Calcium Hydroxide: A white powder prepared from lime that has many medical and industrial uses. It is in many dental formulations, especially for root canal filling.Root Canal Irrigants: Chemicals used mainly to disinfect root canals after pulpectomy and before obturation. The major ones are camphorated monochlorophenol, EDTA, formocresol, hydrogen peroxide, metacresylacetate, and sodium hypochlorite. Root canal irrigants include also rinsing solutions of distilled water, sodium chloride, etc.Aluminum Hydroxide: A compound with many biomedical applications: as a gastric antacid, an antiperspirant, in dentifrices, as an emulsifier, as an adjuvant in bacterins and vaccines, in water purification, etc.Dental Pulp Necrosis: Death of pulp tissue with or without bacterial invasion. When the necrosis is due to ischemia with superimposed bacterial infection, it is referred to as pulp gangrene. When the necrosis is non-bacterial in origin, it is called pulp mummification.Hydroxides: Inorganic compounds that contain the OH- group.Demeclocycline: A TETRACYCLINE analog having a 7-chloro and a 6-methyl. Because it is excreted more slowly than TETRACYCLINE, it maintains effective blood levels for longer periods of time.Root Canal Filling Materials: Materials placed inside a root canal for the purpose of obturating or sealing it. The materials may be gutta-percha, silver cones, paste mixtures, or other substances. (Dorland, 28th ed, p631 & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p187)Dental Pulp Capping: Application of a protective agent to an exposed pulp (direct capping) or the remaining thin layer of dentin over a nearly exposed pulp (indirect capping) in order to allow the pulp to recover and maintain its normal vitality and function.Camphor: A bicyclic monoterpene ketone found widely in plants, especially CINNAMOMUM CAMPHORA. It is used topically as a skin antipruritic and as an anti-infective agent.Dental Pulp Cavity: The space in a tooth bounded by the dentin and containing the dental pulp. The portion of the cavity within the crown of the tooth is the pulp chamber; the portion within the root is the pulp canal or root canal.Pharmaceutical Vehicles: A carrier or inert medium used as a solvent (or diluent) in which the medicinally active agent is formulated and or administered. (Dictionary of Pharmacy, 1986)Sodium Hydroxide: A highly caustic substance that is used to neutralize acids and make sodium salts. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Hydrocarbons, IodinatedRoot Canal Preparation: Preparatory activities in ROOT CANAL THERAPY by partial or complete extirpation of diseased pulp, cleaning and sterilization of the empty canal, enlarging and shaping the canal to receive the sealing material. The cavity may be prepared by mechanical, sonic, chemical, or other means. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1700)Chlorophenols: Phenols substituted with one or more chlorine atoms in any position.Pulp Capping and Pulpectomy Agents: Materials used in DENTAL PULP CAPPING or PULPECTOMY.Chlorhexidine: A disinfectant and topical anti-infective agent used also as mouthwash to prevent oral plaque.Apexification: Endodontic procedure performed to induce TOOTH APEX barrier development. ROOT CANAL FILLING MATERIALS are used to repair open apex or DENTAL PULP NECROSIS in an immature tooth. CALCIUM HYDROXIDE and mineral trioxide aggregate are commonly used as the filling materials.Ammonium Hydroxide: The hydroxy salt of ammonium ion. It is formed when AMMONIA reacts with water molecules in solution.Periapical Periodontitis: Inflammation of the PERIAPICAL TISSUE. It includes general, unspecified, or acute nonsuppurative inflammation. Chronic nonsuppurative inflammation is PERIAPICAL GRANULOMA. Suppurative inflammation is PERIAPICAL ABSCESS.Tooth Apex: The tip or terminal end of the root of a tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p62)Dental Cavity Lining: An inner coating, as of varnish or other protective substance, to cover the dental cavity wall. It is usually a resinous film-forming agent dissolved in a volatile solvent, or a suspension of calcium hydroxide in a solution of a synthetic resin. The lining seals the dentinal tubules and protects the pulp before a restoration is inserted. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)Magnesium Hydroxide: An inorganic compound that occurs in nature as the mineral brucite. It acts as an antacid with cathartic effects.Root Canal Obturation: Phase of endodontic treatment in which a root canal system that has been cleaned is filled through use of special materials and techniques in order to prevent reinfection.Calcium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain calcium as an integral part of the molecule.Pulpotomy: Dental procedure in which part of the pulp chamber is removed from the crown of a tooth.Calcium Signaling: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.Dentin, Secondary: Dentin formed by normal pulp after completion of root end formation.Endodontics: A dental specialty concerned with the maintenance of the dental pulp in a state of health and the treatment of the pulp cavity (pulp chamber and pulp canal).Anti-Infective Agents, Local: Substances used on humans and other animals that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. They are distinguished from DISINFECTANTS, which are used on inanimate objects.Sodium Hypochlorite: It is used as an oxidizing and bleaching agent and as a disinfectant. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Root Canal Therapy: A treatment modality in endodontics concerned with the therapy of diseases of the dental pulp. For preparatory procedures, ROOT CANAL PREPARATION is available.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Dental Fistula: An abnormal passage in the oral cavity on the gingiva.Silicates: The generic term for salts derived from silica or the silicic acids. They contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals, and may contain hydrogen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th Ed)Zinc Oxide-Eugenol Cement: Used as a dental cement this is mainly zinc oxide (with strengtheners and accelerators) and eugenol. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p50)Calcium Carbonate: Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.Gutta-Percha: Coagulated exudate isolated from several species of the tropical tree Palaquium (Sapotaceae). It is the trans-isomer of natural rubber and is used as a filling and impression material in dentistry and orthopedics and as an insulator in electronics. It has also been used as a rubber substitute.Pulpitis: Inflammation of the DENTAL PULP, usually due to bacterial infection in dental caries, tooth fracture, or other conditions causing exposure of the pulp to bacterial invasion. Chemical irritants, thermal factors, hyperemic changes, and other factors may also cause pulpitis.Zinc Oxide: A mild astringent and topical protectant with some antiseptic action. It is also used in bandages, pastes, ointments, dental cements, and as a sunblock.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Calcium Channels: Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.Propolis: A resinous substance obtained from beehives that is used traditionally as an antimicrobial. It is a heterogeneous mixture of many substances.Dental Pulp Exposure: The result of pathological changes in the hard tissue of a tooth caused by carious lesions, mechanical factors, or trauma, which render the pulp susceptible to bacterial invasion from the external environment.Aluminum Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain aluminum as an integral part of the molecule.Uncaria: A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. Members contain uncarine and other cytotoxic and hypotensive oxindole alkaloids.Tooth Remineralization: Therapeutic technique for replacement of minerals in partially decalcified teeth.Calcium, Dietary: Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.Dental Instruments: Hand-held tools or implements especially used by dental professionals for the performance of clinical tasks.Periapical Diseases: Diseases of the PERIAPICAL TISSUE surrounding the root of the tooth, which is distinguished from DENTAL PULP DISEASES inside the TOOTH ROOT.Porphyromonas endodontalis: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus PORPHYROMONAS, family Porphyromonadaceae. It is a key pathogen in endodontic infections.Dental Restoration, Temporary: A prosthesis or restoration placed for a limited period, from several days to several months, which is designed to seal the tooth and maintain its position until a permanent restoration (DENTAL RESTORATION, PERMANENT) will replace it. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Dental Pulp Diseases: Endodontic diseases of the DENTAL PULP inside the tooth, which is distinguished from PERIAPICAL DISEASES of the tissue surrounding the root.Piper betle: A plant genus of the family PIPERACEAE that is indigenous in the Indian Malay region and cultivated in Madagascar, and the West Indies. It contains chavibetol, chavicol and cadinene. The leaf is chewed as a stimulant, antiseptic and sialogogue. The common name of betel is also used for ARECA.Microradiography: Production of a radiographic image of a small or very thin object on fine-grained photographic film under conditions which permit subsequent microscopic examination or enlargement of the radiograph at linear magnifications of up to several hundred and with a resolution approaching the resolving power of the photographic emulsion (about 1000 lines per millimeter).Tooth Avulsion: Partial or complete displacement of a tooth from its alveolar support. It is commonly the result of trauma. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p312)Incisor: Any of the eight frontal teeth (four maxillary and four mandibular) having a sharp incisal edge for cutting food and a single root, which occurs in man both as a deciduous and a permanent tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p820)Tooth, Nonvital: A tooth from which the dental pulp has been removed or is necrotic. (Boucher, Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Dental Leakage: The seepage of fluids, debris, and micro-organisms between the walls of a prepared dental cavity and the restoration.Smear Layer: Adherent debris produced when cutting the enamel or dentin in cavity preparation. It is about 1 micron thick and its composition reflects the underlying dentin, although different quantities and qualities of smear layer can be produced by the various instrumentation techniques. Its function is presumed to be protective, as it lowers dentin permeability. However, it masks the underlying dentin and interferes with attempts to bond dental material to the dentin.Alkalies: Usually a hydroxide of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium or cesium, but also the carbonates of these metals, ammonia, and the amines. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Calcium Sulfate: A calcium salt that is used for a variety of purposes including: building materials, as a desiccant, in dentistry as an impression material, cast, or die, and in medicine for immobilizing casts and as a tablet excipient. It exists in various forms and states of hydration. Plaster of Paris is a mixture of powdered and heat-treated gypsum.Dental Pulp: A richly vascularized and innervated connective tissue of mesodermal origin, contained in the central cavity of a tooth and delimited by the dentin, and having formative, nutritive, sensory, and protective functions. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Root Resorption: Resorption in which cementum or dentin is lost from the root of a tooth owing to cementoclastic or osteoclastic activity in conditions such as trauma of occlusion or neoplasms. (Dorland, 27th ed)Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Cyanoacrylates: A group of compounds having the general formula CH2=C(CN)-COOR; it polymerizes on contact with moisture; used as tissue adhesive; higher homologs have hemostatic and antibacterial properties.Tooth Fractures: Break or rupture of a tooth or tooth root.Dental Cements: Substances used to bond COMPOSITE RESINS to DENTAL ENAMEL and DENTIN. These bonding or luting agents are used in restorative dentistry, ROOT CANAL THERAPY; PROSTHODONTICS; and ORTHODONTICS.Dentin: The hard portion of the tooth surrounding the pulp, covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root, which is harder and denser than bone but softer than enamel, and is thus readily abraded when left unprotected. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Oxides: Binary compounds of oxygen containing the anion O(2-). The anion combines with metals to form alkaline oxides and non-metals to form acidic oxides.Epoxy Resins: Polymeric resins derived from OXIRANES and characterized by strength and thermosetting properties. Epoxy resins are often used as dental materials.Propylene Glycol: A clear, colorless, viscous organic solvent and diluent used in pharmaceutical preparations.Triamcinolone Acetonide: An esterified form of TRIAMCINOLONE. It is an anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid used topically in the treatment of various skin disorders. Intralesional, intramuscular, and intra-articular injections are also administered under certain conditions.Enterococcus faecalis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.Dental Disinfectants: Chemicals especially for use on instruments to destroy pathogenic organisms. (Boucher, Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Periapical Tissue: Tissue surrounding the apex of a tooth, including the apical portion of the periodontal membrane and alveolar bone.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Calcium Phosphates: Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.Bone Cements: Adhesives used to fix prosthetic devices to bones and to cement bone to bone in difficult fractures. Synthetic resins are commonly used as cements. A mixture of monocalcium phosphate, monohydrate, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate with a sodium phosphate solution is also a useful bone paste.Minerals: Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Potassium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain potassium as an integral part of the molecule.Tooth, Deciduous: The teeth of the first dentition, which are shed and replaced by the permanent teeth.Micrococcus luteus: A species of gram-positive, spherical bacteria whose organisms occur in tetrads and in irregular clusters of tetrads. The primary habitat is mammalian skin.Calcium Isotopes: Stable calcium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element calcium, but differ in atomic weight. Ca-42-44, 46, and 48 are stable calcium isotopes.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Tooth Root: The part of a tooth from the neck to the apex, embedded in the alveolar process and covered with cementum. A root may be single or divided into several branches, usually identified by their relative position, e.g., lingual root or buccal root. Single-rooted teeth include mandibular first and second premolars and the maxillary second premolar teeth. The maxillary first premolar has two roots in most cases. Maxillary molars have three roots. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p690)Coloring Agents: Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.Calcium Chloride: A salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.Bismuth: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Bi, atomic number 83 and atomic weight 208.98.Tooth Crown: The upper part of the tooth, which joins the lower part of the tooth (TOOTH ROOT) at the cervix (TOOTH CERVIX) at a line called the cementoenamel junction. The entire surface of the crown is covered with enamel which is thicker at the extremity and becomes progressively thinner toward the cervix. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p216)Calcium Channels, L-Type: Long-lasting voltage-gated CALCIUM CHANNELS found in both excitable and nonexcitable tissue. They are responsible for normal myocardial and vascular smooth muscle contractility. Five subunits (alpha-1, alpha-2, beta, gamma, and delta) make up the L-type channel. The alpha-1 subunit is the binding site for calcium-based antagonists. Dihydropyridine-based calcium antagonists are used as markers for these binding sites.Clindamycin: An antibacterial agent that is a semisynthetic analog of LINCOMYCIN.Calcium Oxalate: The calcium salt of oxalic acid, occurring in the urine as crystals and in certain calculi.Calcium Gluconate: The calcium salt of gluconic acid. The compound has a variety of uses, including its use as a calcium replenisher in hypocalcemic states.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.

Vital pulp capping: a worthwhile procedure. (1/183)

Despite the progress made in the field of pulp biology, the technique and philosophy of direct vital pulp capping remains a controversial subject. Clinicians are well aware of the immediate and long-term success rates after root canal therapy, but are less certain of the success of vital pulp capping. Researchers have demonstrated that exposed pulps will heal and form reparative dentin. It is realized now that the variable prognosis of vital pulp capping is predominately a restorative issue. The factors that can produce a successful vital pulp cap are discussed in conjunction with two popular techniques.  (+info)

Amsorb: a new carbon dioxide absorbent for use in anesthetic breathing systems. (2/183)

BACKGROUND: This article describes a carbon dioxide absorbent for use in anesthesia. The absorbent consists of calcium hydroxide with a compatible humectant, namely, calcium chloride. The absorbent mixture does not contain sodium or potassium hydroxide but includes two setting agents (calcium sulphate and polyvinylpyrrolidine) to improve hardness and porosity. METHODS: The resultant mixture was formulated and subjected to standardized tests for hardness, porosity, and carbon dioxide absorption. Additionally, the new absorbent was exposed in vitro to sevoflurane, desflurane, isoflurane, and enflurane to determine whether these anesthetics were degraded to either compound A or carbon monoxide. The performance data and inertness of the absorbent were compared with two currently available brands of soda lime: Intersorb (Intersurgical Ltd., Berkshire, United Kingdom) and Dragersorb (Drager, Lubeck, Germany). RESULTS: The new carbon dioxide absorbent conformed to United States Pharmacopeia specifications in terms of carbon dioxide absorption, granule hardness, and porosity. When the new material was exposed to sevoflurane (2%) in oxygen at a flow rate of 1 l/min, concentrations of compound A did not increase above those found in the parent drug (1.3-3.3 ppm). In the same experiment, mean +/-SD concentrations of compound A (32.5 +/- 4.5 ppm) were observed when both traditional brands of soda lime were used. After dehydration of the traditional soda limes, immediate exposure to desflurane (60%), enflurane (2%), and isoflurane (2%) produced concentrations of carbon monoxide of 600.0 +/- 10.0 ppm, 580.0 +/- 9.8 ppm, and 620.0 +/-10.1 ppm, respectively. In contrast, concentrations of carbon monoxide were negligible (1-3 ppm) when the anhydrous new absorbent was exposed to the same anesthetics. CONCLUSIONS: The new material is an effective carbon dioxide absorbent and is chemically unreactive with sevoflurane, enflurane, isoflurane, and desflurane.  (+info)

Soda-lime dust contamination of breathing circuits. (3/183)

A case report of soda-lime dust contamination of the breathing circuit of an anesthesia machine causing bronchospasm in a patient is presented. Various factors in absorber design and increased dusting of soda lime due to high-flow techniques and lack of wetting are described. A modification of the Fraser-Sweatman absorber leading the fresh gas into an area free of dust accumulation has resulted in near-complete elimination of the problem.  (+info)

Lack of degradation of sevoflurane by a new carbon dioxide absorbent in humans. (4/183)

BACKGROUND: Potent inhaled anesthetics degrade in the presence of the strong bases (sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide) in carbon dioxide (CO2) absorbents. A new absorbent, Amsorb (Armstrong Medical Ltd., Coleraine, Northern Ireland), does not employ these strong bases. This study compared the scavenging efficacy and compound A production of two commercially available absorbents (soda lime and barium hydroxide lime) with Amsorb in humans undergoing general anesthesia. METHODS: Four healthy volunteers were anesthetized on different days with desflurane, sevoflurane, enflurane, and isoflurane. End-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) and anesthetic concentrations were measured with infrared spectroscopy; blood pressure and arterial blood gases were obtained from a radial artery catheter. Each anesthetic exposure lasted 3 h, during which the three fresh (normally hydrated) CO2 absorbents were used for a period of 1 h each. Anesthesia was administered with a fresh gas flow rate of 2 l/min of air:oxygen (50:50). Tidal volume was 10 ml/kg; respiratory rate was 8 breaths/min. Arterial blood gases were obtained at baseline and after each hour. Inspired concentrations of compound A were measured after 15, 30, and 60 min of anesthetic administration for each CO2 absorbent. RESULTS: Arterial blood gases and ETCO2 were not different among three CO2 absorbents. During sevoflurane, compound A formed with barium hydroxide lime and soda lime, but not with Amsorb. CONCLUSIONS: This new CO2 absorbent effectively scavenged CO2 and was not associated with compound A production.  (+info)

Systemic and local effects of long-term exposure to alkaline drinking water in rats. (5/183)

Alkaline conditions in the oral cavity may be caused by a variety of stimuli, including tobacco products, antacids, alkaline drinking water or bicarbonate toothpaste. The effects of alkaline pH on oral mucosa have not been systematically studied. To assess the systemic (organ) and local (oral mucosal) effects of alkalinity, drinking water supplemented with Ca(OH)2 or NaOH, with pH 11.2 or 12 was administered to rats (n = 36) for 52 weeks. Tissues were subjected to histopathological examination; oral mucosal biopsy samples were also subjected to immunohistochemical (IHC) analyses for pankeratin, CK19, CK5, CK4, PCNA, ICAM-1, CD44, CD68, S-100, HSP 60, HSP70, and HSP90. At completion of the study, animals in the study groups had lower body weights (up to 29% less) than controls despite equal food and water intake, suggesting a systemic response to the alkaline treatment. The lowest body weight was found in rats exposed to water with the highest pH value and starting the experiment when young (6 weeks). No histological changes attributable to alkaline exposure occurred in the oral mucosa or other tissues studied. Alkaline exposure did not affect cell proliferation in the oral epithelium, as shown by the equal expression of PCNA in groups. The up-regulation of HSP70 protein expression in the oral mucosa of rats exposed to alkaline water, especially Ca(OH)2 treated rats, may indicate a protective response. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) positivity was lost in 6/12 rats treated with Ca(OH)2 with pH 11.2, and loss of CD44 expression was seen in 3/6 rats in both study groups exposed to alkaline water with pH 12. The results suggest that the oral mucosa in rats is resistant to the effects of highly alkaline drinking water. However, high alkalinity may have some unknown systemic effects leading to growth retardation, the cause of which remains to be determined.  (+info)

Comparison of Amsorb, sodalime, and Baralyme degradation of volatile anesthetics and formation of carbon monoxide and compound a in swine in vivo. (6/183)

BACKGROUND: Consequences of volatile anesthetic degradation by carbon dioxide absorbents that contain strong base include formation of compound A from sevoflurane, formation of carbon monoxide (CO) and CO toxicity from desflurane, enflurane and isoflurane, delayed inhalation induction, and increased anesthetic costs. Amsorb (Armstrong Ltd., Coleraine, Northern Ireland) is a new absorbent that does not contain strong base and does not form CO or compound A in vitro. This investigation compared Amsorb, Baralyme (Chemetron Medical Division, Allied Healthcare Products, St. Louis, MO), and sodalime effects on CO (from desflurane and isoflurane) and compound A formation, carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) concentrations, and anesthetic degradation in a clinically relevant porcine in vivo model. METHODS: Pigs were anesthetized with desflurane, isoflurane, or sevoflurane, using fresh or partially dehydrated Amsorb, Baralyme, and new and old formulations of sodalime. Anesthetic concentrations in the fresh (preabsorber), inspired (postabsorber), and end-tidal gas were measured, as were inspired CO and compound A concentrations and blood oxyhemoglobin and COHb concentrations. RESULTS: For desflurane and isoflurane, the order of inspired CO and COHb formation was dehydrated Baralyme >> soda-lime > Amsorb. For desflurane and Baralyme, peak CO was 9,700 +/- 5,100 parts per million (ppm), and the increase in COHb was 37 +/- 14%. CO and COHb increases were undetectable with Amsorb. Oxyhemoglobin desaturation occurred with desflurane and Baralyme but not Amsorb or sodalime. The gap between inspired and end-tidal desflurane and isoflurane did not differ between the various dehydrated absorbents. Neither fresh nor dehydrated Amsorb caused compound A formation from sevoflurane. In contrast, Baralyme and sodalime caused 20-40 ppm compound A. The gap between inspired and end-tidal sevoflurane did not differ between fresh absorbents, but was Amsorb < sodalime < Baralyme with dehydrated absorbents. CONCLUSION: Amsorb caused minimal if any CO formation, minimal compound A formation regardless of absorbent hydration, and the least amount of sevoflurane degradation. An absorbent like Amsorb, which does not contain strong base or cause anesthetic degradation and formation of toxic products, may have benefit with respect to patient safety, inhalation induction, and anesthetic consumption (cost).  (+info)

Using amsorb to detect dehydration of CO2 absorbents containing strong base. (7/183)

BACKGROUND: Because Amsorb changes color when it dries, the authors investigated whether Amsorb combined with different strong base-containing carbon dioxide absorbents signals dehydration of such absorbents. METHODS: Five different carbon dioxide absorbents (1,330 g) each topped with 70 g of Amsorb were dried in an anesthesia machine (Modulus CD, Datex-Ohmeda, Madison, WI) with oxygen (Amsorb layer at the fresh gas inflow site). As soon as a color change was detected in the Amsorb, the authors tested the samples for a change in weight and carbon monoxide formation from 7.5% desflurane or 4% isoflurane. In a different experiment with the five absorbents, Amsorb was layered at the drying gas outflow site. In further experiments, the authors tested for a color change in Amsorb from drying and rehydrating and from drying with nitrogen. Finally, they dried a mixture of Amsorb and 1% NaOH and examined it for color change. RESULTS: In the experiments with Amsorb layered at the inflow, the Amsorb changed color when the water content of the samples was only marginally reduced (to a mean 13.6%), and no carbon monoxide formed. With Amsorb layered at the outflow, it changed color when the mean water content of the samples was reduced to 8.8%, and carbon monoxide formation was detected to varying degrees. The color change was independent of the drying gas and could be reversed by rehydrating. Adding NaOH to Amsorb prevented a color change. CONCLUSIONS: Dehydration in strong base-containing absorbents can reliably be indicated before carbon monoxide is formed when Amsorb is layered at the fresh gas inflow. The authors assume that the indicator dye in Amsorb changes color on drying because of the absence of strong base in this absorbent.  (+info)

Apical and periapical repair of dogs' teeth with periapical lesions after endodontic treatment with different root canal sealers. (8/183)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the apical and periapical repair after root canal treatment of dogs' teeth with pulp necrosis and chronic periapical lesion using different root canal sealers. After periapical lesion induction, forty-four root canals of 3 dogs were submitted to biomechanical preparation using 5.25% sodium hypochlorite as an irrigating solution. A calcium hydroxide dressing (Calen PMCC) was applied for 15 days and the root canals were filled using the lateral condensation technique with gutta-percha points and Sealapex, AH Plus or Sealer Plus for sealing. After 180 days, the animals were sacrificed by anesthetic overdose and the obtained histological sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin for optical microscopic analysis of the apical and periapical repair. The groups filled with Sealapex and AH Plus had better histological repair (p < 0.05) than the group filled with Sealer Plus, that had unsatisfactory results.  (+info)

*Calcium hydroxide

... which decomposes calcium hydroxide into calcium oxide and water. Ca(OH)2 → CaO + H2O Calcium hydroxide adopts a polymeric ... Limewater is the common name for a saturated solution of calcium hydroxide. Calcium hydroxide is relatively insoluble in water ... calcium hydroxide (portlandite) dissolves in pure water to produce an alkaline solution with a pH of about 12.4. Calcium ... The solubility of calcium hydroxide (portlandite) at 70 °C is about half of its value at 25 °C. The reason for this not so ...

*Calcium hydroxide (data page)

This page provides supplementary chemical data on calcium hydroxide. The handling of this chemical may incur notable safety ...

*Index of oral health and dental articles

Calcium hydroxide • Calculus • California Dental Association • Canadian Academy of Endodontics • Canadian Association of ...

*List of alchemical substances

Slaked Lime - calcium hydroxide. Ca(OH)2 Liver of sulfur - formed by fusing potash and sulfur. Lunar caustic/lapis infernalis ... NaHCO3 Caustic Volatile Alkali - ammonium hydroxide. Chalk - a rock composed of porous biogenic calcium carbonate. CaCO3 Chrome ... Gypsum - a mineral; calcium sulfate. CaSO4 Horn Silver/Argentum Cornu - a weathered form of chlorargyrite, an ore of silver ... Fulminating gold - gold hydrazide, formed by adding ammonia to the auric hydroxide. When dry, can explode on concussion. Galena ...

*Pulp capping

Calcium hydroxide has also been tested on its use in indirect pulp capping and was found to have a success rate of 77.6%, ... Graham L, Cooper PR, Cassidy N, Nor JE, Sloan AJ, Smith AJ (May 2006). "The effect of calcium hydroxide on solubilisation of ... Barthel CR, Levin LG, Reisner HM, Trope M (May 1997). "TNF-alpha release in monocytes after exposure to calcium hydroxide ... This method is also called "stepwise caries removal." Calcium hydroxide (CaOH) is an organo-metallic cement that was introduced ...

*Mineral spring

Calcic springs contained lime (calcium hydroxide). Thermal (hot) springs could contain a high concentration of various minerals ... Sulfur springs contained hydrogen sulfide gas (see also fumeroles). Salt (saline) springs contained salts of calcium, magnesium ... Types of sedimentary rock - usually limestone (calcium carbonate) - are sometimes formed by the evaporation, or rapid ...

*Sodium bifluoride

For example, calcium hydroxide gives calcium fluoride. Sodium bifluoride is produced by neutralizing waste hydrogen fluoride, ... Typical bases are sodium carbonate and sodium hydroxide. The process occurs in two steps, illustrated with the hydroxide: HF + ... Sodium bifluoride also aids in the precipitation of calcium ions during the process of nickel electroplating. The compound also ...

*Self-heating food packaging

The product of the reaction is calcium hydroxide. Active packaging Flameless ration heater Self-heating can https://web.archive ... or calcium oxide, and water. Quicklime, inexpensive and readily available, is generally recognized by the FDA as safe. ...

*Chemical nomenclature

If the given formula is Ca(OH)2, it can be seen that OH− is the hydroxide ion. Since the charge on the calcium ion is 2+, it ... Therefore, the name of the compound is calcium hydroxide. If one is asked to write the formula for copper(I) chromate, the ... hydroxide (OH−) cyanide (CN−) phosphate (PO3− 4) hydrogen phosphate (HPO2− 4) dihydrogen phosphate (H 2PO− 4) carbonate (CO2− 3 ...

*Caramel color

... and calcium hydroxides; and the salts are ammonium, sodium, and potassium carbonate, bicarbonate, phosphate (including mono- ...

*Coffee wastewater

This is obtained by adding calcium hydroxide (CaOH2) to the wastewater. This resulted in a regained solubility of the pectins, ...

*Autoclaved aerated concrete

... quartz sand reacts with calcium hydroxide to form calcium silicate hydrate, which gives AAC its high strength and other unique ... Aluminum powder reacts with calcium hydroxide and water to form hydrogen. The hydrogen gas foams and doubles the volume of the ...

*Calcium chloride

Calcium hydroxide (kalkwasser mix) or a calcium reactor can also be used. As a firming agent, calcium chloride is used in ... In marine aquariums, calcium chloride is one way to introduce bioavailable calcium for calcium carbonate-shelled animals such ... If calcium is used calcium chloride is generally the recommended form. Aqueous calcium chloride is used in genetic ... potassium calcium chloride, KCaCl3) and tachyhydrite (calcium magnesium chloride, CaMg2Cl6·12H2O) are also very rare. Calcium(I ...

*Limewater

... is the common name for a diluted solution of calcium hydroxide. Calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH)2, is sparsely soluble in ... When excess calcium hydroxide is added to limewater, a suspension of calcium hydroxide particles results, giving it a milky ... Limewater is prepared by stirring calcium hydroxide in pure water and filtering off the excess undissolved Ca(OH)2. ... with a slight earthy smell and an alkaline bitter taste of calcium hydroxide. The term lime refers to the alkaline mineral, and ...

*Lime kiln

Slaked lime (calcium hydroxide) can be formed by mixing water with quicklime. Because it is so readily made by heating ... The manufacture of one tonne of calcium oxide involves decomposing calcium carbonate, with the formation of 785 kg of CO2 in ... A lime kiln is a kiln used for the calcination of limestone (calcium carbonate) to produce the form of lime called quicklime ( ... Lime kiln, Wool Bay The theoretical heat (the standard enthalpy) of reaction required to make high-calcium lime is around 3.15 ...

*Liming (leather processing)

The presence of calcium hydroxide results in the alkaline swelling of skin. The result is an influx of water into the hide/skin ...

*Calamine

The lotion is produced with additional ingredients like phenol and calcium hydroxide. Calamine lotion has been used as far back ...

*Cement kiln

In some cases, injected calcium hydroxide is used to lower SO2 emissions. The sulfur input with the fuels is completely ... Dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2) decomposes to calcium carbonate, MgO and CO2. 650 to 900 °C - calcium carbonate reacts with SiO2 to form ... in which calcium carbonate reacts with silica-bearing minerals to form a mixture of calcium silicates. Over a billion tonnes of ... the remaining calcium carbonate decomposes to calcium oxide and CO2. 1300 to 1450 °C - partial (20-30%) melting takes place, ...

*Afwillite

... is a calcium hydroxide nesosilicate mineral with formula Ca3(SiO3OH)2·2H2O. It occurs as glassy, colorless to white ... The silicon tetrahedra are arranged so that they share an edge with calcium(1), and silicon(2) shares edges with the calcium(2 ... The cement gets its strength from the hydration of its di- and tri- calcium silicates. Calcium silicate hydrate Jennite ... Awfillite is composed of double chains that consist of calcium and silicon polyhedral connected to each other by sharing ...

*Vellum

The skin is washed with water and lime (Calcium hydroxide), but not together. It is then soaked in lime for several days to ...

*Pectolite

... is a white to gray mineral, NaCa2Si3O8(OH), sodium calcium hydroxide inosilicate. It crystallizes in the triclinic ...

*Arthur W. Thomas

Thomas, A. W., & Kelly, M. W. (1929). Effect of pretreatment upon hydrolysis of hide powder by saturated calcium hydroxide ... Effect of diverse anions on the pH of maximum precipitation of aluminum hydroxide." Journal of Colloid Science, 1, 221-34. Houk ...

*Tagatose

The galactose is isomerized under alkaline conditions to D-tagatose by calcium hydroxide. The resulting mixture can then be ...

*Calcium caseinate

... the casein is solubilized at a high pH with calcium hydroxide; the solution is then dried (usually spray dried). Calcium ... Calcium caseinate is a protein produced from casein in skim and sometimes 1% milk. At neutral or acid pH, casein is relatively ... Calcium caseinate is soluble and does not clot in the stomach. It is believed to neutralize capsaicin, the active (hot) ...

*Calcium azide

It can be obtained from a distilled reaction between hydrazoic acid and calcium hydroxide. Calcium azide is sensitive to impact ... Calcium azide is a chemical compound with the formula CaN6. ...

*List of food additives

... antioxidant Calcium hydroxide - mineral salt Calcium inosinate - flavor enhancer Calcium lactate - food acid Calcium ... food acid Calcium oxide - mineral salt Calcium pantothenate (Vitamin B5) Calcium peroxide - Calcium phosphates - mineral salt, ... anti-caking agent Calcium formate - preservative Calcium fumarate - food acid Calcium gluconate - acidity regulator Calcium ... calcium aluminium silicate) - anti-caking agent Calcium ascorbate (Vitamin C) Calcium benzoate - preservative Calcium bisulfite ...
Influence of calcium hydroxide on the post-treatment pain in Endodontics: A systematic review.: Even though calcium hydroxide is one of the most widely used int
Calcium hydroxide, traditionally called slaked lime, hydrated lime, slack lime, or pickling lime, is a chemical compound with the chemical formula Ca(OH)2. It is a colourless crystal or white powder, and is obtained when calcium oxide (called lime or quicklime) is mixed, or "slaked" with water. It can also be precipitated by mixing an aqueous solution of calcium chloride and an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide. The name of the natural, mineral form is portlandite. It is a relatively rare mineral, known from some volcanic, plutonic, and metamorphic rocks. It has also been known to arise in burning coal dumps.. When heated to 512 °C, the partial pressure of water in equilibrium with calcium hydroxide reaches 101 kPa and decomposes into calcium oxide and water.[1]. A suspension of fine calcium hydroxide particles in water is called milk of lime. The solution is called lime water and is a medium strength base that reacts violently with acids and attacks many metals in presence of water. It ...
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Objectives: The aim of present study was to evaluate the effect of using calcium hydroxide as intra-canal medication on elimination of Enterococcus faecalis after root canal obturation. Methods: Sixty extracted human teeth were infected with E.faecalis for 3 weeks. The canals were prepared by a standard step-back technique and divided in two groups. In the first group (G1) calcium hydroxide was used as intra canal medication for 7 days and obturated with guta percha and sealer. The specimens of group two (G2) were obturated with guta percha and sealer immediately. All teeth incubated for 60 days .Each specimen were transversally cut in middle of the root. Dentine chips for detection E. faecalis were removed from two different depth of the apical intra walls with two sterile burs. Samples were immediately collected in separate test tubes containing BHI broth medium, and cultured to agar plates and colony forming units were counted. Results: E.f recovered from 87.9% of G1( super ficial dentine), ...
The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of Brazilian brown propolis as an intracanal medication against Enterococcus faecalis. Thirty dentin discs prepared from intact freshly extracted bovine maxillary central incisors were infected with E. faecalis for 21 days. The specimens were distributed into six groups according to the medicament used as follows: G1- calcium hydroxide paste; G2- Carbowax 400 (control group); G3- 20% brown propolis paste; G4- 40% brown propolis paste; G5- 20% brown propolis paste + calcium hydroxide paste; and G6- 40% brown propolis paste + calcium hydroxide paste. The experimental pastes were placed into the canal lumen and left for 14 days. After each period, irrigation was performed with sterile saline to remove the medicament, and the canals were dried with sterile paper points. The dentin chips were removed from the canals with sequential sterile round burs at low speed and were immediately collected in separate test tubes containing ...
This paper analyses the efficacy of dispersions of nanoparticles of calcium hydroxide for consolidating lime mortars, according to three variables: the type of dispersion (three consolidating compounds-CaLoSil®, Nanorestore® and Merck®-with different-sized calcium hydroxide particles); the concentration of the dispersion (5 and 25 g/L of Ca(OH)2 in isopropyl alcohol); and the state of the sample (comparison of saturated and non-saturated samples). The outcome of the consolidation process was studied in terms of improved carbonation of the mortar, mineralogy (by means of X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analyses), texture (study of the porosity by mercury intrusion porosimetry) and compactness (measurement of ultrasonic velocity propagation through samples). To ensure that the treatment had no negative effects on the physical characteristics of the mortars, we performed microstructural (phase morphology studied by means of scanning electron microscopy) and aesthetic (colour and ...
Calx is also known as calcium hydroxide, hydrated lime, or slaked lime. It serves as an alkali in many dye recipes. Calx is used in indigo fermentation vats and
BioAssay record AID 516677 submitted by ChEMBL: Antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli at 30 ug/ml by agar diffusion test.
Clinical reports stating the efficacy of novel root canal disinfection protocols are an important focus in endodontic research. This blind randomized clinical trial assessed the clinical efficacy of the erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser radial firing tips (RFT) versus the concomitant use of 3 % sodium hypochlorite and interim calcium hydroxide paste ...
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A hydrocarbon transfer system includes a first and second floating structure and a substantially horizontal transfer pipe system submerged below water level interconnecting the floating structures. The transfer pipe system includes a flow line support member which is with at least one end attached to a connection head, a number of hydrocarbon flow lines being connected along the support member via carrier members. The connection head includes a cable or chain connected to one of the floating structures, connectors situated on the connection head or at the position of the support member near the connection head, which connectors are on one side in fluid connection with the flow lines and on the other side in fluid connection with a flexible flow line extending from the connection head to the floating structure.
A processing apparatus (22) is provided with a showerhead (36) for introducing a process gas into a processing vessel (24), and heaters (46) for heating the showerhead at an elevated temperature. The processing apparatus is provided with a main flow line (50, 52, 54) for a cooling liquid (C), and a bypass flow line (56) connected to the main flow line so as to bypass the showerhead. A cooling liquid control system for controlling the flow of the cooling liquid includes shutoff valves (V1, V2, V3), and a valve controller (58). The cooling liquid control system controls the flow of the cooling liquid such that the cooling liquid is stopped from flowing through the cooling passage (50) while the showerhead is being heated to the elevated temperature, and the cooling liquid is flowing through both the cooling passage (50) and the bypass flow line (56) while the showerhead is being cooled to a reduced temperature.
This study assesses the kinetics of hydration of Pulverised Fuel Ash and Metakaolin cement pastes and compares how the rate of reaction affects the pore-characteristics and resistance to ionic ingress. The degrees of hydration for the different mixtures were evaluated, both as a function of the calcium hydroxide content and with ...
An improved thermal battery and method of making same of the type which includes an electrically conductive heat generating disc positioned within each electrochemical cell, a calcium anode, a depolarizer-binder-electrolyte (DEB) mixture pellet, and a calcium hydroxide coating on said anode.
Writing Chemical Reactions: An In-Depth Look. Remember that when you do this section, you do not have to name the state of matter or even balance the reaction! You just have to list the net ionic reaction (yes, this includes putting the correct charge). When doing this section, you should know your solubility rules. Knowing them is half the battle. If an ionic compound dissociates in water, it should be listed correctly. Those substances which are marginally soluble (Calcium hydroxide) can be written either as two ions or as one compound). This is an easy section if you know what youre looking for. All the reactions given will follow these general reactions mechanisms ...
13595-83-0 - JJNDBASMJMGLOD-UHFFFAOYSA-L - Bismuth hydroxide nitrate - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
Find patient medical information for Aluminum-Magnesium Hydroxide Oral on WebMD including its uses, side effects and safety, interactions, pictures, warnings and user ratings.
For a Lagrangian submanifold, we define a moduli space of trees of holomorphic disk maps with Morse flow lines as edges, and construct an ambient space around it which we call the quotient space of disk trees. We show that ...
Im reviewing a lot of charts for one provider, and Ive noticed that regardless of what else is documented on the exam, these things are ALWAYS docum
Method and Materials: Literature in professional journals and summaries of BBO, LILACS, and MEDLINE databases (2000 to 2010) linked to the Virtual Health Library and PUBMED were searched. The search strategies used included the following descriptors: dental caries and dental cavity lining and primary tooth, dental cavity lining and primary tooth and calcium hydroxide, dental caries and dental cavity lining and primary tooth and calcium hydroxide. The abstracts were selected according to the following inclusion criteria: published between 2000 and 2010, English language, trial and/or laboratory studies or literature review, regarding the use of calcium hydroxide in deep cavities of primary teeth. The abstracts analysis was performed by two reviewers separately. Potentially relevant studies available in full were analyzed based on criteria for quality assessment and displayed on an evidence-based table ...
Abstract Purpose. The purpose was to study the reduction of intra-canal microflora in premolars with apical periodontitis instrumented with either apical box or apical cone preparation and to provide measurements of intervention effects to allow proper power calculation in future clinical trials. Methods. Twenty-four patients were centrally randomized to apical box preparation (size #60) or cone preparation (apical size #25). The groups were comparable regarding the presence of primary caries and type of coronal restoration. In the course of canal preparation each tooth was irrigated with 2.5% NaOCl (12 ml). Lastly, the canals were filled with 17% EDTA (2 × 30 s) and 5% iodine potassium iodide (IKI) for 10 min. The canals were sampled for micro-organisms on four occasions: before instrumentation, after instrumentation, after application of IKI dressing and at the beginning of the second appointment 1 week later. Between the treatment sessions, the root canals were sealed with IRM cement. In the ...
CAS 1305-62-0 1310-73-2 7722-88-5 BACK TO NATURE I PAINT REMOVER calcium hydroxide
sodium hydroxide (cercla)
pyrophosphoric acid, tetrasodium salt; (tetrasodium pyrophosphate)
msds toxicity property
Note what the question actually asks you, "roughly". Approximation is an important tool in ionic equilibrium calculations.. Here, you have $0.0126M \text{ }\ce{Ca}^{+2}$ and $0.0252M\text{ } \ce{OH-}$ in the original solution. By addition of $0.1M \text{ }\ce{NaOH}$, which is a strong electrolyte, youll not only add $0.1M\text{ } \ce{OH-}$ to the solution, but also cause $Q$ to exceed $K_{sp}$, hence, the salt will be precipitated out.. Now, the concentration of our ions before precipitation is $0.0126M \text{ }\ce{Ca}^{+2}$ and $0.1252M\text{ } \ce{OH-}$. Let $y$ be the fraction of existing ions that are not precipated out. So, well be left with $0.0126 \cdot y M \text{ }\ce{Ca}^{+2}$ and $0.1252 \cdot (2y-1) M\text{ } \ce{OH-}$ ions. Equating their ionic product to the salts $K_{sp}$, we get:. $$0.0126 \cdot y\cdot(0.1252\cdot (2y-1))^2=8\times10^{-6}$$. $$y\cdot(2y-1)^2\approx0.0405$$ $$y\cdot(1+4y^2-4y)\approx0.0405$$. Magic trick$^\text{TM}$: Neglect $y^3$ at this step. If $y$ comes out ...
Form all the medicaments reviewed, there were two materials that exhibited theses properties effectively and had features that would be considered nearly ideal properties after evaluating the ratio of risk to advantage. The materials are Calcium hydroxide , Ledermix paste ...
My lab group and I are a bit confused. We are doing a lab where we need to calculate the Ksp of calcium hydroxide in pure water and then in different concentrations of calcium chloride and potassium chloride to analyze the diverse and common ion effect. I was absent one day but my lab partner told me that the teacher said Ksp for calcium hydroxide will remain constant for the solutions of potassium chloride and calcium chloride. She wants us to make a graph where we compare the molar solubilities of the different solutions, not the Ksp. My question is how on earth can something that tells us about solubility, Ksp, remain constant when more is forced to dissolve, KCl, and less is forced to dissolve, CaCl2????? Does this mean the molar solubility calculation is really as easy as just determining the calcium ion concentration in each solution and dividing it by the total volume? Gracias ...
a) Firstly 5 kg of calcium oxide are introduced into a plastic tub and made into a slurry with 20 kg of purified water. The formation of calcium hydroxide (quicklime) which takes place under these conditions leads to a large rise in temperature of the solution. The calcium hydroxide can therefore be used further only after cooling. The temperature of the solution is then 30° C. to 35° C.b) 50 kg of drug are introduced into a mixer, and the abovementioned quicklime is added. In order to remove the quicklime as completely as possible from the plastic tub, it is rinsed with 10 kg of purified water. This washing liquid is likewise put in the mixer.c) The drug homogeneously mixed with quicklime is introduced into a percolator and covered with 160 kg of purified water. The percolator remains closed for 48 hours. The percolate is then collected in a suitable vessel at a flow rate of 50 ml/min. The percolation is continued until no further percolate emerges. The drug mass is not squeezed out after ...
0063] 968.3 liters of an aqueous cobalt sulfate solution adjusted to a concentration of 1.6 mol/L was added in two hours using a roller pump from 2 spray nozzles at an addition rate of 4035 ml/min per nozzle so as to be sprayed onto the liquid surface of the suspension in a circular pattern having a diameter of 500 mm so that the center of the spray pattern was located in a position where the surface flow velocity of the suspension was 126.5 cm/sec. At the same time, a 24 mass % aqueous sodium hydroxide solution was added from one supply port under control using a roller pump interfaced with a pH controller so that the pH of the suspension fell within the range of 10.2±0.2 as measured at 25° C. The supply position of the aqueous sodium hydroxide solution was separated from the end of the spray pattern of the nearest one of the 2 supply positions of the aqueous cobalt sulfate solution by 20 cm, and the surface flow velocity of the suspension in the supply position of the aqueous sodium ...
Exposure of the dental pulp is an occasional hazard associated with dental treatment. Direct pulp capping is a procedure in which a medicament is placed directly over the exposed dental pulp, with the specific aim of maintaining pulp vitality and health. Calcium hydroxide (CaOH) has for many years been considered the material of choice for [read the full story…]. ...
Deliquescent, granulated, mixture of sodium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide. Reacts violently with acids. Reacts with ammonium salts, evolving ammonia gas. In the presence of moisture, corrosive to aluminium, zinc and tin. Causes burns to skin, eyes and mucous membranes.. ...
Sometimes, we run into cavities that are exceptionally deep, often exposing a pinpoint area of the pulpal (nerve) area of the tooth. This often necessitates a root canal. However, we can attempt to recover and rehabilitate the tooth by capping a small exposure with calcium hydroxide, followed by a well-sealed restoration. The success levels can be quite good: a review of 14 studies have shown success rates of up to 90% with experienced clinicians ...
MODEL RELEASED. Respiration experiment. School student breathing through a tube into a test tube containing lime water (calcium hydroxide solution). Carbon dioxide (CO2) passed into limewater produces a milky suspension of calcium carbonate. As there is a high percentage of carbon dioxide in exhaled air, the lime water turns milky when. - Stock Image C024/9276
Calcium carbide (CaC2) reacts with water to form acetylene (C2H2) gas and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2). If the ΔH for: CaC2(s) + 2H2O(l) = Ca(OH)2(s) + C2H2(g) is -127 kJ, then what is the enthalpy of formation for calcium carbide ...
This paper proposes a simple model for predicting the development of deleterious expansion from alkali-silica reaction (ASR) in long-service concrete structures. This model is based on some composition and reactivity parameters related to ASR, including the long-term alkali contribution by aggregates to concrete structures. This alkali contribution was estimated by means of a laboratory extraction test, appositely developed in this study in order to maximize the alkali extraction within relatively short testing times and with low leaching solution/aggregate ratios. The proposed test is a modification of the Italian Standard test method UNI 11417-2 (Ente Nazionale Italiano di Normazione) and it consists of subjecting an aggregate sample to leaching with saturated calcium hydroxide solution in a laboratory autoclave at 105 °C. Nine natural ASR-susceptible aggregates (seven sands and two coarse aggregates) were tested and the following optimized test conditions were found: leaching solution/aggregate
The use of hydroxyapatite (HA) based materials is widely spread in the repair of bone tissue and their great acceptance arises from the close similarity of HA to the mineral phase of bone. In the last years HA has been explored in a new area of application where it, in the form of nanoparticles (NPs), has been used as a carrier for the delivery of drugs and genes inside targeted cells. In spite of the promising results, which have been reported up to day, there are fundamental questions that remain unanswered. The goal of this project is to address one specific aspect: if the addition of doping ions in the formulation of hydroxyapatite NPs affects cell behaviour. For this purpose the first objective was to prepare HA NPs with various types and degree of ion substitution: carbonate (CO3)-, magnesium (Mg)- and CO3-Mg-co-substituted HA NPs. They were prepared via a wet precipitation route involving neutralization of calcium hydroxide with phosphoric acid and were characterised by X-ray diffraction ...
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A new hydroxide (OH−) ion-conducting polymer electrolyte comprised of tetraethylammonium hydroxide (TEAOH) and polyacrylamide (PAM) was developed. This electrolyte exhibits excellent ionic conductivity greater than 10 mS cm−1 at room temperature and stable shelf-life over an 80 day exposure in various enviro
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MI Paste and MI Paste Plus are the only products for professional use containing the active ingredient RECALDENT™ (CPP-ACP), a special milk-derived protein that has a unique ability to release bio-available calcium and phosphate (and fluoride in MI Paste Plus) to tooth surfaces. When it comes to maintaining a healthy smile, these key ingredients can make a big difference in overall health.. MI Paste Plus offers the same benefits of MI Paste, but is enhanced with a patented form of fluoride (900 ppm ...
MI Paste and MI Paste Plus are the only products for professional use containing the active ingredient RECALDENT™ (CPP-ACP), a special milk-derived protein that has a unique ability to release bio-available calcium and phosphate (and fluoride in MI Paste Plus) to tooth surfaces. When it comes to maintaining a healthy smile, these key ingredients can make a big difference in overall health.. MI Paste Plus offers the same benefits of MI Paste, but is enhanced with a patented form of fluoride (900 ppm ...
Buy fludent kf paste 50 gm paste pack online at discounted price. visit 1mg.com to know price, benefits and product information of fludent kf paste.
Filtration Options - Ive got an extra R.O. filter setup (3-10 in. canisters + R.O. membrane). I was wondering whether I could use the three canister filters (i.e., bypass the R.O. membrane) and place them in the main pump return flow line in order to occasionally take advantage of micron-level filtration? Thanks. ,I would not do this unless you have an unlimited budget for replacing the filters. Youll find that placing them in the main return path will reduce your flow rate and clog the filters very quickly. Cheers, J -- ,. Kati/Ani de-ionizer 1/25/05 Im very interested in these units since theyve been highly recommended and Im not a fan of wasting water with RO. I searched through all the forums on the net and all the FAQs on this site and Ive even called Dr. Fosters and Smith (since they seem to be the only e-tailer carrying them) but Im not confident with the lack of information or answers Ive received. So on to the experts (I hope Im not wasting your time). ,no worries, First ...
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An excellent paste floatant designed for line, leader and tippet as well as flies. The paste rubs on clear, keeping leader and tippet floating on top. It can also be used as a temporary treatment for damaged floating lines. As a fly floatant, Payette Paste can be applied to large flies, giving wings and bodies a smooth silky coating. It will keep its texture regardless of temperature. ...
For a modelling paste that is both malleable and durable, look no further than Saracino Modelling Paste. The modelling paste differs in several ways than others on the market however it is its ease
I have a couple of issues that have been bugging me and Im sure these will be quick fixes for you guys, please... I cant seem to Copy/Paste from one drawing to another UNLESS I paste it on another drawing file first. Does that make any sense to anyone? I want to copy from A to B, but have to first copy from A to C, before the Paste option even becomes available in drawing B. Secondly, what is the fix to make objects Extend/Trim that are not actually crossing? TAHNK YOU in
Join Curt Frye for an in-depth discussion in this video Controlling how Excel copies and pastes formulas, part of Excel for Mac 2011 Essential Training
Create a score with enough staves that you can scroll the top staff off the top of the screen in page view. Copy notes from somewhere, possibly another score…
Полусинтетический тетрациклин, бактериостатический антибиотик широкого спектра действия. антибиотикам, например к современным пенициллинам и
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caseins and magnesium hydroxide barium sulfate mixt. with calcium hydroxide: 1 gram contains calcium hydroxide 445.89 mg, magnesium hydroxide 8.52 mg, casein 14.26 mg & barium sulfate 117.7 mg; solution may not always contain barium sulfate
Engaged in manufacturing and exporting a wide range of industrial chemicals like barium hydroxide, beryllium hydroxide, bismuth hydroxide, calcium hydroxide, cobalt hydroxide, iron hydroxide, lithium hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide, manganese hydroxide, nickel hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide, strontium hydroxide. Rakshit Chemicals Chakdaha
Clinical studies have shown the success rate of ZOE paste used alone to range from 54 to 100% [6, 19-21] and there is no difference between the success rates of ZOE, calcium hydroxide, or iodoform paste [19, 21]. The bacterial leakage test model of Sisodia R et al. indicated that Zinc Oxide Eugenol showed no bacterial leakage and better resistance to bacterial leakage than Apexit plus (a calcium hydroxide based root canal sealer paste) [22]. ZOE showed better inhibitory activity against most of the organisms isolated than Vitapex, Calcium hydroxide and Metapex, which proved by Harini PM et al. [23]. These characteristics may be the cause of good clinical manifestations of ZOE, and was also the reason why the present study chooses the ZOE as the main component of the mixed paste.. However, particles of extruded material remained evident after 18 months in most cases in the ZOE group, which was consistent with the findings of previous studies [4-6, 24]. Several researchers found that ZOE extruded ...
Introduction. Chemistry Lab Report Back Titration Introduction In this practical we are going to determine the mass of a sample of a solid base using the back titration technique. The sample used in this experiment was the calcium hydroxide. It was reacted with an excess of hydrochloric acid reagent and then a titration carried out with a titrand of know concentration NaOH. Materials Hydrochloric acid 0.50M Sodium Hydroxide 0.25M Unknown mass of Calcium Hydroxide Pipette 10 ml 0.015 Burette 0.1 BTB Magnetic stirrer Procedure and Calculations At first, 0.05 dm-3 of hydrochloric acid with a concentration of 50M was prepared in a beaker then a sample of unknown mass of calcium hydroxide was added to the acid and a solution was formed. ...read more. Middle. The experiment was repeated three times in order to avoid errors made and in each time the volume of NaOH added was recorded. Raw data table of the titration being made between the NaOH and the solution of HCl and Ca(OH)2 Volume of NaOH added ...
Carbonatation is a chemical reaction in which calcium hydroxide reacts with carbon dioxide and forms insoluble calcium carbonate: Ca(OH)2 + CO2 → CaCO3 + H2O The process of forming a carbonate is sometimes referred to as "carbonation", although this term usually refers to the process of dissolving carbon dioxide in water. Carbonatation is a slow process that occurs in concrete where lime (calcium hydroxide) in the cement reacts with carbon dioxide from the air and forms calcium carbonate. The water in the pores of Portland cement concrete is normally alkaline with a pH in the range of 12.5 to 13.5. This highly alkaline environment is one in which the steel rebar is passivated and is protected from corrosion. According to the Pourbaix diagram for iron, the metal is passive when the pH is above 9.5. The carbon dioxide in the air reacts with the alkali in the cement and makes the pore water more acidic, thus lowering the pH. Carbon dioxide will start to carbonatate the cement in the concrete from ...
Calcium nitrate is made by reacting calcium hydroxide or calcium carbonate with nitric acid. It is made when nitric acid reacts with calcium phosphate. It can be made by reacting ammonium nitrate and calcium hydroxide.. ...
Headline: Bitcoin & Blockchain Searches Exceed Trump! Blockchain Stocks Are Next!. Lithium Hydroxide Market analysis is provided for global market including development trends by regions, competitive analysis of the Lithium Hydroxide market. Lithium hydroxide is a compound formed of the white, soft metal lithium bound to a hydroxide group with the formula LiOH. It is commercially available in anhydrous form free of chemical bonds to water, though it is a hygroscopic chemical by nature that is also sold in monohydrate form as LiOH H2O.. Browse more detail information about Lithium Hydroxide market report at: http://www.absolutereports.com/global-lithium-hydroxide-market-by-manufacturers-regions-type-and-application-forecast-to-2021-10515606. Market Segment by Manufacturers, this report covers. ...
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The most time-consuming science fair project we did, in 2003, was our bean project. We decided to find out if great northern and pinto beans grew better or worse as we varied the pH of the water they were growing in. We used neutral to alkaline pHs of 7 to 9. But that was not all. You cannot add pure hydroxyl ions to a solution to increase the pH. You have to add a stable chemical, which is a cation (X+ or X++) bonded to one or more hydroxyl (OH-) ions. We also wanted to find out whether the chemical (cation) used to change the pH had any effect on how the beans grew.. We grew 13 vats of 18 beans each (9 pintos and 9 great northerns). One vat contained distilled water of pH 7.0 as the control. Then there were 12 more vats, one each for pH 7.5, pH 8.0, pH 8.5, and pH 9.0, for each of the three chemicals, calcium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, and sodium hydroxide. We took bean height measurements every day for 40 days, and bean weight measurements at the end of the experiment. All in all, we had ...
Like an acid, a base is a substance capable of dissolving things. Here is a scientific explanation of what a base is: A base is a substance which accepts a proton from another species in a reaction. (Here, "accept" is a passive term for what really happens. A base attacks and "rips" a proton from a substance which has any capability of giving it away. Thus a base accepts a proton the way a thief "accepts" your purse). Bases are classified as either strong or weak depending upon their relative ability to do this. When it does this, it changes the substance it attacks into a different substance. There are many bases. Here are a few: Ammonia (used as a cleaner), Calcium hydroxide (used in mortar for construction), Magnesium hydroxide (otherwise known as milk of magnesia; used as a laxative or antacid), Sodium hydroxide (used as an oven cleaner ...
Pretreatment is an essential step in the formation of liquid biofuels. Switchgrass and miscanthus were pretreated using calcium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, and sodium hydroxide at an equivalent hydroxyl concentration (0.46g OH−/g dry biomass), at a solids content of 40%, and two temperatures (25 and 50°C) for seven days. The cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin composition before and after pre ...
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Limestone is mainly calcium carbonate, CaCO3, which when heated breaks down to form calcium oxide and carbon dioxide. Calcium oxide reacts with water to produce calcium hydroxide. Limestone and its products have many uses, including being used to make cement, mortar and concrete.. ...
Dear Readers, When I was a student, I was taught the basic rules about caries "therapy": extension for prevention and all the other rules for cavity preparations. Furthermore, we were instructed to remove ALL the decayed tissue, which meant that we excavated the diseased tissues until the dentin color became brighter (yellowish) and the surface became shiny and harder, hoping that our excavation ended in the zone of remineralization, which can be identified in histological preparations of carious teeth. The only exception to this rule was the pulpal or axial wall, where we were allowed to leave carious tissue behind. The rationale for this was to prevent pulp exposure. In these cases, we treated the dentin with calcium hydroxide ...
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Something is better than nothing!---the rallying cry of defenders of autism therapies, however harmful, quackery-based, abusive, or senseless they may be. The worst treatment plan is infinitely better than no treatment plan at all, isnt it? Who are we to criticize parents who give their children bleach enemas, chemically castrate them, chemically and physically restrain…
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Dirty teeth and stinky breath . . . no thanks! North lets me brush his chompers (since I got him used to it when he was just a pup) so hes never gone in for a
Your pets dental care and health plays a large part in their ability to maintain an overall state of well-being. Diseases that begin in the mouth often transfer to other parts of the body through the blood stream. Proper cat and dog oral care serve an essential role in keeping …. Read More » ...
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A medicament discharging device and an expendable clip thereon containing a plurality of medicament cartridges. Each of the cartridges comprises a container, a dosage of medicament in the container, a hypodermic needle sealingly contained in a sterile condition in cooperating relation with the container and a movable wall means at one end of the container operable when moved through a discharging stroke to cause the sharpened end of the needle to move outwardly out of sealingly contained relation and into the muscle tissue of a patient and the medicament dosage to move outwardly of the container into the opposite end of the needle and out of the sharpened end thereof into the muscle tissue of the patient. The medicament discharging device comprises a portable manually engageable housing structure defining a medicament cartridge receiving station, a plunger mounted in the housing structure for movement through the medicament cartridge receiving station in repetitive operative cycles each of which
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AbstractThe aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) as an apexification material when used in non-vital immature permanent incisors in children. Fifteen children with a mean age of 11.7 years and 17 non-vital permanent incisors were ajudged s
Capping of the exposed pulp is indicated for reversible pulp tissue injury after physical or mechanical trauma in developing or mature teeth.The response to direct pulp capping with materials such as MTA or NEC is the formation of dentin barrier, resulting from the recruitment and proliferation of undifferentiated cells.. Different materials can be used to induce dentinal bridge formation.MTA has been introduced as a proper material to induce dentinal bridge formation,with greater mean thickness of dentinal bridge and less inflammation compared to traditional materials like calcium hydroxide. Although biocompatible, MTA has a poor handling characteristic, delay setting time, off-white color, and it is almost expensive.The Novel Endodontic Cement (NEC) has been introduced to combine reasonable characteristics of MTA with appropriate chemical properties, setting time, color, and handling characteristics.. The extracellular matrix (ECM) of pulp comprises a variety of proteins and polysaccharides, ...
Youve heard the words you never wanted to pass your dentists lips with you in the chair: "You need a root canal." What?? Your heart quickens and you feel panicked. Everyone knows that root canals are simply awful and they take several visits!. Truth be told, having root canal therapy, which is sometimes called endodontic therapy and more often shortened to simply "root canal," is usually not much different from having a filling done, from the patients perspective. Chances are extremely good that you will feel no pain, and technology has made it possible to perform many (though not all) root canals in one appointment that lasts 60 to 90 minutes. If you are worried about an upcoming root canal, read on to learn more about this common procedure.. What Is Root Canal Therapy?. Root canal therapy is done when there is a problem with the nerve of the tooth. It could be that its highly inflamed due to decay or bacteria; in this case, you might be suffering with hypersensitivity and tooth pain. ...

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Thermal decomposition of selected barium compouds in search for an alternativ route for manufacture of sodium hydroxideThermal decomposition of selected barium compouds in search for an alternativ route for manufacture of sodium hydroxide

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It is prepared by reacting calcium oxide (lime) with water, a process called slaking, and is also known as hydrated lime or ... calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH) 2, colorless crystal or white powder. It is prepared by reacting calcium oxide (lime) with water, a ... Because calcium hydroxide readily reacts with carbon dioxide, CO 2, to form calcium carbonate, a mixture of gases can be tested ... Limewater is a clear, saturated water solution of calcium hydroxide. It is used in medicine to treat acid burns and as an ...
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  • According to the National Institutes of Health, calcium hydroxide is commonly used in dental work as an antimicrobial, and is the substance of choice for forming a protective layer known as an apical barrier. (livestrong.com)
  • The review also describes the use of various active components that have been added to calcium hydroxide, including antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory agents. (nih.gov)
  • In the laboratory it may be prepared by treating an aqueous solution of any calcium salt with an alkali. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Vehicles can be classified into aqueous, viscous and oily, the clinical properties of calcium hydroxide changing depending on the vehicle. (nih.gov)
  • Lutefisk, according to the Nordic Recipe Archive, is a stockfish that is soaked in cold water for several days, then soaked in a combination of water and lye or another harshly caustic substance like calcium hydroxide. (livestrong.com)
  • For the second batch, which the water present in the calcium hydroxide solution was kept, the amount of water in the alkaline solution was considered inside the total quantity of water used on the mixture to avoid a difference of methodology among batches. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Similarly, Native Americans traditionally chewed tobacco leaves with calcium hydroxide derived from burnt shells to enhance the effects. (thefullwiki.org)
  • In chewing betel nut or coca leaves , calcium hydroxide is usually chewed alongside to keep the alkaloid stimulants chemically available for absorption by the body. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Hi, does anyone know the makeup of calcium hydroxide and what numbers to put into the 'new mineral salt' fields in beertools? (beertools.com)
  • hi, so ive figured out pretty good the calcium and bicarb components of this, but now i cant figure out how to customize a mineral salt in the software. (beertools.com)
  • Calcium hydroxide has widespread uses, including applications in dental work, hair care products, leather production, food manufacturing and others. (livestrong.com)
  • Since calcium hydroxide can help disinfect a tooth where an infection already exists, it may be used as a short-term treatment for reducing pain and swelling in preparation for endodontic surgery. (livestrong.com)
  • This review will help clinicians to make informed judgements about which formulations of calcium hydroxide should be used for specific endodontic procedures. (nih.gov)
  • Calcium hydroxide poisoning occurs when someone swallows this substance. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Calcium hydroxide adopts a polymeric structure, as do all metal hydroxides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Breaking these bonds and sealing them off with calcium hydroxide permanently alters the physical structure of the treated hairs. (livestrong.com)
  • The aim of this paper is to review the various formulations of calcium hydroxide that have been described, with specific reference to the vehicle used to carry the compound. (nih.gov)
  • Lye poses a certain risk of hair and skin damage, however, so some hair product manufacturers have created no-lye versions that use calcium hydroxide in its place. (livestrong.com)
  • Calcium hydroxide is used in many applications, including food preparation, where it has been identified as E number E526 . (wikipedia.org)
  • Calcium hydroxide is used in many applications, including food preparation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calcium hydroxide has been used in endodontology for many years. (nih.gov)
  • According to the Cornell Center for Materials Research, calcium hydroxide can straighten curly hair because it breaks down the sidulfide bonds that connect cysteines, the amino acids that are present in higher concentrations in naturally curly hair. (livestrong.com)
  • If calcium hydroxide gets into the lungs (aspiration), serious and possibly permanent lung damage can occur. (medlineplus.gov)