Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.
Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.
Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.
Stable calcium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element calcium, but differ in atomic weight. Ca-42-44, 46, and 48 are stable calcium isotopes.
A salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.
Long-lasting voltage-gated CALCIUM CHANNELS found in both excitable and nonexcitable tissue. They are responsible for normal myocardial and vascular smooth muscle contractility. Five subunits (alpha-1, alpha-2, beta, gamma, and delta) make up the L-type channel. The alpha-1 subunit is the binding site for calcium-based antagonists. Dihydropyridine-based calcium antagonists are used as markers for these binding sites.
The calcium salt of oxalic acid, occurring in the urine as crystals and in certain calculi.
The calcium salt of gluconic acid. The compound has a variety of uses, including its use as a calcium replenisher in hypocalcemic states.
Unstable isotopes of calcium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ca atoms with atomic weights 39, 41, 45, 47, 49, and 50 are radioactive calcium isotopes.
Inorganic compounds that contain calcium as an integral part of the molecule.
CALCIUM CHANNELS that are concentrated in neural tissue. Omega toxins inhibit the actions of these channels by altering their voltage dependence.
A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.
Agents that increase calcium influx into calcium channels of excitable tissues. This causes vasoconstriction in VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE and/or CARDIAC MUSCLE cells as well as stimulation of insulin release from pancreatic islets. Therefore, tissue-selective calcium agonists have the potential to combat cardiac failure and endocrinological disorders. They have been used primarily in experimental studies in cell and tissue culture.
An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.
A white powder prepared from lime that has many medical and industrial uses. It is in many dental formulations, especially for root canal filling.
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
A potent vasodilator agent with calcium antagonistic action. It is a useful anti-anginal agent that also lowers blood pressure.
A calcium salt that is used for a variety of purposes including: building materials, as a desiccant, in dentistry as an impression material, cast, or die, and in medicine for immobilizing casts and as a tablet excipient. It exists in various forms and states of hydration. Plaster of Paris is a mixture of powdered and heat-treated gypsum.
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.
A fluorescent calcium chelating agent which is used to study intracellular calcium in tissues.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A colorless crystalline or white powdery organic, tricarboxylic acid occurring in plants, especially citrus fruits, and used as a flavoring agent, as an antioxidant in foods, and as a sequestrating agent. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A sesquiterpene lactone found in roots of THAPSIA. It inhibits CA(2+)-TRANSPORTING ATPASE mediated uptake of CALCIUM into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
A calbindin protein found in many mammalian tissues, including the UTERUS, PLACENTA, BONE, PITUITARY GLAND, and KIDNEYS. In intestinal ENTEROCYTES it mediates intracellular calcium transport from apical to basolateral membranes via calcium binding at two EF-HAND MOTIFS. Expression is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.
A tetrameric calcium release channel in the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM membrane of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, acting oppositely to SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES. It is important in skeletal and cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and studied by using RYANODINE. Abnormalities are implicated in CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS and MUSCULAR DISEASES.
An inorganic pyrophosphate which affects calcium metabolism in mammals. Abnormalities in its metabolism occur in some human diseases, notably HYPOPHOSPHATASIA and pseudogout (CHONDROCALCINOSIS).
Disorders in the processing of calcium in the body: its absorption, transport, storage, and utilization.
A calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
Pyridine moieties which are partially saturated by the addition of two hydrogen atoms in any position.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Lanthanum. The prototypical element in the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol La, atomic number 57, and atomic weight 138.91. Lanthanide ion is used in experimental biology as a calcium antagonist; lanthanum oxide improves the optical properties of glass.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
CALCIUM CHANNELS located within the PURKINJE CELLS of the cerebellum. They are involved in stimulation-secretion coupling of neurons.
A benzothiazepine derivative with vasodilating action due to its antagonism of the actions of CALCIUM ion on membrane functions.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Stones in the KIDNEY, usually formed in the urine-collecting area of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS). Their sizes vary and most contains CALCIUM OXALATE.
Reduction of the blood calcium below normal. Manifestations include hyperactive deep tendon reflexes, Chvostek's sign, muscle and abdominal cramps, and carpopedal spasm. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A photoprotein isolated from the bioluminescent jellyfish Aequorea. It emits visible light by an intramolecular reaction when a trace amount of calcium ion is added. The light-emitting moiety in the bioluminescence reaction is believed to be 2-amino-3-benzyl-5-(p-hydroxyphenyl)pyrazine (AF-350).
The fluid inside CELLS.
A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.
A class of G-protein-coupled receptors that react to varying extracellular CALCIUM levels. Calcium-sensing receptors in the PARATHYROID GLANDS play an important role in the maintenance of calcium HOMEOSTASIS by regulating the release of PARATHYROID HORMONE. They differ from INTRACELLULAR CALCIUM-SENSING PROTEINS which sense intracellular calcium levels.
CALCIUM CHANNELS located in the neurons of the brain.
An element of the alkaline earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sr, atomic number 38, and atomic weight 87.62.
Intracellular receptors that bind to INOSITOL 1,4,5-TRISPHOSPHATE and play an important role in its intracellular signaling. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors are calcium channels that release CALCIUM in response to increased levels of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in the CYTOPLASM.
Abnormally high level of calcium in the blood.
Chemical agents that increase the permeability of biological or artificial lipid membranes to specific ions. Most ionophores are relatively small organic molecules that act as mobile carriers within membranes or coalesce to form ion permeable channels across membranes. Many are antibiotics, and many act as uncoupling agents by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.
A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
A divalent calcium ionophore that is widely used as a tool to investigate the role of intracellular calcium in cellular processes.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
CALCIUM CHANNELS located in the neurons of the brain. They are inhibited by the marine snail toxin, omega conotoxin MVIIC.
Intracellular messenger formed by the action of phospholipase C on phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, which is one of the phospholipids that make up the cell membrane. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate is released into the cytoplasm where it releases calcium ions from internal stores within the cell's endoplasmic reticulum. These calcium ions stimulate the activity of B kinase or calmodulin.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
A neurotoxic peptide, which is a cleavage product (VIa) of the omega-Conotoxin precursor protein contained in venom from the marine snail, CONUS geographus. It is an antagonist of CALCIUM CHANNELS, N-TYPE.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A calcium channel blocker with marked vasodilator action. It is an effective antihypertensive agent and differs from other calcium channel blockers in that it does not reduce glomerular filtration rate and is mildly natriuretic, rather than sodium retentive.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
A methylpyrrole-carboxylate from RYANIA that disrupts the RYANODINE RECEPTOR CALCIUM RELEASE CHANNEL to modify CALCIUM release from SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM resulting in alteration of MUSCLE CONTRACTION. It was previously used in INSECTICIDES. It is used experimentally in conjunction with THAPSIGARGIN and other inhibitors of CALCIUM ATPASE uptake of calcium into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
A calcium channel blockader with preferential cerebrovascular activity. It has marked cerebrovascular dilating effects and lowers blood pressure.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
Two pairs of small oval-shaped glands located in the front and the base of the NECK and adjacent to the two lobes of THYROID GLAND. They secrete PARATHYROID HORMONE that regulates the balance of CALCIUM; PHOSPHORUS; and MAGNESIUM in the body.
A family of structurally related neurotoxic peptides from mollusk venom that inhibit voltage-activated entry of calcium into the presynaptic membrane. They selectively inhibit N-, P-, and Q-type calcium channels.
Derivatives of OXALIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are derived from the ethanedioic acid structure.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A potent antagonist of CALCIUM CHANNELS that is highly selective for VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE. It is effective in the treatment of chronic stable angina pectoris, hypertension, and congestive cardiac failure.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Calcium-transporting ATPases that catalyze the active transport of CALCIUM into the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM vesicles from the CYTOPLASM. They are primarily found in MUSCLE CELLS and play a role in the relaxation of MUSCLES.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
Calcium-binding proteins that are found in DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES, INTESTINES, BRAIN, and other tissues where they bind, buffer and transport cytoplasmic calcium. Calbindins possess a variable number of EF-HAND MOTIFS which contain calcium-binding sites. Some isoforms are regulated by VITAMIN D.
Derivative of 7-dehydroxycholesterol formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. It differs from ERGOCALCIFEROL in having a single bond between C22 and C23 and lacking a methyl group at C24.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Compounds with three aromatic rings in linear arrangement with an OXYGEN in the center ring.
A potent calcium channel blockader with marked vasodilator action. It has antihypertensive properties and is effective in the treatment of angina and coronary spasms without showing cardiodepressant effects. It has also been used in the treatment of asthma and enhances the action of specific antineoplastic agents.
Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A drug used to reduce hemorrhage in diabetic retinopathy.
A benzimidazoyl-substituted tetraline that selectively binds and inhibits CALCIUM CHANNELS, T-TYPE.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
Calcium-transporting ATPases found on the PLASMA MEMBRANE that catalyze the active transport of CALCIUM from the CYTOPLASM into the extracellular space. They play a role in maintaining a CALCIUM gradient across plasma membrane.
Identification and measurement of ELEMENTS and their location based on the fact that X-RAYS emitted by an element excited by an electron beam have a wavelength characteristic of that element and an intensity related to its concentration. It is performed with an electron microscope fitted with an x-ray spectrometer, in scanning or transmission mode.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
Metallochrome indicator that changes color when complexed to the calcium ion under physiological conditions. It is used to measure local calcium ion concentrations in vivo.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.
A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.
Quinolines substituted in any position by one or more amino groups.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
An inorganic dye used in microscopy for differential staining and as a diagnostic reagent. In research this compound is used to study changes in cytoplasmic concentrations of calcium. Ruthenium red inhibits calcium transport through membrane channels.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
Compounds that contain a BENZENE ring fused to a furan ring.
Skeletal muscle relaxant that acts by interfering with excitation-contraction coupling in the muscle fiber. It is used in spasticity and other neuromuscular abnormalities. Although the mechanism of action is probably not central, dantrolene is usually grouped with the central muscle relaxants.
Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.
Raw and processed or manufactured milk and milk-derived products. These are usually from cows (bovine) but are also from goats, sheep, reindeer, and water buffalo.
An electrogenic ion exchange protein that maintains a steady level of calcium by removing an amount of calcium equal to that which enters the cells. It is widely distributed in most excitable membranes, including the brain and heart.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC, it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
A family of intracellular calcium-sensing proteins found predominately in NEURONS and PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They contain EF HAND MOTIFS and undergo conformational changes upon calcium-binding. Neuronal calcium-sensor proteins interact with other regulatory proteins to mediate physiological responses to a change in intracellular calcium concentration.
Low-density crystals or stones in any part of the URINARY TRACT. Their chemical compositions often include CALCIUM OXALATE, magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite), CYSTINE, or URIC ACID.
Venoms of arthropods of the order Araneida of the ARACHNIDA. The venoms usually contain several protein fractions, including ENZYMES, hemolytic, neurolytic, and other TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL.
A neuropeptide toxin from the venom of the funnel web spider, Agelenopsis aperta. It inhibits CALCIUM CHANNELS, P-TYPE by altering the voltage-dependent gating so that very large depolarizations are needed for channel opening. It also inhibits CALCIUM CHANNELS, Q-TYPE.
Coronary vasodilator that is an analog of iproveratril (VERAPAMIL) with one more methoxy group on the benzene ring.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Chemical agents that increase the permeability of CELL MEMBRANES to CALCIUM ions.
Flunarizine is a selective calcium entry blocker with calmodulin binding properties and histamine H1 blocking activity. It is effective in the prophylaxis of migraine, occlusive peripheral vascular disease, vertigo of central and peripheral origin, and as an adjuvant in the therapy of epilepsy.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A condition of abnormally elevated output of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH) triggering responses that increase blood CALCIUM. It is characterized by HYPERCALCEMIA and BONE RESORPTION, eventually leading to bone diseases. PRIMARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is caused by parathyroid HYPERPLASIA or PARATHYROID NEOPLASMS. SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is increased PTH secretion in response to HYPOCALCEMIA, usually caused by chronic KIDNEY DISEASES.
Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
A colorless or slightly yellow crystalline compound obtained from nutgalls. It is used in photography, pharmaceuticals, and as an analytical reagent.
Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
A condition caused by a deficiency of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH). It is characterized by HYPOCALCEMIA and hyperphosphatemia. Hypocalcemia leads to TETANY. The acquired form is due to removal or injuries to the PARATHYROID GLANDS. The congenital form is due to mutations of genes, such as TBX1; (see DIGEORGE SYNDROME); CASR encoding CALCIUM-SENSING RECEPTOR; or PTH encoding parathyroid hormone.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Excretion of abnormally high level of CALCIUM in the URINE, greater than 4 mg/kg/day.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A calcium-binding protein that mediates calcium HOMEOSTASIS in KIDNEYS, BRAIN, and other tissues. It is found in well-defined populations of NEURONS and is involved in CALCIUM SIGNALING and NEURONAL PLASTICITY. It is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
A phenothiazine with actions similar to CHLORPROMAZINE. It is used as an antipsychotic and an antiemetic.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
Phosphoric acid esters of inositol. They include mono- and polyphosphoric acid esters, with the exception of inositol hexaphosphate which is PHYTIC ACID.
The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.
Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
Cationic ionophore antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces lasaliensis that, among other effects, dissociates the calcium fluxes in muscle fibers. It is used as a coccidiostat, especially in poultry.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
An element with atomic symbol Cd, atomic number 48, and atomic weight 114. It is a metal and ingestion will lead to CADMIUM POISONING.
The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.
Systems in which an intracellular signal is generated in response to an intercellular primary messenger such as a hormone or neurotransmitter. They are intermediate signals in cellular processes such as metabolism, secretion, contraction, phototransduction, and cell growth. Examples of second messenger systems are the adenyl cyclase-cyclic AMP system, the phosphatidylinositol diphosphate-inositol triphosphate system, and the cyclic GMP system.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Phosphorus used in foods or obtained from food. This element is a major intracellular component which plays an important role in many biochemical pathways relating to normal physiological functions. High concentrations of dietary phosphorus can cause nephrocalcinosis which is associated with impaired kidney function. Low concentrations of dietary phosphorus cause an increase in calcitriol in the blood and osteoporosis.
A strong dicarboxylic acid occurring in many plants and vegetables. It is produced in the body by metabolism of glyoxylic acid or ascorbic acid. It is not metabolized but excreted in the urine. It is used as an analytical reagent and general reducing agent.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A peptide hormone that lowers calcium concentration in the blood. In humans, it is released by thyroid cells and acts to decrease the formation and absorptive activity of osteoclasts. Its role in regulating plasma calcium is much greater in children and in certain diseases than in normal adults.
A trace element with the atomic symbol Ni, atomic number 28, and atomic weight 58.69. It is a cofactor of the enzyme UREASE.
Formation of stones in the KIDNEY.
Calcium-binding motifs composed of two helices (E and F) joined by a loop. Calcium is bound by the loop region. These motifs are found in many proteins that are regulated by calcium.
A group of phosphate minerals that includes ten mineral species and has the general formula X5(YO4)3Z, where X is usually calcium or lead, Y is phosphorus or arsenic, and Z is chlorine, fluorine, or OH-. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain boron as an integral part of the molecule.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A CALCIUM and CALMODULIN-dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase that is composed of the calcineurin A catalytic subunit and the calcineurin B regulatory subunit. Calcineurin has been shown to dephosphorylate a number of phosphoproteins including HISTONES; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAIN; and the regulatory subunits of CAMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. It is involved in the regulation of signal transduction and is the target of an important class of immunophilin-immunosuppressive drug complexes.
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.
Hydroxy analogs of vitamin D 3; (CHOLECALCIFEROL); including CALCIFEDIOL; CALCITRIOL; and 24,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D 3.
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.

BLNK required for coupling Syk to PLC gamma 2 and Rac1-JNK in B cells. (1/8321)

Signaling through the B cell receptor (BCR) is essential for B cell function and development. Despite the key role of Syk in BCR signaling, little is known about the mechanism by which Syk transmits downstream effectors. BLNK (B cell LiNKer protein), a substrate for Syk, is now shown to be essential in activating phospholipase C (PLC)gamma 2 and JNK. The BCR-induced PLC gamma 2 activation, but not the JNK activation, was restored by introduction of PLC gamma 2 membrane-associated form into BLNK-deficient B cells. As JNK activation requires both Rac1 and PLC gamma 2, our results suggest that BLNK regulates the Rac1-JNK pathway, in addition to modulating PLC gamma 2 localization.  (+info)

Skeletal muscle type ryanodine receptor is involved in calcium signaling in human B lymphocytes. (2/8321)

The regulation of intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in B cells remains poorly understood and is presently explained almost solely by inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3)-mediated Ca2+ release, followed by activation of a store-operated channel mechanism. In fact, there are reports indicating that IP3 production does not always correlate with the magnitude of Ca2+ release. We demonstrate here that human B cells express a ryanodine receptor (RYR) that functions as a Ca2+ release channel during the B cell antigen receptor (BCR)-stimulated Ca2+ signaling process. Immunoblotting studies showed that both human primary CD19(+) B and DAKIKI cells express a 565-kDa immunoreactive protein that is indistinguishable in molecular size and immunoreactivity from the RYR. Selective reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, restriction fragment length polymorphism, and sequencing of cloned cDNA indicated that the major isoform of the RYR expressed in primary CD19(+) B and DAKIKI cells is identical to the skeletal muscle type (RYR1). Saturation analysis of [3H]ryanodine binding yielded Bmax = 150 fmol/mg of protein and Kd = 110 nM in DAKIKI cells. In fluo-3-loaded CD19(+) B and DAKIKI cells, 4-chloro-m-cresol, a potent activator of Ca2+ release mediated by the ryanodine-sensitive Ca2+ release channel, induced Ca2+ release in a dose-dependent and ryanodine-sensitive fashion. Furthermore, BCR-mediated Ca2+ release in CD19(+) B cells was significantly altered by 4-chloro-m-cresol and ryanodine. These results indicate that RYR1 functions as a Ca2+ release channel during BCR-stimulated Ca2+ signaling and suggest that complex Ca2+ signals that control the cellular activities of B cells may be generated by cooperation of the IP3 receptor and RYR1.  (+info)

Characterization of elementary Ca2+ release signals in NGF-differentiated PC12 cells and hippocampal neurons. (3/8321)

Elementary Ca2+ release signals in nerve growth factor- (NGF-) differentiated PC12 cells and hippocampal neurons, functionally analogous to the "Ca2+ sparks" and "Ca2+ puffs" identified in other cell types, were characterized by confocal microscopy. They either occurred spontaneously or could be activated by caffeine and metabotropic agonists. The release events were dissimilar to the sparks and puffs described so far, as many arose from clusters of both ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (InsP3Rs). Increasing either the stimulus strength or loading of the intracellular stores enhanced the frequency of and coupling between elementary release sites and evoked global Ca2+ signals. In the PC12 cells, the elementary Ca2+ release preferentially occurred around the branch points. Spatio-temporal recruitment of such elementary release events may regulate neuronal activities.  (+info)

The beta subunit increases the Ca2+ sensitivity of large conductance Ca2+-activated potassium channels by retaining the gating in the bursting states. (4/8321)

Coexpression of the beta subunit (KV,Cabeta) with the alpha subunit of mammalian large conductance Ca2+- activated K+ (BK) channels greatly increases the apparent Ca2+ sensitivity of the channel. Using single-channel analysis to investigate the mechanism for this increase, we found that the beta subunit increased open probability (Po) by increasing burst duration 20-100-fold, while having little effect on the durations of the gaps (closed intervals) between bursts or on the numbers of detected open and closed states entered during gating. The effect of the beta subunit was not equivalent to raising intracellular Ca2+ in the absence of the beta subunit, suggesting that the beta subunit does not act by increasing all the Ca2+ binding rates proportionally. The beta subunit also inhibited transitions to subconductance levels. It is the retention of the BK channel in the bursting states by the beta subunit that increases the apparent Ca2+ sensitivity of the channel. In the presence of the beta subunit, each burst of openings is greatly amplified in duration through increases in both the numbers of openings per burst and in the mean open times. Native BK channels from cultured rat skeletal muscle were found to have bursting kinetics similar to channels expressed from alpha subunits alone.  (+info)

Fertilization, embryonic development, and offspring from mouse eggs injected with round spermatids combined with Ca2+ oscillation-inducing sperm factor. (5/8321)

Round spermatids, precursor male gametes, are known to possess the potential to achieve fertilization and embryonic development when injected into eggs. However, injection of spermatids alone seldom activates eggs in the mouse, as spermatids by themselves cannot induce an increase in intracellular Ca2+, a prerequisite for egg activation. We injected a mouse round spermatid into an egg simultaneously with partially purified sperm factor from differentiated hamster spermatozoa. The combined injection produced repetitive Ca2+ increases (Ca2+ oscillations) lasting for at least 4 h as observed at fertilization, and induced activation in 92% of eggs. This method provided 75% fertilization success associated with male and female pronucleus formation and development to 2-cell embryos, while only 7% of eggs were fertilized by injection of a spermatid alone. Of the 2-cell embryos, approximately 50% developed to blastocysts during 5 days of culture in vitro, while no blastocysts were obtained following injection of sperm factor alone. Furthermore, the 2-cell embryos, that were created by spermatids and sperm factor and transplanted into foster mothers, developed into normal offspring, although the percentage was only 22%. All infants grew into healthy adults carrying normal chromosomes. The sperm factor served as a complementary factor for successful fertilization by round spermatid injection.  (+info)

Contributions of mitochondria to animal physiology: from homeostatic sensor to calcium signalling and cell death. (6/8321)

Over recent years, it has become clear that mitochondria play a central role in many key aspects of animal physiology and pathophysiology. Their central and ubiquitous task is clearly the production of ATP. Nevertheless, they also play subtle roles in glucose homeostasis, acting as the sensor for substrate supply in the transduction pathway that promotes insulin secretion by the pancreatic -cell and that modulates the excitability of the hypothalamic glucose-sensitive neurons involved in appetite control. Mitochondria may also act as sensors of availability of oxygen, the other major mitochondrial substrate, in the regulation of respiration. Mitochondria take up calcium, and the high opacity mitochondrial calcium uptake pathway provides a mechanism that couples energy demand to increased ATP production through the calcium-dependent upregulation of mitochondrial enzyme activity. Mitochondrial calcium accumulation may also have a substantial impact on the spatiotemporal dynamics of cellular calcium signals, with subtle differences of detail in different cell types. Recent work has also revealed the centrality of mitochondrial dysfunction as an irreversible step in the pathway to both necrotic and apoptotic cell death. This review looks at recent developments in these rapidly evolving areas of cell physiology in an attempt to draw together disparate areas of research into a common theme.  (+info)

Isosmotic modulation of Ca2+-regulated exocytosis in guinea-pig antral mucous cells: role of cell volume. (7/8321)

1. Exocytotic events and changes of cell volume in mucous cells from guinea-pig antrum were examined by video-enhanced optical microscopy. 2. Acetylcholine (ACh) evoked exocytotic events following cell shrinkage, the frequency and extent of which depended on the ACh concentration. ACh actions were mimicked by ionomycin and thapsigargin, and inhibited by Ca2+-free solution and Ca2+ channel blockers (Ni2+, Cd2+ and nifedipine). Application of 100 microM W-7, a calmodulin inhibitor, also inhibited the ACh-induced exocytotic events. These results indicate that ACh actions are mediated by intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in antral mucous cells. 3. The effects of ion channel blockers on exocytotic events and cell shrinkage evoked by ACh were examined. Inhibition of KCl release (quinine, Ba2+, NPPB or KCl solution) suppressed both the exocytotic events and cell shrinkage evoked by ACh. 4. Bumetanide (inhibition of NaCl entry) or Cl--free solution (increasing Cl- release and inhibition of NaCl entry) evoked exocytotic events following cell shrinkage in unstimulated antral mucous cells and caused further cell shrinkage and increases in the frequency of exocytotic events in ACh-stimulated cells. However, Cl--free solution did not evoke exocytotic events in unstimulated cells in the absence of extracellular Ca2+, although cell shrinkage occurred. 5. To examine the effects of cell volume on ACh-evoked exocytosis, the cell volume was altered by increasing the extracellular K+ concentration. The results showed that cell shrinkage increases the frequency of ACh-evoked exocytotic events and cell swelling decreases them. 6. Osmotic shrinkage or swelling caused the frequency of ACh-evoked exocytotic events to increase. This suggests that the effects of cell volume on ACh-evoked exocytosis under anisosmotic conditions may not be the same as those under isosmotic conditions. 7. In antral mucous cells, Ca2+-regulated exocytosis is modulated by cell shrinkage under isosmotic conditions.  (+info)

Relationship between L-type Ca2+ current and unitary sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release events in rat ventricular myocytes. (8/8321)

1. The time courses of Ca2+ current and Ca2+ spark occurrence were determined in single rat ventricular myocytes voltage clamped with patch pipettes containing 0.1 microM fluo-3. Acquisition of line-scan images on a laser scanning confocal microscope was synchronized with measurement of Cd2+-sensitive Ca2+ currents. In most cells, individual Ca2+ sparks were observed by reducing Ca2+ current density with nifedipine (0.1-8 microM). 2. Ca2+ sparks elicited by depolarizing voltage-clamp pulses had a peak [Ca2+] amplitude of 289 +/- 3 nM with a decay half-time of 20.8 +/- 0.2 ms and a full width at half-maximum of 1.40 +/- 0.03 microm (mean +/- s. e.m., n = 345), independent of the membrane potential. 3. The time between the beginning of a depolarization and the initiation of each Ca2+ spark was calculated and data were pooled to construct waiting time histograms. Exponential functions were fitted to these histograms and to the decaying phase of the Ca2+ current. This analysis showed that the time constants describing Ca2+ current and Ca2+ spark occurrence at membrane potentials between -30 mV and +30 mV were not significantly different. At +50 mV, in the absence of nifedipine, the time constant describing Ca2+ spark occurrence was significantly larger than the time constant of the Ca2+ current. 4. A simple model is developed using Poisson statistics to relate macroscopic Ca2+ current to the opening of single L-type Ca2+ channels at the dyad junction and to the time course of Ca2+ spark occurrence. The model suggests that the time courses of macroscopic Ca2+ current and Ca2+ spark occurrence should be closely related when opening of a single L-type Ca2+ channel initiates a Ca2+ spark. By comparison with the data, the model suggests that Ca2+ sparks are initiated by the opening of a single L-type Ca2+ channel at all membrane potentials encountered during an action potential.  (+info)

Background: Hypertensive cardiomyopathy or pathophysiological changes in myocardial structure and function caused by hypertension is a growing clinical problem due to the ageing population and a lack of curative therapies. The onset of the disease is often clinically silent, progressing over time to therapy-resistant symptomatic forms. Existing therapeutic concepts are, therefore, symptom-oriented and tailored for advanced stages of cardiac remodeling. Understanding molecular processes driving early hypertension-induced changes may improve diagnosis and treatment options.. Recent evidence positions changes in Ca2+ cycling as an early promoter of cardiac remodeling via Ca2+-mediated regulation of transcription. The enzyme Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) has a central role in this process, as it can translate fine changes in Ca2+ fluxes into altered gene expression. However, the specific regulation of this so-called excitation-transcription coupling in hypertensive ...
One example of such an instability is alternans, which at the cellular level, is characterized by a beat-to-beat alternation in membrane potential and intracellular calcium dynamics. Alternans, which manifests on the surface electrocardiogram as T-wave alternans, is a putative trigger of some types of reentrant arrhythmias. Two possible mechanisms have been proposed for alternans - either transmembrane ionic currents or intracellular calcium dynamics fail to cycle completely during one beat, due to insufficient time, leading to the beat-to-beat alternations characteristic of alternans. Importantly, because the voltage and intracellular calcium dynamics are bidirectionally coupled, alternans in one system will lead to secondary alternans in the other. Because of this coupling it is difficult to determine which mechanism is the main source of the instability. In our laboratory, we attempt to disentangle the contributions of voltage and calcium dynamics leading to cellular alternans via a hybrid ...
One challenge for genetic approaches aimed at studying biological processes is the difficulty of identifying specific functions for broadly acting cell biological pathways. Here, we complement classical genetics with a chemical approach to disrupt polymerized microtubules at a specific time in development. Complete microtubule loss leads to lethality and defects in mitosis, but our experiments took advantage of the fact that late embryogenesis, the time at which asymmetric AWC identities are determined, is a time when little cell division occurs. Using a combination of genetics and drug treatment, we have linked microtubule-dependent localization of calcium-regulated signaling proteins, including UNC-43/CaMKII, TIR-1/SARM adaptor and NSY-1/ASK1 MAPKKK to genetic control of neuronal asymmetry in C. elegans. We also identified the requirement of microtubule-dependent kinesin motor gene unc-104/kif1a in this process.. Our results suggest that microtubule-dependent and unc-104-dependent localization ...
One challenge for genetic approaches aimed at studying biological processes is the difficulty of identifying specific functions for broadly acting cell biological pathways. Here, we complement classical genetics with a chemical approach to disrupt polymerized microtubules at a specific time in development. Complete microtubule loss leads to lethality and defects in mitosis, but our experiments took advantage of the fact that late embryogenesis, the time at which asymmetric AWC identities are determined, is a time when little cell division occurs. Using a combination of genetics and drug treatment, we have linked microtubule-dependent localization of calcium-regulated signaling proteins, including UNC-43/CaMKII, TIR-1/SARM adaptor and NSY-1/ASK1 MAPKKK to genetic control of neuronal asymmetry in C. elegans. We also identified the requirement of microtubule-dependent kinesin motor gene unc-104/kif1a in this process.. Our results suggest that microtubule-dependent and unc-104-dependent localization ...
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Vi beskriver hur man mäter nära membranet och globala intracellulär dynamik kalcium i odlade astrocyter med total inre reflektion och...
WHY WE NEED CALCIUM. By Troy Francis. Calcium is one nutrient that is sometimes overlooked. However, it is one of the most important nutrients your body needs. Calcium plays an important part in body functions and some development. Knowing how much calcium you need daily and where to get it from can ensure that you will lead a healthier life and live longer. What does Calcium do for us! Well, calcium does many things for your body. Everyone knows calcium is great for the bones. It also plays a role in keeping your muscles and nerves working properly. It also helps blood clot and keeps your heart functioning properly. Lacking calcium in your diet can greatly affect your health for years to come. When your body does not get enough calcium it begins to take calcium from the bones. When this occurs, the bones become deficient and problems can start such as osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is a disease that mostly affects older people. Osteoporosis is a disease where the bones get thin and brittle. However ...
Calcium has become the latest double-edged swords in the supplement world.. People want to take calcium for its osteoporosis prevention benefit, but then learn about possible associated cardiovascular disease risks. This usually leaves the consumer confused as to whether the risk is worth the benefit.. To answer the question about whether or not to take calcium, it is first it important to understand the role calcium in our body. Calcium is essential in a variety of physiological functions in our body, in addition to the structural function in our bones. Calcium is a signal molecule for a variety of cellular processes including nerve conduction, muscle contraction, glycogen metabolism and cardiac function. Without calcium, we would not be able to relay signals in our heart or muscles, we wouldnt be able to contract our muscles and our skeleton would not keep us upright.. What is the connection with calcium and heart disease? Some recent research had correlated an increased risk of heart disease ...
Calcium waves are propagated among islands of UMR cells. Calcium waves were induced in a subconfluent monolayer of fluo-3-loaded UMR cells. The outline of c
Measuring Calcium in the ER with mag fura 2 - posted in MTT, Proliferation and Cytotoxicity Assay: We are interested in determing if hypoxia/glucose deprivation cause release of calcium from the ER. WE plan to use mag fura2 to measure ER calcium. Two questions I have is there a way to measure calcium in real time, meaning being able to quench the reaction before taking it out of hypoxia, because reoxygenation can have an effect on calcium levels, and how do you harvest the cell after label...
The latest Perspectives in General Physiology series introduces the newest technologies in the field of calcium signaling, which plays a central role in many cellular processes.
This book presents a series of models in the general area of cell physiology and signal transduction, with particular attention being paid to intracellular calcium dynamics, and the role played by cal
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Calcium imaging is a scientific technique usually carried out in research which is designed to show the calcium (Ca2+) status of a cell, tissue or medium. Calcium imaging techniques take advantage of so-called calcium indicators, fluorescent molecules that can respond to the binding of Ca2+ ions by changing their fluorescence properties.
calcium How intracellular Calcium signaling, gradient and its role as a universal intracellular regulator points to design http://reasonandscience.heavenforum
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Q. Since a woman is supposed to have 1,000 milligrams of calcium a day, why dont the calcium tablets contain 500 mg so she can take two a day if she gets little calcium in her diet? By taking two
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1/3/2010· Calcium is the most plentiful mineral in the human body. Almost all of it - 99% - is stored in the skeleton, where it serves to maintain healthy bones and teeth. But thats not all it does. Calcium is also essential for the normal functioning of muscles, blood vessels, and nerves. Tiny amounts are dissolved in the fluid inside and outside ...
Calcium content and RDA percentage, per serving and per 100g, in 1 types of hard boiled egg. The amount of Calcium is 50 mg to 50 mg per 100g, in hard boiled egg.
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Calcium list and information including what is Calcium, health benefits and usage indications. Find articles and product list for other top low-carb products, fat-burners, nutrition bars and shakes.
In humans, calcium is the most abundant mineral and forms about 2% of our total body weight. Almost all of this calcium is found in the skeleton and the rest is found in the teeth, the blood plasma, the bodys soft tissues and the extracellular fluid.
Calcium is essential for building strong bones and teeth which we must get it from the foods we eat and drink. Find out more about calcium Waitrose
Calcium is essential for building strong bones and teeth which we must get it from the foods we eat and drink. Find out more about calcium Waitrose
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Calcium is an element is vital for the health of many living things, and has a range of industrial uses. Calcium is never found...
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Cu plumping is getting pretty clogged up with calcium buildup otherwise the pipes are in good shape. I have remove and replaced a few sections for inspection and the test sections were like new after the deposits were removed. IS there a way to chemically or by other means to unclog them. I
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Recent research shows that taking your calcium twice daily instead of all at once may be optimal. Watch this video to find out why. Or read it on the AlgaeCa…Video Rating: 0 / 5. ...
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PubMed journal article: Comparison of intracellular calcium signals evoked by heat and capsaicin in cultured rat dorsal root ganglion neurons and in a cell line expressing the rat vanilloid receptor, VR1. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
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Calcium signaling is known to be associated with cytokinesis; however, the detailed spatio-temporal pattern of calcium dynamics has remained unclear. We have studied changes of intracellular free calcium in cleavage-stage Xenopus embryos using fluorescent calcium indicator dyes, mainly Calcium Green-1. Cleavage formation was followed by calcium transients that localized to cleavage furrows and propagated along the furrows as calcium waves. The calcium transients at the cleavage furrows were observed at each cleavage furrow at least until blastula stage. The velocity of the calcium waves at the first cleavage furrow was approximately 3 microns/s, which was much slower than that associated with fertilization/egg activation. These calcium waves traveled only along the cleavage furrows and not in the direction orthogonal to the furrows. These observations imply that there exists an intracellular calcium-releasing activity specifically associated with cleavage furrows. The calcium waves occurred in ...
1b shows that there was a general decrease also in 495 nm signal as the experiment progressed. This means that there was no change in the 405/495 ratio with time (Fig. 1c), which correctly reflects that there was no change in [Ca2+]i. D. Bruton et al. non-ratiometric indicators can result in completely erroneous conclusions. It should, however, be noted that not all problems are avoided by using ratiometric indicators. For instance, excessive light exposure can lead to qualitatively altered properties of the indicator, which cannot be corrected for by ratios. Neuron 57:536-545 44. Bender KJ, Trussell LO (2009) Axon initial segment Ca2+ channels influence action potential generation and timing. Neuron 61:259-271 45. Bers DM (2008) Calcium cycling and signaling in cardiac myocytes. Annu Rev Physiol 70:23-49 46. Dolmetsch R (2003) Excitation-transcription coupling: signaling by ion channels to the nucleus. Sci STKE 2003:PE4 47. Arnold DB, Heintz N (1997) A calcium responsive element that regulates ...
|p|Excitation-transcription coupling, linking stimulation at the cell surface to changes in nuclear gene expression, is conserved throughout eukaryotes. How closely related coexpressed transcription factors are differentially activated remains unclear. Here, we show that two Ca|sup|2+|/sup|-dependent transcription factor isoforms, NFAT1 and NFAT4, require distinct sub-cellular InsP|sub|3|/sub| and Ca|sup|2+|/sup| signals for physiologically sustained activation. NFAT1 is stimulated by sub-plasmalemmal Ca|sup|2+|/sup| microdomains, whereas NFAT4 additionally requires Ca|sup|2+|/sup| mobilization from the inner nuclear envelope by nuclear InsP|sub|3|/sub| receptors. NFAT1 is rephosphorylated (deactivated) more slowly than NFAT4 in both cytoplasm and nucleus, enabling a more prolonged activation phase. Oscillations in cytoplasmic Ca|sup|2+|/sup|, long considered the physiological form of Ca|sup|2+|/sup| signaling, play no role in activating either NFAT protein. Instead, effective sustained physiological
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular pharmacology of store-operated CRAC channels. AU - Jairaman, Amit. AU - Prakriya, Murali. PY - 2013/9/1. Y1 - 2013/9/1. N2 - Calcium influx through store-operated Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ channels (CRAC channels) is a well-defined mechanism of generating cellular Ca2+ elevations that regulates many functions including gene expression, exocytosis, and cell proliferation. The identifications of the ER Ca2+ sensing proteins, STIM1-2 and the CRAC channel proteins, Orai1-3, have led to improved understanding of the physiological roles and the activation mechanism of CRAC channels. Defects in CRAC channel function are associated with serious human diseases such as immunodeficiency and auto-immunity. In this review, we discuss several pharmacological modulators of CRAC channels, focusing specifically on the molecular mechanism of drug action and their utility in illuminating the mechanism of CRAC channel operation and their physiological roles in different cells.. AB - ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Calcium dynamics and chromatin remodeling underlie heterogeneity in prolactin transcription. AU - Harper, Claire V. AU - Mcnamara, Anne. AU - Spiller, David. AU - Charnock, Jayne C. AU - White, Michael. AU - Davis, Julian. PY - 2020/10/5. Y1 - 2020/10/5. N2 - Pituitary cells have been reported to show spontaneous calcium oscillations and dynamic transcription cycles. To study both processes in the same living cell in real-time, we used rat pituitary GH3 cells stably expressing human prolactin-luciferase or prolactin-EGFP reporter gene constructs loaded with a fluorescent calcium indicator and measured activity using single cell time-lapse microscopy. We observed heterogeneity between clonal cells in the calcium activity and prolactin transcription in unstimulated conditions. There was a significant correlation between cells displaying spontaneous calcium spikes and cells showing spontaneous bursts in prolactin expression. Notably, cells showing nobasal calcium activity showed low ...
Calcium imaging is a scientific technique usually carried out in research which is designed to show the calcium (Ca2+) status of an isolated cell, tissue or medium. Calcium imaging techniques take advantage of so-called calcium indicators, fluorescent molecules that can respond to the binding of Ca2+ ions by changing their fluorescence properties. Two main classes of calcium indicators exist: chemical indicators and genetically encoded calcium indicators (GECI). Calcium imaging can be used to optically probe intracellular calcium in living animals. This technique has allowed studies of calcium signalling in a wide variety of cell types and neuronal activity in hundreds of neurons and glial cells within neuronal circuits . Chemical indicators are small molecules that can chelate calcium ions. All these molecules are based on an EGTA homologue called BAPTA, with high selectivity for calcium (Ca2+) ions versus magnesium (Mg2+) ions. This group of indicators includes fura-2, indo-1, fluo-3, fluo-4, ...
Calcium encoding (also referred to as Ca2+ encoding or calcium information processing) is an intracellular signaling pathway used by many cells to transfer, process and encode external information detected by the cell. In cell physiology, external information is often converted into intracellular calcium dynamics. The concept of calcium encoding explains how Ca2+ ions act as intracellular messengers, relaying information within cells to regulate their activity. Given the ubiquity of Ca2+ ions in cell physiology, Ca2+ encoding has also been suggested as a potential tool to characterize cell physiology in health and disease. The mathematical bases of Ca2+ encoding have been pioneered by work of Joel Keizer and Hans G. Othmer on calcium modeling in the 1990s and more recently they have been revisited by Eshel Ben-Jacob, Herbert Levine and co-workers. Although elevations of Ca2+ are necessary for it to act as a signal, prolonged increases of the concentration of Ca2+ in the cytoplasm can be lethal ...
Plant hormones, light receptors, pathogens, and abiotic signals trigger elevations in the cytosolic calcium concentration, which mediate physiological and developmental responses. Recent studies are reviewed here that reveal how specific genetic mutations impair or modify stimulus-induced calcium elevations in plant cells. These studies provide genetic evidence for the importance of calcium as a second messenger in plant signal transduction. A fundamental question arises: How can different stimuli use the same second messenger, calcium, to mediate different responses? Recent research and models are reviewed that suggest that several important mechanisms contribute to specificity in calcium signaling in plant cells. These mechanisms include (i) activation of different calcium channels in the plasma membrane and organellar membranes, (ii) stimulus-specific calcium oscillation parameters, (iii) cell type-specific responses, and (iv) intracellular localization of calcium gradients and calcium ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - STIM1 calcium sensor is required for activation of the phagocyte oxidase during in flammation and host defense. AU - Zhang, Hong. AU - Clemens, Regina A.. AU - Liu, Fengchun. AU - Hu, Yongmei. AU - Baba, Yoshihiro. AU - Theodore, Pierre. AU - Kurosaki, Tomohiro. AU - Lowell, Clifford A.. PY - 2014/4/3. Y1 - 2014/4/3. N2 - The stromal-interactingmolecule 1 (STIM1) is a potent sensor of intracellular calcium, which in turn regulates entry of external calcium through plasmamembrane channels to affect immune cell activation. Although the contribution of STIM1 to calcium signaling in lymphocytes has been well studied, the role of this protein in neutrophil-mediated inflammation and host defense is unknown. We report that STIM1-deficient murine neutrophils show loss of store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) in response to both soluble ligands that activate G-proteins as well as Fcγ-receptor or integrin ligation that activates tyrosine kinase signaling. This results in modest defects in ...
Ca+2; Serum calcium; Ca++; Hyperparathyroidism - calcium level; Osteoporosis - calcium level; Hypercalcemia - calcium level; Hypocalcemia - calcium level. The calcium blood test measures the level of calcium in the blood.. This article discusses the test to measure the total amount of calcium in your blood. About one half of the calcium in the blood is attached to proteins, mainly albumin.. A separate test that measures calcium that is not attached to proteins in your blood is sometimes performed. Such calcium is called free or ionized calcium ...
This paper utilizes the COMSOL Multiphysics® general form PDE interface and MATLAB® to model stochastic calcium waves in a sarcomere (basic unit of a heart cell). The model we present here shows the evolution of waves generated from calcium being released stochastically from sites modeled as point sources. The release sites are distributed on z-disc (planes) in a hexagonal pattern, and their opening allows calcium to diffuse and interact with different species of buffers. The release sites are sensitive to calcium levels and after opening and releasing calcium, undergo a refractory period during which they stay closed. The simulations obtained over a sarcomere domain shows individual stochastic releases of calcium self-organizing into propagating waves. ...
Taking too much calcium will actually cause you to absorb less of it. Its the bodys natural way of protecting itself. Take no more than 500 mg calcium at once. Excessive sodium, caffeine and alcohol intake can increase calcium loss, so its important to replace the calcium (and other minerals) you might be losing in these cases. People living in areas with high levels of calcium in the drinking water, or people who consume more calcium from their diet, may not need to supplement as much calcium. Oxalate and phytate compounds found in certain vegetables and grains reduce calcium absorption. If youre trying to get your calcium from vegetables in a non-dairy, non-supplemented diet, you may have to consume a lot more calcium from food than you would from milk or from a supplement.. Thats enough info for one sitting. Stay tuned for part 2 where we will examine the different forms of calcium used in calcium supplements and discover whats what and whats best!. Image by © 2011 Kalinovsky Dmitry ...
Important element in road towards development of new drugs for neurodegenerative diseases All living cells keep their cellular calcium concentration at a very low level. Since a small increase in calcium can affect many critical cellular functions (an elevated calcium concentration over an extended period can induce cell death), powerful cellular mechanisms ensure that calcium concentration quickly returns to its low level.. It is known that impairments of cellular calcium regulation underlie almost all neurodegenerative diseases. For example, age-related loss of calcium regulation was shown to promote cell vulnerability in Alzheimers disease.. In a study recently published in the Journal of Neuroscience, Hebrew University of Jerusalem researchers, along with others from Israel and the US, presented their findings of a previously undescribed cellular mechanism which is essential for keeping cellular calcium concentration low. This mechanism operates together with other already characterized ...
Calcium-imaging is a sensitive method for monitoring calcium dynamics during neuronal activity. As intracellular calcium concentration is correlated to physiological and pathophysiological activity of neurons, calcium imaging with fluorescent indicators is one of the most commonly used techniques in neuroscience today. Current methodologies for loading calcium dyes into the tissue require prolonged incubation time (45-150 min), in addition to dissection and recovery time after the slicing procedure. This prolonged incubation curtails experimental time, as tissue is typically maintained for 6-8 hours after slicing. Using a recently introduced recovery chamber that extends the viability of acute brain slices to more than 24 hours, we tested the effectiveness of calcium AM staining following long incubation periods post cell loading and its impact on the functional properties of calcium signals in acute brain slices and wholemount retinae. We show that calcium dyes remain within cells and are fully
Mouse monoclonal Stromal interaction molecule 1 antibody validated for WB, IP, IHC, ICC, Flow Cyt, ICC/IF and tested in Human. Referenced in 2 publications and…
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To unravel the evolutionarily conserved genetic network underlying energy homeostasis, we performed a systematic in vivo gene knockdown screen in D...
Recombinant Human Tumor-associated Calcium Signal Transducer 2/TROP-2 (C-Fc)|| Human Tumor-associated Calcium Signal Transducer 2/TROP-2 (C-Fc)|| Tumor-associated Calcium Signal Transducer 2/TROP-2 (C-Fc)
Dendritic spines compartmentalize synaptically-evoked biochemical signals. The authors show that electrical compartmentalization provided by a spine endows the associated synapse with additional modes of calcium signaling by shaping the kinetics of synaptic calcium currents.
These different types of calcium are used for their own special properties. The use of these calcium is safe, and most likely a healthy choice. By choosing to use these you are enabling your body to function properly and correctly. The three different types of calcium all have an important function and are used to boost the natural calcium in your body. These types of calcium can be found in the foods you eat, the drinks you drink, and the dietary supplements you use. Each of these has been found to improve your blood system, your muscles your bones, and your teeth. These are in the simplest form, the same as calcium with the exception that these actually help calcium do it what it needs to do in the body ...
Calcium is the mineral that our body uses in the largest quantities. Everyone knows Calcium is required to build bones and teeth but Calcium does so much more. It promotes blood clotting & healing. It is involved in regulating metabolism and in particular, the metabolism of fats. It is necessary to maintain the proper pH balance in the body, and Calcium helps regulate the blood pressure, leading to better cardiovascular health.*. Unfortunately, Calcium is a mineral of which most Americans do not get enough. While vitamin D can assist in the utilization of Calcium, it helps to begin with a form of calcium that is readily assimilable by the body. Our liquid ionic Calcium supplement is the most bio-available form you can get.*. ...
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Vitamin D is included in this product because it works synergistically with calcium to ensure proper blood levels of calcium. When the calcium level decreases, vitamin D sends signals to various tissues to help restore it: vitamin D stimulates the digestive tract to absorb more calcium from foods and supplements, signals the kidneys to retain more calcium rather than filtering it out, and also prompts the body to obtain some calcium from its primary storage site, the bones. For these reasons, its important to include vitamin D when supplementing with calcium. ...
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Calcium toxicity typically results from the intake of bad form of calcium or from your body not being able to utilise calcium properly, due to thyroid weakness, stress, acidosis, adrenal gland weakness, etc. Often calcium at toxic levels is at the same time combined with calcium deficiency, which seems contradictory but is not. This article discusses the good and bad types of calcium...
Dr. Lupo, I have now had 5 tests this year. Calcium 10.8 Ionized calcium 1.37 H (1.17-1.32) Calcium 10.2 PTH 17.7 Ionized Calcium 1.37 H Calcium 10.2 PTH 22.4 Ionized Calcium 1.37 H ...
Caffeine-induced calcium oscillations in heavy-sarcoplasmic-reticulum vesicles from rabbit skeletal muscle.: Heavy-sarcoplasmic-reticulum vesicles from rabbit s
Li, Ting and Yan, An and Bhatia, Neha et al. (2019) Calcium signals are necessary to establish auxin transporter polarity in a plant stem cell niche. Nature Communications, 10 . Art. No. 726. ISSN 2041-1723. PMCID PMC6374474. ...
Complete information for STIM2 gene (Protein Coding), Stromal Interaction Molecule 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Its hard for us to consume a sufficient amount of calcium because its so easily depleted from our bodies. Factors that contribute to calcium depletion include age, stress, hormonal imbalances, environmental pollutants, nutrient depleted farmlands and, most of all, a diet of highly refined processed foods.. Picture a full cup with a hole in the bottom. Traditional calcium supplements act offensively, trying to keep the cup full. Progressive products not only work to meet your calcium needs, they also work defensively against the depletion of our existing calcium stores, patching the leaky cup so you can get the greatest possible benefit.. Age and Gender Specific ...
Progressive Complete Calcium for Adult Men supports your bones, skin, teeth, gums and muscles by defending against the depletion of calcium stores due to stress and hormonal imbalances.
CALCIUM FERTILIZER Calcium Calcium Bag: Available as 500gr - 1kg - 2.5kg This product is provided as a supplement in situations in which the amount of calcium within the water is below the suggested levels. Very soluble, easy to use, swiftly assimilated. Chelated Calcium - EDTA is a stable product that does not interac
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Calcium in living cells by M. J. Whitaker; 1 edition; First published in 2010; Subjects: Calcium Channels, Cultured Cells, SCIENCE / Life Sciences / Anatomy & Physiology, Cells, Signal Transduction, Humans, Calcium, Cellular signal transduction, Intracellular calcium, Metabolism
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Komal Patel Calcium dissolves in the stomach and is absorbed through the lining of the small intestine into the blood stream Once in the blood stream calcium builds bone regulates the expansion and contraction of the blood vessels and performs other important functions Check out for factors which hinders calcium absorbtion calcium absorption factors nutrition
WEVE ALL HEARD calcium builds strong bones and is key to preventing osteoporosis. But did you know taking in the right amount of calcium also has a huge effect on our oral health? Foster Dental Care explores this topic: Calcium Benefits Our Oral Health Does calcium really make a difference in our oral health? The answer is yes! […]. Read More…. ...
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The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. tumor associated calcium signal transducer 2 - Tumour-associated proteins. Detailed annotation on the structure, function, physiology, pharmacology and clinical relevance of drug targets.
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May 13, 2016· Acid calcium silies are represented in the mineral kingdom by gyrolite, H 2 Ca 2 (SiO 3) 3 ·H 2 O, a lime zeolite, sometimes regarded as an altered form of apophyllite (q.v.), which is itself an acid calcium silie containing an alkaline fluoride, by okenite, H 2 Ca(SiO 3) 2 ·H 2 O, and by xonalite 4CaSiO 3 ·H 2 O. Calcium silie is ...
Clapham DE (2007). "Calcium signaling". Cell. 131 (6): 1047-58. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.11.028. PMID 18083096.. ... Calcium is, therefore, a cell signaling molecule, and not usually considered a cofactor of the enzymes it regulates.[16] ... Niki I, Yokokura H, Sudo T, Kato M, Hidaka H (October 1996). "Ca2+ signaling and intracellular Ca2+ binding proteins". Journal ... Calcium is another special case, in that it is required as a component of the human diet, and it is needed for the full ...
GHS signal word Danger GHS hazard statements. H314, H318, H335, H402 GHS precautionary statements ... which decomposes calcium hydroxide into calcium oxide and water.[7] Ca(OH)2 → CaO + H2O. Structure, preparation, occurrence[ ... Calcium hydroxide (traditionally called slaked lime) is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ca(OH)2. It is a ... "MSDS Calcium hydroxide" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 March 2012. Retrieved 21 June 2011.. Cite uses deprecated ...
Shahidul (ed.). Calcium Signaling. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. 740. pp. 1219-47. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-2888 ... Antiepileptic drugs can control absence seizures by inhibiting the T-type calcium channels which prevents low-voltage calcium ... T-type calcium channels have been known to play a role in the spike-and-wave discharges of absence seizures. ... The T-type calcium channel is found in neurons throughout the brain. These channels produce particularly large currents in ...
Calcium Signaling Protocols. Humana Press, 2006. ... Cheng, H.; Lederer, W.J.; Cannell, M.B. (1993). "Calcium Sparks ... Fluo-3 is a fluorescence indicator of intracellular calcium (Ca2+). It is used to measure Ca2+ inside living cells in flow ... Once inside the cell, unspecific esterases cleave the ester effectively trapping fluo-3. As calcium is a key second messenger ... Molecular Probes, 2010 Gamsjäger, T. Flow Cytometry of Intracellular Calcium in Platelets. Grin, 2012 Lambert, DG. ...
... is a positive modulator of calcium flux mediated by the STIM-ORAI signaling in vertebrates. STIMATE can physically ... Oh-hora, Masatsugu; Rao, Anjana (2008-01-01). "Calcium signaling in lymphocytes". Current Opinion in Immunology. 20 (3): 250- ... reduces the puncta formation of STIM1 at ER-PM junctions and remarkably inhibits the calcium/calcineurin/NFAT signaling axis. ... thereby coupling to and gating the ORAI calcium channels on the plasma membrane. Depletion of TMEM110 with RNAi knockdown or ...
Marambaud P, Dreses-Werringloer U, Vingtdeux V (2009). "Calcium signaling in neurodegeneration". Mol Neurodegeneration. 4 (1): ... The activated motor neurons then transmit their signals, via action potential, to motor neurons in the legs. However, when a ... During this time, microglia generate reactive oxygen species and release signals to recruit peripheral immune cells for an ... Alpha-synuclein activates ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated), a major DNA damage repair signaling kinase. Alpha-synuclein ...
Nicholls DG (2005). "Mitochondria and calcium signaling". Cell Calcium. 38 (3-4): 311-7. doi:10.1016/j.ceca.2005.06.011. PMID ... load and oxidative stress The mitochondrial calcium uniporter which transports calcium from the cytosol of the cell into the ... Sam50 and Sam35 are responsible for the binding of precursors of β-barrel proteins, which contain conserved β-signal that is ... Yamano K, Yatsukawa Y, Esaki M, Hobbs AE, Jensen RE, Endo T (February 2008). "Tom20 and Tom22 share the common signal ...
Dodd, Antony N.; Kudla, Jörg; Sanders, Dale (2010). "The language of calcium signaling". Annual Review of Plant Biology. 61: ... He also molecularly characterised calcium permeable channels and is interested in how calcium fluxes are initiated and respond ... Sanders' research explores the transport of ions across plant cell membranes and the roles of ions in signalling and nutrient ... Allen, G. J.; Sanders, D. (1 May 1994). "Two Voltage-Gated, Calcium Release Channels Coreside in the Vacuolar Membrane of Broad ...
Finch, Elizabeth A.; Augustine, George J. (1998). "Local Calcium Signalling by Inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate in Purkinje Cell ... doi:10.1016/0166-2236(88)90199-3. Augustine, George J.; Santamaria, Fidel; Tanaka, Keiko (2003). "Local Calcium Signaling in ... showing that it is triggered by a remarkably local calcium signal. He has been influential in discovering the role of several ... ISBN 978-1-60535-380-7. Augustine, George J.; Charlton, Milton P.; Smith, Stephen J. (1987). "Calcium Action in Synaptic ...
2012.) Calcium Signaling in Dendritic Spines. Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology. Retrieved from http://cshperspectives ... Therefore, heterosynaptic dopamine signaling in mammals can be best represented by dopamine's biological functions of mediating ...
2012.) Calcium Signaling in Dendritic Spines. Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology. Retrieved from http://cshperspectives ... Ca2+ is one signaling ion that causes this AMPA receptor density change by inducing a cascade of biological changes within the ... According to Hebb, these two cells are strengthened because their signaling occurs together in space and/or time, also known as ... In order to create input-specific changes in synaptic strength, the Ca2+ signal must be restricted to specific dendritic spines ...
This work eventually led to the identification of key channel proteins involved in calcium signaling in immune and other non- ... While continuing to investigate Fc𝛆RI biology, his lab also began to study calcium signaling in immune cells. ... Vig, Monika; Kinet, Jean-Pierre (January 2009). "Calcium signaling in immune cells". Nature Immunology. 10 (1): 21-27. doi: ... is a French-American immunologist known for his work studying the role of calcium signaling in the immune response. He is a ...
Brini, Marisa; Calì, Tito; Ottolini, Denis; Carafoli, Ernesto (2013). "Intracellular Calcium Homeostasis and Signaling". ... Chlorine, potassium, magnesium, calcium and phosphorus have important roles due to their ready ionization and utility in ... "Calcium". Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon. 1 September 2017. Retrieved 31 August 2019. CS1 ... Miriyala, Sumitra; K. Holley, Aaron; St Clair, Daret K. (1 February 2011). "Mitochondrial Superoxide Dismutase - Signals of ...
Verkhratsky A, Orkand RK, Kettenmann H (1998). "Glial calcium: homeostasis and signaling function". Physiol. Rev. 78: 99-141. ... Xenopus oocyte calcium waves, and glial calcium waves in cortical tissue culture. Play media Winfree AT. (2001). The Geometry ... Lechleiter J, Girard S, Peralta E, Clapham D (1991). "Spiral calcium wave propagation and annihilation in Xenopus laevis ...
... has a suppressive effect on calcium signaling from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in the proliferative cells. Also, ... Yamaguchi M (March 2000). "Role of regucalcin in calcium signaling". Life Sciences. 66 (19): 1769-80. doi:10.1016/S0024-3205(99 ... Yamaguchi M (August 2012). "Role of regucalcin in brain calcium signaling: involvement in aging". Integrative Biology. 4 (8): ... Yamaguchi M (May 2014). "Regulatory role of regucalcin in heart calcium signaling: Insight into cardiac failure (Review)". ...
NFAT activation depends on calcium signaling. IP3 produced by PLC-γ is no longer bound to the membrane and diffuses rapidly in ... Signal 1 is provided by the T-cell receptor when recognising a specific antigen on a MHC molecule. Signal 2 comes from co- ... The signalling motifs involved in TCR signalling are tyrosine residues in the cytoplasmic tail of these adaptor proteins that ... Binding of IP3 to calcium channel receptors on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) induces the release of calcium (Ca2+) into the ...
... is a small, stable protein containing EF-hand type calcium binding sites. It is involved in calcium signaling. ... Therefore, calcium-binding proteins must distinguish calcium in the presence of high concentrations of other metal ions. The ... Calcium binding proteins like parvalbumin play a role in many physiological processes, namely cell-cycle regulation, second ... Other calcium-binding protein markers are calretinin (most abundant subtype in DLPFC, about 50%) and calbindin. Interneurons ...
... an essential step in calcium signaling to regulate intracellular processes. There are four major classes, termed A, B, C and D ... "Role of protons in calcium signaling". The Biochemical Journal. 478 (4): 895-910. doi:10.1042/BCJ20200971. ISSN 1470-8728. PMID ... Acids trigger the release of bound calcium from cellular stores and the consequent increase in free cytosolic Ca2+, ... Phospholipase Cs play a central role in signal transduction, releasing the second messenger inositol triphosphate. ...
Verkhratsky, Alexei; Untiet, Verena; Rose, Christine R. (7 February 2019). "Ionic signalling in astroglia beyond calcium". The ... Verkhratsky, Alexej; Orkand, Richard K.; Kettenmann, Helmut (1998). "Glial calcium: homeostasis and signaling function". ... calcium signalling, and brain ageing. He is an elected member and vice-president of Academia Europaea, of the German National ... which create ionic signals coordinated in space and time; these ionic signals control the activity of astroglial homeostatic ...
Bazargani, N; Attwell, D (February 2016). "Astrocyte calcium signaling: the third wave". Nature Neuroscience. 19 (2): 182-9. ... A current theory of how such survival signals are sent from axon endings to the soma includes the idea that NGF receptors are ... 2004). Trafficking the NGF signal: implications for normal and degenerating neurons. Prog. Brain Res. Progress in Brain ... and this produces a signal that must be transported up the length of the axon to the nucleus. ...
"Lysosomal calcium signalling regulates autophagy through calcineurin and TFEB". Nature Cell Biology. 17 (3): 288-99. doi: ... "Science Signaling. 5 (228): ra42. doi:10.1126/scisignal.2002790. PMC 3437338. PMID 22692423.. ... Nuclear localization and activity of TFEB is inhibited by serine phosphorylation by mTORC1 and extracellular signal-regulated ... "Modelling TFE renal cell carcinoma in mice reveals a critical role of WNT signaling". eLife. 5. doi:10.7554/eLife.17047. PMC ...
Cantiello HF (2004). "Regulation of calcium signaling by polycystin-2". Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 286 (6): F1012-29. doi: ... and may modulate intracellular calcium homeostasis and other signal transduction pathways. This protein interacts with ...
Perea, Gertrudis (September 2005). "Glial calcium signaling and neuron-glia communication". Cell Calcium. 38 (3-4): 375-382. ... Perea, Gertrudis (16 March 2005). "Properties of Synaptically Evoked Astrocyte Calcium Signal Reveal Synaptic Information ... Through changes in their calcium concentration excitability, astrocytes are able to detect neurotransmitters and other signals ... astrocytes are capable of producing transient changes in their intracellular calcium concentrations through release of calcium ...
"Chapter 5 Intracellular Calcium Homeostasis and Signaling". In Banci, Lucia (Ed.). Metallomics and the Cell. Metal Ions in Life ... Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z See also References Calcium - Calcium ions (Ca2+) contribute to ... Many enzymes require calcium ions as a cofactor, those of the blood-clotting cascade being notable examples. Extracellular ... It occurs when an odor binds to a receptor within the nose, transmitting a signal through the olfactory system. Olfaction has ...
Rock MT, Brooks WH, Roszman TL (1997). "Calcium-dependent signaling pathways in T cells. Potential role of calpain, protein ... Reverter D, Sorimachi H, Bode W (2001). "The structure of calcium-free human m-calpain: implications for calcium activation and ... "The crystal structure of calcium-free human m-calpain suggests an electrostatic switch mechanism for activation by calcium". ... Chua BT, Guo K, Li P (2000). "Direct cleavage by the calcium-activated protease calpain can lead to inactivation of caspases". ...
Today the IP3 signaling pathway is well mapped out, and is known to be important in regulating a variety of calcium-dependent ... Berridge, M. J. (2016). "The Inositol Trisphosphate/Calcium Signaling Pathway in Health and Disease". Physiological Reviews. 96 ... Bezprozvanny, I.; Hayden, M.R. (2004). "Deranged neuronal calcium signaling and Huntington disease". Biochemical and ... When IP3 binds its receptor, calcium is released into the cytosol, thereby activating various calcium regulated intracellular ...
They are also involved in calcium signaling. SK channel activation can mediate neuroprotection in various models of cell death ... Calcium enters the cell via voltage activated calcium channels as well as through NMDA receptors. Calcium does not directly ... In addition to being activated by calcium flow through voltage-gated calcium channels, SK channels can be activated by calcium ... by an increase in the concentration of intracellular calcium through N-type calcium channels. Their activation limits the ...
His work highlighted the spatial aspects of calcium signals and in particular the importance of nuclear calcium in governing ... His work on neuronal calcium signaling and gene regulation in the nervous system has been widely cited. He described the role ... Hilmar Bading is noted for his work on neuronal calcium signaling and gene regulation in the nervous system. He identified ... Hagenston, Anna M.; Bading, Hilmar (2011-11-01). "Calcium signaling in synapse-to-nucleus communication". Cold Spring Harbor ...
Carbachol-dependent release involves PKC and calcium signaling. Some lacritin is produced by the meibomian gland, and also by ... Lacritin mitogenic, survival and secretion signaling have been studied. Lacritin mitogenic signaling follows two pathways: Gαi ... Targeted cells signal to NFAT and mTOR if conditions are suitable for proliferation, or to AKT and FOXO3 under conditions of ... Here, it forms a complex with PKCα and PLCγ2 from which downstream mTOR and NFAT signaling is initiated. The upstream Gαi or G ...
ISBN 978-0-393-97767-7. García, AG; García de Diego, AM; Gandía, L; Borges, R; García Sancho, J (2006). "Calcium signaling and ... Hoeflich A, Bielohuby M (2009). "Mechanisms of adrenal gland growth: signal integration by extracellular signal regulated ... Cortisol reduces the capacity of osteoblasts to produce new bone tissue and decreases the absorption of calcium in the ... When activated, it evokes the release of catecholamines from the storage granules by stimulating the opening of calcium ...
Kobayashi M, Takamatsu K, Saitoh S, Noguchi T (1993). "Myristoylation of hippocalcin is linked to its calcium-dependent ... formation can occur if the matrix domain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag is substituted by a myristylation signal". ...
The official start to its development started in December 1986 when Merck's president, Edward Scolnick, announced that they would start a comprehensive AIDS research program. They started a laboratory dedicated to AIDS research in West Point, Pennsylvania and placed Emilio Emini in charge of the laboratory.[11] A couple months later on January, 1987, a team of researchers consisting of Emilio Emini, Joel Huff, and Irving Sigal, kickstarted their studies by basing their project off of earlier research on the protease enzyme, renin.[5] They were the ones who started the process of research and development into protease inhibitors and its relation to the virus. Over a year later, in July 1988, Nancy Kohl, Emilio Emini, et al., published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of the Science about the idea of inhibiting the protease.[11] On February, 1989, Manuela Navia, Paula Fitzgerald, et al., published a paper that showed the three-dimensional structure of HIV's protease enzyme.[5] Other ...
The sGP forms a dimeric protein that interferes with the signalling of neutrophils, another type of white blood cell. This ... or calcium hypochlorite (bleaching powder), and other suitable disinfectants may be used at appropriate concentrations.[81][115 ... the signalling proteins STAT1 and STAT2 are activated and move to the cell's nucleus.[51] This triggers the expression of ... Viral replication triggers high levels of inflammatory chemical signals and leads to a septic state.[38] ...
Calcium-sensitive dyes have shown that internal concentrations of calcium increase during bursts. The activation of different ... The pre-BötC complex operates in animals as part of a larger network that receives critical information and signaling inputs ... Other research has also suggested that calcium flow through N-type calcium channels is essential for normal breathing, and is ... voltage gated calcium channels become activated and calcium is able to flow into the cell which usually leads to the release of ...
... both for camouflage and for signalling, in his Historia animalium: "The octopus ... seeks its prey by so changing its colour as ... and an enzyme in the toxic saliva is used to dissolve the calcium carbonate of the shell. It takes about three hours for O. ... signaling, mate defending and eviction of individuals from dens. This is likely the result of abundant food supplies combined ...
"Monitoring FDA MedWatch Reports: Signals for Dabigatran and Metoclopramide" (PDF). QuarterWatch. Institute for Safe Medication ...
Chronic hyperstimulation of opioid receptors results in altered homeostasis of pain signalling pathways in the body with ... "Venom from the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, induces a calcium-dependent current in cultured dorsal root ganglion cells" ... endotoxins and other signals of infection also increases pain sensitivity as part of sickness behavior, the evolved response to ...
See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Ion channel modulators. Taxon identifiers. *Wikidata: Q146217 ...
The signal transduction pathway is the mechanism by which the energy of a photon signals a mechanism in the cell that leads to ... This leads to a decrease in the influx of calcium ions into the cell and thus the intracellular calcium ion concentration falls ... Photoreceptors do not signal color; they only signal the presence of light in the visual field. ... Early Notch signaling maintains progenitor cycling. Photoreceptor precursors come about through inhibition of Notch signaling ...
Receptor/signaling modulators. Androgens and antiandrogens. Estrogen receptor modulators. Progesterone receptor modulators. ... aluminum, calcium, gadolinium, magnesium, strontium, zinc). *Dehydroandrosterone. *Dihydrotestosterone. *Estradiol. *L-α-Amino ... Receptor/signaling modulators. Progestogens and antiprogestogens. Androgen receptor modulators. Estrogen receptor modulators. ...
Marine organisms which possess calcium carbonate shells or exoskeletons experience physiological pressure as the carbonate ... "Biological annihilation via the ongoing sixth mass extinction signaled by vertebrate population losses and declines". PNAS ...
Receptor/signaling modulators. Androgens and antiandrogens. Estrogen receptor modulators. Progesterone receptor modulators. ... NMDA induces a calcium flux that allows for synaptic plasticity which is crucial for AHN. ... Bennett NC, Gardiner RA, Hooper JD, Johnson DW, Gobe GC (2010). "Molecular cell biology of androgen receptor signalling". Int. ... Recent results indicate androgens inhibit the ability of some fat cells to store lipids by blocking a signal transduction ...
Foraminifera shells are composed of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and are found in many common geological environments. The ratio ... Based on the simplifying assumption that the signal can be attributed to temperature change alone, with the effects of salinity ... and δ is δ18O for a calcium carbonate sample). ...
The link was a single nucleotide polymorphism of two genes involved in calcium channel signaling with neurons. One of these ... The underlying mechanism is genes that code for a product that is either used by various cells or has a cascade-like signaling ... Both males and females with larger combs have higher bone density and strength, which allows females to deposit more calcium ... In mating, for many animals the signals and receptors of sexual communication may have evolved simultaneously as the expression ...
See also: Receptor/signaling modulators. Retrieved from " ...
Calcium dipicolinate, the calcium salt of dipicolinic acid, is incorporated into the forespore during this time. The ... this signals to the bacteria that it has reached the end of the animal, and an inactive dispersable morphology is useful. ... Up to 20% of the dry weight of the endospore consists of calcium dipicolinate within the core, which is thought to stabilize ... Dipicolinic acid could be responsible for the heat resistance of the spore, and calcium may aid in resistance to heat and ...
T cell receptor signaling pathway. • segmentation. • positive regulation of receptor recycling. • calcium ion transmembrane ... Wnt signaling pathway[edit]. Wnt signaling pathway has been shown to be involved in several critical steps in embryogenesis and ... negative regulation of apoptotic signaling pathway. • neuron development. • memory. • endoplasmic reticulum calcium ion ... Notch signaling pathway[edit]. In Notch signaling, critical proteolytic reactions takes place during maturation and activation ...
At the hypothalamus, fear-signaling impulses activate both the sympathetic nervous system and the modulating systems of the HPA ... a social signal in salmonoid fish), activation of the HPA axis, and inhibition of aggression. Inclusion of the amino acid L- ...
Kühn, H. and Curran, M., Strontium, Barium and Calcium Chromates, in Artists' Pigments. A Handbook of Their History and ... GHS Signal word Danger GHS hazard statements. H272, H301, H302, H317, H332, H350, H400, H410 ... Kühn, H. and Curran, M., Strontium, Barium and Calcium Chromates, in Artists' Pigments. A Handbook of Their History and ...
See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Ion channel modulators. Taxon identifiers. *Wikidata: Q35625 ...
"The OX-44 molecule couples to signaling pathways and is associated with CD2 on rat T lymphocytes and a natural killer cell ... protein GP41 of HIV-1 inhibits distinct lymphocyte activation pathways dependent on protein kinase C and intracellular calcium ...
"Vitamin D, calcium and prevention of breast cancer: a review". Weill Medical College of Cornell University, Strang Cancer ... "Vitamin D signaling in immune-mediated disorders: Evolving insights and therapeutic opportunities". Laboratory for Experimental ... "Vitamin D and calcium intake in relation to risk of endometrial cancer: a systematic review of the literature". Epidemiology ...
calcium-mediated signaling using extracellular calcium source. • transmembrane transport. • calcium ion transport. • regulation ... This gene encodes an alpha-1 subunit of a voltage-dependent calcium channel. Calcium channels mediate the influx of calcium ... calcium ion transmembrane transport. • camera-type eye development. • cardiac conduction. • calcium ion import. ... high voltage-gated calcium channel activity. • voltage-gated calcium channel activity involved in AV node cell action potential ...
"Altered TAOK2 activity causes autism-related neurodevelopmental and cognitive abnormalities through RhoA signaling". Molecular ... CARHSP1: Calcium-regulated heat stable protein 1. *CASP16P: encoding protein Caspase 16, pseudogene ...
positive regulation of cytosolic calcium ion concentration involved in phospholipase C-activating G-protein coupled signaling ... G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • adenylate cyclase-activating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • ... dopamine receptor signaling pathway. • conditioned taste aversion. • cerebral cortex GABAergic interneuron migration. • glucose ... positive regulation of release of sequestered calcium ion into cytosol. • mating behavior. • behavioral fear response. • ...
... , together with calcium phosphide, is used in floating, self-igniting naval signal flares, such as those ... calcium oxide), Ca3P2 (calcium phosphide), CaS (calcium sulfide), Ca3N2 (calcium nitride), SiC (silicon carbide), etc.). In the ... Production of calcium cyanamideEdit. Calcium carbide reacts with nitrogen at high temperature to form calcium cyanamide:[5] ... Calcium carbide, also known as calcium acetylide, is a chemical compound with the chemical formula of CaC2. Its main use ...
signal transduction. • Wnt signaling pathway, calcium modulating pathway. • Wnt signaling pathway, planar cell polarity pathway ... Wnt signaling pathway involved in dorsal/ventral axis specification. • canonical Wnt signaling pathway. • synapse assembly. • ... signal transducer activity. • Wnt-protein binding. • protein binding. • protein kinase binding. • ubiquitin protein ligase ... Wnt signaling pathway. • embryonic camera-type eye development. • multicellular organism development. • cell surface receptor ...
For instance, serum calcium concentration affects parathyroid hormone synthesis; bluid succar (serum glucose concentration) ... Signal transduction. Skauk't categeries: *Pages wi citations uisin unsupportit parameters. *Airticles conteenin Auncient Greek- ...
See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor modulators • Acetylcholine metabolism/transport ...
The increased calcium availability binds to the calmodulin subunit and activates glycogen phosphorylase kinase. Glycogen ... Upon eating a meal, there is a release of insulin, signaling glucose availability in the blood. Insulin indirectly activates PP ... An increase in AMP concentration, which occurs during strenuous exercise, signals energy demand. AMP activates glycogen ... PLC indirectly causes the release of calcium from the hepatocytes' endoplasmic reticulum into the cytosol. ...
The Sixth International Symposium on Calcium-Binding Proteins in Health and Disease was held in Nagoya, Japan, July 24-28, 1988 ... Calcium Signaling in Molecular Cell Biology. * Roles of Calcium in the Regulation of Tyrosine Hydroxylase ... Cytoskeleton and Calcium Signaling. * Calcium and Polyphosphoinositide Regulation of Actin Network Structure by Gelsolin ... Protein Phosphatase and Calcium Signaling. * Characterization of the Calmodulin-Binding Domain of Calcineurin Deduced from a ...
... * Calcium signaling: an underlying link between cardiac disease and carcinogenesis Authors: ... Syncytium calcium signaling and macrophage function in the heart Macrophages are traditionally viewed as a key component of the ... A temporal examination of calcium signaling in cancer- from tumorigenesis, to immune evasion, and metastasis Although the study ... A superior bright NIR luminescent nanoparticle preparation and indicating calcium signaling detection in cells and small ...
Perspectives on: Local calcium signaling: Subcellular Ca2+ signaling in the heart: the role of ryanodine receptor sensitivity ... Ca2+ blinks: Rapid nanoscopic store calcium signaling. Didier X. P. Brochet, Dongmei Yang, Alessandro Di Maio, W. Jonathan ... Ca2+ blinks: Rapid nanoscopic store calcium signaling. Didier X. P. Brochet, Dongmei Yang, Alessandro Di Maio, W. Jonathan ... Ca2+ blinks: Rapid nanoscopic store calcium signaling. Didier X. P. Brochet, Dongmei Yang, Alessandro Di Maio, W. Jonathan ...
... cause a wave of calcium signaling to spread outward from the wound site. Calcium signaling helps coordinate cellular and tissue ... illustrates long-range calcium signaling in an embryo of the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis). In the movie, cells are ... The signals, in addition to changes in tension across the embryo, ... wounded with a laser (bottom-left), causing them to release signaling molecules that are sensed by adjacent cells. ...
The Versatility of Ca2+ Signaling: First, Second, or Third Messenger?. *The Story of Mitochondria and Calcium: Birth, Decline, ... Ca2+ Signaling and Disease. Sustained increases of cell Ca2+ to the micromolar range are obviously deleterious to the signaling ... The Versatility of Ca2+ Signaling: First, Second, or Third Messenger?. Outside signals by first messengers act on plasma ... marked the beginning of the calcium (Ca2+) signaling saga. Sidney Ringer [Ringer, S. (1883) J. Physiol. 4, 29-43] was studying ...
... represent one of the major signal transduction pathways by which information from extracellular signals is transferred... ... Deitmer JW, Verkhratsky AJ, Lohr C (1998). Calcium signalling in glial cells. Cell Calcium 24:405-416.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Microglial Cell Calcium Signaling Internal Store Endoplasmic Reticu Human Microglia This is a preview of subscription content, ... Bootman MD, Berridge MJ (1995). The elemental principles of calcium signaling. Cell 83:675-678.PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
This review examines the principles of Ca(2+) signaling, from changes in protein conformations driven by Ca(2+) to the ... Calcium ions (Ca(2+)) impact nearly every aspect of cellular life. ... Calcium signaling Cell. 2007 Dec 14;131(6):1047-58. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2007.11.028. ... Calcium ions (Ca(2+)) impact nearly every aspect of cellular life. This review examines the principles of Ca(2+) signaling, ...
Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Science Signaling Message Body. (Your Name) thought you would like to see this page ... Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Science Signaling. ...
These results were interpreted that the amount of ER calcium per se was not crucial, but a signal generated from the released ... However, cells overexpressing the ER calcium-buffering protein calreticulin, which allows increased calcium loading in the ER ... which prevents the release of a sufficiently high calcium signal from the ER upon ceramide exposure. This model is consistent ... Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Science Signaling Message Body. (Your Name) thought you would like to see this page ...
Calcium Signaling Calcium signaling diagram. It is widely agreed that derangements in intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis are ...
Inositol trisphosphate and calcium signalling.. Berridge MJ1.. Author information. 1. AFRC Laboratory of Molecular Signalling, ... This family of intracellular calcium channels displays the regenerative process of calcium-induced calcium release responsible ... Inositol trisphosphate is a second messenger that controls many cellular processes by generating internal calcium signals. It ... Such a dynamic signalling pathway controls many cellular processes, including fertilization, cell growth, transformation, ...
... and signal transduction pathway activation. Solutions optimized for cAMP/calcium signaling studies include PCR array, miRNA, ... cAMP Calcium Signaling PathwayFinder RT2 Profiler PCR Array The Rat cAMP/Ca2+ PathwayFinder RT² Profiler PCR Array contains 84 ... cAMP Calcium Signaling PathwayFinder RT2 Profiler PCR Array The Human cAMP/Ca2+ PathwayFinder RT² Profiler PCR Array contains ... cAMP Calcium Signaling PathwayFinder RT2 Profiler PCR Array The Mouse cAMP/Ca2+ PathwayFinder RT² Profiler PCR Array contains ...
This process requires signal integration among multiple pathways, relying on second messengers such as calcium ions. Calcium ... These classes can be ordered based on agonist stimulation strength Gαq-mediated signaling. In vivo calcium signaling dynamics ... Decoding Calcium Signaling Dynamics during Drosophila Wing Disc Development.. Brodskiy PA1, Wu Q1, Soundarrajan DK1, Huizar FJ1 ... Integrated calcium signaling activity decreases with increasing tissue size, and it responds to morphogenetic perturbations ...
CALCIUM SIGNAL GENERATION/MODULATION AND HOMEOSTASIS. Calcium Entry. Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels. William A. Catterall. The ... FUNCTIONAL ASPECTS OF CALCIUM SIGNALING. Proteins Mediating Effects of Calcium. The Diversity of Calcium Sensor Proteins in the ... Calcium Signaling in Cardiac Myocytes. Claire J. Fearnley, H. Llewelyn Roderick, and Martin D. Bootman. Calcium Signaling in ... Calcium in Cell Death and Disease. Apoptosis and Autophagy: Decoding Calcium Signals that Mediate Life or Death. Michael W. ...
Axial tubule junctions control rapid calcium signaling in atria. Sören Brandenburg,1,2 Tobias Kohl,1,2 George S.B. Williams,3 ... Dynamics of calcium sparks and calcium leak in the heart. Biophys J. 2011;101(6):1287-1296.. View this article via: PubMed ... The spatial pattern of atrial cardiomyocyte calcium signalling modulates contraction. J Cell Sci. 2004;117(Pt 26):6327-6337. ... F25, Ca2+ signal onset during -75 to 0 mV depolarization. (N) Latency difference of Ca2+ signal upstroke (dF/dt). n = 15 AMs. * ...
... Thomas Lampert,1 Cheryl Nugent,2 John ... Thomas Lampert, Cheryl Nugent, John Weston, Nathanael Braun, and Heather Kuruvilla, "Nociceptin Signaling Involves a Calcium- ...
Reuters Health) - In elderly people, higher levels of calcium in the blood are associated with poorer mental function and ... Calcium can pass from the blood stream into the brain, they add, but it has not been clear whether blood calcium levels have ... When the researchers excluded people with abnormally high calcium levels from their analysis, the link between calcium levels ... Higher calcium levels were also tied to faster mental decline over time in the Rotterdam study, but not in the more elderly ...
The importance of calcium signaling extends well beyond this role. For example, Calcium signaling serves to modulate the ... Papers that describe the role of calcium signaling in the heart are welcomed. Papers of diverse form will be considered ... A combination of experimental and computational approaches have been effectively applied to study calcium signaling in the ... The common theme is that they describe calcium signaling in the heart ...
... Nat Protoc. 2006;1(3):1057-65. doi: 10.1038/ ...
Calcium signaling of glial cells along mammalian axons Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Journal of ... Calcium signaling of glial cells along mammalian axons. S Kriegler and SY Chiu ... Glial [Ca2+]i signaling was examined in a mammalian white matter lacking neuronal cell bodies and synapses. Rat optic nerves ( ... postnatal days 2 and 7) were stained with calcium indicator dyes and confocal images of [Ca2+bdi were recorded at approximately ...
... Irene Pafumi,1 Annarita Favia ... Both cytokines were found to elicit intracellular calcium mobilization. Targeting intracellular Ca2+ signaling, antagonizing IP ... This study describes a novel calcium-dependent machinery activated through Angiopoietin-1/2-Tie receptor system in HUVECs ... These results identify a novel calcium-dependent machinery involved in the complex interplay regulating angiogenic processes ...
Education,NSDL,Fertilization,Physics,NSDL_SetSpec_BEN,Sperm,Calcium,,Signaling,Life Science ... Calcium Signaling Through CatSper Channels in Mammalian Fertilization. Website Address: ...
The first edition of James Putneys Calcium Signaling offered readers a comprehensive view of the fascinating diversity of ... technologies that the new field of calcium signaling employed. And while tha ... download and read Calcium Signaling, Second Edition ebook online in PDF format for iPhone, iPad, Android, Computer and Mobile ... In Calcium Signaling, Second Edition, Putney focuses on those processes that generate calcium signals to compile the first ...
Changes in calcium ion concentration play a predominant and key signaling role in almost all cells of the central nervous ... Many of these cellular players have been well characterized in terms of calcium signaling but astonishingly little is known ... This Research Topic seeks to bring together contributions that improve our understanding of how calcium signaling impacts on ... influences calcium signaling of its constituent cells. The best known interface is t... ...
USA Home > Product Directory > Cell Biology > Cell Signaling and Neuroscience > Intracellular Calcium Signaling > Calcium ...
The International Union of Crystallography is a non-profit scientific union serving the world-wide interests of crystallographers and other scientists employing crystallographic methods ...
The ion calcium is a ubiquitous second messenger, present in all eukaryotic cells. It modulates a vast number of cellular ... which are capable of mobilization for signaling purposes. Here we review the calcium signaling on lizards red blood cells, an ... Calcium Signaling*. Erythrocytes / metabolism*. Homeostasis. Lizards / metabolism*. Mitochondria / metabolism. Receptors, ... These cells possess a complex machinery to regulate calcium, and display calcium responses to extracellular agonists. ...
Ca2+ is an important signal transduction moleculethat has been shown to regulate responses to a large number of environmental ... Calcium signals are generated through the coordinated action of calcium influx channels and calcium efflux transporters. ... A large network of calcium‐binding proteins act as calcium sensors and relay calcium signals to downstream effector proteins. ... Keywords: Arabidopsis; calcium; calcium transport; calmodulin; protein kinases; signal transduction; transcription factors ...
This review will discuss the machinery responsible for Ca2+ signals in these cells, as well as experimental models used to ... investigate cholangiocyte Ca2+ signaling. We will also discuss the role of Ca2+ in the normal and abnormal regulation of ... Calcium (Ca2+) is a versatile second messenger that regulates a number of cellular processes in virtually every type of cell. ... "Calcium Signaling in Cholangiocytes: Methods, Mechanisms, and Effects." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 19, no. 12: 3913. ...
A Common Mechanism Underlies Vertebrate Calcium Signaling andDrosophila Phototransduction. Irit Chorna-Ornan, Tamar Joel- ... A Common Mechanism Underlies Vertebrate Calcium Signaling andDrosophila Phototransduction. Irit Chorna-Ornan, Tamar Joel- ... A Common Mechanism Underlies Vertebrate Calcium Signaling andDrosophila Phototransduction. Irit Chorna-Ornan, Tamar Joel- ... A Common Mechanism Underlies Vertebrate Calcium Signaling andDrosophila Phototransduction Message Subject (Your Name) has ...
  • Intracellular signaling pathways are often regulated by the second messengers cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and calcium ion (Ca2+). (
  • The Cignal CRE Reporter Assay Kit is designed to monitor the activity of CREB-regulated signal transduction pathways in cultured cells. (
  • Schematic highlighting the key steps in Ca 2+ signalling pathways. (
  • Ca2+ can act in signal transduction resulting from activation of ion channels or as a second messenger caused by indirect signal transduction pathways such as G protein-coupled receptors. (
  • The purpose of the present study was to determine the role of postreceptor calcium signaling pathways in AVP-induced renal vasoconstriction in vivo. (
  • After AVP receptor stimulation, calcium mobilization and calcium entry signaling pathways participate to similar degrees in WKY and SHR. (
  • Bredesen, D.E. (2000) Apoptosis: Overview and signal transduction pathways [In Process Citation]. (
  • Two pathways of calcium signaling that regulated D2 autoreceptor-dependent GIRK signaling were identified, which distinctly affected desensitization and the magnitude of D2S and D2L receptor-dependent GIRK currents. (
  • TCR signaling pathways cooperate to activate the inducible transcription factors NF-κB, NFAT, and AP-1. (
  • The accessory HIV-1 protein Nef enhances viral replication by modulating multiple signaling pathways through a plethora of interactions with cellular proteins ( 3 ). (
  • Increases in the intracellular concentration of calcium ([Ca 2+ ] i ) activate various signaling pathways that lead to the expression of genes that are essential for dendritic development, neuronal survival, and synaptic plasticity. (
  • The mode of Ca 2+ entry into a neuron plays a key role in determining which signaling pathways are activated and thus specifies the cellular response to Ca 2+ . (
  • We developed a functional knock-in technique to investigate the features of LTCs that specifically couple them to the signaling pathways that regulate gene expression. (
  • The features of the LTC that specify its functions are not known, but one possibility is that Ca 2+ -binding proteins bound to the channel sense the local Ca 2+ concentration and selectively activate signaling pathways when the channel opens. (
  • To test this idea, we developed a strategy to introduce exogenous LTCs into primary neurons and to examine their ability to activate nuclear signaling pathways. (
  • However, activation of intracellular signaling pathways has also been demonstrated, indicating a more complex mechanism of increasing intracellular Ca 2 + concentration. (
  • QIAGEN provides a broad range of assay technologies for cAMP/calcium signaling research that enable nalysis of gene expression and regulation, epigenetic modification, genotyping, and signal transduction pathway activation. (
  • The results indicate an important link in the coupling mechanism of vertebrate store-operated channels and Drosophila TRP channels, which involves the InsP 3 branch of the inositol lipid-signaling pathway. (
  • In this system hydrolysis of the phospholipid PIP 2 by phospholipase C (PLC) produces two second messengers: 1,4,5-inositol trisphosphate (InsP 3 ) and diacylglycerol (DAG), each eliciting a unique signaling pathway ( Berridge and Irvine, 1984 ). (
  • However, the involvement of downstream stages of the signaling pathway leading to opening of surface membrane channels remains elusive in Drosophila as it does in the coupling of entry channels in vertebrate PLC-coupled receptor responses. (
  • In the present study we reveal first that 2-APB reversibly and efficiently blocks the robust InsP 3 -mediated signaling pathway of Xenopus oocytes at a stage operating after production of InsP 3 but before its action in mediating the rise in cellular Ca 2+ . (
  • The researchers, led by Professor Daphne Atlas at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem's Alexander Silberman Institute of Life Sciences, found that both the Cav1.2 Timothy channel mutants G406R and G402S, activate gene programs (transcriptional activity) via the Ras/ERK/CREB cellular pathway, similar to the native (non-mutated) calcium channel Cav1.2. (
  • The most common signaling pathway that increases cytoplasmic calcium concentration is the phospholipase C (PLC) pathway. (
  • DAG predominantly activates the nuclear factor-κB signalling pathway via activation of protein kinase C θ and the Ras-mediated signalling pathway 2 . (
  • To induce IL-6 secretion in astrocytes , we used torin2 and rapamycin to block the PI3K-mTOR pathway and increase cytosolic calcium, respectively. (
  • Further analysis revealed that cell death induced by this extract was associated with intracellular calcium release, opening of the MPTP, caspase 3- and PARP-cleavage suggesting that this extract induced aberrant calcium signaling that resulted in apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway. (
  • In mammals, almost all cells possess a single primary cilium that houses the Sonic Hedgehog pathway ( Drummond, 2012 ) and mediates aspects of cell-cell signaling. (
  • Recent studies, highlighted in this review, started to interconnect PI3K pathway activation to Ca 2+ signaling. (
  • In this pathway, the role of the vitamin D pathway in calcium signaling in depression is shown. (
  • Additional studies used a well-characterised Ca 2+ transport pathway to generate cellular Ca 2+ signals, and examined their ability to trigger autophagy. (
  • Ca 2+ -CaM binding to the LTC was necessary for activation of the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, which conveys local Ca 2+ signals from the mouth of the LTC to the nucleus. (
  • Collectively, our findings indicate that ketamine induces neuroapoptosis possibly through the dysregulated intracellular calcium, mitochondria, and microRNA pathway. (
  • LNP is also required for infection by the mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices , suggesting that LNP plays a role in the common signaling pathway shared by the rhizobial and mycorrhizal symbioses. (
  • and considering the different evolutionary histories of these two symbioses, it is legitimate to surmise that the evolution of nodulation involved the recruitment of the preexisting mycorrhizal signaling pathway for the recognition of Nod factor. (
  • At the core of this common symbiosis signaling ( SYM ) pathway are oscillations in nucleus-associated cytosolic calcium levels, termed calcium spiking, acting as a secondary messenger to induce gene expression. (
  • Transient rises in the cytoplasmic concentration of calcium ions serve as second messenger signals that control many neuronal functions. (
  • Calcium ions (Ca(2+)) impact nearly every aspect of cellular life. (
  • Calcium ions play a critical role in signaling in a wide variety of cells and tissues, including muscle, immune cells, neurons, the liver, and oocytes. (
  • All mammalian cells need a ready supply of calcium ions to execute functions as diverse as neurotransmission, muscle contraction, hormone release, or immune responses. (
  • They need calcium ions to carry out several essential aspects of viral life, such as entry into host cells, genome replication and building new viruses to invade other cells. (
  • Calcium signaling is the use of calcium ions (Ca2+) to communicate and drive intracellular processes often as a step in signal transduction. (
  • Signaling occurs when the cell is stimulated to release Ca2+ ions from intracellular stores, and/or when Ca2+ enters the cell through plasma membrane ion channels. (
  • If a neurotransmitter induces the release of calcium ions from a vesicle, then that generates a signal. (
  • In deuterosome eggs (mammals, fish, amphibians, ascidians, sea urchins, etc.), successful sperm entry leads to a distinct rise in intracellular calcium ions (Ca2+), with mammals and ascidians displaying a series of intracellular calcium spikes required for completion of meiosis. (
  • These flagella have specialized pore-forming proteins called ion channels in their membrane through which calcium ions can move. (
  • This flow of calcium ions controls the beating of the flagella. (
  • However, it is unclear whether a similar movement of calcium ions across the cilia membrane regulates motile cilia beating in mammals. (
  • have now used a method called patch clamping to study the movement of calcium ions across the membrane of the motile cilia found on a particular type of mouse brain cell. (
  • Furthermore, the level of calcium ions in the motile cilia follows changes in calcium ion levels that originate in the cell body. (
  • A cytosolic Ca 2+ elevation was induced, with a rapid increase (phase 1) and a very slow decrease (phase 2) of Ca 2+ concentration, indicating the involvement of Ca 2+ ions in PG signaling. (
  • Previous studies have shown that D2 receptor signaling in dopamine neurons is altered by the concentration of calcium ions inside these cells. (
  • Furthermore, exposure to cocaine and other drugs is known to change how these calcium ions regulate D2 receptor signaling. (
  • Unlike most other ions, calcium does not freely diffuse within cells ( Trewavas, 1999 ). (
  • When the intracellular calcium level rises to 10-5 M, four Ca2+ ions bind to calmodulin, and this Ca2+-calmodulin complex binds the target proteins, initiating various signaling cascades. (
  • Calcium entry and release, its interaction with proteins and resulting events on proteins and organelles are comprehensively depicted by leading experts in the field. (
  • Several qualitatively different forms of local calcium signaling can be distinguished by the location of open calcium channels as well as by the distance between these channels and the calcium binding proteins that serve as the molecular targets of calcium action. (
  • Local calcium signaling is especially prominent at presynaptic active zones and postsynaptic densities, structures that are distinguished by highly organized macromolecular arrays that yield precise spatial arrangements of calcium signaling proteins. (
  • Information is therefore hypothesised to be encoded in these signals, which are decoded and relayed to downstream gene expression regulators and protein kinases via an array of Ca 2+ ‐binding sensor proteins. (
  • A large network of calcium‐binding proteins act as calcium sensors and relay calcium signals to downstream effector proteins. (
  • The group defined what happens when calcium levels fall by constructing and testing the behavior of genetically-modified STIM1 proteins in cultured cells. (
  • Analysis showed that calcium loss from the sensor tail caused the membrane-spanning regions of pairs of STIM1 proteins to pull together inside the ER wall, prompting the outer arms to extend toward the cell membrane. (
  • As resveratrol's mechanisms of action are likely pleiotropic, its effects and interactions with key signaling proteins controlling cellular calcium homeostasis are reviewed and discussed. (
  • The clinical relevance of resveratrol's actions on excitable cells, transformed or cancer cells, immune cells and retinal pigment epithelial cells are contrasted with a review of the molecular mechanisms affecting calcium signaling proteins on the plasma membrane, cytoplasm, endoplasmic reticulum, and mitochondria. (
  • Ca2+ is important for cellular signalling, for once it enters the cytosol of the cytoplasm it exerts allosteric regulatory effects on many enzymes and proteins. (
  • This fellowship, which can be renewed for two additional years, will support Ezerski's research on modeling how the proteins calmodulin and Calmodulin-Kinase-II (CaMKII) change shape to fit each other as a result of calcium signaling. (
  • When calcium binds to calmodulin, this binding changes how it conforms, how it moves, and how flexible it is, thus affecting its interactions with other proteins. (
  • Despite the morphological role of VGCCs, the proteins working downstream of VGCCs to regulate synaptic morphology remain mostly unknown, and their identification would provide insight into the shaping of synapses through calcium signaling. (
  • In plants, there are several known classes of Ca 2+ -binding sensory proteins, including calmodulins, calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs), and calcineurin B-like proteins. (
  • The calcium transient in the oocyte cortex is highly sensitive to inhibition by Fyn-SH2 domain containing fusion proteins, while the central cytoplasmic transient is relatively resistant to this treatment. (
  • Calcium is a common signaling mechanism, as once it enters the cytoplasm it exerts allosteric regulatory affects on many enzymes and proteins. (
  • In Alzheimer's disease (AD), irregular calcium homeostasis seems to trigger CaM and its binding proteins, to enhance plaque formation and neurofibrillary degeneration, which results in cell death.In Parkinson's disease (PD), Calmodulin has been found to interact, in a calcium-dependent manner, with Alpha-Synuclein, which is associated with the progression of PD. (
  • Local calcium signaling in neurons. (
  • Vascular smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells and pericytes that constitute the vessel wall, tightly interact among each other as well as with parenchymal neurons and glial cells to fine-tune brain functioning and adapt the exchange of metabolites and signaling molecules at the interface between blood and brain. (
  • Changes in calcium ion concentration play a predominant and key signaling role in almost all cells of the central nervous system, including neurons, glial cells, vascular cells, epithelial cells and blood borne cells. (
  • Astrocytes are predominant at interfacial areas but also microglia, oligodendrocytes, Müller cells, Bergmann glia, and neurons are stakeholders that influence transport and signaling at the interface. (
  • 3. to determine odorant and pheromone-mediated activation of cultured human olfactory sensory neurons using calcium imaging and 4. (
  • Tymianski, M. and Tator, C.H. (1996) Normal and abnor-mal calcium homeostasis in neurons: A basis for the pathophysiology of traumatic and ischemic central nervous system injury. (
  • Here, we revealed an unknown universe of calcium signaling in capillaries, and much like traffic lights, these calcium signals direct vital nutrients to nearby active neurons. (
  • They found that when neurons fire electrical signals, they cause an increase in calcium in the cells lining the blood vessels. (
  • By virally expressing the isoforms in dopamine neurons of D2 receptor knockout mice, this study assessed the calcium-dependence and drug-induced plasticity of D2S and D2L receptor-dependent G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) currents. (
  • The experiments show that localized increases in calcium ion concentration make D2S less capable of autoinhibition, like D2 receptors in neurons from wild type mice, without affecting autoinhibition by D2L. (
  • This implies that dopamine neurons must have both D2S and D2L receptors before the drug can induce changes in D2 receptor signaling. (
  • We characterized the signaling properties of the endogenous LTC by monitoring the activation of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element binding protein (CREB) in cortical neurons ( 4 ). (
  • Membrane depolarization of neurons to −30 mV leads to a sustained increase in CREB phosphorylation that is eliminated by dihydropyridine (DHP) LTC blockers, but is only slightly sensitive to blockers of N -methyl- d -aspartate (NMDA) receptors and is completely insensitive to blockers of other voltage-gated calcium channels ( Fig. 1 A) ( 9 ). (
  • This study aims to investigate the effect of ketamine on intracellular calcium, mitochondrial signaling, and microRNA profiles in hESCs-derived 2-week-old neurons. (
  • Other chapters examine the study of different systems, ranging from those found in yeast to those found in mammals, and several more are devoted to the cellular and molecular basis for calcium signaling, including explorations of receptors, calcium pumps, apoptosis, and drug delivery. (
  • The other principal source of Ca2+ for signalling is the internal stores that are located primarily in the endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum (ER/SR), in which inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) or ryanodine receptors (RYRs) regulate the release of Ca2+. (
  • It is known that activated N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are a major route of ex-cessive calcium ion (Ca2+) entry in central neu-rons, which may activate degradative processes and thereby cause cell death. (
  • However, most of receptors able to modify contractility and other intracellular responses signal through a variety of other messengers, and whether these signaling events are interconnected has long remained unclear. (
  • The results reveal that D2S, but not D2L receptors, exhibited calcium-dependent desensitization similar to that exhibited by endogenous autoreceptors. (
  • Correctly regulated T cell activation is underpinned by signaling events that are initiated by the binding of the cognate Ag to the TCR expressed on the cell surface, and amplified by the CD28 and other costimulatory receptors that act to augment TCR signaling ( 2 - 4 ). (
  • Incubation of cells in Ca2+-free media, inhibition of voltage-gated calcium channels, inositol triphosphate receptor antagonism, and redistribution of actin to a thick layer adjacent to the plasma membrane abolished [Ca2+](i) oscillations, indicating that they were caused by a concerted action of inositol triphosphate receptors and capacitative calcium entry via plasma membrane channels. (
  • The results demonstrate a new mechanism for steroid signaling via plasma membrane receptors and underline a novel role for the steroid hormone, ouabain, as a physiological inducer of [Ca2+](i) oscillations involved in transcriptional regulation in mammalian cells. (
  • Also discussed is the highly localized nature of Ca(2+)-mediated signal transduction and its specific roles in excitability, exocytosis, motility, apoptosis, and transcription. (
  • Ca 2+ is an important signal transduction molecule that has been shown to regulate responses to a large number of environmental stimuli in plants and control many developmental processes. (
  • The influx of Ca2+ from the environment or release from internal stores causes a very rapid and dramatic increase in cytoplasmic calcium concentration, which has been widely exploited for signal transduction. (
  • The results suggest that the exaggerated renal vascular reactivity to AVP challenge in SHR is probably not due to a strain difference in postreceptor calcium signal transduction. (
  • odor detection and signal transduction, cyclic adenosine monophosphate and odor detection, the role of cAMP in olfactory dysfunction, and pheromone detection. (
  • Calcium is a ubiquitous second messenger in eukaryotic signal transduction cascades. (
  • How response specificity is regulated during Ca 2+ -mediated signal transduction is an important biological issue. (
  • Calcium (Ca 2+ ) is a key player in signal transduction. (
  • Ca 2+ is a central player in many cellular signal-transduction cascades that modulate gene transcription. (
  • ABSTRACT Fertilization involves an initial, highly localized signal delivered by the sperm, which becomes amplified by a signal transduction cascade to impact the entire oocyte cytoplasm. (
  • Calcium signals are generated through the coordinated action of calcium influx channels and calcium efflux transporters. (
  • Then, as cells lose calcium as part of their daily routine, channels open in the cell's membrane allowing calcium influx from outside to re-fill the ER reserves and maintain calcium-driven cellular functions. (
  • Although Orai1 and STIM1, have been linked by several studies, for a proposed model of store-operated calcium influx. (
  • Calmodulin dependent kinase II was shown to be the protein responsible for converting the Ca2+ influx signal into inhibition of CSF and activation of cyclin degradation machinery to degrade cyclin B, resulting in progression through meiosis II. (
  • The increase in intracellular-free calcium appeared to be mediated by a calcium release mechanism rather than calcium influx. (
  • This absence of nodulation was due to a defect in Nod factor signaling based on the observations that the early nodulation gene NODULE INCEPTION was not induced and that both Nod factor-induced perinuclear calcium spiking and calcium influx at the root hair tip were blocked. (
  • Our results afforded insights into mechanisms underlying spark termination and refractoriness, intra-SR Ca 2+ communication, and local regulation of store Ca 2+ signaling. (
  • This review examines the principles of Ca(2+) signaling, from changes in protein conformations driven by Ca(2+) to the mechanisms that control Ca(2+) levels in the cytoplasm and organelles. (
  • More study is needed, the researchers conclude, to understand the mechanisms by which calcium levels both within and outside nerve cells might contribute to mental decline. (
  • Understanding these mechanisms is critical, as calcium is important for a panoply of immune responses. (
  • The present review focuses on resveratrol, specifically its isomer trans -resveratrol, and its effects on intracellular calcium signaling mechanisms. (
  • McCalley AE, Kaja S, Payne AJ, Koulen P. Resveratrol and Calcium Signaling: Molecular Mechanisms and Clinical Relevance. (
  • The laboratory of Emanuel Strehler, Ph.D., is interested in the mechanisms of localized Ca2+ signaling and the molecular toolkit needed to ensure proper Ca2+ homeostasis in the cell. (
  • Extensive investigations have been con-ducted to clarify mechanisms underlying Ca2+- mediated signaling. (
  • By providing detailed understanding of calcium signaling and electrical signaling in the brain, we extended prospects to precisely understand how functional mechanisms get disrupted in neurodegenerative diseases and what can be future druggable targets" says co-first author and UVM Assistant Professor of Pharmacology Amreen Mughal, Ph.D. (
  • This review explores the emerging molecular mechanisms linking Ca 2+ and PI3K signaling in health and disease. (
  • The control of mitochondrial motility by signaling mechanisms and the significance of rapid changes in motility remains elusive. (
  • In this Commentary, we describe mechanisms of nuclear Ca 2+ signalling and discuss what is known about the origin and physiological significance of nuclear Ca 2+ transients. (
  • As described below, the mechanisms of nuclear Ca 2+ signalling are extensive, and it is likely that there is considerable flexibility in how Ca 2+ signals are triggered in the nucleus and in the downstream targets that are affected. (
  • Do patterns of nuclear Ca 2+ signalling simply track cytosolic Ca 2+ signalling, or are there independent nuclear Ca 2+ signalling mechanisms that are necessary for proper cell function? (
  • The Ca 2+ -mediated death of cells exposed to toxic insults has an obvious negative connotation, but the processing of Ca 2+ signals to terminate the cell life by apoptosis is instead a positive and necessary way to decode the Ca 2+ signal. (
  • If you want to read about calcium signaling in different mammalian cells, oocytes, Zebrafishes, and even in plants, in one and the same book, then this book will not disappoint you. (
  • However, cells overexpressing the ER calcium-buffering protein calreticulin, which allows increased calcium loading in the ER and subsequent release without increasing free ER calcium, or cells overexpressing the ER calcium pump were more sensitive to ceramide toxicity. (
  • Several studies have shown that small but long-term elevations of calcium within nerves and brain cells can kill them, Schram of Leiden University Medical Center and her team point out. (
  • Many of these cellular players have been well characterized in terms of calcium signaling but astonishingly little is known about the consequences and functional role of such signaling at the very sites where these cells interact. (
  • This Research Topic seeks to bring together contributions that improve our understanding of how calcium signaling impacts on cellular interactions at the brain-vascular interface, how it alters the function of this interface and how the interface, on its turn, influences calcium signaling of its constituent cells. (
  • Calcium signaling in lizard red blood cells. (
  • The ion calcium is a ubiquitous second messenger, present in all eukaryotic cells. (
  • To process this variety of information, the cells display a number of calcium pools, which are capable of mobilization for signaling purposes. (
  • Here we review the calcium signaling on lizards red blood cells, an interesting model that has been receiving an increasing notice recently. (
  • These cells possess a complex machinery to regulate calcium, and display calcium responses to extracellular agonists. (
  • This review will discuss the machinery responsible for Ca 2+ signals in these cells, as well as experimental models used to investigate cholangiocyte Ca 2+ signaling. (
  • So fundamental is this requirement that cells protect themselves from disaster by storing calcium in a network of intracellular cisterns called the endoplasmic reticulum, or ER. (
  • That shape change brought STIM1 close enough to ORAI channels to reach out and open them, allowing calcium to flow back into cells. (
  • Targeting ORAI channels as a way to block excess calcium signaling only in certain cells may require greater specificity,' she says. (
  • Cells use this external source of signal Ca2+ by activating various entry channels with widely different properties. (
  • The cells invaded by viruses also use calcium. (
  • They use it as signals to regulate many of the cells' own processes, but viruses can takeover cellular calcium signaling to satisfy their own needs. (
  • Looking to determine whether norovirus might be using a similar strategy to infect epithelial cells, Strtak and her colleagues compared Tulane virus NS1-2 protein and the human norovirus protein in their ability to disrupt calcium signaling. (
  • Cells have a calcium signalling toolkit with many components that can be mixed and matched to create a wide range of spatial and temporal signals. (
  • Tests showed intracellular calcium concentrations in horse red blood cells were 2.3 times less than in human red blood cells. (
  • Extracellular calcium concentrations were reversed, with 1.5 times greater calcium concentrations outside cells in equines than in humans. (
  • The lower concentrations of calcium within horse cells supported a model proposed by Woods. (
  • The Na+/H+-exchanger regulatory factor-2 (NHERF2) anchors the plasma membrane calcium pump isoform PMCA2w/b to the apical membrane in polarized MDCK cells. (
  • This experiment demonstrates that expression of PMCA2w/b dramatically shortens the duration of the Ca2+ signal compared to control cells that express mainly PMCA4b. (
  • Calcium signaling in immune cells. (
  • Downstream of the TCR, Tespa1 is a crucial component of the linker for activation of T cells (LAT) signalosome, facilitating calcium signalling and subsequent MAPK activation. (
  • Calcium acts both to modulate intracellular signaling as a secondary messenger and to facilitate structural changes as cells progress through division. (
  • Here, CaMKII activates MEK/ERK, which degrades the cell cycle arresting p27 protein In general, transformed cells proliferate in a calcium-independent manner, whereas non-transformed cells show high sensitivity to extra-cellular calcium concentration, suggesting oncogenic growth may include disruption of calcium signaling. (
  • Cytotoxicity and increased intracellular calcium levels were determined using the Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay and Fluo4-AM (acetoxymethyl) staining and fluorescence microscopy in NB cells in order to screen a library of plant extracts. (
  • This extract contained highly potent agents that significantly reduced cell survival and increased calcium levels in NB cells. (
  • Therefore, we used Fluo4-AM staining and fluorescence microscopy while concurrently performing Sulforhodamine B (SRB) staining on NB cells in order to determine the effect of this extract on intracellular calcium signaling and cell viability, respectively. (
  • The results from the current study suggest that the dichloromethane extract derived from Scrophularia orientalis effectively kills NB cells by inducing apoptosis via calcium release and consequently, the opening of mPTP. (
  • Enzymes detect this calcium and direct the cells to make nitric oxide. (
  • Here, we patch clamp single motile cilia of mammalian ependymal cells and examine their potential function as a calcium signaling compartment. (
  • We measured Ca V 1 voltage-gated calcium channels in ependymal cells, but these channels are not specifically enriched in motile cilia. (
  • In cardiomyocytes and smooth muscle cells, cyclic AMP (cAMP) and subsequent calcium (Ca 2+ ) fluxes are the best characterized receptor-regulated signaling events. (
  • A basic endopolygalacturonase (PG) isoform, produced early by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum when infecting soybean seedlings, was used to examine the signaling role of the enzyme in aequorin-expressing soybean cells. (
  • We have compared calcium mobilization by Ins(1,4,5) P 3 (IP 3 ), cADP-ribose (cADPR) and nicotinic acid-adenosine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) from the envelope of isolated nuclei with the calcium signalling in intact isolated pancreatic acinar cells. (
  • In most living cells, both extracellular and intracellular calcium levels ([Ca2+]0 and [Ca2+]i, respectively) are highly regulated, often with the expense of energy. (
  • In this study, using the calcium ionophore ionomycin and/or PMA on Jurkat T cells, we show that the gene expression program associated with activation of TCR signaling is closely related to specific chromatin landscapes. (
  • Many of these elements contain composite NFAT/AP-1 sites, which typically support cooperative binding, thus further reinforcing the need for cooperation between calcium and kinase signaling in the activation of genes in T cells. (
  • Calcium signaling controls many responses in RPE cells. (
  • Together these results suggest that lysosomal stress can interfere with Ca 2+ signaling through TRPML channels in RPE cells. (
  • It has been well established that Ca 2+ signals occurring inside cells affect activities within the nucleus. (
  • Here, we show in renal epithelial cells that ouabain, in doses causing only partial Na,K-ATPase inhibition, acts as a biological inducer of regular, low-frequency intracellular calcium ([Ca2+](i)) oscillations that elicit activation of the transcription factor, NF-KB. (
  • Enforced expression of a PAG variant interacting with FynT, but not Csk, caused a selective enhancement of TCR-triggered calcium fluxes in normal T cells. (
  • First, the intracellular calcium response to histamine was measured in HEK 293 cells using the Fluo-4 Direct™ Calcium Assay. (
  • In contrast, in animals subjected to either adriamycin-induced acute chemical injury or genetic deletion of the podocin-encoding gene Nphs2 , the consequent podocyte damage and proteinuria rendered the cells responsive to AngII and resulted in AngII-induced calcium transients in significantly more podocytes. (
  • Protection against ceramide-induced cell death could also be achieved by treatments that decreased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium, which is also noted to occur upon Bcl-2 overexpression. (
  • The calcium ion is a second messenger normally stored in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). (
  • We also found that the calcium came from cellular storage in the endoplasmic reticulum and, to gain access to this source of calcium, Tulane virus seemed to use its protein NS1-2. (
  • The researchers found evidence that Tulane virus NS1-2 protein acted as a viroporin, an ion channel that disrupted cellular calcium signaling by triggering its flow from the endoplasmic reticulum, where it was stored, to the cytoplasm where viral replication took place. (
  • The rise in cytoplasmic Ca 2+ in response to MLSA1 was unchanged by the removal of extracellular calcium or by the depletion of calcium in the endoplasmic reticulum by thapsigargin. (
  • This study describes a novel calcium-dependent machinery activated through Angiopoietin-1/2-Tie receptor system in HUVECs monolayer. (
  • Soriano, F.X. and Hardingham, G.E. (2007) Compart-mentalized NMDA receptor signaling to survival and death. (
  • Wechsler, A. and Teichberg, V.I. (1998) Brain spectrin binding to the NMDA receptor is regulated by phosphory-lation, calcium and calmodulin. (
  • Receptor signaling relays on intracellular events amplified by secondary and tertiary messenger molecules. (
  • The inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate- or ryanodine receptor-mediated [Ca 2+ ] c signal also induced a decrease in mitochondrial motility. (
  • In further experiments, some of these mice were given cocaine before D2 receptor signaling was assessed. (
  • In contrast, cocaine treatment did not affect the calcium-dependent regulation when only one variant of the D2 receptor was present. (
  • Analysis of the subcellular distribution of Fyn kinase and the IP3 receptor reveal that these important signaling components are highly enriched in the oocyte cortex, a factor which may facilitate a faster propagation of the calcium transient in this compartment. (
  • Calmodulin (CaM) is an intracellular calcium receptor found ubiquitously in eukaryotes. (
  • Gleb P. Tolstykh, Cory A. Olsovsky, Bennett L. Ibey , Hope T. Beier , "Ryanodine and IP 3 receptor-mediated calcium signaling play a pivotal role in neurological infrared laser modulation," Neurophotonics 4(2), 025001 (5 April 2017). (
  • it may act either by influencing signaling via changes in external nucleotides or in conjunction with the LysM receptor-like kinases for recognition of Nod factor. (
  • Also, responsiveness to AngII was at least partly mediated through the transient receptor potential channel 6, which has been implicated in podocyte calcium handling. (
  • Visualization of local store Ca 2+ signaling thus broadens our understanding of cardiac store Ca 2+ regulation and function and opens the possibility for local regulation of diverse store-dependent functions. (
  • In addition, molecules involved in cell cycle, DNA repair, metabolism, and immune regulation are also regulated through cAMP or the calcium ion. (
  • Written and edited by experts in the field, this collection from Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology explores the channels and pumps that transport calcium between different compartments and the regulation of calcium fluxes. (
  • The regulation of intracellular Ca 2+ has continued to be a powerful area of study since the publication of the first and second editions of Calcium Signaling Protocols , and the developments in the field have also, naturally, continued. (
  • A breakdown in calcium regulation is implicated in diseases ranging from cancer to diabetes, heart disease and neurological disorders. (
  • Our work elucidates the function of Tespa1 in T cell development and the regulation of TCR-induced Ca 2+ signalling through IP3R1. (
  • Recent data have shown that intracellular Na+ can be an important signaling factor underlying the up-regulation of NMDARs. (
  • This review focuses on the roles of Na+ in the regulation of Ca2+-mediated NMDAR signaling and toxicity. (
  • Yu, X. , R. Groveman, B. , Fang, X. and Lin, S. (2010) The role of intracellular sodium (Na+) in the regulation of calcium (Ca2+)-mediated signaling and toxicity. (
  • In addition to supplying Ca2+ necessary for intracellular signaling and regulation of several cell functions described herein, [Ca2+]0 also plays a role as a first messenger important to the integrity of several structural (e.g., bone matrix) and functional (e.g., blood clotting) processes. (
  • They can enter the cytoplasm from the extracellular environment or from intracellular stores and control the activity of numerous enzymes, other signaling molecules, transcription factors, and cytoskeletal components. (
  • have been difficult because of the complex, highly compartmentalized morphology of the Drosophila microvillar region containing the phototransduction signaling molecules and the inability to pharmacologically probe this region (our unpublished observations). (
  • Ezerski's research will focus on modeling how these three molecules - calcium, calmodulin, and CaMKII - interact with each other. (
  • The TCR as well as the membrane-associated Lck and LAT signaling molecules exploit the vesicular traffic to concentrate at the immunological synapse ( 7 ). (
  • The principal activator of these channels is Ca2+ itself and this process of Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release is central to the mechanism of Ca2+ signalling. (
  • Further, progression through division requires the presence of calcium (G1/S, G2/M, and metaphase/anaphase), suggesting checkpoints require a calcium-dependent signaling mechanism Entry into S-phase is calcium dependent. (
  • This mechanism may provide a novel homeostatic circuit in calcium signaling. (
  • Consequently, we report a previously unknown immune subversion mechanism involving HIV-1 exploitation, through its Nef accessory protein, of the interconnectivity among three evolutionarily conserved cellular processes: vesicle traffic, signaling compartmentalization, and the second messenger Ca 2+ . (
  • This approach has allowed us to separate the Ca 2+ -conducting properties of the LTC from its signaling properties and has provided insight into the mechanism by which voltage-gated channels regulate gene expression. (
  • We hypothesized that in a model of contractile dysfunction following ischemia, a commonly used catecholamine such as dopamine augments cardiomyocyte apoptosis via activation of calcium-dependent signaling cascades. (
  • When contractility was increased without elevating [Ca 2+ ] i using ORG 30029, no activation of pro-apoptotic signaling cascades was found. (
  • Conclusions Postischemic dopamine treatment of contractile dysfunction activates pro-apoptotic signal cascades, most likely via a calcium-dependent process and mitochondrial damage. (
  • We therefore tested the hypothesis that, in a model of postischemic contractile dysfunction, treatment with a commonly used catecholamine such as dopamine leads to increased cytosolic calcium and activation of pro-apoptotic signaling cascades, resulting in apoptotic cell death and hence loss of cardiomyocytes. (
  • Signalling cascades mediate changes in gene expression by stimulating the translocation of transcription factors from the cytosol to the nucleus, or by causing the translocation and/or activation of enzymes that regulate the activity of nuclear transcription factors or the structure of chromatin. (
  • Targeting intracellular Ca 2+ signaling, antagonizing IP 3 with 2-APB or cADPR with 8Br-cADPR, was found to modulate in vitro angiogenic responses to Angiopoietins in a specific way. (
  • Altogether our results indicate that HIV-1 exploits the interconnectivity among vesicle traffic, Ca 2+ membrane territories, and signaling nanoclusters to modulate T cell signaling and function. (
  • In particular, we focus on the idea that the nucleus has an autonomous Ca 2+ signalling system that can generate its own Ca 2+ transients that modulate processes such as gene transcription. (
  • These results were interpreted that the amount of ER calcium per se was not crucial, but a signal generated from the released ER calcium was an important mediator of ceramide-induced apoptosis. (
  • This model is consistent with two simultaneous signals being required to initiate apoptosis, and Bcl-2 blocks one-half of these apoptotic signals. (
  • However, mitochondrial calcium accumulation may also lead to opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore with release of pro-apoptotic factors from the intermembrane space followed by "programmed" cell death (apoptosis). (
  • Furthermore, we evaluated the role of alterations in excitation-contraction coupling and contractile protein calcium sensitivity in the development of cardiomyocyte apoptosis by using both calcium-sensitizing and calcium-desensitizing agents. (
  • Calcium is a second messenger that regulates many fundamental physiological processes, including tumor progression and apoptosis ( 20 - 24 ). (
  • and local interactions between adjacent mitochondria allow for the regeneration and spreading of apoptotic signals between mitochondria in some models of apoptosis ( Pacher and Hajnóczky, 2001 ). (
  • Until recently, mitochondria were envisioned to serve as cellular power plants, but current research has also revealed mitochondria as fundamental elements in intracellular signaling. (
  • Mitochondria also participate in calcium signaling in various cell types. (
  • Using confocal microscopy and hippocampal slice cultures along with a variety of biochemical assays, we sought to elucidate the physiological and pathological interactions between mitochondria, glutamate transport, and calcium signaling in astrocytic processes. (
  • I also identified a previously overlooked distinction between Ca2+ signals in astrocytic processes, showing two populations with different properties based on their anatomical relationship to mitochondria. (
  • These Ca2+ signals were greatly increased after mitochondrial loss and were no longer spatially restricted by the remaining mitochondria. (
  • Both cytokines were found to elicit intracellular calcium mobilization. (
  • To evaluate intracellular calcium mobilization, 8-( N,N -diethylamino)octyl-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate (TMB-8) or heparin was coadministered with AVP. (
  • Approximately two thirds of the change in vascular tone is due to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-mediated calcium mobilization from intracellular sources sensitive to TMB-8 and heparin. (
  • The "global" [Ca2+]0 balance in a mammal is regulated through concerted changes in disposition, mobilization, and excretion of calcium (in the free and bound forms) by these systems (2-4). (
  • Ca 2+ binding to calmodulin (CaM) and calcium‐dependent protein kinases (CDPK) indirectly activates the hypersensitive response (HR), defence‐related gene expression and increased salicylic acid (SA) production. (
  • We've known for a decade that STIM1 protein moved toward the plasma membrane to open ORAI channels when ER calcium levels drop,' says Hogan, a professor in the Division of Signaling and Gene Expression. (
  • Along with regulating synaptic transmission, voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) function is responsible for a myriad of cellular outputs, ranging from gene expression to shaping synaptic morphology. (
  • We find that calcium and kinase signaling cooperate to induce chromatin remodeling at ∼2100 chromatin regions, which demonstrate enriched binding motifs for inducible factors and correlate with target gene expression. (
  • Ca 2+ is a highly versatile intracellular signal that operates over a wide temporal range to regulate many different cellular processes. (
  • Calmodulins (CaM) is a ubiquitous, calcium-binding protein that can bind to and regulate a multitude of different protein targets, thereby affecting many different cellular functions. (
  • Similar forms of local calcium signaling may be employed throughout the nervous system, though much remains to be learned about the molecular underpinnings of these events. (
  • Graduate student Alicia Strtak in the Graduate Program in Integrative Molecular and Biomedical Sciences at Baylor College of Medicine, took on the project to investigate whether Tulane virus, a calicivirus that is biologically similar to human noroviruses, required calcium for its replication. (
  • The establishment of both mycorrhizal and rhizobial interactions in legumes involves a molecular signal exchange between the plant and its symbiont. (
  • 2000) Alteration of stimulus‐specific guard cell calcium oscillations and stomatal closing in Arabidopsis det3 mutant. (
  • Catecholamine-type inotropic drugs improve myocardial contractility mainly by increasing calcium entry into the cell via cAMP-mediated protein kinase A phosphorylation of sarcolemmal L-type calcium channels. (
  • Rho-Mancing to Sensitize Calcium Signaling for Contraction in the Vasculature: Role of Rho Kinase. (
  • In plants, numerous Ca 2+ -stimulated protein kinase activities occur through calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs). (
  • Currently, most of the known calcium-stimulated protein kinase activities in plants are associated with CDPKs. (
  • The first calcium-dependent, calmodulin-independent protein kinase activities were reported in pea ( Pisum sativum ) extracts 20 years ago ( Hetherington and Trewavas, 1982 ). (
  • The objective of the present study was to characterize the amplification of the sperm-induced calcium transient in the zebrafish oocyte and test the role of Fyn kinase in this process. (
  • 1 When catecholamines are given postischemia, there is the potential for further and sustained elevation of cytosolic calcium resulting in activation of proteolytic enzymes and mitochondrial damage, eventually leading to cell membrane disruption and necrosis. (
  • but glutamate uptake under excitoxic conditions leads to mitochondrial loss and dramatically altered calcium signaling, potentially impacting neuronal injury and recovery. (
  • An extensive Ca 2+ -signalling toolkit is used to assemble signalling systems with very different spatial and temporal dynamics. (
  • Thanks to these early discoveries, interest in the signaling role of Ca 2+ started to increase, slowly at first and then more rapidly, eventually reaching today's explosive phase. (
  • Some diseases that increase blood calcium - such as kidney failure, cancer and excessive parathyroid gland activity - could be a factor in the relationship, although it's also possible that an individual's calcium "set point" plays a role in cognitive decline with age, note Dr. Miranda D. Schram and colleagues in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. (
  • Calcium Signaling plays a central role in the contraction of the heart. (
  • The importance of calcium signaling extends well beyond this role. (
  • Furthermore, dysfunction of calcium dynamics also is thought to play a role in cardiac arrhythmias. (
  • Papers that describe the role of calcium signaling in the heart are welcomed. (
  • Dr. Gordon Woods, UI professor of animal and veterinary science, said the work aided understanding of calcium s role in cell signaling and possibly in the progression of human disease. (
  • The cloning project provided insight into calcium s role in cell signaling. (
  • Calcium plays a crucial role in regulating the events of cellular division. (
  • Exquisite control of intracellular calcium dynamics are required, as calcium appears to play a role at multiple cell cycle checkpoints. (
  • The role of calcium in condensation was independent of CAMK function, suggesting a purely structural role of Ca2+ in chromatin compaction. (
  • We found that coronary calcium seems to play an important role in predicting subsequent heart attack or sudden cardiac death, and adds prognostic value to SPECT findings," said co-author Christopher Uebleis, M.D., member of the research unit for nuclear cardiology at Ludwig Maximilians University. (
  • Ca 2+ has a direct role in controlling the expression patterns of its signalling systems that are constantly being remodelled in both health and disease. (
  • This suggests that the integration of TCR signaling largely occurs at the level of chromatin, which we propose plays a crucial role in regulating T cell activation. (
  • Through the use of membrane-tethered, genetically encoded calcium (Ca 2+ ) indicators, we were able to detect for the first time, to our knowledge, the formation of Ca 2+ territories and determine their role in coordinating the functional signaling nanostructure of the synaptic membrane. (
  • Moreover, we discuss how the expression of intracellular Ca(2+) channels might be regulated in cholangiocytes, plus evidence that components of the Ca(2+) signaling machinery are altered in a range of cholestatic diseases of the bile ducts. (
  • These stimuli induce the formation of Ca 2+ signals within a cell, which are generated through the action of Ca 2+ release and uptake from and into internal cellular stores or the apoplast by the activity of Ca 2+ channels, pumps and exchangers. (
  • in a resting, calcium-replete state, the other arm juts out from the ER but remains tucked up against the ER wall, out of touch with dormant ORA1 channels that dot the cell membrane. (
  • In fact, drug companies have already sought to develop drugs to block ORAI calcium channels as means to halt calcium-dependent immune responses in autoimmune disease or in inflammatory conditions like acute pancreatitis. (
  • It is known that Cav1.2 and other calcium channels induce gene activation, which is responsible for long-term processes, such as neurodevelopmental disorders, cognitive setbacks, and psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and autism. (
  • Specific signals can trigger a sudden increase in the cytoplasmic Ca2+ levels to 500-1,000 nM by opening channels in the ER or the plasma membrane. (
  • Other biochemical roles of calcium include regulating enzyme activity, permeability of ion channels, activity of ion pumps, and components of the cytoskeleton. (
  • Nifedipine exerted maximum inhibition by blocking 30% to 35% of the peak AVP response, indicating the involvement of dihydropyridine-sensitive voltage-dependent calcium channels. (
  • These observations indicate that about one third of the AVP-induced constriction of renal resistance vessels is mediated by voltage-dependent L-type calcium channels responsive to the dihydropyridine nifedipine. (
  • We conclude that beating of ependymal motile cilia is not tightly regulated by voltage-gated calcium channels, unlike that of well-studied motile cilia and flagella in protists, such as Paramecia and Chlamydomonas . (
  • demonstrate that the activity of voltage-gated calcium channels does not control the beating rhythm of the motile cilia in the mouse brain or how quickly the fluid above the cell surface moves. (
  • L-type calcium channels selectively signal to the nucleus. (
  • In the present study, we have shown that all calcium messengers induce Ca 2+ release from the nuclear envelope. (
  • Calcium is a ubiquitous second messenger with wide-ranging physiological roles. (
  • As calcium signaling involves such a breadth of technical approaches and a wide range of applications, this work contains invaluable information for established researchers, as well as those graduate students and scientists just beginning to find a direction in cellular calcium signaling. (
  • This viral takeover involves, in many cases, the production of a viral protein called viroporin that acts like an ion channel redirecting cellular calcium signaling to serve viral functions. (
  • Thus, Ringer had serendipitously discovered that Ca 2+ , hitherto exclusively considered as a structural element, was active in a tissue that has nothing to do with bone or teeth, and performed there a completely novel function: It carried the signal that initiated heart contraction. (
  • This versatility is exploited to control processes as diverse as fertilization, proliferation, development, learning and memory, contraction and secretion, and must be accomplished within the context of calcium being highly toxic. (
  • The major downstream calcium effectors are the calcium-binding calmodulin protein and downstream calmodulin-dependent protein kinases I / II. (
  • are necessary for perception of the calcium signal and the induction of downstream genes. (
  • Calcium inhibition as an intracellular signal for actin-myosin interaction. (
  • It was found that sustained cellular Ca 2+ signals arising via chronic inhibition of SERCA were pro-autophagic. (
  • Background Inhibition of angiotensin II (AngII) signaling, a therapeutic mainstay of glomerular kidney diseases, is thought to act primarily through regulating glomerular blood flow and reducing filtration pressure. (
  • It has been well established that calcium cycling is impaired and the free cytosolic calcium concentration is significantly elevated in the postischemic heart. (
  • Calcium was found to concentrate on condensed DNA to much higher levels compared to normal cytosolic calcium concentration. (
  • This new edition deals with methods for studying calcium from a variety of perspectives. (
  • Methods To study the effects of AngII on podocyte calcium levels in vivo , we used intravital microscopy of the kidney in mice expressing the calcium indicator protein GCaMP3. (
  • Growth factors and hormones signal phospholipase C enzymes to hydrolyze the membrane phospholipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) to produce inositol 1,4,5- triphosphate (IP3). (
  • This led to the proposal that Drosophila photoreceptors do not use the InsP 3 branch of phospholipase C (PLC)-mediated signaling for phototransduction, unlike most other inositol lipid-signaling systems. (
  • Drosophila phototransduction is an important model system for studies of inositol lipid signaling. (
  • This body of work lays the groundwork for novel ways to manipulate aberrant calcium signaling in the immune system, particularly in the context of autoimmune or inflammatory disease. (
  • Prostate cancer (PrCa) progression and mortality are associated with calcium metabolism, parathyroid hormone level, and vitamin D level. (
  • In Calcium Signaling, Second Edition, Putney focuses on those processes that generate calcium signals to compile the first comprehensive exploration of calcium signaling research from a methodological standpoint. (
  • Calcium (Ca 2+ ) is a versatile second messenger that regulates a number of cellular processes in virtually every type of cell. (
  • Calcium functions as a universal intracellular messenger, controlling processes as diverse as gene transcription, muscle transcription and cell proliferation, Woods noted. (
  • Calcium ion signaling is a method for many important biological processes to happen," Ezerski said. (
  • Calcium acts like a signal to turn on and off important processes happening within a cell, similar to the way that we use a remote to turn a television on or to change the channel. (
  • Generation of complex spatiotemporal Ca 2+ signals is critical for numerous physiological processes. (
  • Glutamate transport and calcium signaling are central to the function of astrocytic processes that are in turn vital for normal brain function. (
  • Thymocyte-expressed, positive selection-associated 1 (Tespa1) was originally identified as a critical signalling molecule in thymocyte development 9 . (
  • A precise method for analysing the function of nuclear Ca 2+ is to specifically localise a buffering molecule within the nucleoplasm, which prevents changes in nuclear Ca 2+ levels but does not affect cytosolic Ca 2+ signals. (
  • The similarity of Tespa1 to Ki-Ras-induced actin-interacting protein (KRAP) in a conserved PFF motif led to the prediction that Tespa1 would interact with IP3R (ref. 10 ), and it has been reported that human Tespa1 protein interacts with IP3R1 and regulates Ca 2+ signalling 11 . (
  • These signals take the form of elevations of Ca 2+ with specific spatio‐temporal characteristics which are thought to denote the initial stimulus and mediate an appropriate cellular response. (
  • CaM functions as an intracellular calcium ion bridge to mediate cellular reactions and responds appropriately to calcium ion concentration. (
  • In general, PLC enzymes stimulate calcium release by internal stores through the breakdown of PIP2 into IP3 and DAG. (
  • To examine this hypothesis we applied the membrane-permeant InsP 3 R antagonist 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), which has proved to be an important probe for assessing InsP 3 R involvement in various signaling systems. (
  • The plasma membrane calcium ATPase 4 (PMCA4) is a ubiquitously expressed Ca2+ pump that is involved in regulating calcium signaling in the heart. (
  • it increases membrane permeability to calcium. (
  • K11777-treated T. b. gambiense failed to elicit calcium fluxes in BMECs, suggesting that generation of activation signals for the BBB is critically dependant on brucipain activity. (
  • The effects of the conditioned medium, which correlated with ability to evoke calcium fluxes, were canceled by K11777, but not by the cathepsin B inhibitor CA074. (
  • The vesicular traffic has emerged as a central player in the assembly of the signaling machinery at the immunological synapse ( 7 ). (
  • Comprised of five main section, the book covers theoretical and very simple suspension-based fluorimetric assays, specialist measurement systems, measurement of channel activity, measurement of store release, as well as specialist measurement techniques which include targeted probes, using G-protein chimeras to force Ca 2+ signalling for screening, and genetically encoded sensors. (
  • Here we examine the rise of cytoplasmic Ca 2+ in response to TRPML activation, and ask whether lysosomal stress affects this Ca 2+ signal. (
  • Ezerski will model calcium-calmodulin-CaMKII interactions by using experimental data generated by Neal Waxham's research group at the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston. (