A methylpyrrole-carboxylate from RYANIA that disrupts the RYANODINE RECEPTOR CALCIUM RELEASE CHANNEL to modify CALCIUM release from SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM resulting in alteration of MUSCLE CONTRACTION. It was previously used in INSECTICIDES. It is used experimentally in conjunction with THAPSIGARGIN and other inhibitors of CALCIUM ATPASE uptake of calcium into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
A tetrameric calcium release channel in the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM membrane of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, acting oppositely to SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES. It is important in skeletal and cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and studied by using RYANODINE. Abnormalities are implicated in CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS and MUSCULAR DISEASES.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.
Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.
Long-lasting voltage-gated CALCIUM CHANNELS found in both excitable and nonexcitable tissue. They are responsible for normal myocardial and vascular smooth muscle contractility. Five subunits (alpha-1, alpha-2, beta, gamma, and delta) make up the L-type channel. The alpha-1 subunit is the binding site for calcium-based antagonists. Dihydropyridine-based calcium antagonists are used as markers for these binding sites.
A network of tubules and sacs in the cytoplasm of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that assist with muscle contraction and relaxation by releasing and storing calcium ions.
Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.
A salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.
Stable calcium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element calcium, but differ in atomic weight. Ca-42-44, 46, and 48 are stable calcium isotopes.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Unstable isotopes of calcium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ca atoms with atomic weights 39, 41, 45, 47, 49, and 50 are radioactive calcium isotopes.
The calcium salt of oxalic acid, occurring in the urine as crystals and in certain calculi.
Agents that increase calcium influx into calcium channels of excitable tissues. This causes vasoconstriction in VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE and/or CARDIAC MUSCLE cells as well as stimulation of insulin release from pancreatic islets. Therefore, tissue-selective calcium agonists have the potential to combat cardiac failure and endocrinological disorders. They have been used primarily in experimental studies in cell and tissue culture.
Skeletal muscle relaxant that acts by interfering with excitation-contraction coupling in the muscle fiber. It is used in spasticity and other neuromuscular abnormalities. Although the mechanism of action is probably not central, dantrolene is usually grouped with the central muscle relaxants.
The calcium salt of gluconic acid. The compound has a variety of uses, including its use as a calcium replenisher in hypocalcemic states.
A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.
Intracellular receptors that bind to INOSITOL 1,4,5-TRISPHOSPHATE and play an important role in its intracellular signaling. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors are calcium channels that release CALCIUM in response to increased levels of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in the CYTOPLASM.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
An inorganic dye used in microscopy for differential staining and as a diagnostic reagent. In research this compound is used to study changes in cytoplasmic concentrations of calcium. Ruthenium red inhibits calcium transport through membrane channels.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Rapid and excessive rise of temperature accompanied by muscular rigidity following general anesthesia.
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
A sesquiterpene lactone found in roots of THAPSIA. It inhibits CA(2+)-TRANSPORTING ATPASE mediated uptake of CALCIUM into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Inorganic compounds that contain calcium as an integral part of the molecule.
CALCIUM CHANNELS that are concentrated in neural tissue. Omega toxins inhibit the actions of these channels by altering their voltage dependence.
A potent vasodilator agent with calcium antagonistic action. It is a useful anti-anginal agent that also lowers blood pressure.
A pyridine nucleotide that mobilizes CALCIUM. It is synthesized from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by ADP RIBOSE CYCLASE.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
Acidic protein found in SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM that binds calcium to the extent of 700-900 nmoles/mg. It plays the role of sequestering calcium transported to the interior of the intracellular vesicle.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Calcium-transporting ATPases that catalyze the active transport of CALCIUM into the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM vesicles from the CYTOPLASM. They are primarily found in MUSCLE CELLS and play a role in the relaxation of MUSCLES.
A fluorescent calcium chelating agent which is used to study intracellular calcium in tissues.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Intracellular messenger formed by the action of phospholipase C on phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, which is one of the phospholipids that make up the cell membrane. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate is released into the cytoplasm where it releases calcium ions from internal stores within the cell's endoplasmic reticulum. These calcium ions stimulate the activity of B kinase or calmodulin.
Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.
A family of immunophilin proteins that bind to the immunosuppressive drugs TACROLIMUS (also known as FK506) and SIROLIMUS. EC 5.2.1.-
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
Cyclic compounds with a ring size of approximately 1-4 dozen atoms.
An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.
A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
A 12-KDa tacrolimus binding protein that is found associated with and may modulate the function of calcium release channels. It is a peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase which is inhibited by both tacrolimus (commonly called FK506) and SIROLIMUS.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Organic nitrogenous bases. Many alkaloids of medical importance occur in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and some have been synthesized. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A white powder prepared from lime that has many medical and industrial uses. It is in many dental formulations, especially for root canal filling.
Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The fluid inside CELLS.
A calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent.
A calcium salt that is used for a variety of purposes including: building materials, as a desiccant, in dentistry as an impression material, cast, or die, and in medicine for immobilizing casts and as a tablet excipient. It exists in various forms and states of hydration. Plaster of Paris is a mixture of powdered and heat-treated gypsum.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
A photoprotein isolated from the bioluminescent jellyfish Aequorea. It emits visible light by an intramolecular reaction when a trace amount of calcium ion is added. The light-emitting moiety in the bioluminescence reaction is believed to be 2-amino-3-benzyl-5-(p-hydroxyphenyl)pyrazine (AF-350).
Pyridine moieties which are partially saturated by the addition of two hydrogen atoms in any position.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A potent local anesthetic of the ester type used for surface and spinal anesthesia.
A colorless crystalline or white powdery organic, tricarboxylic acid occurring in plants, especially citrus fruits, and used as a flavoring agent, as an antioxidant in foods, and as a sequestrating agent. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
A heterogeneous group of drugs used to produce muscle relaxation, excepting the neuromuscular blocking agents. They have their primary clinical and therapeutic uses in the treatment of muscle spasm and immobility associated with strains, sprains, and injuries of the back and, to a lesser degree, injuries to the neck. They have been used also for the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions that have in common only the presence of skeletal muscle hyperactivity, for example, the muscle spasms that can occur in MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p358)
An electrogenic ion exchange protein that maintains a steady level of calcium by removing an amount of calcium equal to that which enters the cells. It is widely distributed in most excitable membranes, including the brain and heart.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A calbindin protein found in many mammalian tissues, including the UTERUS, PLACENTA, BONE, PITUITARY GLAND, and KIDNEYS. In intestinal ENTEROCYTES it mediates intracellular calcium transport from apical to basolateral membranes via calcium binding at two EF-HAND MOTIFS. Expression is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.
An inorganic pyrophosphate which affects calcium metabolism in mammals. Abnormalities in its metabolism occur in some human diseases, notably HYPOPHOSPHATASIA and pseudogout (CHONDROCALCINOSIS).
Disorders in the processing of calcium in the body: its absorption, transport, storage, and utilization.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Lanthanum. The prototypical element in the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol La, atomic number 57, and atomic weight 138.91. Lanthanide ion is used in experimental biology as a calcium antagonist; lanthanum oxide improves the optical properties of glass.
A benzothiazepine derivative with vasodilating action due to its antagonism of the actions of CALCIUM ion on membrane functions.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Chemical agents that increase the permeability of biological or artificial lipid membranes to specific ions. Most ionophores are relatively small organic molecules that act as mobile carriers within membranes or coalesce to form ion permeable channels across membranes. Many are antibiotics, and many act as uncoupling agents by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.
Compounds with three aromatic rings in linear arrangement with an OXYGEN in the center ring.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
An element of the alkaline earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sr, atomic number 38, and atomic weight 87.62.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
A divalent calcium ionophore that is widely used as a tool to investigate the role of intracellular calcium in cellular processes.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain boron as an integral part of the molecule.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A potent antagonist of CALCIUM CHANNELS that is highly selective for VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE. It is effective in the treatment of chronic stable angina pectoris, hypertension, and congestive cardiac failure.
An inherited congenital myopathic condition characterized by weakness and hypotonia in infancy and delayed motor development. Muscle biopsy reveals a condensation of myofibrils and myofibrillar material in the central portion of each muscle fiber. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1452)
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.
CALCIUM CHANNELS located within the PURKINJE CELLS of the cerebellum. They are involved in stimulation-secretion coupling of neurons.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.
Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Five-membered heterocyclic ring structures containing an oxygen in the 1-position and a nitrogen in the 3-position, in distinction from ISOXAZOLES where they are at the 1,2 positions.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Stones in the KIDNEY, usually formed in the urine-collecting area of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS). Their sizes vary and most contains CALCIUM OXALATE.
Reduction of the blood calcium below normal. Manifestations include hyperactive deep tendon reflexes, Chvostek's sign, muscle and abdominal cramps, and carpopedal spasm. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
A class of G-protein-coupled receptors that react to varying extracellular CALCIUM levels. Calcium-sensing receptors in the PARATHYROID GLANDS play an important role in the maintenance of calcium HOMEOSTASIS by regulating the release of PARATHYROID HORMONE. They differ from INTRACELLULAR CALCIUM-SENSING PROTEINS which sense intracellular calcium levels.
CALCIUM CHANNELS located in the neurons of the brain.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
A calcium channel blockader with preferential cerebrovascular activity. It has marked cerebrovascular dilating effects and lowers blood pressure.
Abnormally high level of calcium in the blood.
Cation-transporting proteins that utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis for the transport of CALCIUM. They differ from CALCIUM CHANNELS which allow calcium to pass through a membrane without the use of energy.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of phosphodiesterases.
A calcium channel blocker with marked vasodilator action. It is an effective antihypertensive agent and differs from other calcium channel blockers in that it does not reduce glomerular filtration rate and is mildly natriuretic, rather than sodium retentive.
A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.
A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
CALCIUM CHANNELS located in the neurons of the brain. They are inhibited by the marine snail toxin, omega conotoxin MVIIC.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.
Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A potent calcium channel blockader with marked vasodilator action. It has antihypertensive properties and is effective in the treatment of angina and coronary spasms without showing cardiodepressant effects. It has also been used in the treatment of asthma and enhances the action of specific antineoplastic agents.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
A neurotoxic peptide, which is a cleavage product (VIa) of the omega-Conotoxin precursor protein contained in venom from the marine snail, CONUS geographus. It is an antagonist of CALCIUM CHANNELS, N-TYPE.
Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.
The excitable plasma membrane of a muscle cell. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
A colorless or slightly yellow crystalline compound obtained from nutgalls. It is used in photography, pharmaceuticals, and as an analytical reagent.
Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
Conical muscular projections from the walls of the cardiac ventricles, attached to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves by the chordae tendineae.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
Unsaturated derivatives of the ESTRANES with methyl groups at carbon-13, with no carbon at carbon-10, and with no more than one carbon at carbon-17. They must contain one or more double bonds.
The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.
A local anesthetic of the ester type that has a slow onset and a short duration of action. It is mainly used for infiltration anesthesia, peripheral nerve block, and spinal block. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1016).
Coronary vasodilator that is an analog of iproveratril (VERAPAMIL) with one more methoxy group on the benzene ring.
A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.
Venoms from animals of the order Scorpionida of the class Arachnida. They contain neuro- and hemotoxins, enzymes, and various other factors that may release acetylcholine and catecholamines from nerve endings. Of the several protein toxins that have been characterized, most are immunogenic.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Two pairs of small oval-shaped glands located in the front and the base of the NECK and adjacent to the two lobes of THYROID GLAND. They secrete PARATHYROID HORMONE that regulates the balance of CALCIUM; PHOSPHORUS; and MAGNESIUM in the body.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC 3.1.4.3), it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.
A family of structurally related neurotoxic peptides from mollusk venom that inhibit voltage-activated entry of calcium into the presynaptic membrane. They selectively inhibit N-, P-, and Q-type calcium channels.
Derivatives of OXALIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are derived from the ethanedioic acid structure.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
An ester formed between the aldehydic carbon of RIBOSE and the terminal phosphate of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE. It is produced by the hydrolysis of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by a variety of enzymes, some of which transfer an ADP-ribosyl group to target proteins.
Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Calcium-binding proteins that are found in DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES, INTESTINES, BRAIN, and other tissues where they bind, buffer and transport cytoplasmic calcium. Calbindins possess a variable number of EF-HAND MOTIFS which contain calcium-binding sites. Some isoforms are regulated by VITAMIN D.
Derivative of 7-dehydroxycholesterol formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. It differs from ERGOCALCIFEROL in having a single bond between C22 and C23 and lacking a methyl group at C24.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
A trace element with the atomic symbol Ni, atomic number 28, and atomic weight 58.69. It is a cofactor of the enzyme UREASE.
A species of the family Ranidae (true frogs). The only anuran properly referred to by the common name "bullfrog", it is the largest native anuran in North America.
Used formerly as antimicrobial food additive. It causes mutations in many cell cultures and may be carcinogenic.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of oxo-pyrrolidines. A member of this group is 2-oxo pyrrolidine, which is an intermediate in the manufacture of polyvinylpyrrolidone. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
An ethylmercury-sulfidobenzoate that has been used as a preservative in VACCINES; ANTIVENINS; and OINTMENTS. It was formerly used as a topical antiseptic. It degrades to ethylmercury and thiosalicylate.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.
The area within CELLS.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A drug used to reduce hemorrhage in diabetic retinopathy.
The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.
Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.
A benzimidazoyl-substituted tetraline that selectively binds and inhibits CALCIUM CHANNELS, T-TYPE.
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
A highly variable species of the family Ranidae in Canada, the United States and Central America. It is the most widely used Anuran in biomedical research.
Calcium-transporting ATPases found on the PLASMA MEMBRANE that catalyze the active transport of CALCIUM from the CYTOPLASM into the extracellular space. They play a role in maintaining a CALCIUM gradient across plasma membrane.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Proteins which bind calmodulin. They are found in many tissues and have a variety of functions including F-actin cross-linking properties, inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and calcium and magnesium ATPases.
Tripathy, Le Xu Ashutosh; Pasek, Daniel A.; Meissner, Gerhard (1998). "Potential for Pharmacology of Ryanodine Receptor/Calcium ... it is a potent inhibitor of intracellular calcium release by ryanodine receptors (Kd ~20 nM). As a TRPA1 blocker, it assists in ... Ma, Z; Siebert, AP; Cheung, KH; Lee, RJ; Johnson, B; Cohen, AS; Vingtdeux, V; Marambaud, P; Foskett, JK (2012). "Calcium ... Decaen, P. G.; Delling, M.; Vien, T. N.; Clapham, D. E. (2013). "Direct recording and molecular identification of the calcium ...
HLTx inhibits ryanodine receptors of sarcoplasmatisch reticulum and both calcium channels and potassium channels. The effects ... Helothermine inhibits ryanodine receptors, calcium channels and potassium channels. Helothermine can cause lethargy, partial ... The ryanodine receptor, both in skeletal and in cardiac sarcoplasmatic reticulum (SR), is inhibited by HLTx. The affinity of ... In these cells, HLTx inhibits up to 67% of the calcium currents, acting on multiple subtypes. This inhibition is reversible, ...
Enhancement of L-type calcium channel transsarcolemmal calcium influx by S100A has been shown to be dependent on protein kinase ... Prosser, BL; Hernández-Ochoa, EO; Schneider, MF (October 2011). "S100A1 and calmodulin regulation of ryanodine receptor in ... altering the calcium sensitivity and cooperativity of myofibrils, enhancing SERCA2A activity and enhancing calcium-induced ... I. Calcium- and zinc-binding properties of bovine brain S100 alpha alpha, S100a (alpha beta), and S100b (beta beta) protein: ...
"Vesl/Homer proteins regulate ryanodine receptor type 2 function and intracellular calcium signaling". Cell Calcium. 34 (3): 261 ... a novel mechanism for control of intracellular calcium signaling". Cell Calcium. 34 (2): 177-84. doi:10.1016/S0143-4160(03) ... a novel mechanism for control of intracellular calcium signaling". Cell Calcium. 34 (2): 177-84. doi:10.1016/S0143-4160(03) ... Feng W, Tu J, Yang T, Vernon PS, Allen PD, Worley PF, Pessah IN (Nov 2002). "Homer regulates gain of ryanodine receptor type 1 ...
It also interacts with multiple intracellular calcium release channels including the tetrameric skeletal muscle ryanodine ... "FK506 binding protein associated with the calcium release channel (ryanodine receptor)". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. ... "FKBP12 binding modulates ryanodine receptor channel gating". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 (20): 16931-5. doi: ... binding site on different isoforms of the ryanodine receptor and of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor". The Biochemical ...
Ryanodine receptor 1 (RYR-1) also known as skeletal muscle calcium release channel or skeletal muscle-type ryanodine receptor ... RYR1 is mechanically linked to neuromuscular junctions for the calcium release-calcium induced biological process. While nerve- ... a novel mechanism for control of intracellular calcium signaling". Cell Calcium. 34 (2): 177-84. doi:10.1016/S0143-4160(03) ... "Entrez Gene: RYR1 ryanodine receptor 1 (skeletal)". Filipova D, Walter AM, Gaspar JA, Brunn A, Linde NF, Ardestani MA, Deckert ...
Novel ideas offered included studying sodium-calcium exchanger and ryanodine receptor effects. One chapter (5) is dedicated to ...
The increase in calcium concentration triggers ryanodine receptors on the sarcoplasmic reticulum to release a puff of calcium ... calcium is released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum through specialised channels known as ryanodine receptors. Ryanodine ... In a healthy heart, a spontaneous calcium spark is generally an isolated event and goes no further, but if ryanodine receptors ... However, at high calcium concentrations, calsequestrin forms polymers that dissociate from the ryanodine receptor channel ...
"Cannabinoids produce neuroprotection by reducing intracellular calcium release from ryanodine-sensitive stores". ... It also showed neuroprotective effects by reducing intracellular calcium release and reducing hippocampal cell death in ...
... mutation of ryanodine receptor at chromosome 19 is responsible for the increased release of calcium from the calcium channels, ... it binds to ryanodine receptors by inhibiting calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. However, such drug is labour- ... However, for those adults who have received drugs such as beta blocker, calcium channel blocker, and digoxin have an increased ... However, propofol can induce hypotension and bradycardia due to its calcium channel blocker and beta blocker properties. At ...
See also: Ryanodine-Inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor calcium channels. inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, type 1[1]. ...
In this experimental model ryanodine and IP3 receptors have abnormal distribution in cultured myocytes. The calcium signaling ... Additionally, mice with an ankyrin (ankB) knock-out have disrupted calcium homeostasis in the myocardia. Affected mice have ...
These include the sodium, potassium, calcium, ryanodine receptor, HCN, CNG, CatSper, and TRP channels. This large group of ion ... Jiang Y, Lee A, Chen J, Cadene M, Chait BT, MacKinnon R (May 2002). "Crystal structure and mechanism of a calcium-gated ...
... s exert their insecticidal effect by interacting with ryanodine receptors, a type of calcium channel. This causes loss ... Ryanoids are a class of insecticides which share the same mechanism of action as the alkaloid ryanodine. Ryanodine is a ... Ryanoids include natural chemicals which are closely related to ryanodine, such as ryanodol and 9,21-didehydroryanodol, and ...
... and ryanodine receptors as contributors to calcium signal propagation from endoplasmic reticulum to the mitochondria". Cell ... "calcium-induced-calcium-release" pathways. This can initiate calcium spikes or calcium waves with large changes in the membrane ... The calcium is taken up into the matrix by the mitochondrial calcium uniporter on the inner mitochondrial membrane. It is ... Release of this calcium back into the cell's interior can occur via a sodium-calcium exchange protein or via " ...
Peng JB, Suzuki Y, Gyimesi G, Hediger MA (2018). "TRPV5 and TRPV6 Calcium-Selective Channels.". Calcium Entry Channels in Non- ... Ryanodine Receptor 1; TRPC1: Transient receptor potential canonical 1; TRPML3: Transient receptor potential Mucolipin-3. The ... TRPV TRPV5 calcium channels calcium absorption transcellular pathway gating mechanism calmodulin maternal-fetal transport ... September 2003). "Calcium transporter 1 and epithelial calcium channel messenger ribonucleic acid are differentially regulated ...
"PKA phosphorylation dissociates FKBP12.6 from the calcium release channel (ryanodine receptor): defective regulation in failing ... PRKACB has been shown to interact with Ryanodine receptor 2 and Low affinity nerve growth factor receptor. GRCh38: Ensembl ...
2000). "PKA phosphorylation dissociates FKBP12.6 from the calcium release channel (ryanodine receptor): defective regulation in ... "PKA phosphorylation dissociates FKBP12.6 from the calcium release channel (ryanodine receptor): defective regulation in failing ... Schulze DH, Muqhal M, Lederer WJ, Ruknudin AM (2003). "Sodium/calcium exchanger (NCX1) macromolecular complex". J. Biol. Chem. ... AKAP6 has been shown to interact with Ryanodine receptor 2 and PDE4D3. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000151320 - Ensembl, ...
"PKA phosphorylation dissociates FKBP12.6 from the calcium release channel (ryanodine receptor): defective regulation in failing ... PRKACG has been shown to interact with Ryanodine receptor 2. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000165059 - Ensembl, May 2017 " ...
"PKA phosphorylation dissociates FKBP12.6 from the calcium release channel (ryanodine receptor): defective regulation in failing ...
... and Junctin in Conferring Cardiac Ryanodine Receptor Responsiveness to Luminal Calcium". Biophysical Journal. 86 (4): 2121-2128 ... the release of calcium ions from the sarcoplasmic reticulum triggering muscular contraction through calcium-induced calcium ... Caswell, A H; Motoike H K; Fan H; Brandt N R (Jan 1999). "Location of ryanodine receptor binding site on skeletal muscle ... Guo, W; Campbell K P (Apr 1995). "Association of triadin with the ryanodine receptor and calsequestrin in the lumen of the ...
"Selenoprotein N is required for ryanodine receptor calcium release channel activity in human and zebrafish muscle". Proceedings ... The scales also act as the main calcium storage of the fish. They can be cultured ex-vivo (kept alive outside of the organism) ...
"PKA phosphorylation dissociates FKBP12.6 from the calcium release channel (ryanodine receptor): defective regulation in failing ... Tiso N, Salamon M, Bagattin A, Danieli GA, Argenton F, Bortolussi M (December 2002). "The binding of the RyR2 calcium channel ... George CH, Sorathia R, Bertrand BM, Lai FA (March 2003). "In situ modulation of the human cardiac ryanodine receptor (hRyR2) by ... Zissimopoulos S, Lai FA (February 2005). "Interaction of FKBP12.6 with the cardiac ryanodine receptor C-terminal domain". The ...
It targeted 18 of the 105 protein-encoding exons of the cardiac ryanodine receptor/calcium release channel. This revealed one ... Another study was done for molecular autopsy on the RyR2-encoded cardiac ryanodine receptor in SUDS. There were 49 cases in ... "Targeted Mutational Analysis of the RyR2-Encoded Cardiac Ryanodine Receptor in Sudden Unexplained Death: A Molecular Autopsy of ...
... also form protein complex with ryanodine and inositol triphosphate (IP3) which impacts the release of calcium. ... CsA and FK506 thus affect the calcium-dependent step of T cell response which prevents release of interleukin-2. ...
... also inhibits ryanodine receptor 2 (RyR2), a major regulator of sarcoplasmic release of stored calcium ions. It can ... Mehra D, Imtiaz MS, van Helden DF, Knollmann BC, Laver DR (2014). "Multiple modes of ryanodine receptor 2 inhibition by ... Smith GL, MacQuaide N (2015). "The direct actions of flecainide on the human cardiac ryanodine receptor: keeping open the ... reduce calcium sparks and thus arrhythmogenic calcium waves in the heart. While Flecainide therapy has been shown to suppress ...
"The Glutathione Transferase Structural Family Includes a Nuclear Chloride Channel and a Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release ...
It was previously thought that when the muscle depolarises, the calcium channel opens, allowing calcium in and activating RyR1 ... In skeletal muscle it associates with the ryanodine receptor RyR1 of the sarcoplasmic reticulum via a mechanical linkage. It ... Calcium entry through Cav1.1 is not required in skeletal muscle, as it is in cardiac muscle; Cav1.1 undergoes a conformational ... "Entrez Gene: CACNA1S calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1S subunit". Proenza C, O'Brien J, Nakai J, Mukherjee S ...
... associated with an activity on a ryanodine-sensitive calcium channel". Proteins. 40 (3): 436-42. doi:10.1002/1097-0134(20000815 ... It acts by modifying the activity of the type 1 ryanodine receptor. Fajloun Z, Kharrat R, Chen L, Lecomte C, Di Luccio E, ... release channel/ryanodine receptors". FEBS Letters. 469 (2-3): 179-85. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(00)01239-4. PMID 10713267. S2CID ...
cADPR is a cellular messenger for calcium signaling. It stimulates calcium-induced calcium release at lower cytosolic ... cADPR mobilizes Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum by activation of ryanodine receptors, a critical step in muscle contraction ... Yu P, Cai X, Liang Y, Yang W (2019). "Roles of NAD + and Its Metabolites Regulated Calcium Channels in Cancer". Molecules. 25 ( ... Lee HC (2011). "Cyclic ADP-ribose and NAADP: fraternal twin messengers for calcium signaling". Science China Life Sciences. 54 ...
The Hill coefficient for the calcium dependence of [3H]ryanodine binding was near two. Scatchard analysis of ryanodine binding ... ryanodine with cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles depends on the calcium concentration. Binding in the absence of calcium ... The interaction of calcium and ryanodine with cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum.. Alderson BH, Feher JJ. ... Stimulation of calcium uptake rate occurred only at higher concentrations of ryanodine (apparent Km = 17 microM). This ...
The ryanodine-inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor Ca2+ channel (RIR-CaC) family includes Ryanodine receptors and Inositol ... IP3 receptor Ryanodine receptor Voltage-gated ion channel Ion channel Receptor (biochemistry) Beutner G, Sharma VK, Giovannucci ... As of this edit, this article uses content from "1.A.3 The Ryanodine-Inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate Receptor Ca2+ Channel (RIR-CaC ... "1.A.3 The Ryanodine-Inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate Receptor Ca2+ Channel (RIR-CaC) Family". TCDB. Retrieved 2016-04-10. Bosanac I ...
Ryanodine receptor/calcium release channel PKA phosphorylation: A critical mediator of heart failure progression. Xander H. T. ... Ryanodine receptor/calcium release channel PKA phosphorylation: A critical mediator of heart failure progression ... Left) The cardiac ryanodine receptor exists in clusters of tetrameric calcium-release channels located on the SR membrane. Each ... Ryanodine receptor/calcium release channel PKA phosphorylation: A critical mediator of heart failure progression ...
... Circ Res. 2011 Jul 22;109 ... Rationale: Mutations in the cardiac type 2 ryanodine receptor (RyR2) have been linked to catecholaminergic polymorphic ... a novel RyR2-G230C mutation and whether this mutation and RyR2-P2328S alter the sensitivity of the channel to luminal calcium ( ... Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel / genetics* * Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel / physiology* ...
Cardiac ryanodine receptor (Ryr2) Ca,sup,2+,/sup, release channels and cellular metabolism are both disrupted in heart disease ... Keywords: calcium; calcium intracellular release; cardiac metabolism; cardiomyocyte; heart failure; intracellular calcium ... Cardiac Ryanodine Receptor (Ryr2)-mediated Calcium Signals Specifically Promote Glucose Oxidation via Pyruvate Dehydrogenase J ... Cardiac ryanodine receptor (Ryr2) Ca2+ release channels and cellular metabolism are both disrupted in heart disease. Recently, ...
In ryanodine, two different situations might arise. In situation 1, ryanodine totally blocked the ryanodine channels (McPherson ... 1985) Time and calcium dependence of activation and inactivation of calcium-induced release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic ... Ryanodine-Sensitive Component of Calcium Transients Evoked by Nerve Firing at Presynaptic Nerve Terminals. Yan-yi Peng ... Ryanodine decreased the rate of rise of the intraterminal Ca2+ transients. As ryanodine reduced the [Ca2+]p to a large extent, ...
Brominated flame retardant Calcium Human neural progenitor cell Neurotoxicity Polybrominated diphenyl ether Ryanodine receptor ... BDE-47 and 6-OH-BDE-47 modulate calcium homeostasis in primary fetal human neural progenitor cells via ryanodine receptor- ... Pessah IN, Cherednichenko G, Lein PJ (2010) Minding the calcium store: ryanodine receptor activation as a convergent mechanism ... Considering the essential role of calcium homeostasis in neurodevelopment, PBDE-induced disturbance of intracellular calcium ...
Calcium and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, through phosphorylation of the ryanodine receptor would lead to Ca2+ leak ... Calcium/Calmodulin Protein Kinase II-Dependent Ryanodine Receptor Phosphorylation Mediates Cardiac Contractile Dysfunction ... and in colon ascendens stent peritonitis myocytes isolated from mutant mice that have the ryanodine receptor 2 calcium and ... Pharmacologic inhibition of calcium and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II with 2.5 µM of KN93 prevented the decrease in ...
Ryanodine and IP3 receptor-mediated calcium signaling play a pivotal role in neurological infrared laser modulation. ... Gleb P. Tolstykh, Cory A. Olsovsky, Bennett L. Ibey, Hope T. Beier, "Ryanodine and IP3 receptor-mediated calcium signaling play ... Gleb P. Tolstykh, Cory A. Olsovsky, Bennett L. Ibey, Hope T. Beier, "Ryanodine and IP3 receptor-mediated calcium signaling play ... Studies using fluorescent intensity-based calcium ion (. Ca. 2. +. ) sensitive dyes show changes in Ca. 2. +. levels after ...
Effects of ryanodine on the ionic currents and the calcium conductance in crab muscle fibers.. C Goblet and Y Mounier ... Effects of ryanodine on the ionic currents and the calcium conductance in crab muscle fibers.. C Goblet and Y Mounier ... Effects of ryanodine on the ionic currents and the calcium conductance in crab muscle fibers.. C Goblet and Y Mounier ... Effects of ryanodine on the ionic currents and the calcium conductance in crab muscle fibers. ...
Cryo-electron microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction of the calcium release channel/ryanodine receptor from skeletal ... Cryo-electron microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction of the calcium release channel/ryanodine receptor from skeletal ... The calcium release channel (CRC) from skeletal muscle is an unusually large tetrameric ion channel of the sarcoplasmic ...
Ryanodine receptor Ca2+ channels (e.g. RYR2) have been observed in close proximity to mitochondria, and beat-to-beat calcium ... Pacher P., Thomas A. P., Hajnóczky G. (2002) Ca2+ marks: miniature calcium signals in single mitochondria driven by ryanodine ... and Survival Require Calcium Flux through Cardiac Ryanodine Receptors in Vivo*. Michael J. Bround,‡§¶‖ Rich Wambolt,** Dan S. ... Keywords: Calcium Channels, Calcium Signaling, Cell Death, Cell Metabolism, Hypoxia, Mitochondria, Mitochondrial Metabolism, ...
calcium release channel / intracellular calcium / ryanodine / muscle contraction / caffeine. Research Abstract. The aim of this ... Publications] 古市ら 他5名: Multiple types of ryanodine receptor/calcium release channels are differentially expressed in rabbit ... Isolation and characterization of a gene for a ryanodine receptor/calcium release channel in Drosophila melanogaster FEBS Lett ... Multiple types of ryanodine receptor/calcium release channels are differnitially experssed in rabbit brain. J.Neurosci. 14. ...
Fabiato A. Time and calcium dependence of activation and inactivation of calcium-induced release of calcium from the ... Ryanodine receptor mutations associated with stress-induced ventricular tachycardia mediate increased calcium release in ... Abnormal Interactions of Calsequestrin With the Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel Complex Linked to Exercise-Induced ... Abnormal Interactions of Calsequestrin With the Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel Complex Linked to Exercise-Induced ...
Enhanced ryanodine receptor-mediated calcium leak determines reduced sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium content in chronic canine ... Stabilization of cardiac ryanodine receptor prevents intracellular calcium leak and arrhythmias. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 ... Ryanodine receptor/calcium release channel PKA phosphorylation: a critical mediator of heart failure progression. Proc Natl ... Increasing ryanodine receptor open probability alone does not produce arrhythmogenic calcium waves: threshold sarcoplasmic ...
Ryanodine receptor/calcium release channel conformations as reflected in the different effects of propranolol on its ryanodine ... Ryanodine receptor/calcium release channel conformations as reflected in the different effects of propranolol on its ryanodine ... Ryanodine receptor/calcium release channel conformations as reflected in the different effects of propranolol on its ryanodine ... Ryanodine receptor/calcium release channel conformations as reflected in the different effects of propranolol on its ryanodine ...
Antibodies for proteins involved in positive regulation of ryanodine-sensitive calcium-release channel activity by adrenergic ... positive regulation of ryanodine-sensitive calcium-release channel activity by adrenergic receptor signaling pathway involved ... Positive regulation of ryanodine-sensitive calcium-release channel activity by adrenergic receptor signaling pathway involved ... Antibodies for proteins involved in positive regulation of ryanodine-sensitive calcium-release channel activity by adrenergic ...
"Characterization of the Calcium-release Channel/Ryanodine Receptor from Zebrafish Skeletal Muscle, The Journal of Membrane ... Characterization of the Calcium-release Channel/Ryanodine Receptor from Zebrafish Skeletal Muscle. Koulen, P.; Janowitz, T.; ... Characterization of the Calcium-release Channel/Ryanodine Receptor from Zebrafish Skeletal Muscle Koulen, P. ; Janowitz, T. ; ... Characterization of the Calcium-release Channel/Ryanodine Receptor from Zebrafish Skeletal Muscle. ...
... ... Each heartbeat is accompanied by the coordinated release of calcium ions into cardiac cells through ryanodine receptors, which ... Conversely, junctin appears to act as an inhibitor of ryanodine receptors when calcium inside the sarcoplasmic reticulum is ... Knowledge of how junctin interacts with ryanodine receptors helps us to understand how calcium within the sarcoplasmic ...
To test whether ryanodine blocks the release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum in cardiac muscle, we examined its ... Our observations are consistent with the hypothesis that ryanodine, by inhibiting the release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic ... The slow inward current was not blocked by 1 microM ryanodine, but ryanodine did appear to abolish an outward current that ... In the presence of 4.7 mM potassium and at a stimulation rate of 1 Hz, ryanodine had only a small variable effect on papillary ...
Congenital muscle disorders with cores: the ryanodine receptor calcium channel paradigm. CURR OPIN PHARMACOL , 8 (3) 319 - 326 ... Dysregulation of calcium signals because of 0 defects of the skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium release channel ( ... whereby activation of the voltage sensor Cav1.1 is unable to release calcium from the SR. The fourth class of mutations are ... ryanodine receptor; RyR1) is causative of several congenital muscle disorders including malignant hyperthermia (MH; MIM #145600 ...
CCD has recently been shown to be tightly linked to the ryanodine receptor gene (RYR1) and mutations in this gene are known to ... Hakamata, Y., Nakai, J., Takeshima, H. & Imoto, K. Primary structure and distribution of a novel ryanodine receptor/calcium ... Mutations in the ryanodine receptor gene in central core disease and malignant hyperthermia. *K. A. Quane1. , ... The Cardiac Ryanodine Receptor Phosphorylation Hotspot Embraces PKA in a Phosphorylation-Dependent Manner *Omid Haji-Ghassemi ...
For calcium influx and intracellular Ca2+ release, respectively, the density of dihydropyridine receptors (DHPRs) and ryanodine ... Fluorescence labelling of membrane-bound calcium. The distribution and the relative amount of membrane-bound calcium in the ... calcium overload may cause enhanced calcium entry (Katra and Laurita, 2007). If this holds for the skin, accumulation of ionic ... the fluorescent marker of calcium, support the idea that calcium is also preserved in the chicken SC and might colocalize with ...
Calcium dysregulation via L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels and ryanodine receptors underlies memory deficits and ... CalciumNeuroinflammationRyanodine receptorsL-type voltage-dependent calcium channelsSpatial memory ... Redox sensitive calcium stores underlie enhanced after hyperpolarization of aged neurons: role for ryanodine receptor mediated ... Chavis P, Fagni L, Lansman JB, Bockaert J. Functional coupling between ryanodine receptors and L-type calcium channels in ...
Cell Calcium. 1996 Jan;19(1):15-27. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt ... Cell Calcium. 1996 Jan;19(1):15-27.. Age-related abnormalities in regulation of the ryanodine receptor in rat fast-twitch ... ryanodine to skeletal muscle membranes at optimal Ca2+; (c) the overall muscle dihydropyridine receptor/ryanodine receptor (RyR ... ryanodine binding to the RyR at optimal Ca2+ and also optimal for the activity of the Ca(2+)-release channel. The results ...
Gating a calcium channel. The type 2 ryanodine receptor (RyR2) controls the release of calcium ions from the sarcoplasmic ... Å resolution with the calcium channel closed and at 4.2-Å resolution with the calcium channel open. The structures reveal how ... Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are intracellular Ca2+ channels that control the release of Ca2+ from the sarco(endo)plasmic ... RyR2 is a high-conductance intracellular calcium (Ca2+) channel that controls the release of Ca2+ from the sarco(endo)plasmic ...
Deficient ryanodine receptor S-nitrosylation increases sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium leak and arrhythmogenesis in ... Nitric Oxide, NOC-12, and S-Nitrosoglutathione Modulate the Skeletal Muscle Calcium Release Channel/Ryanodine Receptor by ... The ratios of [35S]CaM-binding values to maximal binding values of [3H]ryanodine are shown. Maximal values of [3H]ryanodine ... ryanodine receptor;. RyR1,. skeletal muscle isoform of RyR;. CaM,. calmodulin;. apoCaM,. Ca2+-free CaM;. CaCaM,. Ca2+-bound CaM ...
title = "Interplay of ryanodine receptor distribution and calcium dynamics",. abstract = "Spontaneously generated calcium (Ca2+ ... Interplay of ryanodine receptor distribution and calcium dynamics. Together they form a unique fingerprint. * Ryanodine ... Interplay of ryanodine receptor distribution and calcium dynamics. Leighton T Izu, Shawn A. Means, John N. Shadid, Ye Chen-Izu ... Interplay of ryanodine receptor distribution and calcium dynamics. / Izu, Leighton T; Means, Shawn A.; Shadid, John N.; Chen- ...
Gating a calcium channel. The type 2 ryanodine receptor (RyR2) controls the release of calcium ions from the sarcoplasmic ... Role of ryanodine receptors in the assembly of calcium release units in skeletal muscle. J. Cell Biol. 140, 831-842 (1998). doi ... Ryanodine receptor calcium release channels. Physiol. Rev. 82, 893-922 (2002). doi:10.1152/physrev.00013.2002 pmid:12270947. ... The calcium-ryanodine receptor complex of skeletal and cardiac muscle. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 128, 449-456 (1985). doi: ...
Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are a family of intracellular calcium release channels that mediate calcium-induced calcium release ... are a family of intracellular calcium release channels that mediate calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) from the endoplasmic ... Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are a family of intracellular calcium release channels that mediate calcium-induced calcium release ... Zalk, R., Lehnart, S. E., and Marks, A. R. (2007). Modulation of the ryanodine receptor and intracellular calcium. Annu. Rev. ...
  • The ryanodine-inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor Ca2+ channel (RIR-CaC) family includes Ryanodine receptors and Inositol trisphosphate receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Structural and functional conservation of key domains in IP3 and ryanodine receptors has been reviewed by Seo et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tetrameric cardiac and skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticular ryanodine receptors (RyR) are large (~2.3 MDa). (wikipedia.org)
  • While extracellular Ca 2+ seems to enter the cytoplasm upon 6-OH-BDE-47 by interfering with the cell membrane and independent of Ca 2+ ion channels, ER-derived Ca 2+ is released following activation of protein lipase C and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, but independently of ryanodine receptors. (springer.com)
  • For example, in vitro studies have shown that Ca 2+ flux through channels such as ryanodine receptors and IP 3 receptors mediate privileged communication between endoplasmic reticulum/sarcoplasmic reticulum (ER/SR) 3 and mitochondria and that this paces cellular metabolism by stimulating oxidative ATP production via interaction with TCA cycle enzymes ( 2 - 4 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Each heartbeat is accompanied by the coordinated release of calcium ions into cardiac cells through ryanodine receptors, which span the membrane of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. (ovid.com)
  • Conversely, junctin appears to act as an inhibitor of ryanodine receptors when calcium inside the sarcoplasmic reticulum is high. (ovid.com)
  • Knowledge of how junctin interacts with ryanodine receptors helps us to understand how calcium within the sarcoplasmic reticulum helps to regulate ryanodine receptor activity in normal hearts and also helps us to understand why junctin is decreased in patients diagnosed with certain forms of heart failure. (ovid.com)
  • For calcium influx and intracellular Ca 2+ release, respectively, the density of dihydropyridine receptors (DHPRs) and ryanodine receptors (RyRs) was examined, using high-affinity (-)-enantiomers of dihydropyridine and ryanodine labelled with fluorophores. (biologists.org)
  • Prolonged neuroinflammation produces elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species which can alter neuronal Ca +2 homeostasis via L-type voltage-dependent Ca +2 channels (L-VDCCs) and ryanodine receptors (RyRs). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) may represent a novel target for treatment of Alzheimer's disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are intracellular Ca 2+ channels that control the release of Ca 2+ from the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum. (sciencemag.org)
  • Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are a family of intracellular calcium release channels that mediate calcium-induced calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum. (frontiersin.org)
  • Previous studies have shown ryanodine receptors (RyRs) play a key role in the process of Ca 2+ signaling participating in the oscillatory patterns of controlling the release of Ca 2+ from ER and regulating the influx of Ca 2+ by coupling with plasma Ca 2+ channels. (pacific.edu)
  • These oscillations were observed in intact myocytes after removal of external Ca 2+ , in permeabilized cells after abolition of the membrane potential and in the presence of heparin (an inhibitor of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors) but were inhibited by ryanodine, indicating that they are dependent on Ca 2+ release from intracellular stores through ryanodine receptors. (biologists.org)
  • As duodenum myocytes expressed the three subtypes of ryanodine receptors, an antisense strategy revealed that the ryanodine receptor subtype 2 alone was required to initiate the Ca 2+ oscillations induced by acetylcholine and also by cyclic adenosine diphosphoribose and rapamycin (a compound that induced uncoupling between 12/12.6 kDa FK506-binding proteins and ryanodine receptors). (biologists.org)
  • Ryanodine receptors (RYR) form a Ca 2+ channel family of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) that support release of stored Ca 2+ . (biologists.org)
  • However, neither arteriolar relaxation nor Ca 2+ activity of retinal perivascular cells in response to PGE 2 were affected by pharmacological blockade of L-type Ca 2+ channels, non-specific cation channels or ryanodine receptors. (arvojournals.org)
  • Immunostaining demonstrated that ryanodine and dihydropyridine receptors, which are responsible for Ca 2+ release following membrane depolarization, were severely reduced at transverse-tubule/sarcoplasmic reticulum junctions in mutant fast muscle. (biologists.org)
  • Ryanodine receptors have recently been shown to be the Ca 2+ release channels of sarcoplasmic reticulum in both cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle. (elsevier.com)
  • When cardiac junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles or partially purified ryanodine receptors are fused with planar bilayers, phosphorylation at this site activates the Ca 2+ channel. (elsevier.com)
  • This protein is part of a family of ryanodine receptors, which form channels that transport positively charged calcium atoms (calcium ions) within cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Ikemoto, Noriaki 2007-09-18 00:00:00 In this study, we present evidence for the mechanism of neomycin inhibition of skeletal ryanodine receptors (RyRs). (deepdyve.com)
  • In this study, we present evidence for the mechanism of neomycin inhibition of skeletal ryanodine receptors (RyRs). (deepdyve.com)
  • Reduced cardiac contractility during heart failure (HF) is linked to impaired Ca 2+ release from Ryanodine Receptors (RyRs). (elifesciences.org)
  • Calcium ions are released in cardiac muscle cells through protein channels called ryanodine receptors. (elifesciences.org)
  • Could the reorganization of ryanodine receptors account for the problems seen in failing hearts? (elifesciences.org)
  • This showed that the clusters of ryanodine receptors break apart during heart failure to form smaller clusters. (elifesciences.org)
  • Therefore, heart failure can be traced back to very small rearrangements of the ryanodine receptors. (elifesciences.org)
  • Depolarization of the sarcolemma triggers the opening of voltage-gated L-Type Ca 2+ channels (LTCCs), and the resulting Ca 2+ influx elicits additional Ca 2+ release via Ryanodine Receptors (RyRs) in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). This process of Ca 2+ -induced Ca 2+ release leads to a sharp increase in cytosolic Ca 2+ concentration which initiates cardiomyocyte contraction. (elifesciences.org)
  • At frog motor nerve terminals, repetitive Ca(2+) entries slowly prime and subsequently activate the mechanism of CICR via ryanodine receptors and asynchronous exocytosis of transmitters. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Presynaptic ryanodine receptors are required for normal quantal size at the Caenorhabditis elegans neuromuscular junction. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Ryanodine receptors mediate release of calcium from intracellular stores in the endoplasmic or sarcoplasmic reticulum. (sciencemag.org)
  • Furthermore, small changes in redox potential altered calcium conductance by the ryanodine receptors. (sciencemag.org)
  • The authors propose that ryanodine receptors may physiologically couple alterations in calcium release to localized changes in redox potential. (sciencemag.org)
  • Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are a family of intracellular Ca 2+ release channels that control the flux of Ca 2+ from internal stores into the cytosol. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Ryanodine receptors (RyR) are a family of intracellular Ca 2+ release channels that regulate the entry of Ca 2+ into the cytosol from the intracellular organelles (the endoplasmic and sarcoplasmic reticulum). (beds.ac.uk)
  • Increased cytosolic Ca 2+ can also cause Ca 2+ -induced release of Ca 2+ from ryanodine receptors (RyR1-3) ( Hamilton, 2005 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Other chapters examine the study of different systems, ranging from those found in yeast to those found in mammals, and several more are devoted to the cellular and molecular basis for calcium signaling, including explorations of receptors, calcium pumps, apoptosis, and drug delivery. (ebooks.com)
  • This release of Ca 2+ in myoplasm occurs due to a membrane depolarization that induces conformational changes in L-type calcium channels (CA V -L) (or dihydropyridine receptors [DHPRs]), which lead to Ca 2+ release channels activation from sarcoplasmic reticulum (or ryanodine receptor subtype-1 [RyR1] in skeletal muscle). (scielo.br)
  • Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are high-conductance cation channels, which release Ca 2+ from intracellular stores such as the endo/sarcoplasmic reticulum (ER/SR) 6 . (scielo.br)
  • One pharmacologically important group of Ca 2+ -release channels are the different subtypes of ryanodine receptors that are found in skeletal and cardiac muscle as well as the brain. (smu.edu)
  • Ruthenium red modifies the cardiac and skeletal muscle Ca(2+) release channels (ryanodine receptors) by multiple mechanisms. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The effects of ruthenium red (RR) on the skeletal and cardiac muscle ryanodine receptors (RyRs) were studied in vesicle-Ca(2+) flux, [(3)H]ryanodine binding, and single channel measurements. (semanticscholar.org)
  • 2007) whereas chlorantraniliprole binds to ryanodine receptors in muscles and nervous tissues resulting in an uncontrolled release of stored calcium from sarcoendoplasmic reticulum causing feeding cessation, lethargy, paralysis and ultimate death of target organism (Cordova et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Ryanodine Receptors Structure, Function and Dysfunction in Clinical Disease (Developments in Cardiovascular Medicine). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Inositoltrisphosphate and ryanodine receptors. (muni.cz)
  • For example, it is a potent inhibitor of intracellular calcium release by ryanodine receptors (Kd ~20 nM). (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein is part of a group of related proteins called ryanodine receptors, which form channels that, when turned on (activated), release positively charged calcium atoms (ions) from storage within cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) form channels responsible for the release of Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic and sarcoplasmic reticulum. (rcsb.org)
  • Defective regulation of the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2)/calcium release channel, required for excitation-contraction coupling in the heart, has been linked to cardiac arrhythmias and heart failure. (pnas.org)
  • For example, diastolic calcium "leak" via RyR2 channels in the sarcoplasmic reticulum has been identified as an important factor contributing to impaired contractility in heart failure and ventricular arrhythmias that cause sudden cardiac death. (pnas.org)
  • The resulting increase in cytosolic levels of cAMP activates the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA), which phosphorylates key Ca 2+ -handling proteins, including the voltage-gated L-type Ca 2+ channel ( 7 ), ryanodine receptor 2 (RyR2) ( 8 ), and phospholamban (PLB) ( 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • Mutations in the cardiac type 2 ryanodine receptor (RyR2) have been linked to catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT). (nih.gov)
  • Cardiac ryanodine receptor (Ryr2) Ca 2+ release channels and cellular metabolism are both disrupted in heart disease. (nih.gov)
  • RYR2) have been observed in close proximity to mitochondria, and beat-to-beat calcium transients have been observed in cardiomyocyte mitochondria ( 6 - 8 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is a familial arrhythmogenic disorder associated with mutations in the cardiac ryanodine receptor ( RyR2 ) and cardiac calsequestrin ( CASQ2 ) genes. (ahajournals.org)
  • Two genetic variants of the disease have been described: a recessive form associated with homozygous mutations in the gene encoding the cardiac isoform of calsequestrin ( CASQ2 ) 2,3 and a second form transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait associated with mutations in the gene encoding the cardiac ryanodine receptor ( RyR2 ). (ahajournals.org)
  • cardiac ryanodine receptor [RyR2]) are localized in the junctional SR, in close proximity to L-type Ca channels (LTCCs) embedded in the membranes of the transverse (T)-tubules. (ahajournals.org)
  • The type 2 ryanodine receptor (RyR2) controls the release of calcium ions from the sarcoplasmic reticulum in cardiac cells-the initiating step in cardiac muscle contraction. (sciencemag.org)
  • used single-particle electron cryomicroscopy to determine the structure of RyR2 from porcine heart at 4.4-Å resolution with the calcium channel closed and at 4.2-Å resolution with the calcium channel open. (sciencemag.org)
  • Among the three mammalian RyR isoforms, RyR2 is primarily expressed in the heart and brain and is activated by Ca 2+ influx by a mechanism known as calcium-induced calcium release. (sciencemag.org)
  • Chronic anthracycline administration to rabbits causes impairment of cardiac contractility and decreased gene expression of the calcium-induced calcium release channel of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), the ryanodine receptor (RYR2). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum mediated by the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) is a fundamental event in cardiac muscle contraction. (cf.ac.uk)
  • The RYR2 gene provides instructions for making a protein called ryanodine receptor 2. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The RYR2 channel controls the flow of calcium ions out of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In response to certain signals, the RYR2 channel releases calcium ions from the sarcoplasmic reticulum into the surrounding cell fluid (the cytoplasm). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Almost all of the RYR2 gene mutations involved in CPVT change single protein building blocks (amino acids) in the ryanodine receptor 2 protein. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Other studies have found that the altered RYR2 channel stays open abnormally, allowing calcium ions to "leak" out of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It is clear that changes in the structure and function of the RYR2 channel disrupt the careful control of calcium ion flow in myocytes, which can trigger an abnormal heart rhythm in people with CPVT. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The RYR2 gene mutations responsible for ARVC change single amino acids in the ryanodine receptor 2 protein. (medlineplus.gov)
  • These mutations alter the structure of the RYR2 channel, which probably allows calcium ions to "leak" out of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Objective: The aims were to obtain functional hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes from a CPVT patient harboring a novel ryanodine receptor (RyR2) mutation and model the syndrome, drug responses and investigate the molecular mechanisms associated to the CPVT syndrome. (mdpi.com)
  • Previously we showed that this defect results, at least in part, from a dysfunction of the type 2 ryanodine receptor calcium-release channel (RyR2). (elsevier.com)
  • The RYR2-encoded ryanodine receptor/calcium release channel in patients diagnosed previously with either catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia or genotype negative, exercise-induced long QT syndrome: a comprehensive open reading frame mutational analysis. (cdc.gov)
  • This study was undertaken to determine the spectrum and prevalence of mutations in the RYR2-encoded cardiac ryanodine receptor in cases with exertional syncope and normal corrected QT interval (QTc). (cdc.gov)
  • We explored TFP actions on cardiac SR Ca release in cells and single type-2 ryanodine receptor (RyR2) channel activity in bilayers. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Type-2 ryanodine receptor (RyR2) mediated Ca release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) is key to cardiac muscle function. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 2011) have demonstrated oxygen-coupled redox regulation of the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor-Ca2+ release channel (RyR1;TC# 1.A.3.1.2) by NADPH oxidase 4. (wikipedia.org)
  • A third class of RYR1 mutations linked to CCD causes excitation-contract ion uncoupling, whereby activation of the voltage sensor Cav1.1 is unable to release calcium from the SR. The fourth class of mutations are unveiled by wild type allele silencing, and cause a decrease of mutant RyR1 channels expression on SR membranes. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • CCD has recently been shown to be tightly linked to the ryanodine receptor gene ( RYR1 ) and mutations in this gene are known to be present in MH. (nature.com)
  • We have shown previously that at physiologically relevant oxygen tension (pO 2 ≈ 10 mmHg), NO S-nitrosylates 1 of ≈50 free cysteines per ryanodine receptor 1 (RyR1) subunit and transduces a calcium-sensitizing effect on the channel by means of calmodulin (CaM). (pnas.org)
  • The skeletal muscle Ca 2+ release channel/ryanodine receptor (RyR1) contains a large number of free thiols whose oxidation or nitrosylation influences channel function ( 9 , 18 - 20 ). (pnas.org)
  • CALM with bound calcium inhibits the RYR1 channel activity (PubMed:18650434). (rcsb.org)
  • DHPRs then trigger the opening of ryanodine receptor 1 (RyR1) in the adjacent sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) to allow Ca 2+ release from the SR to the cytosol ( Meissner, 1994 ). (biologists.org)
  • The type 1 isoform of the ryanodine receptor (RYR1) is the Ca 2+ release channel of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) that is activated during skeletal muscle excitation-contraction (EC) coupling. (rupress.org)
  • To study the expressions of ryanodine receptor 1 ( RyR1 ) and voltage-gated calcium channel 1.3 (CaV1.3) in the corpus cavernosum smooth muscle of castrated rats and to investigate their role in androgen deficiency -related erectile dysfunction . (bvsalud.org)
  • During exposure to these triggering agents, there is a rapid and sustained increase of myoplasmic calcium (Ca 2+ ) concentration induced by hyperactivation of ryanodine receptor of skeletal muscle (RyR1), causing a profound change in Ca 2+ homeostasis, featuring a hypermetabolic state. (scielo.br)
  • We have recently discovered a potentially novel pathway for the regulation of calcium channels like the ryanodine sensitive Ca-channel, ryanodine receptor 1 (RyR1), using Electron Spin Resonance spectroscopy (ESR) and spin-labeled ATP. (smu.edu)
  • Porcine stress syndrome (PSS) susceptibility, has been associated with a single point mutation C1843T (Arg615Cys) in the Ca2+ release channel at the sarcoplasmic reticulum ryanodine receptor 1 (RYR1). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The RYR1 gene provides instructions for making a protein called ryanodine receptor 1 (also called the RYR1 channel). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Most of the RYR1 gene mutations involved in central core disease affect single protein building blocks (amino acids) in critical regions of the ryanodine receptor 1 protein. (medlineplus.gov)
  • These mutations change the structure of the RYR1 channel, which alters the normal flow of stored calcium ions within muscle cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Some genetic changes cause the RYR1 channel to be "leaky," allowing calcium ions to flow slowly but continually out of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Other RYR1 gene mutations change the structure of the RYR1 channel in a way that impedes the normal flow of calcium ions. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The SPRY2 domain in the skeletal muscle isoform (RyR1) has been proposed as a direct link with L-type calcium channels (CaV1.1), allowing for direct mechanical coupling between plasma membrane depolarization and Ca(2+) release. (rcsb.org)
  • All four agonists which are ryanodine, caffeine, CMC and PCB 95 show their abilities to activate the RyRs, increase [Ca 2+ ] i and induce the influx of Ca 2+ via SOC. (pacific.edu)
  • 3)H]Ryanodine binding measurements suggested noncompetitive interactions between RR inhibition and Ca(2+) regulatory sites of RyRs. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Ryanodine (Ry)-sensitive and inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3)-sensitive Ca2+-release channels function in the release of Ca2+ from intracellular storage sites in animal cells and thereby regulate various Ca2+-dependent physiological processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ca 2+ released through intraterminal ryanodine-sensitive channels accounted for 46% of the peak Ca 2+ elevation. (jneurosci.org)
  • The intraterminal ryanodine channels were facilitated by caffeine as in other tissue. (jneurosci.org)
  • Besides the facilitatory effects on the ryanodine-sensitive channels, caffeine also had inhibitory effects on Δ[Ca 2+ ] i via its action on a different process. (jneurosci.org)
  • Ehrlich, B.E. 2001-10-01 00:00:00 Calcium (Ca2+)-mediated signaling is fueled by two sources for Ca2+: Ca2+ can enter through Ca2+ channels located in the plasma membrane and can also be released from intracellular stores. (deepdyve.com)
  • We show that an intra-sarcoplasmic reticulum protein, junctin, interacts with ryanodine receptor channels and appears to activate them when calcium inside the sarcoplasmic reticulum is low. (ovid.com)
  • Ca 2+ ] i can be increased either by the opening of calcium channels on the plasma membrane, to generate an influx of Ca 2+ from the extracellular fluid, or by the activation of Ca 2+ release channels located on the endoplasmic and sarcoplasmic reticula. (frontiersin.org)
  • The compound has extremely high affinity to the open-form ryanodine receptor , a group of calcium channels found in skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, and heart muscle cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The source of this calcium activity is different from ryanodine receptor channels, non-specific cation channels or channels and L-type Ca 2+ channels. (arvojournals.org)
  • Channels made with the ryanodine receptor 2 protein are found in heart (cardiac) muscle cells called myocytes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • These channels are embedded in the outer membrane of a cell structure called the sarcoplasmic reticulum, which acts as a storage center for calcium ions. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Distinct intracellular calcium profiles following influx through N- versus L-type calcium channels: role of Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release. (semanticscholar.org)
  • It is sometimes synonymous as voltage-gated calcium channel , [1] although there are also ligand-gated calcium channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • The following tables explain gating, gene, location and function of different types of calcium channels, both voltage and ligand-gated. (wikipedia.org)
  • The leaky channels greatly reduce the amount of stored calcium ions. (medlineplus.gov)
  • May regulate Ca(2+) release by other calcium channels. (genecards.org)
  • NAADP-induced calcium release is not affected by inhibitors of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate or ryanodine channels. (biochemj.org)
  • Our findings show for the first time that the M2 muscarinic receptor activation triggered Ca 2+ oscillations in duodenum myocytes by activation of the cyclic adenosine diphosphoribose/FK506-binding protein/ryanodine receptor subtype 2 signalling pathway. (biologists.org)
  • HTT mutation caused the increased expression of some components of the calcium signalosome, including calretinin, presenilin 2, and calmyrin 1, and the increased expression of genes indirectly involved in calcium homeostasis, such as huntingtin-associated protein 1 and calcyclin-binding protein. (frontiersin.org)
  • Calsenilin is calcium (Ca2+) ion Ca2+ binding protein found in the nucleus, plasma membrane, and endoplasmic reticulum of neuronal cells. (umsystem.edu)
  • Preincubation under conditions in which the high-affinity sites were saturated did not result in stimulation of the calcium uptake rate indicative of closure of the calcium channel. (nih.gov)
  • The data obtained support the hypothesis that ryanodine binding to the low-affinity site (Km about 17 microM) is responsible for closure of the calcium release channel and the subsequent increase in the calcium uptake rate of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. (nih.gov)
  • Because the number of ryanodine-binding sites is much less than the number of calcium transport pumps the channel is probably distinct from the pump. (nih.gov)
  • Cryo-electron microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction of the calcium release channel/ryanodine receptor from skeletal muscle. (rupress.org)
  • The calcium release channel (CRC) from skeletal muscle is an unusually large tetrameric ion channel of the sarcoplasmic reticulum, and it is a major component of the triad junction, the site of excitation contraction coupling. (rupress.org)
  • The aim of this research is elucidating physiological functions of teh ryanodine receptor/calcium ralease channel in a whole animallevel. (nii.ac.jp)
  • 5. These results suggest that propranolol interacts directly with the RyR and modifies its ryanodine binding and single-channel activities. (biochemj.org)
  • In the present study the intracellular Ca2+ release channel/ryanodine receptor (RyR) from zebrafish skeletal muscle was characterized. (deepdyve.com)
  • b) an increased sensitivity to caffeine of [3H]ryanodine binding to the RyR at optimal Ca2+ and also optimal for the activity of the Ca(2+)-release channel. (nih.gov)
  • Calcium channel that mediates the release of Ca(2+) from the sarcoplasmic reticulum into the cytoplasm and thereby plays a key role in triggering muscle contraction following depolarization of T-tubules. (abcam.com)
  • The calcium release channel activity resides in the C-terminal region while the remaining part of the protein constitutes the 'foot' structure spanning the junctional gap between the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and the T-tubule. (abcam.com)
  • Calcium channel that mediates the release of Ca(2+) from the sarcoplasmic reticulum into the cytoplasm and thereby plays a key role in triggering muscle contraction following depolarization of T-tubules (PubMed:11741831, PubMed:16163667). (rcsb.org)
  • Pore opening is mediated via the cytoplasmic calcium-binding domains that mediate a small rotation of the channel-forming transmembrane regions that then leads to channel opening. (rcsb.org)
  • Patients with myasthenia gravis can have antibodies against skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor (Ry1), the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium-release channel, which plays a crucial role in excitation-contraction coupling. (unibas.ch)
  • Ryanodine receptor (RyR) is a tetrameric, high molecular weight protein that functions as a calcium release channel. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • So far, the mechanisms of RyR activation by ATP and caffeine have been described in detail using [3H]-ryanodine binding assays and unitary channel activity recorded in planar lipid bilayers. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • In tissues expressing the cardiac isoform of the ryanodine receptor, such as heart and brain, phosphorylation of the Ca 2+ release channel by CaM kinase may provide a unique mechanism for regulating intracellular Ca 2+ release. (elsevier.com)
  • In cardiac myocytes, calcium release is triggered by increased Ca(2+) levels due to activation of the L-type calcium channel CACNA1C. (abcam.com)
  • The calcium channel activity is modulated by formation of heterotetramers with RYR3. (abcam.com)
  • The calcium release channel activity resides in the C-terminal region while the remaining part of the protein resides in the cytoplasm. (abcam.com)
  • Phosphorylation at Ser-2808 and Ser-2814 increases the open probability of the calcium channel. (abcam.com)
  • In single-channel recordings, neomycin produced monophasic inhibition of RyR open probability and biphasic inhibition of [3H]ryanodine binding. (deepdyve.com)
  • The ryanodine receptor protein (Ry 1 ) is the major calcium release channel in skeletal muscle, and its mutational forms are linked to MH susceptibility in pigs [9] and in some human families. (asahq.org)
  • Statistically significant downregulation of the Orai calcium channel subunit 2, calmodulin, and septin 4 was detected in cells that expressed mutated HTT. (frontiersin.org)
  • A calcium channel is an ion channel which shows selective permeability to calcium ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depiction of binding sites of various antagonistic drugs in the L-type calcium channel. (wikipedia.org)
  • L-type calcium channel blockers are used to treat hypertension . (wikipedia.org)
  • Calcium channel blockers reduce the neuronal calcium conductance and reduce the likelihood of experiencing epileptic attacks. (wikipedia.org)
  • Okabe, "Superoxide anion radical-triggered Ca2+ release from cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum through ryanodine receptor Ca2+ channel," Molecular Pharmacology, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Nifedipine and barnidipine act as calcium channel blockers, and are widely prescribed for pressure control of prehypertension and stage 1 hypertension. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Calcium channel-targeted toxins10. (textbookx.com)
  • Calcium channel that mediates Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release from the endoplasmic reticulum in non-muscle cells. (genecards.org)
  • Channel activity is modulated by the alkaloid ryanodine that binds to the open calcium-release channel with high affinity. (genecards.org)
  • At low concentrations, ryanodine maintains the channel in an open conformation. (genecards.org)
  • High ryanodine concentrations inhibit channel activity. (genecards.org)
  • However, NAADP-elicited calcium release was inhibited by L-type calcium channel blockers and by alkaline phosphatase treatment of NAADP. (biochemj.org)
  • administering a therapeutic drug selected from the group consisting of a calcium channel blocker, a calmodulin blocker, a calmodulin kinase inhibitor and an antiarrhythmic drug to the subject. (google.com)
  • Disruption of calcium homeostasis and arrhythmogenesis induced by mutations in the cardiac ryanodine receptor and calsequestrin. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Identification of a mutation in porcine ryanodine receptor associated with malignant hyperthermia. (nature.com)
  • Indeed, most of the ryanodine receptor 1b ( ryr1b ) mRNA in mutants carried a nonsense mutation that was generated by aberrant splicing due to a DNA insertion in an intron of the ryr1b gene, leading to a hypomorphic condition in relatively relaxed mutants. (biologists.org)
  • Detection of the ryanodine receptor mutation associated with malignant hyperthermia in purebred swine populations. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Oscillation of [Ca 2+ ] i evoked by 20 Hz nerve firing occurred in normal Ringer solution, in ryanodine, and in caffeine with a periodicity of ∼10 sec. (jneurosci.org)
  • Biophysical properties as well as the regulation by modulators of RyR, ryanodine, ruthenium red and caffeine, were measured. (deepdyve.com)
  • The results reported here also demonstrate that there are two classes of caffeine sites in rat TA muscle, as defined by differences in EC50 values at resting (pCa 7) and at high Ca2+ (pCa 4-5), that sites involved in stimulation of [3H]-ryanodine binding to the RyR are distinguished by a higher affinity (caffeine below mM), and that only these sites undergo age-related changes. (nih.gov)
  • Release of calcium ions linked to the activation of potassium conductance in a caffeine-treated sympathetic neurone. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Other previously known triggers of the ryanodine receptor , including caffeine, have negligible effects except at extremely high concentrations. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • PAT exposed cells also demonstrated a reduced basal intracellular calcium concentration when depolarized by 90 mM potassium-chloride and a reduced caffeine releasable calcium pool of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. (cdc.gov)
  • The calcium release is activated by elevated cytoplasmic calcium levels in the micromolar range, by caffeine and adenine nucleotides, such as AMP and ATP. (genecards.org)
  • This cycle of muscle contraction and relaxation results from the precise control of calcium ions within myocytes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Calcium ions are then transported back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum, and the cardiac muscle relaxes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In this way, the release and reuptake of calcium ions in myocytes produces a regular heart rhythm. (medlineplus.gov)
  • For the cardiac muscle cells to contract, the levels of calcium ions in the cells needs to rapidly increase. (elifesciences.org)
  • Further experiments showed that calcium ions 'leak' from these smaller clusters, reducing the amount of calcium that can be released into cardiac muscle cells during each heartbeat. (elifesciences.org)
  • Large charged molecules (red) lure in calcium ions (blue), which position carbonate (yellow and red) and form ACC (white ball). (phys.org)
  • These large macromolecules do so by directing where calcium ions bind in the scaffold. (phys.org)
  • The negative charge on the macromolecules attract the positively charged calcium ions, placing them in the scaffold through so-called ion binding. (phys.org)
  • The team realized that controlling crystallization by attracting calcium ions to the macromolecules was not the way researchers had long thought it happened. (phys.org)
  • Researchers had long suspected that organic scaffolds caused calcium carbonate to mineralize and find its most stable form, calcite, by creating low energy surfaces where the ions could easily arrange themselves in rows side-by-side. (phys.org)
  • Transient changes in the concentration of intracellular calcium ions ([Ca 2+ ] i ) act as a powerful signal that is crucial for the establishment of form and function in the embryo. (beds.ac.uk)
  • 2+] ions entering the myocyte through the DHPR is activation of the ryanodine receptor (RYR) (4). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Muscle contractions are triggered by an increase in the concentration of calcium ions inside muscle cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This structure stores calcium ions when muscles are at rest. (medlineplus.gov)
  • As a result, large amounts of calcium ions are released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum inside muscle cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • An overabundance of calcium ions activates processes that generate heat (leading to increased body temperature) and produce excess acid (leading to acidosis). (medlineplus.gov)
  • As a result, not enough calcium ions are available in the sarcoplasmic reticulum to trigger muscle contractions. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Without enough calcium ions flowing out of the sarcoplasmic reticulum at the appropriate time, muscles cannot contract normally and muscle weakness results. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Does Protein Kinase A-Mediated Phosphorylation of the Cardiac Ryanodine Receptor Play Any Role in Adrenergic Regulation of Calcium Handling in Health and Disease? (ahajournals.org)
  • Age-related abnormalities in regulation of the ryanodine receptor in rat fast-twitch muscle. (nih.gov)
  • This failure of calcium regulation within myocytes can trigger the abnormal heart rhythm characteristic of ARVC. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Calcium signals ([Ca 2+ ] i ) direct many aspects of embryo development but their regulation is not well characterised. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Cellular calcium transients control a vast array of cellular functions, from short-term responses (e.g., contraction and secretion) to the long-term regulation of cell growth and proliferation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cardiac hypertrophy associated with impaired regulation of cardiac ryanodine receptor by calmodulin and S100A1. (semanticscholar.org)
  • However, there is little information regarding the role of NAADP in the regulation of intracellular calcium fluxes in mammalian cells. (biochemj.org)
  • In the work described here, we localize one of these sites by showing that the cardiac isoform of the ryanodine receptor is a preferred substrate for multifunctional Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase). (elsevier.com)
  • Antibodies generated to this site react only with the cardiac isoform of the ryanodine receptor, and immunoprecipitate only cardiac [ 3 H]ryanodine-binding sites. (elsevier.com)
  • Initial characterization of calcium signaling pathways confirmed the early developmental stage of hNPCs. (springer.com)
  • Gleb P. Tolstykh, Cory A. Olsovsky, Bennett L. Ibey , Hope T. Beier , "Ryanodine and IP 3 receptor-mediated calcium signaling play a pivotal role in neurological infrared laser modulation," Neurophotonics 4(2), 025001 (5 April 2017). (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • Calcium is a universal second messenger regulating essential cellular signaling events in a broad range of cells, tissues and organisms. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Calcium signaling pathways mediating synaptic potentiation triggered by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis IgG in motor nerve terminals. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We investigated whether these disturbances are correlated with changes in the mRNA level of the genes that encode proteins involved in calcium homeostasis and signaling (i.e., the calciosome). (frontiersin.org)
  • The first edition of James Putney's Calcium Signaling offered readers a comprehensive view of the fascinating diversity of technologies that the new field of calcium signaling employed. (ebooks.com)
  • And while that work is still regarded as a premier text on the basics of calcium signaling, progress has been so dramatic that an update is now required. (ebooks.com)
  • In Calcium Signaling, Second Edition, Putney focuses on those processes that generate calcium signals to compile the first comprehensive exploration of calcium signaling research from a methodological standpoint. (ebooks.com)
  • Several chapters discuss calcium indicators and other tools, and look at microscopic and electrophysiological techniques, as well as other special methodological aspects of calcium signaling research. (ebooks.com)
  • As calcium signaling involves such a breadth of technical approaches and a wide range of applications, this work contains invaluable information for established researchers, as well as those graduate students and scientists just beginning to find a direction in cellular calcium signaling. (ebooks.com)
  • Plays a role in cellular calcium signaling. (genecards.org)
  • Pharmacologic inhibition of calcium and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II with 2.5 µM of KN93 prevented the decrease in cell shortening, Ca 2+ transient amplitude, and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ content in colon ascendens stent peritonitis myocytes. (ovid.com)
  • Evidence for inhibition of sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium release. (rupress.org)
  • Inhibition of cyclic adenosine diphosphoribose-induced Ca 2+ oscillations, after rapamycin treatment, confirmed that both compounds interacted with the ryanodine receptor subtype 2. (biologists.org)
  • In particular, istaroxime seems to dissociate the inotropic effect exerted by digitalis (inhibition of the membrane sodium/potassium adenosine triphosphatase) from the arrhythmic effect and to ameliorate diastolic dysfunction (via sarcoendoplasmic reticulum calcium adenosine triphosphatase activation). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Colon ascendens stent peritonitis hearts showed a significant increase in oxidation-dependent calcium and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II activity, which could be prevented by pretreating animals with the antioxidant tempol. (ovid.com)
  • Contractile function was also preserved in colon ascendens stent peritonitis myocytes isolated from transgenic mice expressing a calcium and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibitory peptide (AC3-I) and in colon ascendens stent peritonitis myocytes isolated from mutant mice that have the ryanodine receptor 2 calcium and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-dependent phosphorylation site (serine 2814) mutated to alanine (S2814A). (ovid.com)
  • Results indicate that oxidation and subsequent activation of calcium and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II has a causal role in the contractile dysfunction associated with sepsis. (ovid.com)
  • Calcium and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, through phosphorylation of the ryanodine receptor would lead to Ca 2+ leak from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, reducing sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ content, Ca 2+ transient amplitude and contractility. (ovid.com)
  • Development of organ-specific calcium and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibitors may result in a beneficial therapeutic strategy to ameliorate contractile dysfunction associated with sepsis. (ovid.com)
  • Calcium Binding to Calmodulin Mutants Monitored by Domain-Specific Intrinsic Phenylalanine and Tyrosine Fluorescence," Biophys. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The role of intracellular calcium and calmodulin in signal transduction. (muni.cz)
  • GO annotations related to this gene include calcium ion binding and calmodulin binding . (genecards.org)
  • c) the overall muscle dihydropyridine receptor/ryanodine receptor (RyR) ratio. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, we first tried to find or generate mutant animals in the ryanodine receptor gene. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Because so many mutants are known in fruit fly system, we analyzed a ryanodine receptor gene in Drosophila melanogaster and the chromosomal mapping was done (FEBS) Lett. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The human ryanodine receptor gene: its mapping to 19q13.1, placement in a chromosome 19 linkage group, and exclusion as the gene causing myotonic dystrophy. (nature.com)
  • Doxorubicin and C-13 deoxydoxorubicin effects on ryanodine receptor gene expression. (biomedsearch.com)
  • RYR3 (Ryanodine Receptor 3) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Our data indicate that the dysregulation of calcium homeostasis correlates with changes in the gene expression of members of the calciosome. (frontiersin.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a ryanodine receptor, which functions to release calcium from intracellular storage for use in many cellular processes. (genecards.org)
  • Scatchard analysis of ryanodine binding indicated a high-affinity site with a Bmax of 5.2 +/- 0.4 pmol/mg with a Kd of 6.8 +/- 0.1 nM. (nih.gov)
  • Synthetic phosphopeptide derived from human Ryanodine Receptor around the phosphorylation site of serine 2808 (R-I-SP-Q-T). (abcam.com)
  • Phosphorylation is increased in failing heart, leading to calcium leaks and increased cytoplasmic Ca(2+) levels. (abcam.com)
  • Phosphorylation at Ser-2031 by PKA enhances the response to lumenal calcium. (abcam.com)
  • 1. Propranolol, a β-blocker, inhibited or stimulated ryanodine binding to both the membrane-bound and purified ryanodine receptor (RyR) depending on the assay conditions. (biochemj.org)
  • The binding of [3H]ryanodine with cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles depends on the calcium concentration. (nih.gov)
  • The apparent Km value for calcium varied between 2 and 0.8 microM when the ryanodine concentration varied between 10 and 265 nM. (nih.gov)
  • Considering the essential role of calcium homeostasis in neurodevelopment, PBDE-induced disturbance of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca 2+ ] i ) may underlie PBDE-induced DNT. (springer.com)
  • Modulators of the RyR that are known to alter its conformational states, such as adenine nucleotides, Ca 2+ concentration and pH, modified the effect of propranolol on ryanodine binding. (biochemj.org)
  • Spatially and temporally regulated changes of the intracellular calcium concentration [Ca 2+ ] i plays a variety of critical roles in numerous cell types. (frontiersin.org)
  • At nanomolar concentrations, ryanodine locks the receptor in a half-open state, whereas it fully closes them at micromolar concentration. (wikipedia.org)
  • The resulting increase in calcium ion concentration triggers the cardiac muscle to contract, which pumps blood out of the heart. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Many fundamental biological processes in cells depend on and function as a response to intracellular calcium concentration. (smu.edu)
  • In an effort to determine whether trivalent antimony (7440360) affects intracellular free calcium concentration during excitation and contraction, the authors developed an in-vitro cardiac myocyte model that was exposed for 24 hours to potassium-antimony-tartrate (28300745) (PAT) up to concentrations of 10 microM. (cdc.gov)
  • At concentrations of 2 to 8 microM, PAT significantly reduced systolic intracellular calcium concentrations in a concentration dependent fashion but had no effect on the diastolic levels or on the first derivative of the transient rise. (cdc.gov)
  • Myocytes from control cells responded to epinephrine in concentration dependent fashion with elevated systolic intracellular calcium concentrations and an increase in the rate of decay of transients. (cdc.gov)
  • The resulting increase in calcium ion concentration in muscle cells stimulates muscles to contract, allowing the body to move. (medlineplus.gov)
  • An increase in calcium ion concentration within muscle cells also causes skeletal muscles to contract abnormally, which leads to muscle rigidity. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A substitution of cysteine for arginine 614 in the ryanodine receptor is potentially causative of human malignant hyperthermia. (nature.com)
  • Required for cellular calcium ion homeostasis. (abcam.com)
  • Huntington's disease (HD) is a hereditary neurodegenerative disease caused by the expansion of a polyglutamine stretch in the huntingtin (HTT) protein and characterized by dysregulated calcium homeostasis. (frontiersin.org)
  • Ryanodine receptor 1 mutations, dysregulation of calcium homeostasis and neuromuscular disorders. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Contributes to cellular calcium ion homeostasis (By similarity). (genecards.org)
  • i) to determine the role of BIN1 in driving nuclear positioning, transverse tubule architecture and the distribution of key calcium regulatory proteins (RyR and DHPR) in skeletal and cardiac muscle and, ii) to determine how these mutations affect in vivo muscle function. (findaphd.com)
  • Stimulation of calcium uptake rate occurred only at higher concentrations of ryanodine (apparent Km = 17 microM). (nih.gov)
  • These findings illustrate that immature developing hNPCs respond to low concentrations of 6-OH-BDE-47 by an increase in [Ca 2+ ] i and provide new mechanistic explanations for such BDE-induced calcium disruption. (springer.com)
  • At high NaCl concentrations, propranolol increased the number of ryanodine-binding sites (B max ) with no effect on the binding affinity. (biochemj.org)
  • In the presence of propranolol and at low NaCl concentrations, ryanodine binding was inhibited and showed no Ca 2+ -, pH- or time-dependence. (biochemj.org)
  • Our observations are consistent with the hypothesis that ryanodine, by inhibiting the release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, prevents the oscillations in intracellular calcium that activate the transient inward currents and aftercontractions associated with calcium overload states. (rupress.org)
  • Junctin, a 26 kDa intra-sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) protein, forms a quaternary complex with triadin, calsequestrin and the ryanodine receptor (RyR) at the junctional SR membrane. (ovid.com)
  • The skin may also have a role in calcium metabolism. (biologists.org)
  • During a crisis of MH, inhalational anesthetics, muscle relaxants depolarizing (succinylcholine) or extreme physical activity in hot environments trigger a massive accumulation of calcium (Ca 2+ ) in myoplasm, which leads to an accelerated metabolism and skeletal muscle contractile activity. (scielo.br)
  • Binding in the absence of calcium appears to be non-specific because it shows no saturation up to 20 microM ryanodine. (nih.gov)
  • The slow inward current was not blocked by 1 microM ryanodine, but ryanodine did appear to abolish an outward current that remained in the presence of 0.5 mM 4-aminopyridine. (rupress.org)
  • Synthetic peptide corresponding to Human Ryanodine receptor 2. (abcam.com)
  • For example in vertebrates, presynaptic Ca 2+ stores relying on either the ryanodine receptor (RyR) or the inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate receptor (InsP 3 R) have been reported to participate in synaptic transmission, in hippocampal pyramidal neurons, and in basket cell-Purkinje cell synapses. (biologists.org)
  • NAADP also promotes specific microsomal calcium release in rat vascular smooth muscle cells, cardiac myocytes, fibroblasts and a human leukaemia cell line, indicating that the capacity for NAADP-induced calcium release is widespread in mammalian cells. (biochemj.org)
  • In the first analysis of the generated mutant mice, we showed that the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor is an essential molecule for muscle maturation and excitation-contraction coupling (Nature 369,556). (nii.ac.jp)
  • In skeletal muscle, hypernitrosylation of the ryanodine receptor (RyR) causes sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) calcium leak, but whether abnormalities of cardiac RyR nitrosylation contribute to dysfunction of cardiac excitation-contraction coupling remains controversial. (elsevier.com)
  • Dr. Baylor's research is focused on excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling in vertebrate skeletal muscle and the role of the calcium ion (Ca) as an intracellular messenger. (upenn.edu)
  • Ryanodine receptor (RyR) mediated Ca 2+ signals play a central role in excitation-contraction coupling in cardiac muscle. (researchwithrutgers.com)
  • The authors conclude that a nonlethal exposure to PAT reduced the availability of calcium during excitation and contraction. (cdc.gov)
  • For example, the encoded protein is involved in skeletal muscle contraction by releasing calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum followed by depolarization of T-tubules. (genecards.org)
  • However, in many smooth muscle tissues, depolarization is mediated primarily by calcium influx into the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • They suggest that a decreased influx of calcium across the sarcolemma and enhanced removal of calcium appear to be responsible. (cdc.gov)
  • Spontaneously generated calcium (Ca 2+ ) waves can trigger arrhythmias in ventricular and atrial myocytes. (elsevier.com)
  • Effects of ryanodine on the ionic currents and the calcium conductance in crab muscle fibers. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In the presence of ryanodine, contracture develops without any membrane depolarization and the Ca-conductance variables are shifted in a hyperpolarizing direction. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Increased calcium conductance in the neurons leads to increased depolarization and excitability. (wikipedia.org)