Calcium Oxalate: The calcium salt of oxalic acid, occurring in the urine as crystals and in certain calculi.Oxalates: Derivatives of OXALIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are derived from the ethanedioic acid structure.Kidney Calculi: Stones in the KIDNEY, usually formed in the urine-collecting area of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS). Their sizes vary and most contains CALCIUM OXALATE.Oxalic Acid: A strong dicarboxylic acid occurring in many plants and vegetables. It is produced in the body by metabolism of glyoxylic acid or ascorbic acid. It is not metabolized but excreted in the urine. It is used as an analytical reagent and general reducing agent.Hyperoxaluria: Excretion of an excessive amount of OXALATES in the urine.Urinary Calculi: Low-density crystals or stones in any part of the URINARY TRACT. Their chemical compositions often include CALCIUM OXALATE, magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite), CYSTINE, or URIC ACID.Nephrolithiasis: Formation of stones in the KIDNEY.Crystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Urolithiasis: Formation of stones in any part of the URINARY TRACT, usually in the KIDNEY; URINARY BLADDER; or the URETER.Ethylene Glycol: A colorless, odorless, viscous dihydroxy alcohol. It has a sweet taste, but is poisonous if ingested. Ethylene glycol is the most important glycol commercially available and is manufactured on a large scale in the United States. It is used as an antifreeze and coolant, in hydraulic fluids, and in the manufacture of low-freezing dynamites and resins.Oxalobacter formigenes: The sole species of the genus Oxalobacter consisting of straight or curved gram-negative rods with rounded ends. Cells are nonmotile, nonsporing, and use oxylates as the only source of CARBON and energy, with formate and CARBON DIOXIDE as end products. They are isolated from lake sediments and from the rumen or large bowel of humans and animals. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Calcium Phosphates: Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.Uromodulin: A glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol (GPI) - anchored membrane protein found on the thick ascending limb of the LOOP OF HENLE. The cleaved form of the protein is found abundantly in URINE.Magnesium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain magnesium as an integral part of the molecule.Hyperoxaluria, Primary: A genetic disorder characterized by excretion of large amounts of OXALATES in urine; NEPHROLITHIASIS; NEPHROCALCINOSIS; early onset of RENAL FAILURE; and often a generalized deposit of CALCIUM OXALATE. There are subtypes classified by the enzyme defects in glyoxylate metabolism.Calcium Signaling: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.Araceae: A plant family of the order Arales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida (monocot). Many members contain OXALIC ACID and calcium oxalate (OXALATES).Hypercalciuria: Excretion of abnormally high level of CALCIUM in the URINE, greater than 4 mg/kg/day.Urine: Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.Mucoproteins: Conjugated proteins in which mucopolysaccharides are combined with proteins. The mucopolysaccharide moiety is the predominant group with the protein making up only a small percentage of the total weight.Apatites: A group of phosphate minerals that includes ten mineral species and has the general formula X5(YO4)3Z, where X is usually calcium or lead, Y is phosphorus or arsenic, and Z is chlorine, fluorine, or OH-. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Urinary Bladder Calculi: Stones in the URINARY BLADDER; also known as vesical calculi, bladder stones, or cystoliths.Calcium Channels: Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.Calcium, Dietary: Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.Osteopontin: A negatively-charged extracellular matrix protein that plays a role in the regulation of BONE metabolism and a variety of other biological functions. Cell signaling by osteopontin may occur through a cell adhesion sequence that recognizes INTEGRIN ALPHA-V BETA-3.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Jejunoileal Bypass: A procedure consisting of the SURGICAL ANASTOMOSIS of the proximal part of the JEJUNUM to the distal portion of the ILEUM, so as to bypass the nutrient-absorptive segment of the SMALL INTESTINE. Due to the severe malnutrition and life-threatening metabolic complications, this method is no longer used to treat MORBID OBESITY.Citric Acid: A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.GlyoxylatesPotassium Citrate: A powder that dissolves in water, which is administered orally, and is used as a diuretic, expectorant, systemic alkalizer, and electrolyte replenisher.Glycolates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID which contain an hydroxy group attached to the methyl carbon.Nephrocalcinosis: A condition characterized by calcification of the renal tissue itself. It is usually seen in distal RENAL TUBULAR ACIDOSIS with calcium deposition in the DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES and the surrounding interstitium. Nephrocalcinosis causes RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Lithiasis: A condition characterized by the formation of CALCULI and concretions in the hollow organs or ducts of the body. They occur most often in the gallbladder, kidney, and lower urinary tract.Kidney Tubules: Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.Calcium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of calcium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ca atoms with atomic weights 39, 41, 45, 47, 49, and 50 are radioactive calcium isotopes.Microscopy, Polarization: Microscopy using polarized light in which phenomena due to the preferential orientation of optical properties with respect to the vibration plane of the polarized light are made visible and correlated parameters are made measurable.Trypsin Inhibitor, Kunitz Soybean: A high-molecular-weight protein (approximately 22,500) containing 198 amino acid residues. It is a strong inhibitor of trypsin and human plasmin.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Hydroxyproline: A hydroxylated form of the imino acid proline. A deficiency in ASCORBIC ACID can result in impaired hydroxyproline formation.Calculi: An abnormal concretion occurring mostly in the urinary and biliary tracts, usually composed of mineral salts. Also called stones.Calcium Carbonate: Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.Uric Acid: An oxidation product, via XANTHINE OXIDASE, of oxypurines such as XANTHINE and HYPOXANTHINE. It is the final oxidation product of purine catabolism in humans and primates, whereas in most other mammals URATE OXIDASE further oxidizes it to ALLANTOIN.Durapatite: The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.Nephrostomy, Percutaneous: The insertion of a catheter through the skin and body wall into the kidney pelvis, mainly to provide urine drainage where the ureter is not functional. It is used also to remove or dissolve renal calculi and to diagnose ureteral obstruction.Nafronyl: A drug used in the management of peripheral and cerebral vascular disorders. It is claimed to enhance cellular oxidative capacity and to be a spasmolytic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1310) It may also be an antagonist at 5HT-2 serotonin receptors.Sargassum: One of the largest genera of BROWN ALGAE, comprised of more than 150 species found in tropical, subtropical, and temperate zones of both hemispheres. Some species are attached (benthic) but most float in the open sea (pelagic). Sargassum provides a critical habitat for hundreds of species of FISHES; TURTLES; and INVERTEBRATES.Alpha-Globulins: Serum proteins that have the most rapid migration during ELECTROPHORESIS. This subgroup of globulins is divided into faster and slower alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-globulins.CitratesCalcium Chloride: A salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.Calcium Isotopes: Stable calcium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element calcium, but differ in atomic weight. Ca-42-44, 46, and 48 are stable calcium isotopes.Cystostomy: Surgical creation of an opening (stoma) in the URINARY BLADDER for drainage.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Tribulus: A plant genus of the family ZYGOPHYLLACEAE. Members contain steroidal saponins. Ingestion by grazing animals causes PHOTOSENSITIVITY DISORDERS called geeldikkop (yellow thick head) in South Africa.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Anion Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of negatively charged molecules (anions) across a biological membrane.Microcomputers: Small computers using LSI (large-scale integration) microprocessor chips as the CPU (central processing unit) and semiconductor memories for compact, inexpensive storage of program instructions and data. They are smaller and less expensive than minicomputers and are usually built into a dedicated system where they are optimized for a particular application. "Microprocessor" may refer to just the CPU or the entire microcomputer.

Relationship between supersaturation and calcium oxalate crystallization in normals and idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers. (1/363)

BACKGROUND: In an earlier study on recurrent CaOx stone formers with no detectable abnormalities, we found that the urine of these subjects had a lower tolerance to oxalate load than controls and that the removal of urinary macromolecules with a molecular weight greater than 10,000 D improved their tolerance to oxalate. METHODS: The effects on CaOx crystallization of reduced urinary supersaturation of calcium oxalate (CaOx), induced by night water load, were studied in 12 normal males and in 15 male OxCa stone formers who were free from urinary metabolic abnormalities. The effect of the macromolecules, purified and retrieved from the natural and diluted urine, were analyzed in a metastable solution of CaOx. RESULTS: The water load caused an increase in urine volume (from 307 +/- 111 to 572 +/- 322 ml/8 hr, P = 0.014 in normal subjects, and from 266 +/- 92 to 518 +/- 208 ml/8 hr, P = 0.001 in the stone formers) and a concomitant reduction of the relative CaOx supersaturation (from 8.7 +/- 2.5 to 5.1 +/- 2.5 ml/8 hr, P = 0.001 in normal subjects, and from 10.4 +/- 3.5 to 5.0 +/- 2.7 ml/8 hr, P = 0.001 in the stone formers). The decrease in CaOx supersaturation was accompanied by an increase of the permissible increment in oxalate, both in normal subjects (from 43.8 +/- 10.1 to 67.2 +/- 30. 3 mg/liter, P = 0.018) and in the stone formers (from 25.7 +/- 9.4 to 43.7 +/- 17.1 mg/liter, P = 0.0001), without any significant variations of the upper limit of metastability for CaOx (from 21.6 +/- 5.3 to 20.5 +/- 4.2 mg/liter in normal subjects, and from 18.7 +/- 4.5 to 17.1 +/- 3.7 mg/liter in the stone formers). The inhibitory effect of urinary macromolecules with molecular weight greater than 10,000 Daltons did not undergo any change when the latter were recovered from concentrated or diluted urine, either in normal subjects or in the stone formers. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced CaOx supersaturation by means of water load has a protective effect with regards to CaOx crystallization in subjects who do not present any of the common urinary stone risk factors.  (+info)

Cell type-specific acquired protection from crystal adherence by renal tubule cells in culture. (2/363)

BACKGROUND: Adherence of crystals to the surface of renal tubule epithelial cells is considered an important step in the development of nephrolithiasis. Previously, we demonstrated that functional monolayers formed by the renal tubule cell line, Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK), acquire protection against the adherence of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals. We now examined whether this property is cell type specific. The susceptibility of the cells to crystal binding was further studied under different culture conditions. METHODS: Cell-type specificity and the influence of the growth substrate was tested by comparing calcium oxalate monohydrate crystal binding to LLC-PK1 cells and to two MDCK strains cultured on either permeable or impermeable supports. These cell lines are representative for the renal proximal tubule (LLC-PK1) and distal tubule/collecting duct (MDCK) segments of the nephron, in which crystals are expected to be absent and present, respectively. RESULTS: Whereas relatively large amounts of crystals adhered to subconfluent MDCK cultures, the level of crystal binding to confluent monolayers was reduced for both MDCK strains. On permeable supports, MDCK cells not only obtained a higher level of morphological differentiation, but also acquired a higher degree of protection than on impermeable surfaces. Crystals avidly adhered to LLC-PK1 cells, irrespective of their developmental stage or growth substrate used. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that the prevention of crystal binding is cell type specific and expressed only by differentiated MDCK cells. The anti-adherence properties acquired by MDCK cells may mirror a specific functional characteristic of its in situ equivalent, the renal distal tubule/collecting ducts.  (+info)

Nucleation of calcium oxalate crystals by albumin: involvement in the prevention of stone formation. (3/363)

BACKGROUND: Urine is supersaturated in calcium oxalate, which means that it will contain calcium oxalate crystals that form spontaneously. Their size must be controlled to prevent retention in ducts and the eventual development of a lithiasis. This is achieved, in part, by specific inhibitors of crystal growth. We investigated whether promoters of crystal nucleation could also participate in that control, because for the same amount of salt that will precipitate from a supersaturated solution, increasing the number of crystals will decrease their average size and facilitate their elimination. METHODS: Albumin was purified from commercial sources and from the urine of healthy subjects or idiopathic calcium stone formers. Its aggregation properties were characterized by biophysical and biochemical techniques. Albumin was then either attached to several supports or left free in solution and incubated in a metastable solution of calcium oxalate. Kinetics of calcium oxalate crystallization were determined by turbidimetry. The nature and efficiency of nucleation were measured by examining the type and number of neoformed crystals. RESULTS: Albumin, one of the most abundant proteins in urine, was a powerful nucleator of calcium oxalate crystals in vitro, with the polymers being more active than monomers. In addition, nucleation by albumin apparently led exclusively to the formation of calcium oxalate dihydrate crystals, whereas calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals were formed in the absence of albumin. An analysis of calcium oxalate crystals in urine showed that the dihydrate form was present in healthy subjects and stone formers, whereas the monohydrate, which is thermodynamically more stable and constitutes the core of most calcium oxalate stones, was present in stone formers only. Finally, urinary albumin purified from healthy subjects contained significantly more polymers and was a stronger promoter of calcium oxalate nucleation than albumin from idiopathic calcium stone formers. CONCLUSIONS: Promotion by albumin of calcium oxalate crystallization with specific formation of the dihydrate form might be protective, because with rapid nucleation of small crystals, the saturation levels fall; thus, larger crystal formation and aggregation with subsequent stone formation may be prevented. We believe that albumin may be an important factor of urine stability.  (+info)

Temporal changes in mRNA expression for bikunin in the kidneys of rats during calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. (4/363)

Inter-alpha-inhibitor and other bikunin-containing proteins are synthesized in relatively large quantities by the liver. These proteins function as Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitors and appear capable of inhibiting calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystallization in vitro. Preliminary studies have shown that renal tubular epithelial cells synthesize bikunin in response to CaOx challenge. To examine this response in vivo, a sensitive reverse transcription-quantitative competitive template-PCR was developed to detect and quantify poly(A)+ -tailed bikunin mRNA expression in kidney tissue from normal rats and rats developing CaOx nephrolithiasis after challenge with ethylene glycol. Bikunin mRNA expression in rat liver tissue was assessed as a positive control. The expression of bikunin mRNA in liver did not differ significantly between normal control rats and experimental rats with induced hyperoxaluria and renal CaOx crystallization. In contrast, there were significant temporal increases in the levels of bikunin mRNA expression in rat kidneys during CaOx nephrolithiasis after challenge with ethylene glycol. Urinary excretion of bikunin-containing proteins seemed to increase concomitantly. These findings indicate an association between the induction of hyperoxaluria/CaOx nephrolithiasis and the expression of the bikunin gene in rat kidneys.  (+info)

Essential arterial hypertension and stone disease. (5/363)

BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional studies have shown that nephrolithiasis is more frequently found in hypertensive patients than in normotensive subjects, but the pathogenic link between hypertension and stone disease is still not clear. METHODS: Between 1984 and 1991, we studied the baseline stone risk profile, including supersaturation of lithogenic salts, in 132 patients with stable essential hypertension (diastolic blood pressure of more than 95 mm Hg) without stone disease and 135 normotensive subjects (diastolic blood pressure less than 85 mm Hg) without stone disease who were matched for age and sex (controls). Subsequently, both controls and hypertensives were followed up for at least five years to check on the eventual formation of kidney stones. RESULTS: Baseline urine levels in hypertensive males were different from that of normotensive males with regards to calcium (263 vs. 199 mg/day), magnesium (100 vs. 85 mg/day), uric acid (707 vs. 586 mg/day), and oxalate (34.8 vs. 26.5 mg/day). Moreover, the urine of hypertensive males was more supersaturated for calcium oxalate (8.9 vs. 6.1) and calcium phosphate (1.39 vs. 0.74). Baseline urine levels in hypertensive females were different from that of normotensive females with regards to calcium (212 vs. 154 mg/day), phosphorus (696 vs. 614 mg/day), and oxalate (26.2 vs. 21.7 mg/day), and the urine of hypertensive females was more supersaturated for calcium oxalate (7.1 vs. 4.8). These urinary alterations were only partially dependent on the greater body mass index in hypertensive patients. During the follow-up, 19 out of 132 hypertensive patients and 4 out of 135 normotensive patients had stone episodes (14.3 vs. 2.9%, chi-square 11.07, P = 0.001; odds ratio 5.5, 95% CI, 1.82 to 16.66). Of the 19 stone-former hypertensive patients, 12 formed calcium calculi, 5 formed uric acid calculi, and 2 formed nondetermined calculi. Of the urinary factors for lithogenous risk, those with the greatest predictive value were supersaturation of calcium oxalate for calcium calculi and uric acid supersaturation for uric acid calculi. CONCLUSIONS: A significant percentage of hypertensive subjects has a greater risk of renal stone formation, especially when hypertension is associated with excessive body weight. Higher oxaluria and calciuria as well as supersaturation of calcium oxalate and uric acid appear to be the most important factors. Excessive weight and consumption of salt and animal proteins may also play an important role.  (+info)

Calcium oxalate crystals (Weddellite) within the secretions of ductal carcinoma in situ--a rare phenomenon. (6/363)

A case is described in which calcium oxalate (Weddellite) crystals were identified in an area of ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast. Seventy other cases were examined but no evidence of Weddellite was detected. This is evidently a rare phenomenon in carcinoma in situ.  (+info)

Plasma calcium oxalate supersaturation in children with primary hyperoxaluria and end-stage renal failure. (7/363)

BACKGROUND: Children with primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH 1) are at great risk to develop systemic oxalosis in end-stage renal disease (ESRD), as endogenous oxalate production exceeds oxalate removal by dialytic therapy. As oxalate accumulates, calcium oxalate (CaOx) tissue deposition occurs. Children with other causes of ESRD, however, are not prone to CaOx deposition despite elevated plasma oxalate (POx) levels. METHODS: Our study objective was to examine the potential mechanisms for these observations. We measured POx, sulfate, citrate, and calculated CaOx saturation (betaCaOx) in 7 children with ESRD caused by PH 1 and in 33 children with non-PH-related ESRD. Maintenance hemodialysis (HD) was performed in 6 PH 1 and 22 non-PH patients: Pre- and post-HD levels were analyzed at this point and were repeated twice within 12 months in 5 PH 1 and 14 non-PH patients. Samples were obtained only once in 12 patients (one PH 1) on peritoneal dialysis (PD). After liver-kidney or kidney transplantation, plasma levels were measured repetitively. RESULTS: The mean POx was higher in PH 1 (125.7 +/- 17.9 micromol/liter) than in non-PH patients (44.2 +/- 3.3 micromol/liter, P < 10(-4)). All other determined anions did not differ between the two groups. betaCaOx was higher in PH 1 (4.71 +/- 0.69 relative units) compared with non-PH children (1.56 +/- 0.12 units, P < 10(-4)). POx and betaCaOx were correlated in both the PH 1 (r = 0.98, P < 2 x 10(-4)) and the non-PH group (r = 0.98, P < 10(-4)). POx and betaCaOx remained stable over time in the non-PH children, whereas an insignificant decline was observed in PH 1 patients after six months of more aggressive dialysis. betaCaOx was supersaturated (more than 1) in all PH 1 and in 25 out of 33 non-PH patients. Post-HD betaCaOx remained more than 1 in all PH 1, but in only 2 out of 22 non-PH patients. In non-PH children, POx and betaCaOx decreased to normal within three weeks after successful kidney transplantation, whereas the levels still remained elevated seven months after combined liver-kidney transplantation in two PH 1 patients. CONCLUSION: Systemic oxalosis in PH 1 children with ESRD is due to higher POx and betaCaOx levels. As betaCaOx remained supersaturated in PH 1 even after aggressive HD, oxalate accumulation increases, and CaOx tissue deposition occurs. Therefore, sufficient reduction of POx and betaCaOx is crucial in PH 1 and might only be achieved by early, preemptive, combined liver-kidney transplantation or liver transplantation alone.  (+info)

Inhibition of calcium oxalate crystal growth and aggregation by prothrombin and its fragments in vitro: relationship between protein structure and inhibitory activity. (8/363)

During blood coagulation, prothrombin (PT) is ultimately degraded to three fragments, thrombin, fragment 1 (F1) and fragment 2 (F2), which, collectively, contain all of the structural features of PT. One of these fragments, F1, is excreted in human urine and is the principal protein occluded into calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals precipitated from it. This urinary form of F1, which we have named urinary prothrombin fragment 1 is present in calcium stones and is a potent inhibitor of CaOx crystallization in urine in vitro. The aim of this study was to determine whether PT itself and its other activation products, namely, thrombin, F1 and F2 also inhibit CaOx crystallization, by comparing their effects in a seeded, inorganic crystallization system. A secondary objective was to assess the relationship between the structures of the proteins and their inhibitory activities. PT was isolated from a human blood concentrate rich in vitamin K-dependent proteins. Following initial cleavage by thrombin, the resulting fragments, F1 and F2, were purified by a combination of reversed phase HPLC and low pressure column chromatography. The purity of the proteins was confirmed by SDS/PAGE and their individual effects on CaOx crystallization were determined at the same concentration (16.13 nM) in a seeded, metastable solution of CaOx using a Coulter Counter. [14C]Oxalate was used to assess deposition of CaOx and crystals were visualized using scanning electron microscopy. The Coulter Counter data revealed that the proteins reduced the size of precipitated crystals in the order F1 > PT > F2 > thrombin. These findings were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy which showed that the reduction in particle size resulted from a decrease in the degree of crystal aggregation. [14C]Oxalate analysis demonstrated that all proteins inhibited mineral deposition, in the order F1 (44%) > PT (27.4%) > thrombin (10.2%) > F2 (6.5%). It was concluded that the gamma-carboxyglutamic acid domain of PT and F1, which is absent from thrombin and F2, is the region of the molecules which determines their potent inhibitory effects. The superior potency of F1, in comparison with PT, probably results from the molecule's greater charge to mass ratio.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Direct visualization of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystallization and dissolution with atomic force microscopy and the role of polymeric additives. AU - Guo, Shouwu. AU - Ward, Michael. AU - Wesson, Jeffrey A.. PY - 2002/5/28. Y1 - 2002/5/28. N2 - The growth and dissolution of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) were investigated by real-time in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM). The (100) surfaces of COM crystals were sufficiently rough that direct AFM imaging of terrace growth and step motion was not feasible. In undersaturated aqueous solutions, however, COM crystals dissolved, developing elongated hexagonal pits oriented along the [001] direction and having perimeters defined by {010} and {021} planes, which mimics the habit of the macroscopic crystals. Increasing the concentration of calcium oxalate to supersaturated levels reversed etching, resulting in gradual filling of the pits, which is tantamount to crystal growth. The confinement of growth within the pits permitted ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Models for protein binding to calcium oxalate surfaces. AU - Gul, Asiya. AU - Rez, Peter. PY - 2007/4. Y1 - 2007/4. N2 - It is widely believed that proteins rich in Asp, Glu or Gla (γ carboxyglutamic acid) interact strongly with calcium oxalate surfaces and inhibit calcium oxalate crystal growth. An alternative hypothesis would be that the interaction of Asp, Glu and Gla residues with surfaces could facilitate nucleation and crystal aggregation. Prothrombin fragment 1 and bikunin have been studied extensively as inhibitors, β-microglobulin, transferrin and antitrypsin have been found in stone matrix and tubulin has been observed in the attachment of crystals to cell surfaces. The aim of this study is to examine how well carboxylate groups in proteins found either in stone matrix, or proposed as inhibitors, could fit with the calcium ion sub-lattice of both calcium oxalate monohydrate and dihydrate surfaces. The carboxylate groups in the acidic Asp, Glu and Gla residues were ...
Randalls plaque (RP) deposits seem to be consistent among the most common type of kidney stone formers, idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers. This group forms calcium oxalate renal stones without any systemic symptoms, which contributes to the difficulty of understanding and treating this painful and recurring disease. Thus, the development of an in vitro model system to study idiopathic nephrolithiasis, beginning with RP pathogenesis, can help in identifying how plaques and subsequently stones form. One main theory of RP formation is that calcium phosphate deposits initially form in the basement membrane of the thin loops of Henle, which then fuse and spread into the interstitial tissue, and ultimately make their way across the urothelium, where upon exposure to the urine, the mineralized tissue serves as a nidus for overgrowth with calcium oxalate into a stone ...
Endogenous oxalate is primarily derived from the metabolism of glycine and ascorbic acid [1]. Calcium oxalate crystal related renal injury in the past was mostly due to JIB, which was a surgical weight-loss procedure performed for the relief of morbid obesity during the 1950s through the 1970s. However, there remained too many complications, including mineral and electrolyte imbalance, protein calorie malnutrition, enteric complications, and renal disease (hyperoxaluria, with oxalate stones or interstitial oxalate deposits). The multiple complications which were associated with JIB, led to a search for alternative procedures. In 1979 [2], one type of modern bariatric surgery was gastric bypass. Full procedure gastric bypass included RYGB surgery, biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch, vertical banded gastroplasty, and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding. A study by Asplin et al. revealed a mean oxalate excretion of 83 mg/day in patients who underwent RYGB [3]. This was significantly ...
Question - Blood and urine test showed calcium oxalate crystals in it. Meaning? . Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Prostate cancer, Ask a Radiologist
Question - Dull, prolonged right abdominal pain. Blood test showed elevated liver enzymes, urinalysis with calcium oxalate crystals. Related?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Elevated liver enzymes, Ask a Nephrologist
Kidney stones can be classified according to their chemical composition. Some 64 percent of kidney stones are calcium oxalate stones. 80 percent of kidney stones are based on some calcium compound or other, and 80 percent of calcium-based kidney stones are calcium oxalate stones. Calcium oxalate is a calcium compound that is found in nature, in certain plants, and in deposits left on containers as a result of brewing beer, where its known as "beer stones." Beer stones have to be removed by cleaning or they can ruin the flavor of subsequent batches of beer by harboring undesirable microorganisms. Rhubarb leaves have large amounts of calcium oxalate (and should be avoided by people suffering from kidney stones, as should other plants containing significant quantities of this mineral). Aside from brewing and dietary considerations, the main reason calcium oxalate stones are of concern to human beings is that they are the most common type of kidney stone, which is an often painful and sometimes ...
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: Extension of Expiration Date for NIDDK Program Announcement, PA-09-213: Calcium Oxalate Stone Diseases (R01) NOT-DK-12-011. NIDDK
goutCalcium Oxalate Dihydrate Kidney Stones - Nutritional Therapy a Natural Cure for GoutAcupressure can provide wonderful relief for gout attacks and it can be used as a complimentary treatment with medication or ...
[100 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Calcium Oxalate for Industrial Application Market Research Report 2017 report by QYResearch Group. In this report, the global Calcium Oxalate for Industrial Application...
Basically, Arthritis is inflammation of the joints. There are currently over 100 forms of Arthritis and remarkably, that number continues to rise. The most common forms of Arthritis include: Osteoarthritis, Rheumatoid Arthritis, and Gout (see our next article, "Symptoms of Arthritis" for more information). Osteoarthritis is the result of degenerative joint disease, or simply "wear and tear" on the joints. Rheumatoid Arthritis is the result of an over active Immune System that results in inflammation. Gout is the oldest form of Arthritis and is the result of too much Uric Acid. The Uric Acid deposits crystals in the joints, leading to "Gouty Arthritis". The joint pain, inherent to all Arthritis sufferers, is referred to as "Arthralgia". Not only are the joints susceptible to attack, but the surrounding muscles, tissues, and organs are vulnerable to the effects of Arthritis as well. In fact, Arthritis has been known to attack the heart, kidneys, lungs, and liver ...
Kidney stone, scanning electron micrograph (SEM). Kidney stones are primarily formed by crystallization of the mineral salt calcium oxalate from the urine. They are irregular shaped stones called calculi (calculus) and are composed of random oriented columnar monoclinic crystals of calcium oxalate monohydrate (seen here) with peripheral deposits of fine octahedral crystals of calcium oxalate dehydrate. Patches of microcrystalline hydroxyl apatite fill internodal regions. Protein matrices can also be associated with the microcrystalline arrays. The hard stones can cause severe pain as they pass down the ureter (urinary tract). Kidney stones may need to be removed surgically using ultrasound. Magnification: x600 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image C036/9768
Calcium oxalates are calcium salts of oxalic acid and they are the most common constituents of kidney stones. Kidney stones are the result of a crystal growth in the urinary tract and almost 10% of population experience such problems during their lifetime. Medical term of this process is known as the urolithiasis or nefrolithiasis. There have been many studies conducted with the aim to understand and explain the mechanism, precipitation conditions and possible prevention of the stone formation. Calcium oxalate crystallizes in three hydrate forms: thermodynamically stable monohydrate (whewellite, COM), the metastable modification, dihydrate (weddellite, COD) and trihydrate (caoxite, COT) which is rarely found in the kidney stones. The experimental results showed that a temperature changes and a concentration of citrate can influence morphology and size of precipitated crystals. Calcium oxalate crystals were studied by the means of thermal analysis (TGA) and infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The ...
The aim of this application note is to present data from a model system to illustrate the use of the PIKE DiffusIR diffuse reflectance accessory in conjunction with the environmental temperature chamber. Specifically, the dehydration of calcium oxalate monohydrate was monitored in-situ. Calcium oxalate monohydrate has become a thermal analysis standard, and is also a primary chemical component found in kidney stones.
Introduction 1. Section 1: Sample Collection and Handling 2. Collection of Urine Samples 2. Free Catch Urine Collection 2. Transurethral Catheterization 3. Cystocentesis 6. Urine Sample Handlin g 7. Culture 7. Section II: Urine: Physical Characteristics 10. Volume 10. Color 10. Clarity/Turbidity 11. Odor 11. Urine Specific Gravity 11. Section III Urine Chemistry 13. Urine pH 13. Protein 14. Glucose 19. Ketones 20. Blood 22. Bilirubin 24. Section IV Urine Sediment 26. Preparation for Microscopic Examination 26. Casts 27. Hyaline Casts 27. Cellular Casts 28. Granular Casts 30. Waxy Casts 31. Fatty Casts 32. Hemoglobin Casts 32. Mixed Casts 33. Psuedo Casts 33. Crystals 34. Crystals associated with urolith formation34. Struvite/Triple Phosphate Crystals 34. Calcium oxalate dihydrate 35. Calcium oxalate monohydrate 36. Calcium Phosphate 37. Urate/Ammonium Biurate 37. Uric Acid 38. Cystine 39. Xanthine 39. Amorphous (Phosphate, Urate, Silicates) 40. Crystals not typically associated with urolith ...
The Global Calcium Oxalate Industry Report 2015 is a professional and in-depth study on the current st - Market Research Reports and Industry Analysis
A 53-year-old male presented with recurrent calcium oxalate kidney stones as a first sign of underlying acromegaly, which vanished when his acromegaly was controlled. The exact mechanism behind hypercalciuria and urolithiasis in acromegaly is not yet clear. By discussing this case, a short overview of the pathophysiology of hypercalciuria in acromegaly and practical insights are given. ...
A 53-year-old male presented with recurrent calcium oxalate kidney stones as a first sign of underlying acromegaly, which vanished when his acromegaly was controlled. The exact mechanism behind hypercalciuria and urolithiasis in acromegaly is not yet clear. By discussing this case, a short overview of the pathophysiology of hypercalciuria in acromegaly and practical insights are given. ...
Calcium, Atomic Force Microscopy, Behavior, Force Microscopy, Microscopy, Time, Adsorption, Aspartic Acid, Calcium Oxalate, Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate, Growth, Inhibition, Peptides, Association, Creutzfeldt-jakob Disease, Disease, Diseases, Human, Prion Diseases, Seeds
Brushite is a well known precursor of calcium oxalate monohydrate, the main mineral found in kidney stones having a monoclinic crystal structure. Here, we present a new method for biomimicking brushite using a single tube diffusion technique for gel growth. Brushite crystals were grown by precipitation of ca
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I am a 67 year old female in generally good health. I have been active most of my life,(competative gymnast and retired physical education teacher). Currently being treated for high blood pressure following arthroscopic surgery to correct a torn meniscus (from a fitness class). They had difficulty stabilizing my blood pressure after surgery. Prior to then I was told I had "White Coat Syndrome". Have a history of calcium oxalate kidney stones ( at least 4-5 episodes starting when I was 21), recently diagnosed with osteoporosis (told probably hereditary…parents died when I was 9 so no known history to confirm), calcium deposits on my lower left rib cage that I have been aware of for at least the last 15 years but now find the area below the deposit very tender and uncomfortable at times. I am using weight bearing exercise and dietary and supplemental support to address the osteoporosis. Is there anything I can do to reduce the calcium deposits on the ribs?. ...
Use this medication exactly as prescribed by your doctor. Allopurinol is usually taken one or more times per day, depending on the dose. Take it just after a meal. It is recommended to start at a low dosage for treating gout - 100 mg once daily. After that, your doctor may increase your dose by 100 mg per day each week, until the maximum dose 800 mg daily is reached. Doses of 300 mg or less can be taken as a single daily dose, but higher doses should be split up into a few smaller doses per day. The recommended dose for preventing calcium oxalate kidney stones is 200 mg or 300 mg per day, taken as a single dose. Never take more than the prescribed dose ...
Serum creatinine and BUN were determined photometrically on the 3rd and 10th postoperative days. Results General No animal died immediately after operation or within the period of observation. Three animals developed a unilateral wedge-shaped, ischemic renal infarction. Parenchymatous destruction to a maximum depth of 3-20 tubular lumina could be found in all other kidneys. In two cases a stone was found in the renal pelvis. Diffractometric X-ray analysis showed the stone composition to be calcium oxalate monohydrate. Turowski G, Schaadt M, Barthels M, Diehl V, Poliwada H (1980) Unterschiedlicher EinfluB von Fibrinogen und Faktor XIII auf das Wachstum von Primar- und Kulturfibroblasten. In: Schimpf K (ed) Fibrinogen, Fibrin und Fibrinkleber. FK Schattauer-Verlag, Stuttgart, pp 227-237 20. Knoche H, Schmitt G (1976) Autoradiographische Untersuchungen uber den EinfluB des Faktors XIII auf die Wundheilung im Tierexperiment. Arzneimittelforsch - Drug Res 26:547-551 21. Bruhn HD, Po hi J (1981) ...
Since kidney stones cause most cases of acute unilateral obstructive uropathy, preventing these from forming can lower your risk of having a blockage. You can reduce your chances of having kidney stones by drinking six to eight glasses of water each day. Your doctor might recommend more if you have a history of kidney stones.. Keep an eye on how much salty food you eat, since too much sodium can increase your risk of having kidney stones. You may also look out for how many oxalates you eat. Oxalates are organic acids found in beets, rhubarb, spinach, blackberries, and soy products. This might help if youre prone to developing a specific type of kidney stone called a calcium oxalate stone. ...
Can someone clarify the NAC dosage for me? I read in the supplementsi chart that the dosage was 600 mg 2X per day, but I also see elsewhere that one should ramp up to 2400 (i.e. 1200 2 X per day). I am just starting on the protocol, is it correct to ramp up to the full 2400 mg of NAC daily before starting the doxycycline (my first antibiotic).. Also, I see the vitamin/supplement chart recommends 1 g Vitamin C 2 X per day. My local pharmacist recommends using regular ascorbic acid, not buffered, as I said I want to be cautious to prevent kidney stones with all of these supplementsi and calcium oxalate crystals in urine. Has anyone had any problems with taking 2 gm Vitamin C per day, unbuffered, such as gasto sensitivity, or other problems?. ...
[65 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Nickel(II) oxalate dihydrate Global Market and Forecast Research report by ChemReport. DescriptionWe provide independent and unbiased information on manufacturers, prices, production...
Low in calories and fat High in protein to help maintain lean body mass This diet promotes a urinary environment unfavorable to the development of both struvite and calcium oxalate crystal Purina® Pro Plan Veterinary Diets® OM Overweight Management® Feline Formula has been scientifically formulated to achieve and maint
Get your very own PEE TOWEL! So why am I telling you all of this? Well! Theres this great company called Spoonflower that will take your digital artwork and print it on various different fabrics. So I whipped up my own digital rendition of calcium oxalate crystals seen in pee and had it printed on linen-cotton canvas by Spoonflower just so I could sew the fabric into ... PEE TOWELS! Get it? Not tea towels, but pee towels ... yeah, okay, I told you I was a nerd. But it makes me laugh, and if it makes you laugh as well you can find your very own pee towel in my Etsy shop.. ...
urine or solution can be undersaturated - the concentration of a stone forming salt like calcium oxalate is below its solubility (Region 1). Crystals will dissolve.. The solid curving line is the solubility. Stir sugar into water; no matter how long you stir, how much sugar is at the bottom of the glass, only so much will dissolve.. As in the experiment with sugar and water, when you heat the water, more of the crystals you stirred in will dissolve. Thus the solubility curve shifts to the left - more dissolved salts - as the temperature (vertical axis) rises (the way the graph is made increasing concentrations of salts are to the left!).. When the water cools to room temperature, the extra sugar, which means sugar dissolved at a concentration above its solubility at room temperature, produces supersaturation. You can follow the vertical line from x down to E which shows how cooling moves the concentration from undersaturation to extreme supersaturation.. But, crystals need not form if you ...
Oxacillin sodium monohydrate Market report provides key statistics on the market status of the Oxacillin sodium monohydrate Manufacturers and is a valuable source of guidance and direction for companies and individuals interested in the Oxacillin sodium monohydrate Industry. The Oxacillin sodium monohydrate industry report firstly announced the Oxacillin sodium monohydrate Market fundamentals: definitions, classifications, applications and market overview; product specifications; manufacturing processes; cost structures, raw materials and so on.. Global and Chinese Oxacillin sodium monohydrate Industry report 2012-2022 Provides professional and in-depth study on the current state of the global Oxacillin sodium monohydrate market with a focus on the Chinese market.. Get PDF Sample of Oxacillin sodium monohydrate Market Report @ https://www.360marketupdates.com/enquiry/request-sample/10631239. Table of Contents:. Chapter 1 Overview of Oxacillin sodium monohydrate Market ...
Objectiveâ To evaluate the long-term risk of recurrence of calcium oxalate (CaOx) cystic calculi in dogs of various breeds fed 1 of 2 therapeutic diets. Designâ Retrospective cohort study. Animalsâ 135 dogs with a history of CaOx cystic calculi. Proceduresâ Medical records for 4 referral hospitals were searched to identify dogs that had had CaOx cystic calculi removed. Owners were contacted an ...
Kidney stones (calculi) are formed of mineral deposits, mostly calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate; nevertheless, uric acid, struvite, and cystine are also calculus formers. We work collectively and eat lunch together nearly everyday, so it was simpler for me than most to determine what to eat. Your first two weeks on the plan you will be...
My kidneys are gravel pits. The stones are calcium phosphate. Im on a low sodium, low phosphate, 1200 mg of calcium from food (no supplements) daily. Ive had ...
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This study involves a single dose of 150 milligram (mg) of radiolabeled LY2157299 monohydrate in healthy participants. The study will determine how the body eliminates the radioactivity and LY2157299 monohydrate. Participants must be healthy surgically sterile or postmenopausal females, or sterile males. This study is approximately 8 to 15 days ...
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If I take syntha-6 and cellmass together at what times do I take them I have been taking syntha-6 after my workouts. When should I take cellmass?
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Calcium oxalate is the most common type of stone; 60% to 65% of kidney stones are comprised of calcium and oxalic acid, which form calcium oxalate crystals inside the kidneys. Some people are genetically predisposed to excreting high levels of oxalate in the urine (thus increasing the incidence of kidney stones), but this is not commonly the case. Instead, the lack of a beneficial bacteria found in the colon, called Oxalobacter formigenes, and/or uncombined intestinal oxalic acid are the culprits for calcium oxalate kidney stones. During normal digestion, calcium crystaizes with oxalate, never gets absorbed, and is eliminated in the stool. Oxalobacter formigenes uses oxalate as a source of energy, reducing the amount of oxalate in urine. A loss of Oxalobacter formigenes may result in elevated concentrations of urinary oxalate, increasing the risk of forming a calcium oxalate kidney stone. ...
Increased urinary oxalate excretion (hyperoxaluria) promotes the formation of calcium oxalate crystals. Monogenic diseases due to hepatic enzyme deficiency result in chronic hyperoxaluria, promoting end-stage renal disease in children and young adults. Ethylene glycol poisoning also results in hyperoxaluria, promoting acute renal failure and frequently death. Stiripentol is an antiepileptic drug used to treat children affected by Dravet syndrome. It has been shown to inhibit neuronal lactate dehydrogenase 5 enzyme. As this isoenzyme is also the last step of hepatic oxalate production, we hypothesized that stiripentol would potentially reduce hepatic oxalate production and urine oxalate excretion. In vitro, stiripentol decreased the synthesis of oxalate by hepatocytes in a dose-dependent manner. In vivo, oral administration of stiripentol significantly reduced urine oxalate excretion in rats. Stiripentol protected the kidneys against calcium oxalate crystal deposits in acute ethylene glycol ...
I am suffering from last 5 years from kidney stone, i have controlled my diet in every means. Some juices, such as orange juice or grape juice, may help to dissolve kidney stones , making them easier to pass. Vitamin C helps kidney stone patients by acidifying urine and most stones will not form in acidic urine. Most kidney stones can pass through the urinary system with plenty of to help move the stone along. Prior do carbonated water cause kidney stones lithotripsy, you will need to have had either an IVP, a CT or a retrograde pyelogram.
Introduction. The incidence of renal stone disease is high, with a lifetime risk in the United States of America (USA) of 6% for women and 12% for men.1 Renal stone disease has not been researched extensively in Africa due to a lack of resources and facilities, and therefore no recent data on the incidence of renal stones in South Africa are available.2. Sixteen different chemical compounds can form renal stones, although most of these are rare.3 Calcium oxalate (70%), calcium phosphate (20%), uric acid (8%) and cystine (2%) are the most common stone components.4 Developed countries have seen an increase in the incidenc e of calcium oxalate stones over the last 50 years, compared to developing countries, where the percentage of uric acid and phosphate stones remains relatively high.1. Untreated renal stone disease can lead to obstruction of an infected urinary tract, which may lead to urosepsis and death. Persistent urinary obstruction may also result in renal insufficiency and end-stage renal ...
Introduction. The incidence of renal stone disease is high, with a lifetime risk in the United States of America (USA) of 6% for women and 12% for men.1 Renal stone disease has not been researched extensively in Africa due to a lack of resources and facilities, and therefore no recent data on the incidence of renal stones in South Africa are available.2. Sixteen different chemical compounds can form renal stones, although most of these are rare.3 Calcium oxalate (70%), calcium phosphate (20%), uric acid (8%) and cystine (2%) are the most common stone components.4 Developed countries have seen an increase in the incidenc e of calcium oxalate stones over the last 50 years, compared to developing countries, where the percentage of uric acid and phosphate stones remains relatively high.1. Untreated renal stone disease can lead to obstruction of an infected urinary tract, which may lead to urosepsis and death. Persistent urinary obstruction may also result in renal insufficiency and end-stage renal ...
Calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis is a relatively common disease. The prevalence in the general population may range from 10 to 12 percent, and 0.4 to 1 percent of new cases are reported every year according to different series. Without specific pharmacological therapy, the recurrence rate in patient with established diagnosis of nephrolithiasis is extremely high and may range from 15 to 20 percent per year, with a cumulative incidence at five years ranging from 27 to 50 percent.Although genetic factors play an important role in the development of nephrolithiasis, environmental factors such as diet also appear to affect stone formation. Potassium citrate is also effective in preventing stone recurrence in patients with calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. Low tolerability, however, may remarkably limit the use of these medication. Citrus fruits are a natural rich source of citrate and diet supplementation with juice of citrus fruits may represent a valuable alternative option to supply citrate without ...
Here is the abstract of our proposed work:. Elevated levels of oxalate as well as urinary tract infections have independently been associated with subsets of idiopathic stone formers. However, precise mechanisms by which moderately elevated levels of oxalate and or renal tubular infections promote kidney stone formation are not understood. In addition interplay between moderately elevated oxalate and urinary tract infections in driving stone disease has not ever been studies. Idiopathic stone formers often present with mixed type stones. The stones contain calcium oxalate as well as calcium phosphate deposits. There is a large body of literature that supports the notion of presence of Randalls plaques (sub-epithelial Calcium Phosphate precipitates) associated with deposits of Calcium oxalate. While tubular precipitation of calcium oxalate as well as calcium phosphate can be explained by urinary precipitations as a result of elevated levels of calcium, phosphate and /or oxalate, the exact ...
If your cat suffers from lower urinary tract disease you can help by feeding it a diet which provides optimal nutritional support for its urinary system. Urinary tract disease can lead to urinary stones (including struvite and calcium oxalate). Royal Canin Urinary S/O products were developed as an adjunctive treatment for cystitis and urinary stones. Indications: DiΒolution of struvite uroliths Prophylactic treatment/prevention of calcium oxalate stones Prophylactic treatment/ prevention of struvite stones Contraindications: Pregnancy, lactation, kittens Chronic renal failure, metabolic acidosis Heart failure Hypertension Parallel use of urine acidifying medication Key benefits: Struvite diΒolution: URINARY S/O helps to diΒolve all types of struvite stones. Urine dilution: Diluting the urine makes it leΒ liable to form struvite and calcium oxalate stones. Low RΒ: Helps to lower the concentration of ions contributing to crystal formation. Protecting bladder mucosa: Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) is a
The primary hyperoxalurias are autosomal recessive disorders of glyoxylate metabolism characterized by excessive production and urinary excretion of oxalate and glycolate (Primary Hyperoxaluria type II, PH2) (see Figure 1).. The term "primary hyperoxaluria" was first used by Archer and colleagues in 1957 to specifically denote a suspected metabolic origin for the marked hyperoxaluria, recurrent urolithiasis and renal and extra-renal calcium oxalate crystal deposition that characterized affected children. The urine oxalate excretion rate in affected patients is typically 3 to 6 times normal with severe clinical consequences. Kidney stones and/or calcification of the kidney occur in childhood or adolescence. Renal injury due to oxalate and consequences of the stones often leads to renal failure. Loss of renal function, if not addressed promptly by transplantation, leads to markedly increased plasma concentrations of oxalate with deposition of calcium oxalate in body tissues. Resulting organ system ...
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Hypocitraturia, an important risk factor for calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis, is the result of numerous factors. We studied citrate excretion by patients with and without stones consuming normal and controlled formula diets. S
BACKGROUND: The current study was carried out to determine whether the aqueous-ethanolic extract or the butanolic fraction of nigella sativa (NS) seeds could prevent or reduce calculi aggregation in experimental calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis in Wistar rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: group A received tap drinking water for 28 days. Groups B, C, D and E received 1% ethylene glycol for induction of calcium oxalate (CaOx) calculus formation for 28 days. Rats in groups C, D and E also received aqueous-ethanolic extract of NS, N-butanol fraction and N-butanol phase remnant of NS, respectively, in drinking water at a dose of 250 mg/kg for 28 days. Urine concentration of oxalate, citrate, and calcium on days 0, 14, and 28, and also serum concentration of magnesium and calcium on days 0 and 28, were measured. On day 29, kidneys were removed for histopathologic study and examined for counting the calcium oxalate deposits in 10 microscopic fields. ...
RENAL CALICULUS /UROLITHIASIS/KIDNEY STONES / URINARY STONES. When solids and particulate metabolites or salts starts depositing at any level of urinary collecting system it forms renal stones or urolithiasis. Urolithiasis is more common in males than in females. Increased concentration in urine, of the constituents of stones is associated with stone formation.. 1) Calcium Oxalate/Phosphate Stones comprises 75% of every stones.. Its observed that almost 50 % of cases of Calcium Stones that have idiopathic hypercalciuria and doesnt have hypercalcemia.. 10 % of cases calcium stone cases have both hypercalcemia and hypercalciurea. 5% have Enteric(4.5%) or Primary (0.5%) hyperoxaluria. 20% have hyperuricosuria. 15-20% have unknown metabolic anomaly. 2) Struvite Stones (Magnesium, Ammonia, Calcium, Phosphate) usually due to renal infections comprises off 10-15% of all stones.. 3) Uric Acid Stones comprises 6% of all stobe cases 50% of which are associated with hyperuricosuria and/or hyperuricemia ...
Synonyms: Pseudogout, chondrocalcinosis, pyrophosphate arthropathy.. ICD-9 Codes: Pseudogout, 712.2; CPPD crystal deposition disease, 712.2; chondrocalcinosis, 712.3.. Definition: CPPD crystal deposition disease includes arthritic syndromes associated with CPPD crystal deposition disease in articular tissues. The following definitions are used here:. -Chondrocalcinosis: Calcification of articular cartilage (identified by x-ray).. -Chronic CPPD crystal deposition disease: Structural bone and cartilage abnormalities associated with intraarticular deposition of CPPD crystals.. -Pseudogout: Clinical syndrome of acute synovitis caused by intraarticular CPPD crystal deposition, the most common form of CPPD crystal deposition disease.. Etiology: The cause of CPPD crystal deposition disease is unknown. Formation of CPPD crystals in cartilage may be related to matrix changes or result from elevated levels of calcium or inorganic pyrophosphate. Some cases appear to be hereditary, whereas others are ...
Wood biodegradation is primarily caused by Basidiomycetous white or brown rot fungi. White rot fungi are unique in degrading lignin, while brown rot fungi circumvent lignin to degrade holocellulose via iron-dependent oxidative chemistry. Both groups of fungi produce oxalate during wood metabolism, and oxalic acid secretion may promote wood decay by reducing pH, mobilizing iron, detoxifying copper, and immobilizing calcium. The function of oxalate during wood decay remains unclear, however, primarily due to difficulties in extracting bound oxalate and to inconsistencies among analytical techniques. This work aims to improve oxalate quantification during wood biodegradation and to better characterize fungal oxalate production in relation to cation availability. Accurate and repeatable soluble and acid-extractable oxalate quantification was achieved with an improved high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. This procedure was verified in fungal liquid cultures by demonstrating a
To the editor: The association of hyperoxaluria and nephrolithiasis secondary to disease and resection of the distal ileum was recently described by Smith, Fromm, and Hofmann (1). While with the U.S. Army at Red-stone Arsenal, Alabama, we observed a patient with marked hyperoxaluria and bilateral nephrolithiasis associated with a large Meckels diverticulum. After surgical resection of the diverticulum, urinary oxalate excretion returned to normal.. In March 1971, a 46-year-old man had spinal X rays for back pain that showed degenerative changes and bilateral nephrolithiasis confirmed by intravenous pyelogram. The patient gave no history of symptomatic renal calculi. Urinalysis, blood urea ...
For people with hyperuricosuria and calcium stones, allopurinol is one of the few treatments that have been shown to reduce kidney stone recurrences. Allopurinol interferes with the production of uric acid in the liver. The drug is also used in people with gout or hyperuricemia (high serum uric acid levels). Dosage is adjusted to maintain a reduced urinary excretion of uric acid. Serum uric acid level at or below 6 mg/100 ml) is often a therapeutic goal. Hyperuricemia is not necessary for the formation of uric acid stones; hyperuricosuria can occur in the presence of normal or even low serum uric acid. Some practitioners advocate adding allopurinol only in people in whom hyperuricosuria and hyperuricemia persist, despite the use of a urine-alkalinizing agent such as sodium bicarbonate or potassium citrate. Treatment. Stone size influences the rate of spontaneous stone passage. For example, up to 98% of small stones (less than 5 mm (0.2 in) in diameter) may pass spontaneously through urination ...
Calcium and oxalate in the diet play a part but are not the only factors that affect the formation of calcium oxalate stones. ... Calcium oxalate stones in children are associated with high amounts of calcium, oxalate, and magnesium in acidic urine.[110] ... In the urine, oxalate is a very strong promoter of calcium oxalate precipitation-about 15 times stronger than calcium. ... Calcium oxalate. 80%. when urine is acidic (decreased pH)[55]. Black/dark brown. Radio-opaque. Some of the oxalate in urine is ...
The non-reproductive structures of Peltandra virginica are known to contain calcium oxalate crystals, that can irritate the ... The plant contains calcium oxalate crystals, making it unpalatable. Indigenous peoples of the Americas used most parts of the ... "Calcium Oxalate Stones". National Kidney Foundation. 2016-05-16. Retrieved 2018-11-28.. ...
For instance, calcium ion might be precipitated using oxalate ion, to produce calcium oxalate (CaC2O4); it might then be heated ... By adding a reagent, here ammonia, the calcium will precipitate as calcium oxalate. The proper reagent, when added to aqueous ... The calcium sulfate (CaSO4) in the tube retains carbon dioxide selectively as it's heated, and thereby, removed from the ... The precipitation method is the one used for the determination of the amount of calcium in water. Using this method, an excess ...
The tissue of the stem also contains idioblasts with calcium oxalate crystals and drusen. The stem also contains secretory ... The twig tissues contain sharp crystals of calcium oxalate. Contact with the plant, especially its accidental damage, can cause ...
In kidney stones, calcium oxalate is the most common mineral type (see Nephrolithiasis). Uric acid is the second most common ... Grases F.; Sanchis P.; Isern B.; Perelló J.; Costa-Bauzá A. (2007). "Uric Acid as Inducer of Calcium Oxalate Crystal ... but an in vitro study showed uric acid stones and crystals can promote the formation of calcium oxalate stones.[1] ... Principal compositions include oxalate and urate.. *Calculi of the gallbladder and bile ducts are called gallstones and are ...
Ascorbic acid overdosing: A risk factor for calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. „Journal of Urology". 147 (5), s. 1215-1218, 1992 ... Urinary oxalate excretion after large intakes of ascorbic acid in man. „American Journal of Clinical Nutrition". 34 (3), s. 305 ...
The role of steatorrhea and dietary calcium in regulating intestinal oxalate absorption". The American Journal of Digestive ... The paper finds a link between GSE and IgA Nephropathy, but not between CD and Nephropathy.[102] Calcium oxalate correlates ... Epilepsy has been noticed in a sampling of coeliac disease patients.[79] One prime example is calcium channel obstruction in ... Such calcium channel blockages can cause visual problems or partial field hallucinations (Paroxysmal visual manifestations).[83 ...
Oxalates bind to calcium and prevent its absorption in the human body.[9] ... Phytic acid has a strong binding affinity to minerals such as calcium, magnesium, iron, copper, and zinc. This results in ... Oxalic acid and oxalates are present in many plants and in significant amounts particularly in rhubarb, tea, spinach, parsley ... Foods high in calcium eaten simultaneously with foods containing iron can decrease the absorption of iron via an unclear ...
Cote, G. G. (2009). "Diversity and distribution of idioblasts producing calcium oxalate crystals in Dieffenbachia seguine ( ...
Calcium oxalate urolithiasis. A stone that crystallizes in the bladder and kidney. Dystocia. An abnormal labor due to large- ...
Schilling, J.S; Jellison, J. (2007). Extraction and translocation of calcium from gypsum during wood biodegradation by oxalate- ... Schilling, J. & Bissonette, K.M. 2008 Iron and calcium translocation from pure gypsum and iron-amended gypsum by two brown rot ...
... which contains calcium oxalate. Needle-like calcium oxalate crystals could irritate different sensitive skin parts, mucosa, or ... http://www.exoticrainforest.com/Calcium%20oxalate%20crystals.html. *^ http://www.exoticrainforest.com/Zamioculcas%20zamiifolia% ...
Calcium oxalate Druse Plant defense against herbivory Webb, M. A. (1999). "Cell-Mediated Crystallization of Calcium Oxalate in ... Many plants accumulate calcium oxalate crystals in response to surplus calcium, which is found throughout the natural ... Raphides are needle-shaped crystals of calcium oxalate as the monohydrate or calcium carbonate as aragonite, found in more than ... In one study of over 100 species, it was found that calcium oxalate accounted for 6.3% of plant dry weight. Crystal morphology ...
Calcium oxalate is a common crystalline compound found in many fungi, including the earthstars. The presence of calcium oxalate ... The formation of calcium oxalate crystals stretches the layers of the outer walls, pushing apart the inner and outer layers of ... The calcium oxalate crystals occur in the tetragonal form, known as weddellite. A study on the related species Geastrum ... Like several other earthstars, crystals of calcium oxalate are found on G. pectinatum, and are thought to be involved in fruit ...
Oxalate is the anion of a salt of oxalic acid; oxalotrophs often consume calcium oxalate. Oxalotrophic bacterial are often ... Oxalotrophic bacteria are bacteria capable of using oxalate as their sole source of carbon and energy. ... the oxalate-carbonate pathway as a model for metabolic interaction". Environmental microbiology. 14 (11): 2960-70. doi:10.1111/ ...
ISBN 0-12-045605-2. Khan, edited by Saeed R. (1995). Calcium oxalate in biological systems. Boca Raton: CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493- ... Xanthobacter flavus has the ability to degrade phenol, oxalate and 1,4-dichlorobenzene. van den Bergh, ER; Baker, SC; Raggers, ...
The crystals are calcium oxalate dihydrate that have the crystalline structure of a pyramid, and are arranged singly or in ... 1995). Calcium Oxalate in Biological Systems. Boca Raton: CRC Press. p. 72. ISBN 0-8493-7673-4. Sunhede, 1989, p. 209. Demoulin ...
G. berkeleyi can be distinguished from other species of Geastrum by the flat bipyramidal shape of the calcium oxalate crystals ... Krisai, I; Mrazek, Ernst (September 1986). "Calcium oxalate crystals in Geastrum". Plant Systematics and Evolution. 154 (3-4): ...
The mesophyll leaks calcium oxalate crystals. The minor leaf veins do not present phloem transfer cells and leaks vessels. ...
The bark contains calcium oxalate crystals. The strong-smelling foliage was used in the past, tied to a horse's mane, to keep ...
Some of the passed fragments of a 1-cm calcium oxalate stone that was smashed using lithotripsy. ...
Calcium oxalate (Ca(COO)2, CaOx) crystals are found in algae, angiosperms and gymnosperms in a total of more than 215 families ... A druse is a group of crystals of calcium oxalate, silicates, or carbonates present in plants, and are thought to be a defense ... Arnott HJ, Webb MA (1983). "Twin crystals of calcium oxalate in the seed coat of the kidney bean". Protoplasma. 114 (1): 23-34 ... A number of biochemical pathways for calcium oxalate biomineralization in plants have been proposed. Among these are the ...
doi:10.1016/S0022-1139(00)82652-4. Novak, M.; Roth, A.; Levine, M. (1988). "Calcium oxalate retinopathy associated with ... two of whom were found to have calcium oxalate crystals in the renal tubules at autopsy. In 1966, Crandell and colleagues ...
Cholestyramine also binds with oxalate in the GI tract, ultimately reducing urine oxalate and calcium oxalate stone formation. ...
Ca2+ forms a white precipitate with ammonium oxalate. Calcium oxalate is insoluble in water, but is soluble in mineral acids. ... Calcium-48 is the lightest nuclide to undergo double beta decay.[21] Calcium and barium are weakly radioactive: calcium ... Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine ... Calcium sulfate has been known to be able to set broken bones since the tenth century. Calcium itself, however, was not ...
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  • Potassium citrate helps decrease the possibility of calcium oxalate stone formation and cranberry extract has been shown to enhance urinary tract health. (entirelypets.com)
  • Nephrocalcinosis, acute calcium oxalate (CaOx) nephropathy, and renal stone disease can lead to inflammation and subsequent renal failure, but the underlying pathological mechanisms remain elusive. (labome.org)
  • b>Calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals are distributed among all taxonomic levels of photosynthetic organisms from small algae to angiosperms and giant gymnosperms. (labome.org)
  • One of the most common types of uroliths in dogs is made up of calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals. (mercola.com)
  • Physicochemical studies were conducted on 24-h urine samples to assess for urinary saturation of calcium oxalate (CaOx) and brushite. (jle.com)
  • Hypomagnesiuria is a common biochemical finding in patients with calcium oxalate (CaOx) nephrolithiasis. (jle.com)
  • Idiopathic hypercalciuria is the most important predisposing risk factor for calcium oxalate (CaOx) renal stone formation. (ebscohost.com)
  • OBJECTIVE To evaluate the long-term risk of recurrence of calcium oxalate (CaOx) cystic calculi in dogs of various breeds fed 1 of 2 therapeutic diets. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Young developing soybean seeds contain relatively large amounts of calcium oxalate (CaOx) monohydrate crystals. (iastate.edu)
  • The RP, once exposed to urine in the renal pelvis, becomes coated with calcium oxalate (CaOx) to form a stone. (elsevier.com)
  • Calcium oxalate (CaOx) is the major constituent of about 75% of all urinary stone and the secondary hyperoxaluria is a primary risk factor. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus, the aim of the present study is to examine the in vivo oxalate degrading ability of genetically engineered Lactobacillus plantarum ( L. plantarum ) that constitutively expressing and secreting heterologous oxalate decarboxylase (OxdC) for prevention of CaOx stone formation in rats. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Most specialty pet foods are low in oxalates and a suitable diet for dogs with CaOx uroliths. (petplanetmagazine.com)
  • The global Calcium Oxalate market is valued at XX million USD in 2017 and is expected to reach XX million USD by the end of 2025, growing at a CAGR of XX% between 2017 and 2025. (reportsnreports.com)
  • This report studies the global Calcium Oxalate market status and forecast, categorizes the global Calcium Oxalate market size (value & volume) by manufacturers, type, application, and region. (rnrmarketresearch.com)
  • The global Calcium Oxalate market is valued at million US$ in 2017 and will reach million US$ by the end of 2025, growing at a CAGR of during 2018-2025. (rnrmarketresearch.com)
  • The primary foods that contain oxalates are grains and vegetables. (b-naturals.com)
  • HOW can meat that does NOT contain oxalates increase oxalates? (drgreene.com)
  • But many of our foods like green vegetables and fruits contain oxalates, a group of chemicals that the calcium should ideally combine within the intestines and allow the body to absorb the mineral for all the right purposes - strong bones, teeth, heart health, etc. (sepalika.com)
  • This study investigated the effect of simple processing treatments used to prepare these popular dishes on the total, soluble and insoluble oxalate and calcium contents of the taro stems. (scirp.org)
  • The total, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of the silver beet leaves were reduced by soaking in brine, from 4275.81 ± 165.48 mg/100 g to 3709.49 ± 216.51 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW). (mdpi.com)
  • A diet high in salt ( sodium ) causes calcium to build in your urine. (kidney.org)
  • Sodium and sugar can promote the reabsorption of fluids by the kidneys and increases the concentration of calcium and oxalate in the urine. (livestrong.com)
  • But either way, increasing fluids, fruits and vegetables, and calcium-rich foods and also decreasing added sodium, sucrose, and high fructose corn syrup are good for all of us (and each also happens to reduce oxalate levels and/or stone risk). (drgreene.com)
  • The nucleation, growth, and morphological evolution of calcium oxalate crystals as influenced by a negatively charged polyelectrolyte, sodium polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) (as a model polymeric additive) were also investigated. (buffalo.edu)
  • As calcium stone causes the vast majority of stone formers, avoiding excessive calcium, reducing sodium and animal protein will help to reduce the risks of future stone formation. (morningnewsit.info)
  • A volume ranging from 0.5 to 2 ml of each sample was placed in 5 ml of the sodium oxalate (Na2C2O4) presenting a concentration of 0.005 mol / l. (ijsr.net)
  • In the kidney, oxalate is secreted in the proximal tubule via 2 separate carriers involving sodium and chloride exchange. (medscape.com)
  • The aim of the study was to determine the impact of defined diet modifications on urine composition and the risk of calcium oxalate crystallisation. (labome.org)
  • The construction of an oxalate-degrading intestinal stem cell population in mice: a potential new treatment option for patients with calcium oxalate calculus. (ebscohost.com)
  • Insoluble calcium oxalate crystals are found in plant stems, roots, and leaves and produced in idioblasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • 39 % of the total calcium in the raw taro stems was bound to the insoluble oxalate fraction and this was reduced to a mean of 17.2 % ± 2.6% by the three cooking treatments. (scirp.org)
  • Total, soluble and insoluble oxalates were extracted and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) following the preparation of kimchi using silver beet ( Beta vulgaris var. (mdpi.com)
  • B ) siRNA targeting LDHA reduced significantly oxalate synthesis and the addition of 10 μg/ml stiripentol to SiRNA reduced mildly oxalate synthesis, suggesting that oxalate synthesis is mostly performed by LDH5. (jci.org)
  • the amount of 24h urination, Cr, and score of calcium oxalate crystal were significantly higher than those in LOM group. (sciepub.com)
  • ob mice were found to have significantly higher urine oxalate (adjusted for creatinine) compared to controls (>2.9-fold), which is not due to overeating using pair-feeding. (grantome.com)
  • Importantly, a significantly higher (>35%) urine 13C-oxalate was observed in ob mice compared to controls following an oral gavage with 13C-oxalate. (grantome.com)
  • IFN, TNF, and IL-6 also significantly inhibited apical 14C-oxalate uptake by C2 cells through mechanisms involving reduced SLC26A6 (A6), an anion exchanger with essential role in intestinal oxalate secretion, mRNA/total protein expression. (grantome.com)
  • The patient's 24-h urinary oxalate level was found to be significantly elevated, at 60 mg/day (normal range is up to 40 mg/day). (biomedcentral.com)
  • 2 Whether calcium supplements could have a similar effect in lowering stone recurrence rates has not been tested. (cmaj.ca)
  • What does it mean if one passes crystals of calcium oxalate through urine along with traces of protein ? (ndtv.com)
  • The oxalate, derived from one or more possible metabolic pathways, could be involved in seed storage protein synthesis. (iastate.edu)
  • The carboxylate groups in the acidic Asp, Glu and Gla residues were marked in the Protein Data Bank structures and matched to calcium oxalate surfaces using the Cerius 3D molecular modeling program. (elsevier.com)
  • abstract = "It is widely believed that proteins rich in Asp, Glu or Gla (γ carboxyglutamic acid) interact strongly with calcium oxalate surfaces and inhibit calcium oxalate crystal growth. (elsevier.com)
  • In addition, oxalate is created from endogenous sources in the liver as part of glycolate metabolism. (medscape.com)