Calcium Gluconate: The calcium salt of gluconic acid. The compound has a variety of uses, including its use as a calcium replenisher in hypocalcemic states.GluconatesBatroxobin: A proteolytic enzyme obtained from the venom of fer-de-lance (Bothrops atrox). It is used as a plasma clotting agent for fibrinogen and for the detection of fibrinogen degradation products. The presence of heparin does not interfere with the clotting test. Hemocoagulase is a mixture containing batroxobin and factor X activator. EC 3.4.21.-.Hydrofluoric Acid: Hydrofluoric acid. A solution of hydrogen fluoride in water. It is a colorless fuming liquid which can cause painful burns.Metacarpus: The region of the HAND between the WRIST and the FINGERS.Hypocalcemia: Reduction of the blood calcium below normal. Manifestations include hyperactive deep tendon reflexes, Chvostek's sign, muscle and abdominal cramps, and carpopedal spasm. (Dorland, 27th ed)Calcium Chloride: A salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.Burns, ChemicalFinger Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the fingers.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Calcium Carbonate: Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.Electronic Mail: Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.Food Dispensers, Automatic: Mechanical food dispensing machines.Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Postal Service: The functions and activities carried out by the U.S. Postal Service, foreign postal services, and private postal services such as Federal Express.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Manufactured Materials: Substances and materials manufactured for use in various technologies and industries and for domestic use.Facility Regulation and Control: Formal voluntary or governmental procedures and standards required of hospitals and health or other facilities to improve operating efficiency, and for the protection of the consumer.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Cosmetics: Substances intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions. Included in this definition are skin creams, lotions, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail polishes, eye and facial makeup preparations, permanent waves, hair colors, toothpastes, and deodorants, as well as any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. (U.S. Food & Drug Administration Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition Office of Cosmetics Fact Sheet (web page) Feb 1995)Investigational New Drug Application: An application that must be submitted to a regulatory agency (the FDA in the United States) before a drug can be studied in humans. This application includes results of previous experiments; how, where, and by whom the new studies will be conducted; the chemical structure of the compound; how it is thought to work in the body; any toxic effects found in animal studies; and how the compound is manufactured. (From the "New Medicines in Development" Series produced by the Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association and published irregularly.)Hyperkalemia: Abnormally high potassium concentration in the blood, most often due to defective renal excretion. It is characterized clinically by electrocardiographic abnormalities (elevated T waves and depressed P waves, and eventually by atrial asystole). In severe cases, weakness and flaccid paralysis may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)Hypoaldosteronism: A congenital or acquired condition of insufficient production of ALDOSTERONE by the ADRENAL CORTEX leading to diminished aldosterone-mediated synthesis of Na(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE in renal tubular cells. Clinical symptoms include HYPERKALEMIA, sodium-wasting, HYPOTENSION, and sometimes metabolic ACIDOSIS.Aortic Valve: The valve between the left ventricle and the ascending aorta which prevents backflow into the left ventricle.Aortic Valve Stenosis: A pathological constriction that can occur above (supravalvular stenosis), below (subvalvular stenosis), or at the AORTIC VALVE. It is characterized by restricted outflow from the LEFT VENTRICLE into the AORTA.Wit and Humor as Topic: The faculty of expressing the amusing, clever, or comical or the keen perception and cleverly apt expression of connections between ideas that awaken amusement and pleasure. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Product Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a product or its container or wrapper. It includes purpose, effect, description, directions, hazards, warnings, and other relevant information.Calcium Signaling: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.Carbon-Carbon Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. This subclass contains the DECARBOXYLASES, the ALDEHYDE-LYASES, and the OXO-ACID-LYASES. EC 4.1.Calcium Channels: Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.Calcium, Dietary: Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.Pectobacterium: A genus of gram-negative bacteria in the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE consisting of species that profusely produce pectinolytic enzymes in plant pathogenesis.Drug Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a drug container or wrapper. It includes contents, indications, effects, dosages, routes, methods, frequency and duration of administration, warnings, hazards, contraindications, side effects, precautions, and other relevant information.Chemical Industry: The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)IndiaVerapamil: A calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent.Calcium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.

Calcimimetic compound NPS R-568 stimulates calcitonin secretion but selectively targets parathyroid gland Ca(2+) receptor in rats. (1/91)

N-(3-[2-Chlorophenyl]propyl)-(R)-alpha-methyl-3-methoxybenzylamine (NPS R-568) is an orally active compound that activates Ca(2+) receptors on parathyroid cells and rapidly suppresses plasma levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and Ca(2+) (ED(50), 1 and 10 mg/kg, respectively). We now show that increased calcitonin secretion contributes to NPS R-568-induced hypocalcemia. In parathyroidectomized thyroid-intact rats in which normocalcemia was restored by PTH infusion, NPS R-568 rapidly reduced plasma Ca(2+) levels, indicating that decreased PTH secretion was not solely responsible for the hypocalcemia seen in normal animals. NPS R-568 decreased plasma Ca(2+) levels in thyroidectomized parathyroid-intact rats, but the rate of onset of hypocalcemia was slower than in controls. In contrast, NPS R-568 had no effect on plasma Ca(2+) levels in PTH-infused, thyroparathyroidectomized rats, providing evidence that increased calcitonin secretion caused the hypocalcemia in PTH-infused parathyroidectomized rats. NPS R-568 rapidly increased plasma calcitonin levels to a peak at 10 to 20 min after oral dosing (ED(50) 40 mg/kg). NPS R-568 did not affect the rate of disappearance of (45)Ca from blood, indicating that hypocalcemia resulted from decreased influx of Ca(2+) into the circulation and not from increased efflux. This suggests that NPS R-568-induced hypocalcemia resulted solely from reduced efflux of Ca(2+) from bone after increased calcitonin and reduced PTH secretion. Thus, NPS R-568 causes hypocalcemia by activating Ca(2+) receptors on C cells and parathyroid cells; however, NPS R-568 is about 40 times more potent in reducing PTH levels than in increasing calcitonin levels.  (+info)

Dynamic tests of parathyroid hormone secretion using hemodialysis and calcium infusion cannot be compared. (2/91)

BACKGROUND: Extracellular Ca++ concentration [Ca++] and parathormone (PTH) are related by a sigmoidal function. The set point of the control system is the [Ca++] that produces a half-maximal inhibition of PTH secretion. Whether or not this set point is abnormal in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) and secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHP) is controversial. METHODS: We investigated whether the way [Ca++] is varied [hemodialysis (HD) or calcium gluconate/sodium citrate infusions (INF)] and the way the curve is constructed (four-parameter model or adapted four-parameter, created by Felsenfeld) could influence this set point. We performed dynamic tests of PTH secretion in 12 patients with CRF and SHP during either HD or INF. Both the four-parameter model or adapted four-parameter methods were used, creating four combinations: (a) hypocalcemia and hypercalcemia induced during HD, calculated by Brown's formula (HDB); (b) hypocalcemia and hypercalcemia induced during HD, calculated by Felsenfeld's formula (HDF); (c) hypocalcemia and hypercalcemia induced during infusion, calculated by Brown's formula (INFB); and (d) hypocalcemia and hypercalcemia induced during infusion, calculated by Felsenfeld's formula (INFF). RESULTS: The set points obtained with HDB correlated perfectly with those obtained with HDF (R2 = 0.999). A similar relationship was found between INFB and INFF (R2 = 0.9997). In contrast, there was no correlation between either HDB and INFB (R2 = 0.0157) or HDF and INFF (R2 = 0.0204). CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that the calculated [Ca++] set point in patients with CRF and SHP is determined by the way [Ca++] is varied, rather than by the mathematical model used to generate the curves. Further studies are needed to determine the differing physiological mechanisms triggered by HD and INF and the way they influence [Ca++] homeostasis in this setting.  (+info)

In vivo effect of endothelin-1 on plasma calcium and parathyroid hormone concentrations. (3/91)

We have previously reported an in vitro inhibitory effect of endothelin-1 (ET-1) on parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion. In the present experiment, ET-1 was infused into rabbits to study the in vivo effect of ET-1 on the changes in calcium, magnesium, PTH and calcitonin concentrations. Femoral arteries and veins of anesthetized male rabbits were cannulated to monitor vital signs, blood sampling and infusion of the agents being studied. Infusion of ET-1 (1, 5, 10 and 20 ng/kg per min) induced a dose-dependent decline in plasma ionized calcium concentrations from 6.68+/-0.26 to 5.50+/-0.46 mg/dl (P<0.05) and a decrease in calcitonin concentrations from 48.6+/-6.5 to 32.5+/-4.7 pg/ml. PTH concentrations increased from 58.3+/-10.2 to 159.4+/-22.1 pg/ml. In a separate experiment, calcium gluconate solution was simultaneously infused to keep calcium concentrations steady, thereby proving a calcium 'clamp'. In normal calcium concentration, ET-1 infusion gradually decreased PTH concentrations from 71.4+/-8.6 to 38.0+/-6.2 pg/ml. We further infused sodium citrate solution to decrease the calcium concentration (2.0 mg/dl less) and calcium gluconate solution was infused to keep calcium concentrations steadily less than normal. PTH concentrations were initially stimulated by the induction of hypocalcemia (68.1+/-11.2 to 135.6+/-8.5 pg/ml), but decreased by ET-1 infusion (135.6+/-8.5 to 85.1+/-15.2 pg/ml). Plasma magnesium concentrations did not change significantly throughout the entire study and calcitonin concentrations were not significantly changed during the calcium clamp studies. Serum phosphate and 1,25-(OH)(2) vitamin D(3) concentrations were also measured, but they also did not change significantly. In conclusion, ET-1 exhibited an in vivo acute hypocalcemic action, independent of calcitonin. It also directly decreased PTH secretion if serum calcium concentrations were kept steady. The above findings are consistent with the results of our previous in vitro experiment.  (+info)

The management of hyperkalaemia in the emergency department. (4/91)

Life threatening hyperkalaemia (> 7.0 mmol/l) is commonly associated with acute renal failure. Moderate hyperkalaemia (6.1-6.9 mmol/l) is also common and well tolerated in patients with chronic renal failure. Renal failure is the most common cause of hyperkalaemia although other causes to consider include drugs (potassium sparing diuretics, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors), hyperglycaemia, rhabdomyolysis and adrenal insufficiency. Hyperkalaemia affects the cardiac conducting tissue and can cause serious arrhythmias including ventricular fibrillation and asystolic arrest. Therefore it is important to treat hyperkalaemia promptly in the emergency department. This paper evaluates the therapeutic options available for treatment of hyperkalaemia.  (+info)

Usefulness of the combination of pre- and intraoperative selective intraarterial calcium injection to detect residual insulinomas. (5/91)

In a 35-year-old woman diagnosed with insulinoma selective intraarterial calcium injection was positive for proximal gastroduodenal artery and inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery involvement preoperatively. Although non-invasive imaging studies were negative, a mass was detected at the pancreatic uncus by intraoperative ultrasonography. Gastroduodenal artery calcium injection was performed after enucleation of the tumor. Following calcium injection, the insulin level was inappropriately increased and further pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed. After excision, another tumor was detected at the head of the pancreas by histopathological examination. As shown, selective intraarterial calcium injection is useful to localize tumors preoperatively and intraoperatively.  (+info)

Hypocalcaemia and hypomagnesaemia due to hydrofluoric acid. (6/91)

Hydrofluoric acid readily penetrates the skin and mucous membranes, causing deep tissue layer destruction. Dermal exposure can produce hypocalcaemia, hypomagnesaemia, hyperkalaemia, cardiac dysrhythmias and death. We report the case of a 52-year-old man who presented hypocalcaemia and hypomagnesaemia due to occupational dermal contact with hydrofluoric acid. Hypocalcaemia and hypomagnesaemia were corrected by i.v. administration of calcium gluconate and magnesium sulphate.  (+info)

Functional atrioventricular block in a preterm infant. (7/91)

A case of functional second degree atrioventricular block is reported in a preterm infant secondary to early onset hypocalcaemia. An infusion of 10% calcium gluconate rapidly corrected the arrhythmia.  (+info)

Effects of elevated calcium on motor and exploratory activities of rats. (8/91)

The effects of serum and brain calcium concentration on rat behavior were tested by maintaining animals on either distilled water (N = 60) or water containing 1% calcium gluconate (N = 60) for 3 days. Animals that were maintained on high calcium drinking water presented increased serum calcium levels (control = 10.12 +/- 0.46 vs calcium treated = 11.62 +/- 0.51 microg/dl). Increase of brain calcium levels was not statistically significant. In the behavioral experiments each rat was used for only one test. Rats that were maintained on high calcium drinking water showed increased open-field behavior of ambulation (20.68%) and rearing (64.57%). On the hole-board, calcium-supplemented animals showed increased head-dip (67%) and head-dipping (126%), suggesting increased ambulatory and exploratory behavior. The time of social interaction was normal in animals maintained on drinking water containing added calcium. Rats supplemented with calcium and submitted to elevated plus-maze tests showed a normal status of anxiety and elevated locomotor activity. We conclude that elevated levels of calcium enhance motor and exploratory behavior of rats without inducing other behavioral alterations. These data suggest the need for a more detailed analysis of several current proposals for the use of calcium therapy in humans, for example in altered blood pressure states, bone mineral metabolism disorders in the elderly, hypocalcemic states, and athletic activities.  (+info)

  • In the US, Calcium Gluconate (calcium gluconate systemic) is a member of the drug class minerals and electrolytes and is used to treat Exchange Transfusion , Hyperkalemia , Hypermagnesemia , Hypocalcemia and Osteoporosis . (drugs.com)
  • One of the most serious consequences of severs exposure to HF by any route is the marked lowering of serum calcium (hypocalcemia) and other metabolic changes which may result in a fatal outcome if not recognized and treated. (clemson.edu)
  • Calcium gluconate is not always given to patients who are already taking medications to regulate the heart rate, including digoxin, because the calcium gluconate can cause toxicity of that type of medication and worsen the patient's condition. (livestrong.com)
  • It is also reported that this form of calcium increases renal plasma flow, diuresis, natriuresis, glomerular filtration rate, and prostaglandin E2 and F1-alpha levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this report, the EMEA 10% Calcium Gluconate market is valued at USD XX million in 2016 and is expected to reach USD XX million by the end of 2022, growing at a CAGR of XX% between 2016 and 2022. (qyresearchreports.com)
  • In the recent times, the global market for Emea europe middle east and africa 10 calcium gluconate market report 2017 has surfaced as one of the most promising markets in the pharmaceutical industry, thanks to the significant rise in research and development activities by leading vendors of Emea europe middle east and africa 10 calcium gluconate market report 2017 across the world. (qyresearchreports.com)
  • Manufacturers have turned to technological innovations and data-driven customization to satisfy the augmenting consumer demand for efficiency and more accuracy in results, leading to an increased usage of technology in the Emea europe middle east and africa 10 calcium gluconate market report 2017 production processes, which is also reflecting positively on the growth of this market. (qyresearchreports.com)
  • The research report on the Emea europe middle east and africa 10 calcium gluconate market report 2017 is an analytical study which comprehensively analyzes the competitive framework of this market. (qyresearchreports.com)
  • Using a number of effective assessment tools, such as porter's five forces and value chain analysis, it performs in-depth analyses of the production and supply as well as the demand and sales of Emea europe middle east and africa 10 calcium gluconate market report 2017 and provides deep insights into the future prospects of this market. (qyresearchreports.com)
  • The study begins with a detailed overview of the market for Emea europe middle east and africa 10 calcium gluconate market report 2017, including the definition, classification, and industry chain structure of Emea europe middle east and africa 10 calcium gluconate market report 2017, and move forward to cover every aspect of this market, counting several criteria based on which the market is classified. (qyresearchreports.com)
  • With chemical industry undergoing a phase of technological disruption, innovations in products are likely to shape the future of the Emea europe middle east and africa 10 calcium gluconate market report 2017. (qyresearchreports.com)
  • Further, it offers an estimation of the market size in terms of value (US$) and in volume (kilo tons) and talks about the key segments and the geographical subdivisions of the market for Emea europe middle east and africa 10 calcium gluconate market report 2017 in details. (qyresearchreports.com)
  • It provides in-depth information on the development trends and the policies and regulations, concerning Emea europe middle east and africa 10 calcium gluconate market report 2017, implemented in each of the geographical segments. (qyresearchreports.com)
  • The predominant applications of the Emea europe middle east and africa 10 calcium gluconate market report 2017 have also been discussed at length in this research study. (qyresearchreports.com)
  • With all these analyses and information, this report can act as a valuable guide to readers looking to gain a clear understanding of all the factors that are influencing the market for Emea europe middle east and africa 10 calcium gluconate market report 2017 at present and are projected to remain doing so over the forecast period. (qyresearchreports.com)
  • Rapid intravenous injections of calcium gluconate may cause hypercalcaemia, which can result in vasodilation, cardiac arrhythmias, decreased blood pressure, and bradycardia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Historically, IV calcium gluconate was used as an antidote for black widow spider envenomation, often in conjunction with muscle relaxants. (wikipedia.org)
  • One method is dietary intake of calcium-rich foods including dairy products, which have the highest concentration per serving of highly absorbable calcium, and dark, leafy greens or dried beans, which have varying amounts of absorbable calcium. (aarpmedicareplans.com)
  • Administration of calcium gluconate is the main treatment for this condition. (livestrong.com)
  • In this situation, certain changes on the ECG warrant careful administration of calcium gluconate, which is decided by a physician. (livestrong.com)

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