Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
Long-lasting voltage-gated CALCIUM CHANNELS found in both excitable and nonexcitable tissue. They are responsible for normal myocardial and vascular smooth muscle contractility. Five subunits (alpha-1, alpha-2, beta, gamma, and delta) make up the L-type channel. The alpha-1 subunit is the binding site for calcium-based antagonists. Dihydropyridine-based calcium antagonists are used as markers for these binding sites.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
CALCIUM CHANNELS that are concentrated in neural tissue. Omega toxins inhibit the actions of these channels by altering their voltage dependence.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
A member of the alkali metals. It has an atomic symbol Cs, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 132.91. Cesium has many industrial applications, including the construction of atomic clocks based on its atomic vibrational frequency.
A heterogenous group of transient or low voltage activated type CALCIUM CHANNELS. They are found in cardiac myocyte membranes, the sinoatrial node, Purkinje cells of the heart and the central nervous system.
An element of the alkaline earth group of metals. It has an atomic symbol Ba, atomic number 56, and atomic weight 138. All of its acid-soluble salts are poisonous.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
Agents that increase calcium influx into calcium channels of excitable tissues. This causes vasoconstriction in VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE and/or CARDIAC MUSCLE cells as well as stimulation of insulin release from pancreatic islets. Therefore, tissue-selective calcium agonists have the potential to combat cardiac failure and endocrinological disorders. They have been used primarily in experimental studies in cell and tissue culture.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.
A trace element that is a component of vitamin B12. It has the atomic symbol Co, atomic number 27, and atomic weight 58.93. It is used in nuclear weapons, alloys, and pigments. Deficiency in animals leads to anemia; its excess in humans can lead to erythrocytosis.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that form channels to selectively pass chloride ions. Nonselective blockers include FENAMATES; ETHACRYNIC ACID; and TAMOXIFEN.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Potassium channels where the flow of K+ ions into the cell is greater than the outward flow.
CALCIUM CHANNELS located within the PURKINJE CELLS of the cerebellum. They are involved in stimulation-secretion coupling of neurons.
Pyridine moieties which are partially saturated by the addition of two hydrogen atoms in any position.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
CALCIUM CHANNELS located in the neurons of the brain.
A potent vasodilator agent with calcium antagonistic action. It is a useful anti-anginal agent that also lowers blood pressure.
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of potassium efflux through cell membranes. Blockade of potassium channels prolongs the duration of ACTION POTENTIALS. They are used as ANTI-ARRHYTHMIA AGENTS and VASODILATOR AGENTS.
CALCIUM CHANNELS located in the neurons of the brain. They are inhibited by the marine snail toxin, omega conotoxin MVIIC.
Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.
A neurotoxic peptide, which is a cleavage product (VIa) of the omega-Conotoxin precursor protein contained in venom from the marine snail, CONUS geographus. It is an antagonist of CALCIUM CHANNELS, N-TYPE.
Potassium channels whose activation is dependent on intracellular calcium concentrations.
A chloride channel that regulates secretion in many exocrine tissues. Abnormalities in the CFTR gene have been shown to cause cystic fibrosis. (Hum Genet 1994;93(4):364-8)
A salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent.
A benzothiazepine derivative with vasodilating action due to its antagonism of the actions of CALCIUM ion on membrane functions.
A family of structurally related neurotoxic peptides from mollusk venom that inhibit voltage-activated entry of calcium into the presynaptic membrane. They selectively inhibit N-, P-, and Q-type calcium channels.
Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.
Potassium channel whose permeability to ions is extremely sensitive to the transmembrane potential difference. The opening of these channels is induced by the membrane depolarization of the ACTION POTENTIAL.
Stable calcium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element calcium, but differ in atomic weight. Ca-42-44, 46, and 48 are stable calcium isotopes.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A potent antagonist of CALCIUM CHANNELS that is highly selective for VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE. It is effective in the treatment of chronic stable angina pectoris, hypertension, and congestive cardiac failure.
Heteromultimers of Kir6 channels (the pore portion) and sulfonylurea receptor (the regulatory portion) which affect function of the HEART; PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. KATP channel blockers include GLIBENCLAMIDE and mitiglinide whereas openers include CROMAKALIM and minoxidil sulfate.
A calcium channel blocker with marked vasodilator action. It is an effective antihypertensive agent and differs from other calcium channel blockers in that it does not reduce glomerular filtration rate and is mildly natriuretic, rather than sodium retentive.
A major class of calcium activated potassium channels whose members are voltage-dependent. MaxiK channels are activated by either membrane depolarization or an increase in intracellular Ca(2+). They are key regulators of calcium and electrical signaling in a variety of tissues.
A benzimidazoyl-substituted tetraline that selectively binds and inhibits CALCIUM CHANNELS, T-TYPE.
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of sodium influx through cell membranes. Blockade of sodium channels slows the rate and amplitude of initial rapid depolarization, reduces cell excitability, and reduces conduction velocity.
A calcium channel blockader with preferential cerebrovascular activity. It has marked cerebrovascular dilating effects and lowers blood pressure.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Unstable isotopes of calcium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ca atoms with atomic weights 39, 41, 45, 47, 49, and 50 are radioactive calcium isotopes.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
A subgroup of TRP cation channels that contain 3-4 ANKYRIN REPEAT DOMAINS and a conserved C-terminal domain. Members are highly expressed in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Selectivity for calcium over sodium ranges from 0.5 to 10.
A neuropeptide toxin from the venom of the funnel web spider, Agelenopsis aperta. It inhibits CALCIUM CHANNELS, P-TYPE by altering the voltage-dependent gating so that very large depolarizations are needed for channel opening. It also inhibits CALCIUM CHANNELS, Q-TYPE.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
Voltage-gated potassium channels whose primary subunits contain six transmembrane segments and form tetramers to create a pore with a voltage sensor. They are related to their founding member, shaker protein, Drosophila.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
A tetrameric calcium release channel in the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM membrane of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, acting oppositely to SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES. It is important in skeletal and cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and studied by using RYANODINE. Abnormalities are implicated in CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS and MUSCULAR DISEASES.
The calcium salt of oxalic acid, occurring in the urine as crystals and in certain calculi.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The calcium salt of gluconic acid. The compound has a variety of uses, including its use as a calcium replenisher in hypocalcemic states.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A major class of calcium-activated potassium channels that are found primarily in excitable CELLS. They play important roles in the transmission of ACTION POTENTIALS and generate a long-lasting hyperpolarization known as the slow afterhyperpolarization.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A potent calcium channel blockader with marked vasodilator action. It has antihypertensive properties and is effective in the treatment of angina and coronary spasms without showing cardiodepressant effects. It has also been used in the treatment of asthma and enhances the action of specific antineoplastic agents.
A subgroup of cyclic nucleotide-regulated ION CHANNELS within the superfamily of pore-loop cation channels. They are expressed in OLFACTORY NERVE cilia and in PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and some PLANTS.
A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after vanilloid receptor. They are very sensitive to TEMPERATURE and hot spicy food and CAPSAICIN. They have the TRP domain and ANKYRIN repeats. Selectivity for CALCIUM over SODIUM ranges from 3 to 100 fold.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Venoms of arthropods of the order Araneida of the ARACHNIDA. The venoms usually contain several protein fractions, including ENZYMES, hemolytic, neurolytic, and other TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Sodium channels found on salt-reabsorbing EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the distal NEPHRON; the distal COLON; SALIVARY DUCTS; SWEAT GLANDS; and the LUNG. They are AMILORIDE-sensitive and play a critical role in the control of sodium balance, BLOOD VOLUME, and BLOOD PRESSURE.
Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
A potassium-selective ion channel blocker. (From J Gen Phys 1994;104(1):173-90)
A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after melastatin protein. They have the TRP domain but lack ANKYRIN repeats. Enzyme domains in the C-terminus leads to them being called chanzymes.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
A fluorescent calcium chelating agent which is used to study intracellular calcium in tissues.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A family of proton-gated sodium channels that are primarily expressed in neuronal tissue. They are AMILORIDE-sensitive and are implicated in the signaling of a variety of neurological stimuli, most notably that of pain in response to acidic conditions.
Lanthanum. The prototypical element in the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol La, atomic number 57, and atomic weight 138.91. Lanthanide ion is used in experimental biology as a calcium antagonist; lanthanum oxide improves the optical properties of glass.
Inorganic compounds that contain calcium as an integral part of the molecule.
A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that is the predominant VOLTAGE-GATED POTASSIUM CHANNEL of T-LYMPHOCYTES.
A family of voltage-gated potassium channels that are characterized by long N-terminal and C-terminal intracellular tails. They are named from the Drosophila protein whose mutation causes abnormal leg shaking under ether anesthesia. Their activation kinetics are dependent on extracellular MAGNESIUM and PROTON concentration.
A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that is commonly mutated in human episodic ATAXIA and MYOKYMIA.
A long-acting dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. It is effective in the treatment of ANGINA PECTORIS and HYPERTENSION.
A sesquiterpene lactone found in roots of THAPSIA. It inhibits CA(2+)-TRANSPORTING ATPASE mediated uptake of CALCIUM into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that is selectively inhibited by a variety of SCORPION VENOMS.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
A class of polyamine and peptide toxins which are isolated from the venom of spiders such as Agelenopsis aperta.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that conducts a delayed rectifier current. It contributes to ACTION POTENTIAL repolarization of MYOCYTES in HEART ATRIA.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
A family of delayed rectifier voltage-gated potassium channels that share homology with their founding member, KCNQ1 PROTEIN. KCNQ potassium channels have been implicated in a variety of diseases including LONG QT SYNDROME; DEAFNESS; and EPILEPSY.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Venoms from mollusks, including CONUS and OCTOPUS species. The venoms contain proteins, enzymes, choline derivatives, slow-reacting substances, and several characterized polypeptide toxins that affect the nervous system. Mollusk venoms include cephalotoxin, venerupin, maculotoxin, surugatoxin, conotoxins, and murexine.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
A broad group of eukaryotic six-transmembrane cation channels that are classified by sequence homology because their functional involvement with SENSATION is varied. They have only weak voltage sensitivity and ion selectivity. They are named after a DROSOPHILA mutant that displayed transient receptor potentials in response to light. A 25-amino-acid motif containing a TRP box (EWKFAR) just C-terminal to S6 is found in TRPC, TRPV and TRPM subgroups. ANKYRIN repeats are found in TRPC, TRPV & TRPN subgroups. Some are functionally associated with TYROSINE KINASE or TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
A 37-amino acid residue peptide isolated from the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus. It is a neurotoxin that inhibits calcium activated potassium channels.
Coronary vasodilator that is an analog of iproveratril (VERAPAMIL) with one more methoxy group on the benzene ring.
A subfamily of shaker potassium channels that shares homology with its founding member, Shab protein, Drosophila. They regulate delayed rectifier currents in the NERVOUS SYSTEM of DROSOPHILA and in the SKELETAL MUSCLE and HEART of VERTEBRATES.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A major class of calcium-activated potassium channels that were originally discovered in ERYTHROCYTES. They are found primarily in non-excitable CELLS and set up electrical gradients for PASSIVE ION TRANSPORT.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The fluid inside CELLS.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
An element of the alkaline earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sr, atomic number 38, and atomic weight 87.62.
A voltage-gated potassium channel that is expressed primarily in the HEART.
An element with atomic symbol Cd, atomic number 48, and atomic weight 114. It is a metal and ingestion will lead to CADMIUM POISONING.
One of the POTASSIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS, with secondary effect on calcium currents, which is used mainly as a research tool and to characterize channel subtypes.
The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.
A highly neurotoxic polypeptide from the venom of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). It consists of 18 amino acids with two disulfide bridges and causes hyperexcitability resulting in convulsions and respiratory paralysis.
The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.
A shaker subfamily that is prominently expressed in NEURONS and are necessary for high-frequency, repetitive firing of ACTION POTENTIALS.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
An antidiabetic sulfonylurea derivative with actions similar to those of chlorpropamide.
Intracellular receptors that bind to INOSITOL 1,4,5-TRISPHOSPHATE and play an important role in its intracellular signaling. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors are calcium channels that release CALCIUM in response to increased levels of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in the CYTOPLASM.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
The pore-forming subunits of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels. They form tetramers in CELL MEMBRANES.
A trace element with the atomic symbol Ni, atomic number 28, and atomic weight 58.69. It is a cofactor of the enzyme UREASE.
A methylpyrrole-carboxylate from RYANIA that disrupts the RYANODINE RECEPTOR CALCIUM RELEASE CHANNEL to modify CALCIUM release from SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM resulting in alteration of MUSCLE CONTRACTION. It was previously used in INSECTICIDES. It is used experimentally in conjunction with THAPSIGARGIN and other inhibitors of CALCIUM ATPASE uptake of calcium into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Venoms from animals of the order Scorpionida of the class Arachnida. They contain neuro- and hemotoxins, enzymes, and various other factors that may release acetylcholine and catecholamines from nerve endings. Of the several protein toxins that have been characterized, most are immunogenic.
A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
A family of inwardly-rectifying potassium channels that are activated by PERTUSSIS TOXIN sensitive G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS. GIRK potassium channels are primarily activated by the complex of GTP-BINDING PROTEIN BETA SUBUNITS and GTP-BINDING PROTEIN GAMMA SUBUNITS.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
Chemical agents that increase the permeability of biological or artificial lipid membranes to specific ions. Most ionophores are relatively small organic molecules that act as mobile carriers within membranes or coalesce to form ion permeable channels across membranes. Many are antibiotics, and many act as uncoupling agents by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.
Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A fast inactivating subtype of shaker potassium channels that contains two inactivation domains at its N terminus.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A pyrazine compound inhibiting SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS. This inhibition creates a negative potential in the luminal membranes of principal cells, located in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Negative potential reduces secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Amiloride is used in conjunction with DIURETICS to spare POTASSIUM loss. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p705)
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
A subgroup of cyclic nucleotide-regulated ION CHANNELS of the superfamily of pore-loop cation channels that are opened by hyperpolarization rather than depolarization. The ion conducting pore passes SODIUM, CALCIUM, and POTASSIUM cations with a preference for potassium.
Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.
A calbindin protein found in many mammalian tissues, including the UTERUS, PLACENTA, BONE, PITUITARY GLAND, and KIDNEYS. In intestinal ENTEROCYTES it mediates intracellular calcium transport from apical to basolateral membranes via calcium binding at two EF-HAND MOTIFS. Expression is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.
A white powder prepared from lime that has many medical and industrial uses. It is in many dental formulations, especially for root canal filling.
Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
A shaker subfamily of potassium channels that participate in transient outward potassium currents by activating at subthreshold MEMBRANE POTENTIALS, inactivating rapidly, and recovering from inactivation quickly.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Intracellular messenger formed by the action of phospholipase C on phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, which is one of the phospholipids that make up the cell membrane. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate is released into the cytoplasm where it releases calcium ions from internal stores within the cell's endoplasmic reticulum. These calcium ions stimulate the activity of B kinase or calmodulin.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A calcium salt that is used for a variety of purposes including: building materials, as a desiccant, in dentistry as an impression material, cast, or die, and in medicine for immobilizing casts and as a tablet excipient. It exists in various forms and states of hydration. Plaster of Paris is a mixture of powdered and heat-treated gypsum.
A divalent calcium ionophore that is widely used as a tool to investigate the role of intracellular calcium in cellular processes.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
A group of peptide antibiotics from BACILLUS brevis. Gramicidin C or S is a cyclic, ten-amino acid polypeptide and gramicidins A, B, D are linear. Gramicidin is one of the two principal components of TYROTHRICIN.
A very slow opening and closing voltage-gated potassium channel that is expressed in NEURONS and is commonly mutated in BENIGN FAMILIAL NEONATAL CONVULSIONS.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.
An inhibitor of anion conductance including band 3-mediated anion transport.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A group of slow opening and closing voltage-gated potassium channels. Because of their delayed activation kinetics they play an important role in controlling ACTION POTENTIAL duration.
A change in electrical resistance of the skin, occurring in emotion and in certain other conditions.
IPA acts on the large-conductance calcium activated K+ channels (BK channels). BK channels are formed by α subunits and ... or voltage sensitivity of the α subunit of BK channels without affecting the channel conductance. In this state BK channels can ... Kaczorowski, GJ; Knaus, HG; Leonard, RJ; McManus, OB; Garcia, ML (1996). "High-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels ... Isopimaric acid (IPA) is a toxin which acts as a large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel (BK channel) opener. IPA ...
Llinás RR, Sugimori M, Cherksey B (1989). "Voltage-dependent calcium conductance in mammalian neurons. The P channel". Ann N Y ... Discovery of the P-type calcium channel in the Purkinje cells. Discovery of low threshold spikes generated by low voltage ... activated calcium conductaces (presently known as due to T-type calcium channel) in inferior olive and thalamus neurons. A ... Direct demonstration of calcium concentration microdomains at the presynaptic active zone. Utilization of ...
... is a small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel partly responsible for the calcium-dependent after ... SK3 (small conductance calcium-activated potassium channel 3) also known as KCa2.3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by ... 2008). "Analysis of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) of the small-conductance calcium activated potassium channel (SK3) ... and intermediate-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels and their therapeutic indications". Curr. Med. Chem. 14 (13 ...
"Bicuculline block of small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels". Pflugers Archiv. 438 (3): 314-21. doi:10.1007/ ... The action of bicuculline is primarily on the ionotropic GABAA receptors, which are ligand-gated ion channels concerned chiefly ... bicuculline can be used to block Ca2+-activated potassium channels. Sensitivity to bicuculline is defined by IUPHAR as a major ...
Potassium intermediate/small conductance calcium-activated channel, subfamily N, member 1 , also known as KCNN1 is a human gene ... 1996). "Small-conductance, calcium-activated potassium channels from mammalian brain". Science. 273 (5282): 1709-14. doi: ... "Entrez Gene: KCNN1 potassium intermediate/small conductance calcium-activated channel, subfamily N, member 1". Wei AD, Gutman ... The KCNN1 gene is a member of the KCNN family of potassium channel genes. SK channel Voltage-gated potassium channel GRCh38: ...
"Voltage-dependent calcium conductances in mammalian neurons. The P channel". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 560 (1 Calcium Chann): 103- ... This was initially shown by Rodolfo Llinas (Llinas and Hess (1977) and Llinas and Sugimori (1980)). P-type calcium channels ... They are caused by climbing fiber activation and can involve the generation of calcium-mediated action potentials in the ... PCP4 accelerates both the association and dissociation of calcium (Ca2+) with calmodulin (CaM) in the cytoplasm of Purkinje ...
... binds to the outer face of the large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (maxiK or BK channels) with ... Iberiotoxin selectively inhibits the current through large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels. Iberiotoxin is a ... peptidyl probe for the high conductance calcium-activated potassium channel from venom of the scorpion Buthus tamulus". The ... It is also known as "Potassium channel toxin alpha-KTx 1.3" or IbTx. The complete amino acid sequence has been defined and it ...
... s D, E and G have also been found to block activity on large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels. ... strain HKI0459) with blocking activity on large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels". Tetrahedron. 63 (2): 435-444 ...
2012). "The Calcium-activated Chloride Channel Anoctamin 1 acts as a Heat Sensor in Nociceptive Neurons". Nature Neuroscience. ... Nature Neuroscience (2012) 2008: Yang YD et al., TMEM16A Confers Receptor Activated Calcium-dependent Chloride Conductance. ... 2008). "TMEM16A Confers Receptor Activated Calcium-dependent Chloride Conductance". Nature. 455 (7217): 1210-5. Bibcode: ... The Calcium-activated Chloride Channel Anoctamin 1 acts as a Heat Sensor in Nociceptive Neurons. ...
The encoded protein functions as a calcium(2+)-activated large conductance chloride(-) channel. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ... Members of this family function as chloride anion channels. ...
... peptidyl probe for the high conductance calcium-activated potassium channel from venom of the scorpion Buthus tamulus". Journal ... This toxin is a selective blocker of BK channels, calcium-activated potassium channels. Limbatustoxin is purified from the ... Limbatustoxin is highly selective for calcium-activated potassium channels, also called maxi-K channels, slo1 or BK (big ... "Functional role of the β subunit of high conductance calcium-activated potassium channels". Neuron, 14(3), 645-650. PMID ...
Calcium enters by voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels or by release from the endoplasmic reticulum. Hydrogencarbonate and calcium ... CO2 metabolism Enters through membrane-transporting proteins or cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulators. ... Synergism between calcium and bicarbonate". J Biol Chem. 278 (18): 15922-15926. doi:10.1074/jbc.m212475200. PMID 12609998. ... Calcification by osteoblasts is intrinsically related with bicarbonate and calcium. Bone density experiments in mouse calvaria ...
"Role of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels of coronary arteries in heart preservation". J Heart Lung ... Other BKCa++ channel openers are reported to limit the mitochondrial calcium overload due to ischemia. Rottlerin is also ... Rottlerin is a potent large conductance potassium channel (BKCa++) opener. BKCa++ is found in the inner mitochondrial membrane ... Other BKCa++ channel openers (NS1619, NS11021 and DiCl-DHAA) have been reported to have cardio-protective effects after ...
"The large conductance potassium channel beta-subunit can interact with and modulate the functional properties of a calcium- ... This gene encodes a member of the calcium sensitive chloride conductance protein family. To date, all members of this gene ... Toda M, Tulic MK, Levitt RC, Hamid Q (2002). "A calcium-activated chloride channel (HCLCA1) is strongly related to IL-9 ... 2003). "A calcium-activated chloride channel blocker inhibits goblet cell metaplasia and mucus overproduction". Novartis Found ...
2004). "The gating and conductance properties of Cav3.2 low-voltage-activated T-type calcium channels". Jpn. J. Physiol. 53 (3 ... a protein in the voltage-dependent calcium channel complex. Calcium channels mediate the influx of calcium ions into the cell ... Calcium channel, voltage-dependent, T type, alpha 1H subunit, also known as CACNA1H, is a protein which in humans is encoded by ... "Entrez Gene: CACNA1H calcium channel, voltage-dependent, T type, alpha 1H subunit". Cribbs LL, Lee JH, Yang J, Satin J, Zhang Y ...
The large-conductance voltage and calcium-activated potassium (MaxiK, BK) channels are intrinsic membrane proteins that ... Unreversibly and weakly blocks the high conductance calcium-activated potassium channels composed of α- and β4-subunits. It ... Slotoxin reversibly blocks the high conductance calcium-activated potassium channels composed of only α-subunits (Kd = 1.5 nM ... Unreversibly blocks the high conductance calcium-activated potassium channels composed of α- and β1-subunits. ...
The calcium entry also phosphorylates CaMKII, which phosphorylates AMPARs, increasing their single-channel conductance. ... The presence of a GluA2 subunit will almost always render the channel impermeable to calcium. This is determined by post- ... However, AMPAR endocytosis has also been activated by voltage-dependent calcium channels, agonism of AMPA receptors, and ... Phosphorylation of AMPARs can regulate channel localization, conductance, and open probability. GluA1 has four known ...
MaxiK channels are large conductance, voltage and calcium-sensitive potassium channels which are fundamental to the control of ... "Entrez Gene: KCNMB4 potassium large conductance calcium-activated channel, subfamily M, beta member 4". Orio P, Rojas P, ... 2000). "A novel nervous system beta subunit that downregulates human large conductance calcium-dependent potassium channels". J ... cloning and characterization of two members of the large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel beta subunit family". ...
This specific channel block evokes a reduction in the small conductance calcium-dependent potassium channels current. Previous ... A less closely related member of the SK channels is the intermediate conductance calcium activated potassium channel SK4, also ... The target of tamapin is the small conductance calcium-dependent potassium (SK) channel. This scorpion toxin blocks SK2 ... which is a highly specific blocker of the high conductance calcium activated potassium channel, and tamulustoxin. Pedarzani P, ...
... and single-channel conductance. Low-voltage-activated calcium channels are referred to as 'T' type because their currents are ... low-threshold calcium spikes, neuronal oscillations and resonance, and rebound burst firing. T-type calcium channel GRCh38: ... Calcium channel, voltage-dependent, T type, alpha 1I subunit, also known as CACNA1I or Cav3.3 is a protein which in humans is ... "Entrez Gene: CACNA1H calcium channel, voltage-dependent, T type, alpha 1I subunit". Mittman S, Guo J, Emerick MC, Agnew WS ( ...
MaxiK channels are large conductance, voltage and calcium-sensitive potassium channels which are fundamental to the control of ... "Entrez Gene: KCNMB1 potassium large conductance calcium-activated channel, subfamily M, beta member 1". Tano, J.-Y.; Gollasch, ... "The large conductance potassium channel beta-subunit can interact with and modulate the functional properties of a calcium- ... Calcium-activated potassium channel subunit beta-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KCNMB1 gene. ...
Potassium intermediate/small conductance calcium-activated channel, subfamily N, member 2, also known as KCNN2, is a protein ... "Entrez Gene: KCNN2 potassium intermediate/small conductance calcium-activated channel, subfamily N, member 2". Mitra R, ... "Quantitative expression analysis of the small conductance calcium-activated potassium channels, SK1, SK2 and SK3, in human ... 2004). "Calcium-dependent regulation of secretion in biliary epithelial cells: the role of apamin-sensitive SK channels". ...
The calcium entry also phosphorylates CaMKII, which phosphorylates AMPARs, increasing their single-channel conductance. The ... The presence of a GluA2 subunit will almost always render the channel impermeable to calcium. This is determined by post- ... Derkach V, Barria A, Soderling TR (March 1999). "Ca2+/calmodulin-kinase II enhances channel conductance of alpha-amino-3- ... However, AMPAR endocytosis has also been activated by voltage-dependent calcium channels, agonism of AMPA receptors, and ...
MaxiK channels are large conductance, voltage and calcium-sensitive potassium channels which are fundamental to the control of ... "Entrez Gene: KCNMB3 potassium large conductance calcium-activated channel, subfamily M beta member 3". Orio P, Rojas P, ... 2000). "Cloning and functional characterization of novel large conductance calcium-activated potassium channel beta subunits, ... "Cloning and functional expression of two families of beta-subunits of the large conductance calcium-activated K+ channel". J. ...
... receptors through calcium ion channels. The calcium comes from stores and activate potassium conductance, which causes a pure ... DSIs can be blocked by ionotropic receptor calcium ion channel antagonists on the somata and proximal apical dendrites of CA1 ... Low-voltage activated calcium ion conductance enhances even larger EPSPs. The hyperpolarization activated nonselective cation ... They can also block calcium ion channels to hyperpolarize postsynaptic cells. There are many applications of inhibitory ...
... binds to the large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel (KCNMA1) and regulates its activity. Moreover, mice ... and functional characterization of cereblon as a binding protein for large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel in ... Higgins JJ, Hao J, Kosofsky BE, Rajadhyaksha AM (July 2008). "Dysregulation of large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel ... possibly as a result of dysregulation of calcium-activated potassium channels in the brain (see below) during development. ...
and characterization of a unique, potent, peptidyl probe for the high conductance calcium-activated potassium channel from ... Hodgkin, A.L.; Huxley, A.F. (1952) The components of membrane conductance in the giant axon of Loligo. (6.9MB) J. of Physiology ... J Grassl Soc South Afr 9(2). Smith, S. E., et a. (2006). Epidermal conductance as a component of dehydration avoidance in ... Mabrook, M.F.; Petty, M.C. «Effect of composition on the electrical conductance of milk». Journal of Food Engineering 60 (3): ...
Others include the introduction of a sub-conductance, altered single-channel gating kinetics, and increased calcium ... When mutant T369S channels coassemble with CNGB3, however, the only remaining aberration is increased calcium permeability.[2] ... decreased single channel conductance, decreased sensitivity for diltiazem [7][9][11][12] ... Coassembly of CNGA3 and CNGB3 produces channels with altered membrane expression, ion permeability (Na+ vs. K+ and Ca2+), ...
It also has a blocking effect on calcium channels and potassium channels. It also causes elongation of re-polarisation after an ... It causes bradycardia by inhibiting the pacemaker current by altering the maximal channel conductance and alter the voltage ...
The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the calcium sensitive chloride conductance protein family. To date, all members of ... "Entrez Gene: CLCA2 chloride channel, calcium activated, family member 2". Pawłowski K, Lepistö M, Meinander N, et al. (2006). " ... Agnel M, Vermat T, Culouscou JM (1999). "Identification of three novel members of the calcium-dependent chloride channel (CaCC ... 2004). "The interacting binding domains of the beta(4) integrin and calcium-activated chloride channels (CLCAs) in metastasis ...
... and pharmacology of these channels are consistent with the SK class of small-conductance,calcium-activated potassium channels, ... Small-Conductance, Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels from Mammalian Brain. By M. Köhler, B. Hirschberg, C. T. Bond, J. M. ... Small-Conductance, Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels from Mammalian Brain. By M. Köhler, B. Hirschberg, C. T. Bond, J. M. ... Small-Conductance, Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels from Mammalian Brain Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page ...
Term: small/intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium channel protein. ID: PIRSF038511 Mouse Protein Superfamily ...
These channels are thought to be involved in the regulation of different cellular... ... In this chapter we discuss the data obtained for a calcium-activated potassium channel of large unitary conductance. ... In this chapter we discuss the data obtained for a calcium-activated potassium channel of large unitary conductance. These ... Blatz, A. L., and Magleby, K. L., 1984, Ion conductance and selectivity of single calcium-activated potassium channels in ...
Small-Conductance, Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels from Mammalian Brain. By M. Köhler, B. Hirschberg, C. T. Bond, J. M. ... Small-Conductance, Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels from Mammalian Brain. By M. Köhler, B. Hirschberg, C. T. Bond, J. M. ... Small-Conductance, Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels from Mammalian Brain Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page ...
One important target of PKGI in smooth muscle is the large-conductance, calcium-activated potassium (BK) channel, which upon ... Erectile dysfunction in mice lacking the large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK) channel J Physiol. 2005 Sep 1;567( ... One important target of PKGI in smooth muscle is the large-conductance, calcium-activated potassium (BK) channel, which upon ... These results indicate that the BK channel has an important role in erectile function, and loss of the BK channel leads to ...
Forms a voltage-independent potassium channel activated by intracellular calcium. Activation is followed by membrane ... The complex is composed of 4 channel subunits each of which binds to a calmodulin subunit which regulates the channel activity ...
The channel is blocked by apamin (By similarity). ... Forms a voltage-independent potassium channel activated by ... intracellular calcium. Activation is followed by membrane hyperpolarization. Thought to regulate neuronal excitability by ... Small conductance calcium-activated potassium channel protein 3Add BLAST. 724. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position( ... small conductance calcium-activated potassium channel activity Source: GO_Central. View the complete GO annotation on QuickGO ...
Forms a voltage-independent potassium channel activated by intracellular calcium. Activation is followed by membrane ... Small conductance calcium-activated.... Small conductance calcium-activated channel, subfamily N, member 2 (Small conductance ... "Mechanism of calcium gating in small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels.". Xia X.M., Fakler B., Rivard A.F., ... Small conductance calcium-activated potassium channel protein 2Add BLAST. 580. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position( ...
Large conductance voltage- and calcium-dependent K+ channel, a distinct member of voltage-dependent ion channels with seven N- ... Large conductance voltage- and calcium-dependent K+ channel, a distinct member of voltage-dependent ion channels with seven N- ... Large conductance voltage- and calcium-dependent K+ channel, a distinct member of voltage-dependent ion channels with seven N- ... Large conductance voltage- and calcium-dependent K+ channel, a distinct member of voltage-dependent ion channels with seven N- ...
1993) Calcium channels and calcium-gated potassium channels at the frog neuromuscular junction. J Physiol (Paris) 87:15-24. ... all of the channels had significantly higher calcium affinities (2-10 μm). The α0 and α4 channels had the weakest calcium ... Large conductance, calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels play a prominent role in vertebrate hair cell function. BK ... 1995) Functional role of the beta subunit of high conductance calcium-activated potassium channels. Neuron 14:645-650. ...
A human intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium channel. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997; 94: 11651-11656. ... Blockade of the Intermediate-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channel as a New Therapeutic Strategy for Restenosis. Ralf ... Blockade of the Intermediate-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channel as a New Therapeutic Strategy for Restenosis ... Blockade of the Intermediate-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channel as a New Therapeutic Strategy for Restenosis ...
KCNMB4, potassium calcium-activated channel subfamily M regulatory beta subunit 4. Orthology source: HomoloGene, HGNC ... J:250373 Whitmire LE, et al., Downregulation of KCNMB4 expression and changes in BK channel subtype in hippocampal granule ...
... dc.contributor.author. Peñaranda Ayllón, ... Peñaranda, A. [et al.]. Effects of small conductance calcium activated potassium channels in atrial myocytes. A: Computers in ... Among the different potassium channels present in cardiac myocytes, the small conductance Ca2+ activated potassium channels (SK ... We observe a large dependence of the action potential duration with the conductance and gate dynamics of the channel. The ...
A major class of calcium activated potassium channels whose members are voltage-dependent. MaxiK channels are activated by ... either membrane depolarization or an increase in intracellular Ca(2+). They are key regulators of calcium and electrical ... Maxi-K Channels; BK Channels; Big K Channels; MaxiK Channels; Large Conductance Calcium Activated Potassium Channels; Maxi K ... Ion Channels: 3653*Potassium Channels: 2108*Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels: 183*Large-Conductance Calcium-Activated ...
Showing Protein Intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium channel protein 4 (HMDBP07760). IdentificationBiological ... Calmodulin mediates calcium-dependent activation of the intermediate conductance KCa channel, IKCa1. J Biol Chem. 1999 Feb 26; ... A human intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium channel. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 Oct 14;94(21):11651-6. [ ... Delineation of the clotrimazole/TRAM-34 binding site on the intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium channel, IKCa1 ...
... ... Using human intermediate-conductance calcium-activated potassium (hIKCa1) channels as a model we aimed to characterize ... We report here that the block of MTX, but not of CTX on current through hIKCa1 channels is pH0 dependent. The replacement of ... In contrast, CTX binding affinity to the hIKCa1_H236C channel mutant was increased suggesting that His236 might play a role in ...
large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel. EDP. epoxydocosapentaenoic acid. EEQ. epoxyeicosaquatraenoic acid. DHDP ... potent dilators of coronary arterioles and activators of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BKCa) channels. To test ... where Po is the single channel open probability, T is the duration of recording,tj is the time spent with j= 1,2,… … N channel ... Although less sensitive to calcium, the BK channels in rat coronary arteries and their responses to EETs/DHETs have been well ...
anti-Potassium Large Conductance Calcium-Activated Channel, Subfamily M, beta Member 1 (KCNMB1) antibody (Alexa Fluor 647) ... anti-Potassium Large Conductance Calcium-Activated Channel, Subfamily M, beta Member 1 (KCNMB1) antibody (Alexa Fluor 647) from ... anti-Potassium Large Conductance Calcium-Activated Channel, Subfamily M, beta Member 1 (KCNMB1) antibody (Alexa Fluor 647) ... Itemanti-Potassium Large Conductance Calcium-Activated Channel, Subfamily M, beta Member 1 (KCNMB1) antibody (Alexa Fluor 647) ...
Activation of Large Conductance, Calcium-Activated K Channels by Nitric Oxide Mediates Apelin-Induced Relaxation of Coronary ... Activation of Large Conductance, Calcium-Activated K Channels by Nitric Oxide Mediates Apelin-Induced Relaxation of Coronary ... Activation of Large Conductance, Calcium-Activated K Channels by Nitric Oxide Mediates Apelin-Induced Relaxation of Coronary ... Activation of Large Conductance, Calcium-Activated K Channels by Nitric Oxide Mediates Apelin-Induced Relaxation of Coronary ...
the single-channel slope conductance was linear in the voltage range -60/+60 mV, and was 207±19 pS. Na+ ions were not ... Channel activity increased with the cytoplasmic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) with a Hill plot giving a half-saturating [ ... The resting activity was consistent with a [Ca2+]i ,100 nM and the increased channel activity evoked by ionomycin was ... Ionomycin (1-10 μM) increased BK channel activity in the cell-attached recording configuration. ...
Keywords:Potassium channel, BK channel, epilepsy, large conductance, calcium, voltage-activated.. Abstract:Background & ... Objective: The large conductance, calcium- and voltage-activated potassium channels (BK) are widely distributed channel ... The Large Conductance Calcium- and Voltage-activated Potassium Channel (BK) and Epilepsy. Author(s): Kai Zang, Department of ... Kai Zang, Yuwen Zhang, Jie Hu and Yun Wang*, "The Large Conductance Calcium- and Voltage-activated Potassium Channel (BK) and ...
The intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium channel KCa3.1 (also known as KCNN4 and IKCa), a member of the calcium ... The intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium channel KCa3.1 contributes to a variety of cell activation processes ... The Intermediate Conductance Calcium-activated Potassium Channel KCa3.1 Regulates Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation via ... The KCa3.1 whole-cell conductance was then divided by the KCa3.1 single channel conductance (11 picosiemens) to determine the ...
Myc-DDK-tagged ORF clone of Homo sapiens potassium large conductance calcium-activated channel, subfamily M beta member 3 ( ... home , products , origene , myc-ddk-tagged orf clone of homo sapiens potassium large conductance calcium-activated channel, ... Myc-DDK-tagged ORF clone of Homo sapiens potassium large conductance calcium-activated channel, subfamily M beta member 3 ( ... Myc-DDK-tagged ORF clone of Homo sapiens potassium large conductance calcium-activated channel, subfamily M beta member 3 ( ...
Myc-DDK-tagged ORF clone of Homo sapiens potassium intermediate/small conductance calcium-activated channel, subfamily N, ... Myc-DDK-tagged ORF clone of Homo sapiens potassium intermediate/small conductance calcium-activated channel, subfamily N, ... Myc-DDK-tagged ORF clone of Homo sapiens potassium intermediate/small conductance calcium-activated channel, subfamily N, ... TrueORF Myc-DDK-tagged ORF clone of Homo sapiens potassium intermediate/small conductance calcium-activated channel, subfamily ...
Mouse potassium large conductance calcium-activated channel, subfamily M, beta member 4, Rea, item number: VMPS-3286 from ... Kcnmb4, Mouse potassium large conductance calcium-activated channel, subfamily M, beta member 4, Rea ... Customer review for "Kcnmb4, Mouse potassium large conductance calcium-activated channel, subfamily M, beta member 4, Rea" ... Product information "Kcnmb4, Mouse potassium large conductance calcium-activated channel, subfamily M, beta member 4, Rea" ...
Mouse potassium large conductance calcium-activated channel, subfamily M, beta member 4 (Kcnmb4), (10ug), 10 µg. ... Home » cDNA » Mouse cDNA » Kcnmb4 (untagged) - Mouse potassium large conductance calcium-activated channel, subfamily M, beta ... MC210183 Kcnmb4 (untagged) - Mouse potassium large conductance calcium-activated channel, subfamily M, beta member 4 (Kcnmb4 ... Properties for Kcnmb4 (untagged) - Mouse potassium large conductance calcium-activated channel, subfamily M, beta member 4 ( ...
Mouse potassium intermediate/small conductance calcium-activated channel, subfamily N, member 1 (Kcnn1), (10ug), 10 µg. ... Home » cDNA » Mouse cDNA » Kcnn1 (untagged) - Mouse potassium intermediate/small conductance calcium-activated channel, ... MC217935 Kcnn1 (untagged) - Mouse potassium intermediate/small conductance calcium-activated channel, subfamily N, member 1 ( ... Properties for Kcnn1 (untagged) - Mouse potassium intermediate/small conductance calcium-activated channel, subfamily N, member ...
... * QMRO Home ... This was identified as the major neuronal form of the big conductance, calcium-activated potassium (BKCa ) channel. Drug- ... CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: We identified the neuronal form of the BKCa channel as the target for VSN16R and demonstrated ... induced opening of neuronal BKCa channels induced membrane hyperpolarization, limiting excessive neural-excitability and ...
... of whether this functional separation of responses may be related to the spatial localization of the associated channels? The ... conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (K(Ca)) and current or molecular transfer via myoendothelial gap junctions ... Activation of endothelial cell small- (S) and intermediate- (I) conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (K(Ca)) and ... Spatial separation of endothelial small- and intermediate-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (K(Ca)) and ...
  • Forms a voltage-independent potassium channel activated by intracellular calcium. (rcsb.org)
  • Among the different potassium channels present in cardiac myocytes, the small conductance Ca2+ activated potassium channels (SK channels) are particular because they are affected by changes in intracellular calcium. (upc.edu)
  • however, reducing channel activity with intracellular calcium destabilized inactivation. (dundee.ac.uk)
  • The levels of endogenous NO and intracellular calcium in the CA1 region of the hippocampal slices were measured respectively by electrochemical microsensors and spectrofluorometry. (naver.com)
  • Also, the level of protein expression of neuronal NO synthase was markedly lessened in the IH neurons with decreased intracellular calcium response to hypoxia. (naver.com)
  • Studies on rainbow trout hepatocytes have shown that IPA increases intracellular calcium release, leading to a disturbance in the calcium homeostasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Substances such as acetylcholine (ACh), bradykinin (BK), and substance P (SP), through the activation of M 3 -muscarinic, B 2 -bradykinin, and NK 1 -neurokinin receptor subtypes, respectively, and agents that increase intracellular calcium, such as the calcium ionophore A23187, release endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors. (jci.org)
  • This phenomenon was induced by GABA-mediated hyperpolarization of the DA neuron that leads to decreases in intracellular calcium (Ca 2+ ) concentration, thus reducing the Ca 2+ -dependent potassium (K + ) current. (physiology.org)
  • [ 1 ] SK channels are a type of ion channel allowing potassium cations to cross the cell membrane and are activated (opened) by an increase in the concentration of intracellular calcium. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Iberiotoxin-sensitive voltage- and [Ca2+]-activated K+ currents, the latter activated by local transient calcium releases (calcium sparks), were present in Slo+/+ CCSM cells, but absent in Slo-/- cells. (nih.gov)
  • Patch clamp studies in isolated smooth muscle cells demonstrated that the NO donors, DEA NONOate and sodium nitroprusside, caused increases in large conductance, calcium-activated K (BKCa) currents, which were inhibited by iberiotoxin but not ODQ. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Resveratrol concentration-dependently increased the current amplitude and the opening activity of BK Ca channels, but suppressed the amplitude of voltage-gated sodium currents. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our data demonstrated that resveratrol activated BK Ca channels, but inhibited voltage-gated sodium currents. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We report here that DHA with an EC 50 of ∼500 nM rapidly and reversibly activates BK channels composed of the pore-forming Slo1 subunit and the auxiliary subunit β1, increasing currents by up to ∼20-fold. (pnas.org)
  • Currents were sensitive to iberiotoxin, the selective blocker of big conductance Ca 2+ -activated K + current (I BK,Ca ). Seven of 16 individual differentiation batches showed a strong initial repolarization in the action potentials (AP) recorded from engineered heart tissue (EHT) followed by very early afterdepolarizations, sometimes even with consecutive oscillations. (mdpi.com)
  • SK channels underlying calcium-activated potassium currents in various tissues. (youscribe.com)
  • However, when I expressed rSK1 in HEK-293 cells no potassium currents above background were observed, although immunofluorescence experiments using a specific antibody against the rSK1 protein showed expression of the channel. (youscribe.com)
  • Patients orOther Participants: Myometrial biopsies were obtained at elective cesarean delivery.Intervention: No intervention was applied.Main Outcome Measures: Open state probability of single channel recordings, whole cell currents, and myometrial contractile activity were measured.Results: Single-channel recordings identified the BKCa channel as a target of BRL37344. (nuigalway.ie)
  • Small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel knock-out mice reveal the identity of calcium-dependent afterhyperpolarization currents. (naver.com)
  • It is noteworthy that kappa-TRTX-Ec2 toxins were all found to be high-affinity blockers of insect large-conductance calcium-activated K+ (BKCa) channel currents with IC50 values of 3 to 25 nM. (edu.au)
  • Single-channel currents through calcium channels in muscle of a marine crustacean, the isopod Idotea baltica, were investigated in cell-attached patches. (rupress.org)
  • Inward barium currents were strongly voltage-dependent, and the channels were closed at the cell's resting membrane potential. (rupress.org)
  • With 200 mM Ba 2+ as charge carrier, the average slope conductance from the unitary currents between +30 and +80 mV, was 20 pS (±2.6, n = 12). (rupress.org)
  • Properties of these currents resemble those through the L-type calcium channels of mammalian nerve, smooth muscle, and cardiac muscle cells. (rupress.org)
  • In contrast to vertebrate cardiac muscle, smooth muscle and developing skeletal muscle, where the underlying single-channel Ca currents have been identified and characterized in great detail, crustacean muscle - or, for that matter, arthropod muscle - is poorly characterized with regard to the type and properties of single-channel Ca currents. (rupress.org)
  • In the present study, we characterize single-channel Ba currents in the sarcolemmal membrane of a crustacean muscle and show that they resemble Ca channels in vertebrate cardiac muscle and other vertebrate L-type channels. (rupress.org)
  • It discusses such topics as the general properties of gated calcium transport, development of calcium channels in the cleavage-arrested embryo of a certain ascidian, and calcium currents in mammalian neurons. (elsevier.com)
  • Measurements of macroscopic currents in inside-out patches indicate that reduction only shifted the voltage/nP o relationship without an effect on the maximum conductance of the patch, suggesting that the increase in nP o following reduction did not result from recruitment of more functional channels but rather from changes of channel gating. (rupress.org)
  • An increase in K + currents and concomitant membrane hyperpolarization could be evoked in WT β-cells by the SK4 channel opener DCEBIO (100 μmol/l). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Accordingly, the SK4 channel blocker TRAM-34 (1 μmol/l) partly inhibited K Ca currents and induced electrical activity at a threshold glucose concentration. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • BBP did not have any effect on IK, Kir2.1, Kir3.1+Kir3.4, Kv1.5, Kv4.3/KCHIP2 and Kv7.1/KCNE1 currents and was 4.8-fold and 46-fold more potent on all SK channel subtypes vs. BK and hERG channels, respectively. (ku.dk)
  • To further test the hypothesis that activation of L-type Ca 2+ channels in arterial smooth muscle cells would be enhanced in SHR, we recorded single Ca 2+ channel currents in resistance mesenteric artery cells from SHR and WKY (8 to 9 weeks of age) using a cell-attached patch clamp technique. (ahajournals.org)
  • The amplitude of whole-cell L-type Ca 2+ channel currents is increased in resistance mesenteric arteries of young SHR, in cerebral arteries of adult stroke-prone SHR, and in azygous vein of neonatal SHR compared with age-matched WKY. (ahajournals.org)
  • The distribution, function, and pharmacology of these channels are consistent with the SK class of small-conductance,calcium-activated potassium channels, which contribute to the afterhyperpolarization in central neurons and other cell types. (sciencemag.org)
  • The properties of single Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) channels in neonatal rat intracardiac neurons were investigated using the patch-clamp recording technique. (edu.au)
  • However, relatively little is known about whether resveratrol modulates the ion channels in cortical neurons. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (BK Ca ) and voltage-gated sodium channels were expressed in cortical neurons and play important roles in regulation of neuronal excitability. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As BK Ca channels and sodium channels are critical molecular determinants for seizure generation, our findings suggest that regulation of these two channels in cortical neurons probably makes a considerable contribution to the antiseizure activity of resveratrol. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Voltage-gated sodium channels in cardiomyocytes [ 47 ] and rat dorsal root ganglion neurons [ 21 ] are also blocked by resveratrol. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Despite this, the effects of resveratrol on the membrane properties and the ion channels of neurons have not yet been fully determined. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We suggest that the model may be a guidance of channel properties in experimental conditions and be helpful to explain the circadian behaviors of SCN neurons. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Differentiated dopaminergic neurons expressed low levels of SK2 channels and high levels of SK1 and SK3 channels. (nih.gov)
  • Because BK(Ca) channels are known to modulate neuroexcitability and the expression of the beta4-subunit is highly concentrated in certain subregions of brain, the electrophysiological properties of individual neurons should be affected profoundly by the expression of this second subunit. (nih.gov)
  • Neurons, and realistic models of neurons, typically express several different types of voltage-gated conductances. (nih.gov)
  • Even in model neurons, it can be difficult to visualize how the intrinsic properties vary as a function of their underlying maximal conductances. (nih.gov)
  • Inside-out patch recordings from rat acutely dissociated cerebral cortical neurons revealed time and voltage-dependent activity of a large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel. (dundee.ac.uk)
  • We found that the open probability of BK channels remarkably decreased in the CA1 pyramidal neurons in a time-dependent manner with the IH treatment, without changes in the unitary conductance and reversal potential. (naver.com)
  • NO donors, SNP or DETA/NO, significantly restored the activity of BK channels in the IH neurons, which was prevented by blockade of S-nitrosylation with NEM or MTSES but not by inhibition of the cGMP pathway with ODQ or 8-bromo-cGMP. (naver.com)
  • Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from cockroach dorsal unpaired median neurons revealed that, despite significant sequence homology with other theraphosid toxins, these 29-residue peptides lacked activity on insect voltage-activated sodium and calcium channels. (edu.au)
  • Discovery that vertebrate neurons (cerebellar Purkinje cell) can generate calcium-dependent spikes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Discovery of low threshold spikes generated by low voltage activated calcium conductaces (presently known as due to T-type calcium channel) in inferior olive and thalamus neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • For enteric neurons, SK4 channels seem to mediate the late after-hyperpolarization ( 8 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Many structures and processes are involved in the development of a seizure, including neurons, ion channels, receptors, glia, and inhibitory and excitatory synapses. (medscape.com)
  • We investigated the functional role of BK channels in the corpus cavernosum utilizing a knock-out mouse lacking the Slo gene (Slo-/-) responsible for the pore-forming subunit of the BK channel. (nih.gov)
  • The complex is composed of 4 channel subunits each of which binds to a calmodulin subunit which regulates the channel activity through calcium-binding. (rcsb.org)
  • At the N terminus, we have recently proposed a new model where MaxiK channels have an additional transmembrane region (S0) that confers β subunit regulation. (pnas.org)
  • BK channels in hair cells are encoded by the alternatively spliced slo gene and may include an accessory β subunit. (jneurosci.org)
  • Addition of the β subunit increased steady-state calcium affinity, raised the Hill coefficient for calcium binding, and slowed channel deactivation rates, resulting in eight functionally distinct channels. (jneurosci.org)
  • Functional effects of auxiliary beta4-subunit on rat large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel. (nih.gov)
  • Large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK(Ca)) channels are composed of the pore-forming alpha-subunit and the auxiliary beta-subunits. (nih.gov)
  • To understand the physiological roles of the beta4-subunit on the BK(Ca) channel alpha-subunit (Slo), we isolated a full-length complementary DNA of rat beta4-subunit (rbeta4), expressed heterolgously in Xenopus oocytes, and investigated the detailed functional effects using electrophysiological means. (nih.gov)
  • Representative current traces from excised patches expressing rSlo and rSlo/r β 4 channels and effects of r β 4-subunit on the conductance-voltage relationship of rSlo channels. (nih.gov)
  • Expression of the α subunit of the Maxi-K channel was significantly decreased ~40% while the expression of the β1 subunit was increased ~2-fold at the mRNA level. (elsevier.com)
  • Increased expression of the β1 subunit points to a compensatory reaction to decreased Maxi-K channel activity. (elsevier.com)
  • In particular, small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (SK) are conducting potassium ions and areactivated by binding of calcium ions to calmodulin, which is constitutively bound to the carboxy-terminus of each SK channel α-subunit.Until now, only three SK channel subunits have been cloned, SK1, SK2 and SK3. (youscribe.com)
  • In particular, small- conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (SK) are conducting potassium ions and are activated by binding of calcium ions to calmodulin, which is constitutively bound to the carboxy- terminus of each SK channel α-subunit. (youscribe.com)
  • The α subunit forms the ion conduction pore and the β subunit contributes to channel gating. (wikipedia.org)
  • IPA interaction with the BK channel enhances Ca2+ and / or voltage sensitivity of the α subunit of BK channels without affecting the channel conductance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene expression analyses revealed altered expression of the methionine adenosyltransferase Mat2a and BK channel subunit Kcnmb2 , which was associated with changes in Kcnmb2 promoter methylation in MD F1 mice. (nature.com)
  • Hippocampal overexpression of Kcnmb2 in MD F1 mice ameliorated altered spatial learning and memory, supporting a role of this BK channel subunit in the MD F1 behavioral phenotype. (nature.com)
  • The MthK subunit has two transmembrane segments and one pore region, followed by an extension of approximately 200 amino acid residues, which contains a region called the regulator of the conductance of K + ( RCK ) domain. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Using human intermediate-conductance calcium-activated potassium (hIKCa1) channels as a model we aimed to characterize structural differences between maurotoxin (MTX) and charybdotoxin (CTX) and to gain new insights into the molecular determinants that define the interaction of these pore-blocking peptides with hIKCa1 channel. (ovid.com)
  • [11] S831 is phosphorylated by CaMKII and PKC during LTP, which helps deliver GluA1-containing AMPAR to the synapse , [12] and increases their single channel conductance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Single-channel conductance (20 pS) and open time (1 ms at 0 mV) did not differ in the two strains. (ahajournals.org)
  • Therefore it is essential to understand how changes in the conductances of a neuron affect its intrinsic properties, such as burst period or delay to firing after inhibition of a particular duration and magnitude. (nih.gov)
  • In the heart, K Ca 2.X channels are functionally more important in atria compared to ventricles, and pharmacological inhibition of the channel confers atrial selective prolongation of the cardiac action potential and converts AF to sinus rhythm in animal models of AF. (sophion.com)
  • Neurotransmitter Modulation of Voltage-Dependent Channels:Possible Mechanism for Presynaptic Inhibition? (elsevier.com)
  • Acute reversal of phospholamban inhibition facilitates the rhythmic whole-cell propagating calcium waves in isolated ventricular myocytes. (iu.edu)
  • Caution should be taken when using these compounds to block SK potassium channels, as inhibition of mACHRs may be a side-effect if excessive concentrations are used. (frontiersin.org)
  • Channel stimulation by reduction and inhibition by oxidation persisted following washout of the compounds, but the effects of reduction were reversed by subsequent oxidation, and vice versa. (rupress.org)
  • Recent evidences support the notion that an increase in DCN excitability may be an important step in the development of cerebellar ataxia and point to the underlying molecular mechanisms: the inhibition of small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels, that causes an increase of the firing frequency in DCN, correlates with cerebellar ataxia. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Mammalian MaxiK channels are characterized by their high sensitivity to blockade by iberiotoxin (IbTx) and charybdotoxin. (pnas.org)
  • The intermediate-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel KCa3.1 is expressed in multiple cell types implicated in atherogenesis, and pharmacological blockade of this channel inhibits VSMC and lymphocyte activation in rats and mice. (elsevier.com)
  • [ 6 ] In addition, SK channels(SK1-SK3) are sensitive to blockade by the bee venom apamin , [ 7 ] but SK4 (IK) is not. (thefullwiki.org)
  • The N-terminal third of MaxiK channels shows sequence homology to the voltage sensor and the pore region of voltage-dependent ion channels. (pnas.org)
  • These results and our homology structural models suggest that these NT/E1 residues are likely to be pore-lining and the variants increased the negative electrostatic potentials along the GJ pore to facilitate the γ j of this cation-preferring GJ channel. (biochemj.org)
  • The abolition of channel inactivation by alkaline phosphatase was prevented by prior internal tetraethylammonium treatment, indicating that the alkaline phosphatase site is closely associated with the channel pore. (dundee.ac.uk)
  • Unlike other theraphosid toxins, kappa-TRTX-Ec2 toxins induce a voltage-independent channel block, and therefore, we propose that these toxins interact with the turret and/or loop region of the external entrance to the channel and do not project deeply into the pore of the channel. (edu.au)
  • Linsdell, Paul 2006-06-22 00:00:00 It is well known that extracellular Cl− ions can weaken the inhibitory effects of intracellular open channel blockers in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl− channel pore. (deepdyve.com)
  • In contrast to previous models that invoked interactions between anions bound concurrently inside the pore, we propose that Pt(NO2) 4 2− and Fe(CN) 6 3− binding to an extracellularly accessible site outside of the channel permeation pathway alters the structure of an intracellular anion binding site, leading to weakened binding of intracellular blocking ions. (deepdyve.com)
  • Two weeks after BCI, expression of BK Ca was significantly reduced in neointimal VSMC, whereas expression of intermediate-conductance K Ca (IKCa1) channels was upregulated. (ahajournals.org)
  • The intermediate-conductance K Ca channel encoded by the IKCa1 gene (also known as IK1, hSK4 , KCa4 , and K Ca 3.1 as per the new IUPHAR nomenclature: http://www.iuphar.org/compendium2. (ahajournals.org)
  • The intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium channel KCa3.1 contributes to a variety of cell activation processes in pathologies such as inflammation, carcinogenesis, and vascular remodeling. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium channel KCa3.1 (also known as KCNN4 and IKCa), a member of the calcium-activated potassium channel (KCa) 4 family, tightly binds the Ca 2+ sensor calmodulin near its C-terminal domain. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Spatial separation of endothelial small- and intermediate-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (K(Ca)) and connexins: possible relationship to vasodilator function? (semanticscholar.org)
  • Activation of endothelial cell small- (S) and intermediate- (I) conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (K(Ca)) and current or molecular transfer via myoendothelial gap junctions underlies endothelium-derived hyperpolarization leading to vasodilation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A study of small and intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium channels in sensory neurones. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • The role of small and intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (SK and IK channels) in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurones was examined. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Small- and intermediate-conductance calcium-activated K+ channels provide different facets of endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization in rat mesenteric artery. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Activation of both small-conductance (SKCa) and intermediate-conductance (IKCa) Ca2+-activated K+ channels in endothelial cells leads to vascular smooth muscle hyperpolarization and relaxation in rat mesenteric arteries. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Here, we examined the role of intermediate-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel (KCa3.1) and chloride channel (CLC3) in lymphatic chemokine-induced migration of DCs. (elsevier.com)
  • Shao, Z, Gaurav, R & Agrawal, DK 2015, ' Intermediate-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel KCa3.1 and chloride channel modulate chemokine ligand (CCL19/CCL21)-induced migration of dendritic cells ', Translational Research , vol. 166, no. 1, pp. 89-102. (elsevier.com)
  • Agrawal, Devendra K. / Intermediate-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel KCa3.1 and chloride channel modulate chemokine ligand (CCL19/CCL21)-induced migration of dendritic cells . (elsevier.com)
  • BACKGROUND Accumulating data point to intermediate-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel (IKCa1) as a key player in controlling cell cycle progression and proliferation of human cancer cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In this study, we investigated whether the Ca 2+ -activated K + channel of intermediate conductance SK4 (KCa3.1, IK1) plays a physiological role in pancreatic β-cell function. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • SK4 channels are Ca 2+ -activated K + channels of intermediate conductance (synonymous with IK1 and KCa3.1) encoded by the KCNN4 gene. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A detailed investigation of mRNA and protein expression of K Ca channels of intermediate (SK4) and small conductance (SK1-3) was performed by Tamarina et al. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Charybdotoxin (CTX) is an inhibitor of large conductance K + Ca2+ , intermediate conductance K + Ca2+ (IK Ca2+ ), and voltage-dependent potassium channels. (jci.org)
  • They are broadly classified into three subtypes: SK, IK and BK channels (small, intermediate and big conductance). (genecards.org)
  • These mice may be useful for studying the role of calcium-activated intermediate potassium channels on fluid transport, sickle disease, and inflammatory bowel diseases. (jax.org)
  • In this strain, a neo cassette replaces exon 1 of the potassium intermediate/small conductance calcium-activated channel, subfamily N, member 4 ( Kcnn4 ) gene, abolishing gene function. (jax.org)
  • Kcnn4 encodes the calcium-activated intermediate potassium (IK) channel, KCa3.1, in red blood cells, T lymphocytes, and cells in organs involved in salt and fluid transport, including the colon, lung, and salivary glands. (jax.org)
  • A targeting vector was designed to replace exon 1 of the potassium intermediate/small conductance calcium-activated channel, subfamily N, member 4 ( Kcnn4 ) gene with a neomycin resistance (neo) cassette. (jax.org)
  • 2004. Physiological roles of the intermediate conductance, Ca2+-activated potassium channel Kcnn4. (jax.org)
  • Increased intracellular Ca 2+ concentrations activate Ca 2+ -sensitive molecular targets, including endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) ( 15 ), phospholipase A 2 ( 16 ), and small- and intermediate-conductance Ca 2+ -sensitive potassium (SK and IK) channels ( 17 , 18 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Factors altering the activity of BK channels, such as gene mutations, polymorphism, channel openers or blockers that lead to loss- or gain-of-function, have all been linked to epilepsy onset. (eurekaselect.com)
  • In addition, the enhancing effects of BK Ca channel blockers tetraethylammonium (TEA) and paxilline on action potential firing were sensitive to resveratrol. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moreover, the action potential firing rates evoked by the depolarizing current and BK Ca channel blockers were remarkably decreased by application of resveratrol. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Attempts to block medium duration AHPs in DRG cells using IK and calcium channel blockers, also failed in most cases, suggesting that some other potassium conductances) are responsible. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Neuroprotection , using sodium channel blockers to maintain nerve function in MS. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • The main groups include sodium channel blockers, calcium current inhibitors, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) enhancers, glutamate blockers, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, hormones, and drugs with unknown mechanisms of action (see the image below). (medscape.com)
  • the single-channel slope conductance was linear in the voltage range -60/+60 mV, and was 207±19 pS. (edu.au)
  • In this chapter we discuss the data obtained for a calcium-activated potassium channel of large unitary conductance. (springer.com)
  • One important target of PKGI in smooth muscle is the large-conductance, calcium-activated potassium (BK) channel, which upon activation hyperpolarizes the smooth muscle cell membrane, causing relaxation. (nih.gov)
  • 3,4 Mature VSMC predominantly express the calcium-activated large-conductance channel (BK Ca or maxi K), 4 a product of the Slo gene, 5 which plays a pivotal role in VSMC relaxation by dampening depolarization-dependent activation of Ca 2+ channels and Ca 2+ influx through membrane hyperpolarization. (ahajournals.org)
  • Activation is followed by membrane hyperpolarization which promotes calcium influx. (hmdb.ca)
  • Early animal studies suggested that EETs hyperpolarized vascular smooth muscle cells through activation of BK Ca channels ( Hu and Kim, 1993 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Channel activation induces membrane hyperpolarization, which promotes Ca 2+ influx. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: We identified the neuronal form of the BKCa channel as the target for VSN16R and demonstrated that its activation alleviates neuronal excitability and spasticity in an experimental model of MS, revealing a novel mechanism to control spasticity. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • Results suggest that SK2-channel activation may largely contribute to the sustained Ca2+ influx in the G0/G1 phase in comparison of that in the G2/M phase in Jurkat T-lymphocytes. (nih.gov)
  • The channel activation by Ca(2+) became more cooperative by the coexpression of rbeta4. (nih.gov)
  • Maxi-K+ channels (BKCa) play a significant role in modulating cell membrane potential and excitability.Objective: This study was designed to investigate the potential involvement of BKCa channel function in the response of human myometrium to beta(3)-adrenoceptor activation.Design: Single and whole-cell electrophysiological BKCa channel recordings from freshly dispersed myocytes were obtained in the presence and absence of BRL37344, a specific beta(3)-adrenoreceptor agonist. (nuigalway.ie)
  • 0.05), and preincubation of these strips with IbTX attenuated this effect on both spontaneous and oxytocin- induced contractions (44.44 and 57.84% at 10(-5) M, respectively).Conclusions: These findings outline that activation of the BKCa channel may explain the potent uterorelaxant effect of beta(3)-adrenoreceptor agonists. (nuigalway.ie)
  • Here we demonstrate that mitochondrial large-conductance calcium-activated K+ channels mediate desflurane-induced preconditioning, and that activation of these channels by desflurane is mediated by protein kinase. (lww.com)
  • We used the R-CEPIAer endoplasmic reticulum calcium reporter to functionally assay for Gq-coupled receptor signaling, and investigated the bis-quinolinium cyclophanes as antagonists of M3 mACHR activation in transfected CHO cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Channel activation requires Ca 2+ increase and determines the cell volume of T-cells and erythrocytes by elevating K + efflux. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • SK4 channels are suggested to be involved in mast cell stimulation ( 5 ), and channel upregulation is important for lymphocyte activation and cell proliferation ( 6 , 7 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Several studies indicate that K v channel activation plays a role in action potential (AP) repolarization ( 20 - 22 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We therefore hypothesized that the activation of single Ca 2+ channel is enhanced in arterial cells from SHR compared with those from WKY. (ahajournals.org)
  • Conversely, activation of NMDARs mimicked the effect of leptin, causing Ca influx, AMPK activation, and increased trafficking of K and Kv2.1 channels to the plasma membrane, and triggered membrane hyperpolarization. (bireme.br)
  • BK channels can be activated by the increase of the intracellular Ca2+ concentration, a consequence of neuronal excitation, and then terminate the action potential with the outward K+ flux. (eurekaselect.com)
  • This was identified as the major neuronal form of the big conductance, calcium-activated potassium (BKCa ) channel. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • Drug-induced opening of neuronal BKCa channels induced membrane hyperpolarization, limiting excessive neural-excitability and controlling spasticity. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • These effects are likely associated with the alterations in neuronal cell membrane ion channel activities. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We believe that CBDR will be a useful tool for visualizing the conductance spaces of neuronal models in many systems. (nih.gov)
  • Small conductance Ca 2+ -activated K + (SK) channels regulate neuronal excitability and firing by allowing K + to efflux in response to increase in the intracellular Ca 2+ level. (frontiersin.org)
  • Electrophysiological results showed that rats with visceral hypersensitivity presented a decrease in the SK channel-mediated afterhyperpolarization current ( I AHP ), and an increase in neuronal firing rates and c -Fos positive staining in the spinal DH. (frontiersin.org)
  • Moreover, intrathecal administration of the SK2 channel activator 1-EBIO or CyPPA alleviated visceral hypersensitivity, reversed the decrease in I AHP and the increase in neuronal firing rates in spinal DH in rats that experienced CRD. (frontiersin.org)
  • Collectively, the results suggest that the IH-induced NO deficit mediated by a down-regulation of the expression of neuronal NO synthase plays a causative role in the impaired activity of BK channels, which could account for the hippocampal injury in patients with sleep apnea. (naver.com)
  • Interactions between Impermeant Blocking Ions in the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance. (deepdyve.com)
  • To examine the effect of partial urethral obstruction (PUO) on bladder smooth muscle outward potassium current and the contribution of the large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (Maxi-K, BKCa) channel to this activity in smooth muscle cells isolated from bladders of sham-operated and PUO male rats using whole-cell patch clamp recording techniques. (elsevier.com)
  • The in vitro effects of BRL37344 on isolated myometrial contractions, in the presence and absence of the specific BKCa channel blocker, iberiotoxin ( IbTX), were investigated.Setting: The study was carried out at the Clinical Science Institute. (nuigalway.ie)
  • Furthermore, kappa-TRTX-Ec2a and kappa-TRTX-Ec2b differ from other theraphotoxins at the C terminus and positions 5 to 6, suggesting that these regions of the peptide contribute to the phyla selectivity and are involved in targeting BKCa channels. (edu.au)
  • This study therefore establishes these toxins as tools for studying the role of BKCa channels in insects and lead compounds for the development of novel insecticides. (edu.au)
  • Pennartz CMA, de Jeu MTG, Bos NPA, Schaap J, Geurtsen AMS: Diurnal modulation of pacemaker potentials and calcium current in the mammalian circadian clock. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A cysteine-rich motif confers hypoxia sensitivity to mammalian large conductance voltage- and Ca-activated K (BK) channel alpha-subunits. (naver.com)
  • In most mammalian cells, regulatory volume decrease (RVD) is mediated by swelling-activated Cl(-) and K(+) channels. (rti.org)
  • Expression of SynCaK in fusion with enhanced GFP in mammalian Chinese hamster ovary cells' plasma membrane gave rise to a calcium-activated, potassium-selective activity in patch clamp experiments. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Our results indicated that the attenuation of action potential firing rate by resveratrol might be mediated through opening the BK Ca channels and closing the voltage-gated sodium channels. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate possible contribution of each channel to circadian rhythms using Hodgkin-Huxley-type model containing BK channel, potassium channel, sodium channel, and calcium concentration oscillation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Minimum & Maximum firing rates with varied conductance values of calcium and sodium channels. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The firing of an action potential by an axon is accomplished through sodium channels. (medscape.com)
  • Endothelial SK3 channel-associated Ca2+ microdomains modulate blood pressure. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Through their role in hyperpolarization, the channels are able to modulate excitability and contractility of the muscle cell. (hindawi.com)
  • Using a combination of biochemistry, electrophysiology, and imaging techniques, we now show that NMDARs have a key role in mediating the effect of leptin to modulate -cell electrical activity by promoting AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent trafficking of K and Kv2.1 channels to the plasma membrane. (bireme.br)
  • KCa3.1 is opened by a small rise in free cytosolic Ca 2+ ([Ca 2+ ] i ) due to Ca 2+ -calmodulin-mediated cross-linking in the subunits of the channel tetramer ( 1 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The encoded protein is an integral membrane protein that forms a voltage-independent calcium-activated channel with three other calmodulin-binding subunits. (nih.gov)
  • demonstrate that proper membrane localization of a small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel (SK2 or K(Ca)2.2) is dependent on its interacting protein, alpha-actinin2, a major F-actin crosslinking protein. (nih.gov)
  • To avoid ventricular adverse effects, a new target has been considered, the small conductance calcium-activated K + channels (K Ca 2.X, SK channels). (sophion.com)
  • Spinal cord slices stained with SK/EK channel antibodies revealed positive SK3 staining in the outer laminae of the dorsal horn, where small and large diameter DRG fibres are expected to terminate. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Dissertation zur Erlangung des Doktorgradesder Fakultät für Chemie und Pharmazieder Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität MünchenStructure-function analyses of small-conductance,calcium-activated potassium channels.Dieter D'hoedtOostende (Belgium)2005 Erklärung Diese Dissertation wurde im Sinne von § 13 Abs. (youscribe.com)
  • BACKGROUND: Small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels have been found to play an important role in atrial repolarization and atrial fibrillation (AF). (ku.dk)
  • Analysis of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) of the small-conductance calcium activated potassium channel (SK3) gene as genetic modifier of t. (cdc.gov)
  • It is a multisystemic disorder with major cardiac involvement most commonly represented by first-degree atrioventricular heart block (AVB), followed by different degrees of bundle-branch and intraventricular blocks In search for candidate genes, modifiers of the AVB phenotype in DM1, the expression of the small-conductance calcium activated potassium channel (SK3) gene was analysed in muscle biopsies from DM1 patients. (cdc.gov)
  • Small conductance Ca 2+ -activated K + channels (SK channels) in human myometrium have been shown to be downregulated in late pregnancy. (hindawi.com)
  • The small conductance Ca 2+ -activated potassium channel (SK channels) comprise three members (SK1-3) [ 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Apamin is a specific inhibitor of small conductance K + Ca2+ (SK Ca2+ ). (jci.org)
  • A variety of polycyclic pyridines have been proposed as inhibitors of the small conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channel. (ku.dk)
  • In fact, resveratrol has been reported to regulate ion channel activities in a variety of cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Phosphorylation of AMPARs can regulate channel localization, conductance, and open probability. (wikipedia.org)
  • What is calcium responsible for or regulate? (brainscape.com)
  • NMDA receptors mediate leptin signaling and regulate potassium channel trafficking in pancreatic -cells. (bireme.br)
  • The ability of NMDARs to regulate potassium channel surface expression and thus, -cell excitability provides mechanistic insight into the recently reported insulinotropic effects of NMDAR antagonists and therefore highlights the therapeutic potential of these drugs in managing type 2 diabetes. (bireme.br)
  • In vivo experiments (done by Dr Rie Suzuki, Department of Pharmacology, UCL) using UCL 1848 and l-ethyl-2- benzimidazolinone (1-EBIO an SK channel opener) showed that SK channels are likely to be active at these terminals where they have a functional role in mediating innocuous mechanical and nociceptive responses. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Abstract -The amplitude of the whole-cell L-type Ca 2+ channel current recorded from vascular smooth muscle cells is reportedly greater in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) than in Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). (ahajournals.org)
  • Alternative splicing of the slo -α channel message provides intrinsic variability in gating kinetics that is expanded to a wider range of tuning by modulation with β subunits. (jneurosci.org)
  • In the present study, we examine β modulation of several slo splice variants over a wide range of voltage and calcium concentrations. (jneurosci.org)
  • SK2 channels, therefore, may represent a target for pharmacologic modulation of bile flow. (nih.gov)
  • GJs formed by different connexins show distinct unitary channel conductance (γ j ), transjunctional voltage-dependent gating ( V j -gating) properties, and modulation by intracellular magnesium ([Mg 2+ ] i ). (biochemj.org)
  • The fundamental importance of Ca channels for calcium-induced Ca 2+ release in crustacean muscle and the channel's function as a possible target for modulation of contractions by peptides and biogenic amines is in contrast to the scarcity of information on the single-channel's properties. (rupress.org)
  • We conclude that redox modulation of cysteine thiol groups, which probably involves thiol/disulfide exchange, alters maxi-K channel gating, and that this modulation likely affects channel activity under physiological conditions. (rupress.org)
  • Therefore, pharmacologic modulation of these channels might provide an interesting approach for the development of novel insulinotropic drugs. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In the search for compensatory mechanisms, modulation of insulin release by other K + channels gains particular interest. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The subtype SK2 channels were up-regulated under hypoxia, shown with pharmacological tools and with mRNA analysis. (nih.gov)
  • In order to determine the expression of the different SK channel subtypes, pharmacological tools such as apamin and d-tubocurarine have been widely used. (youscribe.com)
  • Pharmacological manipulation of SK2 channels may open a new avenue for the treatment of visceral hypersensitivity and pain. (frontiersin.org)
  • With emphasis on techniques employing the unique properties of these proteins, the core topics of the book include all the major pharmacological tools for ion channel determination. (springer.com)
  • The first part concentrates on the fluorescent and radioligand binding of channel or receptors with specific pharmacological agents or toxins. (springer.com)
  • Moreover, we were able to identify H491 as a critical amino acid for the pharmacological effect of BBP on the SK channel. (ku.dk)
  • We studied the electrophysiological behavior of Purkinje cells in genetically engineered alert mice that do not express BK calcium-activated potassium channels and in wild-type mice with pharmacological BK inactivation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Molecular, biophysical, and pharmacological properties of calcium-activated chloride channels. (bireme.br)
  • Moreover, after-hyperpolarization induced by BK channels closes Cav channels and thus precludes excessive Ca2+ influx. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The influx of Ca 2+ through the surface Ca channels alone, however, is insufficient for excitation-contraction coupling ( Mounier and Goblet, 1987 ). (rupress.org)
  • 1 2 3 A greater amplitude of the whole-cell Ca 2+ channel current would be related with the increase in Ca 2+ influx into the cell, which may contribute to alterations in the function of vascular smooth muscle cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • TRPV4 channels play a major role in endothelial-dependent vasodilation, a function mediated by local Ca 2+ influx through clusters of functionally coupled TRPV4 channels rather than by a global increase in endothelial cell Ca 2+ . (sciencemag.org)
  • Cooperative opening of clustered TRPV4 channels specifically amplified Ca 2+ influx at MEPs. (sciencemag.org)
  • Although there are many useful books on virtually every aspect of ion channel structure and function, work on channel localization-determining the specific sites of ion channels and their receptors on cells-has long been neglected. (springer.com)
  • In Ion Channel Localization: Methods and Protocols, active researchers at the cutting-edge of their fields describe how to use current and developing technologies to determine the exact cell sites of such channels and receptors. (springer.com)
  • Comprehensive and rich in practical detail, Ion Channel Localization: Methods and Protocols brings together in a single volume detailed reviews of all the major techniques-both currently in use and in development-for localizing ion channels and receptors in cells, tissues, and organisms. (springer.com)
  • This book represents a collection of 24 methods of ion channel localization written by leading specialists and divided into four main parts. (springer.com)
  • The third section of Ion Channel Localization: Methods and Protocols utilizes the functional properties of the channels for localization. (springer.com)
  • One of the major achievements of Ion Channel Localization: Methods and Protocols in gathering so many of today's technologies of channel visualization is the candid and detailed descriptions the authors have provided of the advantages, pitfalls and 'tricks of the trade' of the methods under discussion. (springer.com)
  • In a mouse model of angiotensin II-induced hypertension, MEP localization of AKAP150 was disrupted, muscarinic receptor stimulation did not activate TRPV4 channels, cooperativity among TRPV4 channels at MEPs was weaker, and vasodilation in response to muscarinic receptor stimulation was reduced. (sciencemag.org)
  • Because of a high density in myocyte membranes and large conductance properties, BK Ca channels are an important determinant of vascular tone. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The Mechanism of Gated Calcium Transport Across Biological Membranes presents the proceedings of a symposium, which was an unprecedented attempt to bring together diverse groups working on various aspects of the problem of gated Ca2+ transport. (elsevier.com)
  • and nonselective cation channels in guinea pig ventricular myocytes ( Jabr and Cole, 1995 ) and in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae vacuolar membranes ( Bertl and Slayman, 1990 ). (rupress.org)
  • Calcium (Ca2+) -activated potassium channels (KCa) are a group of 6/7-TM ion channels that selectively transport K+ ions across biological membranes. (genecards.org)
  • Channel activity inactivated within minutes following a depolarizing voltage step, and was recovered from inactivation by membrane hyperpolarization. (dundee.ac.uk)
  • Blocking NMDAR activity inhibited the ability of leptin to activate AMPK, induce K and Kv2.1 channel trafficking, and promote membrane hyperpolarization. (bireme.br)
  • Sixteen antibodies raised against human or rat SK/IK channel peptide epitopes were tested for their ability to stain cells expressing channel protein. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Western blot data revealed a decrease in the SK2 channel protein in the membrane fraction. (frontiersin.org)
  • Visceral hypersensitivity rats presented a decrease in afterhyperpolarization current ( I AHP ) and membrane SK2 channel protein in the spinal dorsal horn. (frontiersin.org)
  • Internal application of Mg-ATP, but not Mg-5'-adenylylamidodiphosphate, retarded recovery of channel activity from inactivation, whereas internal application of protein phosphatase-1a enhanced recovery from inactivation. (dundee.ac.uk)
  • Also covered are fluorescent and radioligand assays, exciting new visualization methods employing green fluorescent protein (GFP), and novel assays based on the functional properties of ion channels and receptors, as well as rapidly developing atomic force microscopy methodologies. (springer.com)
  • Chloride channel accessory 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLCA1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene encodes a member of the calcium sensitive chloride conductance protein family. (wikipedia.org)
  • The encoded protein may be involved in mediating calcium-activated chloride conductance in the intestine. (wikipedia.org)
  • In experiments examining the modulatory actions of protein kinases, protein phosphatases, and G protein subunits, we observed a marked stimulation of maxi-K channel activity by control buffer solutions prepared to mimic those used to suspend the proteins. (rupress.org)
  • We hypothesized that the activity of maxi-K channels is regulated by the redox state of critical sulfhydryl groups in the channel protein or an associated regulatory protein, involving exchanges between free thiols and disulfides. (rupress.org)
  • KCNN1 (Potassium Calcium-Activated Channel Subfamily N Member 1) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include protein heterodimerization activity and calcium-activated potassium channel activity . (genecards.org)
  • In a rat model of balloon catheter injury (BCI), we investigated whether alterations in expression of Ca 2+ -activated K + channels (K Ca ) contribute to intimal hyperplasia and vascular restenosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • Vascular endothelium contains cytochrome P-450 epoxygenases that transform the n -6 fatty acid arachidonate into epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), potent dilators of coronary arterioles and activators of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK Ca ) channels. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In vascular smooth muscle cells, large-conductance Ca 2+ - and voltage-activated K + (BK) channels provide a critical vasodilatory influence. (pnas.org)
  • Changes in the properties of ion channels in vascular smooth muscle cells from hypertensive animals have been studied by use of the whole-cell patch clamp technique. (ahajournals.org)
  • If this observation could be generalized to other vascular tissues, an alteration other than that in the density of channels would be responsible for the increased whole-cell amplitude of the Ca 2+ channel current in SHR. (ahajournals.org)
  • Although higher calcium affinities might be found in other splice variants, these inconsistencies imply that native hair cell BK channels may contain other components that combine with and modify the slo-α gene product. (jneurosci.org)
  • We estimate the tuning frequencies for eight varieties of BK channel and predict the corresponding position of each gene product along the tonotopically organized basilar papilla of the chick. (jneurosci.org)
  • Ghanshani S, Coleman M, Gustavsson P, Wu AC, Gargus JJ, Gutman GA, Dahl N, Mohrenweiser H, Chandy KG: Human calcium-activated potassium channel gene KCNN4 maps to chromosome 19q13.2 in the region deleted in diamond-blackfan anemia. (hmdb.ca)
  • This gene is a member of the KCNN family of potassium channel genes. (nih.gov)
  • Maxi-K channel openers or gene therapy may therefore provide therapeutic benefit for the overactive bladder. (elsevier.com)
  • We expressed epitope tagged channels and used, in addition to fluorescent labeled antibodies (Abs), Ab-coated magnetic beads as a new method to map extracellular regions. (pnas.org)
  • In cell-attached patch-clamp studies, decreasing the extracellular osmolarity activated a K(+) conductance that was blocked by Ba(2+). (rti.org)
  • In addition, the swelling-activated K(+) channels were significantly inhibited in the presence of nominally free extracellular Ca(2+) and 2.5mM EGTA. (rti.org)
  • Channel activity was modified by sulfhydryl redox agents applied to the cytosolic surface, but not the extracellular surface, of membrane patches. (rupress.org)
  • Nerve-evoked relaxations of precontracted strips were reduced by 50%, both in strips from Slo-/- mice and by blocking BK channels with iberiotoxin in the Slo+/+ strips. (nih.gov)
  • Iberiotoxin (300 nM) sensitive Maxi-K channel current comprised about 40% of the outward whole-cell current in SHAM bladders but only about 8% in PUO bladders. (elsevier.com)
  • Iberiotoxin (IBX) is a specific inhibitor of large conductance K + Ca2+ . (jci.org)
  • Na+ ions were not measurably permeant through the open channel. (edu.au)
  • The BK channel was inhibited reversibly by external tetraethylammonium (TEA) ions, charybdotoxin, and quinine and was resistant to block by 4-aminopyridine and apamin. (edu.au)
  • Kcnn4 null mice do not express IK channels in their parotid acinar cells, their red blood cells are not K + permeable, and T lymphocytes and erythrocytes exhibit impaired volume regulation. (jax.org)
  • Using transient expression of epitope tagged MaxiK channels, in vitro translation, functional, and " in vivo " reconstitution assays, we now show that MaxiK channels have seven transmembrane segments (S0-S6) at the N terminus and a S1-S6 region that folds in a similar way as in voltage-gated ion channels. (pnas.org)
  • Sequence analysis ( 7 , 16 ) and the fact that MaxiK channels possess an intrinsic voltage sensor that opens the channel in the practical absence of Ca 2+ ( 29 - 31 ) support the view that MaxiK channels have a close functional and structural relationship with voltage-gated ion channels. (pnas.org)
  • The functional role of these channels in cardiac electrophysiology is still under intense debate. (upc.edu)
  • Present study directly defines the functional roles of SK2 channels in transgenic mice using a genetically engineered model, and provides a possible link between abnormalities in cardiac SK2 channels and cardiac arrhythmias. (nih.gov)
  • To investigate possible functional roles for SK/IK channels sensory neurones, action potential afterhyperpolarisations (AHPs) were recorded from cultured DRG and nodose cells. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • hSK1 subunits form functional potassium channels that are blocked by apamin and d-tubocurarine. (youscribe.com)
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the existence and functional role of SK channels in the equine heart. (ku.dk)
  • Our findings thus indicate that SynCaK is a functional channel and identify the physiological consequences of its deletion in cyanobacteria. (plantphysiol.org)
  • K + channel genes are found in almost every prokaryotic genome that has been sequenced, but in most of the few studies where their deletion was obtained, no specific phenotype has been observed, suggesting either functional redundancy or that these channels are only required in case of rather specific environmental stresses. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The channels that formed from the various subunits displayed differential sensitivity to apamin and tubocurare. (sciencemag.org)
  • Co-expression of chick hair cell slo -α with quail β subunits greatly increased open probability at negative membrane potentials, giving the expressed channels a calcium and voltage sensitivity close to that of native hair cell BK channels. (jneurosci.org)
  • We found that the change in channel conductance modulated firing rates from high regular firing to low irregular firing with high sensitivity of the channel. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Allosteric modulators of SK channels work by changing the apparent calcium sensitivity of the channels. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel activity, as determined by whole-cell patch clamp recording, is decreased in urinary bladder smooth muscle cells from male rats with partial urethral obstruction. (elsevier.com)
  • Deactivation kinetics were used to predict tuning frequencies and thus tonotopic location if hair cells were endowed with each of the expressed channels. (jneurosci.org)
  • We conclude that EDPs potently dilate coronary microvessels and are the most potent fatty epoxides known to activate BK Ca channels in coronary smooth muscle cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In particular, this channel plays a critical role in the proliferation of smooth muscle cells ( 3 , 4 ), endothelial cells ( 5 ), lymphocytes including B- and T-cells ( 6 , 7 ), fibroblasts ( 8 ), stem cells ( 9 ), and several cancer cells ( 10 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel activity, as determined by whole-cell patch clamp recording, is decreased in urinary bladder smooth muscle cells from male rats with partial urethral obstruction. (elsevier.com)
  • Our findings show that obstruction of the rat bladder is associated with decreased Maxi-K channel activity of bladder smooth muscle cells, determined via direct current measurement. (elsevier.com)
  • Gap junction (GJ) channels are oligomers of connexins forming channels linking neighboring cells. (biochemj.org)
  • Dr. Paola Pedarzani (University College London, United Kingdom) M űndliche Pr űfung am 13 June 2005 SummaryIon channels are integral membrane proteins present in all cells. (youscribe.com)
  • Ion channels are integral membrane proteins present in all cells. (youscribe.com)
  • These data suggest that true endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization of smooth muscle cells in response to ACh is attributable to SKCa channels, whereas IKCa channels play an important role during the ACh-mediated repolarization phase only observed following depolarization. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The role of ion channels is largely unknown in chemokine-induced migration in nonexcitable cells such as dendritic cells (DCs). (elsevier.com)
  • The huge changes in membrane conductance of mouse pancreatic acinar cells during hormonal stimulation with acetylcholine produced a relative error of less than 0.3% in the capacitance trace. (springer.com)
  • The method therefore offers great advantages in the study of exocytosis as well as endocytosis in cell types, such as exocrine gland cells, with major changes in membrane conductance during hormonal stimulation. (springer.com)
  • Greger R, Allert N, Fröbe U, Normann C (1993) Increase in cytosolic Ca 2+ regulates exocytosis and Cl − conductances in HT 29 cells. (springer.com)
  • Maruyama Y (1988) Agonist-induced changes in cell membrane capacitance and conductance in dialysed pancreatic acinar cells of rat. (springer.com)
  • Discovery of the P-type calcium channel in the Purkinje cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • 90%, IC 50 0.43 μM), and calcium mobilization in rodent and human lung ASM cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • In the present study, we examined the effects of several types of sulfhydryl-modifying agents on maxi-K channel activity in isolated membrane patches from tracheal smooth muscle cells. (rupress.org)
  • They are primarily expressed in cells of the hematopoietic system, where they represent the Gardos channel ( 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Besides K Ca channels, pancreatic β-cells express K + channels exclusively regulated by voltage (K v channels) ( 10 , 18 , 19 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • As cerebellar Purkinje cells express the major regulatory elements of calcium control and represent the sole integrative output of the cerebellar cortex, changes in neural activity- and calcium-mediated membrane properties of these cells are expected to provide important insights into both intrinsic and network physiology of the cerebellum. (biomedsearch.com)
  • They are poorly understood, but like Q-type calcium channels , they appear to be present in cerebellar granule cells. (bionity.com)
  • However, no study has examined properties of single Ca 2+ channels in arterial cells from these strains. (ahajournals.org)
  • Opening of the single channels was more frequent in cells from SHR than from WKY. (ahajournals.org)
  • The results suggest that an increased amplitude of the whole-cell current can be attributed to the enhanced opening of single Ca 2+ channels in the arterial smooth muscle cells from SHR compared with WKY. (ahajournals.org)
  • We showed that stimulation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors on endothelial cells of mouse arteries exclusively activated TRPV4 channels that were localized at myoendothelial projections (MEPs), specialized regions of endothelial cells that contact smooth muscle cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Thus, endothelial-dependent dilation of resistance arteries is enabled by MEP-localized AKAP150, which ensures the proximity of PKC to TRPV4 channels and the coupled channel gating necessary for efficient communication from endothelial to smooth muscle cells in arteries. (sciencemag.org)
  • Since the Cl flow into or out of the cell plays a crucial role in hyperpolarizing or depolarizing the cells, respectively, the impact of intracellular Ca concentration on these channels is attracting a lot of attentions. (bireme.br)
  • Large conductance voltage- and Ca 2+ -dependent K + (MaxiK) channels show sequence similarities to voltage-gated ion channels. (pnas.org)
  • Voltage-dependent ion channels form a large family of related structures that include K + , Na + , and Ca 2+ channels and also cyclic nucleotide-gated channels, despite the fact that the latter are not voltage activated ( 18 , 19 ). (pnas.org)
  • The resonant frequency is determined in large part by the number and kinetics of large conductance, calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels. (jneurosci.org)
  • Large conductance, calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels play a prominent role in vertebrate hair cell function. (jneurosci.org)
  • Mature medial VSMC exclusively expressed large-conductance K Ca (BK Ca ) channels. (ahajournals.org)
  • We observe a large dependence of the action potential duration with the conductance and gate dynamics of the channel. (upc.edu)
  • Large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels in neonatal rat" by F Franciolini, Ron C. Hogg et al. (edu.au)
  • Background & Objective: The large conductance, calcium- and voltage-activated potassium channels (BK) are widely distributed channel proteins which exist in virtually every cell type of mammals and function to influence membrane excitability and Ca2+ signaling. (eurekaselect.com)
  • To this end, we tested a large number of AADs on the human K Ca 2.2 and K Ca 2.3 channels to assess their effect on this new target using automated whole-cell patch clamp. (sophion.com)
  • These results demonstrate that cortical large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel inactivation is probably mediated by an endogenous, trypsin-sensitive, inactivation particle. (dundee.ac.uk)
  • We examined the hypothesis that hippocampal NO deficit impairs the activity of large conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels in rats with chronic IH, mimicking conditions in patients with sleep apnea. (naver.com)
  • Isopimaric acid (IPA) is a toxin which acts as a large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel (BK channel) opener. (wikipedia.org)
  • IPA acts on the large-conductance calcium activated K+ channels (BK channels). (wikipedia.org)
  • The effects of sulfhydryl reduction/oxidation on the gating of large-conductance, Ca 2+ -activated K + (maxi-K) channels were examined in excised patches from tracheal myocytes. (rupress.org)
  • Large conductance, Ca 2+ -activated K + (maxi-K) 1 channels are present in a wide variety of cell types. (rupress.org)
  • Large Conductance, Calcium Activated Potassium (BK) Channels as New Therapeutic Target for Glioma. (slideshare.net)
  • Physiological and molecular biological studies [ 1 - 3 ] and computational modeling approach [ 4 ] have investigated channels contributing to circadian rhythms of spike firing frequency. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, there is concern whether hiPSC-CMs express all cardiac ion channels at physiological level and whether they might express non-cardiac ion channels. (mdpi.com)
  • Despite the important achievement of the high-resolution structures of several prokaryotic channels, current understanding of their physiological roles in bacteria themselves is still far from complete. (plantphysiol.org)
  • In this state BK channels can still be inhibited by one of their inhibitors, like charybdotoxin (CTX). (wikipedia.org)
  • Calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs) are a family of anionic transmembrane ion channels. (bireme.br)
  • Joiner WJ, Wang LY, Tang MD, Kaczmarek LK: hSK4, a member of a novel subfamily of calcium-activated potassium channels. (hmdb.ca)
  • SK channels ( S mall conductance calcium-activated K (potassium) channels ) are a subfamily of Ca 2+ -activated K + channels . (thefullwiki.org)
  • n = 5) BK Ca channels in myocytes from the porcine coronary arterioles. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Functions of SK2 channels in atrial myocytes are critically dependent on the normal expression of Ca(v)1.3 Ca(2+) channels. (nih.gov)
  • Slo1 BK channels are thus receptors for long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, and these fatty acids-unlike their ethyl ester derivatives-activate the channels and lower blood pressure. (pnas.org)
  • Dequalinium modifies the activity of a number of receptors and ion channels. (frontiersin.org)
  • NMDA receptors (NMDARs) are Ca -permeant, ligand-gated ion channels activated by the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate and have well-characterized roles in the nervous system. (bireme.br)
  • We have recently shown that MaxiK channels share some of the conserved charged residues critical in voltage-dependent gating (sensing and structural residues) ( 16 ), not only in the S4 segment but also in S3 region, with voltage-gated ion channels ( 32 - 34 ). (pnas.org)
  • When expressed together with rat Slo (rSlo), rbeta4 profoundly altered the gating characteristics of the Slo channel. (nih.gov)
  • Single BK(Ca) channels composed of rSlo and rbeta4 also exhibited slower kinetics for steady-state gating compared with rSlo channels. (nih.gov)
  • The channel is blocked by apamin. (rcsb.org)
  • Our experiments show that this toxin is more potent in blocking SK2 channels than apamin. (youscribe.com)
  • 1-EBIO or CyPPA effect could be prevented by SK2 channel blocker apamin. (frontiersin.org)
  • Channel activity increased with the cytoplasmic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) with a Hill plot giving a half-saturating [Ca2+] (K0.5) of 1.35 μM and slope of ≅3. (edu.au)
  • The calcium concentration oscillation and BK channel activity were examined to determine the synchronized circadian oscillation and phase shifting of firing rate in the neural network models structured by graph theory. (biomedcentral.com)
  • At a given concentration of intracellular Ca(2+), rSlo/rbeta4 channels were more sensitive to transmembrane voltage changes. (nih.gov)
  • Direct demonstration of calcium concentration microdomains at the presynaptic active zone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fast contracting fibers from abdominal extensor muscles of the marine isopod Idotea baltica (Crustacea, Isopoda) are particularly well suited for single-channel recordings because they are largely free of connective tissue and accessible for patch-clamp recordings after modest enzymatic treatment. (rupress.org)
  • The potency of BBP was measured using automatic patch clamp on all three SK channel subtypes, resulting in similar IC50 of 0.4 μM. (ku.dk)
  • We also assessed the selectivity of BBP on a panel of calcium-activated and voltage-activated potassium channels using two-electrode voltage clamp, automatic and manual patch clamp. (ku.dk)
  • Single-channel recording by use of the patch clamp technique can evaluate directly whether the channel properties are altered, but whole-cell recording is not adequate for that purpose. (ahajournals.org)
  • The present study used the single-channel recording by means of the cell-attached patch clamp technique to evaluate the basic characteristics of single Ca 2+ channels in arteries from SHR and WKY. (ahajournals.org)
  • The majority of these AHPs proved to be insensitive to the SK channel blocker UCL 1848. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Here, we show how BBP can also be used as a potent and specific SK channel blocker in vitro. (ku.dk)
  • Electrical tuning frequencies vary systematically (tonotopically) along the turtle's basilar papilla ( Crawford and Fettiplace, 1980 ), leading to the remarkable conclusion that the molecular determinants of BK channel kinetics must be tonotopically distributed as well. (jneurosci.org)
  • Conclusion: The aim of this review is to summarize existing knowledge and recent findings on the molecular properties, signaling complex and channel dysfunction of the BK channels with a particular attention to the possible relevance to the pathophysiology of epilepsy. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Redox modification of cysteine sulfhydryl groups may also be an important mechanism of controlling ion channel function. (rupress.org)
  • Some antiepileptic drugs work by acting on combination of channels or through some unknown mechanism of action. (medscape.com)