Root Canal Irrigants
Dental Pulp Necrosis
Root Canal Filling Materials
Dental Pulp Capping
Dental Pulp Cavity
Root Canal Preparation
Dental Cavity Lining
Root Canal Obturation
Anti-Infective Agents, Local
Root Canal Therapy
Zinc Oxide-Eugenol Cement
Dental Pulp Exposure
Dental Restoration, Temporary
Dental Pulp Diseases
Calcium Channels, L-Type
Colony Count, Microbial
Vital pulp capping: a worthwhile procedure. (1/183)Despite the progress made in the field of pulp biology, the technique and philosophy of direct vital pulp capping remains a controversial subject. Clinicians are well aware of the immediate and long-term success rates after root canal therapy, but are less certain of the success of vital pulp capping. Researchers have demonstrated that exposed pulps will heal and form reparative dentin. It is realized now that the variable prognosis of vital pulp capping is predominately a restorative issue. The factors that can produce a successful vital pulp cap are discussed in conjunction with two popular techniques. (+info)
Amsorb: a new carbon dioxide absorbent for use in anesthetic breathing systems. (2/183)BACKGROUND: This article describes a carbon dioxide absorbent for use in anesthesia. The absorbent consists of calcium hydroxide with a compatible humectant, namely, calcium chloride. The absorbent mixture does not contain sodium or potassium hydroxide but includes two setting agents (calcium sulphate and polyvinylpyrrolidine) to improve hardness and porosity. METHODS: The resultant mixture was formulated and subjected to standardized tests for hardness, porosity, and carbon dioxide absorption. Additionally, the new absorbent was exposed in vitro to sevoflurane, desflurane, isoflurane, and enflurane to determine whether these anesthetics were degraded to either compound A or carbon monoxide. The performance data and inertness of the absorbent were compared with two currently available brands of soda lime: Intersorb (Intersurgical Ltd., Berkshire, United Kingdom) and Dragersorb (Drager, Lubeck, Germany). RESULTS: The new carbon dioxide absorbent conformed to United States Pharmacopeia specifications in terms of carbon dioxide absorption, granule hardness, and porosity. When the new material was exposed to sevoflurane (2%) in oxygen at a flow rate of 1 l/min, concentrations of compound A did not increase above those found in the parent drug (1.3-3.3 ppm). In the same experiment, mean +/-SD concentrations of compound A (32.5 +/- 4.5 ppm) were observed when both traditional brands of soda lime were used. After dehydration of the traditional soda limes, immediate exposure to desflurane (60%), enflurane (2%), and isoflurane (2%) produced concentrations of carbon monoxide of 600.0 +/- 10.0 ppm, 580.0 +/- 9.8 ppm, and 620.0 +/-10.1 ppm, respectively. In contrast, concentrations of carbon monoxide were negligible (1-3 ppm) when the anhydrous new absorbent was exposed to the same anesthetics. CONCLUSIONS: The new material is an effective carbon dioxide absorbent and is chemically unreactive with sevoflurane, enflurane, isoflurane, and desflurane. (+info)
Soda-lime dust contamination of breathing circuits. (3/183)A case report of soda-lime dust contamination of the breathing circuit of an anesthesia machine causing bronchospasm in a patient is presented. Various factors in absorber design and increased dusting of soda lime due to high-flow techniques and lack of wetting are described. A modification of the Fraser-Sweatman absorber leading the fresh gas into an area free of dust accumulation has resulted in near-complete elimination of the problem. (+info)
Lack of degradation of sevoflurane by a new carbon dioxide absorbent in humans. (4/183)BACKGROUND: Potent inhaled anesthetics degrade in the presence of the strong bases (sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide) in carbon dioxide (CO2) absorbents. A new absorbent, Amsorb (Armstrong Medical Ltd., Coleraine, Northern Ireland), does not employ these strong bases. This study compared the scavenging efficacy and compound A production of two commercially available absorbents (soda lime and barium hydroxide lime) with Amsorb in humans undergoing general anesthesia. METHODS: Four healthy volunteers were anesthetized on different days with desflurane, sevoflurane, enflurane, and isoflurane. End-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) and anesthetic concentrations were measured with infrared spectroscopy; blood pressure and arterial blood gases were obtained from a radial artery catheter. Each anesthetic exposure lasted 3 h, during which the three fresh (normally hydrated) CO2 absorbents were used for a period of 1 h each. Anesthesia was administered with a fresh gas flow rate of 2 l/min of air:oxygen (50:50). Tidal volume was 10 ml/kg; respiratory rate was 8 breaths/min. Arterial blood gases were obtained at baseline and after each hour. Inspired concentrations of compound A were measured after 15, 30, and 60 min of anesthetic administration for each CO2 absorbent. RESULTS: Arterial blood gases and ETCO2 were not different among three CO2 absorbents. During sevoflurane, compound A formed with barium hydroxide lime and soda lime, but not with Amsorb. CONCLUSIONS: This new CO2 absorbent effectively scavenged CO2 and was not associated with compound A production. (+info)
Systemic and local effects of long-term exposure to alkaline drinking water in rats. (5/183)Alkaline conditions in the oral cavity may be caused by a variety of stimuli, including tobacco products, antacids, alkaline drinking water or bicarbonate toothpaste. The effects of alkaline pH on oral mucosa have not been systematically studied. To assess the systemic (organ) and local (oral mucosal) effects of alkalinity, drinking water supplemented with Ca(OH)2 or NaOH, with pH 11.2 or 12 was administered to rats (n = 36) for 52 weeks. Tissues were subjected to histopathological examination; oral mucosal biopsy samples were also subjected to immunohistochemical (IHC) analyses for pankeratin, CK19, CK5, CK4, PCNA, ICAM-1, CD44, CD68, S-100, HSP 60, HSP70, and HSP90. At completion of the study, animals in the study groups had lower body weights (up to 29% less) than controls despite equal food and water intake, suggesting a systemic response to the alkaline treatment. The lowest body weight was found in rats exposed to water with the highest pH value and starting the experiment when young (6 weeks). No histological changes attributable to alkaline exposure occurred in the oral mucosa or other tissues studied. Alkaline exposure did not affect cell proliferation in the oral epithelium, as shown by the equal expression of PCNA in groups. The up-regulation of HSP70 protein expression in the oral mucosa of rats exposed to alkaline water, especially Ca(OH)2 treated rats, may indicate a protective response. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) positivity was lost in 6/12 rats treated with Ca(OH)2 with pH 11.2, and loss of CD44 expression was seen in 3/6 rats in both study groups exposed to alkaline water with pH 12. The results suggest that the oral mucosa in rats is resistant to the effects of highly alkaline drinking water. However, high alkalinity may have some unknown systemic effects leading to growth retardation, the cause of which remains to be determined. (+info)
Comparison of Amsorb, sodalime, and Baralyme degradation of volatile anesthetics and formation of carbon monoxide and compound a in swine in vivo. (6/183)BACKGROUND: Consequences of volatile anesthetic degradation by carbon dioxide absorbents that contain strong base include formation of compound A from sevoflurane, formation of carbon monoxide (CO) and CO toxicity from desflurane, enflurane and isoflurane, delayed inhalation induction, and increased anesthetic costs. Amsorb (Armstrong Ltd., Coleraine, Northern Ireland) is a new absorbent that does not contain strong base and does not form CO or compound A in vitro. This investigation compared Amsorb, Baralyme (Chemetron Medical Division, Allied Healthcare Products, St. Louis, MO), and sodalime effects on CO (from desflurane and isoflurane) and compound A formation, carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) concentrations, and anesthetic degradation in a clinically relevant porcine in vivo model. METHODS: Pigs were anesthetized with desflurane, isoflurane, or sevoflurane, using fresh or partially dehydrated Amsorb, Baralyme, and new and old formulations of sodalime. Anesthetic concentrations in the fresh (preabsorber), inspired (postabsorber), and end-tidal gas were measured, as were inspired CO and compound A concentrations and blood oxyhemoglobin and COHb concentrations. RESULTS: For desflurane and isoflurane, the order of inspired CO and COHb formation was dehydrated Baralyme >> soda-lime > Amsorb. For desflurane and Baralyme, peak CO was 9,700 +/- 5,100 parts per million (ppm), and the increase in COHb was 37 +/- 14%. CO and COHb increases were undetectable with Amsorb. Oxyhemoglobin desaturation occurred with desflurane and Baralyme but not Amsorb or sodalime. The gap between inspired and end-tidal desflurane and isoflurane did not differ between the various dehydrated absorbents. Neither fresh nor dehydrated Amsorb caused compound A formation from sevoflurane. In contrast, Baralyme and sodalime caused 20-40 ppm compound A. The gap between inspired and end-tidal sevoflurane did not differ between fresh absorbents, but was Amsorb < sodalime < Baralyme with dehydrated absorbents. CONCLUSION: Amsorb caused minimal if any CO formation, minimal compound A formation regardless of absorbent hydration, and the least amount of sevoflurane degradation. An absorbent like Amsorb, which does not contain strong base or cause anesthetic degradation and formation of toxic products, may have benefit with respect to patient safety, inhalation induction, and anesthetic consumption (cost). (+info)
Using amsorb to detect dehydration of CO2 absorbents containing strong base. (7/183)BACKGROUND: Because Amsorb changes color when it dries, the authors investigated whether Amsorb combined with different strong base-containing carbon dioxide absorbents signals dehydration of such absorbents. METHODS: Five different carbon dioxide absorbents (1,330 g) each topped with 70 g of Amsorb were dried in an anesthesia machine (Modulus CD, Datex-Ohmeda, Madison, WI) with oxygen (Amsorb layer at the fresh gas inflow site). As soon as a color change was detected in the Amsorb, the authors tested the samples for a change in weight and carbon monoxide formation from 7.5% desflurane or 4% isoflurane. In a different experiment with the five absorbents, Amsorb was layered at the drying gas outflow site. In further experiments, the authors tested for a color change in Amsorb from drying and rehydrating and from drying with nitrogen. Finally, they dried a mixture of Amsorb and 1% NaOH and examined it for color change. RESULTS: In the experiments with Amsorb layered at the inflow, the Amsorb changed color when the water content of the samples was only marginally reduced (to a mean 13.6%), and no carbon monoxide formed. With Amsorb layered at the outflow, it changed color when the mean water content of the samples was reduced to 8.8%, and carbon monoxide formation was detected to varying degrees. The color change was independent of the drying gas and could be reversed by rehydrating. Adding NaOH to Amsorb prevented a color change. CONCLUSIONS: Dehydration in strong base-containing absorbents can reliably be indicated before carbon monoxide is formed when Amsorb is layered at the fresh gas inflow. The authors assume that the indicator dye in Amsorb changes color on drying because of the absence of strong base in this absorbent. (+info)
Apical and periapical repair of dogs' teeth with periapical lesions after endodontic treatment with different root canal sealers. (8/183)The aim of this study was to evaluate the apical and periapical repair after root canal treatment of dogs' teeth with pulp necrosis and chronic periapical lesion using different root canal sealers. After periapical lesion induction, forty-four root canals of 3 dogs were submitted to biomechanical preparation using 5.25% sodium hypochlorite as an irrigating solution. A calcium hydroxide dressing (Calen PMCC) was applied for 15 days and the root canals were filled using the lateral condensation technique with gutta-percha points and Sealapex, AH Plus or Sealer Plus for sealing. After 180 days, the animals were sacrificed by anesthetic overdose and the obtained histological sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin for optical microscopic analysis of the apical and periapical repair. The groups filled with Sealapex and AH Plus had better histological repair (p < 0.05) than the group filled with Sealer Plus, that had unsatisfactory results. (+info)
Calcium hydroxide, also known as slaked lime or hydrated lime, is a chemical compound with the formula Ca(OH)2. It is a white, powdery solid that is commonly used in the medical field as a disinfectant and antiseptic. Calcium hydroxide is effective against a wide range of microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, and fungi. It is often used to clean and disinfect wounds, burns, and other injuries, as well as to treat skin infections and ulcers. In addition to its antiseptic properties, calcium hydroxide is also used in the medical field as a pH regulator and a buffer. It is commonly used in the production of various medical products, including dental cements, ointments, and dressings. However, it is important to note that calcium hydroxide can be caustic and can cause skin irritation and burns if not used properly. It should be handled with care and used only under the guidance of a healthcare professional.
Aluminum hydroxide is a white, odorless, and tasteless powder that is commonly used in the medical field as an antacid and an adsorbent. It works by neutralizing stomach acid and reducing symptoms of heartburn, indigestion, and acid reflux. In addition to its use as an antacid, aluminum hydroxide is also used in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia, a condition characterized by high levels of phosphate in the blood. It works by binding to phosphate and preventing it from being absorbed by the body. Aluminum hydroxide is available over-the-counter as well as by prescription. It is generally considered safe when used as directed, but long-term use at high doses may increase the risk of aluminum toxicity, which can lead to neurological and bone problems.
Dental pulp necrosis is a condition in which the living tissue inside the tooth, known as the dental pulp, dies. The dental pulp contains nerves, blood vessels, and connective tissue that nourish and support the tooth. When the dental pulp becomes necrotic, it can lead to a range of dental problems, including toothache, sensitivity to hot and cold, and infection. There are several causes of dental pulp necrosis, including deep decay, trauma to the tooth, and certain medical conditions such as leukemia or radiation therapy. Treatment for dental pulp necrosis typically involves removing the dead tissue from the tooth and filling the space with a material such as gutta-percha or a composite resin. In some cases, a root canal may be necessary to remove the infected pulp and prevent further complications.
In the medical field, hydroxides are compounds that contain the hydroxide ion (OH-) as a part of their chemical structure. Hydroxides are commonly found in various minerals and salts, and they can also be produced in the body as a result of metabolic processes. One example of a hydroxide in the medical field is calcium hydroxide, which is commonly used as a dental cement to fill cavities and as a root canal treatment. Another example is magnesium hydroxide, which is used as an antacid to neutralize stomach acid and relieve heartburn and indigestion. Hydroxides can also be used in the treatment of certain medical conditions. For example, sodium hydroxide is used in the treatment of acidosis, a condition in which the body's pH level becomes too acidic. Hydroxides can also be used in the production of certain medications, such as antibiotics and anticoagulants. Overall, hydroxides play an important role in the medical field, both as components of various compounds and as treatments for various medical conditions.
Demeclocycline is an antibiotic medication that is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including acne, urinary tract infections, and respiratory infections. It is a tetracycline antibiotic, which means that it works by inhibiting the growth of bacteria by interfering with their ability to synthesize proteins. Demeclocycline is available in both oral and intravenous forms and is typically taken once or twice a day, depending on the specific infection being treated. It is important to note that demeclocycline can cause side effects, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and photosensitivity, and should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional.
Camphor is a white, waxy, crystalline substance that has a strong, distinctive odor. It is a natural compound that is extracted from the bark of certain trees, including the camphor laurel tree. Camphor has a number of medicinal properties and has been used for centuries in traditional medicine to treat a variety of conditions, including respiratory infections, muscle pain, and skin irritations. It is also used as a topical analgesic and antiseptic, and as a component in some insect repellents. In the medical field, camphor is used in a variety of products, including cough drops, ointments, and inhalers. It is also used in some surgical procedures as a local anesthetic.
Sodium hydroxide is a chemical compound with the formula NaOH. It is commonly known as lye and is a strong base that is used in various industrial and laboratory applications. In the medical field, sodium hydroxide is not commonly used. However, it can be used in some laboratory procedures to neutralize acidic solutions or to prepare buffer solutions. It is important to handle sodium hydroxide with caution as it is highly caustic and can cause severe burns if it comes into contact with skin or eyes.
In the medical field, "Hydrocarbons, Iodinated" refers to a class of compounds that contain carbon and hydrogen atoms, with one or more iodine atoms also present. These compounds are often used as contrast agents in medical imaging procedures, such as computed tomography (CT) scans and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. They work by enhancing the visibility of certain structures within the body, allowing doctors to more easily diagnose and treat a variety of medical conditions. Some common examples of iodinated hydrocarbons include iohexol, iodixanol, and iodopentol.
Chlorophenols are a group of organic compounds that contain a chloro group (-Cl) attached to a phenol group (-OH). They are commonly used as disinfectants, preservatives, and as intermediates in the production of other chemicals. In the medical field, chlorophenols have been used as antiseptics and disinfectants for wounds and surfaces. They have also been used as preservatives in medical devices and pharmaceuticals. However, some chlorophenols have been associated with adverse effects on human health, including skin irritation, respiratory problems, and liver damage. As a result, the use of chlorophenols in some medical applications has been limited or banned in some countries.
Chlorhexidine is an antiseptic agent that is commonly used in the medical field for a variety of purposes. It is a broad-spectrum disinfectant that is effective against a wide range of microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Chlorhexidine is available in a variety of forms, including solutions, gels, and mouthwashes. It is often used to clean and disinfect surfaces and equipment in healthcare settings, as well as to treat wounds and skin infections. It is also commonly used as an antiseptic mouthwash to help prevent gum disease and tooth decay. Chlorhexidine works by disrupting the cell membranes of microorganisms, which kills them or prevents them from multiplying. It is generally considered to be safe and effective when used as directed, although it can cause skin irritation and allergic reactions in some people. It is important to follow the instructions for use carefully and to avoid using chlorhexidine on open wounds or in the eyes.
Apexification is a dental procedure used to treat a tooth that has an open apex, or an immature root that has not fully developed. The goal of apexification is to promote the continued development of the root and prevent further infection or damage to the tooth. The procedure involves filling the root canal with a medicated material, such as calcium hydroxide, which helps to stimulate the growth of new tissue in the root. Over time, the tooth's root will continue to develop and harden, providing a stable foundation for a permanent filling or crown. Apexification is typically used in cases where a young person has a tooth that has become infected or damaged, but the root has not yet fully developed. It can also be used in cases where a tooth has a large filling or other restoration that has caused damage to the root canal, or in cases where a tooth has been traumatized or injured. Overall, apexification is a safe and effective way to treat teeth with immature roots and prevent further damage or infection. It can help to save a tooth that might otherwise need to be extracted, and can provide a long-lasting solution for patients who need dental treatment.
Ammonium hydroxide is a chemical compound with the formula NH4OH. It is a colorless, strongly basic solution of ammonia in water. In the medical field, ammonium hydroxide is used as a laboratory reagent for various purposes, such as in the preparation of buffers, in the analysis of proteins and amino acids, and in the detection of certain organic compounds. It is also used as a disinfectant and antiseptic, and in the treatment of certain skin conditions. However, it should be handled with care as it is highly caustic and can cause chemical burns if it comes into contact with skin or eyes.
Periapical periodontitis is a type of gum disease that affects the tissue surrounding the roots of teeth. It is caused by an infection in the pulp of the tooth, which can lead to inflammation and swelling of the gums and surrounding tissues. The infection can also spread to the bone that surrounds the tooth, leading to bone loss and potentially causing the tooth to become loose or fall out. Symptoms of periapical periodontitis may include pain, swelling, and sensitivity to hot or cold temperatures. Treatment typically involves removing the infected pulp from the tooth and then cleaning and filling the tooth canal to prevent further infection. In some cases, antibiotics may also be prescribed to help clear the infection.
In the medical field, a dental cavity lining is a material used to fill a cavity in a tooth. It is applied to the inner surface of the cavity to protect the tooth from further decay and to restore its function. The lining is typically made of a composite resin or a glass ionomer cement, which are both biocompatible and can bond to the tooth structure. The lining is applied in a thin layer and then hardened with a special light or chemical treatment. Once the lining is in place, it can help to prevent further decay and restore the tooth to its normal shape and function.
Magnesium hydroxide is a white, odorless powder that is commonly used in the medical field as an antacid and laxative. It is also used in some mouthwashes and toothpastes to neutralize acid and freshen breath. In the body, magnesium hydroxide works by binding to stomach acid and neutralizing it, which can help to relieve symptoms of heartburn, acid reflux, and indigestion. It can also help to soften stools and promote regular bowel movements, which makes it useful for treating constipation. Magnesium hydroxide is generally considered safe when used as directed, but it can cause side effects such as bloating, gas, and diarrhea in some people. It is important to follow the recommended dosage and to talk to a healthcare provider before using magnesium hydroxide if you have any medical conditions or are taking any medications.
Calcium compounds are chemical compounds that contain calcium ions. Calcium is an essential mineral for the human body, and it plays a crucial role in various physiological processes, including bone health, muscle function, and nerve transmission. Calcium compounds are commonly used in the medical field for a variety of purposes, including the treatment of osteoporosis, hypocalcemia, and hyperparathyroidism. Some common examples of calcium compounds used in medicine include calcium carbonate, calcium citrate, calcium gluconate, and calcium lactate. These compounds are often administered orally or intravenously, depending on the specific condition being treated.
Calcium signaling is a complex process that involves the movement of calcium ions (Ca2+) within and between cells. Calcium ions play a crucial role in many cellular functions, including muscle contraction, neurotransmitter release, gene expression, and cell division. Calcium signaling is regulated by a network of proteins that sense changes in calcium levels and respond by activating or inhibiting specific cellular processes. In the medical field, calcium signaling is important for understanding the mechanisms underlying many diseases, including cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer. Calcium signaling is also a target for many drugs, including those used to treat hypertension, arrhythmias, and osteoporosis. Understanding the complex interactions between calcium ions and the proteins that regulate them is therefore an important area of research in medicine.
Dentin, secondary, also known as secondary dentin, is a type of dentin that is formed after the primary dentin in the tooth. It is produced by odontoblasts, which are specialized cells that are responsible for forming dentin. Secondary dentin is typically darker in color than primary dentin and has a different microstructure. It is formed in response to injury or inflammation to the tooth and helps to strengthen the tooth and protect it from further damage.
'Anti-Infective Agents, Local' refers to medications that are applied directly to a specific area of the body to treat or prevent infections. These agents are typically used to treat skin infections, ear infections, eye infections, and other localized infections. They work by killing or inhibiting the growth of bacteria, viruses, fungi, or other microorganisms that cause infections. Examples of local anti-infective agents include antibiotics such as neomycin, polymyxin B, and bacitracin, which are commonly used to treat skin infections. Other examples include antifungal agents such as clotrimazole and miconazole, which are used to treat fungal infections of the skin, nails, and scalp. Local anti-infective agents are often available in the form of creams, ointments, gels, or solutions that can be applied directly to the affected area.
Sodium hypochlorite is a chemical compound with the formula NaOCl. It is a strong oxidizing agent and is commonly used as a disinfectant and bleach. In the medical field, sodium hypochlorite is used as a disinfectant to clean and sterilize medical equipment, instruments, and surfaces. It is also used as a topical antiseptic to treat minor cuts, wounds, and burns. Sodium hypochlorite is available in various concentrations and is typically mixed with water to form a solution for use. It is important to handle sodium hypochlorite with care, as it can be harmful if ingested or inhaled in large quantities.
A dental fistula is an abnormal opening or passage in the oral cavity that connects to a deeper tissue or structure, such as the maxillary sinus, the nasal cavity, or the pharynx. It is typically caused by an infection or injury that damages the bone or tissue surrounding the tooth root or the periodontal ligament. Dental fistulas can be classified into several types based on their location and cause. Some common types of dental fistulas include: 1. Sinusitis fistula: This type of fistula occurs when an infection in the maxillary sinus spreads through the bone and creates an opening in the oral cavity. 2. Periapical fistula: This type of fistula occurs when an infection in the root of a tooth spreads through the bone and creates an opening in the gum tissue. 3. Periodontal fistula: This type of fistula occurs when an infection in the gums spreads through the bone and creates an opening in the gum tissue. 4. Traumatic fistula: This type of fistula occurs when an injury to the oral cavity or the surrounding bone creates an opening. Dental fistulas can cause a range of symptoms, including pain, swelling, discharge of pus or blood, bad breath, and difficulty chewing or speaking. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to control the infection, followed by surgical repair of the fistula to prevent further complications.
In the medical field, silicates refer to a group of minerals that contain silicon and oxygen. These minerals are commonly used in various medical applications, including as components of medications, as dietary supplements, and as ingredients in medical devices. One common use of silicates in medicine is as a component of antacids, which are used to treat acid reflux and heartburn. Silicates, such as magnesium aluminum silicate, work by neutralizing stomach acid and forming a protective layer on the lining of the esophagus. Silicates are also used in some dietary supplements, such as calcium silicate, which is a source of calcium and silicon. Calcium is important for maintaining strong bones and teeth, while silicon is thought to play a role in maintaining healthy skin and nails. In addition, silicates are used as ingredients in medical devices, such as wound dressings and dental fillings. For example, hydroxyapatite, a type of silicate mineral, is used as a biocompatible material in dental implants and orthopedic implants. Overall, silicates have a variety of medical applications and are an important component of many medical products.
Calcium carbonate is a mineral that is commonly used in the medical field as a dietary supplement and as a medication. It is also used in the treatment of certain medical conditions, such as osteoporosis, stomach ulcers, and kidney stones. Calcium carbonate is a source of calcium, which is an essential mineral that is important for maintaining strong bones and teeth, as well as for many other functions in the body. It is also used as an antacid to neutralize stomach acid and relieve symptoms of heartburn and indigestion. In the medical field, calcium carbonate is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and powders. It is usually taken by mouth, although it can also be given intravenously in certain cases. The dosage and duration of treatment will depend on the specific medical condition being treated and the individual patient's needs.
Gutta-percha is a natural rubber that is derived from the sap of the gutta-percha tree, which is native to Southeast Asia. It has been used in various medical applications, including as a dental filling material, a component of catheters and other medical devices, and as a material for making dental impressions. In the past, gutta-percha was also used as a material for making condoms and as a sealant for electrical insulation. It is known for its flexibility, durability, and resistance to heat and chemicals.
Pulpitis is a medical term used to describe inflammation of the pulp, which is the soft tissue inside the tooth that contains nerves, blood vessels, and connective tissue. Pulpitis can be acute or chronic, and it can be caused by a variety of factors, including tooth decay, injury, or infection. Acute pulpitis is a sudden and severe form of pulpitis that is often accompanied by sharp, shooting pain that can be triggered by hot or cold temperatures, pressure, or sweet or sour foods. Chronic pulpitis is a less severe form of pulpitis that may cause dull, aching pain that is relieved by over-the-counter pain medication. If pulpitis is left untreated, it can lead to the formation of an abscess, which is a pocket of pus that can cause further pain and infection. Treatment for pulpitis typically involves root canal therapy, which involves removing the inflamed pulp and cleaning and sealing the inside of the tooth. In some cases, a tooth may need to be extracted if it is too damaged to save.
Zinc oxide is a white, odorless, and insoluble powder that is commonly used in the medical field as a protective and healing agent. It is a naturally occurring mineral that has been used for centuries for its medicinal properties. In the medical field, zinc oxide is used in a variety of applications, including: 1. Skin protection: Zinc oxide is used as a protective layer on the skin to prevent irritation, redness, and other skin conditions. It is commonly used in sunscreens, diaper creams, and other skincare products. 2. Wound healing: Zinc oxide is used to promote wound healing by creating a moist environment that helps to prevent infection and promote the growth of new tissue. 3. Antimicrobial properties: Zinc oxide has antimicrobial properties that make it effective in preventing the growth of bacteria and other microorganisms. 4. Antifungal properties: Zinc oxide has antifungal properties that make it effective in treating fungal infections such as athlete's foot and ringworm. 5. Anti-inflammatory properties: Zinc oxide has anti-inflammatory properties that make it effective in reducing inflammation and swelling. Overall, zinc oxide is a versatile and effective ingredient in the medical field that is used for a variety of applications to promote healing, protect the skin, and prevent infection.
Calcium channels are specialized proteins found in the cell membrane of many types of cells, including neurons, muscle cells, and epithelial cells. These channels allow calcium ions to pass through the cell membrane, regulating the flow of calcium into and out of the cell. Calcium channels play a crucial role in many physiological processes, including muscle contraction, neurotransmitter release, and the regulation of gene expression. Calcium channels can be classified into several types based on their structure and function, including voltage-gated calcium channels, ligand-gated calcium channels, and store-operated calcium channels. In the medical field, calcium channels are the target of many drugs, including anti-seizure medications, anti-anxiety medications, and antiarrhythmics. Abnormalities in calcium channel function have been linked to a variety of diseases, including hypertension, heart disease, and neurological disorders such as epilepsy and multiple sclerosis.
Propolis is a resinous substance that bees collect from tree buds, sap flows, and other botanical sources. It is used by bees to seal and strengthen the walls of their hives and protect them from bacteria, viruses, and other pathogens. In the medical field, propolis is used as a natural remedy for a variety of conditions, including wounds, burns, infections, and inflammation. It has also been shown to have antioxidant and anti-cancer properties. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential benefits and risks of using propolis as a medical treatment.
Dental pulp exposure is a condition in which the innermost layer of the tooth, called the dental pulp, becomes exposed or damaged. The dental pulp contains nerves, blood vessels, and connective tissue that nourish and support the tooth. When the pulp is exposed, it can become infected, inflamed, or painful, and may require treatment to prevent further damage or infection. Causes of dental pulp exposure can include tooth decay, trauma, or dental procedures such as root canal therapy or tooth extraction. Treatment options for dental pulp exposure may include pain management, antibiotics, or a procedure called pulpotomy or pulpectomy, in which the damaged pulp is removed and the tooth is filled and sealed to prevent further infection.
In the medical field, aluminum compounds refer to substances that contain aluminum as a component. Aluminum is a common element found in many minerals and is used in a variety of industrial and medical applications. In the context of medicine, aluminum compounds are often used as antacids to neutralize stomach acid and relieve symptoms of heartburn and indigestion. They may also be used as a component in certain medications, such as antiperspirants and certain types of antacids. However, excessive exposure to aluminum compounds can be harmful to human health. Aluminum has been linked to a number of health problems, including Alzheimer's disease, osteoporosis, and kidney damage. As a result, the use of aluminum compounds in certain medical applications is closely regulated to minimize the risk of adverse effects.
Calcium, dietary refers to the amount of calcium that is obtained from food and beverages consumed by an individual. Calcium is an essential mineral that plays a crucial role in maintaining strong bones and teeth, as well as regulating muscle function, nerve transmission, and blood clotting. The recommended daily intake of calcium varies depending on age, sex, and other factors. For adults, the recommended daily intake of calcium is 1000-1300 milligrams per day. Calcium can be obtained from a variety of sources, including dairy products (such as milk, cheese, and yogurt), leafy green vegetables (such as kale and spinach), fortified foods (such as cereal and orange juice), and certain types of fish (such as salmon and sardines). In the medical field, monitoring an individual's dietary calcium intake is important for maintaining optimal bone health and preventing conditions such as osteoporosis. A deficiency in dietary calcium can lead to weakened bones and an increased risk of fractures, while an excess of calcium can lead to kidney stones and other health problems.
Periapical diseases are a group of dental conditions that affect the tissues surrounding the root of a tooth. These diseases are caused by infections that originate in the pulp chamber of the tooth, which contains the nerves, blood vessels, and connective tissue of the tooth. The infection can spread from the pulp chamber to the surrounding tissues, including the bone and gum, leading to inflammation and other complications. There are several types of periapical diseases, including: 1. Periapical abscess: This is an infection that forms a pocket of pus around the root of a tooth. It can cause pain, swelling, and redness in the gums, as well as fever and other systemic symptoms. 2. Periapical cyst: This is a fluid-filled sac that forms around the root of a tooth. It is usually asymptomatic but can cause damage to the surrounding bone and teeth if left untreated. 3. Periapical granuloma: This is a chronic inflammatory response to an infection in the pulp chamber of a tooth. It is usually asymptomatic but can cause pain and swelling if it becomes infected. 4. Periapical periodontitis: This is a chronic infection that affects the tissues surrounding the root of a tooth, including the gum and bone. It can cause pain, swelling, and tooth loss if left untreated. Treatment for periapical diseases typically involves root canal therapy, which involves removing the infected pulp from the tooth and cleaning and sealing the canal to prevent further infection. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the affected tissue or drain an abscess.
Dental pulp diseases refer to a group of conditions that affect the soft tissue inside the tooth, known as the dental pulp. The dental pulp contains nerves, blood vessels, and connective tissue that nourish and support the tooth. There are several types of dental pulp diseases, including: 1. Dental caries: This is the most common type of dental pulp disease, caused by bacteria that produce acids that erode the tooth enamel and dentin, leading to decay of the dental pulp. 2. Dental abscess: This occurs when bacteria enter the dental pulp and cause an infection, leading to the formation of an abscess, which is a collection of pus. 3. Pulpitis: This is an inflammation of the dental pulp, which can be caused by dental caries, trauma, or other factors. 4. Pulp necrosis: This occurs when the dental pulp dies due to trauma, infection, or other factors. 5. Pulp calcification: This is the formation of calcium deposits in the dental pulp, which can cause pain and other symptoms. Dental pulp diseases can cause pain, sensitivity, swelling, and other symptoms, and can lead to tooth loss if left untreated. Treatment options for dental pulp diseases include root canal therapy, pulpotomy, and extraction.
Tooth avulsion is a medical term used to describe the complete displacement or separation of a tooth from its socket due to trauma or injury. This can occur as a result of a blow to the mouth, a fall, or other types of accidents. Tooth avulsion is a serious dental emergency that requires immediate attention to prevent further damage to the tooth and surrounding tissues. Treatment typically involves reinserting the tooth into its socket as soon as possible, followed by splinting and other supportive measures to promote healing. In some cases, if the tooth is not reinserted within a certain time frame, it may need to be extracted and replaced with a dental implant or bridge.
In the medical field, "Tooth, Nonvital" refers to a tooth that has lost its blood supply and is no longer alive. This can occur due to injury, infection, or other factors that damage the tooth's pulp, which is the soft tissue inside the tooth that contains nerves, blood vessels, and connective tissue. A nonvital tooth may become sensitive to hot and cold temperatures, pain when biting or chewing, or may have an unpleasant taste. If left untreated, a nonvital tooth can lead to further complications such as infection, abscess, or tooth loss. Treatment options for a nonvital tooth may include root canal therapy, which involves removing the damaged pulp and filling the tooth with a special material to prevent further infection, or extraction and replacement with a dental implant or bridge.
Dental leakage refers to the passage of bacteria or other microorganisms from the oral cavity into the surrounding tissues or the bloodstream through gaps or spaces in dental restorations, such as fillings, crowns, or bridges. This can lead to the development of dental caries (cavities) or other infections, and can also increase the risk of systemic infections, such as endocarditis or meningitis. Dental leakage can occur due to a variety of factors, including poor fit of the restoration, inadequate cleaning and maintenance, or the presence of cracks or defects in the restoration material. It is important to detect and treat dental leakage promptly to prevent further complications.
In the medical field, a smear layer is a thin layer of debris and bacteria that forms on the surface of dental tissues, such as teeth and gums, after a cleaning or scaling procedure. This layer can interfere with the bonding of dental materials, such as fillings or crowns, to the underlying tooth structure, and can also contribute to the development of dental plaque and gum disease. To remove the smear layer, dentists may use a variety of techniques, such as polishing or etching, to roughen the surface of the tooth and improve the adhesion of dental materials.
In the medical field, the term "alkalies" refers to substances that have a pH greater than 7 and are basic or alkaline in nature. These substances can help to neutralize or counteract the effects of acidic substances in the body. Alkalies are often used to treat acidosis, a condition in which the body's pH becomes too acidic. They can also be used to help treat certain digestive disorders, such as heartburn and acid reflux, by neutralizing stomach acid. Some common examples of alkalies used in medicine include baking soda (sodium bicarbonate), antacids, and certain types of diuretics. It is important to note that while alkalies can be helpful in certain situations, they should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as excessive use can have negative side effects.
Calcium sulfate is a chemical compound that is commonly used in the medical field. It is also known as calcium sulfate dihydrate or gypsum. Calcium sulfate is a white, odorless, and crystalline powder that is insoluble in water. It is used in a variety of medical applications, including: 1. Radiopaque contrast agent: Calcium sulfate is used as a radiopaque contrast agent in X-ray imaging to help visualize bones and other structures in the body. 2. Hemostatic agent: Calcium sulfate is used as a hemostatic agent to stop bleeding in wounds and surgical procedures. 3. Dental applications: Calcium sulfate is used in dental applications, such as in the production of dental cements and as a desensitizing agent for toothpaste. 4. Pharmaceutical applications: Calcium sulfate is used in the production of various pharmaceuticals, including tablets, capsules, and injectables. 5. Wound healing: Calcium sulfate is used in wound healing to promote the formation of new tissue and to help prevent infection. Calcium sulfate is generally considered safe for medical use, but it can cause allergic reactions in some people. It is important to follow the instructions for use and to consult with a healthcare provider before using calcium sulfate for any medical purpose.
Root resorption is a dental condition in which the root of a tooth becomes shorter or disappears due to various factors. It can occur in both primary (baby) and permanent teeth and can be caused by a variety of factors, including trauma, orthodontic treatment, dental procedures, and certain medical conditions. In some cases, root resorption may be asymptomatic and may not cause any noticeable symptoms. However, in severe cases, it can lead to tooth sensitivity, pain, and even tooth loss. Root resorption can be diagnosed through dental X-rays, which can show the extent and severity of the condition. Treatment options depend on the cause and severity of the root resorption, and may include observation, root canal therapy, or extraction of the affected tooth.
Cyanoacrylates are a class of adhesives that are commonly used in the medical field for a variety of purposes. They are known for their rapid curing properties and strong bonding ability, which makes them useful for a range of medical applications. One common use of cyanoacrylates in medicine is for wound closure. They are often used to close small incisions or lacerations, as they can quickly form a strong bond with the skin and underlying tissue. They are also used in surgical procedures to secure sutures or to attach medical devices to the skin. In addition to wound closure, cyanoacrylates are also used in dental procedures, such as bonding fillings or attaching orthodontic brackets to teeth. They are also used in veterinary medicine for wound closure and to attach medical devices to animals. Overall, cyanoacrylates are a versatile and effective adhesive that are widely used in the medical field for a variety of applications.
Tooth fractures refer to the partial or complete breakage of the hard outer layer of a tooth, known as the enamel. Tooth fractures can occur as a result of trauma, such as a blow to the face, or from excessive force applied to the tooth during biting or chewing. There are several types of tooth fractures, including: 1. Fractures of the enamel: These occur when the outer layer of the tooth is broken, but the underlying dentin and pulp are not affected. 2. Fractures of the dentin: These occur when the dentin, the layer of tooth beneath the enamel, is broken. 3. Fractures of the pulp: These occur when the innermost layer of the tooth, the pulp, is damaged. 4. Complete tooth fractures: These occur when the entire tooth is broken into two or more pieces. Tooth fractures can cause pain, sensitivity, and difficulty chewing or speaking. Treatment options depend on the severity of the fracture and may include filling the tooth, root canal therapy, or extraction and replacement with a dental implant or bridge.
Dental cements are materials used in dentistry to bond dental restorations, such as fillings, crowns, and bridges, to the teeth. They are also used to bond dental implants to the jawbone. Dental cements are typically composed of a powder and a liquid, which are mixed together to form a paste that can be applied to the tooth or implant surface. The paste then hardens, forming a strong bond between the restoration and the tooth or implant. There are several different types of dental cements, each with its own unique properties and intended use. Some common types of dental cements include zinc phosphate cement, glass ionomer cement, and resin cement.
In the medical field, oxides refer to compounds that contain oxygen and another element. These compounds can be found in various forms, such as minerals, gases, and solids, and they play important roles in various biological processes. For example, calcium oxide (CaO) is a common oxide that is used in the treatment of acid reflux and ulcers. It works by neutralizing stomach acid and forming a protective layer on the stomach lining. Another example is hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which is a powerful oxidizing agent that is used in wound care to kill bacteria and promote healing. In addition to their therapeutic uses, oxides are also important in the diagnosis and treatment of various medical conditions. For example, the measurement of blood oxygen levels is a critical part of respiratory and cardiovascular monitoring, and the use of oxygen therapy is a common treatment for patients with respiratory distress. Overall, oxides play important roles in many aspects of medicine, from the treatment of specific conditions to the diagnosis and monitoring of patients.
Epoxy resins are a type of polymer that are commonly used in the medical field for a variety of applications. They are known for their strong, durable, and adhesive properties, which make them ideal for use in medical devices and implants. One common use of epoxy resins in medicine is in the production of dental fillings. Epoxy resins are used to bond to tooth enamel and provide a strong, long-lasting filling that can withstand the wear and tear of daily use. Epoxy resins are also used in the production of medical implants, such as orthopedic implants and dental implants. They are used to bond the implant to the surrounding bone and provide a strong, stable foundation for the implant. In addition to their use in medical devices and implants, epoxy resins are also used in the production of medical equipment, such as surgical instruments and medical imaging equipment. They are used to provide a strong, durable coating that can withstand the harsh conditions of the medical environment. Overall, epoxy resins are an important material in the medical field due to their strong, durable, and adhesive properties, which make them ideal for use in a wide range of medical applications.
Propylene glycol is a colorless, odorless, and viscous liquid that is commonly used as a solvent, humectant, and preservative in various medical products. It is a synthetic compound that is derived from propene, a hydrocarbon. In the medical field, propylene glycol is used in a variety of applications, including as a diluent for injectable medications, as a carrier for topical medications, and as an ingredient in medical devices such as catheters and tubing. It is also used as a stabilizer for vaccines and as a preservative for eye drops and other ophthalmic solutions. Propylene glycol is generally considered safe for use in medical products, although it can cause irritation or allergic reactions in some individuals. It is also flammable and should be handled with care.
Triamcinolone acetonide is a synthetic corticosteroid medication that is used to treat a variety of medical conditions. It is a potent anti-inflammatory agent that works by reducing inflammation and suppressing the immune system. Triamcinolone acetonide is available in various forms, including injectable solutions, ointments, creams, and inhalers. It is commonly used to treat conditions such as asthma, allergic reactions, skin disorders, and joint pain. In higher doses, triamcinolone acetonide can have serious side effects, including weight gain, high blood pressure, diabetes, and osteoporosis. It is important to use this medication only as directed by a healthcare provider and to monitor for any potential side effects.
Calcium phosphates are a group of minerals that are commonly found in the human body, particularly in bones and teeth. They are also used in medical applications, such as in the production of bone grafts and dental implants. Calcium phosphates are composed of calcium and phosphorus ions, and they are typically crystalline in structure. There are several different types of calcium phosphates, including hydroxyapatite, octacalcium phosphate, and brushite. In the medical field, calcium phosphates are often used as a source of calcium and phosphorus for patients who are unable to obtain these nutrients from their diet. They are also used in the treatment of bone diseases, such as osteoporosis, and in the repair of bone fractures. In addition, calcium phosphates are used in the production of medical devices, such as dental implants and bone grafts, because of their biocompatibility and ability to support bone growth.
Bone cements are medical materials that are used to fill bone defects or to attach artificial joints to the bone. They are typically made of a powder and a liquid that are mixed together and then injected into the bone. The powder and liquid react chemically to form a hard, durable material that bonds to the bone and provides support for the artificial joint or implant. Bone cements are commonly used in orthopedic surgery to treat conditions such as fractures, osteoarthritis, and bone tumors. They are also used in dental surgery to anchor dental implants in the jawbone.
In the medical field, minerals are essential nutrients that are required for the proper functioning of the body. They are typically obtained through the diet and are necessary for a wide range of bodily processes, including building and maintaining bones, muscles, and other tissues, transmitting nerve impulses, and regulating fluid balance. There are many different minerals that are important for human health, including calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sodium, chloride, iron, zinc, copper, selenium, and iodine. Each of these minerals has specific functions within the body and is required in different amounts depending on age, sex, and overall health. Deficiencies in certain minerals can lead to a range of health problems, including osteoporosis, anemia, and heart disease. On the other hand, excessive intake of certain minerals can also be harmful and can lead to toxicity or other health issues. Therefore, it is important to maintain a balanced diet that provides adequate amounts of all essential minerals.
Potassium compounds are chemical compounds that contain potassium, which is an essential mineral for the proper functioning of the human body. In the medical field, potassium compounds are often used to treat potassium deficiencies or imbalances, which can occur due to a variety of factors such as malnutrition, diarrhea, or certain medications. Potassium compounds are available in various forms, including potassium chloride, potassium citrate, and potassium gluconate. These compounds can be administered orally, intravenously, or topically, depending on the specific condition being treated and the severity of the potassium deficiency. In addition to treating potassium deficiencies, potassium compounds may also be used to manage certain medical conditions, such as hypertension, heart disease, and kidney disease. However, it is important to note that potassium compounds can have side effects and may interact with other medications, so they should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional.
Calcium isotopes refer to the different forms of the element calcium that have different atomic weights due to the presence of different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei. In the medical field, calcium isotopes are often used in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures related to bone health and metabolism. One commonly used calcium isotope in medicine is calcium-47, which is a radioactive isotope that can be used to measure bone turnover and bone mineral density. Calcium-47 is produced by bombarding a calcium-46 target with high-energy protons, and it decays by emitting a positron, which can be detected using positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. Another calcium isotope that is used in medicine is calcium-82, which is a radioactive isotope that can be used to treat certain types of cancer. Calcium-82 is produced by bombarding a zinc-68 target with high-energy protons, and it decays by emitting a positron, which can be used to target and destroy cancer cells. Overall, calcium isotopes play an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of bone and cancer-related conditions in the medical field.
In the medical field, "coloring agents" refer to substances that are used to add color to medical devices, such as catheters, syringes, and other equipment. These agents are typically added to the device during the manufacturing process to make it easier to identify and distinguish from other similar devices. Coloring agents can also be used in medical imaging to help visualize certain structures or tissues. For example, contrast agents used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) scans contain coloring agents that help highlight specific areas of the body. It is important to note that the use of coloring agents in medical devices and imaging must be carefully regulated to ensure that they do not pose any risks to patients. The FDA (Food and Drug Administration) in the United States, for example, requires that all medical devices and imaging agents undergo rigorous testing and approval before they can be used in clinical settings.
Calcium chloride is a salt that is commonly used in the medical field as a medication and a dietary supplement. It is a white, crystalline powder that is highly soluble in water and is used to increase the concentration of calcium in the blood and to treat certain medical conditions. In the medical field, calcium chloride is used to treat hypocalcemia, which is a condition in which the blood calcium level is too low. It is also used to treat eclampsia, which is a serious complication of pregnancy that can cause seizures and other symptoms. Calcium chloride is also used to treat certain types of heart rhythm disorders, such as atrial fibrillation. Calcium chloride is available as a dietary supplement and can be taken by mouth to increase the body's calcium levels. It is also used as a food additive and is used to preserve food and to enhance the flavor of certain foods. However, it is important to note that calcium chloride should only be taken under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as it can have side effects and may interact with other medications.
Bismuth is a chemical element that is used in the medical field as an active ingredient in certain medications. It is most commonly used in combination with other medications to treat stomach ulcers and acid reflux. Bismuth also has antidiarrheal properties and has been used to treat bacterial infections, such as salmonellosis and shigellosis. In addition, bismuth has been used in the treatment of certain skin conditions, such as acne and rosacea. It is usually taken as a medication in the form of a tablet or capsule.
Calcium channels, L-type, are a type of ion channel found in the cell membrane of many different types of cells, including muscle cells, neurons, and smooth muscle cells. These channels are responsible for allowing calcium ions to flow into the cell in response to changes in voltage or the presence of certain chemicals. Calcium ions play a crucial role in many cellular processes, including muscle contraction, neurotransmitter release, and gene expression. Calcium channels, L-type, are particularly important in the regulation of these processes, as they are the primary source of calcium ions that enter the cell in response to depolarization of the membrane. In the medical field, calcium channels, L-type, are the target of many drugs used to treat conditions such as hypertension, heart disease, and neurological disorders.
Clindamycin is an antibiotic medication that is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections. It is a lincosamide antibiotic that works by stopping the growth of bacteria. Clindamycin is often used to treat infections of the skin, respiratory tract, and reproductive system, as well as certain types of bacterial infections that are resistant to other antibiotics. It is usually taken by mouth or given by injection, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated. Clindamycin can cause side effects such as nausea, diarrhea, and stomach pain, and it may interact with other medications, so it is important to follow your healthcare provider's instructions carefully when taking this medication.
Calcium oxalate is a chemical compound that is commonly found in many plants, including spinach, rhubarb, and beets. In the medical field, calcium oxalate is often associated with kidney stones, which are hard, mineral deposits that can form in the kidneys and cause pain and other symptoms. Calcium oxalate stones are the most common type of kidney stone, accounting for about 75% of all cases. They can also form in the urinary tract and can cause blockages and other complications. In addition to kidney stones, calcium oxalate can also accumulate in the blood and cause other health problems, such as hyperoxaluria, which is a condition characterized by high levels of oxalate in the blood.
Calcium gluconate is a salt that is formed by combining calcium ions with gluconic acid. It is a white, crystalline powder that is commonly used as a source of calcium in dietary supplements and as a medication to treat certain types of calcium deficiencies, such as hypocalcemia. Calcium gluconate is also used to prevent and treat eclampsia (a potentially life-threatening condition that can occur during pregnancy) and to treat certain types of heart rhythm disorders. In the medical field, calcium gluconate is typically administered intravenously or orally in the form of a solution or tablet. It is important to note that calcium gluconate should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as it can interact with other medications and may cause side effects in some people.
In the medical field, "Colony Count, Microbial" refers to the process of counting the number of colonies of microorganisms that have grown on a culture plate. This is a common laboratory technique used to determine the concentration or density of microorganisms in a sample. To perform a colony count, a sample is typically taken from a patient or an environmental source and then cultured on a nutrient-rich agar plate. The plate is incubated for a specific period of time to allow the microorganisms to grow and form colonies. The colonies are then counted and the results are expressed in colony-forming units (CFUs) per milliliter or per gram of the original sample. The colony count can be used to diagnose infections caused by microorganisms, to monitor the effectiveness of antimicrobial treatments, and to assess the quality of food and water. It is an important tool in the field of microbiology and is used in a variety of settings, including hospitals, laboratories, and research facilities.
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- The calcium oxide, with that traditional name of lime, is produced from quarried limestone by heating it in a kiln to more than 825°C, which gives off carbon dioxide from the calcium carbonate that is the prime constituent of the rock, leaving the oxide. (chemistryworld.com)
- It is the formation of calcium hydroxide from the calcium oxide in cement, when water is added, that starts the process of forming calcium carbonate, providing the solidity of the set mixture that is so important to the building industry. (chemistryworld.com)
- More aesthetically pleasing is calcium hydroxide's use in paper production, where reacted with sodium sulfide and sodium carbonate it generates the sodium hydroxide that is used to treat wood chips, breaking down the lignin to free up the cellulose. (chemistryworld.com)
- Calcium hydroxide is also a boon for those who are fond of breathing in difficult circumstances, for whom it provides a carbon dioxide scrubber, producing harmless calcium carbonate from CO 2 in exhaled air. (chemistryworld.com)
- Method 1: Calcium carbonate is reacted with hydrochloric acid to generate calcium chloride. (leatherchemical.net)
- The solution is filtered, and sodium bicarbonate is added to generate a calcium carbonate precipitate. (leatherchemical.net)
- Method 2: Calcium carbonate is heated to a higher temperature to undergo thermal decomposition to form calcium oxide or burnt lime. (leatherchemical.net)
- The solid calcium carbonate was completely neutralised with 0.1 N hydrochloric acid. (simpleedulife.com)
- It is a colorless crystal or white powder and is produced when quicklime (calcium oxide) is mixed with water. (wikipedia.org)
- Calcium hydroxide is a white powder produced by mixing calcium oxide ("lime") with water. (medlineplus.gov)
- Its best known common description, slaked lime, suggests that it is lime (more properly known as calcium oxide) that has drunk its fill. (chemistryworld.com)
- Hydrated lime' merely describes its formation by adding calcium oxide to water, while the rather entertaining 'pickling lime' shows up one of its less well known uses. (chemistryworld.com)
- This compound is readily manufactured from calcium oxide by adding water, a process so simple it makes it obvious why it is has been so widely used. (chemistryworld.com)
- The process of producing calcium hydroxide can also easily be reversed by heating it to 512°C, at which point the water is driven off, reverting the compound to calcium oxide. (chemistryworld.com)
- Traditional lime mortar used pure calcium oxide, but the harder cement typically starts with a calcium silicate that is, in effect, calcium oxide bonded to silicon dioxide. (chemistryworld.com)
- Calcium oxide may have been slaked to produce it, but the hydroxide is still an aggressive base that will burn the skin, damage the eyes and put the lungs at risk if inhaled. (chemistryworld.com)
- We can provide calcium hydro oxide, if it is requi. (curezone.org)
- Can be accommodated through our packaging partners specifications we have for this product Chemical formula Ca ( ). Oxy / Occitental Chemical Corporation calcium Oxide ( Quicklime ) is an inorganic compound with the Chemical formula Ca OH. (seznamka-sms.cz)
- Is produced when Quicklime ( calcium Oxide ) is an inorganic compound with the Chemical formula Ca ( )... … hot selling best price bulk Food grade & physical properties, please use your heading shortcut key navigate! (seznamka-sms.cz)
- Calcium oxide vary in the degree of crystallization and cohesion of the crystalline mass and the homogeneity of the matrix. (leatherchemical.net)
- The calcium oxide is broken down into fine particles of calcium hydroxide in this hydration reaction, which occurs in a continuous hydrator. (leatherchemical.net)
- Aluminum hydroxide injections lead to motor deficits and motor neuron degeneration. (greenmedinfo.com)
- Aluminum hydroxide-induced macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) associated with vaccination has been reported. (greenmedinfo.com)
- Long-term persistence of vaccine-derived aluminum hydroxide within the body assessed by MMF is associated with cognitive dysfunction. (greenmedinfo.com)
- Dycal is a self-set rigid dental cement based on calcium hydroxide. (surgical-hut.com)
- To evaluate the effect of intra-duct medication with calcium hydroxide paste on the pen- etration of the sealing cement inside the dentinal tubules. (bvsalud.org)
- They were randomly divided into two groups: one sealed with a single cone technique and Ah plus cement with rhodamine-B and another sealed with the same technique and Ah plus cement with rhodamine B, previous placement for 15 days and removal by recapping the paste calcium hydroxide. (bvsalud.org)
- Remaining calcium hydroxide decreases the penetration of the sealing cement Ah plus in the dentinal tubules in all thirds of the root canal. (bvsalud.org)
- Limewater, also called milk of lime, is the common name for a saturated solution of calcium hydroxide. (wikipedia.org)
- Aqueous solutions of calcium hydroxide are called limewater and are medium-strength bases, which react with acids and can attack some metals such as aluminium (amphoteric hydroxide dissolving at high pH), while protecting other metals, such as iron and steel, from corrosion by passivation of their surface. (wikipedia.org)
- Calcium hydroxide does not occur naturally since it reacts readily with water (to form hydrated lime) and carbon dioxide to form limestone. (leatherchemical.net)
- Sodium hydroxide reacts with iron (III) nitrate to create a precipitate of iron (III) hydroxide in a solution of sodium nitrate. (onlinemathlearning.com)
- Zinc hydroxide reacts with phosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4 ) to produce zinc phosphate and water. (onlinemathlearning.com)
- Radio Opaque Calcium Hydroxide paste with Iodoform, having excellent consistency specially formulated for endodontic applications. (dentact.com)
- Providing the importance of dental anatomy and auxiliary chemical substances in the pulp therapy, this study aimed to review the scientific production on the effects of calcium hydroxide and Iodoform associated or not, on immature teeth. (bvsalud.org)
- This application is enabled by the low cost and low toxicity of calcium hydroxide. (wikipedia.org)
- Dosage and duration of calcium folinate rescue primarily depend on the type and dosage of methotrexate therapy, the occurrence of toxicity symptoms, and the individual excretion capacity for methotrexate. (janusinfo.se)
- Daily doses of calcium folinate should be adjusted depending on the hematological toxicity of trimetrexate. (janusinfo.se)
- However, other calcium salts like calcium chloride show and increase in solubility since the enthalpy change is larger and dominates the free energy change during dissolution. (wikipedia.org)
- Excess of carbon dioxide is passed through 50 mL, of 0.5 M calcium hydroxide solution. (simpleedulife.com)
- 1 ml of solution contains calcium folinate equivalent to 10 mg of folinic acid as active ingredient. (janusinfo.se)
- At high pH values due to a common-ion effect with the hydroxide anion, its solubility drastically decreases. (wikipedia.org)
- Sodium Chloride solution and insoluble iron(II) hydroxide are produced. (onlinemathlearning.com)
- calcium Silicate. (seznamka-sms.cz)
- Under the limitations of the present study, the antimicrobial properties of nano-calcium hydroxide were higher than conventional calcium hydroxide on mature biofilm, whereas the antimicrobial properties were not clinically and significantly different on immature biofilm. (ac.ir)
- MTA or calcium hydroxide treatment for immature permanent teeth? (bvsalud.org)
- Calcium hydroxide is produced commercially by treating (slaking) lime with water: CaO + H2O → Ca(OH)2 In the laboratory it can be prepared by mixing aqueous solutions of calcium chloride and sodium hydroxide. (wikipedia.org)
- Calcium hydroxide is used to produce ammonia gas by reacting it with ammonium chloride. (leatherchemical.net)
- Data are given for levels of sulfuric-acid (7664939), chlorine (7782505), sodium-hydroxide (1310732), ferrous-sulfate (7720787), calcium- hydroxide (1305620), acrylic-acid (79107) resin or polyamide- polymer, ferric-chloride (7705080), Fuller's earth (8031183), and respirable and total inert dusts and nuisance dusts. (cdc.gov)
- In a precipitation reaction, sodium hydroxide solution is mixed with iron(II) chloride solution. (onlinemathlearning.com)
- When calcium comes in contact with water, calcium hydroxide and hydrogen gas is produced. (onlinemathlearning.com)
- Calcium hydroxide poisoning occurs when someone swallows this substance. (medlineplus.gov)
- This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial effect of nano-calcium hydroxide on the four- and six-week-old intra-canal E. faecalis biofilms. (ac.ir)
- Each group was divided into three subgroups (n=20) in terms of the antimicrobial material used as the intra-canal medication including subgroup 1: nano-calcium hydroxide, subgroup 2: calcium hydroxide, and subgroup 3: phosphate-buffered saline solution (control group). (ac.ir)
- citation needed] Calcium hydroxide is commonly used to prepare lime mortar. (wikipedia.org)
- The variably hydrated phases of calcium sulfate (gypsum, bassanite and anhydrite) also exhibit a slight retrograde solubility due to the presence of the calcium ion. (wikipedia.org)
- commonly known as slaked food grade calcium hydroxide bulk ) is also available in 50-pound bags packaged in. (seznamka-sms.cz)
- citation needed] It is also used in the preparation of ammonia gas (NH3), using the following reaction: Ca(OH)2 + 2 NH4Cl → 2 NH3 + CaCl2 + 2 H2O Another large application is in the paper industry, where it is an intermediate in the reaction in the production of sodium hydroxide. (wikipedia.org)
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- It is also used as an intermediate to produce sodium hydroxide in the paper industry. (leatherchemical.net)
- Since the calcium folinate rescue dosage regimen depends heavily on the posology and method of the intermediate- or high-dose methotrexate administration, the methotrexate protocol will dictate the dosage regimen of calcium folinate rescue. (janusinfo.se)
- refer to the applied intermediate or high dose methotrexate protocol for posology and method of administration of calcium folinate. (janusinfo.se)
- A rather elegant sounding application of calcium hydroxide is as a flocculant, where it is responsible for encouraging a suspended colloid to form flocs. (chemistryworld.com)
- But despite these worrying characteristics, it has proved a boon to the food industry, used both in treating raw materials, for example in the separation of sugar from the plants grown for its production, in pickling some kinds of vegetables, to provide a calcium supplement for stronger bones, and even as an alternative to baking soda in some types of bread. (chemistryworld.com)
- Provide access to fresh water and give them a poultry supplement with at least 10% calcium hydroxide to help counter the effects of the tannic acid. (thehipchick.com)
- Calcium hydroxide, as the most common intra-canal medication, has little effect on this bacterial species. (ac.ir)
- Calcium hydroxide is used to produce beverages like alcohol and soft drinks. (leatherchemical.net)
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- The elimination of calcium hydroxide in the root canal is decisive for the success of endodontic treatment, the remnants can interact negatively with endodontic sealants increasing filtrations and decreasing the quality of the seal. (bvsalud.org)
- In addition to calcium folinate administration, measures to ensure the prompt excretion of methotrexate (maintenance of high urine output and alkalinisation of urine) are integral parts of the calcium folinate rescue treatment. (janusinfo.se)
- Prevention: Calcium folinate should be administered every day during treatment with trimetrexate and for 72 hours after the last dose of trimetrexate. (janusinfo.se)
- In case of high dose pyrimethamine or prolonged treatment with low doses, calcium folinate 5 to 50 mg/day should be simultaneously administered, based on the results of the peripheral blood counts. (janusinfo.se)
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- Reef Crest bulk calcium Hydroxide is a high purity product which meets or exceeds the 6th Food. (seznamka-sms.cz)
- According to Hopkins and Wulff (1965), the decrease of calcium hydroxide solubility with temperature was known since the works of Marcellin Berthelot (1875) and Julius Thomsen (1883) (see Thomsen-Berthelot principle), when the presence of ions in aqueous solutions was still questioned. (wikipedia.org)
- The reason for this rather uncommon behavior is that the dissolution of calcium hydroxide in water involves an entropy decrease, due to the ordering of water molecules around the doubly charged calcium ion, This counter-intuitive temperature dependence of the solubility is referred to as "retrograde" or "inverse" solubility. (wikipedia.org)
- Slurry forms it can result in calcium Hydroxide can be used to preserve eggs a high product. (seznamka-sms.cz)