A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.
Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
Stable calcium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element calcium, but differ in atomic weight. Ca-42-44, 46, and 48 are stable calcium isotopes.
Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.
A salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.
Long-lasting voltage-gated CALCIUM CHANNELS found in both excitable and nonexcitable tissue. They are responsible for normal myocardial and vascular smooth muscle contractility. Five subunits (alpha-1, alpha-2, beta, gamma, and delta) make up the L-type channel. The alpha-1 subunit is the binding site for calcium-based antagonists. Dihydropyridine-based calcium antagonists are used as markers for these binding sites.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
The calcium salt of oxalic acid, occurring in the urine as crystals and in certain calculi.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The calcium salt of gluconic acid. The compound has a variety of uses, including its use as a calcium replenisher in hypocalcemic states.
Unstable isotopes of calcium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ca atoms with atomic weights 39, 41, 45, 47, 49, and 50 are radioactive calcium isotopes.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.
Inorganic compounds that contain calcium as an integral part of the molecule.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
CALCIUM CHANNELS that are concentrated in neural tissue. Omega toxins inhibit the actions of these channels by altering their voltage dependence.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Positively-charged atomic nuclei that have been stripped of their electrons. These particles have one or more units of electric charge and a mass exceeding that of the Helium-4 nucleus (alpha particle).
Agents that increase calcium influx into calcium channels of excitable tissues. This causes vasoconstriction in VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE and/or CARDIAC MUSCLE cells as well as stimulation of insulin release from pancreatic islets. Therefore, tissue-selective calcium agonists have the potential to combat cardiac failure and endocrinological disorders. They have been used primarily in experimental studies in cell and tissue culture.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.
An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A white powder prepared from lime that has many medical and industrial uses. It is in many dental formulations, especially for root canal filling.
A potent vasodilator agent with calcium antagonistic action. It is a useful anti-anginal agent that also lowers blood pressure.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
A calcium salt that is used for a variety of purposes including: building materials, as a desiccant, in dentistry as an impression material, cast, or die, and in medicine for immobilizing casts and as a tablet excipient. It exists in various forms and states of hydration. Plaster of Paris is a mixture of powdered and heat-treated gypsum.
A fluorescent calcium chelating agent which is used to study intracellular calcium in tissues.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Lanthanum. The prototypical element in the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol La, atomic number 57, and atomic weight 138.91. Lanthanide ion is used in experimental biology as a calcium antagonist; lanthanum oxide improves the optical properties of glass.
A tetrameric calcium release channel in the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM membrane of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, acting oppositely to SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES. It is important in skeletal and cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and studied by using RYANODINE. Abnormalities are implicated in CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS and MUSCULAR DISEASES.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
A colorless crystalline or white powdery organic, tricarboxylic acid occurring in plants, especially citrus fruits, and used as a flavoring agent, as an antioxidant in foods, and as a sequestrating agent. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A calbindin protein found in many mammalian tissues, including the UTERUS, PLACENTA, BONE, PITUITARY GLAND, and KIDNEYS. In intestinal ENTEROCYTES it mediates intracellular calcium transport from apical to basolateral membranes via calcium binding at two EF-HAND MOTIFS. Expression is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.
A sesquiterpene lactone found in roots of THAPSIA. It inhibits CA(2+)-TRANSPORTING ATPASE mediated uptake of CALCIUM into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent.
An element of the alkaline earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sr, atomic number 38, and atomic weight 87.62.
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
Reversible chemical reaction between a solid, often one of the ION EXCHANGE RESINS, and a fluid whereby ions may be exchanged from one substance to another. This technique is used in water purification, in research, and in industry.
An inorganic pyrophosphate which affects calcium metabolism in mammals. Abnormalities in its metabolism occur in some human diseases, notably HYPOPHOSPHATASIA and pseudogout (CHONDROCALCINOSIS).
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Disorders in the processing of calcium in the body: its absorption, transport, storage, and utilization.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Pyridine moieties which are partially saturated by the addition of two hydrogen atoms in any position.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The fluid inside CELLS.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
Chemical agents that increase the permeability of biological or artificial lipid membranes to specific ions. Most ionophores are relatively small organic molecules that act as mobile carriers within membranes or coalesce to form ion permeable channels across membranes. Many are antibiotics, and many act as uncoupling agents by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.
A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.
A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)
A benzothiazepine derivative with vasodilating action due to its antagonism of the actions of CALCIUM ion on membrane functions.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.
A general class of integral membrane proteins that transport ions across a membrane against an electrochemical gradient.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A mass-spectrometric technique that is used for microscopic chemical analysis. A beam of primary ions with an energy of 5-20 kiloelectronvolts (keV) bombards a small spot on the surface of the sample under ultra-high vacuum conditions. Positive and negative secondary ions sputtered from the surface are analyzed in a mass spectrometer in regards to their mass-to-charge ratio. Digital imaging can be generated from the secondary ion beams and their intensity can be measured. Ionic images can be correlated with images from light or other microscopy providing useful tools in the study of molecular and drug actions.
A photoprotein isolated from the bioluminescent jellyfish Aequorea. It emits visible light by an intramolecular reaction when a trace amount of calcium ion is added. The light-emitting moiety in the bioluminescence reaction is believed to be 2-amino-3-benzyl-5-(p-hydroxyphenyl)pyrazine (AF-350).
CALCIUM CHANNELS located within the PURKINJE CELLS of the cerebellum. They are involved in stimulation-secretion coupling of neurons.
Intracellular receptors that bind to INOSITOL 1,4,5-TRISPHOSPHATE and play an important role in its intracellular signaling. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors are calcium channels that release CALCIUM in response to increased levels of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in the CYTOPLASM.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
Stones in the KIDNEY, usually formed in the urine-collecting area of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS). Their sizes vary and most contains CALCIUM OXALATE.
A class of G-protein-coupled receptors that react to varying extracellular CALCIUM levels. Calcium-sensing receptors in the PARATHYROID GLANDS play an important role in the maintenance of calcium HOMEOSTASIS by regulating the release of PARATHYROID HORMONE. They differ from INTRACELLULAR CALCIUM-SENSING PROTEINS which sense intracellular calcium levels.
Reduction of the blood calcium below normal. Manifestations include hyperactive deep tendon reflexes, Chvostek's sign, muscle and abdominal cramps, and carpopedal spasm. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
A divalent calcium ionophore that is widely used as a tool to investigate the role of intracellular calcium in cellular processes.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
Intracellular messenger formed by the action of phospholipase C on phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, which is one of the phospholipids that make up the cell membrane. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate is released into the cytoplasm where it releases calcium ions from internal stores within the cell's endoplasmic reticulum. These calcium ions stimulate the activity of B kinase or calmodulin.
CALCIUM CHANNELS located in the neurons of the brain.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
Abnormally high level of calcium in the blood.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.
A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
CALCIUM CHANNELS located in the neurons of the brain. They are inhibited by the marine snail toxin, omega conotoxin MVIIC.
A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
An element with atomic symbol Cd, atomic number 48, and atomic weight 114. It is a metal and ingestion will lead to CADMIUM POISONING.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
A trace element with the atomic symbol Ni, atomic number 28, and atomic weight 58.69. It is a cofactor of the enzyme UREASE.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A neurotoxic peptide, which is a cleavage product (VIa) of the omega-Conotoxin precursor protein contained in venom from the marine snail, CONUS geographus. It is an antagonist of CALCIUM CHANNELS, N-TYPE.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A methylpyrrole-carboxylate from RYANIA that disrupts the RYANODINE RECEPTOR CALCIUM RELEASE CHANNEL to modify CALCIUM release from SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM resulting in alteration of MUSCLE CONTRACTION. It was previously used in INSECTICIDES. It is used experimentally in conjunction with THAPSIGARGIN and other inhibitors of CALCIUM ATPASE uptake of calcium into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
A calcium channel blocker with marked vasodilator action. It is an effective antihypertensive agent and differs from other calcium channel blockers in that it does not reduce glomerular filtration rate and is mildly natriuretic, rather than sodium retentive.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Derivatives of OXALIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are derived from the ethanedioic acid structure.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A calcium channel blockader with preferential cerebrovascular activity. It has marked cerebrovascular dilating effects and lowers blood pressure.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A potent antagonist of CALCIUM CHANNELS that is highly selective for VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE. It is effective in the treatment of chronic stable angina pectoris, hypertension, and congestive cardiac failure.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Two pairs of small oval-shaped glands located in the front and the base of the NECK and adjacent to the two lobes of THYROID GLAND. They secrete PARATHYROID HORMONE that regulates the balance of CALCIUM; PHOSPHORUS; and MAGNESIUM in the body.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
Calcium-binding proteins that are found in DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES, INTESTINES, BRAIN, and other tissues where they bind, buffer and transport cytoplasmic calcium. Calbindins possess a variable number of EF-HAND MOTIFS which contain calcium-binding sites. Some isoforms are regulated by VITAMIN D.
Calcium-transporting ATPases that catalyze the active transport of CALCIUM into the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM vesicles from the CYTOPLASM. They are primarily found in MUSCLE CELLS and play a role in the relaxation of MUSCLES.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Identification and measurement of ELEMENTS and their location based on the fact that X-RAYS emitted by an element excited by an electron beam have a wavelength characteristic of that element and an intensity related to its concentration. It is performed with an electron microscope fitted with an x-ray spectrometer, in scanning or transmission mode.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or group of atoms with a valence of plus 1, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
A family of structurally related neurotoxic peptides from mollusk venom that inhibit voltage-activated entry of calcium into the presynaptic membrane. They selectively inhibit N-, P-, and Q-type calcium channels.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Compounds with three aromatic rings in linear arrangement with an OXYGEN in the center ring.
Derivative of 7-dehydroxycholesterol formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. It differs from ERGOCALCIFEROL in having a single bond between C22 and C23 and lacking a methyl group at C24.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
A potent calcium channel blockader with marked vasodilator action. It has antihypertensive properties and is effective in the treatment of angina and coronary spasms without showing cardiodepressant effects. It has also been used in the treatment of asthma and enhances the action of specific antineoplastic agents.
Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Venoms of arthropods of the order Araneida of the ARACHNIDA. The venoms usually contain several protein fractions, including ENZYMES, hemolytic, neurolytic, and other TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Metallochrome indicator that changes color when complexed to the calcium ion under physiological conditions. It is used to measure local calcium ion concentrations in vivo.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.
An inorganic dye used in microscopy for differential staining and as a diagnostic reagent. In research this compound is used to study changes in cytoplasmic concentrations of calcium. Ruthenium red inhibits calcium transport through membrane channels.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
This calcium uncovers the actin binding sites. When the muscle no longer needs to contract, the calcium ions are pumped from ... Calcium ions are required for each cycle of the sarcomere. Calcium is released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum into the ... Larger structures along the myosin filament called myosin heads are used to provide attachment points on binding sites for the ... Calcium is released from its storage area in the cell's sarcoplasmic reticulum. An impulse from a nerve cell causes calcium ...
Each subunit binds one calcium ion (cofactor). There are three important metal-binding sites in amino acids 77, 82, 87. The ... It has been observed that a protease must be active in order to bind to these two inhibitors. Studies proved that the activity ... a specific type of protease that has the amino acid serine at its active site. Although the recommended name is pancreatic ... characterized by a distinctive structure consisting of two beta barrel domains converging at the active site that hydrolyze ...
Each monomer includes a bound calcium ion. PGHS exists as a symmetric homodimer, each monomer of which consists of 3 domains: ... at the heme binding site. Both MPO and the catalytic domain of PGHS are mainly alpha-helical, 19 helices being identified as ... extending from the membrane-binding domain to the center of the molecule. The peroxidase active site, which catalyzes the ... TPO uses I− ions and H2O2 to generate iodine, and plays a central role in the biosynthesis of thyroid hormones T3 and T4. ...
... each containing one carbohydrate-binding site. The interaction with sugars requires tightly bound calcium and manganese ions. ... The carbohydrate-binding sites of these lectins consist of two conserved amino acids on beta pleated sheets. One of these loops ... contains transition metals, calcium and manganese, which keep the amino acid residues of the sugar-binding site at the required ... X-ray studies have shown that the folding of the polypeptide chains in the region of the carbohydrate-binding sites is also ...
... tTG binds up to 6 calcium ions at 5 different binding sites. Mutations to these binding sites causing lower calcium affinity, ... Crosslinking activity by tTG requires the binding of Ca2+ ions. Multiple Ca2+ can bind to a single tTG molecule. Specifically, ... GDP binding site, a catalytic domain, two beta barrel and a beta-sandwich. Crystal structures of TG2 with bound GDP, GTP, or ... "Functional significance of five noncanonical Ca2+-binding sites of human transglutaminase 2 characterized by site-directed ...
The calcium ion binding site has typical pentagonal bipyramidal geometry. It is bound within a loop of eight residues of the ... Binds 1 equivalent of calcium Glycosylated at four asparagine residues: 315, 351, 443, and 695 One active site per monomer. The ... 1D7W). The nitrite ion also binds tightly, forming low-spin heme. One of the first well-characterized mutants of EPX was a G→A ... The calcium site serves not only as a scaffold for protein folding, but also for proper association of the two chains. In fact ...
Active transport moves calcium ions back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum of the muscle fiber. ATP causes the binding between ... and the associated tropomyosin undergo a conformational change after calcium binding and expose the myosin binding sites on ... Calcium ions are then released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum into the sarcoplasm and subsequently bind to troponin. Troponin ... Each tropomyosin molecule has a smaller calcium-binding protein called troponin bound to it. All thin filaments are attached to ...
On either sides of the catalytic core sit calcium ion/calmodulin binding sites. Binding of calcium ion to this domain increases ... First, the calcium will bind to calmodulin. After the influx of calcium ions and the binding to calmodulin, pp60 SRC (a protein ... Protein kinase C and ROC Kinase are involved in regulating Calcium ion intake; these Calcium ions, in turn stimulate a MYLK, ... This myosin binding domain is located at the C-Terminus end of the kinase. On the other side of the kinase at the N-Terminus ...
... two of the sites of interplay between platelets and the coagulation cascade. Calcium ions are essential for the binding of ... Resting platelets maintain active calcium efflux via a cyclic AMP-activated calcium pump. Intracellular calcium concentration ... NETs bind tissue factor, binding the coagulation centres to the location of infection. They also activate the intrinsic ... They are able to specifically bind IgG through FcγRIIA, receptor for constant fragment (Fc) of IgG. When activated and bound to ...
Myosin can only bind to actin when the binding sites on actin are exposed by calcium ions. Actin molecules are bound to the Z- ... For a muscle cell to contract, tropomyosin must be moved to uncover the binding sites on the actin. Calcium ions bind with ... The inward flow of calcium from the L-type calcium channels activates ryanodine receptors to release calcium ions from the ... The outflow of calcium allows the myosin heads access to the actin cross-bridge binding sites, permitting muscle contraction. ...
This is an RNA-binding protein associated with Fragile X. Start sites are antisense to start of KIAA1704. Potassium Channel ... Tumor protein translationally controlled 1 (TPT1) is involved in calcium binding and microtubule stabilization. Small nucleolar ... Tetramerisation Domain Containing 4 (KCTD4) proposed to participate in potassium ion transport. ... Functionally, it binds to RNA Polymerase II. Negative Orientation Nuclear Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein Interacting ...
... some amino acids between domains A and B form a calcium binding site near the nucleophilic aspartate. The Ca2+ ion is necessary ... Domain A contains the (β/α)8 barrel and the catalytic site. In the catalytic site, three residues in particular play important ... Both sucrose breakdown and glucan synthesis occur in the same active site. The first step is carried out through a ... If S. mutans can no longer break down sucrose and synthesize glucan, calcium phosphate is not degraded and bacteria cannot ...
the Ca2+ ions bound to the BPP are divided to hydrolysis and affinity site ions. In the hydrolysis site, Ca2+ help the ... BPPs are calcium dependent metalloproteins. Their active site has a number of calcium cations (Ca2+) bound to it via negatively ... Positive calcium ions are needed to make binding of the negative phytate electrically favorable. Binding happens via phytate's ... This site binds negatively charged calcium phytate and hydrolyzes phosphates from it. A 2008 study by Huang et al. compared 66 ...
This inner cavity is a common binding site to reactive electrophilic ligands-and now WaTx. This locus is a key regulatory site ... When activated, the open-state TRPA1 allows the flow of positively charged sodium and calcium ions into the cell. Electrophilic ... With WaTx bound in open state, TRPA1 lacks a preference for Ca2+ over Na+, which accounts for the lower calcium permeability. ... WaTx non-covalently binds to the allosteric nexus and initiates interactions with an integrated complex between the N-terminal ...
Competitively binds calcium ions (Ca2+) Serum albumin, as a negative acute-phase protein, is down-regulated in inflammatory ... Competition between drugs for albumin binding sites may cause drug interaction by increasing the free fraction of one of the ... The human albumin gene is 16,961 nucleotides long from the putative 'cap' site to the first poly(A) addition site. It is split ... significant amounts of drug can be incorporated into the particle matrix because of the large number of drug binding sites on ...
Thus, titration studies show that all three calcium-binding sites are active but only two ions are needed to trigger the ... The binding site for the first two calcium atoms show a 20X greater affinity for calcium than the third site. However, earlier ... "All three Ca2+-binding loops of photoproteins bind calcium ions: the crystal structures of calcium-loaded apo-aequorin and apo- ... Notably, the protein contains three EF hand motifs that function as binding sites for Ca2+ ions. The protein is a member of the ...
... binds to the ligand binding site. However, unlike AMPA receptors, external ions also bind to kainate receptors at the ion ... This allows the flow of positive ions, such as sodium or calcium. The influx of positively charged ions depolarizes, or excites ... Willardiine binds to glutamate receptors at the glutamate binding site in the extracellular ligand binding domain (Figure 2). ... Isomer-specific binding affinity is a result of steric effects between (R)-Willardiine and the binding site on the receptor. ...
The δ subunit is the ubiquitous eukaryotic protein calmodulin which itself has 4 calcium ion binding sites. When cytosolic Ca2+ ... nerve impulses and muscle contraction stimulate the release of calcium ions. These act as an allosteric activator, binding to ... activated when the β and α subunits are phosphorylated by protein kinase A and the delta subunit has bound to calcium ions. In ... that it was the presence of calcium ions in the filter paper that was generating the active "a" isoform. Later research ...
Therefore, calcium-binding proteins must distinguish calcium in the presence of high concentrations of other metal ions. The ... Parvalbumin is a small, stable protein containing EF-hand type calcium binding sites. It is involved in calcium signaling. ... Dudev T, Lim C (January 2014). "Competition among metal ions for protein binding sites: determinants of metal ion selectivity ... The Ca2+ ions bind to troponin, what causes the displacement of tropomyosin, a protein that prevents myosin walking along actin ...
Some EF-hand calcium binding proteins such as S100 or NCS-1 are also able to bind zinc ions. The U.S. Institute of Medicine ( ... The human dopamine transporter contains a high affinity extracellular zinc binding site which, upon zinc binding, inhibits ... Each of the nine or ten Zn2+ ions in a zinc finger helps maintain the finger's structure by coordinately binding to four amino ... Zinc at The Periodic Table of Videos (University of Nottingham) ZincBind - a database of biological zinc binding sites.. ...
2) Calcium ions flow into the axon terminal. (3) Acetylcholine is released into the synaptic cleft. (4) Acetylcholine binds to ... The neuromuscular junction is the site of the signal exchange. The steps of this process in vertebrates occur as follows: (1) ... 5) This binding causes ion channels to open and allows sodium ions to flow into the muscle cell. (6) The flow of sodium ions ... Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are ligand-gated ion channels permeable to sodium, potassium, and calcium ions. In other ...
... has two binding sites for Ca2+, which are located close to the active center, but are not directly involved in the ... Upon removal of the calcium ions, the stability of the enzyme is reduced, but the proteolytic activity remains. ... Although calcium ions do not affect the enzyme activity, they do contribute to its stability. Proteins will be completely ... Müller A, Hinrichs W, Wolf WM, Saenger W (September 1994). "Crystal structure of calcium-free proteinase K at 1.5-A resolution ...
These channels may also function as a mitochondrial binding site for hexokinase and glycerol kinase. The VDAC is an important ... It also localizes to the acrosomal membrane of the sperm, where it putatively mediates calcium ion transmembrane transport. The ... In mammalian cardiomyocytes, VDAC2 promotes mitochondrial transport of calcium ions in order to power cardiac contractions. In ... Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, Macek B, Kumar C, Mortensen P, Mann M (Nov 2006). "Global, in vivo, and site-specific ...
NINL is a ninein-like protein that is involved in microtubule organization and has calcium ion binding activity. TRAF2, tumor ... Several of these sites were predicted as both phosphorylation sites and O-glycosylation sites. CCDC130 was not predicted to be ... EEF1A1 is a eukaryotic elongation factor that is involved in the binding of aminoacyl-tRNA to the A-site of ribosomes during ... There were six sumoylation sites predicted, but only one of these sites (K177) had a probability score of higher than .500, at ...
These domains can also bind calcium ions, and the binding results in a conformational change that dissociates the mitochondrial ... The EF-hand motifs serve as binding sites for the adaptor protein Milton and the kinesin heavy chain. ... The motor/adaptor complex is regulated by calcium ion levels. At high concentrations, calcium ions arrest mitochondrial ... this regulatory mechanism likely serves to keep mitochondria in such areas to provide calcium ion buffering and active export ...
It builds a 3-D bio-matrix with binding sites for calcium ions serving as nucleation point for hydroxyapatite (tooth mineral) ... The high affinity to tooth mineral is based on matching distances of Ca-ion binding sites on P11-4 and Ca spacing in the ... University of Leeds Centre for Molecular Nanoscience website credentis ag website. ... It binds directly as matrix to the tooth mineral and forms a stable layer on the teeth. This layer does protect the teeth from ...
It builds a 3-D bio-matrix with binding sites for Calcium-ions serving as nucleation point for hydroxyapatite (tooth mineral) ... The high affinity to tooth mineral is based on matching distances of Ca-ion binding sites on P11-4 and Ca spacing in the ... These particles have a structure mimicking hydroxyapatite, providing new sites for mineralisation to occur. Their binding to ... Medicine portal Calcium lactate Calcium phosphate Tooth development Toothpaste Tooth enamel Featherstone, J. D. B. (2008). " ...
There is also one calcium ion coordinated in GCPII, far from the active site. It has been proposed that calcium holds together ... The apical domain creates a pocket that facilitates substrate binding. The C-terminal domain is an Up-Down-Up-Down four-helix ... This active site contains two zinc ions. During inhibition, each acts as a ligand to an oxygen in 2-PMPA or phosphate. ... In addition, human GCPII has ten sites of potential glycosylation, and many of these sites (including some far from the ...
Calcium ions then bind to troponin, which is associated with tropomyosin. Binding causes changes in the shape of troponin and ... This binding causes the caldesmon protein to disengage from the actin filament, exposing the myosin-binding sites on the actin ... Each myosin protein 'paddles' along the thin actin filament, repeatedly binding to myosin-binding sites along the actin ... This shifting in position exposes the myosin-binding sites on the actin filament, allowing the myosin heads of the thick ...
Metal-ion storage and transfer[edit]. Iron[edit]. Iron is stored as iron(III) in ferritin. The exact nature of the binding site ... Binding of calcium causes a conformational change to occur in the protein. Calmodulin participates in an intracellular ... namely that the metal ion is bound to the protein with one labile coordination site. As with all enzymes, the shape of the ... The copper-binding site is described as distorted trigonal pyramidal.[19] The trigonal plane of the pyramidal base is composed ...
... chemicals custom tailored to bind at these sites are most effective at altering respiratory rhythm. Adenosine modulates the ... Calcium-sensitive dyes have shown that internal concentrations of calcium increase during bursts. The activation of different ... Disturbances in neuromodulatory processes acting on ion channels, receptors, and second messengers have been associated with ... Other research has also suggested that calcium flow through N-type calcium channels is essential for normal breathing, and is ...
The synthesis of ununennium was first attempted in 1985 by bombarding a target of einsteinium-254 with calcium-48 ions at the ... "Israel Science and Technology Homepage. Retrieved 15 April 2007.. *^ a b c Lide, D. R., ed. (2005). CRC Handbook of Chemistry ... Sodium tetraphenylborate can also be classified as an organosodium compound since in the solid state sodium is bound to the ... 4 ions.[66] The chemistry of alkali metal germanides, involving the germanide ion Ge4− and other cluster (Zintl) ions such as ...
PDZ domain binding. • cadherin binding. • peptidase activity. • beta-catenin binding. • protein binding. • calcium channel ... endoplasmic reticulum calcium ion homeostasis. • response to oxidative stress. • autophagosome assembly. • positive regulation ... By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia ... smooth endoplasmic reticulum calcium ion homeostasis. • synaptic vesicle targeting. • Cajal-Retzius cell differentiation. • ...
calcium channel activity. • metal ion binding. • voltage-gated ion channel activity. • ion channel activity. • protein binding ... "Molecular localization of ion selectivity sites within the pore of a human L-type cardiac calcium channel". The Journal of ... When depolarization occurs, calcium ions flow through the channel and some bind to Calmodulin. The Calcium/Calmodulin binding ... ion transport. • calcium-mediated signaling using extracellular calcium source. • transmembrane transport. • calcium ion ...
GABA receptors contain a binding site for the chemical, GABA, a chloride ion channel, and an additional binding site for ... Disulfiram-like drugs: disulfiram, calcium carbimide, cyanamide. Sulfonic acids: Acamprosate. Religion and alcohol. *Christian ... When alcohol molecules bind to its site on the GABA receptor, they lengthen the time that the receptor's chloride ion pore ... When a GABA molecule attaches to its binding site, it activates the receptor, resulting in an inflow of chloride ions. The ...
Katoh Y, Katoh M (2007). "Conserved POU-binding site linked to SP1-binding site within FZD5 promoter: Transcriptional ... Wnt signaling pathway, calcium modulating pathway. • Wnt signaling pathway, planar cell polarity pathway. • beta-catenin ... "IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology.. ... amyloid-beta binding. • signal transducer activity. • Wnt-protein binding. • protein binding. • protein kinase binding. • ...
positive regulation of calcium ion-dependent exocytosis. Sources:Amigo / QuickGO. Orthologs. Species. Human. Mouse. ... lipid binding. Cellular component. • cytoplasm. • cyclin-dependent protein kinase 5 holoenzyme complex. • plasma membrane. • ... By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia ... p35 and p39 interact with the alpha-subunit of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and alpha-actinin-1 in a calcium- ...
... which binds both copper and zinc), Fe and Mn types (which bind either iron or manganese), and the Ni type (which binds nickel ... By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia ... The ligands of the manganese ions are 3 histidine side-chains, an aspartate side-chain and a water molecule or hydroxy ligand, ... In the holo form (both copper and zinc bound) the melting point is , 90 °C. In the apo form (no copper or zinc bound) the ...
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia ... core bound through C5 to the N6 of (1R,5S)-3,6-diazabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane.[3] ... Ion channel. modulators. Calcium blockers. *Gabapentin. *Gabapentin enacarbil. *Mirogabalin. *Pregabalin. *Ziconotide. Sodium ...
ion transmembrane transporter activity. • ربط أيون الزنك. • ربط أيون فلزي. • calcium-dependent protein binding. • ‏GO:0001948 ... Sudo T، Hidaka H (1999). "Characterization of the calcyclin (S100A6) binding site of annexin XI-A by site-directed mutagenesis ... S100A6‏ (S100 calcium binding protein A6) هوَ بروتين يُشَفر بواسطة جين S100A6 في الإنسان.[1] ... "Entrez Gene: S100A6 S100 calcium binding protein A6". مؤرشف من الأصل في 05 ديسمبر 2010. الوسيط ,مسار أرشيف=. تم تجاهله (مساعدة ...
They are bound at three oxygen sites, which gives a characteristic silicon:oxygen ratio of 2:5. Important examples include the ... In a limestone, calcite or aragonite (both CaCO3) form because the rock is rich in calcium and carbonate. A corollary is that a ... As a result, it is possible for one element to be substituted for another.[51] Chemical substitution will occur between ions of ... Tourmalines can be subgrouped by the occupancy of the X site, and from there further subdivided by the chemistry of the W site ...
Richard T, Delaunay JC, Mérillon JM, Monti JP (December 2003). "Is the C-terminal region of bradykinin the binding site of ... Bradykinin raises internal calcium levels in neocortical astrocytes causing them to release glutamate, though this finding has ... By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia ... See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Ion channel modulators. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title= ...
Website ikke længere tilgængelig)Skabelon:Cbignore *^ Sapse, Anne-Marie; von R. Schleyer, Paul (1995). Lithium chemistry: a ... Garrett, Donald (2004) Handbook of Lithium and Natural Calcium, Academic Press, cited in The Trouble with Lithium 2, Meridian ... Nelson, P. (2010). Lithium-Ion Batteries: Examining Material Demand and Recycling Issues. Argonne National Laboratory. Hentet ... File:Binding energy curve - common isotopes.svg viser bindingsenergi for de stabile nuklider grafisk; kilden til datasættet ...
EDTA aids cell hydrolysis by binding to divalent ions, such as Ca2+, and removing them from the wall thus softening the wall ... By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia ... Upon conducting experiments following a modified Hanahan protocol using calcium chloride in E.Coli, it was determined that ... The membrane can then be analyzed on a patch clamp apparatus to determine the phenotype of the ion channels embedded in it. It ...
... but could relate to actions of the drug on voltage-activated calcium channels. Lamotrigine blocks T-type calcium channels ... By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia ... Lamotrigine binds to melanin-containing tissues such as the iris of the eye. The long-term consequences of this are unknown.[51 ... Ion channel blockers. *Anticonvulsants (e.g., gabapentin, pregabalin, carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, lacosamide, lamotrigine) ...
metal ion binding. • tubulin binding. • protein binding. • identical protein binding. • copper ion binding. • lamin binding. • ... Specific sites along the protein bind other proteins, biomolecules, and metals. These interfaces allow specific sets of cells ... calcium-mediated signaling using intracellular calcium source. • negative regulation of catalytic activity. • positive ... macromolecular complex binding. • cupric ion binding. • cuprous ion binding. Cellular component. • mitochondrial outer membrane ...
Saliva also contains a glycoprotein called haptocorrin which is a binding protein to vitamin B12.[17] It binds with the vitamin ... By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia ... Hydrogen ions secreted from the inner lining of the gallbladder keep the bile acidic enough to prevent hardening. To dilute the ... This is how gallstones form when a small piece of calcium gets coated with either cholesterol or bilirubin and the bile ...
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia ... binding studies, cation uptake by the receptor channel and contraction of isolated guinea-pig ileum", Eur J Pharmacol, 530 (1-2 ... Calcium channel blockers. *renin-angiotensin system *ACE inhibitors. *Angiotensin II receptor antagonists ... Also, many of the antihistamines have anticholinergic properties that block muscarinic receptors at the same sites. * ...
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia ... Ion channel modulators. Calcium. VDCCs. Blockers. *L-type-selective: Dihydropyridines: Amlodipine. *Aranidipine ... Protein binding. ~92%[1]. Metabolism. Hepatic (CYP3A4/5) and intestinal (first-pass)[1][4]. ...
GABA acts via binding to its receptors which include the ligand gated ion channels, GABAA and GABAC and the G-protein couple ... By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia ... mediates the release through presynaptic effects through a voltage dependent inhibition of high voltage activation of calcium ... of GABAergic synaptic activity and region-specific restoration of GABAA receptor associated chloride channel binding."[17] ...
fucose binding. • carbohydrate binding. • sialic acid binding. • protein binding. • calcium ion binding. • metal ion binding. ... By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia ... heparin binding. • oligosaccharide binding. • lipopolysaccharide binding. • calcium-dependent protein binding. • ... calcium-mediated signaling using intracellular calcium source. • positive regulation of platelet activation. • leukocyte ...
calcium ion binding. • metal ion binding. • identical protein binding. • cytoskeletal protein binding. • protein ... By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia ... cadherin binding. Cellular component. • axon terminus. • integral component of membrane. • synaptic cleft. • membrane. • plasma ... calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion via plasma membrane cell adhesion molecules. • cell-cell adhesion mediated by cadherin. • ...
positive regulation of calcium ion import. • glucocorticoid biosynthetic process. • positive regulation of gene expression. • ... corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 2 binding. • protein binding. • neuropeptide hormone activity. • receptor binding. • ... "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=gene&cmd=Link&LinkName=gene_pubmed&from_uid=1392. ... ion homeostasis. • lung development. • diterpenoid metabolic process. • response to corticosterone. • female pregnancy. • ...
Ion Qubits for Quantum ComputingEdit. The charged ion 171Yb+ is used in trapped-ion qubits in quantum computing.[49] Entangling ... Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine ... By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia ... The solution is then applied to a resin, which different lanthanides bind in different matters. This is then dissolved using ...
... resulting in many more sites for actin and myosin to bind and thus much greater force per square centimeter at the cost of much ... strenuous exercise causes the loss of potassium ions in muscle and causing an increase in potassium ion concentrations close to ... the ability to couple myosin side chains phosphorylation to higher concentrations of the positive concentrations of calcium, ... "NASA Muscle Atrophy Research (MARES) Website". Archived from the original on 4 May 2010.. ...
calcium ion binding. • peptidase activity. • protein binding. • serine-type peptidase activity. • serine-type endopeptidase ... The S4 sub-pocket has three ligand binding domains: the "hydrophobic box", the "cationic hole" and the water site. Factor Xa ... These pathways converge to a common point, the formation of the Factor Xa/Va complex which together with calcium and bound on a ... phospholipid binding. • hydrolase activity. Cellular component. • endoplasmic reticulum lumen. • intrinsic component of ...
ferric iron binding. • metal ion binding. • protein binding. • ferric iron transmembrane transporter activity. • ferrous iron ... Aisen P, Leibman A, Zweier J (Mar 1978). "Stoichiometric and site characteristics of the binding of iron to human transferrin ... iron ion homeostasis. • platelet degranulation. • ion transport. • retina homeostasis. • iron ion transport. • cellular iron ... For the iron ion to bind, an anion is required, preferably carbonate (CO2−. 3).[8] ...
It features the vanadyl ion, VO2+, which has been called the "most stable diatomic ion."[1] ... By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia ... From aqueous solution, the salt crystallizes as the pentahydrate, the fifth water is not bound to the metal in the solid. ... Viewed as a coordination complex, the ion is octahedral, with oxo, four equatorial water ligands, and a monodentate sulfate.[1] ...
ACh binds to muscarinic receptors, specifically M3, and causes an increased intracellular calcium ion concentration (through ... By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia ... Norepinephrine binding to α-adrenergic receptors will cause an increase in intracellular calcium levels leading to more fluid ... In addition, Substance P can bind to Tachykinin NK-1 receptors leading to increased intracellular calcium concentrations and ...
The proteins mentioned have an affinity to bind with other casein proteins, or to bind with calcium phosphate, and this binding ... Due to κ-caseins being glycoproteins, they are stable in the presence of calcium ions so the κ-caseins are on the outer layer ... By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia ... caseins from precipitating out in the presence of excess calcium ions. Due to the lack of a strong secondary or tertiary ...
Engineering of a calcium-ion binding site into the RC-LH1-PufX complex of Rhodobacter sphaeroides to enable ion-dependent ... Engineering of a calcium-ion binding site into the RC-LH1-PufX complex of Rhodobacter sphaeroides to enable ion-dependent ... T1 - Engineering of a calcium-ion binding site into the RC-LH1-PufX complex of Rhodobacter sphaeroides to enable ion-dependent ... title = "Engineering of a calcium-ion binding site into the RC-LH1-PufX complex of Rhodobacter sphaeroides to enable ion- ...
CALCIUM ION. Ca. BHPQYMZQTOCNFJ-UHFFFAOYSA-N. Ligand Interaction. CL. Query on CL. Download Ideal Coordinates CCD File Download ... or produce active site-binding motifs unique to the bound analog. Ionization equilibria at the active site associated with ... Elaborate Manifold of Short Hydrogen Bond Arrays Mediating Binding of Active Site-Directed Serine Protease Inhibitors. *DOI: ... Our website will not work properly. Please update to a newer version or download a new web browser, such as Chrome or Firefox. ...
Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites. ... calcium ion; NMDAR, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor; eEF2K, eukaryotic elongation factor-2 kinase; eEF2, eukaryotic elongation ... their binding sites, and species selectivity. Many cell-surface proteins have been reported to bind Aβ. Binding sites for Aβ ... Binding Sites for Amyloid-β Oligomers and Synaptic Toxicity.. Smith LM1, Strittmatter SM1. ...
Note: Binds 2 calcium ions per subunit.PROSITE-ProRule annotation. Manual assertion according to rulesi ... Protein has several cofactor binding sites:*heme b*Search proteins in UniProtKB for this molecule. ... Metal bindingi. 74. Calcium 1; via carbonyl oxygenPROSITE-ProRule annotation. Manual assertion according to rulesi ... Metal bindingi. 76. Calcium 1; via carbonyl oxygenPROSITE-ProRule annotation. Manual assertion according to rulesi ...
Note: Binds 2 calcium ions per subunit.PROSITE-ProRule annotation. Manual assertion according to rulesi ... Metal bindingi. 64. ManganeseBy similarity. 1. ,p>This subsection describes interesting single amino acid sites on the sequence ... Metal bindingi. 203. ManganeseBy similarity. 1. Metal bindingi. 215. Calcium 2PROSITE-ProRule annotation. Manual assertion ... Metal bindingi. 86. Calcium 1; via carbonyl oxygenPROSITE-ProRule annotation. Manual assertion according to rulesi ...
Identification of the calcium binding site and a novel ytterbium site in blood coagulation factor XIII by x-ray crystallography ... F13A_HUMAN] Factor XIII is activated by thrombin and calcium ion to a transglutaminase that catalyzes the formation of gamma- ... Identification of the calcium binding site and a novel ytterbium site in blood coagulation factor XIII by x-ray crystallography ... Calcium and strontium bind in the same location, while ytterbium binds several angstroms removed. A novel ytterbium binding ...
C2-like domains are thought to be involved in phospholipid binding in a Ca2+ independent manner in both Unc13 and Munc13 ... Feature 1:Ca2+ binding site [ion binding site]. Evidence:*. Structure:3KWU; Rat Munc13-1 C2B-domain with bound calcium. - View ... C2 domains with a calcium binding region have negatively charged residues, primarily aspartates, that serve as ligands for ... Many C2 domains are Ca2+-dependent membrane-targeting modules that bind a wide variety of substances including bind ...
The calcium ion binding site has typical pentagonal bipyramidal geometry. It is bound within a loop of eight residues of the ... Binds 1 equivalent of calcium Glycosylated at four asparagine residues: 315, 351, 443, and 695 One active site per monomer. The ... 1D7W). The nitrite ion also binds tightly, forming low-spin heme. One of the first well-characterized mutants of EPX was a G→A ... The calcium site serves not only as a scaffold for protein folding, but also for proper association of the two chains. In fact ...
Calcium ions are then released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum into the sarcoplasm and subsequently bind to troponin. Troponin ... and the associated tropomyosin undergo a conformational change after calcium binding and expose the myosin binding sites on ... Active transport moves calcium ions back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum of the muscle fiber. ATP causes the binding between ... Each tropomyosin molecule has a smaller calcium-binding protein called troponin bound to it. All thin filaments are attached to ...
A single bound calcium ion is shown in red spheres. (B) A close-up view of the conserved calcium binding site in each NAL ... In addition, one calcium ion binding site, which is conserved in all known flu A and flu B NAs (7), was observed in GU09-164 ... active or binding site of GU09-164 NAL showing the high number of polar and charged residues and conserved calcium binding site ... Overall structure of GU09-164 N10 NAL with a conserved calcium binding site. (A) The NAL tetramer is viewed from above the ...
... specialized heads binding to special sites on • actin. • 5. However, a muscle fiber at rest has its • myosin binding sites ... When calcium ions (Ca+2) combine with • troponin, this triggers a shift in the position of tropomyosin, allowing the myosin ... 3. Lateral sacs (terminal cisternae) of sarcoplasmic reticulum are stimulated by PAP to release calcium ions. • 4. The thick ... As long as • calcium ions and ATP are available, this • cycle can continue. ...
eLife has published papers on topics related to the molecular structure and functional mechanisms of a diverse array of ion ... A comprehensive search for calcium binding sites critical for TMEM16A calcium-activated chloride channel activity Jason Tien et ... calcium-binding residues in the TMEM16A calcium-activated chloride channel furthers the molecular understanding of this ion ... Ligand discrimination and gating in cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels from apo and partial agonist-bound cryo-EM structures ...
dos Remedios, C.G. (1981) Lanthanide ion probes of calcium-binding sites on cellular membranes. Cell Calcium 2, 29-51Google ... Gillet, C., Lefebvre, J. (1980) Calcium binding in the cell wall of Nitella. In: Plant membrane transport: current conceptual ... Wound-healing motility in the green alga Ernodesmis: calcium ions and metabolic energy are required. ... The ions Ba2+, Cd2+ and Sr2+ will substitute for Ca2+, but the rate of contraction is one-half that with Ca2+ present. Although ...
... calcium binding occurs in the plane of the membrane surface following a focal event at a receptor site. This "amplifying" stage ... substantial macromolecular content and calcium ions may modulate perineuronal conductivity. In the second stage, coupling ... MadSci Home , Information , Search , Random Knowledge Generator , MadSci Archives , Mad Library , MAD Labs , MAD FAQs , Ask a ? ... Activation of these intracellular systems is calcium-dependent. [References: 62] Authors Sidiakin VG. Stashkov AM. Ianova NP. ...
Calcium-loaded calmodulin binding and PKA phosphorylation at three phosphorylation sites are mutually exclusive processes. ... intracellular calcium concentration in the presence or absence of extracellular calcium ions. Each peak response was normalized ... Calmodulin-binding modes. (A) Cartoon representation of ligand-bound calcium-loaded calmodulin in canonical (PDB ID code 1CDM; ... Prediction of calmodulin-binding sites using CaMBTPredictor (28) identified a minor and a major binding segment centered at ...
A cofactor calcium ion is visualized by a green sphere.. The M4 molecule (maltose) formed hydrophobic stacking interactions ... These additional binding sites can be found on the carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) or the surface-binding sites (SBSs) [18 ... Carbohydrate-binding in such surface-binding sites, that is, SBSs, occurs in a fixed position relative to the catalytic site. ... and the surface-binding site (SBS) of α-amylase could facilitate the substrate binding to the enzymes active site to enhance ...
2) Calcium ions flow into the axon terminal. (3) Acetylcholine is released into the synaptic cleft. (4) Acetylcholine binds to ... The neuromuscular junction is the site of the signal exchange. The steps of this process in vertebrates occur as follows: (1) ... 5) This binding causes ion channels to open and allows sodium ions to flow into the muscle cell. (6) The flow of sodium ions ... Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are ligand-gated ion channels permeable to sodium, potassium, and calcium ions. In other ...
A calcium channel is depicted (green) that emits Ca2+ ions (small green particles. Right: Fine-grain use of ReaDDy. The system ... 2) calculated the binding energy between peptide and binding pocket and 3) ranked different peptides according to their binding ... Sign in,Recent Site Activity,Report Abuse,Print Page,Powered By Google Sites ... A: An MHC class I molecules is depicted (blue). The peptide binding pocket is clearly visible (in between the two alpha-helices ...
Calcium ions diffuse into sarcoplasmic from the sarcoplasm reticulum. Tropomyosin and troponin associate to form a binding site ... Production of calcium ions is stopped, and the sarcoplasmic reticulum is induced to requester all calcium ions that have been ...
It considers what happens to a calcium ion bound in a calcium binding protein,. calmodulin, when placed in static and ... The ion. is continually vibrating about its equilibrium position in its binding site.. Applying a steady magnetic field causes ... the radius of the cyclotron orbit for the calcium ion, at one metre, is. very large. A calcium ion affected in this way in an ... on the binding of calcium in calmodulin, was several times as great in the. presence of a steady field equal in strength to the ...
Amlodipine inhibits the transmembrane influx of calcium ions into vascular smooth muscle and cardiac muscle. The drug binds to ... For additional information regarding Caduet or cardiovascular disorders, please contact The Pfizer Web Site ... Amlodipine, a long acting calcium ion antagonist, is the active ingredient in Norvasc (Pfizer) and Lotrel (Novartis). ... dihydropyridine and nondihydropyridine binding sites. In addition, amlodipine is a peripheral arterial vasodilator that acts ...
Torrance, J.W.; Macarthur, M.W.; Thornton, J.M. Evolution of binding sites for zinc and calcium ions playing structural roles. ... Porter, C.T.; Bartlett, G.J.; Thornton, J.M. The catalytic site atlas: A resource of catalytic sites and residues identified in ... Prediction of water and metal binding sites and their affinities by using the Fold-X force field. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA ... Swindells, M.B.; Orengo, C.A.; Jones, D.T.; Pearl, L.H.; Thornton, J.M. Recurrence of a binding motif? Nature 1993, 362, 299. [ ...
Mechanism of extracellular ion exchange and binding-site occlusion in a sodium/calcium exchanger. ... On the principle of ion selectivity in Na+/H+-coupled membrane proteins: experimental and theoretical studies of an ATP ... Structural insights into the mechanism of activation of the TRPV1 channel by a membrane-bound tarantula toxin. ...
Sarcoplasmic reticulum is triggered to open Ca2+ ions.. 8) Calcium ions travel down concentration gradient.. 9) Ca2+ ions bind ... This pulls on tropomyosin which reveals the actin-myosin binding site.. 10) Myosin head attaches to binding site 11) Myosin ... 2) Calcium ion channels are triggered to open. 3) Calcium ions diffuse into synaptic knob where they trigger vesicles ... 4) Acetylcholine diffuses into synaptic cleft by exocytosis and binds to receptors on the sarcolemma.. 5) Sodium ion channels ...
Myosin head binds to the binding site on actin forming cross-bridge. Calcium ions are released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum ... I II III IV Calcium ions bind to troponin Reorientation of tropomyosin to expose the myosin head binding site on actin. ... Function Part R (a) binding site for repressor protein P (b) codes synthesis of repressor protein O (c) binding site for RNA ... I II III IV Ion-ion kalsium terikat kepada troponin Orientasi semula tropomiosin bagi membolehkan kepala miosin terikat pada ...
... tTG binds up to 6 calcium ions at 5 different binding sites. Mutations to these binding sites causing lower calcium affinity, ... GO:0001948 protein binding. • metal ion binding. • GTP binding. • protein domain specific binding. ... negative regulation of endoplasmic reticulum calcium ion concentration. • positive regulation of mitochondrial calcium ion ... Crosslinking activity by tTG requires the binding of Ca2+ ions.[23] Multiple Ca2+ can bind to a single tTG molecule.[6] ...
Bound to Tropomyosin, contains calcium ion binding sites. Calcium is released by cells by stimulus by an electrical signal/ ... When MAP passes, calcium ion channel close. Calcium ion ATPase recalls calcium back into the SR, and the cytoplasmic calcium ... this has a high concentration of calcium ions at rest. Calcium ions flow out of the SR, binding to TN, transforming TM, causing ... Each contain a actin binding site and a myosin ATPase site. A thick filament is made up of myosin molecules laying lengthwise, ...
... a structural tool for calcium binding proteins: effect of Mg2+ on Ca2+ binding sites of troponin-C, S. Alem , A. Bianconi, L. ... 11] Structure-function relationship in the serotransferrin: the role of the pH on the conformational change and the metal ions ... 33] Structure of the calcium binding sites in troponin-C and calmodulin studied by EXAFS A. Bianconi, B. Oesh, S. Alem , L. ... 31] X-ray absorption near edge structure determination of calcium sites of troponin C and parvalbumin. A. Bianconi, S. Alema, L ...
One molecule of calmodulin binds four calcium ions cooperatively. Its structure presents four EF-hand domains, each one binding ... bound sites}}]}{[{\text{bound sites}}]+[{\text{unbound sites}}]}}={\frac {[{\text{bound sites}}]}{[{\text{total sites}}]}}} If ... bound sites ] [ bound sites ] + [ unbound sites ] = [ bound sites ] [ total sites ] {\displaystyle {\bar {Y}}={\frac {[{\text{ ... If several ligand binding sites exist, but ligand binding to any one site does not affect the others, the receptor is said to ...
It has a natural binding affinity for calcium ions. The anticalculus effect is due to adsorption and binding of the ... with more binding sites. It has a greater affinity for hydroxyapatite surfaces, and binds strongly to the tooth surface and the ... inhibits crystal growth by substituting for calcium in the crystal lattice of calcium phosphate (Figure 22). This interferes ... inhibits crystal growth by substituting for calcium in the crystal lattice of calcium phosphate (Figure 22). This interferes ...
  • A number of cell-surface proteins have been described as Aβ binding proteins, and one or more are likely to mediate Aβ oligomer toxicity in AD. (nih.gov)
  • Further study of Aβ binding proteins will define the molecular basis of this crucial step in AD pathogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • Many cell-surface proteins have been reported to bind Aβ. (nih.gov)
  • Many C2 domains are Ca2+-dependent membrane-targeting modules that bind a wide variety of substances including bind phospholipids, inositol polyphosphates, and intracellular proteins. (nih.gov)
  • eLife has published papers on topics related to the molecular structure and functional mechanisms of a diverse array of ion channel proteins. (elifesciences.org)
  • Ion channel proteins open and close ion permeation pathways in response to changes in membrane voltage, neurotransmitters and other chemical ligands, temperature and mechanical forces, enabling ions to move between cellular compartments to generate electrical and chemical signals that are fundamental for a diverse array of physiological cellular process. (elifesciences.org)
  • This collection highlights a series of important papers that delve into fundamental questions concerning the structure, mechanisms and physiological roles of a diverse array of ion channel proteins. (elifesciences.org)
  • A family of proteins (OSCA/TMEM63) that encode mechanosensitive ion channels has been characterized in plants, flies, and mammals. (elifesciences.org)
  • The primary cilia polycystin proteins, polycystin-1 and polycystin-2, affect cilia length in the kidney collecting duct epithelia, but only polycystin-2 is required for the functional ion channel in this organelle. (elifesciences.org)
  • On the principle of ion selectivity in Na+/H+-coupled membrane proteins: experimental and theoretical studies of an ATP synthase rotor. (nih.gov)
  • [8] In the extracellular space, tTG binds to proteins of the extracellular matrix (ECM), [9] binding particularly tightly to fibronectin . (wikipedia.org)
  • Speaking last month at the Bioelectromagnetics Society in San Antonio in Texas, Valeri Lednev, a biophysicist at the Soviet Institute of Biological Physics in Puschino, proposed that a weak oscillating magnetic field could loosen the bonds between metal ions and some proteins in the body. (newscientist.com)
  • The controlled flow of ions across the membrane, which is essential for the transmission of nerve impulses, is facilitated by ion channels, membrane proteins that provide gated pathways for ions. (eurekalert.org)
  • Membrane proteins of the TMEM16 family show a unique functional breadth, since they include, be-sides ion channels, which are essential for regulating of smooth muscle contraction, olfaction and eptithelial chloride secretion, also proteins that act as lipid scramblases. (eurekalert.org)
  • Cooperative binding is observed in many biopolymers, including proteins and nucleic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Towards predicting Ca2+-binding sites with different coordination numbers in proteins with atomic resolution. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Ca(2+)-binding sites in proteins exhibit a wide range of polygonal geometries that directly relate to an equally-diverse set of biological functions. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Predicting calcium-binding sites in proteins - a graph theory and geometry approach. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Prediction of EF-hand calcium-binding proteins and analysis of bacterial EF-hand proteins. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Calcium-binding proteins: calmodulin. (asahq.org)
  • Calmodulin Sepharose 4B provides a convenient method for the isolation of many of the calmodulin binding proteins involved in these pathways. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Calmodulin binds proteins principally through their interactions with hydrophobic sites on its surface. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Remove proteases as quickly as possible from the sample as the calmodulin-binding sites on proteins are frequently very susceptible to protease action (see page 54, Purifcation or removal of serine proteases, e.g. thrombin and trypsin, and zymogens ). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Numerous Ca 2+ binding sites have been characterized in cytosolic proteins. (plantcell.org)
  • According to the University of New Mexico, regulatory proteins known as troponin and tropomyosin form a complex and block the active sites on actin molecules. (reference.com)
  • We measured the concentrations of the four main calcium-buffering proteins (calbindin-D28k, calretinin, parvalbumin-α, and parvalbumin-β) in rat cochlear hair cells in which Ca 2+ signaling is a central element of fast transduction and synaptic transmission. (jneurosci.org)
  • Because the two hair cell types have distinct roles and calcium-driven mechanisms, it might be expected that they differ in their calcium-handling proteins. (jneurosci.org)
  • There is also dichotomy with respect to calcium-binding proteins thought to play a role in buffering cytoplasmic calcium transients. (jneurosci.org)
  • All four calcium-binding proteins are diffusible and may therefore be important in limiting the spread of calcium to prevent interaction between calcium-signaling pathways in different parts of the cell ( Roberts, 1994 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • To relate the qualitative distributions of the calcium-binding proteins to cell function, it is necessary to know their respective cytoplasmic concentrations. (jneurosci.org)
  • Each myofibril has its own cytoplasm and contains large amounts of glycogen, proteins, and calcium ions. (chegg.com)
  • Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) are a large family of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the binding of a cell to another cell or to the extracellular matrix. (genecards.org)
  • Both proteins, calnexin and calreticulin, have the function of binding to [[oligosaccharide]]s containing terminal glucose residues, thereby targeting them for degradation. (wikidoc.org)
  • rER]] will re-add glucose residues so that other calreticulin/calnexin can bind to these proteins and prevent them from proceeding to the Golgi. (wikidoc.org)
  • Coordination to Divalent Cations by Calcium-Binding Proteins. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) is a powerful tool for examining the metal coordination of the side chain COO groups of Glu and Asp on Ca-binding proteins in solution. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Ion-specific effects on peptides and proteins are key to biomolecular structure and stability. (bioportfolio.com)
  • A family of intracellular calcium-sensing proteins found predominately in NEURONS and PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Neuronal calcium-sensor proteins interact with other regulatory proteins to mediate physiological responses to a change in intracellular calcium concentration. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In particular, the synthesis of a number of proteins is rapidly upregulated, principally in hepatocytes, under the control of cytokines originating at the site of pathology. (jci.org)
  • Calcium is transported through the bloodstream as dissolved ions or bound to proteins such as serum albumin . (wn.com)
  • they have an affinity for positively charged ions like calcium (Ca 2+ ) that reside in the tooth enamel and cross-link pellicle proteins. (dentalcare.com)
  • Engelkamp D, Schafer BW, Erne P, Heizmann CW: S100 alpha, CAPL, and CACY: molecular cloning and expression analysis of three calcium-binding proteins from human heart. (hmdb.ca)
  • Cellular prion protein (PrP C ) is a high-affinity Aβ oligomer binding site, and a range of data delineates a signaling pathway leading from Aβ complexation with PrP C to neuronal impairment. (nih.gov)
  • Eosinophil peroxidase is a heme peroxidase, its activities including the oxidation of halide ions to bacteriocidal reactive oxygen species, the cationic disruption of bacterial cell walls, and the post-translational modification of protein amino acid residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • The calcium site serves not only as a scaffold for protein folding, but also for proper association of the two chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • In fact, when the calcium ion is removed, the protein precipitates out of solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each thin filament also has approximately 40 to 60 molecules of tropomyosin, the protein that blocks the active sites of the thin filaments when the muscle is relaxed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each tropomyosin molecule has a smaller calcium-binding protein called troponin bound to it. (wikipedia.org)
  • We characterize an interaction between the regulatory region of CFTR and calmodulin, the major calcium signaling molecule, and report protein kinase A (PKA)-independent CFTR activation by calmodulin. (pnas.org)
  • While activated by a common mechanism, both functions in TMEM16F - lipid scrambling and ion conduction - are likely mediated by alternate protein conformations that are at equilibrium in the ligand-bound state. (elifesciences.org)
  • Tissue transglutaminase (abbreviated as tTG or TG2 ) is a 78-kDa, calcium-dependent enzyme ( EC 2.3.2.13 ) of the protein-glutamine γ-glutamyltransferases family (or simply transglutaminase family). (wikipedia.org)
  • It considers what happens to a calcium ion bound in a calcium binding protein, calmodulin, when placed in static and oscillating magnetic fields. (newscientist.com)
  • According to the British and the Soviet researchers, adding a wobbling magnetic field at the cyclotron frequency disturbs the precession to such an extent that it could loosen the bond between the ion and the protein. (newscientist.com)
  • He found that the phosphorylation of myosin, a muscle protein, which depends on the binding of calcium in calmodulin, was several times as great in the presence of a steady field equal in strength to the Earth's magnetic field, together with an alternating field of the same strength. (newscientist.com)
  • The structure provides insight into the activation of the protein by calcium and the transport of lipids. (eurekalert.org)
  • In the agarose gels shown at the right, for the 'no end' controls, the plasmid was incubated for 60 min in the presence of protein and metal ion, but without the addition of the 31-mer TIR. (elifesciences.org)
  • Throughout the 20th century, various frameworks have been developed to describe the binding of a ligand to a protein with more than one binding site and the cooperative effects observed in this context. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first description of cooperative binding to a multi-site protein was developed by A.V. Hill. (wikipedia.org)
  • Analysis and prediction of calcium-binding pockets from apo-protein structures exhibiting calcium-induced localized conformational changes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Solution structure and mapping of a very weak calcium-binding site of human translationally controlled tumor protein by NMR. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The PPB forms at the end of G2 and breaks down at the end of prophase leaving behind protein markers of its position that are collectively called the cortical division site. (unt.edu)
  • Calmodulin, an EF-hand Calcium 2 + -binding protein, undergoes a conformational shift when binding Calcium 2 +, exposing several hydrophobic residues. (asahq.org)
  • [2-5] Further studies suggest that volatile anesthetics may affect signal transduction as well, by interfering with the Calcium 2 + -binding protein calmodulin. (asahq.org)
  • Before the sliding filament theory, it was widely accepted by most academics that the protein myosin contracted with the presence of calcium ions. (bartleby.com)
  • Chelating agents strip Ca 2+ from the calmodulin, reversing the conformational change that exposed the protein binding sites. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Detected at sites of vascular inflammation (at protein level). (abcam.com)
  • This gene encodes a membrane-localized protein that binds phospholipids. (genecards.org)
  • Metal binding to the dynamic cytoplasmic domain of the cation diffusion facilitator (CDF) protein MamM induces a 'locked-in' configuration. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Meat Protein and Calcium: Do They Interact Synergistically or Antagonistically? (bioportfolio.com)
  • 95%). The effects of this high protein binding on tissue distribution of antibiotics have been few evaluated yet. (bioportfolio.com)
  • binding and release of extra G protein subunits. (mhhe.com)
  • The two strands of DNA (grey) are split at the top of the protein and enter tunnels directing the 3' tail to the RecC Chi-recognition site and nuclease, and the 5' tail to RecD. (esrf.eu)
  • The important relationship between Cx36 and CaMKII must also be considered in the context of another protein partner, Ca 2+ loaded calmodulin, binding an overlapping site in the carboxy-terminus of Cx36. (frontiersin.org)
  • Zusätzlich bieten wir Ihnen Calcium-Sensing Receptor Kits (51) und Calcium-Sensing Receptor Proteine (14) und viele weitere Produktgruppen zu diesem Protein an. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • S-100 protein derived from brain tissue is an acidic calcium-binding protein with molecular weight of about 21kDa. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • S-100 is an intracellular protein that weakly binds calcium. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • It binds zinc very tightly, however, and this appears to increase the affinity of the protein for calcium. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Calcium ions are then released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum into the sarcoplasm and subsequently bind to troponin . (wikipedia.org)
  • Active transport moves calcium ions back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum of the muscle fiber. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3. Lateral sacs (terminal cisternae) of sarcoplasmic reticulum are stimulated by PAP to release calcium ions. (scribd.com)
  • Calcium ions diffuse into sarcoplasmic from the sarcoplasm reticulum. (exclusivepapers.com)
  • Production of calcium ions is stopped, and the sarcoplasmic reticulum is induced to requester all calcium ions that have been produced. (exclusivepapers.com)
  • Calcium is released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum into the sarcomere when a muscle is stimulated to contract. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the muscle no longer needs to contract, the calcium ions are pumped from the sarcomere and back into storage in the sarcoplasmic reticulum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calcium is released from its storage area in the cell's sarcoplasmic reticulum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evidence indicates that halothane depresses myocardial contractility by altering voltage-dependent Calcium 2 + channels and by changing Calcium 2 + release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. (asahq.org)
  • This activates the voltage-gated calcium channels in the tubular myofibrils which in turn signal the neighboring calcium release channels present in the sarcoplasmic reticulum. (chegg.com)
  • Calcium ions are then released into the sarcoplasmic reticulum, provoking the binding of myosin to actin. (uspharmacist.com)
  • It targets the Ryanodine receptors that mediate the release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum and endoplasmic reticulum through ion channels. (thisisms.com)
  • When Aβo bind PrP C , signaling through mGluR5 causes increased intracellular calcium, increased phosphorylation of eEF2, changes in NMDAR activity and trafficking, and increased phosphorylation of Fyn. (nih.gov)
  • Pollen tube growth is coupled to the extracellular calcium ion flux and the intracellular calcium gradient: effect of BAPTA-type buffers and hypertonic media. (plantcell.org)
  • The type-1 ryanodine receptor (RyR1) is an intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) release channel required for skeletal muscle contraction. (nih.gov)
  • The Dantrium competes for binding sites for Calcium so the ion channel remains closed and intracellular calcium levels are moderated. (thisisms.com)
  • Sodium selectivity of acid-sensing ion channels is mediated by negatively charged side chains and not by a size-exclusion mechanism. (elifesciences.org)
  • The first structure of the human epithelial sodium channel provides vital insight into the assembly, stoichiometry and molecular mechanism of the ion channel central to sodium homeostasis. (elifesciences.org)
  • Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are ligand-gated ion channels permeable to sodium , potassium , and calcium ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mechanism of extracellular ion exchange and binding-site occlusion in a sodium/calcium exchanger. (nih.gov)
  • 1988). Sodium hexametaphosphate (Figure 20) is a longer-chain form of pyrophosphate, with more binding sites. (dentalcare.com)
  • The sarcolemma is polarized , in part due to the unequal distribution of ions due to the Sodium/Potassium Pump . (unm.edu)
  • strain KSM-K38 (AmyK38) and its sodium ion binding sites. (expasy.org)
  • Continue washing with 3 column volumes of 0.1 M sodium acetate buffer, 2 mM CaCl 2 , pH 4.4 followed by 3 column volumes of binding buffer. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Acetylcholine binds to nicotinic receptors at the endplate, resulting in the release of Na+ (sodium) into muscle fibers, which triggers the muscular action potential. (uspharmacist.com)
  • Third, balance water and mineral intake and or control the secretion of water and minerals such as sodium, calcium, potassium, and chloride. (ipl.org)
  • The ion Ca 2+ is also the fifth-most-abundant dissolved ion in seawater by both molarity and mass, after sodium , chloride , magnesium , and sulfate . (wn.com)
  • Putative receptors for Aβ, their binding sites, and species selectivity. (nih.gov)
  • Like many other biologically active substances, acetylcholine exerts its effects by binding to and activating receptors located on the surface of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • A group of chemical messengers cross the synapse and stimulate the formation of electrical changes, which are produced in the muscle cell when the acetylcholine binds to receptors on its surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2) ACH diffuses across the synapse to bind to receptors on the sarcolemma. (unm.edu)
  • 3) Binding of ACH to the receptors opens chemically regulated ion gates . (unm.edu)
  • It binds to the receptors on the sarcolemma of the muscle cell causing a local change in the voltage of the membrane. (chegg.com)
  • Each antihyperglycemic sulfonylurea appears to initiate this process via certain binding sites (sulfonylurea receptors [SURs]) at the surface of the β-cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Functional enrichment analysis pointed to processes including calcium ion binding and estrogen receptor pathways. (uio.no)
  • For example, consider a system where one molecule of species A can bind to molecules of species B. Species A is called the receptor and species B is called the ligand. (wikipedia.org)
  • A receptor molecule is said to exhibit cooperative binding if its binding to ligand scales non-linearly with ligand concentration. (wikipedia.org)
  • If several ligand binding sites exist, but ligand binding to any one site does not affect the others, the receptor is said to be non-cooperative. (wikipedia.org)
  • Identification and dissection of Ca(2+)-binding sites in the extracellular domain of Ca(2+)-sensing receptor. (semanticscholar.org)
  • It has a weak inhibitory effect on GABA receptor binding sites. (drugbank.ca)
  • Receptor-binding studies in vitro indicate that felbamate has weak inhibitory effects on GABA-receptor binding, benzodiazepine receptor binding, and is devoid of activity at the MK-801 receptor binding site of the NMDA receptor-ionophore complex. (drugbank.ca)
  • However, felbamate does interact as an antagonist at the strychnine-insensitive glycine recognition site of the NMDA receptor-ionophore complex. (drugbank.ca)
  • In vitro receptor binding studies suggest that felbamate may be an antagonist at the strychnine-insensitive glycine-recognition site of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-ionophore complex. (drugbank.ca)
  • Antagonism of the NMDA receptor glycine binding site may block the effects of the excitatory amino acids and suppress seizure activity. (drugbank.ca)
  • It is also indicated that felbamate has weak inhibitory effects on GABA-receptor binding, benzodiazepine receptor binding. (drugbank.ca)
  • 1 It has a unique receptor binding profile and differs from other antipsychotics in that it modulates glutamate, serotonin and dopamine, which are all neurotransmitters that contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. (drugbank.ca)
  • 1 Lumateperone's receptor binding profile is unique, allowing it to target schizophrenia related symptoms while minimizing adverse effects. (drugbank.ca)
  • GO annotations related to this gene include calcium ion binding and receptor binding . (genecards.org)
  • Transient receptor potential melastatin (TRPM) ion channels constitute the largest TRP subfamily and are involved in many physiological processes. (sciencemag.org)
  • Sulfonylureas and glinides have similar mechanisms of action but differ in receptor affinity and binding sites and in absorption and elimination rates. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Auf www.antikoerper-online.de finden Sie aktuell 167 Calcium-Sensing Receptor (CASR) Antikörper von 24 unterschiedlichen Herstellern. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Insgesamt sind aktuell 240 Calcium-Sensing Receptor Produkte verfügbar. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • The extracellular calcium-sensing receptor is expressed in the cumulus-oocyte complex in mammals and modulates oocyte meiotic maturation. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • The calcium triggers the binding of muscle fibres but is dependent on RyR1 receptor to release it intracellularly. (thisisms.com)
  • C2 domains with a calcium binding region have negatively charged residues, primarily aspartates, that serve as ligands for calcium ions. (nih.gov)
  • Cooperativity can be homotropic, if a ligand influences the binding of ligands of the same kind, or heterotropic, if it influences binding of other kinds of ligands. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the highly-conserved EF-Hand motif has been studied extensively, non-EF-Hand sites exhibit much more structural diversity which has inhibited efforts to determine the precise location of Ca(2+)-binding sites, especially for sites with few coordinating ligands. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The main calcium binding site within each monomer involves the main chain oxygen atom of Ala-457, and also the side chains from residues Asn-436, Asp-438, Glu-485, and Glu-490. (proteopedia.org)
  • 7.62 (observed) Electronic absorption maximum at 413 nm (Soret band) Binds 1 equivalent of calcium Glycosylated at four asparagine residues: 315, 351, 443, and 695 One active site per monomer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The overall N10 structures are similar to each other and to other known influenza NA structures, with a single highly conserved calcium binding site in each monomer. (pnas.org)
  • Distinct binding sites, with different affinities, exist for both ions on each monomer. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Weakly binds calcium but binds zinc very tightly- distinct binding sites with different affinities exist for both ions on each monomer. (hmdb.ca)
  • Repaglinide closes ATP-dependent potassium channels in the (beta)-cell membrane by binding at characterizable sites. (drugs.com)
  • This potassium channel blockade depolarizes the ß-cell, which leads to an opening of calcium channels. (drugs.com)
  • Physiological concentrations of potassium ion antagonize the binding of both divalent cations, especially affecting high-affinity calcium-binding sites. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Wounding a giant cell of the marine alga Ernodesmis verticillata (Kützing) Børgesen (Chlorophyta) induces two concomitant motility phenomena: longitudinal contraction of the protoplasm away from the wound site, and centripetal contraction of the cut end around the central vacuole. (springer.com)
  • The ions Ba 2+ , Cd 2+ and Sr 2+ will substitute for Ca 2+ , but the rate of contraction is one-half that with Ca 2+ present. (springer.com)
  • An impulse from a nerve cell causes calcium release and brings about a single, short muscle contraction called a muscle twitch. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sarcolemma is the site of action potential conduction, which triggers muscle contraction. (oercommons.org)
  • Ciliary reversal occurs when calcium ions bound by the sites are liberated in exchange for externally applied cations other than calcium. (springer.com)
  • Thus, the effectiveness of cations in inducing reversal depends on their affinities to the binding sites. (springer.com)
  • Metal cations bind to CDF protei. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Alendronate-Functionalized Poly(2-oxazoline)s with Tunable Affinity for Calcium Cations. (bioportfolio.com)
  • It binds and transports cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Cations, such as Ca and Mg, are generally thought to alleviate toxicities of trace metals through site-specific competition (as incorporated in the biotic ligand model, BLM). (usda.gov)
  • The axon terminal of a motor neuron releases the neurotransmitter , acetylcholine , which diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to the muscle fiber membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Structural insights into the mechanism of activation of the TRPV1 channel by a membrane-bound tarantula toxin. (nih.gov)
  • Analogous to ion channels, lipid scramblases facilitate the passage of phospholipids beween the two layers of a membrane, a process that plays a key role in the intitiation of blood coagulation. (eurekalert.org)
  • When activated by calcium, these lipid scramblases located in the plasma membrane of blood platelets trigger blood coagulation by facilitating the transport of the lipid phosphatidylserine to the surface of the cell. (eurekalert.org)
  • The pre prophase band (PPB) is a ring of microtubules centered around the nucleus on the inner side of plasma membrane that establishes the cortical division site. (unt.edu)
  • Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) constitute a family of 24 mammalian extracellular or membrane-bound proteinases that function in wound repair, mucosal defence, inflammation and acquired immunity. (nature.com)
  • A novel ytterbium binding site is also found at the dimer two-fold axis, near residues Asp-270 and Glu-272, and this site may be related to the reported inhibition by lanthanide metals (Achyuthan, K. E., Mary, A., and Greenberg, C. S. (1989) Biochem. (proteopedia.org)
  • It is bound within a loop of eight residues of the heavy chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • In particular, most of the amino acid residues required for NA activity are substituted, and the putative active site is much wider because of displacement of the 150-loop and 430-loop. (pnas.org)
  • These residues may be sites at which the anesthetics act. (asahq.org)
  • In a search for the luminal calcium binding site, structure modeling indicated a possible coordination site formed by residues Glu-450, Asp-454, Glu-456, and Glu-457 on the luminal side of TPC1. (plantcell.org)
  • SV channels lacking any of the four negatively charged residues appeared altered in calcium sensitivity of channel gating. (plantcell.org)
  • Unc13 binds phorbol esters and DAG with high affinity in a phospholipid manner. (nih.gov)
  • Has high affinity for Ca(2+) and can bind up to eight Ca(2+) ions (By similarity). (genecards.org)
  • If you take magnesium, it works the same way by binding to high affinity calcium activation sites. (thisisms.com)
  • Dantrolene competes for high affinity sites and that limits how many calcium ions open. (thisisms.com)
  • Amlodipine inhibits the transmembrane influx of calcium ions into vascular smooth muscle and cardiac muscle. (centerwatch.com)
  • In the 2-step and smooth texture formulas, the positively charged zinc ion (Zn2+) inhibits crystal growth by substituting for calcium in the crystal lattice of calcium phosphate (Figure 22). (dentalcare.com)
  • 1991). Stannous fluoride also inhibits plaque formation, which is the structure on which calcium and phosphate precipitate. (dentalcare.com)
  • TnT binds to tropomyosin, TnI binds to actin and inhibits it from moving, and TnC binds calcium ions in the muscle. (reference.com)
  • The ion channel mechanism is highly tissue selective with low affinity for heart and skeletal muscle. (drugs.com)
  • The high concentration of calcium buffer in outer hair cells, similar only to skeletal muscle, may protect against deleterious consequences of Ca 2+ loading after acoustic overstimulation. (jneurosci.org)
  • In relaxed skeletal muscle, tropomyosin blocks the cross-bridge binding site on actin. (coursehero.com)
  • All skeletal muscle and many smooth muscle contractions are stimulated by the binding of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. (wikibooks.org)
  • The resulting increased calcium influx induces insulin secretion. (drugs.com)
  • Furthermore, at the wound site, MMP7 sheds chemokine-bound syndecan-1, a transmembrane proteoglycan, which in turn guides the transepithelial influx of neutrophils. (nature.com)
  • Targeted to the cell surface upon calcium influx. (abcam.com)
  • When excess calcium ions are released they bind to the TnC causing the troponin-tropomyosin complex to move, releasing the blockage on the active sites. (unm.edu)
  • When excess calcium flows into the muscle tissues, the calcium ions bind to the TnC and cause the troponin tropomyosin complex to move. (reference.com)
  • Troponin and tropomyosin revert to their original conformation and thereby block binding sites on the actin filament. (wikipedia.org)
  • they swivel toward the center of the sarcomere, detach and then reattach to the nearest active site of the actin filament. (wikipedia.org)
  • It results in the release of large amounts of calcium ions which exposes the binding sites on the actin filament. (chegg.com)
  • Sliding Filament Theory and Muscle Tissues study guide Front Back Binding of the myosin head sequentailly prevents "_____________" of the thin filament. (majortests.com)
  • Rudoff Virchow in 1863 observed infiltration of leucocytes in the malignant tissues and proposed the site of chronic inflammation as the origin of cancer. (hindawi.com)
  • After binding, myosin pulls actin filaments toward each other, or inward. (wikipedia.org)
  • ATP causes the binding between actin and myosin filaments to break. (wikipedia.org)
  • Larger structures along the myosin filament called myosin heads are used to provide attachment points on binding sites for the actin filaments. (wikipedia.org)
  • ATP binds to the cross bridges between myosin heads and actin filaments. (wikipedia.org)
  • The drug binds to dihydropyridine and nondihydropyridine binding sites. (centerwatch.com)
  • Exforge contains the besylate salt of amlodipine, a dihydropyridine calcium-channel blocker (CCB). (rxlist.com)
  • Tekamlo is a single tablet for oral administration of aliskiren hemifumarate (an orally active, nonpeptide, potent direct renin inhibitor) and amlodipine besylate (a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker ). (rxlist.com)
  • Comparison of structures of trypsin, thrombin and uPA, each bound by the same inhibitor, highlights important structural variations in the S1 and active sites accessible for engineering notable selectivity into remarkably small molecules with low nanomolar K(i) values. (rcsb.org)
  • Also, in a biological environment, the calcium ion would be surrounded by a tight shell of water molecules that would alter its cyclotron frequency anyway. (newscientist.com)
  • Molecular binding is an interaction between molecules that results in a stable physical association between those molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • In other words, the binding of B molecules to the different sites on A do not constitute mutually independent events. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cooperativity can be positive (if binding of a ligand molecule increases the receptor's apparent affinity, and hence increases the chance of another ligand molecule binding) or negative (if binding of a ligand molecule decreases affinity and hence makes binding of other ligand molecules less likely). (wikipedia.org)
  • The concept of cooperative binding only applies to molecules or complexes with more than one ligand binding sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2. The myosin head contains binding sites for what two molecules a. (majortests.com)
  • It is the myosin heads which form crossbridges that attach to binding sites on the actin molecules and then swivel to bring the Z-lines together. (unm.edu)
  • The tropomyosin-troponin combination blocks the active sites on the actin molecules preventing crossbridge formation. (unm.edu)
  • By contrast, others chemokines are regulated by MMP cleavage of substrates that bind, retain and concentrate the chemotactic molecules in particular locations: that is, they establish chemokine gradients. (nature.com)
  • SHMP can displace stain molecules from calcium binding sites. (dentalcare.com)
  • It binds to the tooth surface and integrates into the pellicle to prevent additional stain molecules from binding (Figure 21). (dentalcare.com)
  • troponin, this triggers a shift in the position of tropomyosin, allowing the myosin heads to bind with actin forming cross-bridges. (scribd.com)
  • ATP binds to myosin, causing cross bridges to detach from actin. (brainscape.com)
  • Binding sites for Aβ monomers or oligomers are indicated with arrows when specific sites are known to mediate binding or with brackets when less information is available. (nih.gov)
  • It binds to Ca 2+ ions to mediate a cellular response. (mhhe.com)
  • Calcium levels in mammals are tightly regulated, with bone acting as the major mineral storage site. (wn.com)
  • It has a natural binding affinity for calcium ions. (dentalcare.com)
  • However, at higher concentrations of both anesthetics, the affinity for Calcium 2 + was increased. (asahq.org)
  • SHMP is also negatively charged, with a strong affinity for calcium. (dentalcare.com)
  • a muscle is one individual cell [a grouping of contractile cells, termed muscle fibres, bound together by connective tissue]. (brainscape.com)
  • 1. A transgenic mouse, whose genome comprises an indicator gene under the control of a transcriptional regulatory element, wherein said transcriptional regulatory element comprises a MEF2 binding site and said indicator gene is (a) expressed in embryonic cardiac tissue, (b) not expressed in adult cardiac tissue, and (c) expressed in adult cardiac tissue in response to hypertrophic signals. (google.com)
  • Some studies revealed the use of calcium alginate polysaccharide (CAPS) as an "active" dressing due to its calcium richness for wound healing and scar tissue formation. (intechopen.com)
  • As newly synthesized MHC class I α-chains enter the endoplasmic reticulum, calnexin binds on to them retaining them in a partly folded state. (wikidoc.org)
  • In the combined meta-analysis the strongest associated CpG sites were related to SH2D5 and NPTX2, two brain-expressed genes involved in the regulation of synaptic plasticity. (uio.no)
  • Recently we have developed a high speed confocal imaging system that will allow us to optically monitor calcium changes associated with mechanotransduction, allowing us to localize the site of mechanotransduction and directly investigate mechanisms of calcium, regulation. (stanford.edu)
  • The phosphorylase kinase is competely activated when the beta subunit is calcium-ion-bound and the sigma subunit is phosphorylated at the same time. (wikidoc.org)
  • Free calcium metal is too reactive to occur in nature. (wn.com)
  • Fluoride ions are very reactive and can interact with common dentifrice abrasives, rendering the fluoride inactive for caries control. (dentalcare.com)
  • The effect of magnesium, calcium, and manganese on. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In the crystal structure a calcium ion replaces the native magnesium ion in the nuclease active site. (esrf.eu)
  • For example, copper, both a nutrient and a toxicant, and lead, a toxicant, are accumulated in some plants more than in others, and in 'hard' waters (high concentration of calcium and magnesium) these metals are much less available (and less intoxicating) than in 'soft' waters. (usda.gov)
  • So Calcium, Magnesium and ATP are all modulators of RyRs. (thisisms.com)
  • Efflux of xenobiotic fluoride from microorganisms occurs through a novel family of ion channels with stringent selectivity for fluoride ion and dual-topology molecular architecture. (elifesciences.org)
  • Cooperative binding occurs in binding systems containing more than one type, or species, of molecule and in which one of the partners is not mono-valent and can bind more than one molecule of the other species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Functional plasticity of neuronal gap junctions involves the interaction of the neuronal connexin36 with calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII). (frontiersin.org)
  • involves interaction of Cx36 with the calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII). (frontiersin.org)
  • Beyond their potential therapeutic value, these data provide insights into the intersection of calcium signaling with control of ion homeostasis and the ways in which the local CFTR microdomain organizes itself. (pnas.org)
  • Several clues, however, suggest that these anesthetics may accomplish their varied and complex tasks by affecting Calcium 2 + homeostasis. (asahq.org)
  • Cytosolic calcium homeostasis is pivotal for intracellular signaling and requires sensing of calcium concentrations in the cytosol and accessible stores. (plantcell.org)
  • The following hypothesis is proposed for ciliary reversal: Calcium ions liberated from the cation exchanger system activate a contractile mechanism energized by ATP. (springer.com)
  • We show here that the Methanosarcina mazei casposase can integrate varied forms of the casposon end in vitro, and recapitulates several properties of CRISPR-Cas integrases including site-specificity. (elifesciences.org)
  • Cryo-EM structures of the gating cycle of bestrophin reveal the molecular underpinnings of activation and inactivation gating in this calcium-activated chloride channel and reveal a surprisingly wide pore. (elifesciences.org)
  • By studying the calcium dependence of channel activation in the related TMEM16 chloride channels by electrophysiology, the scientists demonstrated the conservation of this calcium binding mode within the TMEM16 family. (eurekalert.org)
  • It is a silvery metallic element that must be extracted by electrolysis from a fused salt like calcium chloride . (wn.com)
  • More particularly, the present invention defines the molecular events linking calcium stimulation to cardiac hypertrophy. (google.com)
  • The structure suggests that the menthol-binding site is located within the voltage-sensor-like domain and thus provides a structural glimpse of the design principle of the molecular transducer for cold and menthol sensation. (sciencemag.org)
  • Troponin and the associated tropomyosin undergo a conformational change after calcium binding and expose the myosin binding sites on actin , the thin filament. (wikipedia.org)
  • These sites are exposed after a conformational change induced by the action of Ca 2+ on separate Ca 2+ -binding sites. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • tepidum has a unique calcium-ion binding site that enhances thermal stability and red-shifts the absorption of LH1 from 880 nm to 915 nm in the presence of calcium-ions. (northwestern.edu)
  • To explore these observed effects, we have determined the x-ray crystal structure of recombinant factor XIII A2 in the presence of calcium, strontium, and ytterbium. (proteopedia.org)
  • Cilia in glycerol-extracted Paramecium reorient to a reversed position in the presence of calcium, ATP, and zinc. (springer.com)
  • The catalytic mechanism for crosslinking in human tTG involves the thiol group from a Cys residue in the active site of tTG. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cooperative binding has been shown to be the mechanism underlying a large range of biochemical and physiological processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • A similar mechanism involving Cx36, CaM and CaMKII appears unlikely due to the overlapping binding site. (frontiersin.org)
  • We describe the competition between calmodulin binding and PKA phosphorylation and the differential effects of this competition for wild-type CFTR and the major F508del mutant, hinting at potential therapeutic strategies. (pnas.org)
  • Binding Sites for Amyloid-β Oligomers and Synaptic Toxicity. (nih.gov)
  • It also means that binding sites always exhibit the same affinity, and cooperativity does not arise from an affinity increasing with ligand concentration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Factors which affect the duration of ciliary reversal are (a) initial amount of calcium bound by the anionic sites, (b) final amount of calcium bound by the sites after equilibration with the stimulation medium, and (c) concentration of Ca 2+ in the stimulation medium. (springer.com)
  • Since some non-specific ionic interactions can occur, a low salt concentration (0.05-0.20 M NaCl) is recommended to promote binding to the ligand while eliminating any non-specific binding. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Calcium ions may also be displaced by a high salt concentration, 1 M NaCl. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • These results suggest that the number and location of calcium-binding sites in the EF hand senses the concentration of calcium required for PC2 channel activity and cellular function. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In addition, Bohr noticed that increasing CO2 pressure shifted this curve to the right - i.e. higher concentrations of CO2 make it more difficult for hemoglobin to bind oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methods: The fluorescence emission of calmodulin was obtained over a range of Calcium 2 + concentrations (10 sup -7 - 10 sup -4 M) in the presence and absence of halothane and isoflurane. (asahq.org)
  • When the volatile anesthetics were allowed to evaporate from the experimental solutions, the observed rightward shift of the calmodulin-Calcium 2 + binding curve for Calcium 2 + at low concentrations of the anesthetics returned to the control position. (asahq.org)
  • A lot less is known about changes in free calcium concentrations in organelles and how these changes might affect processes in storage sites such as the vacuole. (plantcell.org)
  • whereas luminal free calcium concentrations can get to 1 mM ( Pottosin and Schönknecht, 2007 ). (plantcell.org)
  • The sum of the calcium buffer concentrations decreased in inner hair cells and increased in outer hair cells as the cells developed their adult properties during cochlear maturation. (jneurosci.org)
  • Each G actin has an active site that can bind to the head of a myosin molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • A calcium ion affected in this way in an organism would collide with another molecule in the cell before making even a fraction of one orbit. (newscientist.com)
  • Binding can be considered "cooperative" if the binding of the first molecule of B to A changes the binding affinity of the second B molecule, making it more or less likely to bind. (wikipedia.org)
  • Which molecule has a binding site for myosin heads ACTIN b. (majortests.com)
  • Which molecule covers this binding site TROPOMYOSIN c. (majortests.com)
  • Which molecule has a binding site for calcium ions TROPONIN 4. (majortests.com)
  • What molecule must bind to the myosin head in order for it to disconnect with Actin ATP 5. (majortests.com)
  • they increase intracellular levels of IP 3 and calcium by activating phospholipase C . Their effect on target cells is usually excitatory. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations in the calcium binding site impair lipid transport. (eurekalert.org)
  • Polycystin 2 (PC2) is a calcium-dependent calcium channel, and mutations to human PC2 (hPC2) are associated with polycystic kidney disease. (sigmaaldrich.com)