An inorganic pyrophosphate which affects calcium metabolism in mammals. Abnormalities in its metabolism occur in some human diseases, notably HYPOPHOSPHATASIA and pseudogout (CHONDROCALCINOSIS).
Presence of calcium salts, especially calcium pyrophosphate, in the cartilaginous structures of one or more joints. When accompanied by attacks of goutlike symptoms, it is called pseudogout. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid that contain two phosphate groups.
Microscopy using polarized light in which phenomena due to the preferential orientation of optical properties with respect to the vibration plane of the polarized light are made visible and correlated parameters are made measurable.
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
General disorders of the sclera or white of the eye. They may include anatomic, embryologic, degenerative, or pigmentation defects.
Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE. It contains mucin, albumin, fat, and mineral salts and serves to lubricate joints.
Membrane proteins that are involved in the active transport of phosphate.
Hereditary metabolic disorder characterized by recurrent acute arthritis, hyperuricemia and deposition of sodium urate in and around the joints, sometimes with formation of uric acid calculi.
A group of enzymes within the class EC 3.6.1.- that catalyze the hydrolysis of diphosphate bonds, chiefly in nucleoside di- and triphosphates. They may liberate either a mono- or diphosphate. EC 3.6.1.-.
An oxidation product, via XANTHINE OXIDASE, of oxypurines such as XANTHINE and HYPOXANTHINE. It is the final oxidation product of purine catabolism in humans and primates, whereas in most other mammals URATE OXIDASE further oxidizes it to ALLANTOIN.
Tetramisole is a pharmaceutical compound, specifically an anthelmintic drug, used in the treatment of parasitic worm infestations, with the two enantiomers having different therapeutic uses: levamisole as an immunomodulator and to treat certain gastrointestinal parasites, while racemic tetramisole is used as a livestock dewormer.
Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.
'Joint diseases' is a broad term that refers to medical conditions causing inflammation, degeneration, or functional impairment in any part of a joint, including the cartilage, bone, ligament, tendon, or bursa, thereby affecting movement and potentially causing pain, stiffness, deformity, or reduced range of motion.
A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.
The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.
A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.
The coenzyme form of Vitamin B1 present in many animal tissues. It is a required intermediate in the PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX and the KETOGLUTARATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX.
A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.
Arthritis is a general term used to describe inflammation in the joints, often resulting in pain, stiffness, and reduced mobility, which can be caused by various conditions such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, or lupus.
A group of compounds with the general formula M10(PO4)6(OH)2, where M is barium, strontium, or calcium. The compounds are the principal mineral in phosphorite deposits, biological tissue, human bones, and teeth. They are also used as an anticaking agent and polymer catalysts. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A radionuclide imaging agent used primarily in scintigraphy or tomography of the heart to evaluate the extent of the necrotic myocardial process. It has also been used in noninvasive tests for the distribution of organ involvement in different types of amyloidosis and for the evaluation of muscle necrosis in the extremities.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
Phosphoric or pyrophosphoric acid esters of polyisoprenoids.
The key substance in the biosynthesis of histidine, tryptophan, and purine and pyrimidine nucleotides.

Transduction mechanisms of porcine chondrocyte inorganic pyrophosphate elaboration. (1/116)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate cellular signaling mechanisms that influence chondrocyte production of inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), which promotes calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystal deposition. METHODS: Articular chondrocyte and cartilage cultures were stimulated with protein kinase C (PKC) activator and adenyl cyclase activator. Generation of extracellular PPi was measured. RESULTS: Adenyl cyclase activation resulted in diminished pyrophosphate generation. PKC activation stimulated pyrophosphate elaboration. CONCLUSION: Two signaling pathways, cAMP and PKC, modulate generation of extracellular pyrophosphate by cartilage and chondrocytes. They are novel targets for potentially diminishing extracellular pyrophosphate elaboration that leads to CPPD crystal deposition.  (+info)

Myelopathy due to calcification of the cervical ligamenta flava: a report of two cases in West Indian patients. (2/116)

Two cases of cervical myelopathy due to calcification of the ligamenta flava (CLF) are described for the first time in black patients from the French West Indies. A pre-operative CT scan differentiated the diagnosis from one of ossification of the ligamenta flava. Microanalysis on the operatively excised specimen in one patient revealed a mixture of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals and hydroxypatite crystals. Poor outcome in one patient contrasting with excellent recovery in the other one, who had undergone posterior decompressive laminectomy, emphasizes the importance of surgery in the management of CLF.  (+info)

Most calcium pyrophosphate crystals appear as non-birefringent. (3/116)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the proportion of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystals that appear as non-birefringent when observed under the polarised light microscope. METHODS: Two observers examined independently 10 synovial fluid samples obtained during an episode of arthritis attributable to CPPD crystals. Ten synovial fluid samples from patients with acute gout were used as a reference. The examination was performed after placing a fluid sample in a Niebauer haemocytometric chamber; a crystal count was done first under ordinary light, then in the area corresponding to a 0.1 ml, under polarised light RESULTS: The percentages of birefringence appreciated for CPPD were 18% (confidence intervals (CI) 12, 24) for observer 1, and 17% (CI 10, 24) for observer 2 (difference NS). The percentages of birefringence for monosodium urate were 127% (CI 103, 151) for observer 1 and 107% (CI 100, 114) for observer 2 (difference NS). Percentages above 100% indicate that crystals missed under ordinary light became apparent under polarised light. CONCLUSION: Only about one fifth of all CPPD crystals identified by bright field microscopy show birefringence when the same synovial fluid sample is observed under polarised light. If a search for CPPD crystals is conducted under polarised light, the majority of the crystals will be missed. Ordinary light allows a better rate of CPPD crystal detection but observation under polarised light of crystals showing birefringence is required for definitive CPPD crystal identification.  (+info)

Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling and activation of activator protein 1 and nuclear factor kappaB transcription factors play central roles in interleukin-8 expression stimulated by monosodium urate monohydrate and calcium pyrophosphate crystals in monocytic cells. (4/116)

OBJECTIVE: Monosodium urate monohydrate (MSU) and calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystals cause acute gout and pseudogout, respectively. Because acute gout and pseudogout appear to be dependent on interleukin-8 (IL-8)-induced neutrophil ingress, this study was undertaken to define and compare how MSU and CPPD crystals stimulate IL-8 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in mononuclear phagocytes. METHODS: MSU and CPPD crystal-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction and IL-8 transcriptional activation were studied in human monocytic cells, using the THP-1 cell line. RESULTS: MSU and CPPD crystals (0.5 mg/ml) induced activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK-1)/ERK-2, and p38 MAPK pathways in THP-1 cells. Activation of the ERK-1/ERK-2 pathway was essential for MSU and CPPD crystal-induced IL-8 mRNA expression, whereas the p38 pathway played a greater role in IL-8 mRNA expression in response to CPPD crystals in comparison with MSU crystals. Both crystals induced the binding of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB), including the NF-kappaB complex c-Rel/RelA, and activator protein 1 (AP-1, including N-terminal phosphorylated c-Jun) to the IL-8 promoter. Both crystals induced transcriptional activation of the IL-8 promoter, which was dependent on activation of c-Rel/RelA and AP-1. Activation of the NF-IL-6 transcription factor played a lesser role. Finally, crystal-induced IL-8 promoter activation was mediated by activation of the ERK-1/ERK-2 pathway, as demonstrated by transfection of dominant-negative raf-1. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that ERK-1/ ERK-2 signaling and transcriptional activation through AP-1 and NF-kappaB are essential for the induction of IL-8 expression in mononuclear phagocytes in response to CPPD and MSU crystals.  (+info)

Calcification of the cervical ligamentum flavum--case report. (5/116)

A 52-year-old male presented with calcification of the cervical ligamentum flavum manifesting as hypesthesia of the bilateral middle, ring, and little fingers and ulnar halves of both forearms, as well as motor weakness in the bilateral upper extremities and gait disturbance. Cervical x-ray tomography detected a round calcified mass on the posterior wall of the cervical canal at the C-5 level. Computed tomography showed the round, nodular calcified mass more clearly. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an epidural low intensity mass compressing and distorting the cervical cord at the C-5 level on both T1- and T2-weighted images. Administration of gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid caused marginal enhancement of the mass. The lesion was eventually removed by posterior laminectomy. The mass was composed of a very hard crystal-like calcified deposition in the ligamentum flavum. X-ray diffraction analysis of the histological specimen showed calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) and hydroxyapatite in the crystal-like substance, confirming that CPPD is responsible for calcification of the cervical ligamentum flavum.  (+info)

Deposition of calcium pyrophosphate in tissue after revision arthroplasty of the hip. (6/116)

We reviewed histologically the incidence and pathogenesis of the deposition of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystals in the pseudocapsule, femoral and acetabular membranes and periprosthetic tissue at revision of 789 cases of failed total hip replacement. In 13, periprosthetic tissues were found to have deposits of CPPD crystals in areas of cartilaginous metaplasia; four also showed evidence of localised deposition of amyloid. None of the patients had a history of chondrocalcinosis in the hip or other joints. Cartilaginous metaplasia and other changes in periprosthetic tissues may predispose to the deposition of CPPD and associated localised amyloid.  (+info)

Retro-odontoid massive calcium pyrophosphate crystal deposition--case report. (7/116)

An 86-year-old male presented with progressive myelopathy due to retro-odontoid massive deposits of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystals. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a non-enhanced isointense extradural mass on the T1-weighted image and heterogeneously intense mass on the T2-weighted image. Computed tomography showed typical punctate and linear calcifications within the mass. The mass was resected via a lateral approach resulting in marked improvement of the symptoms. Histological examination revealed birefringent rhomboid crystals consistent with CPPD. CPPD deposition should be considered in the differential diagnosis of retro-odontoid extradural mass because surgical therapy is beneficial even for elderly patients.  (+info)

Inhibition of TNF-alpha-induced neutrophil apoptosis by crystals of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate is mediated by the extracellular signal-regulated kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathways up-stream of caspase 3. (8/116)

The role of protein kinases in the inhibition of TNF-alpha associated apoptosis of human neutrophils by crystals of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) (25 mg/ml) was investigated. We monitored the activities of the p44 extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1) and p42 ERK2 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K)-regulated protein kinase B (Akt) in neutrophils incubated with TNF-alpha and CPPD crystals, separately and in combination, in parallel with the endogenous caspase 3 activity and DNA fragmentation. CPPD crystals were observed to induce a robust and transient activation of ERK1, ERK2, and Akt, whereas TNF-alpha produced only a modest and delayed activation of Akt. In the presence of TNF-alpha, Akt activity was enhanced, and CPPD crystal-induced activation of ERK1 and ERK2 was more sustained than with CPPD crystals alone, but TNF-alpha itself reduced the basal phosphotransferase activities of these MAP kinases. Preincubation with the MAP kinase kinase (MEK1) inhibitors PD98059 (20 ng/ml) and U0126 (250 nM), or the PI3-K inhibitors wortmannin (100 nM) and LY294002 (50 microM) repressed the activation of ERK1, ERK2, and Akt in association with CPPD crystal incubation, in the absence or presence of TNF-alpha. Furthermore, the inhibition of the Mek1/Mek2-->ERK1/ERK2 or PI3-K/Akt pathways reversed CPPD crystal-associated suppression of TNF-alpha-induced caspase 3 activation and neutrophil apoptosis. Together, these results indicate that CPPD crystals function to induce acute inflammatory responses through ERK1/ERK2 and PI3-K/Akt-mediated stimulation of neutrophil activation and repression of apoptosis.  (+info)

Calcium pyrophosphate is a mineral compound made up of calcium and pyrophosphate ions. In the body, it can form crystals that deposit in joints, causing a type of arthritis known as calcium pyrophosphate deposition (CPPD) disease or pseudogout. CPPD disease is characterized by sudden attacks of joint pain and swelling, often in the knee or wrist. The condition is more common in older adults and can also occur in people with underlying medical conditions such as hyperparathyroidism, hemochromatosis, and hypophosphatasia. Calcium pyrophosphate crystals may also be found in the fluid around the heart (pericardial fluid) or in other tissues, but they do not always cause symptoms.

Chondrocalcinosis is a medical condition characterized by the deposition of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals in the fibrous cartilage (also known as chondral or articular cartilage) and/or the joint cavity (synovial fluid). This cartilage is present in various parts of the body, including the ears, nose, respiratory tract, and connective tissues such as those found in joints.

Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals are normally present in small amounts within the body; however, an overabundance of these crystals can lead to chondrocalcinosis. The condition is often associated with osteoarthritis and can affect people of all ages but is more common in older adults.

Chondrocalcinosis may not always cause symptoms, but when it does, they can include joint pain, stiffness, swelling, and warmth. These symptoms are similar to those seen in other forms of arthritis, making chondrocalcinosis difficult to diagnose based on symptoms alone. Diagnosis typically involves imaging techniques such as X-rays or ultrasounds, as well as joint fluid analysis to identify the presence of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals.

Treatment for chondrocalcinosis is generally focused on managing symptoms and addressing any underlying conditions that may contribute to the development or progression of the disease. This can include medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to reduce pain and inflammation, joint aspiration to remove excess fluid and crystals from the affected area, and physical therapy to maintain joint mobility and strength. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace damaged joints.

Diphosphates, also known as pyrophosphates, are chemical compounds that contain two phosphate groups joined together by an oxygen atom. The general formula for a diphosphate is P~PO3~2-, where ~ represents a bond. Diphosphates play important roles in various biological processes, such as energy metabolism and cell signaling. In the context of nutrition, diphosphates can be found in some foods, including milk and certain vegetables.

Polarized light microscopy is a type of microscopy that uses polarized light to enhance contrast and reveal unique optical properties in specimens. In this technique, a polarizing filter is placed under the light source, which polarizes the light as it passes through. The specimen is then illuminated with this linearly polarized light. As the light travels through the specimen, its plane of polarization may be altered due to birefringence, a property of certain materials that causes the light to split into two separate rays with different refractive indices.

A second polarizing filter, called an analyzer, is placed in the light path between the objective and the eyepiece. The orientation of this filter can be adjusted to either allow or block the transmission of light through the microscope. When the polarizer and analyzer are aligned perpendicularly, no light will pass through if the specimen does not exhibit birefringence. However, if the specimen has birefringent properties, it will cause the plane of polarization to rotate, allowing some light to pass through the analyzer and create a contrasting image.

Polarized light microscopy is particularly useful for observing structures in minerals, crystals, and certain biological materials like collagen fibers, muscle proteins, and starch granules. It can also be used to study stress patterns in plastics and other synthetic materials.

Crystallization is a process in which a substance transitions from a liquid or dissolved state to a solid state, forming a crystal lattice. In the medical context, crystallization can refer to the formation of crystals within the body, which can occur under certain conditions such as changes in pH, temperature, or concentration of solutes. These crystals can deposit in various tissues and organs, leading to the formation of crystal-induced diseases or disorders.

For example, in patients with gout, uric acid crystals can accumulate in joints, causing inflammation, pain, and swelling. Similarly, in nephrolithiasis (kidney stones), minerals in the urine can crystallize and form stones that can obstruct the urinary tract. Crystallization can also occur in other medical contexts, such as in the formation of dental calculus or plaque, and in the development of cataracts in the eye.

Scleral diseases refer to conditions that affect the sclera, which is the tough, white outer coating of the eye. The sclera helps to maintain the shape of the eye and provides protection for the internal structures. Scleral diseases can cause inflammation, degeneration, or thinning of the sclera, leading to potential vision loss or other complications. Some examples of scleral diseases include:

1. Scleritis: an inflammatory condition that causes pain, redness, and sensitivity in the affected area of the sclera. It can be associated with autoimmune disorders, infections, or trauma.
2. Episcleritis: a less severe form of inflammation that affects only the episclera, a thin layer of tissue overlying the sclera. Symptoms include redness and mild discomfort but typically no pain.
3. Pinguecula: a yellowish, raised deposit of protein and fat that forms on the conjunctiva, the clear membrane covering the sclera. While not a disease itself, a pinguecula can cause irritation or discomfort and may progress to a more severe condition called a pterygium.
4. Pterygium: a fleshy growth that extends from the conjunctiva onto the cornea, potentially obstructing vision. It is often associated with prolonged sun exposure and can be removed surgically if it becomes problematic.
5. Scleral thinning or melting: a rare but serious condition where the sclera degenerates or liquefies, leading to potential perforation of the eye. This can occur due to autoimmune disorders, infections, or as a complication of certain surgical procedures.
6. Ocular histoplasmosis syndrome (OHS): a condition caused by the Histoplasma capsulatum fungus, which can lead to scarring and vision loss if it involves the macula, the central part of the retina responsible for sharp, detailed vision.

It is essential to consult an ophthalmologist or eye care professional if you experience any symptoms related to scleral diseases to receive proper diagnosis and treatment.

Calcium phosphates are a group of minerals that are important components of bones and teeth. They are also found in some foods and are used in dietary supplements and medical applications. Chemically, calcium phosphates are salts of calcium and phosphoric acid, and they exist in various forms, including hydroxyapatite, which is the primary mineral component of bone tissue. Other forms of calcium phosphates include monocalcium phosphate, dicalcium phosphate, and tricalcium phosphate, which are used as food additives and dietary supplements. Calcium phosphates are important for maintaining strong bones and teeth, and they also play a role in various physiological processes, such as nerve impulse transmission and muscle contraction.

Synovial fluid is a viscous, clear, and straw-colored fluid found in the cavities of synovial joints, bursae, and tendon sheaths. It is produced by the synovial membrane, which lines the inner surface of the capsule surrounding these structures.

The primary function of synovial fluid is to reduce friction between articulating surfaces, providing lubrication for smooth and painless movement. It also acts as a shock absorber, protecting the joints from external forces during physical activities. Synovial fluid contains nutrients that nourish the articular cartilage, hyaluronic acid, which provides its viscoelastic properties, and lubricin, a protein responsible for boundary lubrication.

Abnormalities in synovial fluid composition or volume can indicate joint-related disorders, such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, infection, or trauma. Analysis of synovial fluid is often used diagnostically to determine the underlying cause of joint pain, inflammation, or dysfunction.

Phosphate transport proteins are membrane-bound proteins responsible for the active transport of phosphate ions across cell membranes. They play a crucial role in maintaining appropriate phosphate concentrations within cells and between intracellular compartments, which is essential for various biological processes such as energy metabolism, signal transduction, and bone formation.

These proteins utilize the energy derived from ATP hydrolysis or other sources to move phosphate ions against their concentration gradient, thereby facilitating cellular uptake of phosphate even when extracellular concentrations are low. Phosphate transport proteins can be classified based on their structure, function, and localization into different types, including sodium-dependent and sodium-independent transporters, secondary active transporters, and channels.

Dysregulation of phosphate transport proteins has been implicated in several pathological conditions, such as renal Fanconi syndrome, tumoral calcinosis, and hypophosphatemic rickets. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying phosphate transport protein function is essential for developing targeted therapies to treat these disorders.

Gout is a type of inflammatory arthritis that occurs when urate crystals accumulate in and around the joints, causing sudden attacks of severe pain, swelling, redness, and tenderness. Urate crystals can form when there are high levels of uric acid in the blood. Uric acid is a waste product that is produced when the body breaks down purines, substances that are found naturally in certain foods, such as steak, organ meats, and seafood. Other foods also promote higher levels of uric acid, such as alcoholic beverages, especially beer, and drinks sweetened with fruit sugar (fructose).

Normally, uric acid dissolves in the blood and passes through the kidneys and out of the body in urine. But sometimes either the body produces too much uric acid or the kidneys excrete too little uric acid. When this happens, uric acid can build up, forming sharp, needle-like urate crystals in a joint or surrounding tissue that cause pain, inflammation and swelling.

Gout most commonly affects the big toe but can also occur in any joint in the body. The symptoms of gout are often acute, occurring suddenly without warning and frequently at night. The attacks are characterized by a rapid onset of pain, swelling, warmth, and redness in the affected joint. An attack of gout can be so painful that it wakes you up from sleep.

Over time, gout can cause permanent damage to the joints and surrounding tissue, resulting in chronic arthritis. If left untreated, gout also can lead to an accumulation of uric acid crystals in the kidneys, which can result in kidney stones.

Pyrophosphatases are enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis or cleavage of pyrophosphate (PPi) into two inorganic phosphate (Pi) molecules. This reaction is essential for many biochemical processes, such as energy metabolism and biosynthesis pathways, where pyrophosphate is generated as a byproduct. By removing the pyrophosphate, pyrophosphatases help drive these reactions forward and maintain the thermodynamic equilibrium.

There are several types of pyrophosphatases found in various organisms and cellular compartments, including:

1. Inorganic Pyrophosphatase (PPiase): This enzyme is widely distributed across all kingdoms of life and is responsible for hydrolyzing inorganic pyrophosphate into two phosphates. It plays a crucial role in maintaining the cellular energy balance by ensuring that the reverse reaction, the formation of pyrophosphate from two phosphates, does not occur spontaneously.
2. Nucleotide Pyrophosphatases: These enzymes hydrolyze the pyrophosphate bond in nucleoside triphosphates (NTPs) and deoxynucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs), converting them into nucleoside monophosphates (NMPs) or deoxynucleoside monophosphates (dNMPs). This reaction is important for regulating the levels of NTPs and dNTPs in cells, which are necessary for DNA and RNA synthesis.
3. ATPases and GTPases: These enzymes belong to a larger family of P-loop NTPases that use the energy released from pyrophosphate bond hydrolysis to perform mechanical work or transport ions across membranes. Examples include the F1F0-ATP synthase, which synthesizes ATP using a proton gradient, and various molecular motors like myosin, kinesin, and dynein, which move along cytoskeletal filaments.

Overall, pyrophosphatases are essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis by regulating the levels of nucleotides and providing energy for various cellular processes.

Uric acid is a chemical compound that is formed when the body breaks down purines, which are substances that are found naturally in certain foods such as steak, organ meats and seafood, as well as in our own cells. After purines are broken down, they turn into uric acid and then get excreted from the body in the urine.

However, if there is too much uric acid in the body, it can lead to a condition called hyperuricemia. High levels of uric acid can cause gout, which is a type of arthritis that causes painful swelling and inflammation in the joints, especially in the big toe. Uric acid can also form crystals that can collect in the kidneys and lead to kidney stones.

It's important for individuals with gout or recurrent kidney stones to monitor their uric acid levels and follow a treatment plan prescribed by their healthcare provider, which may include medications to lower uric acid levels and dietary modifications.

Tetramisole is an anthelmintic drug, which is used to treat infections caused by certain parasitic worms. It is an equimolar mixture of two stereoisomers, levamisole and dexamisole. Levamisole is the active ingredient that has antiparasitic properties.

Levamisole works by paralyzing the worms in the gut, which leads to their expulsion from the body. It is used to treat a variety of parasitic worm infestations, including roundworm, hookworm, and whipworm infections. In addition to its anthelmintic properties, levamisole has also been found to have immunomodulatory effects and has been used off-label in the treatment of some cancers and autoimmune disorders.

It is important to note that tetramisole/levamisole should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider, as it can have serious side effects if not used properly.

Calcinosis is a medical condition characterized by the abnormal deposit of calcium salts in various tissues of the body, commonly under the skin or in the muscles and tendons. These calcium deposits can form hard lumps or nodules that can cause pain, inflammation, and restricted mobility. Calcinosis can occur as a complication of other medical conditions, such as autoimmune disorders, kidney disease, and hypercalcemia (high levels of calcium in the blood). In some cases, the cause of calcinosis may be unknown. Treatment for calcinosis depends on the underlying cause and may include medications to manage calcium levels, physical therapy, and surgical removal of large deposits.

Joint diseases is a broad term that refers to various conditions affecting the joints, including but not limited to:

1. Osteoarthritis (OA): A degenerative joint disease characterized by the breakdown of cartilage and underlying bone, leading to pain, stiffness, and potential loss of function.
2. Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA): An autoimmune disorder causing inflammation in the synovial membrane lining the joints, resulting in swelling, pain, and joint damage if left untreated.
3. Infectious Arthritis: Joint inflammation caused by bacterial, viral, or fungal infections that spread through the bloodstream or directly enter the joint space.
4. Gout: A type of arthritis resulting from the buildup of uric acid crystals in the joints, typically affecting the big toe and characterized by sudden attacks of severe pain, redness, and swelling.
5. Psoriatic Arthritis (PsA): An inflammatory joint disease associated with psoriasis, causing symptoms such as pain, stiffness, and swelling in the joints and surrounding tissues.
6. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA): A group of chronic arthritis conditions affecting children, characterized by joint inflammation, pain, and stiffness.
7. Ankylosing Spondylitis: A form of arthritis primarily affecting the spine, causing inflammation, pain, and potential fusion of spinal vertebrae.
8. Bursitis: Inflammation of the fluid-filled sacs (bursae) that cushion joints, leading to pain and swelling.
9. Tendinitis: Inflammation or degeneration of tendons, which connect muscles to bones, often resulting in pain and stiffness near joints.

These conditions can impact the function and mobility of affected joints, causing discomfort and limiting daily activities. Proper diagnosis and treatment are essential for managing joint diseases and preserving joint health.

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a type of joint disease that is characterized by the breakdown and eventual loss of cartilage - the tissue that cushions the ends of bones where they meet in the joints. This breakdown can cause the bones to rub against each other, causing pain, stiffness, and loss of mobility. OA can occur in any joint, but it most commonly affects the hands, knees, hips, and spine. It is often associated with aging and can be caused or worsened by obesity, injury, or overuse.

The medical definition of osteoarthritis is: "a degenerative, non-inflammatory joint disease characterized by the loss of articular cartilage, bone remodeling, and the formation of osteophytes (bone spurs). It is often associated with pain, stiffness, and decreased range of motion in the affected joint."

Dura Mater: The tough, outer membrane that covers the brain and spinal cord.

Hydroxyapatite: A naturally occurring mineral form of calcium apatite, also known as dahllite, with the formula Ca5(PO4)3(OH), is the primary mineral component of biological apatites found in bones and teeth.

Therefore, "Durapatite" isn't a recognized medical term, but it seems like it might be a combination of "dura mater" and "hydroxyapatite." If you meant to ask about a material used in medical or dental applications that combines properties of both dura mater and hydroxyapatite, please provide more context.

The knee joint, also known as the tibiofemoral joint, is the largest and one of the most complex joints in the human body. It is a synovial joint that connects the thighbone (femur) to the shinbone (tibia). The patella (kneecap), which is a sesamoid bone, is located in front of the knee joint and helps in the extension of the leg.

The knee joint is made up of three articulations: the femorotibial joint between the femur and tibia, the femoropatellar joint between the femur and patella, and the tibiofibular joint between the tibia and fibula. These articulations are surrounded by a fibrous capsule that encloses the synovial membrane, which secretes synovial fluid to lubricate the joint.

The knee joint is stabilized by several ligaments, including the medial and lateral collateral ligaments, which provide stability to the sides of the joint, and the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments, which prevent excessive forward and backward movement of the tibia relative to the femur. The menisci, which are C-shaped fibrocartilaginous structures located between the femoral condyles and tibial plateaus, also help to stabilize the joint by absorbing shock and distributing weight evenly across the articular surfaces.

The knee joint allows for flexion, extension, and a small amount of rotation, making it essential for activities such as walking, running, jumping, and sitting.

Thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) is the active form of thiamine (vitamin B1) that plays a crucial role as a cofactor in various enzymatic reactions, particularly in carbohydrate metabolism. TPP is essential for the functioning of three key enzymes: pyruvate dehydrogenase, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, and transketolase. These enzymes are involved in critical processes such as the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA, the oxidative decarboxylation of alpha-ketoglutarate in the Krebs cycle, and the pentose phosphate pathway, which is important for generating reducing equivalents (NADPH) and ribose sugars for nucleotide synthesis. A deficiency in thiamine or TPP can lead to severe neurological disorders, including beriberi and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, which are often observed in alcoholics due to poor nutrition and impaired thiamine absorption.

Articular cartilage is the smooth, white tissue that covers the ends of bones where they come together to form joints. It provides a cushion between bones and allows for smooth movement by reducing friction. Articular cartilage also absorbs shock and distributes loads evenly across the joint, protecting the bones from damage. It is avascular, meaning it does not have its own blood supply, and relies on the surrounding synovial fluid for nutrients. Over time, articular cartilage can wear down or become damaged due to injury or disease, leading to conditions such as osteoarthritis.

Arthritis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation in one or more joints, leading to symptoms such as pain, stiffness, swelling, and reduced range of motion. There are many different types of arthritis, including osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, gout, and lupus, among others.

Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis and is caused by wear and tear on the joints over time. Rheumatoid arthritis, on the other hand, is an autoimmune disorder in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks the joint lining, causing inflammation and damage.

Arthritis can affect people of all ages, including children, although it is more common in older adults. Treatment for arthritis may include medications to manage pain and reduce inflammation, physical therapy, exercise, and in some cases, surgery.

Hydroxyapatite is a calcium phosphate mineral that makes up about 70% of the inorganic component of bone and teeth in humans and other animals. It has the chemical formula Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2. Hydroxyapatite is a naturally occurring mineral form of calcium apatite, with the idealized crystal structure consisting of alternating calcium and phosphate layers.

In addition to its natural occurrence in bone and teeth, hydroxyapatite has various medical applications due to its biocompatibility and osteoconductive properties. It is used as a coating on orthopedic implants to promote bone growth and integration with the implant, and it is also used in dental and oral healthcare products for remineralization of tooth enamel. Furthermore, hydroxyapatite has been studied for its potential use in drug delivery systems, tissue engineering, and other biomedical applications.

Technetium Tc 99m Pyrophosphate (Tc-99m PYP) is a radiopharmaceutical agent used in nuclear medicine imaging, specifically myocardial perfusion imaging. It is a complex of technetium-99m, a metastable isotope of technetium, with pyrophosphate, a molecule that accumulates in damaged heart muscle tissue.

When injected into the patient's bloodstream, Tc-99m PYP is taken up by the heart muscle in proportion to its blood flow and the degree of damage or scarring (fibrosis). This allows for the detection and evaluation of conditions such as myocardial infarction (heart attack), cardiomyopathy, and heart transplant rejection.

The imaging procedure involves the injection of Tc-99m PYP, followed by the acquisition of images using a gamma camera, which detects the gamma rays emitted by the technetium-99m isotope. The resulting images provide information about the distribution and extent of heart muscle damage, helping physicians to make informed decisions regarding diagnosis and treatment planning.

Calcium signaling is the process by which cells regulate various functions through changes in intracellular calcium ion concentrations. Calcium ions (Ca^2+^) are crucial second messengers that play a critical role in many cellular processes, including muscle contraction, neurotransmitter release, gene expression, and programmed cell death (apoptosis).

Intracellular calcium levels are tightly regulated by a complex network of channels, pumps, and exchangers located on the plasma membrane and intracellular organelles such as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria. These proteins control the influx, efflux, and storage of calcium ions within the cell.

Calcium signaling is initiated when an external signal, such as a hormone or neurotransmitter, binds to a specific receptor on the plasma membrane. This interaction triggers the opening of ion channels, allowing extracellular Ca^2+^ to flow into the cytoplasm. In some cases, this influx of calcium ions is sufficient to activate downstream targets directly. However, in most instances, the increase in intracellular Ca^2+^ serves as a trigger for the release of additional calcium from internal stores, such as the ER.

The release of calcium from the ER is mediated by ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and inositol trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs), which are activated by specific second messengers generated in response to the initial external signal. The activation of these channels leads to a rapid increase in cytoplasmic Ca^2+^, creating a transient intracellular calcium signal known as a "calcium spark" or "calcium puff."

These localized increases in calcium concentration can then propagate throughout the cell as waves of elevated calcium, allowing for the spatial and temporal coordination of various cellular responses. The duration and amplitude of these calcium signals are finely tuned by the interplay between calcium-binding proteins, pumps, and exchangers, ensuring that appropriate responses are elicited in a controlled manner.

Dysregulation of intracellular calcium signaling has been implicated in numerous pathological conditions, including neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular disorders, and cancer. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms governing calcium homeostasis and signaling is crucial for the development of novel therapeutic strategies targeting these diseases.

Polyisoprenyl phosphates are a type of organic compound that play a crucial role in the biosynthesis of various essential biomolecules in cells. They are formed by the addition of isoprene units, which are five-carbon molecules with a branched structure, to a phosphate group.

In medical terms, polyisoprenyl phosphates are primarily known for their role as intermediates in the biosynthesis of dolichols and farnesylated proteins. Dolichols are long-chain isoprenoids that function as lipid carriers in the synthesis of glycoproteins, which are proteins that contain carbohydrate groups attached to them. Farnesylated proteins, on the other hand, are proteins that have been modified with a farnesyl group, which is a 15-carbon isoprenoid. This modification plays a role in the localization and function of certain proteins within the cell.

Abnormalities in the biosynthesis of polyisoprenyl phosphates and their downstream products have been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, and genetic syndromes. Therefore, understanding the biology and regulation of these compounds is an active area of research with potential therapeutic implications.

Phosphoribosyl Pyrophosphate (PRPP) is defined as a key intracellular nucleotide metabolite that plays an essential role in the biosynthesis of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides, which are the building blocks of DNA and RNA. PRPP is synthesized from ribose 5-phosphate and ATP by the enzyme PRPP synthase. It contributes a phosphoribosyl group in the conversion of purines and pyrimidines to their corresponding nucleotides, which are critical for various cellular processes such as DNA replication, repair, and gene expression. Abnormal levels of PRPP have been implicated in several genetic disorders, including Lesch-Nyhan syndrome and PRPP synthetase superactivity.

... (Ca2P2O7) is a chemical compound, an insoluble calcium salt containing the pyrophosphate anion. There are ... In both the pyrophosphates are essentially eclipsed. Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition Disease at eMedicine Klaus Schrödter; ... Crystals of the tetrahydrate can be prepared by reacting sodium pyrophosphate, Na4P2O7 with calcium nitrate, Ca(NO3)2, at ... Deposition of dihydrate crystals in cartilage are responsible for the severe joint pain in cases of calcium pyrophosphate ...
"Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition Disease (radiology)". Abhishek A, Doherty M (2016). "Update on calcium pyrophosphate ... Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystal deposition disease, also known as pseudogout and pyrophosphate arthropathy, is a ... Pyrophosphate arthropathy refers to several of these situations. Wright GD, Doherty M (October 1997). "Calcium pyrophosphate ... Accordingly, calcium pyrophosphate deposition (CPPD) is an umbrella term for the various clinical subsets, whose naming ...
"About the Calcium pyrophosphate deposition (CPPD) Working Group". OMERACT. Archived from the original on 13 July 2021. ... She is co-chair of the Calcium pyrophosphate deposition (CPPD) Working Group, (OMERACT), and was part of the Core Leadership ...
Without pyrophosphate, calcium phosphate crystals cannot be broken down. Since the inactive CD73 is unable to produce adenosine ... The calcification of cells is caused in part by a lack of pyrophosphate, which is broken down throughout the body by tissue- ... Arterial calcification due to deficiency of CD73 (ACDC) is a rare genetic disorder that causes calcium buildup in the arteries ... ACDC is caused by a mutation in the NT5E gene, which prevents calcium-removing agents from functioning,. Patients with this ...
Calcium pyrophosphate crystals, in contrast, show weak positive birefringence. Urate crystals appear yellow, and calcium ... pyrophosphate crystals appear blue when their long axes are aligned parallel to that of a red compensator filter, or a crystal ...
It reacts with calcium pyrophosphate to obtain Ca9Nd(PO4)7. Hukuo, Keniti; Hikichi, Yasuo. Syntheses of rare earth ... its anhydrous form can be obtained by the reaction of silicon pyrophosphate (SiP2O7) and neodymium(III) fluoride. ...
2003). "Mutations in the amino terminus of ANKH in two US families with calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal deposition ... 2005). "The ANKH gene and familial calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease". Joint Bone Spine. 71 (5): 365-8. doi: ... 1999). "Refinement of the chromosome 5p locus for familial calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease". Am. J. Hum. ... Williams CJ (2003). "Familial calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease and the ANKH gene". Current Opinion in ...
"Kinetics of Growth of Columnar Triclinic Calcium Pyrophosphate Dihydrate Crystals". Crystal Growth & Design. 1 (6): 463-466. ...
Rothschild, Bruce M Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition Disease (radiology) Hubert, Jan; Weiser, Lukas; Hischke, Sandra; Uhlig, ... Wright GD, Doherty M (1997). "Calcium pyrophosphate crystal deposition is not always 'wear and tear' or aging". Ann. Rheum. Dis ... Another common cause of chondrocalcinosis is calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal deposition disease (CPPD). CPPD is ... "Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of calcium pyrophosphate crystal deposition (CPPD) disease". UpToDate. This topic last ...
Calcium pyrophosphate crystals are seen in pseudogout (also known as calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease or, CPPD). These ... Crystals include monosodium urate crystals, calcium pyrophosphate, hydroxyapatite and corticosteroid crystals. Monosodium urate ...
Adenosine triphosphate ATPase ATP hydrolysis ATP synthase Biochemistry Bone Calcium pyrophosphate Calcium pyrophosphate ... A number of pyrophosphate salts exist, such as disodium pyrophosphate (Na2H2P2O7) and tetrasodium pyrophosphate (Na4P2O7), ... I. Normal values in osteoarthritis and calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal deposition disease". Arthritis Rheum. 22 (8): ... Media related to Pyrophosphates at Wikimedia Commons Pyrophosphates at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject ...
... calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate, calcium hydroxyapatite, and calcium oxalate. Deposition of crystals in joints Calcium ... 2001). "Cross-sectional study of 50 patients with calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal arthropathy". Clin. Rheumatol. 20 (2 ... pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal formation: Increased production of inorganic pyrophosphate Decreased levels of pyrophosphatase ... Tissue damage Hyperparathyroidism Hypercalcemia Hyperphosphatemia Calcium oxalate deposition: Enhanced production of oxalic ...
Therefore, ADCY2 is highly regulated by G-proteins, calcium, calmodulin, pyrophosphate, and post-translational modifications. ...
This is essential to distinguish monosodium urate crystals in gout from calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals in pseudogout ...
In some cases, a build-up of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystals in the joint can cause pseudogout.[citation needed ... Some patients suffer from calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal depositions with occasional attacks of arthritis (pseudogout ... Elevated calcium in the blood (hypercalcemia) and urine (hypercalcenuria) are also common, and may explain the renal problems ... Urinary inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) levels are elevated in most hypophosphatasia patients and, although it remains only a ...
In a type of arthritis called pseudogout, crystals of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate accumulate in the joint, causing ...
Disulfuric acid Sodium pyrophosphate Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease Dimethylallyl pyrophosphate ADP ATP ... 3 HCl It can also be prepared by ion exchange from sodium pyrophosphate or by treating lead pyrophosphate with hydrogen sulfide ... At physiological pH's, pyrophosphate exists as a mixture of doubly and singly protonated forms. When molten, pyrophosphoric ... Anions, salts, and esters of pyrophosphoric acid are called pyrophosphates. It can be prepared by reaction of phosphoric acid ...
Patients often have a history of joint trauma or overuse, calcium pyrophosphate dehydrate crystal deposition, neuroarthropathy ... Milwaukee shoulder syndrome (MSS) (apatite-associated destructive arthritis/Basic calcium phosphate (BCP) crystal arthritis/ ... associated with periarticular or intra-articular deposition of hydroxyapatite or basic calcium phosphate (BCP) crystals. While ...
These paleopathologies were interpreted to represent traces of calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease, and were found in ... which was found to preserve traces of abnormal calcium deposits in some bones. ...
There is also an uncommon form of gouty arthritis caused by the formation of rhomboid crystals of calcium pyrophosphate known ...
... there is a less common form of gout that is caused by the formation of rhomboidal-shaped crystals of calcium pyrophosphate. ...
In Nauru, rail transport is used for moving calcium pyrophosphate from the island's interior to the cantilever jetties on the ...
... of cartilage intermediate-layer protein and ANK in articular hyaline cartilage from patients with calcium pyrophosphate ...
2021), who diagnose this specimen as affected by calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease, making it the first known non-avian ...
Calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease is present on the articular surface of the left patella and osteoarthritis is ... calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease) and one proliferative arthritis (osteoarthritis). Spondyloarthropathy was the most ...
... calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal deposition disease pictured). There are three main types of microscope condenser: The ...
... calcium pyrophosphate deposition (CPPD), Behçet's disease, ankylosing spondylitis, uveitis, and other auto-inflammatory ...
When monoarthritis is caused by pseudogout (calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease, CPPD), the inflammation usually lasts ...
A pyrophosphate ion with 99mTc adheres to calcium deposits in damaged heart muscle, making it useful to gauge damage after a ...
The danger molecule can be extracellular ATP, extracellular glucose, monosodium urate (MSU) crystals, calcium pyrophosphate ...
Calcium pyrophosphate (Ca2P2O7) is a chemical compound, an insoluble calcium salt containing the pyrophosphate anion. There are ... In both the pyrophosphates are essentially eclipsed. Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition Disease at eMedicine Klaus Schrödter; ... Crystals of the tetrahydrate can be prepared by reacting sodium pyrophosphate, Na4P2O7 with calcium nitrate, Ca(NO3)2, at ... Deposition of dihydrate crystals in cartilage are responsible for the severe joint pain in cases of calcium pyrophosphate ...
Although many metabolic and endocrine diseases have been reported to predispose to calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal ... Diseases associated with calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease Semin Arthritis Rheum. 1992 Dec;22(3):188-202. doi: 10.1016/ ... Although many metabolic and endocrine diseases have been reported to predispose to calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal ...
... is a metabolic arthropathy caused by the deposition of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate in and around joints, especially in ... Calcium pyrophosphate deposition (CPPD) disease is a metabolic arthropathy caused by the deposition of calcium pyrophosphate ... Calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease. Appearance of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals obtained from the knee of a ... encoded search term (Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Disease) and Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Disease What ...
... is a metabolic arthropathy caused by the deposition of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate in and around joints, especially in ... Calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease. Appearance of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals obtained from the knee of a ... encoded search term (Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Disease) and Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Disease What ... Calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease. High-powered view of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals with compensated ...
... is characterized by calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal accumulation in extracellular cartilage matrix, synovium and joints ... A. Calcium pyrophosphate crystal deposition disease Comment Here Reference: Calcium pyrophosphate crystal deposition disease ... Pyrophosphate is deposited in the synovium and adjacent tissues and combines with calcium to form calcium pyrophosphate (CPP) * ... Calcium pyrophosphate crystal deposition (CPPD) is characterized by calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal accumulation in ...
Craniocervical Junction Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition Causing Hypoglossal Nerve Palsy. ...
Patterns of radiographic abnormalities associated with basic calcium phosphate and calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal ... Patterns of radiographic abnormalities associated with basic calcium phosphate and calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal ... calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD), or both crystals together. Crystals were found in 71% of fluids. In general, CPPD ... symptomatic osteoarthritis were evaluated to determine the pattern of radiographic abnormalities associated with basic calcium ...
Global Calcium is a manufacturer of Ferric Pyrophosphate in India. Mineral Active, Ferric Pyrophosphate Manufacturer ... Global Calcium is one of the leading manufacturers and exporters of Ferric Pyrophosphate CAS no. 10058-44-3, Mineral Actives . ... As manufacturer of Ferric Pyrophosphate we hereby state the following facts about the drug: ... Global Calcium is a leading manufacturer of this drug. We manufacture this pharmaceutical drug and make it available to ...
Calcium Pyrophosphate (CPP) Arthritis - Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment from the MSD Manuals - Medical ... Calcium Pyrophosphate (CPP) Arthritis (Pseudogout; Calcium Pyrophosphate Crystal Deposition Disease; Calcium Pyrophosphate ... Calcium pyrophosphate (CPP) arthritis (previously called pseudogout) is a disorder caused by deposits of calcium pyrophosphate ... the level of calcium in blood is too high. A high calcium level may result from a problem with the parathyroid glands, as well ...
Relationship between pyrophosphate, amorphous calcium phosphate and other factors in the sequence of calcification in vivo. ... Relationship between pyrophosphate, amorphous calcium phosphate and other factors in the sequence of calcification in vivo. ... Animals, Bone and Bones, Calcification, Physiologic, Calcium Phosphates, Cartilage, Cattle, Collagen, Crystallization, ...
In CPPD, calcium pyrophosphate (CPP) crystals form in the blood and settle in joint Crystal deposits trigger an inflammatory ...
... is a type of arthritis caused by the deposition of calcium pyrophosphate crystals. Clinical Image Atlas : View clinical images ... Calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (CPDD) is a type of arthritis caused by the deposition of calcium pyrophosphate ... Secondary calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease The variety of calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (CPDD) is associated ... Primary calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease. Calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (CPDD) is divided into several ...
Dr. Lea Meir received her medical degree from the University of Central Florida College of Medicine. She then completed a residency in Internal Medicine at the Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell and a fellowship in Rheumatology at Mount Sinai Health System. Dr. Meir h ...
The role of calcium pyrophosphate impurities derived from a certain calcium-deficiency, hydroxyapatite impurities derived from ... Influence of Mg-doping, calcium pyrophosphate impurities and cooling rate on the allotropic alpha ,-,beta-tricalcium phosphate ... Influence of Mg-doping calcium pyrophosphate impurities and cooling rate on the allotropic alpha -beta-tricalcium phosphate ... The present work reports on the kinetics of alpha ,-,beta-TCP phase transformations of calcium-deficient TCP powders with ...
Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) deposition disease is a relatively common condition primarily affecting the elderly. ... Fever with acute arthritis in calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease: a missed explanation for altered mental ...
Evaluation of Calcium Pyrophosphate Dihydrate Deposition Disease by Ultrasound. 林 剛民(Kang-Min Lin), 賴 振宏(Jenn-Haung Lai), 張 德明( ... Evaluation of Calcium Pyrophosphate Dihydrate Deposition Disease by Ultrasound. / 林剛民(Kang-Min Lin); 賴振宏(Jenn-Haung Lai); 張德明( ... Evaluation of Calcium Pyrophosphate Dihydrate Deposition Disease by Ultrasound. Formosan Journal of Rheumatology. 2009;23(1):25 ... Evaluation of Calcium Pyrophosphate Dihydrate Deposition Disease by Ultrasound. In: Formosan Journal of Rheumatology. 2009 ; ...
Calcium Pyrophosphate Dihydrate (CPPD) crystal-related arthropathies are a common cause of acute and chronic arthritis caused ... Diagnosis and Treatment of Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Disease: A Review.. Sharon Cowley, Geraldine McCarthy. Open ... by the deposition of calcium pyrophosphate crystals in joints and soft tissues, resulting in inflammation and joint damage. ...
Calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (CPPD) is an arthropathy that affects the synovium and periarticular tissues. More ... Key words: calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease, supraspinatus tendon, imaging tests, optical microscopy, young patient ... Periarticular calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease in a young patient: a case report. ... Periarticular calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease in a young patient: a case report ...
Only two H&E-stained sections showed scant calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystals in pseudogout. None of the three ... and calcium hydroxyapatite crystals without birefringence in tumoral calcinosis. Section stained with NAES method is a ...
Study finds doubled risk of fractures in patients with acute calcium pyrophosphate crystal arthritis Researchers will present ... the first-ever study of fractures and calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease at ACR Convergence 2023, the American College of ...
Effect of EHDP on calcium accumulation and technetium-99m pyrophosphate uptake in experimental myocardial infarction. / Buja, L ... Effect of EHDP on calcium accumulation and technetium-99m pyrophosphate uptake in experimental myocardial infarction. Unknown ... Effect of EHDP on calcium accumulation and technetium-99m pyrophosphate uptake in experimental myocardial infarction. In: ... Dive into the research topics of Effect of EHDP on calcium accumulation and technetium-99m pyrophosphate uptake in ...
Sonographic assessment of the knee in patients with gout and calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease. Filippucci, E;Scirè, C. ... The knee is a frequent target for gout and calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) disease with involvement of both articular ... The knee is a frequent target for gout and calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) disease with involvement of both articular ... Calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease; Crystal deposits; Fibrocartilage; Gout; Hyaline cartilage; Knee; Ultrasound; ...
If someone develops pseudogout, they form and react to calcium pyrophosphate (CPP). vesflot.ru ... Calcium pyrophosphate deposition (CPPD)also known as "pseudogout" is a type of arthritis. In CPPD, calcium pyrophosphate (CPP) ... called calcium pyrophosphate, in and around the joints. What is pseudogout? Pseudogouts medical name is calcium pyrophosphate ... while pseudogout is caused by a buildup of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate. In. Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) also ...
Pseudogout: Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Like gout, pseudogout is caused by a build-up of microscopic crystals in a ...
Circles indicate pyrophosphate calcium crystals. Arrows indicate chain-shaped gram-negative bacilli. Original magnification × ... Circles indicate pyrophosphate calcium crystals. Arrows indicate chain-shaped gram-negative bacilli. Original magnification × ... diagnosed by the presence of pyrophosphate calcium crystals). On day 20, we performed bilateral knee lavage; thereafter, the ... gram-negative bacilli with pyrophosphate calcium crystals and neutrophils (Figure). Bacterial culture yielded transparent, ...
For treatment of flares for gout and pseudogout (also known as calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease) when both of the ... EULAR recommendations for calcium pyrophosphate deposition. Part II: Management. Ann Rheum Dis 2011;70:571-575. ... a decrease of calcium ion (Ca2+) transient amplitudes and altered baseline [Ca2+] upon exposure to patient serum. Furthermore, ...
Calcium Pyrophosphate. PEG-8. PEG/PPG-116/66 Copolymer. PVP. Silica. Tetrasodium Pyrophosphate ...
Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition Disease * Crystalline Arthritis * Discoid Lupus Erythematosus * Gout * IgG4-Related Diseases ...
Pseudogout is caused by calcium pyrophosphate crystals. The crystal deposition problems look similar to infection. ... Your doctor might order an x-ray to look for a broken bone, bone spur, or calcium deposit at the elbow (see Figure 3). If your ... X-ray of elbow showing soft-tissue outline of olecranon bursa and a calcium deposit, which your doctor may look for in ...
  • Crystals of the tetrahydrate can be prepared by reacting sodium pyrophosphate, Na4P2O7 with calcium nitrate, Ca(NO3)2, at carefully controlled pH and temperature: Na4P2O7(aq)+2 Ca(NO3)2(aq)→ Ca2P2O7·4 H2O + 4 NaNO3 The dihydrate, sometimes termed CPPD, can be formed by the reaction of pyrophosphoric acid with calcium chloride:[citation needed] CaCl2 + H4P2O7(aq) → Ca2P2O7·2 H2O + HCl. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) arthritis is a joint disease that can cause attacks of arthritis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Deposition of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) causes this form of arthritis . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Gitelman syndrome can mimic several other manifestations of calcium pyrophosphate deposition (CPPD) disease , including osteoarthritis, carpal tunnel syndrome, and tenosynovitis with calcifications along the tendon sheath itself. (medscape.com)
  • Basic calcium phosphate deposition disease and Lyme arthritis are also included in the differential diagnosis of CPPD. (medscape.com)
  • Calcium pyrophosphate deposition (CPPD) disease is a metabolic arthropathy caused by the deposition of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate in and around joints, especially in articular cartilage and fibrocartilage (see the images below). (medscape.com)
  • Although the exact mechanism for the development of CPPD remains unknown, increased adenosine triphosphate breakdown with resultant increased inorganic pyrophosphate in the joints results from aging, genetic factors, or both. (medscape.com)
  • Therefore, inorganic pyrophosphate can bind calcium, leading to CPPD deposition in the cartilage and synovium. (medscape.com)
  • Revised diagnostic criteria for calcium pyrophosphate deposition (CPPD) disease are from the Primer on Rheumatic Diseases (1997) and are used with permission from the Arthritis Foundation. (medscape.com)
  • Histologic changes associated with CPPD correspond to calcium deposits and to inflammation due to cartilage fragments. (medscape.com)
  • General laboratory studies usually are not helpful in calcium pyrophosphate deposition (CPPD) disease. (medscape.com)
  • Which medications in the drug class Anti-Inflammatory Agents are used in the treatment of Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Disease? (medscape.com)
  • Cowley S, McCarthy G. Diagnosis and Treatment of Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Disease: A Review. (medscape.com)
  • Duran Tİ, Özgen M. Two cases of calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (CPPD) presented with spondylodiscitis. (medscape.com)
  • Objectives To agree terminology and to develop recommendations for the diagnosis of calcium pyrophosphate deposition (CPPD). (bmj.com)
  • Results It was agreed that 'CPPD' should be the umbrella term that includes acute calcium pyrophosphate (CPP) crystal arthritis, osteoarthritis (OA) with CPPD and chronic CPP crystal inflammatory arthritis. (bmj.com)
  • Calcium pyrophosphate crystal deposition disease, or CPPD, is a disorder that causes pain , redness, warmth, and swelling in one or more joints. (drjatinderjuneja.com)
  • Calcium pyrophosphate deposition (CPPD) disease prevalence is similar to gout and osteoarthritis (OA), yet CPPD outcomes research greatly lags behind these other forms of arthritis. (qxmd.com)
  • Presence of CPPD manifestations (acute calcium pyrophosphate [CPP] crystal arthritis, chronic CPP inflammatory arthritis, and/or OA with CPPD) was confirmed by medical record review. (qxmd.com)
  • Incubation of natural or synthetic calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) microcrystals with synovial fluid in vitro in the presence of (32P)PPi tracer showed no change in PPi specific activity in the supernate over a 19-h period so that exchange of PPi in solution with that in CPPD microcrystals could be ignored. (nih.gov)
  • Calcific tendonitis may be confused with calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease (CPPD, or pseudogout ) - a type of arthritis in which calcium phosphate crystals form in the joints. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Non-urate calcium-containing crystal deposition diseases that affect the joints and surrounding structures include calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystal deposition disease and hydroxyapatite crystal deposition disease (also known as basic calcium phosphate crystallopathy). (nih.gov)
  • Pseudogout has sometimes been referred to as calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease or CPPD.Pseudogout is clearly related to aging as it is more common in the elderly and is associated with degenerative arthritis. (clustermed.info)
  • Chondrocalcinosis at the knee, wrist, or symphysis pubis is virtually diagnostic of calcium pyrophosphate dehydrate deposition disease (CPPD) (Fig. 6-42). (dieutridau.com)
  • Discuss the clinical presentation, causes, relevant diagnostic tests, and management of Calcium Pyrophosphate Dihydrate (CPPD) Deposition Disease. (nih.gov)
  • Zamora EA, Naik R. Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition Disease (Pseudogout). (medscape.com)
  • Calcium pyrophosphate (CPP) arthritis (previously called pseudogout) is a disorder caused by deposits of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals in the joint cartilage, leading to intermittent attacks of painful joint inflammation similar to gout or a chronic arthritis similar to rheumatoid arthritis. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Stephens, M 2015, Pseudogout (calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate) . (psu.edu)
  • We replaced ceftriaxone with sulbactam and ampicillin on hospital day 16, followed by intraarticular administration of dexamethasone on day 17 for pseudogout (diagnosed by the presence of pyrophosphate calcium crystals). (cdc.gov)
  • Recent studies have shown elevated inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) levels in most knee joint fluid supernates from patients with pseudogout (PG) or osteoarthritis (OA) and more modestly elevated levels in some supernates from patients with gout or rheumatoid arthritis (RA) relative to PPi levels found in the venous blood plasma of normal or arthritic subjects. (nih.gov)
  • Calcium pyrophosphate crystals mean you have pseudogout. (andersonclinic.com)
  • With this microscope, the calcium pyrophosphate crystals are clearly identified by their characteristic shape and color (medically term weakly positively birefringent rhomboid crystals).The arthritis of pseudogout is common in older adults, particularly in the context of dehydration such as occurs with hospitalization or surgery. (clustermed.info)
  • Pseudogout is primarily caused by the precipitation of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals developing within a joint space. (clustermed.info)
  • Pseudogout can also be caused by the hormonal effects on calcium metabolism from hyperparathyroidism. (clustermed.info)
  • Pseudogout is a type of inflammation of joints (arthritis) that is caused by deposits of crystals, called calcium pyrophosphate, in and around the joints. (clustermed.info)
  • Paalanen K, Rannio K, Rannio T, Asikainen J, Hannonen P, Sokka T. Prevalence of calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease in a cohort of patients diagnosed with seronegative rheumatoid arthritis. (medscape.com)
  • Deposition of dihydrate crystals in cartilage are responsible for the severe joint pain in cases of calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (pseudo gout) whose symptoms are similar to those of gout. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patient reported outcomes in calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease compared to gout and osteoarthritis. (qxmd.com)
  • 20. An update on the treatment options for gout and calcium pyrophosphate deposition. (nih.gov)
  • Ryan LM, Wortmann RL, Karas B. Pyrophosphohydrolase activity and inorganic pyrophosphate content of cultured human skin fibroblasts. (medscape.com)
  • The ANKH protein is involved in transport of inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), which regulates calcification, bone mineralization, and bone resorption. (medscape.com)
  • Calcium pyrophosphate cyrstals may be precipitated in condition that inorganic pyrophosphatase is absent. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Association of sporadic chondrocalcinosis with a -4-basepair G-to-A transition in the 5'-untranslated region of ANKH that promotes enhanced expression of ANKH protein and excess generation of extracellular inorganic pyrophosphate. (cdc.gov)
  • An inorganic pyrophosphate which affects calcium metabolism in mammals. (nih.gov)
  • European League Against Rheumatism recommendations for calcium pyrophosphate deposition. (medscape.com)
  • EULAR recommendations for calcium pyrophosphate deposition. (bmj.com)
  • Deposition of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals in a soft tissue chondroma. (bmj.com)
  • Terkeltaub R. Calcium crystal disease: calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate and basic calcium phosphate. (medlineplus.gov)
  • However, it is caused by calcium phosphate, not uric acid. (nih.gov)
  • Efficacy and safety of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2/calcium phosphate matrix for closed tibial diaphyseal fracture: a double-blind, randomized, controlled phase-II/III trial. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Calcium phosphate was formed in cartilage from sodium pyrophosphate and calcium chloride. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The basic calcium phosphate arthropathies include calcific periarthritis syndromes that can occur as primary or secondary disease manifestations and may occur in a familial fashion, in calcific tendonitis and bursitis, intraarticular arthropathies such as Milwaukee shoulder syndrome, and periarthropathies. (nih.gov)
  • Discuss the clinical presentation, causes, relevant diagnostic tests, and management of Basic Calcium Phosphate (BCP) Deposition Disease. (nih.gov)
  • Genetics and Mechanisms of Crystal Deposition in Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition Disease. (medscape.com)
  • Elevated levels in some patients with calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease. (medscape.com)
  • The prevalence of chondrocalcinosis of the symphysis pubis on CT scan and correlation with calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal deposition disease. (medscape.com)
  • Kleiber Balderrama C, Rosenthal AK, Lans D, Singh JA, Bartels CM. Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition Disease and Associated Medical Comorbidities: A National Cross-Sectional Study of US Veterans. (medscape.com)
  • Doherty M, Hamilton E, Henderson J. Familial chondrocalcinosis due to calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal deposition in English families. (medscape.com)
  • Instead, x-rays of affected joints such as knees show characteristic deposits of calcium. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The presence of small crystals of calcium pyrophosphate in the joints causes the body to react by means of inflammation to attack them. (drjatinderjuneja.com)
  • The movement of calcium pyrophosphate crystals in the joints can create sudden and severe pain in the joints. (drjatinderjuneja.com)
  • In crystalline deposition diseases, a crystal called calcium pyrophosphate dehydrate develops in joints causing pain, swelling, and redness and/or heat. (adventhealth.com)
  • For the first time, such materials have been obtained in a large range of tunable orthophosphate/pyrophosphate molar ratios. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Calcific tendonitis develops when calcium deposits build up in your tendons or muscles. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Calcific tendonitis is caused by calcium buildup in your tendons. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Calcium pyrophosphate crystal deposition in hyaline cartilage. (medscape.com)
  • The prevalence and incidence of calcium crystal arthropathies are expected to increase as a result of the growing elderly population in the U.S. and increasing numbers of people with osteoarthritis predisposing cartilage to calcification disorders. (nih.gov)
  • These changes are nonspecific, but calcium deposits inside the chondrocartilage are perhaps the most typical finding in patients with this condition. (medscape.com)
  • However, calcium deposits in a joint may not cause symptoms. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The EDPC is generated by deposits of calcium pyrophosphate crystals in a joint. (drjatinderjuneja.com)
  • These calcium deposits can accumulate in one area or may occur in more than one location. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • However, if the calcium deposits in your tendons become inflamed, it can cause severe discomfort. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Calcium is released from cells, forming calcium deposits. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • One was filled with sodium pyrophosphate crystal and the other was filled with calcium chloride and keep the slice in room temparature for five days. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In this context, we herein report the synthesis of gel-derived hydrated amorphous calcium/sodium ortho/pyrophosphate materials at ambient temperature and in water. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Characterization results confirmed the presence of calcium carbonate crystallites along with the amorphous silica matrix. (degruyter.com)
  • Calcium pyrophosphate (Ca2P2O7) is a chemical compound, an insoluble calcium salt containing the pyrophosphate anion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beutler A, Rothfuss S, Clayburne G. Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal deposition in synovium. (medscape.com)