trends of increasing morbidity and mortality in the United States and around the world. Current therapeutic options are limited, but the identification of key disease mechanisms and targets will inform novel therapeutic development to help decrease disease burden. One potential target is the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA), a key regulator of Ca2+ homeostasis which plays multiple roles in the cardiovascular system. SERCA catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP and couples it to the translocation of free cytosolic Ca2+ into SR/ER stores. SERCA is redox-regulated, and is susceptible to both stimulatory and inhibitory oxidative post-translational modification. For example, oxidation of SERCA by physiological levels of nitric oxide (NO) causes reversible oxidative modification of SERCA cysteine thiols by introducing glutathione adducts. S-glutathiolation enhances SERCA Ca2+ uptake activity, which results in rapid reductions in cytoplasmic Ca2+ levels, ...
SR Ca2+ depletion, Ca2+-dependent inactivation of Ca2+ release channels, and voltage-dependent inactivation of voltage sensors are the three mechanisms that have been put forward to produce the decline of Ca2+ signals and of force, as a consequence, during continuous stimulation, whereas store-operated, voltage-gated, or excitation-coupled Ca2+ influxes, which are possibly activated during stimulation of long duration, might contribute to favor force recovery (Melzer et al., 1995; Berbey and Allard, 2009; Launikonis et al., 2010). In this study, our experimental conditions allowed us to preclude the possible involvement of sarcolemmal Ca2+ influx, and our recording conditions with a time scale of over tens of seconds did not offer the required resolution to investigate Ca2+-dependent inactivation that is known to fully develop in a few tens of milliseconds after the onset of depolarization (Schneider and Simon, 1988). These conditions allowed us to focus on SR Ca2+ depletion and ...
The secretory pathway Ca\(^{2+}\)-ATPase (SPCA) provides the Golgi apparatus with a luminal Ca\(^{2+}\) store, which is used to modulate the activity of Ca\(^{2+}\)-dependent enzymes involved in controlling the secretory pathway and post-translational modification of proteins. This Ca\(^{2+}\) store controlled by SPCA is also believed to be agonist-releasable. Regucalcin (RGN), (also known as senescence marker protein 30 (SMP30)) is believed to be a Ca\(^{2+}\)-binding protein expressed in an age-dependent manner, whereby its protein levels decrease in a number of organs as aging progresses. It has been suggested to be able to affect the activities of the sarco/endo-plasmic reticulum Ca\(^{2+}\)-ATPase (SERCA), as well as other Ca\(^{2+}\)-dependent enzymes. On the other hand, RGNs ability to bind Ca\(^{2+}\) has been argued against and this protein has been shown to modulate the activities of enzymes not involved in Ca\(^{2+}\) homeostasis, as well as have intrinsic enzymatic activity in ...
Introduction: Alzheimers disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder, clinically characterized by memory dysfunction and progressive loss of cognition. No curative therapeutic or drug is available for the complete cure of this disease. The present study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Lactobacillus plantarum MTCC1325 in ATPases activity in the selected brain regions of rats induced with Alzheimers. Methods: For the study, 48 healthy Wistar rats were divided into four groups: group I as control group, group II as AD model (AD induced by intraperitoneal injection of D-Galactose, 120 mg/kg body weight for 6 weeks), group III as normal control rats which were orally administered only with L. plantarum MTCC1325 for 60 days, and group IV where the AD-induced rats simultaneously received oral treatment of L. plantarum MTCC1325 (10ml/kg body weight, 12×108 CFU/mL) for 60 days. The well known membrane bound transport enzymes including Na+, K+-ATPases, Ca2+-ATPases, and Mg2+-ATPases were assayed in the
These results show that vasostatin, an NH2-terminal fragment of human calreticulin, can inhibit endothelial cell proliferation in vitro, suppress neovascularization in vivo, and prevent or reduce growth of experimental tumors. Calreticulin, a ubiquitous and highly conserved protein originally identified in skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum, serves as one of the major storage depots for calcium ions within the endoplasmic reticulum and participates in calcium signaling ((34)-(36)). The NH2-domain of calreticulin, which includes aa 1-180, is the most conserved domain among the calreticulins so far cloned and has no homology to other protein sequences ((34), (35)). Although it does not bind calcium, it can bind the cytoplasmic domain of α subunits of integrins regulating cell attachment ((37)), can interact with the nuclear receptors for glucocorticoid, androgen, and retinoic acid, regulating their binding to DNA ((38)), and can, once phosphorylated, bind stem-loop structures at the 3′-end ...
Reversibly inhibits the activity of ATP2A2 in cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum by decreasing the apparent affinity of the ATPase for Ca(2+). Modulates the contractility of the heart muscle in response to physiological stimuli via its effects on ATP2A2. Modulates calcium re-uptake during muscle relaxation and plays an important role in calcium homeostasis in the heart muscle. The degree of ATP2A2 inhibition depends on the oligomeric state of PLN. ATP2A2 inhibition is alleviated by PLN phosphorylation (By similarity).
Phospholamban Phospholamban pentamer Identifiers Symbol Phospholamban Pfam PF04272 InterPro IPR005984 SCOP 1fjk TCDB 8.A.11 OPM family 70 OPM protein 1zll
Phospholamban兔多克隆抗体(ab15000)可与小鼠, 大鼠, 兔, 仓鼠, 牛, 人, 猪, 中国仓鼠样本反应并经WB, IHC, ICC/IF实验严格验证,被7篇文献引用并得到11个独立的用户反馈。
Phospholamban兔多克隆抗体(ab85146)可与小鼠, 大鼠, 人样本反应并经WB, IHC实验严格验证。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
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Unlike caffeine, paraxanthine acts as an enzymatic effector of Na+/K+ ATPase. As a result, it is responsible for increased ... transport of potassium ions into skeletal muscle tissue. Similarly, the compound also stimulates increases in calcium ion ... Hawke TJ, Willmets RG, Lindinger MI (November 1999). "K+ transport in resting rat hind-limb skeletal muscle in response to ...
... slows cardiac metabolism via calcium transport delay by blockade of magnesium-dependent calcium transport ATPase. ... Prenylamine (Segontin) is a calcium channel blocker of the amphetamine chemical class that was used as a vasodilator in the ... Godfraind T, Herman AG, Wellens D (2012). Calcium Entry Blockers in Cardiovascular and Cerebral Dysfunctions. Springer Science ... Calcium channel blockers, Norepinephrine-dopamine releasing agents). ...
... or SR Ca2+-ATPase, is a calcium ATPase-type P-ATPase. Its major function is to transport calcium from the cytosol into the ... Sarcoplasmic+Reticulum+Calcium-Transporting+ATPases at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ( ... In addition to its calcium-transporting functions, SERCA1 generates heat in brown adipose tissue and in skeletal muscles. Along ... Bal, Naresh C.; Periasamy, Muthu (2020-03-02). "Uncoupling of sarcoendoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase pump activity by ...
This typically occurs through active transport. Water uptake. This follows the osmotic gradient established by Na+/K+ ATPase on ... The major functions of enterocytes include: Ion uptake, including sodium, calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, and copper. ... This facilitates transport of numerous small molecules into the enterocyte from the intestinal lumen. These include broken down ... Smaller lipids are transported into intestinal capillaries, while larger lipids are processed by the Golgi and smooth ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of P-type ATPases. The Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase helps maintain resting potential, affects transport, and ... "Na/K-ATPase tethers phospholipase C and IP3 receptor into a calcium-regulatory complex". Molecular Biology of the Cell. 16 (9 ... Thyroid hormone V-ATPase Clausen MV, Hilbers F, Poulsen H (June 2017). "The Structure and Function of the Na,K-ATPase Isoforms ... The Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase is upregulated by cAMP. Thus, substances causing an increase in cAMP upregulate the Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase. These ...
Calcium-transporting ATPase type 2C member 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ATP2C1 gene. This gene encodes one ... "Entrez Gene: ATP2C1 ATPase, Ca++ transporting, type 2C, member 1". Human ATP2C1 genome location and ATP2C1 gene details page in ... This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of the calcium. Defects in this gene ... ATPase SPCA1". Cell Calcium. 34 (2): 157-162. doi:10.1016/S0143-4160(03)00070-8. PMID 12810057. Aronchik I, Behne MJ, Leypoldt ...
The protein is thought to be a P-type ATPase involved in calcium ion transport. It was suggested in 2003 that PfATP6 is a ... PfATP6, also known as PfSERCA or PfATPase6, is a calcium ATPase gene encoded by the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. ... Kimura, M.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Takada, S.; Tanabe, K. (1993). "Cloning of a Ca(2+)-ATPase gene of Plasmodium falciparum and ... The authors suggested that the original results might have been affected by low ATPase signals, few experimental repeats and ...
Plasma membrane calcium-transporting ATPase 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ATP2B2 gene. The protein encoded by ... "Entrez Gene: ATP2B2 ATPase, Ca++ transporting, plasma membrane 2". Human ATP2B2 genome location and ATP2B2 gene details page in ... The mammalian plasma membrane calcium ATPase isoforms are encoded by at least four separate genes and the diversity of these ... Møller JV, Juul B, le Maire M (1996). "Structural organization, ion transport, and energy transduction of P-type ATPases". ...
Plasma membrane calcium-transporting ATPase 4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ATP2B4 gene. The protein encoded by ... "Entrez Gene: ATP2B4 ATPase, Ca++ transporting, plasma membrane 4". Schuh K, Uldrijan S, Gambaryan S, Roethlein N, Neyses L ( ... The mammalian plasma membrane calcium ATPase isoforms are encoded by at least four separate genes and the diversity of these ... Møller JV, Juul B, le Maire M (May 1996). "Structural organization, ion transport, and energy transduction of P-type ATPases". ...
Plasma membrane calcium-transporting ATPase 3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ATP2B3 gene. The protein encoded by ... 2004). "Expression and role of calcium-ATPase pump and sodium-calcium exchanger in differentiated trophoblasts from human term ... "Entrez Gene: ATP2B3 ATPase, Ca++ transporting, plasma membrane 3". Human ATP2B3 genome location and ATP2B3 gene details page in ... The mammalian plasma membrane calcium ATPase isoforms are encoded by at least four separate genes and the diversity of these ...
The Na+,K+-ATPase creates the ion gradient between the intra- and extracellular domains of a cell. It does this by transporting ... Potassium accumulation will inhibit the calcium from exiting the cell, causing calcium accumulation as well. If calcium ... However, a dose of 10 nM convallatoxin can reduce A549 non small cell lung cancer cells by inhibiting the Na+,K+-ATPase. ... It will inhibit the Na+-K+-ATPase pump which decreases the sodium concentration outside the cell, and thus limiting cotransport ...
... plays a role in the promotion of urinary calcium transport in the epithelial cells of kidney cortex. Overexpression ... Regucalcin has been shown to have an activatory effect on Ca pumping enzyme (Ca-ATPase) in heart sarcoplasmic reticulum. ... Shimokawa N, Yamaguchi M (June 1992). "Calcium administration stimulates the expression of calcium-binding protein regucalcin ... It may have an important role in calcium homeostasis. Studies in rats indicate that this protein may also play a role in aging ...
Na+/K+-ATPase is an ion transport system of sodium and potassium ions and requires energy. It is often used in many types of ... increased intracellular calcium causes more calcium to be released, thereby making more calcium available to bind to troponin-C ... The transport of Na+ and K+ is important for cell survival. Cardiac glycosides, such as cerberin, alter the transport of ions ... This is because the calcium-sodium exchange pump's activity decreases. The calcium-sodium exchange pump exchanges Ca2+ and Na+ ...
Secondary derangement of calcium, magnesium, and potassium concentrations are caused by secondary effects in the distal tubule ... Genetic mutations of NCC, lead to loss of function and subsequently, reduced transport of sodium and chloride via NCC. ... When the sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC) is inactivated, continued action of the basolateral Na+/K+-ATPase creates a ... Loss of this transporter also has the indirect effect of increasing calcium reabsorption in a transcellular fashion. This has ...
Plasma membrane calcium-transporting ATPase 1 is a plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase, an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ... a calcium pump EC The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of P-type primary ion transport ATPases ... "Entrez Gene: ATP2B1 ATPase, Ca++ transporting, plasma membrane 1". Lau MT, Manion J, Littleboy JB, Oyston L, Khuong TM, Wang QP ... The mammalian plasma membrane calcium ATPase isoforms are encoded by at least four separate genes and the diversity of these ...
2005). "The loss of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium transport ATPase 3 expression is an early event during the multistep ... "Entrez Gene: ATP2A3 ATPase, Ca++ transporting, ubiquitous". Rotondo JC, Bosi S, Bassi C, Ferracin M, Lanza G, Gafà R, Magri E, ... Sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ATP2A3 gene. This gene ... Borge PD, Wolf BA (2003). "Insulin receptor substrate 1 regulation of sarco-endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 3 in insulin- ...
A major cation transporter in cells is calcium ATPase. In the Ca2+-bound crystal structures the two calcium ions side-by-side ... within the transmembrane domain are thought to be at the halfway stage of being transported. As well as being bound by various ... Toyoshima, C; Mizutani (2004). "Crystal structure of the calcium pump with a bound ATP analogue". Nature. 430 (6999): 529-535. ... side chain carbonyl groups, one of these calcium ions is bound by a niche3/niche4 (both in the one motif) at residues 304-307 ...
Tada M, Kirchberger MA, Repke DI, Katz AM (October 1974). "The stimulation of calcium transport in cardiac sarcoplasmic ... When phosphorylated (by PKA) - disinhibition of Ca2+-ATPase of SR leads to faster Ca2+ uptake into the sarcoplasmic reticulum, ... which transports calcium from cytosol into the sarcoplasmic reticulum. ... In addition, since SERCA2 is more active, the next action potential will cause an increased release of calcium, resulting in ...
The gene codes for a P-type (cation transport enzyme) ATPase that transports copper into bile and incorporates it into ... calcium accumulation in the kidneys), a weakening of bones (due to calcium and phosphate loss), and occasionally aminoaciduria ... This protein transports excess copper into bile, where it is excreted in waste products. The condition is autosomal recessive; ... which is active in the brain and other tissues and also appears to be involved in transporting copper. A role for the ApoE gene ...
... thereafter it is known to interfere with many physiological processes including the uptake and transport of calcium and other ... The proton pump, H+-ATPase, of the plasmalemma of root cells works to maintain the near-neutral pH of their cytoplasm. A high ... Manganese is an essential plant nutrient, so plants transport Mn into leaves. Classic symptoms of Mn toxicity are crinkling or ... For example, increasing the amount of sodium in an alkaline soil tends to induce dissolution of calcium carbonate, which ...
Cytochrome c oxidases from bacteria and mitochondria Proton or sodium translocating F-type and V-type ATPases P-type calcium ... Many transmembrane proteins function as gateways to permit the transport of specific substances across the membrane. They ... ATPase (five different conformations) Calcium ATPase regulators phospholamban and sarcolipin ABC transporters General secretory ... FadL outer membrane protein transport family, including Fatty acid transporter FadL (n=14,S=14) General bacterial porin family ...
... a calcium transporting ATPase, as a host factor supporting cytotoxicity. The research showed the therapeutic use of existing ... It has been found that the statoliths, which are composed of calcium sulfate hemihydrate, exhibit clear sequential incremental ...
Osmotic pressure Outer mitochondrial membrane Outline of biophysics Overhead throwing motion P-type ATPase P-type calcium ... Sarcolemma Sarcomere SecY protein Secondary active transport Secretory pathway Semipermeable membrane Sergei Kovalev Serotonin ... Calcium-activated potassium channel Calcium-activated potassium channel subunit alpha-1 Calcium 2-aminoethylphosphate Calcium ... Protein-lipid interaction Protomer Protoplast Pseudopeptidoglycan Pseudopodia Pterygium Q-type calcium channel R-type calcium ...
Classical theory of active transport for P-type ATPases Data from crystallography studies by Chikashi Toyoshima applied to the ... They are responsible for the active transport of calcium out of the cell for the maintenance of the steep Ca2+ electrochemical ... To maintain low concentrations of free Ca2+ in the cytosol, cells use membrane pumps like calcium ATPase found in the membranes ... The plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase and the sodium-calcium exchanger are together the main regulators of intracellular Ca2+ ...
... with the transport of calcium out of the cell. In addition, the plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase (PMCA) obtains energy to pump ... Calcium ions, Ca2+, are released from bone into the bloodstream under controlled conditions. Calcium is transported through the ... In contrast, ionized calcium is a measure of free calcium. An abnormally high level of calcium in plasma is termed ... Different tissues contain calcium in different concentrations. For instance, Ca2+ (mostly calcium phosphate and some calcium ...
Once transported into the tubule cells, sodium ions are actively transported across the basolateral membrane by Na+/K+-ATPases ... Magnesium deficiency and calcium deficiency: These patients will also have low serum and urine magnesium and calcium. Patients ... The basolateral calcium-sensing receptor has the ability to downregulate the activity of this transporter upon activation. ... The Na-K-2Cl cotransporter is involved in electroneutral transport of one sodium, one potassium, and two chloride ions across ...
ARGLU1: encoding protein Arginine and glutamate-rich protein 1 ATP7B: ATPase, Cu++ transporting, beta polypeptide (Wilson ... disease) BRCA2: breast cancer 2, early onset BRCA3 encoding protein Breast cancer 3 CAB39L: encoding protein Calcium-binding ...
... a calcium transporting ATPase, as one host factor required for box jellyfish venom cytotoxicity. Look up antidote in Wiktionary ... "Calcium channel blocker poisoning". UpToDate. Retrieved 2019-07-09. "Naturally Occurring Cardiac Glycoside Poisoning · ...
... on the calcium transport ATPase in skeletal muscle. He received postdoctoral training in the laboratory of Karin Mölling at the ... His work highlighted the spatial aspects of calcium signals and in particular the importance of nuclear calcium in governing ... He identified calcium as the principal second messenger in the coupling of neuronal activity to gene expression and ... His work on neuronal calcium signaling and gene regulation in the nervous system has been widely cited. He described the role ...
An underlying mechanism by which lead is able to cause harm is its ability to be transported by calcium ATPase pumps across the ... This is important as neurotransmitter transport can be impaired through vesicular transport inhibition, resulting in diminished ... "Neuronal Calcium Channel Antagonists. Discrimination between Calcium Channel Subtypes Using .omega.-conotoxin from Conus Magus ... As calcium flux is necessary for proper excitability of a cell, any significant inhibition could prevent a large amount of ...
Zlokovic BV, Frangione B (2003). Transport-clearance hypothesis for Alzheimer's disease and potential therapeutic implications ... 8th European Symposium on Calcium. 1742 (1-3): 81-7. doi:10.1016/j.bbamcr.2004.09.006. PMID 15590058.. ... impairs the function of ion-motive ATPases, glucose transporters and glutamate transporters. As a result, amyloid beta promotes ... Yao ZX, Papadopoulos V (October 2002). "Function of beta-amyloid in cholesterol transport: a lead to neurotoxicity". FASEB ...
If compounds do not possess these qualities they must have a specific transporter that can transport them over the BBB.[28] ... α2δ subunit-containing voltage-dependent calcium channels blockers (gabapentinoids) (e.g., gabapentin, pregabalin, phenibut) ... Bromocriptine stimulates Na+, K+-ATPase activity and/or cytosolic Ca2+ elevation and therefore reduction of prolactin which ... October 2000). "The 4F2hc/LAT1 complex transports L-DOPA across the blood-brain barrier". Brain Research. 879 (1-2): 115-21. ...
Dat bedröpt to'n Bispeel to Natrium-Kalium-ATPase, de den Transport vun Natrium un Kalium in de Zellen stüert. Dat Blockeeren ... Redukschoon mit Calcium. Wenn een rein Vanadium hebben will, warrt dat düre Calcium oder Aluminium as Redukschoonsmiddel tosett ... Wiel mit Calcium direkt rein Vanadium wunnen warrt, billt sik mit Aluminium toeerst en Aluminium-Vanadium-Legeren, ut de dör ... As Redukschoonsmiddel künnt Aluminium, Calcium, Ferrosilizium oder Kohlenstoff bruukt warrn. Bi't letzt billt sik bi de ...
An underlying mechanism by which lead is able to cause harm is its ability to be transported by calcium ATPase pumps across the ... "Neuronal Calcium Channel Antagonists. Discrimination between Calcium Channel Subtypes Using .omega.-conotoxin from Conus Magus ... Calcium channelEdit. ConotoxinEdit. Conotoxins represent a category of poisons produced by the marine cone snail, and are ... This is important as neurotransmitter transport can be impaired through vesicular transport inhibition, resulting in diminished ...
PTH - Increases blood calcium levels. This is accomplished via the parathyroid hormone 1 receptor (PTH1) in the kidneys and ... 3.6.3-4: ATPase. 3.6.3. Cu++ ( *Menkes/ATP7A. *Wilson/ATP7B ... Calcitonin - Decreases blood calcium levels (via the calcitonin receptor in the intestines, bones, kidneys, and brain) ...
Calcium also plays a part in bone structure as the rigidity of vertebrae bone matrices are akin to the nature of the calcium ... It does this via two important transport proteins called hemoglobin and myoglobin. Hemoglobin in the blood transports oxygen ... In phosphorylating enzymes like ATPase or kinases and phosphates, magnesium acts as a stabilizing ion in polyphosphate ... Calcium usually binds with other proteins and molecules in order to perform other functions in the body. The calcium bound ...
Dynein-mediated transport takes place from the (+) end towards the (-) end of the microtubule. ATP hydrolysis occurs in the ... Very low levels of free calcium can destabilize microtubules and this prevented early researchers from studying the polymer in ... globular head domains, which share similarities with the AAA+ (ATPase associated with various cellular activities) protein ... Dynein transports vesicles and organelles throughout the cytoplasm. In order to do this, dynein molecules bind organelle ...
ATPase-driven calcium pumps (SERCA II) while repressing the slower type I SERCA calcium pump. Since calcium cycling is used to ... Without doubt, transport between the Earth and Mars as well as the return trip represent the greatest risks to humans ... Since calcium cycling and crossbridge cycling are the two major systems that account for the vast majority of the energy ... Schulte, LM; Navarro, J; Kandarian, SC (May 1993). "Regulation of sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pump gene expression by ...
... transmembrane ATPase - transmembrane helix - transmembrane protein - transmembrane receptor - transport protein - transport ... calcium channel - calcium signaling - calcium-binding protein - calmodulin - calmodulin-binding protein - Calvin cycle - CAM ... passive transport - Pauling scale - PCR - peptide - peptide bond - peptide elongation factor - peptide elongation factor tu - ... vitamin D-dependent calcium-binding protein - vitellogenin - vitronectin - von Willebrand factor water Y chromosome - yeast ...
Following the synthesis, the ATP-binding cassette transporters (teichoic-acid-transporting ATPase) TarGH (P42953, P42954) flip ... The main function of teichoic acids is to provide flexibility to the cell-wall by attracting cations such as calcium and ...
S100G mediates the transport of calcium across the enterocytes from the apical side, where entry is regulated by the calcium ... S100G may also stimulate the basolateral calcium-pumping ATPases. Expression of S100G, like that of calbindin 1, is stimulated ... The transport of calcium across the enterocyte cytoplasm appears to be rate-limiting for calcium absorption in the intestine; ... March 1992). "Intestinal calcium transport and calcium extrusion processes at the basolateral membrane". The Journal of ...
This calcium then interacts with calcineurin and calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinases that in turn activate transcription ... Kannan M, Sivaprakasam C, Prinz WA, Nachiappan V (December 2016). "Endoplasmic reticulum stress affects the transport of ... thapsigargin leads to ER Ca2+ depletion due to inhibition of the Sarco/Endoplasmic Reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA). A23187 ... Lee AS (January 1987). "Coordinated regulation of a set of genes by glucose and calcium ionophores in mammalian cells". Trends ...
The energy source can be ATP, as is the case for the Na+-K+ ATPase. Alternatively, the energy source can be another chemical ... Exocytosis, fertilization of an egg by sperm activation, and transport of waste products to the lysozome are a few of the many ... One of the critical roles of calcium in the body is regulating membrane fusion. Third, a destabilization must form at one point ... Flippases are members of a larger family of lipid transport molecules that also includes floppases, which transfer lipids in ...
Barnes N, Tsivkovskii R, Tsivkovskaia N, Lutsenko S (2005). "The copper-transporting ATPases, Menkes and Wilson disease ... It is characterized by calcium deposits in a bone at the base of the skull (occipital bone), coarse hair, and loose skin and ... The ATP7A gene encodes a transmembrane protein that transport copper across the cell membranes. It is found throughout the body ... GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on ATP7A-Related Copper Transport Disorders (Articles with short description, Short description ...
Osmolyte Myo-Inositol Taurine and Taurine-transporting ATPase Creatine Betaines Trimethylglycine - A Betaine and metabolite of ... In eukaryotes, calcium acts as one of the primary regulators of osmotic stress. Intracellular calcium levels rise during hypo- ... Calcium plays a large role in the recovery and tolerance for both hyper and hypo-osmotic stress situations. Under hyper-osmotic ... This influx of calcium may alter the cell's permeability. Additionally, some organisms have been shown to use phenothiazines to ...
Plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase (PMCA) Sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) Plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase (PMCA) is a transport ... Ca2+ ATPase is a form of P-ATPase that transfers calcium after a muscle has contracted. The two kinds of calcium ATPase are: ... Active transport#Counter-transport PDB Molecule of the Month Calcium pump Jensen TP, Buckby LE, Empson RM ( ... Since it transports Ca2+ into the extracellular space, the PMCA is also an important regulator of the calcium concentration in ...
For example, the membrane potential of the cell is maintained by the sodium-potassium ATPase pump. Failure of the pump results ... Loss of membrane potential encourages movement of calcium ions into the cell, followed by movement of water into the cell, as ... In the absence of an active electron transport chain and associated cellular processes, there is no metabolic partner for the ... Limited synthesis of adenosine triphosphate impairs many cellular transport mechanisms that utilize ATP to drive energetically ...
ClC-5 is located in early endosomes of PTCs where it co-localizes with the electrogenic vacuolar H+‐ATPase (V‐ATPase). ClC-5 in ... The proton glutamate is crucial to the H+ transport acting as an H+ transfer site. ClC-5 belongs to the family of voltage gated ... presence of calcium phosphate aggregates in the tubular lumen and/or interstitium) and nephrolithiasis (kidney stones). The ... The receptor is then recycled to the apical membrane, while ligand is transported to the late endosome and lysosome where it is ...
Calmodulin and calcium help to regulate the voltage-gated sodium channels that create the electrical discharge. These organs ... 20 March 2015). "Na+/K+-ATPase α-subunit (nkaα) isoforms and their mRNA expression levels, overall Nkaα protein abundance, and ... Such cells would use ion transport as electrocytes do, with a greater output power density, and converting energy more ... The main organ and Hunter's organ are rich in the protein calmodulin, involved in controlling calcium ion levels. ...
It has a calcium ion (Ca2+) binding, between the 489th and 500th amino acid, which interacts selectively and non-covalently ... The main functions are the following: To take part in endocytic transport. The EHD-family proteins have been seen to have a ... "EHD Home Page: An ATPase involved in membrane remodelling". Retrieved 2016-10-15. "Help - Homo_sapiens - ... Its main function is related to endocytic transport. The primary structure of a protein is related to which amino acids a ...
... an almost universal finding due to water retention and a shift in intracellular sodium transport from inhibition of Na/K ATPase ... calcium, magnesium, phosphate Glucose Amylase and lipase Arterial blood gas, lactate Blood type and screen Paracetamol ( ... There is also abnormal oxygen transport and utilization. Although delivery of oxygen to the tissues is adequate, there is a ...
... gradients are established by the Na+/K+-ATPase (sodium-potassium pump) which transports 2 potassium ions inside and 3 sodium ... The resting potential exists due to the differences in membrane permeabilities for potassium, sodium, calcium, and chloride ... Other cells with little in the way of membrane transport functions that change with time have a resting membrane potential that ... Due to the active transport of potassium ions, the concentration of potassium is higher inside cells than outside. Most cells ...
Because BC200 RNA acts as a translational regulator, it is then transported to the dendrites to bind to specific proteins ... This highly localized uncoupling of the ATPase activity, and subsequently the unwinding of the RNA duplex is proposed to have ... "Knockdown of BC200 RNA expression reduces cell migration and invasion by destabilizing mRNA for calcium-binding protein S100A11 ...
The plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase (PMCA) is a transport protein in the plasma membrane of cells and functions to remove calcium ( ... doi:10.1016/0076-6879(88)57089-1. PMID 2976465.. Plasma+Membrane+Calcium-Transporting+ATPases at the US National Library of ... Since it transports Ca2+ into the extracellular space, the PMCA is also an important regulator of the calcium concentration in ... PMCAs belong to the family of P-type primary ion transport ATPases which form aspartyl phosphate intermediates. Various forms ...
Ion pump noise: Membrane embedded ATPase ion pumps produce fluctuating potentials by transporting ions against their ... In synapses, the number of calcium ions that enter the postsynaptic side after a spike is on the order of 250 ions, potentially ... The multistep process in which ions are transported across their gradient requires ATP. The steps involved in active transport ... Ions are constantly being leaked across the membrane in efforts to equalize the ionic gradient produced by ATPase channels ...
Long-chain acyl-CoAs also regulate opening of ATP-sensitive potassium channels and activation of Calcium ATPases, thereby ... Glick BS, Rothman JE (Mar 1987). "Possible role for fatty acyl-coenzyme A in intracellular protein transport". Nature. 326 ( ...
To our knowledge this is the first report of a functional P-type Ca2+-transporting ATPase encoded by a virus. ... Complementation analysis of the triple yeast mutant K616 confirmed that M535L transports calcium ions and, unusually for group ... Phylogenetic and sequence analyses place the viral proteins in group IIB of P-type ATPases even though they lack a typical ... In vitro assays show basal ATPase activity. This activity is inhibited by vanadate, but, unlike that of other Ca2+ pumps, is ...
Calcium-Transporting ATPases / genetics* * Chromosome Mapping * In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence * Isoenzymes / genetics ... Structure and organization of the mouse Atp2a2 gene encoding the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase 2 (SERCA2) isoforms ...
Sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium- transporting ATPases 769 S AGT 153 0.1-31.8 S→N AAT 1 0.83 263 L TTA 154 0.1-31.8 L→S TCA 0 243 ...
ATPase, Ca++ transporting, type 2C, member 1. *BCPM. *calcium-transporting ATPase type 2C member 1 ... calcium ions) across cell membranes. Specifically, the hSPCA1 protein transports calcium ions into a cell structure called the ... Missiaen L, Dode L, Vanoevelen J, Raeymaekers L, Wuytack F. Calcium in the Golgi apparatus. Cell Calcium. 2007 May;41(5):405-16 ... For unknown reasons, this abnormal calcium storage affects keratinocytes more than other types of cells. Problems with calcium ...
Ca(2+)-Transporting ATPase. Calcium-Transporting ATPases. Gelatinase A. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2. ...
... causing an increase of intracellular calcium (Ca2+) concentration. Co-receptors stabilize interactions between the TCR and its ... Calcium influx is critical for T cell effector function and fate. T cells are activated when T cell receptors (TCRs) engage ... calcium transport ATPase (SERCA) pump, thus promoting T cell effector function [154,155]. Downregulation of calmodulin kinase, ... Freitas, C.M.T.; Johnson, D.K.; Weber, K.S. T Cell Calcium Signaling Regulation by the Co-Receptor CD5. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018 ...
Calcium voltage-gated channel auxiliary subunit alpha 2 delta 2; (E) ATP1A1, ATPase Na+/K+ transporting subunit alpha 1; (F) ... ATPase Na+/K+ transporting subunit alpha 1 (ATP1A1). The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of P-type cation ... transport ATPases, and to the subfamily of Na+/K+ ATPases (38). Na+/K+ -ATPase is an integral membrane protein responsible for ... Voltage-gated calcium channels. Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC) are involved in the mediation of pain perception through ...
... calcium ; nuclear factors of activated T cells ; plasma membrane calcium-transporting ATPase. ... en] Angiogenesis Inducing Agents/pharmacology ; Animals ; Calcineurin/metabolism ; Calcium-Transporting ATPases/deficiency/ ... Plasma Membrane Calcium-Transporting ATPases/genetics/metabolism ; RNA Interference ; Signal Transduction ; Time Factors ; ... We and others previously reported a novel role for the plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA) as an endogenous inhibitor of the ...
ATPase). This agent decreases calcium excretion and increases magnesium loss. ... Normal transport mechanisms in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle. Reabsorption of sodium chloride is achieved with ... Gunn IR, Gaffney D. Clinical and laboratory features of calcium-sensing receptor disorders: a systematic review. Ann Clin ... Triamterene interferes with potassium/sodium exchange (active transport) in the distal tubule, cortical collecting tubule, and ...
Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium-Transporting ATPases Medicine & Life Sciences 31% * Substitution Reaction Chemical Compounds 25% ... PMR1 is the yeast secretory pathway pump responsible for high affinity transport of Mn2+ and Ca2+ into the Golgi, where these ... Packing interactions between transmembrane helices alter ion selectivity of the yeast Golgi Ca2+/Mn2+-ATPase PMR1. Journal of ... Packing interactions between transmembrane helices alter ion selectivity of the yeast Golgi Ca2+/Mn2+-ATPase PMR1. In: Journal ...
... which stimulated the calcium transport ATPase of the microsomes. Calmodulin also mediated the inhibitory effect of calcium on ... The rabbit aorta was used as a model for developing calcium transport adenosine-triphosphatase (ATPase) assays. Reserpine ( ... altered the calcium transport properties of extramitochondrial organelles in subcellular rabbit homogenates. Microsomes from ... sodium/potassium ATPase activity in the microsomes. Rats were treated intratracheally with aerosols containing volcanic ash, ...
Plasma Membrane Calcium-Transporting ATPases Medicine & Life Sciences 100% * Pump Chemical Compounds 66% ... N2 - We have previously shown that plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA) pump activity is affected by the membrane protein ... AB - We have previously shown that plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA) pump activity is affected by the membrane protein ... We have previously shown that plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA) pump activity is affected by the membrane protein ...
Protein Calcium ATPase, transduction domain A [81651] (1 species). *. Species Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) [TaxId:9986] [ ... Superfamily b.82.7: Metal cation-transporting ATPase, actuator domain A [81653] (1 family) a distorted variant of double-helix ... PDB Compounds: (B:) Sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 1. SCOPe Domain Sequences for d1wpgb1:. Sequence; same ... d1wpgb1 b.82.7.1 (B:125-239) Calcium ATPase, transduction domain A {Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) [TaxId: 9986]} ...
Calcium-transporting ATPase 1. 180. SEQF2096,AEKH01000028.1. SEQF2096_00214 jb [NA] [AA] 1989/662. 96774-94786. Pullulanase. ... Choline transport ATP-binding protein OpuBA. 183. SEQF2096,AEKH01000028.1. SEQF2096_00217 jb [NA] [AA] 1176/391. 100519-99344. ... putative transport protein HsrA. 27. SEQF2096,AEKH01000034.1. SEQF2096_00027 jb [NA] [AA] 663/220. 14614-15276. hypothetical ...
The transport activity of the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA) in cardiac myocytes is modulated by an ... Sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) is critical for cardiac Ca2+ transport. Reversal of phospholamban (PLB)-mediated ... the key residues and molecular events driving transport by Pi:H+ symporters are unclear. The current Pho84 transport model is ... Cholesterol depletion inhibits Na+,K+-ATPase activity in a near-native membrane environment. Journal of Biological Chemistry ...
Calcium-Transporting ATPases Medicine & Life Sciences 81% * Erythrocytes Medicine & Life Sciences 70% ... Boiling the fraction destroyed its effect on the (Na+ + K+)-ATPase, but did not impair its stimulation of the Ca2+-ATPase. ... Boiling the fraction destroyed its effect on the (Na+ + K+)-ATPase, but did not impair its stimulation of the Ca2+-ATPase.", ... Boiling the fraction destroyed its effect on the (Na+ + K+)-ATPase, but did not impair its stimulation of the Ca2+-ATPase. ...
... including proton-pumping ATPases, calcium transporters and signaling, and potassium transport. In addition to her significant ... I am proud to participate in recognizing Heven for her outstanding contributions to our understanding of ion transport across ... She consistently kept in touch with other "transport" colleagues, sharing everything she could about her findings. From Heven, ... had a huge influence on the approaches and techniques in what was the emerging biochemical field of plant membrane transport. ...
... severe rashes or lesions caused by mutations in a particular isoform of the sarcoendoplasmic reticulum calcium transport ATPase ... This change increased SERCAs calcium transport rate, which could activate a stress response and induce apoptosis, perhaps ... How calcium pump rates relate to skin health. Darier disease is a rare autosomal dominant disorder of the skin characterized by ...
Calcium-Transporting ATPases 22% * Genomic and non-genomic estrogen effects on the spinal NR2B-related uterus-colon crosstalk ... Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 in the Regulation of PPARs and Calcium Handling in Hyperglycemia or Hypertensive HL-1 Cells. Huang, J. ...
Calcium transport and the properties of a calcium-activated potassium channel in red cell membranes ... Calcium transport and the properties of a calcium-activated potassium channel in red cell membranes ... Both spectrin and protein 4.1 were found to be devoid of ATPase activity, leaving actin as the main candidate to possess ATPase ... The identification of the skeletons ATPase activity with that of actins ATPase was confirmed by experiments where 95% of this ...
P-type ATPase Ion Pumps. These ion pumps are used to transport across membranes a wide variety of ions, including H+, Ca2+, Na+ ... p,Plant auto-inhibited Ca²?-ATPases (ACA) are crucial in defining the shape of calcium transients and therefore in ... Disruption of the vacuolar calcium-ATPases in Arabidopsis results in the activation of a salicylic acid-dependent programmed ... Disruption of the vacuolar calcium-ATPases in Arabidopsis results in the activation of a salicylic acid-dependent programmed ...
Neurons transmit impulses down the length of their axons by way of Sodium/Potassium transport and the Sodium/Potassium ATPase ... The process also relies heavily on calcium concentrations and enzymes that are involved in the synthesis and breakdown of ... This results from an inability of the Na+/K+ ATPase Pump to maintain the proper Na+/K+ balance on the sarcolemma (at the T- ... This occurs because H+ interferes with the operation of the Ca++/ATPase Pump. This reduces muscle contraction force by ...
Sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium- transporting ATPases 769 S AGT 153 0.1-31.8 S→N AAT 1 0.83 263 L TTA 154 0.1-31.8 L→S TCA 0 243 ...
Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium-Transporting ATPases Medicine & Life Sciences 34% * Ryanodine Chemical Compounds 33% ... Alterations in intracellular calcium handling have been suggested to play a pivotal role. This study aimed to test the ... Alterations in intracellular calcium handling have been suggested to play a pivotal role. This study aimed to test the ... Alterations in intracellular calcium handling have been suggested to play a pivotal role. This study aimed to test the ...
Internal calcium concentration due to calcium currents and pump. : Differential equations. : : Simple model of ATPase pump with ... the pump to calcium and a low transport capacity (cfr. Blaustein, : TINS, 11: 438, 1988, and references therein). : : Units ... Calcium spikes in basal dendrites (Kampa and Stuart 2006). STDP depends on dendritic synapse location (Letzkus et al. 2006) ... Obidos, Portugal TITLE decay of internal calcium concentration : : ...
Magnesium transport in Salmonella typhimurium: Characterization of magnesium influx and cloning of a transport gene. Hmiel, S. ... Intracellular acidification induces decrease of cytosolic calcium in isolated osteoclasts.. Teti, A., Grano, M., Teitelbaum, S ... Magnesium transport in Salmonella typhimurium: Genetic characterization and cloning of three magnesium transport loci. Hmiel, S ... Magnesium transport in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells using magnesium-28 ion. Grubbs, R. D., Snavely, M. D., Paul Hmiel, S. ...
ATPase; plasma membrane Ca2+ pump 2; plasma membrane calcium ATPase 2; plasma membrane calcium pump) ... ATPase, Ca++ transporting, plasma membrane 2 (OTTHUMP00000158863; OTTHUMP00000178537; plasma membrane Ca(2+)- ...
  • Homology models of M4, M5, and M6 of PMR1 have been generated, based on the structures of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ -ATPase. (
  • Based on the computational analysis of the [Ca 2+ ] i transient the kinetic parameters of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ -ATPase and the ryanodine receptor were determined by minimizing the squared error between the simulated and the experimentally obtained [Ca 2+ ] i transient. (
  • Computational analysis revealed a reduced function of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ -ATPase and Ca 2+ -release channel in response to β-adrenoceptor challenge. (
  • We have measured the microsecond rotational motions of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca-ATPase as a function of enzyme-specific ligands, including those that induce active calcium transport. (
  • Comparison of the effects of phospholamban and jasmone on the calcium pump of cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum. (
  • 4. Seidler NW, Jona I, Vegh M, Martonosi A. (1989) Cyclopiazonic acid is a specific inhibitor of the Ca2+-ATPase of sarcoplasmic reticulum. (
  • This protein is an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-powered calcium pump, which uses energy from ATP molecules to pump charged calcium atoms (calcium ions) across cell membranes. (
  • Triamterene interferes with potassium/sodium exchange (active transport) in the distal tubule, cortical collecting tubule, and collecting duct by inhibiting sodium/potassium adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase). (
  • The rabbit aorta was used as a model for developing calcium transport adenosine-triphosphatase (ATPase) assays. (
  • Almost all enzymes involved in phosphorus reactions (eg, adenosine triphosphatase [ATPase]) require magnesium for activation. (
  • We and others previously reported a novel role for the plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA) as an endogenous inhibitor of the calcineurin/NFAT pathway, via interaction with calcineurin, in cardiomyocytes and breast cancer cells. (
  • We have previously shown that plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA) pump activity is affected by the membrane protein concentration (Vanagas et al. (
  • Among several proteins involved in calcium handling, plasma membrane Ca -ATPase (PMCA) is the most sensitive calcium detector controlling calcium homeostasis. (
  • The overall effects of impaired calcium extrusion due to age-dependent decline of PMCA function seem to accumulate with age, increasing the susceptibility to neurotoxic insults. (
  • The resting Ca increased in both PMCA-deficient lines affecting the expression of several Ca -associated proteins, i.e., sarco/endoplasmic Ca -ATPase (SERCA), calmodulin, calcineurin, GAP43 , CCR5 , IP Rs, and certain types of voltage-gated Ca channels (VGCCs). (
  • The plasma membrane Ca 2+ -ATPase (PMCA) is a cell-surface pump for extruding calcium from the cytosol, usually associated with the recovery phase following excitation of cells. (
  • The stoichiometry of flux through the PMCA differs from SERCA, with the PMCA transporting 1 Ca 2+ while SERCA transports 2 Ca 2+ . (
  • 2005) Applying linear interaction energy method for rational design of noncompetitive allosteric inhibitors of the sarco- and endoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase. (
  • Objectives: To evaluate atrial fibrillation (AF) recurrence and Sarcoplasmic Endoplasmic Reticulum Calcium ATPase (SERCA) levels in patients treated by epicardial thoracoscopic ablation for persistent AF. (
  • The enzyme forms a 32 P-phosphorylated intermediate, which is inhibited by vanadate and not stimulated by the transported substrate Ca 2+ , thus confirming the peculiar properties of this viral pump. (
  • PMR1 is the yeast secretory pathway pump responsible for high affinity transport of Mn 2+ and Ca 2+ into the Golgi, where these ions are sequestered and effectively removed from the cytoplasm. (
  • Obidos, Portugal TITLE decay of internal calcium concentration : : Internal calcium concentration due to calcium currents and pump. (
  • EQUILIBRIUM CALCIUM VALUE : The values of these parameters are chosen assuming a high affinity of : the pump to calcium and a low transport capacity (cfr. (
  • The sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ -ATPase (SERCA) is an intracellular membrane-associated pump for sequestering calcium from the cytosol into intracellular organelles, usually associated with the recovery phase following excitation of muscle and nerves. (
  • 2000) Mutations in ATP2C1, encoding a calcium pump, cause Hailey-Hailey disease. (
  • Plasma membrane calcium pump (PMCA4)-neuronal nitric-oxide synthase complex regulates cardiac contractility through modulation of a compartmentalized cyclic nucleotide microdomain. (
  • Within this project UV pump IR probe Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) spectroscopy and single molecule Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (smFRET) will be combined to map out the dynamical landscape and determine the structure of transient states related to the Ca2+ ion pump mechanism in plasma membrane calcium. (
  • We have also demonstrated that Fpn is not an ATPase pump. (
  • Phylogenetic and sequence analyses place the viral proteins in group IIB of P-type ATPases even though they lack a typical feature of this class, a calmodulin-binding domain. (
  • Cation-transporting proteins that utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis for the transport of CALCIUM . (
  • ATPases are specialized proteins that transport calcium ions against steep concentration gradients across cell membranes. (
  • Klotho regulates plasma membrane transport either indirectly through inhibiting calcitriol (1,25(OH)2D3) formation (or another mechanism), or by directly binding to and affecting transporter proteins. (
  • Purification of the plasma membrane Ca 2+ -ATPase from radish seedlings by calmodulin-agarose affinity chromatography. (
  • At-ACA8 encodes a plasma membrane-localized calcium-ATPase of Arabidopsis with a calmodulin-binding domain at the N terminus. (
  • Microsomes from dog smooth muscles were incubated with calmodulin (77107461) which stimulated the calcium transport ATPase of the microsomes. (
  • Calmodulin also mediated the inhibitory effect of calcium on sodium/potassium ATPase activity in the microsomes. (
  • These ion channels have been implicated in calcium signaling and are regulated by both cyclic nucleotides and calmodulin. (
  • Within the microvillus calcium is bound to calmodulin (CaM) which is itself bound to brush border myosin I (BBMI). (
  • Although there is growing evidence that the plasma membrane Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent ATPase 4 (PMCA4) is a regulator of neuronal nitric-oxide synthase, the physiological consequence of this regulation is unclear. (
  • Sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca 2+ -ATPase (SERCA) uncoupling in skeletal muscle and mitochondrial uncoupling via uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in brown/beige adipose tissue are two mechanisms implicated in energy expenditure. (
  • Objectives: Impaired cardiac isoform of sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca 2+ ATPase (SERCA2a) activity is a key abnormality in heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction. (
  • Specifically, the hSPCA1 protein transports calcium ions into a cell structure called the Golgi apparatus, where they are stored until needed. (
  • The hSPCA1 protein also transports manganese ions into the Golgi apparatus. (
  • Mutations in this gene reduce the amount of functional hSPCA1 protein, which impairs the storage of calcium ions in the Golgi apparatus. (
  • Calcium Dependent Protein Kinases (CDPKs). (
  • While protein motion has been shown to be important to the function of the Ca-ATPase, this study indicates that changes in the microsecond protein rotational mobility, which would be caused by changes in the enzyme's shape, flexibility, oligomeric state, or protein-lipid interactions, do not occur as part of the calcium transport cycle. (
  • inhibited Na+-k+-ATPase activity and specific activity at higher enzyme protein concentration and activated the enzyme activity and specific activity at lower enzyme protein concentration. (
  • percent bone cash and percent calcium in it were the same at the three levels of dietary protein. (
  • Although ATP2C1 gene mutations probably also affect the transport of manganese within cells, abnormal manganese regulation is not thought to contribute to the signs and symptoms of Hailey-Hailey disease. (
  • The CUPID 2 (Calcium Up-Regulation by Percutaneous Administration of Gene Therapy in Cardiac Disease Phase 2b) trial is designed to evaluate whether increasing SERCA2a activity via gene therapy improves clinical outcome in these patients. (
  • Results: Available data indicate that calcium up-regulation by AAV1/SERCA2a gene therapy is safe and of potential benefit in advanced heart failure patients. (
  • Based on this approach, Heven has provided fundamental insight into many critical cellular processes in plants, including proton-pumping ATPases, calcium transporters and signaling, and potassium transport. (
  • P-type ATPase, potassium exporting Cta3. (
  • Both basal and H2O2 stimulated MMP-2 activity and Ca2+ATPase activity were inhibited by the general inhibitors of matrix metalloproteases: EGTA, 1 : 10-phenanthroline, a2-macroglobulin and also by TIMP-2 (the specific inhibitor of MMP-2) indicating that H2O2 increased MMP-2 activity and that subsequently stimulated Ca2+ATPase activity in the plasma membrane. (
  • The inhibition of ATPase activity associated with the RBC's skeleton, carried out either by the omission of the MgATP substrate or by the use of several inhibitors (vanadate, phalloidin, and DNase I), resulted in a strong decrease of CMF. (
  • Plasma membrane calcium ATPase isoform 4 inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor-mediated angiogenesis through interaction with calcineurin. (
  • Rotational mobility does decrease in response to the addition of DMSO, a solvent that inhibits Ca-ATPase activity and stabilizes the phosphoenzyme. (
  • 3. Lytton J, Westlin M, Hanley MR. (1991) Thapsigargin inhibits the sarcoplasmic or endoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase family of calcium pumps. (
  • In vitro assays show basal ATPase activity. (
  • Phenotypic growth assays allow for convenient screening of side chains important for Ca 2+ and Mn 2+ transport. (
  • Phenotypic growth assays allow for convenient screening of side chains important for Ca2+ and Mn2+ transport. (
  • Complementation analysis of the triple yeast mutant K616 confirmed that M535L transports calcium ions and, unusually for group IIB pumps, also manganese ions. (
  • These ion pumps are used to transport across membranes a wide variety of ions, including H+, Ca2+, Na+, and heavy metals. (
  • This activity is inhibited by vanadate, but, unlike that of other Ca 2+ pumps, is not significantly stimulated by either calcium or manganese. (
  • The present study extends that investigation and associates CMF with F-actin's ATPase activity. (
  • Exposure of bovine pulmonary artery smooth muscle plasma membrane suspension with the oxidant H2O2 (1 mM) stimulated Ca2+ATPase activity. (
  • We sought to determine the role of matrix metalloprotease-2 (MMP-2) in stimulating Ca2+ATPase activity by H2O2 in the smooth muscle plasma membrane. (
  • In addition to increasing the Ca2+ATPase activity, H2O2 also enhanced the activity of the smooth muscle plasma membrane associated protease activity as evidenced by its ability to degrade 14C-gelatin. (
  • The protease activity and the Ca2+ATPase activity were prevented by the antioxidant, vitamin E, indicating that the effect produced by H2O2 was due to reactive oxidant species(es). (
  • and (iii) pretreatment with TIMP-2 prevents the increase in Ca2+ATPase activity in the membrane caused by the combined treatment of MMP-2 and H2O2. (
  • This resulted in increased L-type calcium channel activity and ryanodine receptor phosphorylation and hence increased contractility. (
  • Its extracellular domain has β-glucuronidase activity with two domains of the BglB (Glyco_hydro_1) superfamily which comprise virtually all of the extracellular domain between the two TMSs, and these may play a role in enhancing or inhibiting various transport activities. (
  • It is not known if glucose transport and Na+-K+ ATPase activity are affected during the purging process. (
  • on Na+-K+- ATPase activity and erythrocytes fragility were measured. (
  • Functional expression in yeast of an N-depleted form of At- ACA8, a plasma membrane Ca 2+ -ATPase of Arabidopsis thaliana , and characterization of a hyperactive mutant. (
  • ACA12 is a deregulated isoform of plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase of Arabidopsis thaliana. (
  • Calcium-transporting ATPases (Ca 2+ pumps) are major players in maintaining calcium homeostasis in the cell and have been detected in all cellular organisms. (
  • In neurons, one of the hallmarks of senescence is a disturbance of calcium homeostasis that may have far-reaching detrimental consequences on neuronal physiology and function. (
  • Its final common pathway may be a disturbance in myocyte calcium homeostasis. (
  • Efflux is through ATPases, but their localisation and how they are regulated is only now being elucidated. (
  • Secretory pathway Ca 2+ -ATPases (SPCA) allow accumulation of calcium and manganese in the Golgi apparatus. (
  • Mandal, D, Rulli, SJ & Rao, R 2003, ' Packing interactions between transmembrane helices alter ion selectivity of the yeast Golgi Ca 2+ /Mn 2+ -ATPase PMR1 ', Journal of Biological Chemistry , vol. 278, no. 37, pp. 35292-35298. (
  • I am proud to participate in recognizing Heven for her outstanding contributions to our understanding of ion transport across cell membranes. (
  • Calcineurin-dependent growth control in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants lacking PMC1, a homolog of plasma membrane Ca 2+ ATPases. (
  • The plasma membrane Ca 2+ ATPase of animal cells: structure, function and regulation. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Role of matrix metalloprotease-2 in oxidant activation of Ca2+ ATPase by hydrogen peroxide in pulmonary vascular smooth muscle plasma membrane. (
  • The hemolysate fraction also stimulated the Ca 2+ -ATPase and increased its affinity for Ca. In the presence of the hemolysate fraction, the concentration of free Ca that inhibited the (Na + + K + )-ATPase by 50% was similar to that which half-maximally stimulated the Ca 2+ -ATPase. (
  • Moreover, modification of PMCAs membrane composition triggered some adaptive processes to counterbalance calcium overload, but the reduction of PMCA2 appeared to be more detrimental to the cells than PMCA3. (
  • In addition to proliferation and adhesion, calcium regulation in these cells appears to play an important role in maintaining the skin's barrier function, helping to keep foreign invaders such as bacteria out of the body. (
  • Problems with calcium regulation impair many cell functions, including cell adhesion. (
  • In addition, abnormal calcium regulation disrupts the barrier function of the skin, making it more susceptible to infections. (
  • H-pumping driven by the vanadate-sensitive ATPase in membrane vesicles from corn roots. (
  • BBMI may facilitate the movement of the calcium/CaM complex into the terminal web where the calcium is picked up by calbindin (CaBP) and transported through the cytoplasm in endocytic vesicles. (
  • This agent decreases calcium excretion and increases magnesium loss. (
  • Magnesium is absorbed principally in the small intestine, through a saturable transport system and via passive diffusion through bulk flow of water. (
  • The sensitivity of the (Na + + K + )-ATPase to inhibition by Ca was increased 30-fold by a partially purified extract of human red cell hemolysate. (
  • Ca-dependent inhibition of the (Na + + K + )-ATPase in the presence and absence of the hemolysate fraction was completely reversible. (
  • Yingst, DR & Polasek, PM 1985, ' Sensitivity and reversibility of Ca-dependent inhibition of the (Na + + K + )-ATPase of human red blood cells ', BBA - Biomembranes , vol. 813, no. 2, pp. 282-286. (
  • T cells are activated when T cell receptors (TCRs) engage peptides presented by antigen-presenting cells (APC), causing an increase of intracellular calcium (Ca 2+ ) concentration. (
  • Alterations in intracellular calcium handling have been suggested to play a pivotal role. (
  • This study aimed to test the hypothesis that β-adrenergic activation can reveal the functional derangements of intracellular calcium handling of the 4-week diabetic heart. (
  • en] OBJECTIVE: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been identified as a crucial regulator of physiological and pathological angiogenesis. (
  • In a second paper we tried to explain the potential causes of the energetic disturbances in skeletal muscle, where again, dysfunctional ß2AdR could play a key role via the need for ß2AdR-mediated stimulation of the Na + /K + -ATPase during exercise, which is a critical transport system for skeletal muscle metabolism [ 44 ]. (
  • Microbial bioluminescence is a branch of the electron transport chain [ 7 ] and as electron transport is involved in cell metabolism, any disruption to this system e.g. by the presence of toxins, will have an effect on light output. (
  • 1992) Alterations in ATP-dependent calcium uptake by rat renal cortex microsomes following ochratoxin A administration in vivo or addition in vitro. (
  • In order to detect any transient changes in mobility that might not be detectable in the steady state and to improve the precision of steady-state measurements, we photolyzed caged ATP with a laser pulse in the presence of calcium and detected the ST-EPR response from the spin-labeled enzyme, with a time resolution of 1 s. (
  • No significant change in the ST-EPR signal was observed, indicating that the effective rotational correlation time does not change by more than 10% in the transient or steady-state phases of the Ca-ATPase cycle. (
  • A recent study has shown that the ATPase cycle is based on transient states, which ensure the irreversibility of the ion translocation. (
  • As noted above, these include ion channels, cellular carriers, and the Na + /K + -ATPase ( Sopjani and Dërmaku-Sopjani 2016 ). (
  • Boiling the fraction destroyed its effect on the (Na + + K + )-ATPase, but did not impair its stimulation of the Ca 2+ -ATPase. (
  • We suggest that the actin's ATPase, located at the pointed end of the short actin filament, is responsible for the MgATP stimulation of CMF in RBCs. (
  • Calcium signaling depends on the twenty thousand-fold concentration difference across the cell membrane - one of the steepest biomembrane gradients known. (