Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
Electron Probe Microanalysis
Dental Pulp Capping
Coated Materials, Biocompatible
Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared
Bone and Bones
Calcium Channels, L-Type
Pentose Phosphate Pathway
Phosphate Transport Proteins
Microscopy, Electron, Transmission
Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission
Molecular Sequence Data
Spectroscopy, Electron Energy-Loss
Amino Acid Sequence
Zinc Oxide-Eugenol Cement
Calcium Channels, N-Type
Calcium Channel Agonists
Dental Cavity Lining
Dietary calcium phosphate stimulates intestinal lactobacilli and decreases the severity of a salmonella infection in rats. (1/929)We have shown recently that dietary calcium phosphate (CaPi) has a trophic effect on the intestinal microflora and strongly protects against salmonella infection. It was speculated that precipitation by CaPi of intestinal surfactants, such as bile acids and fatty acids, reduced the cytotoxicity of intestinal contents and favored growth of the microflora. Because lactobacilli may have antagonistic activity against pathogens, the main purpose of the present study was to examine whether this CaPi-induced protection coincides with a reinforcement of the endogenous lactobacilli. In vitro, Salmonella enteritidis appeared to be insensitive to bile acids and fatty acids, whereas Lactobacillus acidophilus was killed by physiologically relevant concentrations of these surfactants. Additionally, after adaptation to a purified diet differing only in CaPi concentration (20 and 180 mmol CaHPO4. 2H2O/kg), rats (n = 8) were orally infected with S. enteritidis. Besides reducing the cytotoxicity and the concentration of bile acids and fatty acids of ileal contents and fecal water, CaPi notably changed the composition of ileal bile acids in a less cell-damaging direction. Significantly greater numbers of ileal and fecal lactobacilli were detected in noninfected, CaPi-supplemented rats. As judged by the lower urinary NOx excretion, which is a biomarker of intestinal bacterial translocation, dietary CaPi reduced the invasion of salmonella. Additionally, the colonization resistance was improved considering the reduction of excreted fecal salmonella. In accordance, fewer viable salmonella were detected in ileal contents and on the ileal mucosa in the CaPi group. In conclusion, reducing the intestinal surfactant concentration by dietary CaPi strengthens the endogenous lactobacilli and increases the resistance to salmonella. (+info)
Intracellular calcium responses to basic calcium phosphate crystals in fibroblasts. (2/929)OBJECTIVE: To examine the intracellular calcium response to basic calcium phosphate (BCP) crystals in fibroblasts. DESIGN: In this study, intracellular calcium [Ca2+]i levels in fibroblasts were determined using the photoactive dye, fura-2. Interruption of these responses was accomplished by either removal of Ca2+ from the extracellular medium or addition of ammonium chloride that inhibits intracellular dissolution of BCP crystals by alkalinizing phagolysosomes. The effects of such interruptions on BCP induction expression of proto-oncogenes were demonstrated by the Northern blot analysis. RESULTS: Addition of media containing BCP crystals yielded an immediate 10-fold rise of [Ca2+]i over the baseline level in human fibroblasts. This peak was derived mostly from extracellular calcium and was not seen when BCP crystals in calcium-free media were added to fibroblasts. The [Ca2+]i concentration returned to the baseline level within 8 min. A second rise of [Ca2+]i started at 60 min and continued to increase up to at least 3 h. This peak was derived from intracellular dissolution of phagocytosed crystals and almost completely inhibited by 10 mM ammonium chloride. CONCLUSION: The initial transient [Ca2+]i increase probably serves as a second messenger leading to activation of early cellular responses such as c-fos expression which is important in BCP crystal-induced mitogenesis. The second, slower and more sustained rise of [Ca2+]i probably initiates other cellular processes needed for fibroblast mitogenesis. (+info)
Calcium ions as efficient cofactor of polycation-mediated gene transfer. (3/929)We investigated the effect of calcium on the transfection of non-viral DNA transfer systems. Cationic proteins such as the nuclear protein H1, the polycation polylysine and a number of commercial transfection agents exhibited high transfection rates in the presence of Ca2+. Without Ca2+ H1 and HMG1 were inactive in transfection of the human permanent endothelial cell line ECV 304 while cationic liposomes such as Lipofectin and Lipofectamine did not show any Ca2+ dependence. More detailed experiments showed that Ca2+ was replaceable by the lysosomotropic agent chloroquine. Furthermore, it was possible to separate the transfection-enhancing role of Ca2+ from the actual transfection process by adding Ca2+ to the cells after the transfection period and still to obtain a significant transgene expression. This makes it possible to distinguish between cellular uptake of H1 (or mediator)-DNA complexes and endocytotic release. We also replaced soluble Ca2+ by Ca-phosphate precipitates not containing DNA and obtained similar transfection results. This allowed us to suggest that the addition of free Ca2+ to the transfection medium resulted in nascent Ca-phosphate microprecipitates. The known fusogenic and membranolytic activity of such microprecipitates could facilitate the transport through and the release of the transfecting complexes from the endosomal/lysosomal compartment. (+info)
Development of calcium phosphate cement for rapid crystallization to apatite. (4/929)The purpose of this study was to develop an alpha-tricalcium phosphate (alpha-TCP) cement which transforms to hydroxyapatite (HAP) in a relatively short period. We used calcium and phosphate solutions as the liquid phase for the alpha-TCP cement. The alpha-TCP powder was first mixed with CaCl2 solution, and then mixed with NaH2PO4 or Na2HPO3 solution for a total powder/liquid ratio of 1.8. The setting time became shorter with the increase in the concentration of calcium and phosphate solutions, reaching 5 min, whereas the setting time was longer than 30 min when distilled water was used as the liquid phase. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the cement was mostly transformed to HAP within 24 h when kept in an incubator. We concluded that alpha-TCP should be mixed with calcium and phosphate solutions since this results in a moderate setting time and fast transformation to HAP even if the method of mixing becomes a little complex. (+info)
Essential arterial hypertension and stone disease. (5/929)BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional studies have shown that nephrolithiasis is more frequently found in hypertensive patients than in normotensive subjects, but the pathogenic link between hypertension and stone disease is still not clear. METHODS: Between 1984 and 1991, we studied the baseline stone risk profile, including supersaturation of lithogenic salts, in 132 patients with stable essential hypertension (diastolic blood pressure of more than 95 mm Hg) without stone disease and 135 normotensive subjects (diastolic blood pressure less than 85 mm Hg) without stone disease who were matched for age and sex (controls). Subsequently, both controls and hypertensives were followed up for at least five years to check on the eventual formation of kidney stones. RESULTS: Baseline urine levels in hypertensive males were different from that of normotensive males with regards to calcium (263 vs. 199 mg/day), magnesium (100 vs. 85 mg/day), uric acid (707 vs. 586 mg/day), and oxalate (34.8 vs. 26.5 mg/day). Moreover, the urine of hypertensive males was more supersaturated for calcium oxalate (8.9 vs. 6.1) and calcium phosphate (1.39 vs. 0.74). Baseline urine levels in hypertensive females were different from that of normotensive females with regards to calcium (212 vs. 154 mg/day), phosphorus (696 vs. 614 mg/day), and oxalate (26.2 vs. 21.7 mg/day), and the urine of hypertensive females was more supersaturated for calcium oxalate (7.1 vs. 4.8). These urinary alterations were only partially dependent on the greater body mass index in hypertensive patients. During the follow-up, 19 out of 132 hypertensive patients and 4 out of 135 normotensive patients had stone episodes (14.3 vs. 2.9%, chi-square 11.07, P = 0.001; odds ratio 5.5, 95% CI, 1.82 to 16.66). Of the 19 stone-former hypertensive patients, 12 formed calcium calculi, 5 formed uric acid calculi, and 2 formed nondetermined calculi. Of the urinary factors for lithogenous risk, those with the greatest predictive value were supersaturation of calcium oxalate for calcium calculi and uric acid supersaturation for uric acid calculi. CONCLUSIONS: A significant percentage of hypertensive subjects has a greater risk of renal stone formation, especially when hypertension is associated with excessive body weight. Higher oxaluria and calciuria as well as supersaturation of calcium oxalate and uric acid appear to be the most important factors. Excessive weight and consumption of salt and animal proteins may also play an important role. (+info)
Clinical and biochemical correlates of starting "daily" hemodialysis. (6/929)BACKGROUND: Daily hemodialysis has been proposed to improve outcomes for patients with end-stage renal disease. There has been increasing evidence that daily hemodialysis might have potential advantages over intermittent dialysis. However, despite these potential advantages, daily hemodialysis is infrequently used in the United States, and published accounts on the technique are few. METHODS: We describe patient outcomes after increasing their hemodialysis frequency from three to six times per week in a cohort of 72 patients treated at nine centers during 1972 to 1996. Analyses of predialysis blood pressure and laboratory parameters from 6 months before until 12 months after starting frequent hemodialysis used a repeated-measures statistical technique. RESULTS: Predialysis systolic and diastolic blood pressures fell by 7 and 4 mm Hg, respectively, after starting frequent hemodialysis (P = 0.02). Reductions were greatest among patients being treated with antihypertensive medications, despite a reduction in their dosage of medications. Postdialysis weight fell by 1.0% within one month of starting frequent hemodialysis and improved control of hypertension. After the initial drop, postdialysis weight increased at a rate of 0.85 kg per six months. Serum albumin rose by 0.29 g/dl (P < 0.001) between months 1 to 12 of treatment with daily hemodialysis. Hematocrit rose by 3.0 percentage points (P = 0.02) among patients (N = 56) not treated with erythropoietin during this period. Two years after the start of daily hemodialysis, Kaplan-Meier analyses showed a patient survival of 93%, a technique survival of 77%, and an arteriovenous fistula patency of 92%. Vascular access patency was excellent despite more frequent use of the access. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that in certain patients, daily hemodialysis might have advantages over three times per week hemodialysis. (+info)
Method of transfection affects the cAMP-mediated induction of the RIIbeta subunit of protein kinase A in Sertoli cells: inhibition of response by increase in intracellullar calcium. (7/929)mRNA for the regulatory subunit RIIbeta of cAMP-dependent protein kinase is stimulated more than 50-fold by cAMP in primary cultures of rat Sertoli cells. We have previously shown that this induction involves regulation of transcriptional activation as well as mRNA stabilization. The rat RIIbeta gene contains no cAMP response element (CRE), and the induction of RIIbeta mRNA is slow and requires on-going protein synthesis. When a construct containing the 5'-flanking region of the RIIbeta gene upstream of a CAT reporter was transfected into Sertoli cells by the calcium phosphate method, low and variable responses to cAMP (three- to fivefold) were observed, whereas a 15- to 20-fold increase in reporter activity by cAMP was observed after lipofectamine transfection. Interestingly, when a vector containing CRE elements upstream of a reporter gene was transfected into Sertoli cells, the responses to cAMP were similar regardless of the transfection method used. We have also demonstrated that increased intracellular levels of calcium by A23187 and thapsigargin dramatically inhibit cAMP-mediated induction of RIIbeta mRNA, but not the mRNA for the CRE-containing RIalpha gene. Furthermore, decreased cAMP responsiveness of endogenous RIIbetamRNA (but not RIalpha) was also observed in calcium phosphate-transfected Sertoli cells but not in lipofectamine-transfected cells. Thus, calcium-mediated reduction in cAMP response appears to be a gene-specific phenomenon. (+info)
Implanted octacalcium phosphate (OCP) stimulates osteogenesis by osteoblastic cells and/or committed osteoprogenitors in rat calvarial periosteum. (8/929)Our previous studies demonstrated that the octacalcium phosphate (OCP) causes new appositional bone formation on the OCP when implanted into the subperiosteal region of murine calvaria. The OCP may stimulate the cell population committed to the osteoblastic differentiation in the periosteum and have them express the phenotype. The present study was designed to investigate which periosteal cell population is involved in bone formation on the OCP with applying the OCP implants on top of and underneath the periosteum. The periosteum of the rat parietal bones was flapped and the OCP was implanted on top of or underneath the periosteum, in which the implantation sites were defined using the membrane filter. The histology was examined to see if new appositional bone formation occurs on the OCP implant under each condition. New bone was deposited on the OCP on the bone surface separated from the periosteum by the filter, whereas no bone was formed either under the periosteum separated from the bone surface by the filter or on the periosteum. The present study suggests that the OCP acts on osteoblasts, bone lining cells and/or their closely committed progenitors on the bone surface to express the phenotype and deposit new bone on the OCP implant. (+info)
Calcium phosphates are a group of minerals that are commonly found in the human body, particularly in bones and teeth. They are also used in medical applications, such as in the production of bone grafts and dental implants. Calcium phosphates are composed of calcium and phosphorus ions, and they are typically crystalline in structure. There are several different types of calcium phosphates, including hydroxyapatite, octacalcium phosphate, and brushite. In the medical field, calcium phosphates are often used as a source of calcium and phosphorus for patients who are unable to obtain these nutrients from their diet. They are also used in the treatment of bone diseases, such as osteoporosis, and in the repair of bone fractures. In addition, calcium phosphates are used in the production of medical devices, such as dental implants and bone grafts, because of their biocompatibility and ability to support bone growth.
Phosphates are a group of inorganic compounds that contain the phosphate ion (PO4^3-). In the medical field, phosphates are often used as a source of phosphorus, which is an essential nutrient for the body. Phosphorus is important for a variety of bodily functions, including bone health, energy production, and nerve function. Phosphates are commonly found in foods such as dairy products, meats, and grains, as well as in some dietary supplements. In the medical field, phosphates are also used as a medication to treat certain conditions, such as hypophosphatemia (low levels of phosphorus in the blood) and hyperphosphatemia (high levels of phosphorus in the blood). Phosphates can also be used as a component of intravenous fluids, as well as in certain types of dialysis solutions for people with kidney disease. In these cases, phosphates are used to help regulate the levels of phosphorus in the body. It is important to note that high levels of phosphorus in the blood can be harmful, and it is important for people with kidney disease to carefully manage their phosphorus intake. In some cases, medications such as phosphate binders may be prescribed to help prevent the absorption of excess phosphorus from the diet.
Calcium signaling is a complex process that involves the movement of calcium ions (Ca2+) within and between cells. Calcium ions play a crucial role in many cellular functions, including muscle contraction, neurotransmitter release, gene expression, and cell division. Calcium signaling is regulated by a network of proteins that sense changes in calcium levels and respond by activating or inhibiting specific cellular processes. In the medical field, calcium signaling is important for understanding the mechanisms underlying many diseases, including cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer. Calcium signaling is also a target for many drugs, including those used to treat hypertension, arrhythmias, and osteoporosis. Understanding the complex interactions between calcium ions and the proteins that regulate them is therefore an important area of research in medicine.
Durapatite is a synthetic bone substitute material that is used in orthopedic and dental surgeries. It is a type of calcium phosphate ceramic that is similar in composition to natural bone and is designed to promote bone growth and regeneration. Durapatite is typically used in procedures such as bone grafting, where it is placed in the body to help fill in gaps or defects in bone tissue. It can also be used as an alternative to autografts (bone taken from the patient's own body) or allografts (bone taken from a donor) in certain cases. Durapatite has several advantages over other bone substitute materials, including its ability to promote bone growth and its biocompatibility with the body. It is also relatively easy to shape and can be customized to fit the specific needs of each patient. Overall, Durapatite is a useful tool for surgeons and dentists who are looking for a safe and effective way to promote bone growth and regeneration in the body.
In the medical field, bone substitutes are materials that are used to replace or repair damaged or diseased bone tissue. These materials can be used in a variety of surgical procedures, including fracture repair, spinal fusion, and dental implants. Bone substitutes can be classified into two main categories: autografts and allografts. Autografts are bone grafts taken from the patient's own body, while allografts are bone grafts taken from a donor. There are also synthetic bone substitutes, which are man-made materials that are designed to mimic the properties of natural bone. These materials can include ceramics, polymers, and composites. The choice of bone substitute depends on the specific surgical procedure and the patient's individual needs. Factors such as the location and severity of the bone damage, the patient's age and overall health, and the availability of autografts or allografts may all influence the choice of bone substitute.
In the medical field, "apatites" typically refers to a group of minerals that are composed of calcium phosphate. These minerals are commonly found in bones and teeth, and are also present in other parts of the body, such as the kidneys and the thyroid gland. Apatites can be either normal or abnormal, depending on the context in which they are found. For example, normal apatites are an essential component of healthy bones and teeth, while abnormal apatites can be associated with a variety of medical conditions, such as osteoporosis, hyperparathyroidism, and kidney stones. In some cases, apatites can also be used as a diagnostic tool in medical imaging. For example, certain types of apatites can be visualized using X-rays or computed tomography (CT) scans, which can help doctors to diagnose and monitor a variety of medical conditions.
Bone cements are medical materials that are used to fill bone defects or to attach artificial joints to the bone. They are typically made of a powder and a liquid that are mixed together and then injected into the bone. The powder and liquid react chemically to form a hard, durable material that bonds to the bone and provides support for the artificial joint or implant. Bone cements are commonly used in orthopedic surgery to treat conditions such as fractures, osteoarthritis, and bone tumors. They are also used in dental surgery to anchor dental implants in the jawbone.
Calcium, dietary refers to the amount of calcium that is obtained from food and beverages consumed by an individual. Calcium is an essential mineral that plays a crucial role in maintaining strong bones and teeth, as well as regulating muscle function, nerve transmission, and blood clotting. The recommended daily intake of calcium varies depending on age, sex, and other factors. For adults, the recommended daily intake of calcium is 1000-1300 milligrams per day. Calcium can be obtained from a variety of sources, including dairy products (such as milk, cheese, and yogurt), leafy green vegetables (such as kale and spinach), fortified foods (such as cereal and orange juice), and certain types of fish (such as salmon and sardines). In the medical field, monitoring an individual's dietary calcium intake is important for maintaining optimal bone health and preventing conditions such as osteoporosis. A deficiency in dietary calcium can lead to weakened bones and an increased risk of fractures, while an excess of calcium can lead to kidney stones and other health problems.
Calcium channels are specialized proteins found in the cell membrane of many types of cells, including neurons, muscle cells, and epithelial cells. These channels allow calcium ions to pass through the cell membrane, regulating the flow of calcium into and out of the cell. Calcium channels play a crucial role in many physiological processes, including muscle contraction, neurotransmitter release, and the regulation of gene expression. Calcium channels can be classified into several types based on their structure and function, including voltage-gated calcium channels, ligand-gated calcium channels, and store-operated calcium channels. In the medical field, calcium channels are the target of many drugs, including anti-seizure medications, anti-anxiety medications, and antiarrhythmics. Abnormalities in calcium channel function have been linked to a variety of diseases, including hypertension, heart disease, and neurological disorders such as epilepsy and multiple sclerosis.
Calcium carbonate is a mineral that is commonly used in the medical field as a dietary supplement and as a medication. It is also used in the treatment of certain medical conditions, such as osteoporosis, stomach ulcers, and kidney stones. Calcium carbonate is a source of calcium, which is an essential mineral that is important for maintaining strong bones and teeth, as well as for many other functions in the body. It is also used as an antacid to neutralize stomach acid and relieve symptoms of heartburn and indigestion. In the medical field, calcium carbonate is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and powders. It is usually taken by mouth, although it can also be given intravenously in certain cases. The dosage and duration of treatment will depend on the specific medical condition being treated and the individual patient's needs.
Calcium oxalate is a chemical compound that is commonly found in many plants, including spinach, rhubarb, and beets. In the medical field, calcium oxalate is often associated with kidney stones, which are hard, mineral deposits that can form in the kidneys and cause pain and other symptoms. Calcium oxalate stones are the most common type of kidney stone, accounting for about 75% of all cases. They can also form in the urinary tract and can cause blockages and other complications. In addition to kidney stones, calcium oxalate can also accumulate in the blood and cause other health problems, such as hyperoxaluria, which is a condition characterized by high levels of oxalate in the blood.
In the medical field, ceramics refer to a group of inorganic, non-metallic materials that are used for various medical applications. These materials are typically strong, hard, and wear-resistant, making them ideal for use in implants, prosthetics, and other medical devices. Ceramics can be classified into several categories based on their composition and properties, including: 1. Oxide ceramics: These ceramics are composed of metal oxides and are commonly used in dental implants, orthopedic implants, and other medical devices. 2. Nitride ceramics: These ceramics are composed of metal nitrides and are known for their high strength and toughness. They are used in orthopedic implants, dental implants, and other medical devices. 3. Carbide ceramics: These ceramics are composed of metal carbides and are known for their high hardness and wear resistance. They are used in dental implants, orthopedic implants, and other medical devices. 4. Glass ceramics: These ceramics are composed of glass and ceramic materials and are known for their high strength and toughness. They are used in dental implants, orthopedic implants, and other medical devices. Ceramics are also used in various medical applications, such as: 1. Dental implants: Ceramic materials are commonly used in dental implants due to their biocompatibility and ability to mimic the natural tooth structure. 2. Orthopedic implants: Ceramic materials are used in orthopedic implants due to their high strength and wear resistance. 3. Prosthetics: Ceramic materials are used in prosthetics due to their ability to mimic the natural bone structure and their biocompatibility. 4. Surgical instruments: Ceramic materials are used in surgical instruments due to their high strength and wear resistance. Overall, ceramics play an important role in the medical field due to their unique properties and versatility in various medical applications.
Calcium pyrophosphate is a mineral compound that is commonly found in the human body. It is composed of calcium and two molecules of phosphorus, and it is typically found in the form of crystals. In the medical field, calcium pyrophosphate crystals can sometimes form in the joints, causing a condition known as calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (CPPD). This condition can cause pain, swelling, and stiffness in the affected joints, and it is more common in older adults. Calcium pyrophosphate crystals can also form in other parts of the body, such as the kidneys, and they can sometimes cause kidney stones. In general, calcium pyrophosphate is an important mineral that is necessary for many bodily functions, but when it forms crystals in the joints or kidneys, it can cause health problems.
Kidney calculi, also known as renal calculi or renal stones, are solid masses made up of minerals and salts that form in the kidneys. They can be as small as a grain of sand or as large as a golf ball, and can cause a range of symptoms, including pain, blood in the urine, and difficulty urinating. Kidney calculi can form when there is an imbalance of minerals and salts in the urine, or when the kidneys are not able to properly remove these substances from the body. They are a common medical condition, and can be treated with a variety of methods, including medication, lifestyle changes, and surgical procedures.
Calcification, physiologic refers to the normal process of calcium deposition in tissues and organs throughout the body. This process is essential for the development and maintenance of many structures, such as bones, teeth, and blood vessels. In the context of the medical field, physiologic calcification is generally considered to be a normal and healthy process. However, excessive or abnormal calcification can lead to a variety of health problems, such as atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries), kidney stones, and calcification of soft tissues. Physiologic calcification is typically the result of the deposition of calcium and other minerals in response to various stimuli, such as hormonal changes, aging, and injury. It is a complex process that involves the interaction of multiple factors, including calcium and phosphate levels in the blood, vitamin D metabolism, and the activity of various enzymes and proteins. Overall, physiologic calcification is an important aspect of human physiology and plays a critical role in the development and maintenance of many structures and functions throughout the body.
Sugar phosphates, also known as phospho-sugars or phospho-carbohydrates, are a group of compounds that contain both a sugar molecule and a phosphate group. They are important intermediates in various metabolic pathways, particularly those involving the breakdown of carbohydrates for energy production. In the medical field, sugar phosphates are often studied in the context of diseases such as diabetes, where the body's ability to regulate blood sugar levels can be impaired. They are also involved in the formation of nucleic acids, such as DNA and RNA, which are essential for the growth and reproduction of cells. Some examples of sugar phosphates include glucose-6-phosphate, fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is often referred to as the "energy currency" of the cell. These compounds play important roles in various metabolic processes, including glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and the electron transport chain.
Biocompatible materials are materials that are designed to interact with living tissues in a way that is safe and non-toxic. These materials are used in a variety of medical applications, including implants, prosthetics, and drug delivery systems. Biocompatible materials must be able to withstand the harsh conditions of the human body, including exposure to bodily fluids, enzymes, and bacteria. They must also be able to integrate with the surrounding tissue and promote healing, rather than causing inflammation or rejection. Some examples of biocompatible materials include metals such as titanium and stainless steel, polymers such as polyethylene and polypropylene, and ceramics such as hydroxyapatite. These materials are often used in the manufacturing of medical devices and implants, such as hip replacements, dental implants, and pacemakers. It is important to note that while a material may be biocompatible, it may not be suitable for all medical applications. The choice of material depends on a variety of factors, including the intended use of the device, the patient's individual needs and health status, and the specific requirements of the medical procedure.
Glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) is a chemical compound that is a key intermediate in the metabolism of glucose. It is formed when glucose is phosphorylated by the enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase, which is found in many tissues throughout the body. G6P is an important source of energy for cells and is also involved in the synthesis of other important molecules, such as glycogen and nucleotides. In the medical field, G6P is often measured as part of routine blood tests to assess glucose metabolism and to diagnose certain medical conditions, such as diabetes.
Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in cellular metabolism. It is involved in the glycolytic pathway, which is the process by which cells convert glucose into energy. GAPDH catalyzes the conversion of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate to 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate, which is an important step in the breakdown of glucose. In addition to its role in glycolysis, GAPDH has also been implicated in a variety of other cellular processes, including apoptosis (programmed cell death), inflammation, and the regulation of gene expression. It is also a commonly used biomarker in research and clinical settings, as it is expressed in many different types of cells and tissues and is relatively stable under a variety of conditions. GAPDH is a highly conserved enzyme, meaning that it is found in many different species and has a similar structure and function across these species. It is a homotetramer, meaning that it is composed of four identical subunits, and it is found in the cytoplasm of cells.
In the medical field, crystallization refers to the process by which a substance, such as a mineral or a drug, forms solid crystals from a solution or a liquid. This process can occur naturally or artificially, and it is often used in the production of pharmaceuticals, as well as in the analysis of biological samples. Crystallization can also occur in the body, particularly in the formation of kidney stones. When there is an excess of certain minerals in the urine, such as calcium or oxalate, they can form crystals that can accumulate and grow into kidney stones. This can cause pain and other symptoms, and may require medical treatment to remove the stones. In addition, crystallization can play a role in the development of certain diseases, such as gout, which is caused by the accumulation of uric acid crystals in the joints. Similarly, the formation of amyloid plaques in the brain, which are associated with Alzheimer's disease, involves the aggregation of protein molecules into insoluble fibrils that resemble crystals.
Calcium chloride is a salt that is commonly used in the medical field as a medication and a dietary supplement. It is a white, crystalline powder that is highly soluble in water and is used to increase the concentration of calcium in the blood and to treat certain medical conditions. In the medical field, calcium chloride is used to treat hypocalcemia, which is a condition in which the blood calcium level is too low. It is also used to treat eclampsia, which is a serious complication of pregnancy that can cause seizures and other symptoms. Calcium chloride is also used to treat certain types of heart rhythm disorders, such as atrial fibrillation. Calcium chloride is available as a dietary supplement and can be taken by mouth to increase the body's calcium levels. It is also used as a food additive and is used to preserve food and to enhance the flavor of certain foods. However, it is important to note that calcium chloride should only be taken under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as it can have side effects and may interact with other medications.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with the symbol P and atomic number 15. It is an essential nutrient for living organisms and is found in all cells of the body. In the medical field, phosphorus is often used as a diagnostic tool to measure the levels of phosphorus in the blood, which can be an indicator of various medical conditions. High levels of phosphorus in the blood can be caused by kidney disease, certain medications, or excessive intake of phosphorus-rich foods. Low levels of phosphorus can be caused by malnutrition, certain medications, or excessive loss of phosphorus through the urine. Phosphorus is also used in the treatment of certain medical conditions, such as osteoporosis, where it is used to help build strong bones. It is also used in the treatment of certain types of cancer, such as multiple myeloma, where it is used to help slow the growth of cancer cells. In addition to its use in medicine, phosphorus is also used in the production of fertilizers, detergents, and other industrial products.
Hydroxyapatite is a mineral that is commonly found in bone and tooth enamel. In the medical field, hydroxyapatite is often used as a biomaterial for various medical applications, such as bone grafting, dental implants, and drug delivery systems. It is also used in the production of medical devices, such as orthopedic implants and prosthetic devices. Hydroxyapatite has excellent biocompatibility and can be easily modified to enhance its properties for specific medical applications.
Dental cements are materials used in dentistry to bond dental restorations, such as fillings, crowns, and bridges, to the teeth. They are also used to bond dental implants to the jawbone. Dental cements are typically composed of a powder and a liquid, which are mixed together to form a paste that can be applied to the tooth or implant surface. The paste then hardens, forming a strong bond between the restoration and the tooth or implant. There are several different types of dental cements, each with its own unique properties and intended use. Some common types of dental cements include zinc phosphate cement, glass ionomer cement, and resin cement.
Bone regeneration is the process by which the body repairs and replaces damaged or lost bone tissue. This process involves the formation of new bone cells, or osteoblasts, which secrete a matrix of collagen and minerals that eventually hardens into bone. Bone regeneration is a natural process that occurs throughout life, but it can also be stimulated by medical treatments such as bone grafts or growth factors. In some cases, bone regeneration may be necessary to treat conditions such as fractures, osteoporosis, or bone tumors.
Chemical precipitation is a process used in the medical field to remove unwanted substances from a solution or mixture. It involves adding a chemical reagent to the solution, which causes the unwanted substances to form solid particles that can be easily separated from the solution. In the medical field, chemical precipitation is commonly used to purify and concentrate biological samples, such as blood or urine. For example, protein precipitation is a common technique used to remove proteins from a solution, leaving behind other components such as hormones or enzymes. This can be useful in diagnostic testing, where specific proteins need to be isolated for analysis. Chemical precipitation can also be used to remove contaminants from water or other liquids. For example, lead or other heavy metals can be removed from drinking water by adding a chemical reagent that causes the metal ions to form insoluble solids that can be filtered out. Overall, chemical precipitation is a useful technique in the medical field for purifying and concentrating biological samples, as well as removing contaminants from liquids.
Cariostatic agents are substances that help prevent tooth decay (caries) by inhibiting the growth of bacteria that cause cavities. These agents work by either killing the bacteria or preventing them from adhering to the tooth surface, thereby reducing the formation of plaque and tartar. Some common cariostatic agents used in the medical field include fluoride, chlorhexidine, and triclosan. Fluoride is the most widely used cariostatic agent and is found in many toothpastes, mouthwashes, and drinking water. Chlorhexidine is a mouthwash that is often used in hospitals and dental offices to prevent the spread of infection. Triclosan is an antibacterial agent that is found in some toothpastes and mouthwashes. Cariostatic agents are an important part of dental care and can help prevent tooth decay and maintain good oral health. However, it is important to note that they should not be used as a substitute for regular brushing and flossing, and that a healthy diet and regular dental check-ups are also important for maintaining good oral health.
Inositol phosphates are a group of compounds that are formed by the phosphorylation of inositol, a type of sugar alcohol found in all living cells. Inositol phosphates are important signaling molecules in the body and play a role in a variety of cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and metabolism. There are several different types of inositol phosphates, including inositol monophosphate (IP1), inositol diphosphate (IP2), inositol trisphosphate (IP3), and inositol tetraphosphate (IP4). These compounds are formed by the sequential phosphorylation of inositol by enzymes called kinases. Inositol phosphates are involved in a variety of cellular signaling pathways, including the phosphoinositide signaling pathway. This pathway is activated by a variety of stimuli, including hormones, growth factors, and neurotransmitters, and plays a key role in regulating cell growth, differentiation, and metabolism. In the medical field, inositol phosphates are being studied for their potential therapeutic applications. For example, IP3 has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects, and is being investigated as a potential treatment for a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.
Calcium compounds are chemical compounds that contain calcium ions. Calcium is an essential mineral for the human body, and it plays a crucial role in various physiological processes, including bone health, muscle function, and nerve transmission. Calcium compounds are commonly used in the medical field for a variety of purposes, including the treatment of osteoporosis, hypocalcemia, and hyperparathyroidism. Some common examples of calcium compounds used in medicine include calcium carbonate, calcium citrate, calcium gluconate, and calcium lactate. These compounds are often administered orally or intravenously, depending on the specific condition being treated.
Calcium isotopes refer to the different forms of the element calcium that have different atomic weights due to the presence of different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei. In the medical field, calcium isotopes are often used in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures related to bone health and metabolism. One commonly used calcium isotope in medicine is calcium-47, which is a radioactive isotope that can be used to measure bone turnover and bone mineral density. Calcium-47 is produced by bombarding a calcium-46 target with high-energy protons, and it decays by emitting a positron, which can be detected using positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. Another calcium isotope that is used in medicine is calcium-82, which is a radioactive isotope that can be used to treat certain types of cancer. Calcium-82 is produced by bombarding a zinc-68 target with high-energy protons, and it decays by emitting a positron, which can be used to target and destroy cancer cells. Overall, calcium isotopes play an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of bone and cancer-related conditions in the medical field.
Amelogenin is a protein that plays a crucial role in the formation and development of tooth enamel. It is the most abundant protein in the developing enamel matrix and is responsible for the organization and mineralization of the enamel crystals. During tooth development, amelogenin is secreted by ameloblasts, the cells responsible for producing enamel. The protein forms a complex with other enamel matrix proteins and minerals, including calcium and phosphate, to create a scaffold for the enamel crystals to grow on. Amelogenin also plays a role in regulating the mineralization process by controlling the release of ions and the formation of hydroxyapatite crystals. As the tooth develops, the amelogenin protein is gradually degraded and replaced by other enamel matrix proteins, eventually leading to the formation of a hard, mineralized enamel surface. In the medical field, amelogenin is of interest for its potential use in tooth regeneration and repair. Researchers are exploring the possibility of using amelogenin to stimulate the growth of new enamel in patients with tooth damage or decay. Additionally, amelogenin has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties, making it a potential target for the treatment of periodontal disease.
Coated materials that are biocompatible are materials that have been designed and formulated to be safe and non-reactive with living tissues in the human body. These materials are typically used in medical devices, implants, and other medical applications where it is important to minimize the risk of adverse reactions or tissue damage. Biocompatible coatings are often applied to the surface of medical devices to improve their performance and reduce the risk of complications. For example, a biocompatible coating may be used to reduce friction and wear on an artificial joint, or to prevent corrosion and infection on an implant. To be considered biocompatible, a material must meet certain criteria, including being non-toxic, non-allergenic, and non-immunogenic. It must also be able to withstand the harsh conditions of the human body, including exposure to bodily fluids and enzymes. Overall, the use of biocompatible coated materials in the medical field is an important step in improving patient outcomes and reducing the risk of complications associated with medical devices and implants.
In the medical field, minerals are essential nutrients that are required for the proper functioning of the body. They are typically obtained through the diet and are necessary for a wide range of bodily processes, including building and maintaining bones, muscles, and other tissues, transmitting nerve impulses, and regulating fluid balance. There are many different minerals that are important for human health, including calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sodium, chloride, iron, zinc, copper, selenium, and iodine. Each of these minerals has specific functions within the body and is required in different amounts depending on age, sex, and overall health. Deficiencies in certain minerals can lead to a range of health problems, including osteoporosis, anemia, and heart disease. On the other hand, excessive intake of certain minerals can also be harmful and can lead to toxicity or other health issues. Therefore, it is important to maintain a balanced diet that provides adequate amounts of all essential minerals.
Tooth demineralization is a process in which minerals in tooth enamel are gradually lost due to exposure to acidic substances, such as sugary drinks, fruit juices, and certain foods. This loss of minerals weakens the tooth structure and can lead to the development of cavities, also known as dental caries. Tooth demineralization can occur at any age, but it is most common in children and adolescents who are still developing their permanent teeth. It can also occur in adults who have poor oral hygiene or who consume a diet high in sugar and acidic foods and beverages. Treatment for tooth demineralization typically involves the use of fluoride toothpaste, mouth rinses, and professional dental cleanings to remineralize the tooth and prevent further decay. In more severe cases, dental fillings or other restorative procedures may be necessary.
Calcinosis is a medical condition characterized by the deposition of calcium phosphate crystals in the skin and other tissues. It is most commonly seen in people with certain medical conditions, such as scleroderma, lupus, and kidney disease, as well as in people who have undergone long-term treatment with certain medications, such as corticosteroids. The calcium phosphate crystals that accumulate in the skin and other tissues can cause hard, raised areas that may be painful or itchy. In severe cases, calcinosis can lead to scarring, skin thickening, and limited joint mobility. Treatment for calcinosis depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. In some cases, medications may be used to help reduce the formation of calcium phosphate crystals, while in other cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the affected tissue.
Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) is an enzyme that is found in many tissues throughout the body, including the liver, bone, and intestines. In the medical field, ALP levels are often measured as a diagnostic tool to help identify various conditions and diseases. There are several types of ALP, including tissue-nonspecific ALP (TN-ALP), bone-specific ALP (B-ALP), and liver-specific ALP (L-ALP). Each type of ALP is produced by different tissues and has different functions. In general, elevated levels of ALP can indicate a variety of medical conditions, including liver disease, bone disease, and certain types of cancer. For example, elevated levels of ALP in the blood can be a sign of liver damage or disease, while elevated levels in the urine can be a sign of bone disease or kidney problems. On the other hand, low levels of ALP can also be a cause for concern, as they may indicate a deficiency in certain vitamins or minerals, such as vitamin D or calcium. Overall, ALP is an important biomarker that can provide valuable information to healthcare providers in the diagnosis and management of various medical conditions.
Magnesium is a mineral that is essential for many bodily functions. It is involved in over 300 enzymatic reactions in the body, including the production of energy, the synthesis of proteins and DNA, and the regulation of muscle and nerve function. In the medical field, magnesium is used to treat a variety of conditions, including: 1. Hypomagnesemia: A deficiency of magnesium in the blood. This can cause symptoms such as muscle cramps, spasms, and seizures. 2. Cardiac arrhythmias: Abnormal heart rhythms that can be caused by low levels of magnesium. 3. Pre-eclampsia: A condition that can occur during pregnancy and is characterized by high blood pressure and protein in the urine. Magnesium supplementation may be used to treat this condition. 4. Chronic kidney disease: Magnesium is often lost in the urine of people with chronic kidney disease, and supplementation may be necessary to maintain adequate levels. 5. Alcohol withdrawal: Magnesium supplementation may be used to treat symptoms of alcohol withdrawal, such as tremors and seizures. 6. Muscle spasms: Magnesium can help to relax muscles and relieve spasms. 7. Anxiety and depression: Some studies have suggested that magnesium supplementation may help to reduce symptoms of anxiety and depression. Magnesium is available in various forms, including oral tablets, capsules, and intravenous solutions. It is important to note that high levels of magnesium can also be toxic, so it is important to use magnesium supplements under the guidance of a healthcare provider.
In the medical field, "bone and bones" typically refers to the skeletal system, which is made up of bones, cartilage, ligaments, tendons, and other connective tissues. The skeletal system provides support and structure to the body, protects vital organs, and allows for movement through the use of muscles. Bones are the main component of the skeletal system and are responsible for providing support and protection to the body. There are 206 bones in the human body, which are classified into four types: long bones, short bones, flat bones, and irregular bones. Long bones, such as the femur and humerus, are cylindrical in shape and are found in the arms and legs. Short bones, such as the carpals and tarsals, are cube-shaped and are found in the wrists and ankles. Flat bones, such as the skull and ribs, are thin and flat and provide protection to vital organs. Irregular bones, such as the vertebrae and pelvis, have complex shapes that allow for specific functions. Overall, the bone and bones of the skeletal system play a crucial role in maintaining the health and function of the human body.
In the medical field, "Cells, Cultured" refers to cells that have been grown and maintained in a controlled environment outside of their natural biological context, typically in a laboratory setting. This process is known as cell culture and involves the isolation of cells from a tissue or organism, followed by their growth and proliferation in a nutrient-rich medium. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including human or animal tissues, and can be used for a wide range of applications in medicine and research. For example, cultured cells can be used to study the behavior and function of specific cell types, to develop new drugs and therapies, and to test the safety and efficacy of medical products. Cultured cells can be grown in various types of containers, such as flasks or Petri dishes, and can be maintained at different temperatures and humidity levels to optimize their growth and survival. The medium used to culture cells typically contains a combination of nutrients, growth factors, and other substances that support cell growth and proliferation. Overall, the use of cultured cells has revolutionized medical research and has led to many important discoveries and advancements in the field of medicine.
Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P) is a three-carbon sugar molecule that plays a central role in the glycolytic pathway, which is the process by which cells convert glucose into energy. G3P is also a key intermediate in the pentose phosphate pathway, which is involved in the production of nucleotides, ribose, and other important molecules. In the medical field, G3P is often studied in the context of diabetes and other metabolic disorders. For example, in type 2 diabetes, the body may not be able to effectively use insulin to transport glucose into cells, leading to high levels of glucose in the blood. This can cause an accumulation of G3P in the liver, which can lead to the production of excess fatty acids and triglycerides, contributing to the development of fatty liver disease. G3P is also a potential target for the development of new drugs for the treatment of metabolic disorders. For example, some researchers are exploring the use of G3P inhibitors to reduce the production of fatty acids and triglycerides in the liver, as a way to prevent the development of fatty liver disease and other complications of diabetes.
Polymethacrylic acids are a type of polymer that are commonly used in the medical field for a variety of applications. They are typically synthesized from methacrylic acid, which is a monomer that can be polymerized to form a long chain of repeating units. Polymethacrylic acids are known for their ability to form gels and hydrogels, which are materials that can absorb and retain large amounts of water. In the medical field, polymethacrylic acids are often used as drug delivery systems. They can be used to encapsulate drugs and release them slowly over time, which can help to improve the effectiveness and duration of treatment. They can also be used as wound dressings, as they can absorb and retain fluids and help to protect the wound from infection. Additionally, polymethacrylic acids have been used in tissue engineering applications, as they can be used to create scaffolds that can support the growth and development of new tissue.
Chitosan is a natural polysaccharide derived from chitin, which is a polymer of N-acetylglucosamine found in the exoskeletons of crustaceans such as shrimp and crab. Chitosan has been used in various medical applications due to its unique properties, including its ability to absorb and retain water, its biocompatibility, and its ability to modulate immune responses. In the medical field, chitosan is used in a variety of ways, including as a wound dressing, a drug delivery system, and a biofilm inhibitor. As a wound dressing, chitosan can help to promote healing by providing a moist environment that promotes cell growth and reduces inflammation. As a drug delivery system, chitosan can be used to encapsulate drugs and release them slowly over time, improving their effectiveness and reducing side effects. As a biofilm inhibitor, chitosan can help to prevent the formation of bacterial biofilms, which can be difficult to treat and can lead to chronic infections. Chitosan has also been studied for its potential use in cancer therapy, as it has been shown to have anti-tumor properties and can help to enhance the effectiveness of chemotherapy drugs. Additionally, chitosan has been used in the development of medical devices, such as catheters and implants, due to its ability to reduce inflammation and promote tissue integration.
In the medical field, silicates refer to a group of minerals that contain silicon and oxygen. These minerals are commonly used in various medical applications, including as components of medications, as dietary supplements, and as ingredients in medical devices. One common use of silicates in medicine is as a component of antacids, which are used to treat acid reflux and heartburn. Silicates, such as magnesium aluminum silicate, work by neutralizing stomach acid and forming a protective layer on the lining of the esophagus. Silicates are also used in some dietary supplements, such as calcium silicate, which is a source of calcium and silicon. Calcium is important for maintaining strong bones and teeth, while silicon is thought to play a role in maintaining healthy skin and nails. In addition, silicates are used as ingredients in medical devices, such as wound dressings and dental fillings. For example, hydroxyapatite, a type of silicate mineral, is used as a biocompatible material in dental implants and orthopedic implants. Overall, silicates have a variety of medical applications and are an important component of many medical products.
Calcium channels, L-type, are a type of ion channel found in the cell membrane of many different types of cells, including muscle cells, neurons, and smooth muscle cells. These channels are responsible for allowing calcium ions to flow into the cell in response to changes in voltage or the presence of certain chemicals. Calcium ions play a crucial role in many cellular processes, including muscle contraction, neurotransmitter release, and gene expression. Calcium channels, L-type, are particularly important in the regulation of these processes, as they are the primary source of calcium ions that enter the cell in response to depolarization of the membrane. In the medical field, calcium channels, L-type, are the target of many drugs used to treat conditions such as hypertension, heart disease, and neurological disorders.
Citrates are a group of compounds that contain the citric acid ion (C6H8O7^3-). In the medical field, citrates are commonly used as anticoagulants to prevent blood clots from forming. They are often used in patients who are undergoing dialysis or who have a condition called heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), which makes it difficult to use heparin, a commonly used anticoagulant. Citrates are also used to treat certain types of kidney stones, as they can help to neutralize the acidic environment in the urinary tract that can contribute to the formation of stones. In addition, citrates are sometimes used as a source of calcium in patients who cannot tolerate other forms of calcium supplementation. Citrates can be administered orally or intravenously, and they are usually well-tolerated by most people. However, like all medications, they can cause side effects, such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. It is important to follow the instructions of your healthcare provider when taking citrates, and to report any side effects that you experience.
Calcium fluoride is a chemical compound that is commonly used in the medical field as a fluoride supplement. It is a white, crystalline solid that is highly soluble in water and is commonly used as a fluoride source in toothpaste, mouthwashes, and other dental products. In the medical field, calcium fluoride is used to help prevent tooth decay by increasing the concentration of fluoride in the mouth. Fluoride helps to strengthen tooth enamel and make it more resistant to acid attacks from bacteria in the mouth. It is also used to treat certain types of dental fluorosis, which is a condition that occurs when there is an excess of fluoride in the body. Calcium fluoride is generally considered safe when used as directed, but it can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea if taken in large amounts. It is important to follow the recommended dosage and to speak with a healthcare provider before using calcium fluoride or any other fluoride supplement.
Glucosephosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of glucose. It is involved in the pentose phosphate pathway, which is a metabolic pathway that generates reducing equivalents in the form of NADPH and ribose-5-phosphate. In the context of the medical field, GPD deficiency is a rare genetic disorder that affects the production of NADPH, which is essential for the functioning of various bodily processes, including the production of red blood cells. GPD deficiency can lead to a range of symptoms, including anemia, jaundice, and neurological problems. In addition, GPD is also used as a diagnostic tool in the medical field, particularly in the diagnosis of certain types of cancer. High levels of GPD activity have been observed in certain types of cancer cells, including breast, ovarian, and lung cancer. This has led to the development of diagnostic tests that measure GPD activity in patient samples, which can help in the early detection and diagnosis of cancer.
Calcium is a chemical element with the symbol Ca and atomic number 20. It is a vital mineral for the human body and is essential for many bodily functions, including bone health, muscle function, nerve transmission, and blood clotting. In the medical field, calcium is often used to diagnose and treat conditions related to calcium deficiency or excess. For example, low levels of calcium in the blood (hypocalcemia) can cause muscle cramps, numbness, and tingling, while high levels (hypercalcemia) can lead to kidney stones, bone loss, and other complications. Calcium supplements are often prescribed to people who are at risk of developing calcium deficiency, such as older adults, vegetarians, and people with certain medical conditions. However, it is important to note that excessive calcium intake can also be harmful, and it is important to follow recommended dosages and consult with a healthcare provider before taking any supplements.
Calcium gluconate is a salt that is formed by combining calcium ions with gluconic acid. It is a white, crystalline powder that is commonly used as a source of calcium in dietary supplements and as a medication to treat certain types of calcium deficiencies, such as hypocalcemia. Calcium gluconate is also used to prevent and treat eclampsia (a potentially life-threatening condition that can occur during pregnancy) and to treat certain types of heart rhythm disorders. In the medical field, calcium gluconate is typically administered intravenously or orally in the form of a solution or tablet. It is important to note that calcium gluconate should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as it can interact with other medications and may cause side effects in some people.
In the medical field, diphosphates refer to compounds that contain two phosphate groups. These compounds are commonly found in the body and are involved in various biological processes, including energy metabolism, bone mineralization, and regulation of blood calcium levels. One example of a diphosphate compound in the body is adenosine diphosphate (ADP), which is a key molecule in energy metabolism. ADP is produced when ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is broken down, releasing energy that can be used by cells. The body constantly converts ATP to ADP and back again to maintain energy levels. Another example of a diphosphate compound is pyrophosphate, which is involved in bone mineralization and the regulation of blood calcium levels. Pyrophosphate helps to prevent the loss of calcium from bones by binding to calcium ions and preventing them from being released into the bloodstream. Diphosphates can also be used as medications to treat certain conditions. For example, sodium phosphate is often used as a bowel prep medication before colonoscopy or other procedures that require a clear colon. It works by drawing water into the colon, softening the stool, and making it easier to pass.
Biomimetic materials in the medical field refer to materials that are designed and synthesized to mimic the properties and functions of biological materials found in living organisms. These materials are inspired by nature and aim to replicate the unique characteristics of biological materials such as strength, flexibility, biodegradability, and self-healing properties. Biomimetic materials are used in various medical applications such as tissue engineering, drug delivery, and medical implants. For example, researchers have developed biomimetic materials that mimic the structure and function of bone tissue to promote bone regeneration in patients with bone defects or injuries. Similarly, biomimetic materials have been used to create drug delivery systems that mimic the structure and function of cells in the body to improve the efficacy and safety of drug delivery. Overall, biomimetic materials have the potential to revolutionize the medical field by providing new and innovative solutions to complex medical problems.
Methacrylates are a group of organic compounds that contain the -COOR functional group, where R is an alkyl or aryl group. They are commonly used in the medical field as monomers for the synthesis of polymers, such as polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), which is used in the production of acrylic lenses for glasses and contact lenses. Methacrylates are also used as adhesives, coatings, and sealants in medical devices, such as catheters, implants, and surgical instruments. They have excellent bonding properties and are resistant to water, chemicals, and heat, making them ideal for medical applications. In addition, some methacrylates, such as 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), are used as solvents for drugs and other medical compounds. HEMA is also used as a monomer in the production of hydrogels, which are used in contact lenses and drug delivery systems. However, some methacrylates, such as bisphenol A dimethacrylate (Bis-GMA), have been associated with potential health risks, including allergic reactions and genotoxicity. Therefore, the use of methacrylates in medical devices and applications must be carefully evaluated to ensure their safety and efficacy.
Calcium sulfate is a chemical compound that is commonly used in the medical field. It is also known as calcium sulfate dihydrate or gypsum. Calcium sulfate is a white, odorless, and crystalline powder that is insoluble in water. It is used in a variety of medical applications, including: 1. Radiopaque contrast agent: Calcium sulfate is used as a radiopaque contrast agent in X-ray imaging to help visualize bones and other structures in the body. 2. Hemostatic agent: Calcium sulfate is used as a hemostatic agent to stop bleeding in wounds and surgical procedures. 3. Dental applications: Calcium sulfate is used in dental applications, such as in the production of dental cements and as a desensitizing agent for toothpaste. 4. Pharmaceutical applications: Calcium sulfate is used in the production of various pharmaceuticals, including tablets, capsules, and injectables. 5. Wound healing: Calcium sulfate is used in wound healing to promote the formation of new tissue and to help prevent infection. Calcium sulfate is generally considered safe for medical use, but it can cause allergic reactions in some people. It is important to follow the instructions for use and to consult with a healthcare provider before using calcium sulfate for any medical purpose.
In the medical field, compressive strength refers to the ability of a material to withstand the force of compression, or the pressure exerted on it in a direction perpendicular to its surface. This is an important property to consider when designing medical devices, implants, and other equipment that may be subjected to compressive forces during use. For example, the compressive strength of a bone graft material is an important factor to consider when selecting a material for use in bone replacement surgery. The graft material must be able to withstand the compressive forces exerted on it by the surrounding bone tissue as it heals and integrates with the graft. Similarly, the compressive strength of a dental implant is an important factor to consider when selecting a material for use in dental implant surgery. The implant must be able to withstand the compressive forces exerted on it by the surrounding jawbone as it integrates with the implant and supports the replacement tooth. Overall, compressive strength is an important property to consider in the design and selection of medical materials and devices, as it can impact their performance and safety in use.
Magnesium compounds are a group of minerals that are essential for various bodily functions. In the medical field, magnesium compounds are often used to treat a variety of conditions, including: 1. Muscle cramps: Magnesium is important for muscle function, and taking magnesium supplements can help prevent and treat muscle cramps. 2. Heart disease: Magnesium can help regulate blood pressure and prevent the formation of blood clots, which can lead to heart attacks and strokes. 3. Osteoporosis: Magnesium is important for bone health, and taking magnesium supplements can help prevent osteoporosis and reduce the risk of fractures. 4. Anxiety and depression: Magnesium has been shown to have a calming effect on the nervous system, and taking magnesium supplements may help reduce symptoms of anxiety and depression. 5. Diabetes: Magnesium can help regulate blood sugar levels and improve insulin sensitivity, which can be beneficial for people with diabetes. Magnesium compounds are available in various forms, including magnesium oxide, magnesium citrate, and magnesium chloride. It is important to consult with a healthcare provider before taking magnesium supplements, as high doses can be harmful and interact with other medications.
Dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) is a chemical compound that plays a role in the metabolism of carbohydrates in the body. It is a key intermediate in the glycolytic pathway, which is the process by which cells convert glucose into energy. DHAP is produced when the enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) converts glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (GAP) into dihydroxyacetone phosphate. DHAP is then converted into 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate (1,3-BPG), which is a key intermediate in the production of ATP, the energy currency of the cell. DHAP is also involved in the production of other important molecules, such as amino acids and nucleotides. In the medical field, DHAP is often used as a diagnostic tool to measure the activity of GAPDH, which can be an indicator of certain diseases and conditions.
Phosphate transport proteins are a group of proteins that are responsible for the transport of phosphate ions across cell membranes. These proteins play a crucial role in maintaining the proper balance of phosphate ions within cells and between cells and their environment. There are several types of phosphate transport proteins, including sodium-phosphate cotransporters, sodium-independent phosphate transporters, and proton-dependent phosphate transporters. These proteins are found in a variety of tissues and cells throughout the body, including the kidneys, intestines, bone cells, and red blood cells. Phosphate transport proteins are important for a number of physiological processes, including bone mineralization, energy metabolism, and nerve function. Disruptions in the function of these proteins can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including hypophosphatemia (low blood phosphate levels), hyperphosphatemia (high blood phosphate levels), and osteomalacia (softening of the bones).
Nephrolithiasis is a medical condition characterized by the formation of stones in the kidneys or urinary tract. These stones can be composed of various materials, including calcium, oxalate, uric acid, cystine, and struvite. The presence of stones can cause a range of symptoms, including pain, blood in the urine, frequent urination, and difficulty urinating. In severe cases, stones can block the flow of urine, leading to kidney damage or infection. Treatment for nephrolithiasis typically involves medications to dissolve the stones or procedures to remove them, such as shock wave lithotripsy or surgery.
Calcium radioisotopes are radioactive isotopes of the element calcium that are used in medical imaging and treatment. Calcium is an essential mineral for the human body, and its radioisotopes can be used to study bone density, diagnose and treat various bone diseases, and monitor the effectiveness of treatments for these conditions. The most commonly used calcium radioisotopes in medical applications are calcium-45 and calcium-85. Calcium-45 is a short-lived isotope with a half-life of about 14 days, and it is typically used for short-term studies of bone metabolism. Calcium-85, on the other hand, has a longer half-life of about 85 days, and it is often used for longer-term studies of bone density and metabolism. Calcium radioisotopes can be administered to patients in a variety of ways, including intravenous injection, oral ingestion, or inhalation. The radioisotopes are then detected using imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) or single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), which allow doctors to visualize the distribution of the radioisotopes in the body and assess the health of bones and other tissues.
Phosphorus is a mineral that is essential for many bodily functions, including bone health, energy production, and nerve function. In the medical field, dietary phosphorus refers to the amount of phosphorus that is obtained from food and beverages. The recommended daily intake of phosphorus varies depending on age, sex, and other factors, but generally ranges from 700 to 1,200 milligrams per day for adults. Excessive intake of phosphorus can be harmful, particularly for people with kidney disease or other conditions that affect the body's ability to regulate phosphorus levels.
Pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) is a coenzyme form of vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) that plays a crucial role in various metabolic processes in the body. It is involved in the metabolism of amino acids, lipids, and carbohydrates, as well as in the synthesis of neurotransmitters and hemoglobin. In the medical field, PLP deficiency can lead to a variety of health problems, including anemia, seizures, and neurological disorders. It is also used as a dietary supplement to treat or prevent vitamin B6 deficiency and related conditions. In addition, PLP is used in the treatment of certain types of cancer, such as leukemia, and in the management of certain neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease.
Zirconium is a chemical element with the symbol Zr and atomic number 40. It is a lustrous, grey-white metal that is highly resistant to corrosion and has a high melting point. In the medical field, zirconium is commonly used in the production of dental implants, as it is biocompatible and has a similar density to human bone. It is also used in the production of orthopedic implants, such as hip and knee replacements, as well as in the fabrication of prosthetic devices. Additionally, zirconium is used in the production of certain types of medical equipment, such as MRI machines, due to its low magnetic susceptibility.
Dentin, secondary, also known as secondary dentin, is a type of dentin that is formed after the primary dentin in the tooth. It is produced by odontoblasts, which are specialized cells that are responsible for forming dentin. Secondary dentin is typically darker in color than primary dentin and has a different microstructure. It is formed in response to injury or inflammation to the tooth and helps to strengthen the tooth and protect it from further damage.
In the medical field, carbonates refer to compounds that contain the carbonate ion (CO3^2-), which is formed by combining a carbon atom with three oxygen atoms. Carbonates are commonly found in minerals and rocks, and they can also be produced synthetically. In medicine, carbonates are used as antacids to neutralize stomach acid and relieve heartburn and indigestion. They work by binding to the hydrogen ions in stomach acid, reducing its acidity and making it less irritating to the lining of the esophagus and stomach. Some common examples of carbonates used in medicine include sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), potassium carbonate (K2CO3), and calcium carbonate (CaCO3). These compounds are often combined with other ingredients, such as magnesium hydroxide or aluminum hydroxide, to create more effective antacids. It's worth noting that while carbonates can be effective at relieving symptoms of acid reflux and heartburn, they should not be used as a long-term solution for these conditions. If you experience frequent or persistent heartburn or acid reflux, it's important to speak with a healthcare provider to determine the underlying cause and develop a more effective treatment plan.
Absorbable implants are medical devices that are designed to be absorbed or degraded by the body over time, rather than remaining in the body indefinitely. These implants are typically made from materials such as hydrogels, polymers, and metals that are biodegradable or resorbable, meaning that they can be broken down and absorbed by the body's natural processes. Absorbable implants are used in a variety of medical procedures, including orthopedic surgery, dental surgery, and plastic surgery. They are often used as temporary scaffolds to support tissue growth and healing, and are then gradually absorbed by the body as the tissue becomes stronger and more stable. Examples of absorbable implants include absorbable sutures, which are used to close wounds and incisions, and absorbable screws and plates, which are used to stabilize fractures and other bone injuries. Absorbable mesh implants are also used in plastic surgery to repair soft tissue damage, such as hernias or breast reconstruction. Overall, absorbable implants offer a number of advantages over traditional, non-absorbable implants, including reduced risk of complications, improved patient comfort, and faster recovery times. However, they may not be suitable for all medical procedures, and their use should be carefully considered by medical professionals based on the specific needs of each patient.
Fluorides are compounds that contain the fluoride ion (F-). In the medical field, fluorides are commonly used to prevent tooth decay and improve oral health. They can be found in a variety of products, including toothpaste, mouthwashes, and fluoride supplements. Fluoride works by strengthening tooth enamel, making it more resistant to acid attacks from bacteria in the mouth. It can also help to remineralize tooth enamel that has already been damaged by acid. Fluoride is also used in water treatment to reduce the risk of tooth decay in communities. In addition, fluoride is sometimes used in dental procedures, such as fluoride varnishes and fluoride gels, to further strengthen teeth and prevent decay. While fluoride is generally considered safe and effective, excessive exposure to fluoride can lead to dental fluorosis, a condition that causes white or brown stains on the teeth. It is important to use fluoride products in moderation and to follow the instructions on the label.
Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (G6PI) is an enzyme that catalyzes the isomerization of glucose-6-phosphate to fructose-6-phosphate. This enzyme plays a crucial role in the glycolytic pathway, which is the metabolic pathway responsible for breaking down glucose to produce energy in the form of ATP. In the medical field, G6PI deficiency is a rare genetic disorder that affects the ability of red blood cells to produce energy. This deficiency can lead to a variety of symptoms, including anemia, jaundice, and enlarged liver and spleen. G6PI deficiency can be diagnosed through blood tests and genetic testing, and treatment typically involves a special diet that restricts the intake of certain sugars. In severe cases, blood transfusions may be necessary.
Strontium is a chemical element with the symbol Sr and atomic number 38. It is a soft, silvery-white alkaline earth metal that is commonly found in minerals such as celestite and strontianite. In the medical field, strontium is used in the treatment of osteoporosis, a condition characterized by weak and brittle bones. Strontium ranelate, a medication containing strontium, is approved for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in women and men with osteoporosis who are at high risk of fractures. Strontium is also used in the production of certain medical devices, such as bone cement used in orthopedic surgery, and as a component in some types of dental fillings. However, it is important to note that strontium is also a radioactive element, and exposure to high levels of strontium can be harmful to human health. Therefore, its use in medical applications is carefully regulated and monitored to ensure safety.
Calcium hydroxide, also known as slaked lime or hydrated lime, is a chemical compound with the formula Ca(OH)2. It is a white, powdery solid that is commonly used in the medical field as a disinfectant and antiseptic. Calcium hydroxide is effective against a wide range of microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, and fungi. It is often used to clean and disinfect wounds, burns, and other injuries, as well as to treat skin infections and ulcers. In addition to its antiseptic properties, calcium hydroxide is also used in the medical field as a pH regulator and a buffer. It is commonly used in the production of various medical products, including dental cements, ointments, and dressings. However, it is important to note that calcium hydroxide can be caustic and can cause skin irritation and burns if not used properly. It should be handled with care and used only under the guidance of a healthcare professional.
Glucosephosphates are compounds that consist of glucose (a simple sugar) and phosphate groups. They are formed when glucose is phosphorylated, which means that a phosphate group is added to the molecule. Glucosephosphates are important intermediates in various metabolic pathways in the body, including glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and the pentose phosphate pathway. They are also involved in the regulation of blood sugar levels and the production of nucleotides, which are the building blocks of DNA and RNA. In the medical field, glucosephosphates are often used as markers of liver and kidney function, as well as indicators of certain diseases, such as diabetes and cancer.
In the medical field, composite resins are a type of dental filling material that is used to restore teeth that have been damaged by decay or trauma. They are made up of a mixture of glass particles and a resin binder, and are often used to fill small to medium-sized cavities. Composite resins are popular among dentists because they are tooth-colored, which means they can be matched to the natural color of the patient's teeth. This makes them an attractive option for patients who want to restore their teeth without the use of metal fillings. In addition, composite resins are relatively easy to use and can be shaped and polished to blend in with the surrounding teeth. While composite resins are generally considered safe and effective, they may not be suitable for all patients. For example, they may not be a good choice for patients who grind their teeth or who have a high risk of developing cavities. In these cases, other types of dental fillings, such as amalgam or gold, may be a better option.
Glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA) is a bile acid that is produced in the liver and secreted into the small intestine. It is a primary component of bile, which is a fluid that helps to digest fats and absorb fat-soluble vitamins. GCDCA is also involved in the regulation of cholesterol metabolism and the prevention of gallstones. In the medical field, GCDCA is sometimes used as a diagnostic tool to help identify certain liver and bile duct disorders, and it may also be used as a treatment for certain conditions, such as primary biliary cholangitis and cholesterol gallstones.
Caseins are a group of proteins found in milk and other dairy products. They are the major protein component of milk and are responsible for its thick, creamy texture. There are four main types of caseins: alpha-casein, beta-casein, kappa-casein, and omega-casein. These proteins are important for the nutritional value of milk and are also used in the production of cheese and other dairy products. In the medical field, caseins have been studied for their potential health benefits, including their ability to promote bone health and reduce the risk of certain diseases. However, more research is needed to fully understand the effects of caseins on human health.
Sphingosine is a bioactive sphingolipid that is involved in various cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. It is a component of sphingomyelin, a major phospholipid found in cell membranes. In the medical field, sphingosine has been studied for its potential therapeutic applications in various diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative disorders. For example, sphingosine has been shown to inhibit the growth and proliferation of cancer cells, and to induce apoptosis in some types of cancer cells. It has also been shown to have anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic effects, and to protect against neurodegeneration in animal models of Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Sphingosine is also used as a precursor for the synthesis of other sphingolipids, such as ceramide and sphingosine-1-phosphate, which have important roles in cellular signaling and metabolism.
Biomimetics is the study of how nature solves problems and the application of those solutions to human-designed systems. In the medical field, biomimetics is used to develop new medical technologies and treatments by studying the design and function of biological systems. For example, biomimetics has been used to develop new materials for tissue engineering, such as synthetic bone and cartilage, by studying the structure and composition of natural tissues. Biomimetics has also been used to design new medical devices, such as artificial hearts and prosthetic limbs, by studying the design and function of natural organs and limbs. In addition, biomimetics has been used to develop new drug delivery systems by studying the way that natural organisms transport and distribute drugs within their bodies. By mimicking these natural processes, researchers have been able to develop new drug delivery systems that are more effective and have fewer side effects. Overall, biomimetics has the potential to revolutionize the medical field by providing new insights into how biological systems work and by inspiring the development of new medical technologies and treatments.
In the medical field, adsorption refers to the process by which a substance adheres or sticks to the surface of another substance. This can occur when a drug or other therapeutic agent is adsorbed onto a surface, such as a medical device or a patient's skin. Adsorption can also occur when a substance is adsorbed onto the surface of a cell or tissue, which can affect its ability to interact with the body's immune system or other cells. Adsorption can be an important factor in the development and delivery of medical treatments, as it can affect the effectiveness and safety of a drug or other therapeutic agent.
DEAE-Dextran is a type of polysaccharide that is commonly used in the medical field as a plasma expander. It is a derivative of dextran, a long-chain carbohydrate polymer, that has been modified with anionic groups (DEAE) to make it negatively charged. In medical applications, DEAE-Dextran is used to increase the volume of a patient's blood by replacing lost fluids, such as during surgery or as a treatment for dehydration. It is typically administered intravenously and works by increasing the osmotic pressure in the blood vessels, which draws water into the bloodstream and increases blood volume. DEAE-Dextran is also used as a carrier molecule in certain medical treatments, such as the delivery of drugs or genes to specific cells or tissues in the body. It is often used in combination with other drugs or carriers to enhance the effectiveness of the treatment. Overall, DEAE-Dextran is a useful tool in the medical field for managing fluid balance and delivering therapeutic agents to specific areas of the body.
Urolithiasis is a medical condition characterized by the formation of stones or calculi in the urinary tract. These stones can form in any part of the urinary system, including the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. The stones can be composed of various materials, including calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, uric acid, cystine, and struvite. The size and location of the stones can vary, and they can cause a range of symptoms, including pain, blood in the urine, difficulty urinating, and frequent urination. Urolithiasis can be treated with a variety of methods, depending on the size and location of the stones, as well as the patient's overall health. Treatment options may include medications to dissolve the stones, shock wave lithotripsy to break up the stones, or surgery to remove them. Prevention strategies may include maintaining proper hydration, limiting certain foods and drinks that can increase the risk of stone formation, and taking medications to prevent stone formation.
In the medical field, an amino acid sequence refers to the linear order of amino acids in a protein molecule. Proteins are made up of chains of amino acids, and the specific sequence of these amino acids determines the protein's structure and function. The amino acid sequence is determined by the genetic code, which is a set of rules that specifies how the sequence of nucleotides in DNA is translated into the sequence of amino acids in a protein. Each amino acid is represented by a three-letter code, and the sequence of these codes is the amino acid sequence of the protein. The amino acid sequence is important because it determines the protein's three-dimensional structure, which in turn determines its function. Small changes in the amino acid sequence can have significant effects on the protein's structure and function, and this can lead to diseases or disorders. For example, mutations in the amino acid sequence of a protein involved in blood clotting can lead to bleeding disorders.
Titanium is a metal that is commonly used in the medical field due to its unique properties, such as its high strength-to-weight ratio, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility. It is often used in medical implants, such as hip and knee replacements, dental implants, and spinal implants, due to its ability to integrate well with the body and its durability. Titanium is also used in surgical instruments and medical equipment, such as pacemakers and defibrillators, due to its resistance to corrosion and its ability to withstand high temperatures. Additionally, titanium is sometimes used in the fabrication of prosthetic limbs and other medical devices.
Glycerophosphates are a group of compounds that are formed by the esterification of glycerol with phosphoric acid. They are commonly found in biological systems, including cells and tissues, and play important roles in various physiological processes. In the medical field, glycerophosphates are often used as a source of energy for cells, particularly in cases where other sources of energy, such as glucose, are not available. They are also involved in the metabolism of fats and cholesterol, and have been studied for their potential therapeutic effects in a variety of conditions, including cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Glycerophosphates are available as dietary supplements and have been marketed for a variety of health claims, although the scientific evidence for many of these claims is limited. It is important to note that the safety and efficacy of glycerophosphate supplements have not been extensively studied, and they may interact with other medications or have adverse effects in some individuals. As with any dietary supplement, it is important to consult with a healthcare professional before using glycerophosphates.
Phosphoric acids are a group of acids that contain the -PO4 group in their molecular structure. They are commonly used in the medical field as a component of various medications and medical treatments. One of the most common uses of phosphoric acids in medicine is as an ingredient in certain types of antacids. Phosphoric acid can help to neutralize stomach acid and reduce symptoms of heartburn and indigestion. Phosphoric acids are also used in some medications to treat kidney stones. They work by increasing the amount of urine produced, which can help to flush out small kidney stones. In addition, phosphoric acids are used in some wound care products to help prevent infection and promote healing. They can also be used as a preservative in some medications to help extend their shelf life. Overall, phosphoric acids play an important role in the medical field as a component of various medications and treatments. However, it is important to note that they can also have side effects and may not be suitable for everyone. It is always best to consult with a healthcare professional before using any medical product containing phosphoric acid.
In the medical field, polyphosphates are a group of compounds that contain multiple phosphate groups. They are commonly used as dietary supplements and are believed to have a number of potential health benefits, including reducing the risk of osteoporosis, improving kidney function, and lowering blood pressure. Polyphosphates are also used in the treatment of certain medical conditions, such as hyperphosphatemia (elevated levels of phosphate in the blood) and hypophosphatemia (low levels of phosphate in the blood). They are sometimes given intravenously to patients who are unable to absorb phosphate from their diet. In addition to their use in medicine, polyphosphates are also used in a variety of industrial and commercial applications, including as a food additive, a water treatment agent, and a cleaning agent.
Glycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase (GPAT) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the biosynthesis of triglycerides, which are the main form of energy storage in the body. GPAT catalyzes the transfer of an acyl group from an acyl-CoA molecule to the 3-position of glycerol-3-phosphate, forming 1,2-diacylglycerol. This reaction is the first step in the Kennedy pathway, which is the major pathway for triglyceride biosynthesis in mammals. GPAT is encoded by several genes in humans, and mutations in these genes can lead to disorders of lipid metabolism, such as lipodystrophy and hypertriglyceridemia.
In the medical field, a cell line refers to a group of cells that have been derived from a single parent cell and have the ability to divide and grow indefinitely in culture. These cells are typically grown in a laboratory setting and are used for research purposes, such as studying the effects of drugs or investigating the underlying mechanisms of diseases. Cell lines are often derived from cancerous cells, as these cells tend to divide and grow more rapidly than normal cells. However, they can also be derived from normal cells, such as fibroblasts or epithelial cells. Cell lines are characterized by their unique genetic makeup, which can be used to identify them and compare them to other cell lines. Because cell lines can be grown in large quantities and are relatively easy to maintain, they are a valuable tool in medical research. They allow researchers to study the effects of drugs and other treatments on specific cell types, and to investigate the underlying mechanisms of diseases at the cellular level.
Lysophospholipids are a type of phospholipid that have one of their fatty acid chains cleaved, resulting in a molecule with a free fatty acid and a phosphate group. They are found in cell membranes and play important roles in cell signaling and metabolism. In the medical field, lysophospholipids have been studied for their potential therapeutic applications, including as anti-inflammatory agents, in the treatment of cancer, and in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. They have also been implicated in various diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and diabetes.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a molecule that serves as the primary energy currency in living cells. It is composed of three phosphate groups attached to a ribose sugar and an adenine base. In the medical field, ATP is essential for many cellular processes, including muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, and the synthesis of macromolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. ATP is produced through cellular respiration, which involves the breakdown of glucose and other molecules to release energy that is stored in the bonds of ATP. Disruptions in ATP production or utilization can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including muscle weakness, fatigue, and neurological disorders. In addition, ATP is often used as a diagnostic tool in medical testing, as levels of ATP can be measured in various bodily fluids and tissues to assess cellular health and function.
In the medical field, pentosephosphates refer to a group of five-carbon sugars that are intermediates in the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), a metabolic pathway that occurs in the cytosol of cells. The PPP is involved in the production of NADPH, a coenzyme that is important for the reduction of molecules such as oxygen and glutathione, as well as the synthesis of nucleotides, amino acids, and other biomolecules. Pentosephosphates are also involved in the regulation of glucose metabolism and the production of energy. In particular, the PPP provides a source of reducing power (in the form of NADPH) for the synthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol, and it also generates ATP through substrate-level phosphorylation. Disruptions in the pentose phosphate pathway can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including diabetes, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases. For example, mutations in genes encoding enzymes involved in the PPP have been linked to inherited disorders such as hereditary fructose intolerance and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a hormone produced by the parathyroid glands, which are four small glands located in the neck, near the thyroid gland. PTH plays a crucial role in regulating the levels of calcium and phosphorus in the body. PTH acts on the bones, kidneys, and intestines to increase the levels of calcium in the blood. It stimulates the release of calcium from the bones into the bloodstream, increases the reabsorption of calcium by the kidneys, and promotes the absorption of calcium from the intestines. PTH also plays a role in regulating the levels of phosphorus in the body. It stimulates the kidneys to excrete phosphorus in the urine, which helps to maintain the proper balance of calcium and phosphorus in the blood. Abnormal levels of PTH can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including hyperparathyroidism (too much PTH), hypoparathyroidism (too little PTH), and parathyroid cancer. Hyperparathyroidism can cause osteoporosis, kidney stones, and other complications, while hypoparathyroidism can lead to muscle cramps, seizures, and other symptoms.
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Carbamyl phosphate is a molecule that plays a key role in the urea cycle, which is a series of biochemical reactions that occur in the liver to remove excess nitrogen from the body. It is synthesized from ammonia and bicarbonate ions, and is a precursor to other important molecules such as citrulline and arginine. In the medical field, carbamyl phosphate is often used as a diagnostic tool to measure the activity of the urea cycle, which can be disrupted in certain medical conditions such as inherited disorders of the urea cycle or liver disease. It is also used as a research tool to study the regulation of the urea cycle and its role in maintaining nitrogen balance in the body.
In the medical field, oxalates are organic compounds that contain the oxalate ion (C2O4^2-). Oxalates are commonly found in many foods, including spinach, beets, and chocolate, as well as in some medications and industrial chemicals. In the body, oxalates can form crystals that can accumulate in various organs, leading to a condition called oxalosis. Oxalosis can cause damage to the kidneys, leading to kidney stones and other kidney problems. It can also cause damage to the bones, leading to a condition called osteomalacia. In some cases, high levels of oxalates in the blood can lead to a condition called primary hyperoxaluria, which is a rare genetic disorder that can cause kidney stones, kidney damage, and other health problems. Overall, oxalates are an important topic in the medical field, particularly in the context of kidney health and the prevention and treatment of kidney stones.
Hexosephosphates are a group of compounds that consist of a hexose sugar (such as glucose, fructose, or galactose) attached to a phosphate group. In the medical field, hexosephosphates are often used as markers for certain diseases or conditions, such as diabetes or liver disease. They can also be used as diagnostic tools to help identify and monitor certain types of cancer, such as osteosarcoma or Ewing's sarcoma. Hexosephosphates are produced by the body as a result of certain metabolic processes, and their levels in the blood can provide important information about a person's overall health and well-being.
Citric acid is a naturally occurring organic acid that is commonly found in citrus fruits such as lemons, oranges, and limes. In the medical field, citric acid is used in a variety of applications, including as a preservative, a flavoring agent, and a pH adjuster. One of the primary uses of citric acid in medicine is as an antacid. It is often used to treat heartburn, acid reflux, and other conditions that are caused by excess stomach acid. Citric acid works by neutralizing the acid in the stomach, which can help to reduce symptoms such as pain, burning, and discomfort. Citric acid is also used in some over-the-counter medications as a decongestant. It works by breaking up mucus in the respiratory tract, which can help to relieve congestion and other respiratory symptoms. In addition to its medicinal uses, citric acid is also used in a variety of other applications in the medical field. For example, it is used as a preservative in some medical devices and as a pH adjuster in certain laboratory procedures. It is also used as a food additive in some dietary supplements and as a flavoring agent in some oral care products.
Hexuronic acids are a type of carbohydrate that are found in the cell walls of plants and some bacteria. They are also known as hexoses or hexoses acids. Hexuronic acids are composed of six carbon atoms and are classified as aldohexoses. They are important components of the plant cell wall and play a role in the structure and function of the cell wall. Hexuronic acids are also used in the production of certain types of food and beverages, such as jams, jellies, and fruit juices. In the medical field, hexuronic acids are not commonly used for treatment or diagnosis of diseases.
Glucuronic acid is a naturally occurring organic acid that is produced by the liver as a byproduct of the metabolism of carbohydrates. It is a key component of the glycoprotein molecule hyaluronic acid, which is found in the extracellular matrix of connective tissue throughout the body. In the medical field, glucuronic acid is often used as a precursor in the synthesis of other important molecules, such as bile acids and some hormones. It is also used in the treatment of certain medical conditions, such as hyperuricemia (high levels of uric acid in the blood), where it is used to convert excess uric acid into a more water-soluble form that can be excreted from the body. In addition, glucuronic acid is used in the production of certain drugs and dietary supplements, and it has been shown to have potential anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects in laboratory studies. However, more research is needed to fully understand the therapeutic potential of glucuronic acid in the treatment of human diseases.
In the medical field, the term "cattle" refers to large domesticated animals that are raised for their meat, milk, or other products. Cattle are a common source of food and are also used for labor in agriculture, such as plowing fields or pulling carts. In veterinary medicine, cattle are often referred to as "livestock" and may be treated for a variety of medical conditions, including diseases, injuries, and parasites. Some common medical issues that may affect cattle include respiratory infections, digestive problems, and musculoskeletal disorders. Cattle may also be used in medical research, particularly in the fields of genetics and agriculture. For example, scientists may study the genetics of cattle to develop new breeds with desirable traits, such as increased milk production or resistance to disease.
Hypercalciuria is a medical condition characterized by excessive excretion of calcium in the urine. It is defined as a urine calcium concentration greater than 100 mg/L (0.1 mmol/L) in a 24-hour urine collection. Hypercalciuria can be primary or secondary. Primary hypercalciuria is a genetic disorder that results in the kidneys excreting too much calcium in the urine. Secondary hypercalciuria can be caused by a variety of factors, including certain medications, vitamin D toxicity, gastrointestinal disorders, and kidney disease. Hypercalciuria can lead to a number of health problems, including kidney stones, bone loss, and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Treatment for hypercalciuria depends on the underlying cause and may include changes in diet, medications, and lifestyle modifications.
Methylcellulose is a water-soluble polymer that is commonly used in the medical field as a thickening agent, emulsifier, and stabilizer. It is derived from cellulose, which is a natural polymer found in plant cell walls. Methylcellulose is often used in medical applications such as drug delivery systems, ophthalmic solutions, and wound dressings. It can help to improve the stability and bioavailability of certain drugs, and can also be used to create gels and other formulations that are easy to apply and absorb. In addition to its use in medical applications, methylcellulose is also used in a variety of other industries, including food and cosmetics. It is generally considered to be safe for use in humans, although high doses may cause digestive upset in some people.
Phosphate-binding proteins are a class of proteins that are involved in the regulation of phosphate homeostasis in the body. They are primarily found in the extracellular fluid, such as in the blood and interstitial fluid, and are responsible for binding to and transporting phosphate ions. There are several different types of phosphate-binding proteins, including albumin, fetuin-A, and fetuin-B. Albumin is the most abundant phosphate-binding protein in the blood and is responsible for transporting phosphate ions from the tissues to the liver, where it can be excreted in the urine. Fetuin-A and fetuin-B are also important phosphate-binding proteins, but they are primarily found in the liver and are involved in the regulation of phosphate metabolism. Phosphate-binding proteins play a critical role in maintaining the proper balance of phosphate in the body. When the levels of phosphate in the blood are too high, phosphate-binding proteins can help to remove excess phosphate from the blood and transport it to the liver for excretion. Conversely, when the levels of phosphate in the blood are too low, phosphate-binding proteins can help to release phosphate from the liver and transport it to the tissues where it is needed. Disruptions in the function of phosphate-binding proteins can lead to a variety of health problems, including hyperphosphatemia (high levels of phosphate in the blood), hypophosphatemia (low levels of phosphate in the blood), and bone disorders such as osteoporosis.
Calcium channels, N-type, are a type of ion channel found in the cell membrane of neurons and other cells. These channels are responsible for allowing calcium ions to enter the cell in response to certain stimuli, such as the release of neurotransmitters. N-type calcium channels are activated by voltage changes and by the binding of specific neurotransmitters, such as glutamate and acetylcholine. They play a crucial role in many cellular processes, including muscle contraction, neurotransmitter release, and gene expression. Disruptions in the function of N-type calcium channels have been implicated in a number of neurological and cardiovascular disorders, including epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, and hypertension.
Dentin sensitivity is a common dental condition characterized by pain or discomfort in response to stimuli that would not normally cause pain in healthy teeth. The pain is usually felt in the dentin, the layer of the tooth beneath the enamel, and is often described as a sharp, shooting, or burning sensation. Dentin sensitivity can be caused by a variety of factors, including tooth decay, gum recession, tooth grinding or clenching, and exposure of the dentin due to tooth erosion or wear. It can also be triggered by hot or cold beverages, acidic foods and drinks, sweet foods, and brushing too hard or with a harsh toothpaste. Treatment for dentin sensitivity typically involves addressing the underlying cause, such as treating tooth decay or gum disease, and using desensitizing toothpaste or mouth rinses. In some cases, a dentist may recommend a more invasive treatment, such as a dental filling or root canal therapy.
Alginates are a type of polysaccharide that are extracted from brown seaweed. They are commonly used in the medical field as a dressing for wounds, as well as in the production of various medical devices and implants. Alginates have properties that make them useful for wound healing, including their ability to absorb and retain moisture, promote cell growth, and prevent bacterial infection. They are also biocompatible, meaning they are well-tolerated by the body and do not cause an immune response. In addition to their use in wound care, alginate-based materials are also used in the production of dental impressions, drug delivery systems, and other medical applications.
Lactic acid is a naturally occurring organic acid that is produced by the metabolism of glucose in the body. It is a byproduct of the process of glycolysis, which occurs in the cytoplasm of cells when there is not enough oxygen available for complete oxidation of glucose to carbon dioxide and water. In the medical field, lactic acid is often measured in the blood as an indicator of tissue oxygenation and energy metabolism. High levels of lactic acid in the blood can be a sign of tissue hypoxia, which is a lack of oxygen supply to the body's tissues. This can occur in a variety of medical conditions, including sepsis, shock, and certain types of cancer. Lactic acidosis is a condition characterized by high levels of lactic acid in the blood and can be caused by a variety of factors, including liver disease, kidney failure, and certain medications. It can be a serious medical condition and requires prompt treatment. In addition to its role in metabolism and energy production, lactic acid has also been used in various medical treatments, including as a topical antiseptic and as a component of certain medications.
In the medical field, ions are charged particles that are either positively or negatively charged. They are formed when an atom gains or loses electrons, and they play a crucial role in many bodily functions. For example, ions such as sodium, potassium, calcium, and chloride are essential for maintaining the proper balance of fluids in the body, which is necessary for proper nerve and muscle function. Imbalances in these ions can lead to a variety of medical conditions, such as hypertension, heart disease, and muscle cramps. In addition, ions are also important in the transmission of nerve impulses and the functioning of the immune system. They are also used in medical treatments such as electrotherapy and iontophoresis, which involve the application of electrical currents to the body to treat various conditions.
Calcium channel agonists are a class of drugs that work by increasing the flow of calcium ions into cells, particularly in the heart and blood vessels. Calcium ions play a crucial role in the contraction of heart muscle cells and the dilation of blood vessels, so increasing their flow can help to regulate heart rate and blood pressure. Calcium channel agonists are used to treat a variety of cardiovascular conditions, including angina (chest pain), high blood pressure, and heart failure. They are also sometimes used to treat certain types of arrhythmias (irregular heartbeats) and to prevent blood clots. There are several different types of calcium channel agonists, including dihydropyridines (such as nifedipine and amlodipine) and benzothiazepines (such as diltiazem and verapamil). These drugs are available in a variety of forms, including tablets, capsules, and injectable solutions.
Phosphatidylinositol phosphates (PIPs) are a group of signaling molecules that play important roles in various cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and metabolism. They are composed of a phosphatidylinositol (PI) backbone with one or more phosphate groups attached to the inositol ring. There are several different types of PIPs, including phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI(4)P), phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI(3)P), phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2), and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PI(3,4,5)P3). Each of these molecules has distinct functions and is involved in different signaling pathways. In the medical field, PIPs are of interest because they play important roles in various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative disorders. For example, PI(3)P and PI(3,4,5)P3 are key signaling molecules in the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, which is often dysregulated in cancer. Similarly, PIPs are involved in insulin signaling and glucose metabolism, making them relevant to the treatment of diabetes. Overall, PIPs are important signaling molecules that play critical roles in cellular processes and are of interest in the medical field due to their involvement in various diseases.
Urinary calculi, also known as kidney stones, are solid masses that form in the urinary tract. They are composed of various minerals and salts, including calcium, oxalate, uric acid, and cystine. The formation of urinary calculi is a complex process that involves the concentration of minerals and salts in the urine, which can lead to the formation of crystals. These crystals can then grow and clump together to form a stone. Urinary calculi can occur in any part of the urinary tract, including the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. The size and location of the stone can affect the symptoms experienced by the patient. Symptoms of urinary calculi may include pain in the lower back or abdomen, difficulty urinating, blood in the urine, frequent urination, and nausea or vomiting. Treatment for urinary calculi depends on the size and location of the stone, as well as the patient's overall health. Small stones may pass through the urinary tract on their own, while larger stones may require medical intervention, such as shock wave lithotripsy or surgery.
Organophosphates are a class of chemical compounds that contain a phosphorus atom bonded to an organic group. They are commonly used as pesticides, herbicides, and insecticides, as well as in industrial and military applications. In the medical field, organophosphates are often used as nerve agents, which can cause a range of symptoms including muscle weakness, difficulty breathing, and even death. They can also be used as medications to treat certain medical conditions, such as glaucoma and myasthenia gravis. However, exposure to organophosphates can be dangerous and can cause a range of adverse health effects, including respiratory problems, neurological damage, and even death.
In the medical field, "calculi" refers to solid masses or stones that form in the urinary tract or other organs. The most common type of calculi are kidney stones, which can form in the kidneys, ureters, or bladder. Kidney stones are typically composed of minerals such as calcium, oxalate, or phosphate, and can vary in size from a grain of sand to a golf ball. They can cause severe pain, blood in the urine, and other symptoms, and may require medical intervention to remove. Other types of calculi can form in the gallbladder (gallstones), bile ducts (cholecystolithiasis), or pancreas (pancreatic calculi). These calculi can also cause serious health problems if left untreated.
In the medical field, a dental cavity lining is a material used to fill a cavity in a tooth. It is applied to the inner surface of the cavity to protect the tooth from further decay and to restore its function. The lining is typically made of a composite resin or a glass ionomer cement, which are both biocompatible and can bond to the tooth structure. The lining is applied in a thin layer and then hardened with a special light or chemical treatment. Once the lining is in place, it can help to prevent further decay and restore the tooth to its normal shape and function.
Acrylic resins are a type of polymer that are commonly used in the medical field for a variety of applications. They are typically made from acrylic acid or methacrylic acid, which are then polymerized to form a solid, durable material. One common use of acrylic resins in medicine is in the production of dental prosthetics, such as dentures and dental bridges. Acrylic resins are used to create the artificial teeth and gums that are used to replace missing teeth or to improve the appearance of the smile. Acrylic resins are also used in the production of medical devices, such as catheters and surgical instruments. They are often used because of their durability, flexibility, and ability to be molded into a variety of shapes and sizes. In addition, acrylic resins are sometimes used in the treatment of certain medical conditions. For example, they may be used to create implants for the treatment of joint disorders or to reinforce weakened bones. Overall, acrylic resins are a versatile and widely used material in the medical field, with a range of applications in dentistry, medical devices, and other areas.
Ribose-5-phosphate (R5P) is a monosaccharide that is a key intermediate in the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), which is a metabolic pathway that generates ribose-5-phosphate, NADPH, and ATP. In the medical field, ribose-5-phosphate is important for the production of nucleotides, which are the building blocks of DNA and RNA. It is also involved in the synthesis of other important biomolecules, such as coenzyme A and heme. Deficiencies in the enzymes involved in the PPP can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including anemia, neurological disorders, and skin disorders.
Dental enamel proteins are a group of proteins that are found in the enamel layer of teeth. These proteins play important roles in the formation, development, and maintenance of dental enamel. They are synthesized by cells called ameloblasts, which are found in the enamel organ of the tooth germ. There are several different types of dental enamel proteins, including amelogenins, enamelin, and tuftelin. Amelogenins are the most abundant proteins in dental enamel and are involved in the formation of the enamel matrix, which provides a scaffold for the mineralization of enamel. Enamelin is a protein that is thought to play a role in the regulation of enamel mineralization, while tuftelin is a protein that is involved in the organization of the enamel matrix. Dental enamel proteins are important for the health and integrity of teeth. Defects in the synthesis or function of these proteins can lead to a variety of dental problems, including enamel hypoplasia, which is a condition characterized by a thin or abnormal enamel layer, and amelogenesis imperfecta, which is a group of inherited disorders that affect the development of dental enamel.
Lithiasis is a medical term that refers to the presence of one or more stones (also known as calculi) in the urinary tract. These stones can form in the kidneys, ureters, bladder, or urethra and can cause a range of symptoms, including pain, blood in the urine, frequent urination, and difficulty urinating. The most common type of lithiasis is kidney stone disease, which affects millions of people worldwide. Kidney stones are typically composed of minerals such as calcium, oxalate, or phosphate, and can vary in size from a grain of sand to a golf ball. Treatment for lithiasis depends on the size and location of the stone, as well as the severity of symptoms. Small stones may pass through the urinary tract on their own, while larger stones may require medical intervention such as shock wave lithotripsy, surgery, or medication to dissolve the stone. Prevention of lithiasis involves maintaining a healthy diet and staying hydrated, as well as managing underlying medical conditions such as high blood pressure or diabetes.
Resin cements are dental materials that are used to bond dental restorations, such as fillings, crowns, and bridges, to the tooth structure. They are made from a combination of resin monomers, polymers, and other ingredients that are cured with light or heat to form a strong, durable bond. Resin cements are preferred over traditional dental cements because they have a number of advantages, including: 1. Improved adhesion: Resin cements bond to both tooth structure and dental restorations, providing a stronger and more durable bond than traditional cements. 2. Better esthetics: Resin cements can be matched to the color of the tooth, providing a more natural-looking restoration. 3. Increased strength: Resin cements are stronger than traditional cements, which can reduce the risk of fractures and other types of damage to the tooth. 4. Faster curing: Resin cements can be cured in just a few seconds, which can reduce the time required for dental procedures. Overall, resin cements are a popular choice for dental restorations because of their improved adhesion, esthetics, strength, and curing time.
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- Most pathologic calcifications throughout the body contain mixtures of carbonate-substituted hydroxyapatite and octacalcium phosphate. (msdmanuals.com)
- abstract = "Ceramics of hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6 (OH)2: HA) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-Ca 3(PO4)2: β-TCP), were prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS) at the temperatures from 800°C to 1000°C for 10 min with a heating rate of 25°C·min-1. (elsevierpure.com)
- Unlike sintered hydroxyapatite there is evidence to Suggest that calcium phosphate cement (CPC) is actively remodelled in vivo and because CPC is formed by a low-terriperature process, thermally unstable compounds Such Lis proteins may be incorporated into the matrix of the cement which can then be released after implantation. (elsevierpure.com)
- Adsorption of mucin by hydroxyapatite is related mainly to Ca-dependent electrostatic interactions between calcium ions and COO- of mucin . (romj.org)
- Calcium phosphate ceramics such as hydroxyapatite (HA) and biphasic calcium phosphates are used clinically to repair bone defects. (bvsalud.org)
- A potential explanation of the association between elevated serum phosphate levels and calcified AS may be hydroxyapatite deposition, which can induce the formation of osteoblast-like interstitial stromal cells and smooth muscle cells. (medscape.com)
- The procedure is based on slow mixing of HEPES-buffered saline containing sodium phosphate with a CaCl 2 solution containing the DNA. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- A mixture of frozen sodium phosphate solution particles and CPC powder were compacted Lit 106 MPa and the sodium phosphate was allowed to melt and simultaneously set the cement. (elsevierpure.com)
- Companies are also focusing on joint agreements to strengthen their position in the global anhydrous dibasic calcium phosphate market. (medgadget.com)
- The COVID-19 outbreak has adversely affected the anhydrous dibasic calcium phosphate market. (medgadget.com)
- The global anhydrous dibasic calcium phosphate market is expected to exhibit a CAGR of 5.7% during the forecast period (2020-2027) owing to acquisitions and collaborations by key industry players as well as development of novel products. (medgadget.com)
- This is mainly because dibasic calcium phosphate has rich nutrients which help in leading a healthy and improved lifestyle. (medgadget.com)
- In the United States of America (USA), Lab Alley is selling its high-quality Calcium Phosphate, Dibasic, ACS Grade in a convenient packing of 500 Grams at laballey.com. (laballey.com)
- Please contact us to request a Safety Data Sheet (SDS) and Certificate of Analysis (COA) for Calcium Phosphate Dibasic ACS. (laballey.com)
- Calcium phosphate - which you find as tricalcium phosphate in supplements - contains close to 39 percent elemental calcium. (healthline.com)
- This study compared 3 calcium phosphate ceramics , 2 of which have similar structure but different composition 100% HA (algae derived) and HA/ß-tricalcium phosphate (ß-TCP) 20/80 (algae derived), and 2 with different structure but similar composition HA/ß-TCP 20/80 (algae derived) and HA/ß-TCP 15/85 (synthetic). (bvsalud.org)
- Mono-di calcium phosphate (MDCP)powder 21%-Product-Lianyungang Xiangyun Fano Chemical Go. (fanodcp.com)
- CAM Bioceramics calcium phosphate powders, granules, blocks and putties are used for synthetic bone grafts, as a filler for gaps and voids in the treatment of fractures and major bone defects. (cambioceramics.com)
- Objective: to perform a histological analysis of nylon, carbon, and polypropylene fiber-enriched calcium phosphate cement (CPC) for use as bone substitute in the femur or rats. (bvsalud.org)
- This is just a fraction below calcium carbonate ( 40 percent ), but well above calcium citrate (21 percent), calcium lactate (13 percent), and calcium gluconate (9 percent). (healthline.com)
- In most cases, calcium phosphate offers no advantage over calcium carbonate or calcium citrate," said Dr. Roger Phipps, assistant professor at Husson University School of Pharmacy. (healthline.com)
- If getting enough calcium is a concern for you, calcium carbonate and calcium citrate are likely your best options. (healthline.com)
- The aim of the present work was to investigate the chemiluminescence (CL) of neutrophils activated with calcium phosphate particles coated with mucin. (romj.org)
- Taking vitamin D will help your body absorb calcium better. (healthline.com)
- Many calcium supplements also contain vitamin D. (healthline.com)
- Most people who need calcium supplements need it because of vitamin D deficiency. (healthline.com)
- A new study suggests that increased levels of serum phosphate, but not calcium or vitamin D, could be a significant risk factor for incident aortic stenosis (AS). (medscape.com)
- Phosphate, calcium, and vitamin D levels were determined from serum samples taken at baseline. (medscape.com)
- Xia C, Lei W, Hu Y, Yang H, Zeng X, Chen M. Association of serum levels of calcium phosphate and vitamin D with risk of developing aortic stenosis: the UK Biobank cohort. (medscape.com)
- Vitamin D metabolites and parathyroid hormone (PTH) participate in the regulation of calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism. (who.int)
- It is believed that compromises in vitamin D status and/or a reduced capability of the kidney to synthesize 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25-(OH)2D] are responsible for impairment in dietary calcium absorption. (who.int)
- Basic calcium phosphate (apatite) and calcium oxalate crystal disorders tend to cause clinical manifestations similar to those of other crystal-induced arthritides. (msdmanuals.com)
- Groups at left and center contain varying concentrations of calcium, phosphate, and oxalate. (medscape.com)
- A high oxalate intake may contribute to calcium oxalate stone production. (medscape.com)
- Objective - Mucin can promote formation of gallstones via precipitation with calcium phosphate. (romj.org)
- Objectives: To improve the calcium phosphate precipitation (CPP) method for the occlusion of dentine tubules with calcium phosphate, the addition of calcium hexafluorosilicate (CaSiF 6 ) to CPP solution was evaluated in vitro with respect to its occluding capacity and the composition of the precipitate. (elsevierpure.com)
- In addition, there is no consensus concerning the relationship of age to serum calcium, phosphorus and PTH levels. (who.int)
- For instance, in January 2018, the Mosaic Company completed the acquisition of Vale Fertilizantes with an aim to expand its presence in Brazil and to meet the increasing global demand by increasing its production capacity of phosphate fertilizers. (medgadget.com)
- Because these ultramicroscopic crystals are nonacidic calcium phosphates, the term basic calcium phosphate (BCP) is much more precise than apatite . (msdmanuals.com)
- The shear test method is recommended for shear testing of calcium phosphate and metallic/substrate combinations and can provide information on the adhesive or cohesive strength of coatings under a uniaxial shear stress. (astm.org)
- 1.1 This test method covers shear testing of continuous calcium phosphate coatings and metallic coatings adhering to dense metal substrates at ambient temperatures. (astm.org)
- So calcium phosphate may be a more appropriate supplement in someone with phosphate deficiency. (healthline.com)
- The composition of the precipitate was determined by measuring the calcium to phosphorus (Ca/P) ratio of the precipitate in dentine tubules by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). (elsevierpure.com)
- In premenopausal and postmenopausal women, serum levels of 25-OHD, phosphorus and calcium were stable across the age span. (who.int)
- Bone formation in algae-derived and synthetic calcium phosphates with or without poloxamer. (bvsalud.org)
- Phosphate deficiency is more common in those with celiac disease , Crohn's disease , kidney issues, alcohol use disorder , and those who take too many antacids. (healthline.com)
- If your urine calcium levels are too high or too low, it may be a sign of kidney disease , kidney stones , bone disease , a parathyroid gland disorder , or other conditions. (medlineplus.gov)
- Checking the amount of calcium in urine can help diagnose kidney problems and other conditions that can affect calcium levels in your blood. (medlineplus.gov)
- A calcium in urine test may be used to diagnose or monitor how well your kidney are working. (medlineplus.gov)
- It may be used if you have symptoms of kidney stones, which are more likely to form if you have too much calcium in your urine. (medlineplus.gov)
- You may need a calcium in urine test if you have symptoms of a kidney stone. (medlineplus.gov)
- [ 1 , 2 ] Nephrocalcinosis is a term that refers to increased calcium content in the parenchyma of the kidney. (medscape.com)
Bones and teeth2
- Your body absorbs calcium better when you take it in small doses (500 mg or less) with food. (healthline.com)
- CAM Bioceramics calcium phosphate products are applied as material for bioresorbable fixation systems such as interference screws and suture anchors. (cambioceramics.com)
- Infants, children, and pregnant women have the greatest need for calcium because of their exceptional rates of bone formation and growth. (healthline.com)
- HA Coating was the first step in the formation of what is now an established research, manufacturing, packaging and consultancy organization with an extensive portfolio of orthobiologic calcium phosphates. (cambioceramics.com)
- All 3 calcium phosphate ceramics demonstrated osteoconductivity and performed similarly in supporting new bone formation , suggesting that the differences in their composition, structure, or degradation did not significantly affect their ability to promote bone healing in this application. (bvsalud.org)
- however, certain laboratory studies (eg, calcium or uric acid excretion) may be very helpful in identifying risk factors for additional stone formation. (medscape.com)
- A ketogenic diet, prescribed to reduce seizures, places children at risk for both uric acid and calcium stone formation. (medscape.com)
- A calcium in urine test may also help diagnose problems with the parathyroid glands in your neck. (medlineplus.gov)
- Material and Methods - Polydisperse calcium phosphate nanowires (CP) were prepared from hot gelatin solution and according to scanning electron microscopy (SEM) had the length 1-10 μm and thickness 50-450 nm. (romj.org)
- We report hereby on the effect of the previously synthesized calcium phosphates (CAPs) with tunable solubilities and drug release time scales on bacterial and osteoblastic cell cultures. (chapman.edu)
- The reagents supplied in the Calcium Phosphate Transfection Kit (Product No. CAPHOS) are sterilized by 0.2 µM filter and aseptically filled. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- As calcium phosphate experts, we assist industry leaders in finding the right product mix and up-scaling into production. (cambioceramics.com)
- A similar association was seen between serum levels of calcium-phosphate product and AS risk (HR per 0.5-unit increase 1.18, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.26). (medscape.com)
- Furthermore, estimated glomerular filtration rate did not influence the associations of serum levels of phosphate and calcium-phosphate product with incidental AS. (medscape.com)
- Calcium phosphate transfection is a commonly used method for the introduction of DNA into eukaryotic cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- If your calcium levels aren't normal, it doesn't always mean you have a medical condition that needs treatment. (medlineplus.gov)
- Our study was one of the largest prospective cohort studies that demonstrated the positive association between increased serum phosphate levels and increased risk of incidental AS. (medscape.com)
- They're made of calcium phosphate, a compound of calcium and phosphorous. (healthline.com)
- CAM Bioceramics provides calcium phosphates and related services that consistently meet customer needs and regulatory requirements applicable to medical devices and related services. (cambioceramics.com)
- CAM Bioceramics calcium phosphates are used as a carrier for active ingredients for a targeted delivery and controlled release. (cambioceramics.com)
- Your body contains about 1.2 to 2.5 pounds of calcium. (healthline.com)
- When one of these calcium compounds is digested, it returns to its elemental state, and your body reaps the benefits. (healthline.com)
- Calcium is one of the most important minerals in your body. (medlineplus.gov)
- About 1% of the calcium in your body is in your blood. (medlineplus.gov)
- Normally, your kidneys filter out a small amount of calcium from your blood, which leaves your body in urine. (medlineplus.gov)
- Calcium does more than build strong bones and healthy teeth . (healthline.com)
- Personal breathing zone samples were collected for silica (14808607), lead (7439921), manganese (7439965), trivalent chromium (16065831), calcium-oxide (1305788), iron-oxide (1309371), coal-tar-pitch (8007452) volatiles, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). (cdc.gov)
- Several breathing zone samples exceeded respective OSHA limits of 280, 50, 5000, and 200 micrograms per cubic meter for silica, lead, calcium-oxide, and coal-tar-pitch volatiles. (cdc.gov)