Urinary Bladder Calculi
Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
Trypsin Inhibitor, Kunitz Soybean
Anion Transport Proteins
Relationship between supersaturation and calcium oxalate crystallization in normals and idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers. (1/363)BACKGROUND: In an earlier study on recurrent CaOx stone formers with no detectable abnormalities, we found that the urine of these subjects had a lower tolerance to oxalate load than controls and that the removal of urinary macromolecules with a molecular weight greater than 10,000 D improved their tolerance to oxalate. METHODS: The effects on CaOx crystallization of reduced urinary supersaturation of calcium oxalate (CaOx), induced by night water load, were studied in 12 normal males and in 15 male OxCa stone formers who were free from urinary metabolic abnormalities. The effect of the macromolecules, purified and retrieved from the natural and diluted urine, were analyzed in a metastable solution of CaOx. RESULTS: The water load caused an increase in urine volume (from 307 +/- 111 to 572 +/- 322 ml/8 hr, P = 0.014 in normal subjects, and from 266 +/- 92 to 518 +/- 208 ml/8 hr, P = 0.001 in the stone formers) and a concomitant reduction of the relative CaOx supersaturation (from 8.7 +/- 2.5 to 5.1 +/- 2.5 ml/8 hr, P = 0.001 in normal subjects, and from 10.4 +/- 3.5 to 5.0 +/- 2.7 ml/8 hr, P = 0.001 in the stone formers). The decrease in CaOx supersaturation was accompanied by an increase of the permissible increment in oxalate, both in normal subjects (from 43.8 +/- 10.1 to 67.2 +/- 30. 3 mg/liter, P = 0.018) and in the stone formers (from 25.7 +/- 9.4 to 43.7 +/- 17.1 mg/liter, P = 0.0001), without any significant variations of the upper limit of metastability for CaOx (from 21.6 +/- 5.3 to 20.5 +/- 4.2 mg/liter in normal subjects, and from 18.7 +/- 4.5 to 17.1 +/- 3.7 mg/liter in the stone formers). The inhibitory effect of urinary macromolecules with molecular weight greater than 10,000 Daltons did not undergo any change when the latter were recovered from concentrated or diluted urine, either in normal subjects or in the stone formers. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced CaOx supersaturation by means of water load has a protective effect with regards to CaOx crystallization in subjects who do not present any of the common urinary stone risk factors. (+info)
Cell type-specific acquired protection from crystal adherence by renal tubule cells in culture. (2/363)BACKGROUND: Adherence of crystals to the surface of renal tubule epithelial cells is considered an important step in the development of nephrolithiasis. Previously, we demonstrated that functional monolayers formed by the renal tubule cell line, Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK), acquire protection against the adherence of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals. We now examined whether this property is cell type specific. The susceptibility of the cells to crystal binding was further studied under different culture conditions. METHODS: Cell-type specificity and the influence of the growth substrate was tested by comparing calcium oxalate monohydrate crystal binding to LLC-PK1 cells and to two MDCK strains cultured on either permeable or impermeable supports. These cell lines are representative for the renal proximal tubule (LLC-PK1) and distal tubule/collecting duct (MDCK) segments of the nephron, in which crystals are expected to be absent and present, respectively. RESULTS: Whereas relatively large amounts of crystals adhered to subconfluent MDCK cultures, the level of crystal binding to confluent monolayers was reduced for both MDCK strains. On permeable supports, MDCK cells not only obtained a higher level of morphological differentiation, but also acquired a higher degree of protection than on impermeable surfaces. Crystals avidly adhered to LLC-PK1 cells, irrespective of their developmental stage or growth substrate used. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that the prevention of crystal binding is cell type specific and expressed only by differentiated MDCK cells. The anti-adherence properties acquired by MDCK cells may mirror a specific functional characteristic of its in situ equivalent, the renal distal tubule/collecting ducts. (+info)
Nucleation of calcium oxalate crystals by albumin: involvement in the prevention of stone formation. (3/363)BACKGROUND: Urine is supersaturated in calcium oxalate, which means that it will contain calcium oxalate crystals that form spontaneously. Their size must be controlled to prevent retention in ducts and the eventual development of a lithiasis. This is achieved, in part, by specific inhibitors of crystal growth. We investigated whether promoters of crystal nucleation could also participate in that control, because for the same amount of salt that will precipitate from a supersaturated solution, increasing the number of crystals will decrease their average size and facilitate their elimination. METHODS: Albumin was purified from commercial sources and from the urine of healthy subjects or idiopathic calcium stone formers. Its aggregation properties were characterized by biophysical and biochemical techniques. Albumin was then either attached to several supports or left free in solution and incubated in a metastable solution of calcium oxalate. Kinetics of calcium oxalate crystallization were determined by turbidimetry. The nature and efficiency of nucleation were measured by examining the type and number of neoformed crystals. RESULTS: Albumin, one of the most abundant proteins in urine, was a powerful nucleator of calcium oxalate crystals in vitro, with the polymers being more active than monomers. In addition, nucleation by albumin apparently led exclusively to the formation of calcium oxalate dihydrate crystals, whereas calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals were formed in the absence of albumin. An analysis of calcium oxalate crystals in urine showed that the dihydrate form was present in healthy subjects and stone formers, whereas the monohydrate, which is thermodynamically more stable and constitutes the core of most calcium oxalate stones, was present in stone formers only. Finally, urinary albumin purified from healthy subjects contained significantly more polymers and was a stronger promoter of calcium oxalate nucleation than albumin from idiopathic calcium stone formers. CONCLUSIONS: Promotion by albumin of calcium oxalate crystallization with specific formation of the dihydrate form might be protective, because with rapid nucleation of small crystals, the saturation levels fall; thus, larger crystal formation and aggregation with subsequent stone formation may be prevented. We believe that albumin may be an important factor of urine stability. (+info)
Temporal changes in mRNA expression for bikunin in the kidneys of rats during calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. (4/363)Inter-alpha-inhibitor and other bikunin-containing proteins are synthesized in relatively large quantities by the liver. These proteins function as Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitors and appear capable of inhibiting calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystallization in vitro. Preliminary studies have shown that renal tubular epithelial cells synthesize bikunin in response to CaOx challenge. To examine this response in vivo, a sensitive reverse transcription-quantitative competitive template-PCR was developed to detect and quantify poly(A)+ -tailed bikunin mRNA expression in kidney tissue from normal rats and rats developing CaOx nephrolithiasis after challenge with ethylene glycol. Bikunin mRNA expression in rat liver tissue was assessed as a positive control. The expression of bikunin mRNA in liver did not differ significantly between normal control rats and experimental rats with induced hyperoxaluria and renal CaOx crystallization. In contrast, there were significant temporal increases in the levels of bikunin mRNA expression in rat kidneys during CaOx nephrolithiasis after challenge with ethylene glycol. Urinary excretion of bikunin-containing proteins seemed to increase concomitantly. These findings indicate an association between the induction of hyperoxaluria/CaOx nephrolithiasis and the expression of the bikunin gene in rat kidneys. (+info)
Essential arterial hypertension and stone disease. (5/363)BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional studies have shown that nephrolithiasis is more frequently found in hypertensive patients than in normotensive subjects, but the pathogenic link between hypertension and stone disease is still not clear. METHODS: Between 1984 and 1991, we studied the baseline stone risk profile, including supersaturation of lithogenic salts, in 132 patients with stable essential hypertension (diastolic blood pressure of more than 95 mm Hg) without stone disease and 135 normotensive subjects (diastolic blood pressure less than 85 mm Hg) without stone disease who were matched for age and sex (controls). Subsequently, both controls and hypertensives were followed up for at least five years to check on the eventual formation of kidney stones. RESULTS: Baseline urine levels in hypertensive males were different from that of normotensive males with regards to calcium (263 vs. 199 mg/day), magnesium (100 vs. 85 mg/day), uric acid (707 vs. 586 mg/day), and oxalate (34.8 vs. 26.5 mg/day). Moreover, the urine of hypertensive males was more supersaturated for calcium oxalate (8.9 vs. 6.1) and calcium phosphate (1.39 vs. 0.74). Baseline urine levels in hypertensive females were different from that of normotensive females with regards to calcium (212 vs. 154 mg/day), phosphorus (696 vs. 614 mg/day), and oxalate (26.2 vs. 21.7 mg/day), and the urine of hypertensive females was more supersaturated for calcium oxalate (7.1 vs. 4.8). These urinary alterations were only partially dependent on the greater body mass index in hypertensive patients. During the follow-up, 19 out of 132 hypertensive patients and 4 out of 135 normotensive patients had stone episodes (14.3 vs. 2.9%, chi-square 11.07, P = 0.001; odds ratio 5.5, 95% CI, 1.82 to 16.66). Of the 19 stone-former hypertensive patients, 12 formed calcium calculi, 5 formed uric acid calculi, and 2 formed nondetermined calculi. Of the urinary factors for lithogenous risk, those with the greatest predictive value were supersaturation of calcium oxalate for calcium calculi and uric acid supersaturation for uric acid calculi. CONCLUSIONS: A significant percentage of hypertensive subjects has a greater risk of renal stone formation, especially when hypertension is associated with excessive body weight. Higher oxaluria and calciuria as well as supersaturation of calcium oxalate and uric acid appear to be the most important factors. Excessive weight and consumption of salt and animal proteins may also play an important role. (+info)
Calcium oxalate crystals (Weddellite) within the secretions of ductal carcinoma in situ--a rare phenomenon. (6/363)A case is described in which calcium oxalate (Weddellite) crystals were identified in an area of ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast. Seventy other cases were examined but no evidence of Weddellite was detected. This is evidently a rare phenomenon in carcinoma in situ. (+info)
Plasma calcium oxalate supersaturation in children with primary hyperoxaluria and end-stage renal failure. (7/363)BACKGROUND: Children with primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH 1) are at great risk to develop systemic oxalosis in end-stage renal disease (ESRD), as endogenous oxalate production exceeds oxalate removal by dialytic therapy. As oxalate accumulates, calcium oxalate (CaOx) tissue deposition occurs. Children with other causes of ESRD, however, are not prone to CaOx deposition despite elevated plasma oxalate (POx) levels. METHODS: Our study objective was to examine the potential mechanisms for these observations. We measured POx, sulfate, citrate, and calculated CaOx saturation (betaCaOx) in 7 children with ESRD caused by PH 1 and in 33 children with non-PH-related ESRD. Maintenance hemodialysis (HD) was performed in 6 PH 1 and 22 non-PH patients: Pre- and post-HD levels were analyzed at this point and were repeated twice within 12 months in 5 PH 1 and 14 non-PH patients. Samples were obtained only once in 12 patients (one PH 1) on peritoneal dialysis (PD). After liver-kidney or kidney transplantation, plasma levels were measured repetitively. RESULTS: The mean POx was higher in PH 1 (125.7 +/- 17.9 micromol/liter) than in non-PH patients (44.2 +/- 3.3 micromol/liter, P < 10(-4)). All other determined anions did not differ between the two groups. betaCaOx was higher in PH 1 (4.71 +/- 0.69 relative units) compared with non-PH children (1.56 +/- 0.12 units, P < 10(-4)). POx and betaCaOx were correlated in both the PH 1 (r = 0.98, P < 2 x 10(-4)) and the non-PH group (r = 0.98, P < 10(-4)). POx and betaCaOx remained stable over time in the non-PH children, whereas an insignificant decline was observed in PH 1 patients after six months of more aggressive dialysis. betaCaOx was supersaturated (more than 1) in all PH 1 and in 25 out of 33 non-PH patients. Post-HD betaCaOx remained more than 1 in all PH 1, but in only 2 out of 22 non-PH patients. In non-PH children, POx and betaCaOx decreased to normal within three weeks after successful kidney transplantation, whereas the levels still remained elevated seven months after combined liver-kidney transplantation in two PH 1 patients. CONCLUSION: Systemic oxalosis in PH 1 children with ESRD is due to higher POx and betaCaOx levels. As betaCaOx remained supersaturated in PH 1 even after aggressive HD, oxalate accumulation increases, and CaOx tissue deposition occurs. Therefore, sufficient reduction of POx and betaCaOx is crucial in PH 1 and might only be achieved by early, preemptive, combined liver-kidney transplantation or liver transplantation alone. (+info)
Inhibition of calcium oxalate crystal growth and aggregation by prothrombin and its fragments in vitro: relationship between protein structure and inhibitory activity. (8/363)During blood coagulation, prothrombin (PT) is ultimately degraded to three fragments, thrombin, fragment 1 (F1) and fragment 2 (F2), which, collectively, contain all of the structural features of PT. One of these fragments, F1, is excreted in human urine and is the principal protein occluded into calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals precipitated from it. This urinary form of F1, which we have named urinary prothrombin fragment 1 is present in calcium stones and is a potent inhibitor of CaOx crystallization in urine in vitro. The aim of this study was to determine whether PT itself and its other activation products, namely, thrombin, F1 and F2 also inhibit CaOx crystallization, by comparing their effects in a seeded, inorganic crystallization system. A secondary objective was to assess the relationship between the structures of the proteins and their inhibitory activities. PT was isolated from a human blood concentrate rich in vitamin K-dependent proteins. Following initial cleavage by thrombin, the resulting fragments, F1 and F2, were purified by a combination of reversed phase HPLC and low pressure column chromatography. The purity of the proteins was confirmed by SDS/PAGE and their individual effects on CaOx crystallization were determined at the same concentration (16.13 nM) in a seeded, metastable solution of CaOx using a Coulter Counter. [14C]Oxalate was used to assess deposition of CaOx and crystals were visualized using scanning electron microscopy. The Coulter Counter data revealed that the proteins reduced the size of precipitated crystals in the order F1 > PT > F2 > thrombin. These findings were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy which showed that the reduction in particle size resulted from a decrease in the degree of crystal aggregation. [14C]Oxalate analysis demonstrated that all proteins inhibited mineral deposition, in the order F1 (44%) > PT (27.4%) > thrombin (10.2%) > F2 (6.5%). It was concluded that the gamma-carboxyglutamic acid domain of PT and F1, which is absent from thrombin and F2, is the region of the molecules which determines their potent inhibitory effects. The superior potency of F1, in comparison with PT, probably results from the molecule's greater charge to mass ratio. (+info)
Calcium oxalate is a chemical compound that is commonly found in many plants, including spinach, rhubarb, and beets. In the medical field, calcium oxalate is often associated with kidney stones, which are hard, mineral deposits that can form in the kidneys and cause pain and other symptoms. Calcium oxalate stones are the most common type of kidney stone, accounting for about 75% of all cases. They can also form in the urinary tract and can cause blockages and other complications. In addition to kidney stones, calcium oxalate can also accumulate in the blood and cause other health problems, such as hyperoxaluria, which is a condition characterized by high levels of oxalate in the blood.
In the medical field, oxalates are organic compounds that contain the oxalate ion (C2O4^2-). Oxalates are commonly found in many foods, including spinach, beets, and chocolate, as well as in some medications and industrial chemicals. In the body, oxalates can form crystals that can accumulate in various organs, leading to a condition called oxalosis. Oxalosis can cause damage to the kidneys, leading to kidney stones and other kidney problems. It can also cause damage to the bones, leading to a condition called osteomalacia. In some cases, high levels of oxalates in the blood can lead to a condition called primary hyperoxaluria, which is a rare genetic disorder that can cause kidney stones, kidney damage, and other health problems. Overall, oxalates are an important topic in the medical field, particularly in the context of kidney health and the prevention and treatment of kidney stones.
Kidney calculi, also known as renal calculi or renal stones, are solid masses made up of minerals and salts that form in the kidneys. They can be as small as a grain of sand or as large as a golf ball, and can cause a range of symptoms, including pain, blood in the urine, and difficulty urinating. Kidney calculi can form when there is an imbalance of minerals and salts in the urine, or when the kidneys are not able to properly remove these substances from the body. They are a common medical condition, and can be treated with a variety of methods, including medication, lifestyle changes, and surgical procedures.
Oxalic acid is a naturally occurring organic acid that is found in many plants and animals. It is also produced industrially as a chemical intermediate in the production of various chemicals and dyes. In the medical field, oxalic acid is sometimes used as a diagnostic tool to help identify certain medical conditions. For example, high levels of oxalic acid in the urine can be a sign of kidney disease or other medical conditions that affect the kidneys. Oxalic acid is also used in some medical treatments, such as the treatment of certain types of kidney stones. In this case, oxalic acid is used to dissolve the stones and help them pass through the urinary tract. However, it is important to note that oxalic acid can also be toxic in high doses and can cause serious health problems if ingested or inhaled. As such, it is important to use oxalic acid with caution and under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional.
Hyperoxaluria is a medical condition characterized by the excessive production of oxalate in the body. Oxalate is a naturally occurring substance that is found in many foods and is also produced by the body as a byproduct of normal metabolism. In people with hyperoxaluria, the body produces too much oxalate, which can lead to the formation of kidney stones and other health problems. There are several different types of hyperoxaluria, including primary and secondary hyperoxaluria. Primary hyperoxaluria is an inherited genetic disorder that affects the body's ability to break down oxalate. Secondary hyperoxaluria can be caused by a variety of factors, including certain medications, kidney disease, and gastrointestinal disorders. Symptoms of hyperoxaluria may include frequent urination, pain or burning during urination, blood in the urine, and the formation of kidney stones. Treatment for hyperoxaluria typically involves managing the underlying cause of the condition and preventing the formation of kidney stones. This may include changes to the diet, medications, and in some cases, surgery.
Urinary calculi, also known as kidney stones, are solid masses that form in the urinary tract. They are composed of various minerals and salts, including calcium, oxalate, uric acid, and cystine. The formation of urinary calculi is a complex process that involves the concentration of minerals and salts in the urine, which can lead to the formation of crystals. These crystals can then grow and clump together to form a stone. Urinary calculi can occur in any part of the urinary tract, including the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. The size and location of the stone can affect the symptoms experienced by the patient. Symptoms of urinary calculi may include pain in the lower back or abdomen, difficulty urinating, blood in the urine, frequent urination, and nausea or vomiting. Treatment for urinary calculi depends on the size and location of the stone, as well as the patient's overall health. Small stones may pass through the urinary tract on their own, while larger stones may require medical intervention, such as shock wave lithotripsy or surgery.
Nephrolithiasis is a medical condition characterized by the formation of stones in the kidneys or urinary tract. These stones can be composed of various materials, including calcium, oxalate, uric acid, cystine, and struvite. The presence of stones can cause a range of symptoms, including pain, blood in the urine, frequent urination, and difficulty urinating. In severe cases, stones can block the flow of urine, leading to kidney damage or infection. Treatment for nephrolithiasis typically involves medications to dissolve the stones or procedures to remove them, such as shock wave lithotripsy or surgery.
In the medical field, crystallization refers to the process by which a substance, such as a mineral or a drug, forms solid crystals from a solution or a liquid. This process can occur naturally or artificially, and it is often used in the production of pharmaceuticals, as well as in the analysis of biological samples. Crystallization can also occur in the body, particularly in the formation of kidney stones. When there is an excess of certain minerals in the urine, such as calcium or oxalate, they can form crystals that can accumulate and grow into kidney stones. This can cause pain and other symptoms, and may require medical treatment to remove the stones. In addition, crystallization can play a role in the development of certain diseases, such as gout, which is caused by the accumulation of uric acid crystals in the joints. Similarly, the formation of amyloid plaques in the brain, which are associated with Alzheimer's disease, involves the aggregation of protein molecules into insoluble fibrils that resemble crystals.
Urolithiasis is a medical condition characterized by the formation of stones or calculi in the urinary tract. These stones can form in any part of the urinary system, including the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. The stones can be composed of various materials, including calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, uric acid, cystine, and struvite. The size and location of the stones can vary, and they can cause a range of symptoms, including pain, blood in the urine, difficulty urinating, and frequent urination. Urolithiasis can be treated with a variety of methods, depending on the size and location of the stones, as well as the patient's overall health. Treatment options may include medications to dissolve the stones, shock wave lithotripsy to break up the stones, or surgery to remove them. Prevention strategies may include maintaining proper hydration, limiting certain foods and drinks that can increase the risk of stone formation, and taking medications to prevent stone formation.
Ethylene glycol is a colorless, sweet-tasting, and highly toxic liquid that is commonly used as a solvent and antifreeze. In the medical field, ethylene glycol poisoning is a serious condition that occurs when someone ingests or inhales large amounts of this substance. Ethylene glycol poisoning can cause a range of symptoms, including nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, headache, dizziness, confusion, and difficulty breathing. In severe cases, it can lead to kidney failure, seizures, coma, and death. Treatment for ethylene glycol poisoning typically involves the administration of activated charcoal to absorb the poison from the stomach, followed by the use of antidotes such as ethanol or fomepizole to prevent the body from metabolizing the ethylene glycol into toxic compounds. In some cases, dialysis may be necessary to remove the poison from the bloodstream. It is important to note that ethylene glycol is highly toxic and should be handled with care in the medical field. Any spills or leaks should be cleaned up immediately, and proper safety precautions should be taken to prevent accidental exposure.
Calcium phosphates are a group of minerals that are commonly found in the human body, particularly in bones and teeth. They are also used in medical applications, such as in the production of bone grafts and dental implants. Calcium phosphates are composed of calcium and phosphorus ions, and they are typically crystalline in structure. There are several different types of calcium phosphates, including hydroxyapatite, octacalcium phosphate, and brushite. In the medical field, calcium phosphates are often used as a source of calcium and phosphorus for patients who are unable to obtain these nutrients from their diet. They are also used in the treatment of bone diseases, such as osteoporosis, and in the repair of bone fractures. In addition, calcium phosphates are used in the production of medical devices, such as dental implants and bone grafts, because of their biocompatibility and ability to support bone growth.
Uromodulin, also known as Tamm-Horsfall protein, is a glycoprotein produced by the kidneys and secreted into the urine. It plays a crucial role in the regulation of urine concentration and the prevention of crystallization of certain substances in the urinary tract. Uromodulin is synthesized by the cells of the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle in the kidneys and is secreted into the lumen of the collecting ducts. It is then transported to the renal pelvis and excreted into the bladder. Uromodulin is a major constituent of the urinary sediment and can be used as a diagnostic marker for various kidney diseases.
Magnesium compounds are a group of minerals that are essential for various bodily functions. In the medical field, magnesium compounds are often used to treat a variety of conditions, including: 1. Muscle cramps: Magnesium is important for muscle function, and taking magnesium supplements can help prevent and treat muscle cramps. 2. Heart disease: Magnesium can help regulate blood pressure and prevent the formation of blood clots, which can lead to heart attacks and strokes. 3. Osteoporosis: Magnesium is important for bone health, and taking magnesium supplements can help prevent osteoporosis and reduce the risk of fractures. 4. Anxiety and depression: Magnesium has been shown to have a calming effect on the nervous system, and taking magnesium supplements may help reduce symptoms of anxiety and depression. 5. Diabetes: Magnesium can help regulate blood sugar levels and improve insulin sensitivity, which can be beneficial for people with diabetes. Magnesium compounds are available in various forms, including magnesium oxide, magnesium citrate, and magnesium chloride. It is important to consult with a healthcare provider before taking magnesium supplements, as high doses can be harmful and interact with other medications.
Hyperoxaluria, primary, is a rare genetic disorder characterized by the excessive production of oxalate in the body. Oxalate is a naturally occurring substance that is normally excreted in the urine. However, in individuals with primary hyperoxaluria, the kidneys are unable to effectively remove oxalate from the body, leading to the accumulation of oxalate in the urine and other body fluids. There are three types of primary hyperoxaluria, which are caused by mutations in different genes. Type 1 is the most severe form and is usually diagnosed in infancy or early childhood. It is characterized by the accumulation of oxalate in the kidneys, leading to kidney stones and damage to the kidneys. Type 2 and Type 3 are less severe and are usually diagnosed in adulthood. They are characterized by the accumulation of oxalate in the liver and other organs, leading to liver damage and other health problems. Treatment for primary hyperoxaluria typically involves managing symptoms and preventing complications. This may include medications to reduce oxalate production, dietary changes to limit oxalate intake, and regular monitoring of kidney function and oxalate levels. In severe cases, a kidney transplant may be necessary.
Calcium signaling is a complex process that involves the movement of calcium ions (Ca2+) within and between cells. Calcium ions play a crucial role in many cellular functions, including muscle contraction, neurotransmitter release, gene expression, and cell division. Calcium signaling is regulated by a network of proteins that sense changes in calcium levels and respond by activating or inhibiting specific cellular processes. In the medical field, calcium signaling is important for understanding the mechanisms underlying many diseases, including cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer. Calcium signaling is also a target for many drugs, including those used to treat hypertension, arrhythmias, and osteoporosis. Understanding the complex interactions between calcium ions and the proteins that regulate them is therefore an important area of research in medicine.
In the medical field, Araceae is a family of flowering plants that includes several species commonly used for their medicinal properties. Some examples of plants in the Araceae family that have medicinal uses include: 1. Colocasia esculenta (Taro): The roots of this plant are used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of conditions, including diabetes, high blood pressure, and digestive disorders. 2. Alocasia macrorrhiza (Elephant Ear Plant): The leaves of this plant are used in traditional medicine to treat fever, cough, and other respiratory infections. 3. Dieffenbachia spp. (Dieffenbachia): The leaves of this plant are used in traditional medicine to treat skin conditions, such as eczema and psoriasis. 4. Philodendron spp. (Philodendron): The leaves of this plant are used in traditional medicine to treat digestive disorders, such as diarrhea and constipation. It is important to note that the use of plants in traditional medicine should be done under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional, as some plants can be toxic if not used properly.
Hypercalciuria is a medical condition characterized by excessive excretion of calcium in the urine. It is defined as a urine calcium concentration greater than 100 mg/L (0.1 mmol/L) in a 24-hour urine collection. Hypercalciuria can be primary or secondary. Primary hypercalciuria is a genetic disorder that results in the kidneys excreting too much calcium in the urine. Secondary hypercalciuria can be caused by a variety of factors, including certain medications, vitamin D toxicity, gastrointestinal disorders, and kidney disease. Hypercalciuria can lead to a number of health problems, including kidney stones, bone loss, and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Treatment for hypercalciuria depends on the underlying cause and may include changes in diet, medications, and lifestyle modifications.
Mucoproteins are complex mixtures of carbohydrates and proteins that are found in mucus, a slippery and viscous substance that covers and protects the lining of various organs and body cavities, including the respiratory, digestive, and reproductive tracts. Mucoproteins play an important role in protecting the body from infection and injury by trapping and removing foreign particles, such as bacteria, viruses, and dust, from the body. They also help to lubricate and moisten the lining of the organs, making it easier for them to function properly. In the medical field, mucoproteins are often studied in relation to various diseases and conditions, such as respiratory infections, inflammatory bowel disease, and cancer. They may also be used as diagnostic markers or targets for therapeutic interventions.
In the medical field, "apatites" typically refers to a group of minerals that are composed of calcium phosphate. These minerals are commonly found in bones and teeth, and are also present in other parts of the body, such as the kidneys and the thyroid gland. Apatites can be either normal or abnormal, depending on the context in which they are found. For example, normal apatites are an essential component of healthy bones and teeth, while abnormal apatites can be associated with a variety of medical conditions, such as osteoporosis, hyperparathyroidism, and kidney stones. In some cases, apatites can also be used as a diagnostic tool in medical imaging. For example, certain types of apatites can be visualized using X-rays or computed tomography (CT) scans, which can help doctors to diagnose and monitor a variety of medical conditions.
Urinary bladder calculi, also known as bladder stones, are solid masses of minerals and salts that form in the urinary bladder. These calculi can vary in size and number, and can cause a range of symptoms, including pain, difficulty urinating, and blood in the urine. Bladder calculi can form when there is an imbalance of minerals and salts in the urine, or when the urine is not able to drain properly from the bladder. They are typically treated with medications to dissolve the calculi, or with surgery to remove them.
Calcium channels are specialized proteins found in the cell membrane of many types of cells, including neurons, muscle cells, and epithelial cells. These channels allow calcium ions to pass through the cell membrane, regulating the flow of calcium into and out of the cell. Calcium channels play a crucial role in many physiological processes, including muscle contraction, neurotransmitter release, and the regulation of gene expression. Calcium channels can be classified into several types based on their structure and function, including voltage-gated calcium channels, ligand-gated calcium channels, and store-operated calcium channels. In the medical field, calcium channels are the target of many drugs, including anti-seizure medications, anti-anxiety medications, and antiarrhythmics. Abnormalities in calcium channel function have been linked to a variety of diseases, including hypertension, heart disease, and neurological disorders such as epilepsy and multiple sclerosis.
Calcium, dietary refers to the amount of calcium that is obtained from food and beverages consumed by an individual. Calcium is an essential mineral that plays a crucial role in maintaining strong bones and teeth, as well as regulating muscle function, nerve transmission, and blood clotting. The recommended daily intake of calcium varies depending on age, sex, and other factors. For adults, the recommended daily intake of calcium is 1000-1300 milligrams per day. Calcium can be obtained from a variety of sources, including dairy products (such as milk, cheese, and yogurt), leafy green vegetables (such as kale and spinach), fortified foods (such as cereal and orange juice), and certain types of fish (such as salmon and sardines). In the medical field, monitoring an individual's dietary calcium intake is important for maintaining optimal bone health and preventing conditions such as osteoporosis. A deficiency in dietary calcium can lead to weakened bones and an increased risk of fractures, while an excess of calcium can lead to kidney stones and other health problems.
Osteopontin (OPN) is a protein that is involved in various biological processes, including bone remodeling, inflammation, and cancer. In the medical field, OPN is often studied in relation to diseases such as osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and cancer. OPN is synthesized by a variety of cells, including osteoblasts (cells that form bone), osteoclasts (cells that break down bone), and immune cells such as macrophages and T cells. It is secreted into the extracellular matrix, where it can interact with other proteins and cells to regulate bone remodeling and inflammation. In osteoporosis, OPN is thought to play a role in bone loss by promoting osteoclast activity and inhibiting osteoblast activity. In rheumatoid arthritis, OPN is involved in the inflammatory response and may contribute to joint damage. In cancer, OPN is often upregulated in tumors and can promote tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. Overall, OPN is a complex protein with multiple functions in the body, and its role in various diseases is an active area of research in the medical field.
Citric acid is a naturally occurring organic acid that is commonly found in citrus fruits such as lemons, oranges, and limes. In the medical field, citric acid is used in a variety of applications, including as a preservative, a flavoring agent, and a pH adjuster. One of the primary uses of citric acid in medicine is as an antacid. It is often used to treat heartburn, acid reflux, and other conditions that are caused by excess stomach acid. Citric acid works by neutralizing the acid in the stomach, which can help to reduce symptoms such as pain, burning, and discomfort. Citric acid is also used in some over-the-counter medications as a decongestant. It works by breaking up mucus in the respiratory tract, which can help to relieve congestion and other respiratory symptoms. In addition to its medicinal uses, citric acid is also used in a variety of other applications in the medical field. For example, it is used as a preservative in some medical devices and as a pH adjuster in certain laboratory procedures. It is also used as a food additive in some dietary supplements and as a flavoring agent in some oral care products.
Glyoxylates are organic compounds that contain a carbonyl group (-CO-) and a hydroxyl group (-OH) attached to the same carbon atom. They are derivatives of glycolic acid and are commonly found in various metabolic pathways in the body. In the medical field, glyoxylates are often studied in relation to their role in the metabolism of carbohydrates and amino acids. For example, glyoxylate shunt is a metabolic pathway that bypasses the citric acid cycle and is important for the metabolism of certain amino acids and the detoxification of harmful substances such as dicarboxylic acids. Glyoxylates have also been implicated in the development of certain diseases, such as kidney disease and cancer. For example, elevated levels of glyoxylate have been observed in the urine of patients with kidney disease, and some studies have suggested that glyoxylate may play a role in the development of certain types of cancer by promoting the growth and survival of cancer cells.
Potassium citrate is a salt that is formed by combining potassium ions with citric acid molecules. It is a white, odorless, crystalline powder that is commonly used in the medical field as a medication to treat a variety of conditions. One of the main uses of potassium citrate is to treat kidney stones. It works by increasing the amount of citrate in the urine, which can help to prevent the formation of new stones and can also help to dissolve existing stones. Potassium citrate is also used to treat acidosis, a condition in which the blood is too acidic. It can help to raise the pH of the blood and bring it back to a normal range. In addition to its use as a medication, potassium citrate is also used as a dietary supplement. It is often added to sports drinks and other beverages to help replenish electrolytes lost during exercise. It is also used in some dietary supplements to help support healthy kidney function and to prevent the formation of kidney stones. Overall, potassium citrate is a versatile compound that has a number of important uses in the medical field. It is generally considered safe when taken as directed, but it is important to talk to a healthcare provider before using it, especially if you have any underlying health conditions or are taking other medications.
In the medical field, glycolates refer to compounds that contain the functional group -COOH, which is known as a carboxyl group. Glycolates are often used as intermediates in the production of other compounds, such as pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals. One common example of a glycolate in medicine is glycolic acid, which is used in skin care products and as an ingredient in certain acne treatments. Glycolic acid is a type of alpha-hydroxy acid (AHA) that is derived from sugar cane and has been shown to exfoliate the skin, improve skin texture, and reduce the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles. Glycolates can also be used as a preservative in certain medical products, such as eye drops and injectable medications. They work by inhibiting the growth of microorganisms that can cause infections in these products. Overall, glycolates play an important role in the production of a wide range of medical products and have a variety of applications in the field of medicine.
Nephrocalcinosis is a medical condition characterized by the accumulation of calcium deposits in the kidneys. These deposits can form in the renal tubules, interstitium, or vessels, leading to damage to the kidney tissue and potentially impairing kidney function. Nephrocalcinosis can be caused by a variety of factors, including high levels of calcium or phosphate in the blood, certain medications, kidney disease, and genetic disorders. Symptoms of nephrocalcinosis may include flank pain, blood in the urine, and high blood pressure. Diagnosis of nephrocalcinosis typically involves imaging studies such as X-rays, CT scans, or ultrasound, as well as blood and urine tests to measure calcium and phosphate levels. Treatment may involve addressing the underlying cause of the condition, such as adjusting medication or managing kidney disease, as well as medications to help prevent further calcium deposition in the kidneys. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the calcium deposits.
Lithiasis is a medical term that refers to the presence of one or more stones (also known as calculi) in the urinary tract. These stones can form in the kidneys, ureters, bladder, or urethra and can cause a range of symptoms, including pain, blood in the urine, frequent urination, and difficulty urinating. The most common type of lithiasis is kidney stone disease, which affects millions of people worldwide. Kidney stones are typically composed of minerals such as calcium, oxalate, or phosphate, and can vary in size from a grain of sand to a golf ball. Treatment for lithiasis depends on the size and location of the stone, as well as the severity of symptoms. Small stones may pass through the urinary tract on their own, while larger stones may require medical intervention such as shock wave lithotripsy, surgery, or medication to dissolve the stone. Prevention of lithiasis involves maintaining a healthy diet and staying hydrated, as well as managing underlying medical conditions such as high blood pressure or diabetes.
Calcium radioisotopes are radioactive isotopes of the element calcium that are used in medical imaging and treatment. Calcium is an essential mineral for the human body, and its radioisotopes can be used to study bone density, diagnose and treat various bone diseases, and monitor the effectiveness of treatments for these conditions. The most commonly used calcium radioisotopes in medical applications are calcium-45 and calcium-85. Calcium-45 is a short-lived isotope with a half-life of about 14 days, and it is typically used for short-term studies of bone metabolism. Calcium-85, on the other hand, has a longer half-life of about 85 days, and it is often used for longer-term studies of bone density and metabolism. Calcium radioisotopes can be administered to patients in a variety of ways, including intravenous injection, oral ingestion, or inhalation. The radioisotopes are then detected using imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) or single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), which allow doctors to visualize the distribution of the radioisotopes in the body and assess the health of bones and other tissues.
Trypsin Inhibitor, Kunitz Soybean (TIK) is a type of protein found in soybeans that inhibits the activity of trypsin, an enzyme that plays a key role in the digestion of proteins. TIK is classified as a Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor, which is a family of proteins that share a similar structure and mechanism of action. TIK is known to have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties, and has been studied for its potential therapeutic applications in various diseases. For example, TIK has been shown to inhibit the growth of certain types of cancer cells, including breast, prostate, and colon cancer. It has also been shown to reduce inflammation and oxidative stress, which are key factors in the development of many chronic diseases. In the medical field, TIK is being investigated as a potential therapeutic agent for a variety of conditions, including cancer, inflammatory diseases, and cardiovascular disease. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential benefits and risks of TIK, and to determine the optimal dosage and administration route for its use in clinical settings.
Hydroxyproline is a type of amino acid that is found in the collagen protein, which is a major component of connective tissue in the body. It is a hydroxylation product of the amino acid proline, meaning that it has an additional hydroxyl (-OH) group attached to the side chain. Hydroxyproline is essential for the proper functioning of collagen, as it helps to stabilize the triple helix structure of the protein and gives it strength and flexibility. In the medical field, hydroxyproline is often used as a marker of collagen turnover and turnover of connective tissue, and it is sometimes measured in blood or urine as a way to assess the health of the body's connective tissue.
In the medical field, "calculi" refers to solid masses or stones that form in the urinary tract or other organs. The most common type of calculi are kidney stones, which can form in the kidneys, ureters, or bladder. Kidney stones are typically composed of minerals such as calcium, oxalate, or phosphate, and can vary in size from a grain of sand to a golf ball. They can cause severe pain, blood in the urine, and other symptoms, and may require medical intervention to remove. Other types of calculi can form in the gallbladder (gallstones), bile ducts (cholecystolithiasis), or pancreas (pancreatic calculi). These calculi can also cause serious health problems if left untreated.
Calcium carbonate is a mineral that is commonly used in the medical field as a dietary supplement and as a medication. It is also used in the treatment of certain medical conditions, such as osteoporosis, stomach ulcers, and kidney stones. Calcium carbonate is a source of calcium, which is an essential mineral that is important for maintaining strong bones and teeth, as well as for many other functions in the body. It is also used as an antacid to neutralize stomach acid and relieve symptoms of heartburn and indigestion. In the medical field, calcium carbonate is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and powders. It is usually taken by mouth, although it can also be given intravenously in certain cases. The dosage and duration of treatment will depend on the specific medical condition being treated and the individual patient's needs.
Uric acid is a chemical compound that is produced when the body breaks down purines, which are found in many foods and beverages. It is the main component of uric acid crystals, which can accumulate in the joints and other tissues if levels of uric acid in the blood become too high. This condition is known as gout. Uric acid is also a natural antioxidant that helps protect the body against damage from free radicals. It is excreted from the body through the kidneys in the urine. In the medical field, high levels of uric acid in the blood are often associated with gout, kidney stones, and other health problems. Treatment for high uric acid levels may include lifestyle changes, such as reducing the intake of purine-rich foods and increasing physical activity, as well as medications to lower uric acid levels in the blood.
Durapatite is a synthetic bone substitute material that is used in orthopedic and dental surgeries. It is a type of calcium phosphate ceramic that is similar in composition to natural bone and is designed to promote bone growth and regeneration. Durapatite is typically used in procedures such as bone grafting, where it is placed in the body to help fill in gaps or defects in bone tissue. It can also be used as an alternative to autografts (bone taken from the patient's own body) or allografts (bone taken from a donor) in certain cases. Durapatite has several advantages over other bone substitute materials, including its ability to promote bone growth and its biocompatibility with the body. It is also relatively easy to shape and can be customized to fit the specific needs of each patient. Overall, Durapatite is a useful tool for surgeons and dentists who are looking for a safe and effective way to promote bone growth and regeneration in the body.
I'm sorry, but I couldn't find any information on a medical term called "Nafronyl." It's possible that you may have misspelled the term or that it is not a commonly used term in the medical field. If you have any additional information or context, please let me know and I'll do my best to assist you.
Alpha-globulins are a type of protein found in the blood plasma. They are the largest type of globulin protein and make up about 10-15% of the total protein in the blood. Alpha-globulins are synthesized in the liver and play a variety of roles in the body, including transporting hormones, vitamins, and other molecules, as well as participating in immune responses. There are several different types of alpha-globulins, including albumin, alpha-1-antitrypsin, and haptoglobin. Abnormal levels of alpha-globulins can be associated with a variety of medical conditions, including liver disease, kidney disease, and certain types of cancer.
Citrates are a group of compounds that contain the citric acid ion (C6H8O7^3-). In the medical field, citrates are commonly used as anticoagulants to prevent blood clots from forming. They are often used in patients who are undergoing dialysis or who have a condition called heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), which makes it difficult to use heparin, a commonly used anticoagulant. Citrates are also used to treat certain types of kidney stones, as they can help to neutralize the acidic environment in the urinary tract that can contribute to the formation of stones. In addition, citrates are sometimes used as a source of calcium in patients who cannot tolerate other forms of calcium supplementation. Citrates can be administered orally or intravenously, and they are usually well-tolerated by most people. However, like all medications, they can cause side effects, such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. It is important to follow the instructions of your healthcare provider when taking citrates, and to report any side effects that you experience.
Calcium chloride is a salt that is commonly used in the medical field as a medication and a dietary supplement. It is a white, crystalline powder that is highly soluble in water and is used to increase the concentration of calcium in the blood and to treat certain medical conditions. In the medical field, calcium chloride is used to treat hypocalcemia, which is a condition in which the blood calcium level is too low. It is also used to treat eclampsia, which is a serious complication of pregnancy that can cause seizures and other symptoms. Calcium chloride is also used to treat certain types of heart rhythm disorders, such as atrial fibrillation. Calcium chloride is available as a dietary supplement and can be taken by mouth to increase the body's calcium levels. It is also used as a food additive and is used to preserve food and to enhance the flavor of certain foods. However, it is important to note that calcium chloride should only be taken under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as it can have side effects and may interact with other medications.
Calcium isotopes refer to the different forms of the element calcium that have different atomic weights due to the presence of different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei. In the medical field, calcium isotopes are often used in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures related to bone health and metabolism. One commonly used calcium isotope in medicine is calcium-47, which is a radioactive isotope that can be used to measure bone turnover and bone mineral density. Calcium-47 is produced by bombarding a calcium-46 target with high-energy protons, and it decays by emitting a positron, which can be detected using positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. Another calcium isotope that is used in medicine is calcium-82, which is a radioactive isotope that can be used to treat certain types of cancer. Calcium-82 is produced by bombarding a zinc-68 target with high-energy protons, and it decays by emitting a positron, which can be used to target and destroy cancer cells. Overall, calcium isotopes play an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of bone and cancer-related conditions in the medical field.
A cystostomy is a surgical procedure in which an opening, or stoma, is created in the wall of the bladder to drain urine. This is typically done when the normal urinary tract is blocked or damaged, and the bladder is unable to empty properly. The stoma is created by making an incision in the bladder wall and attaching a tube, called a catheter, to the opening. The catheter is then used to drain urine from the bladder into a collection bag that is worn outside the body. Cystostomies can be temporary or permanent, depending on the underlying cause of the blockage or damage to the urinary tract. They are typically performed under general anesthesia and may be done as an outpatient procedure or require a hospital stay.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with the symbol P and atomic number 15. It is an essential nutrient for living organisms and is found in all cells of the body. In the medical field, phosphorus is often used as a diagnostic tool to measure the levels of phosphorus in the blood, which can be an indicator of various medical conditions. High levels of phosphorus in the blood can be caused by kidney disease, certain medications, or excessive intake of phosphorus-rich foods. Low levels of phosphorus can be caused by malnutrition, certain medications, or excessive loss of phosphorus through the urine. Phosphorus is also used in the treatment of certain medical conditions, such as osteoporosis, where it is used to help build strong bones. It is also used in the treatment of certain types of cancer, such as multiple myeloma, where it is used to help slow the growth of cancer cells. In addition to its use in medicine, phosphorus is also used in the production of fertilizers, detergents, and other industrial products.
Calcium is a chemical element with the symbol Ca and atomic number 20. It is a vital mineral for the human body and is essential for many bodily functions, including bone health, muscle function, nerve transmission, and blood clotting. In the medical field, calcium is often used to diagnose and treat conditions related to calcium deficiency or excess. For example, low levels of calcium in the blood (hypocalcemia) can cause muscle cramps, numbness, and tingling, while high levels (hypercalcemia) can lead to kidney stones, bone loss, and other complications. Calcium supplements are often prescribed to people who are at risk of developing calcium deficiency, such as older adults, vegetarians, and people with certain medical conditions. However, it is important to note that excessive calcium intake can also be harmful, and it is important to follow recommended dosages and consult with a healthcare provider before taking any supplements.
Anion transport proteins are membrane proteins that facilitate the movement of negatively charged ions across cell membranes. These proteins play a crucial role in maintaining the proper balance of ions in the body, which is essential for many physiological processes, including nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and the regulation of fluid balance. There are several types of anion transport proteins, including chloride channels, bicarbonate transporters, and anion exchangers. Chloride channels allow chloride ions to move down their electrochemical gradient, while bicarbonate transporters facilitate the movement of bicarbonate ions across cell membranes. Anion exchangers, on the other hand, exchange one anion for another across the membrane. Anion transport proteins can be found in various tissues throughout the body, including the lungs, kidneys, and gastrointestinal tract. Mutations in these proteins can lead to a variety of medical conditions, such as cystic fibrosis, which is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel.
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- Insoluble calcium oxalate crystals are found in plant stems, roots, and leaves and produced in idioblasts. (wikipedia.org)
- Calcium oxalate crystals in the urine are the most common constituent of human kidney stones, and calcium oxalate crystal formation is also one of the toxic effects of ethylene glycol poisoning. (wikipedia.org)
- Calcium oxalate dihydrate crystals are octahedral. (wikipedia.org)
- Calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals vary in shape, and can be shaped like dumbbells, spindles, ovals, or picket fences, the last of which is most commonly seen due to ethylene glycol poisoning. (wikipedia.org)
- Urine microscopy showing calcium oxalate crystals in the urine. (wikipedia.org)
- Urinary sediment showing several calcium oxalate crystals. (wikipedia.org)
- The crystals were composed of calcium oxalate silicates as whewellite (calcium oxalate monohydrate) composites. (tubitak.gov.tr)
- Because these ultramicroscopic crystals are nonacidic calcium phosphates, the term basic calcium phosphate (BCP) is much more precise than apatite . (msdmanuals.com)
- Clumped crystals can usually be identified only with special calcium stains or transmission electron microscopy. (msdmanuals.com)
- Stones form as aggregates of calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals with layers of organic material, principally urinary proteins, between the individual crystals, and these proteins likely play a critical role in stone formation. (grantome.com)
- and clusters of calcium oxalate crystals. (wikipedia.org)
- Grover, P , Thurgood, L & Ryall, R 2007, ' Effect of urine fractionation on attachment of calcium oxalate crystals to renal epithelial cells: implications for studying renal calculogenesis ', American Journal of Physiology: Renal Physiology , vol. 292, no. 5, pp. (edu.au)
- calcium oxalate and amorphous urate crystals were further reported in microscopic examinations. (cdc.gov)
- Other: All parts of plant contain calcium oxalate crystals, an irritant to the mouth and esophagus. (garden.org)
- Excess oxalate production can result in the accumulation of calcium oxalate crystals in the kidneys and urinary tract, which can lead to painful and recurring kidney stones , nephrocalcinosis, kidney failure , and systemic organ dysfunction. (medicinenet.com)
- Excess oxalate in the tissues interacts with calcium to build poisonous calcium oxalate crystals. (medicinenet.com)
- Excess oxalate crystals may be accumulated throughout the body, including the eyes, bones, and joints (known as systemic oxalosis). (medicinenet.com)
- The authors also show directly that the light scattered by the calcium oxalate crystals is utilized for photosynthesis, and that the ultraviolet component of light passing through silica bodies, is absorbed. (lu.se)
- Urinary crystals of calcium oxalate, uric acid, or cystine may occasionally be found upon urinalysis. (medscape.com)
- while the use of histochemical techniques on the leaf blade showed evidence of the presence of phenolic compounds, tannins, triterpenes and steroids, lipophilic compounds, starch, lignin and calcium oxalate crystals. (bvsalud.org)
- Urine microscopy showing a calcium oxalate monohydrate crystal (dumbbell shaped) and a calcium oxalate dihydrate crystal (envelope shaped) along with several erythrocytes. (wikipedia.org)
- Renal tubular cell injury can boost calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystal adhesion on the wounded site and therefore may raise the natural stone risk. (biopaqc.com)
- The most frequent causative crystal type within 70C80% of rock formers (sufferers with kidney rock(s)) is calcium mineral oxalate monohydrate (COM)4. (biopaqc.com)
Amount of oxalate2
- however, when combined with calcium, it produces an insoluble product termed calcium oxalate, which is the most common chemical compound found in kidney stones. (medscape.com)
- The basicity of calcium oxalate is weaker than that of sodium oxalate, due to its lower solubility in water. (wikipedia.org)
- In the kidney, oxalate is secreted in the proximal tubule via 2 separate carriers involving sodium and chloride exchange. (medscape.com)
- Workers in both groups had frequent risk factors for kidney stones, particularly high calcium, oxalate, sodium, uric- acid, phosphorus and low urinary volume on testing. (cdc.gov)
- They form when urine is persistently saturated with calcium and oxalate. (wikipedia.org)
- Some of the oxalate in urine is produced by the body. (wikipedia.org)
- Calcium oxalate/calcium phosphate, magnesium-ammonium phosphate, and staghorn calculi are associated with alkaline urine. (medscape.com)
- Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) is an extremely rare hereditary condition that is characterized by excessive oxalate formation -a waste product usually removed by the kidneys and discharged in the urine. (medicinenet.com)
- Normally, oxalate is filtered by the kidneys and excreted in the urine. (medicinenet.com)
- A disorder in which excessive oxalate is absorbed into the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and excreted in the urine. (medicinenet.com)
- Absorptive hypercalciuria (increased calcium absorption by the gut leading to high excretion of calcium in the urine) may be reduced with dietary restriction. (medscape.com)
- Evaluation of urine calcium excretion levels can aid in the differential diagnosis of recurrent renal calculi, as well as in the differentiation of familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia from asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism. (medscape.com)
- Volume depletion may hinder urine calcium measurement. (medscape.com)
- In patients with hypoparathyroidism who are undergoing treatment with vitamin D and calcium supplementation, urine calcium concentration should be followed as an important variable. (medscape.com)
- In this condition, a marked elevation in urine calcium concentration may be seen because there is no parathyroid hormone-associated increase in calcium reabsorption. (medscape.com)
- Titrate the patient's dose of vitamin D so that urine calcium does not increase to greater than 350 mg/day. (medscape.com)
- Phyllanthus niruri L. exerts protective effects against the calcium oxalate-induced renal injury via ellgic acid. (bvsalud.org)
Oxalato de calcio2
- In humans, however, oxalate seems to have no substantially beneficial role and acts as a metabolic end-product, much like uric acid. (medscape.com)
- About 76% of kidney stones are partially or entirely of the calcium oxalate type. (wikipedia.org)
- Calcium and oxalate in the diet play a part but are not the only factors that affect the formation of calcium oxalate stones. (wikipedia.org)
- Stones were predominantly of mixed type: calcium oxalate was the commonest compound. (who.int)
- The spectroscopic results, supported by X-ray powder diffractometry, suggest that the calcium oxalate is present in the form of whewellite (CaC 2 O 4 ×H 2 O) in all the investigated samples. (scielo.sa.cr)
- Hyperoxaluria-that is, elevated urinary excretion of the metabolic end product oxalate-can contribute to kidney stone formation and other health problems. (medscape.com)
- Reflecting these normal values, the usual definition of hyperoxaluria is urinary oxalate excretion that exceeds 40 mg/day. (medscape.com)
- An alternative definition of hyperoxaluria that corrects for size differences is 30 mg of urinary oxalate per 24 hours per gram of excreted creatinine. (medscape.com)
- Primary hyperoxaluria type III gene HOGA1 (formerly DHDPSL) as a possible risk factor for idiopathic calcium oxalate urolithiasis. (cdc.gov)
- [ 1 ] The normal upper level of urinary oxalate excretion is 40 mg (440 µmol) in 24 hours. (medscape.com)
- Stone formation risk probably depends more on absolute total oxalate excretion and concentration than on arbitrary normal values. (medscape.com)
- The body normally keeps serum and intracellular calcium levels under tight control through bone resorption and urinary excretion. (medscape.com)
- The calcium oxalate accumulation is linked to the detoxification of calcium (Ca2+) in the plant. (wikipedia.org)
- In addition, oxalate is created from endogenous sources in the liver as part of glycolate metabolism. (medscape.com)
- Oxalate is involved in various metabolic and homeostatic mechanisms in fungi and bacteria and may play an important role in various aspects of animal metabolism, including mitochondrial activity regulation, thyroid function, gluconeogenesis, and glycolysis. (medscape.com)
Kidney stone formation1
- Urinary oxalate is the single strongest chemical promoter of kidney stone formation. (medscape.com)
- In this sense, the results suggest that the species of Canna show similar ability to produce biogenic silica and produce an identical type of calcium oxalate within their tissues. (scielo.sa.cr)
- Upon decomposition, the calcium oxalate is oxidised by bacteria, fungi, or wildfire to produce the soil nutrient calcium carbonate. (wikipedia.org)
- Homozygotes for a targeted null mutation exhibit high levels of serum calcium and parathyroid hormone, parathyroid hyperplasia, bone defects, reduced growth, and early death. (jax.org)
- These are summarised in quit smoking Fig. Undertake the following definitions and calcium oxalate calculi conventions have been extended. (abruzzo.it)
- Basic calcium phosphate (apatite) and calcium oxalate crystal disorders tend to cause clinical manifestations similar to those of other crystal-induced arthritides. (msdmanuals.com)
- Many of Kidney C.O.P.'s active ingredients (or combination of) have been tested in clinical studies & have shown to have an effect inhibiting calcium oxalate crystal growth. (kidneycop.com)
- Cultural groups with diets that depend highly on fruits and vegetables high in calcium oxalate, such as those in Micronesia, reduce the level of it by boiling and cooking them. (wikipedia.org)
- Many plants accumulate calcium oxalate as it has been reported in more than 1000 different genera of plants. (wikipedia.org)
- Plants of the genus Philodendron contain enough calcium oxalate that consumption of parts of the plant can result in uncomfortable symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
- Vanilla plants exude calcium oxalates upon harvest of the orchid seed pods and may cause contact dermatitis. (wikipedia.org)
- In general, plants that are grown in fields with a high concentration of ground water calcium have higher concentrations of oxalate. (medscape.com)
- Plants use oxalate as a calcium sink. (medscape.com)
- Some foods have high quantities of calcium oxalates and can produce sores and numbing on ingestion and may even be fatal. (wikipedia.org)
- Oxalate Content of Foods.xls Excel sheet from Harvard University published in 2007. (veganhealth.org)
- Consuming oxalate-rich foods or having medical conditions that allow the GI tract to absorb more oxalate (such as Crohn's disease, inflammatory bowel disease , gastric bypass, and other illnesses in which nutrients are not effectively absorbed) might induce higher absorption. (medicinenet.com)
- These levels are reflective of individuals with average calcium intake, which is 600-800 mg/day. (medscape.com)
- Still, the relative concentration of oxalate is probably more significant than either of these definitions acknowledges. (medscape.com)
- Each active ingredient in Kidney C.O.P. (or a combination of the ingredients) have been clinically tested and shown, to varying degrees of potential, to inhibit the rate of calcium oxalate crystal growth. (kidneycop.com)
- This is one reason why precisely calculating dietary oxalate is difficult. (medscape.com)
- Food oxalate: factors affecting measurement, biological variation, and bioavailability. (veganhealth.org)
- Interestingly, oxalate was first discovered in animals when sheep became ill after eating vegetation later found to have high oxalate content. (medscape.com)
- This method shows that in okra leaves silica and calcium oxalates, together with chloroplasts, form a complex system. (lu.se)
- Calcium oxalate is also found in beerstone, a scale that forms on containers used in breweries. (wikipedia.org)
- An uncommon hereditary ( inherited ) liver condition in which the liver either does not manufacture enough enzymes to avoid oxalate overproduction or the enzymes do not function effectively. (medicinenet.com)
- There are three forms of PH, each involving a genetic deficiency in a different enzyme in the liver, and all of which contribute to oxalate overproduction. (medicinenet.com)
- Calcium oxalate and silica minerals are common components of a variety of plant leaves. (lu.se)
- Here tools are used from the fields of biology, optics, and imaging to investigate the distributions of calcium oxalate, silica minerals, and chloroplasts in okra leaves, in relation to their functions. (lu.se)
- This distribution points to a significant role of oxalate and silica minerals to synergistically optimize the light regime in the leaf. (lu.se)
- Calcium is one of the most abundant minerals in the human body. (medscape.com)
- Oxalate content within the same plant species can vary widely. (medscape.com)
- Les calculs étaient majoritairement de type mixte : l'oxalate de calcium était le composé le plus courant. (who.int)
- This study thus demonstrates that calcium oxalates increase the illumination level into the underlying tissue by scattering the incoming light, and silica reduces the amount of UV radiation entering the tissue. (lu.se)
- Chai W, Liebman M. Effect of different cooking methods on vegetable oxalate content. (veganhealth.org)