Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.
Intracellular receptors that bind to INOSITOL 1,4,5-TRISPHOSPHATE and play an important role in its intracellular signaling. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors are calcium channels that release CALCIUM in response to increased levels of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in the CYTOPLASM.
Long-lasting voltage-gated CALCIUM CHANNELS found in both excitable and nonexcitable tissue. They are responsible for normal myocardial and vascular smooth muscle contractility. Five subunits (alpha-1, alpha-2, beta, gamma, and delta) make up the L-type channel. The alpha-1 subunit is the binding site for calcium-based antagonists. Dihydropyridine-based calcium antagonists are used as markers for these binding sites.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
CALCIUM CHANNELS that are concentrated in neural tissue. Omega toxins inhibit the actions of these channels by altering their voltage dependence.
A heterogenous group of transient or low voltage activated type CALCIUM CHANNELS. They are found in cardiac myocyte membranes, the sinoatrial node, Purkinje cells of the heart and the central nervous system.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
Agents that increase calcium influx into calcium channels of excitable tissues. This causes vasoconstriction in VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE and/or CARDIAC MUSCLE cells as well as stimulation of insulin release from pancreatic islets. Therefore, tissue-selective calcium agonists have the potential to combat cardiac failure and endocrinological disorders. They have been used primarily in experimental studies in cell and tissue culture.
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Potassium channels where the flow of K+ ions into the cell is greater than the outward flow.
CALCIUM CHANNELS located within the PURKINJE CELLS of the cerebellum. They are involved in stimulation-secretion coupling of neurons.
CALCIUM CHANNELS located in the neurons of the brain.
Pyridine moieties which are partially saturated by the addition of two hydrogen atoms in any position.
Intracellular messenger formed by the action of phospholipase C on phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, which is one of the phospholipids that make up the cell membrane. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate is released into the cytoplasm where it releases calcium ions from internal stores within the cell's endoplasmic reticulum. These calcium ions stimulate the activity of B kinase or calmodulin.
Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-1. Included under this heading are signaling receptors, non-signaling receptors and accessory proteins required for receptor signaling. Signaling from interleukin-1 receptors occurs via interaction with SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as MYELOID DIFFERENTIATION FACTOR 88.
CALCIUM CHANNELS located in the neurons of the brain. They are inhibited by the marine snail toxin, omega conotoxin MVIIC.
A potent vasodilator agent with calcium antagonistic action. It is a useful anti-anginal agent that also lowers blood pressure.
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of potassium efflux through cell membranes. Blockade of potassium channels prolongs the duration of ACTION POTENTIALS. They are used as ANTI-ARRHYTHMIA AGENTS and VASODILATOR AGENTS.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that form channels to selectively pass chloride ions. Nonselective blockers include FENAMATES; ETHACRYNIC ACID; and TAMOXIFEN.
A neurotoxic peptide, which is a cleavage product (VIa) of the omega-Conotoxin precursor protein contained in venom from the marine snail, CONUS geographus. It is an antagonist of CALCIUM CHANNELS, N-TYPE.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
A family of structurally related neurotoxic peptides from mollusk venom that inhibit voltage-activated entry of calcium into the presynaptic membrane. They selectively inhibit N-, P-, and Q-type calcium channels.
Potassium channel whose permeability to ions is extremely sensitive to the transmembrane potential difference. The opening of these channels is induced by the membrane depolarization of the ACTION POTENTIAL.
A benzothiazepine derivative with vasodilating action due to its antagonism of the actions of CALCIUM ion on membrane functions.
Heteromultimers of Kir6 channels (the pore portion) and sulfonylurea receptor (the regulatory portion) which affect function of the HEART; PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. KATP channel blockers include GLIBENCLAMIDE and mitiglinide whereas openers include CROMAKALIM and minoxidil sulfate.
A calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent.
A potent antagonist of CALCIUM CHANNELS that is highly selective for VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE. It is effective in the treatment of chronic stable angina pectoris, hypertension, and congestive cardiac failure.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
Potassium channels whose activation is dependent on intracellular calcium concentrations.
A calcium channel blocker with marked vasodilator action. It is an effective antihypertensive agent and differs from other calcium channel blockers in that it does not reduce glomerular filtration rate and is mildly natriuretic, rather than sodium retentive.
A benzimidazoyl-substituted tetraline that selectively binds and inhibits CALCIUM CHANNELS, T-TYPE.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of sodium influx through cell membranes. Blockade of sodium channels slows the rate and amplitude of initial rapid depolarization, reduces cell excitability, and reduces conduction velocity.
An element of the alkaline earth group of metals. It has an atomic symbol Ba, atomic number 56, and atomic weight 138. All of its acid-soluble salts are poisonous.
A calcium channel blockader with preferential cerebrovascular activity. It has marked cerebrovascular dilating effects and lowers blood pressure.
A neuropeptide toxin from the venom of the funnel web spider, Agelenopsis aperta. It inhibits CALCIUM CHANNELS, P-TYPE by altering the voltage-dependent gating so that very large depolarizations are needed for channel opening. It also inhibits CALCIUM CHANNELS, Q-TYPE.
A subgroup of TRP cation channels that contain 3-4 ANKYRIN REPEAT DOMAINS and a conserved C-terminal domain. Members are highly expressed in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Selectivity for calcium over sodium ranges from 0.5 to 10.
Voltage-gated potassium channels whose primary subunits contain six transmembrane segments and form tetramers to create a pore with a voltage sensor. They are related to their founding member, shaker protein, Drosophila.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A major class of calcium activated potassium channels whose members are voltage-dependent. MaxiK channels are activated by either membrane depolarization or an increase in intracellular Ca(2+). They are key regulators of calcium and electrical signaling in a variety of tissues.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.
A subgroup of cyclic nucleotide-regulated ION CHANNELS within the superfamily of pore-loop cation channels. They are expressed in OLFACTORY NERVE cilia and in PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and some PLANTS.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after vanilloid receptor. They are very sensitive to TEMPERATURE and hot spicy food and CAPSAICIN. They have the TRP domain and ANKYRIN repeats. Selectivity for CALCIUM over SODIUM ranges from 3 to 100 fold.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A potent calcium channel blockader with marked vasodilator action. It has antihypertensive properties and is effective in the treatment of angina and coronary spasms without showing cardiodepressant effects. It has also been used in the treatment of asthma and enhances the action of specific antineoplastic agents.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A tetrameric calcium release channel in the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM membrane of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, acting oppositely to SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES. It is important in skeletal and cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and studied by using RYANODINE. Abnormalities are implicated in CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS and MUSCULAR DISEASES.
A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after melastatin protein. They have the TRP domain but lack ANKYRIN repeats. Enzyme domains in the C-terminus leads to them being called chanzymes.
A family of proton-gated sodium channels that are primarily expressed in neuronal tissue. They are AMILORIDE-sensitive and are implicated in the signaling of a variety of neurological stimuli, most notably that of pain in response to acidic conditions.
Venoms of arthropods of the order Araneida of the ARACHNIDA. The venoms usually contain several protein fractions, including ENZYMES, hemolytic, neurolytic, and other TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL.
Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Sodium channels found on salt-reabsorbing EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the distal NEPHRON; the distal COLON; SALIVARY DUCTS; SWEAT GLANDS; and the LUNG. They are AMILORIDE-sensitive and play a critical role in the control of sodium balance, BLOOD VOLUME, and BLOOD PRESSURE.
A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that is the predominant VOLTAGE-GATED POTASSIUM CHANNEL of T-LYMPHOCYTES.
A family of voltage-gated potassium channels that are characterized by long N-terminal and C-terminal intracellular tails. They are named from the Drosophila protein whose mutation causes abnormal leg shaking under ether anesthesia. Their activation kinetics are dependent on extracellular MAGNESIUM and PROTON concentration.
Stable calcium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element calcium, but differ in atomic weight. Ca-42-44, 46, and 48 are stable calcium isotopes.
A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that is selectively inhibited by a variety of SCORPION VENOMS.
A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that is commonly mutated in human episodic ATAXIA and MYOKYMIA.
Unstable isotopes of calcium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ca atoms with atomic weights 39, 41, 45, 47, 49, and 50 are radioactive calcium isotopes.
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
A long-acting dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. It is effective in the treatment of ANGINA PECTORIS and HYPERTENSION.
A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that conducts a delayed rectifier current. It contributes to ACTION POTENTIAL repolarization of MYOCYTES in HEART ATRIA.
A class of polyamine and peptide toxins which are isolated from the venom of spiders such as Agelenopsis aperta.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
A major class of calcium-activated potassium channels that are found primarily in excitable CELLS. They play important roles in the transmission of ACTION POTENTIALS and generate a long-lasting hyperpolarization known as the slow afterhyperpolarization.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Venoms from mollusks, including CONUS and OCTOPUS species. The venoms contain proteins, enzymes, choline derivatives, slow-reacting substances, and several characterized polypeptide toxins that affect the nervous system. Mollusk venoms include cephalotoxin, venerupin, maculotoxin, surugatoxin, conotoxins, and murexine.
A broad group of eukaryotic six-transmembrane cation channels that are classified by sequence homology because their functional involvement with SENSATION is varied. They have only weak voltage sensitivity and ion selectivity. They are named after a DROSOPHILA mutant that displayed transient receptor potentials in response to light. A 25-amino-acid motif containing a TRP box (EWKFAR) just C-terminal to S6 is found in TRPC, TRPV and TRPM subgroups. ANKYRIN repeats are found in TRPC, TRPV & TRPN subgroups. Some are functionally associated with TYROSINE KINASE or TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES.
A family of delayed rectifier voltage-gated potassium channels that share homology with their founding member, KCNQ1 PROTEIN. KCNQ potassium channels have been implicated in a variety of diseases including LONG QT SYNDROME; DEAFNESS; and EPILEPSY.
A subfamily of shaker potassium channels that shares homology with its founding member, Shab protein, Drosophila. They regulate delayed rectifier currents in the NERVOUS SYSTEM of DROSOPHILA and in the SKELETAL MUSCLE and HEART of VERTEBRATES.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A voltage-gated potassium channel that is expressed primarily in the HEART.
A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A shaker subfamily that is prominently expressed in NEURONS and are necessary for high-frequency, repetitive firing of ACTION POTENTIALS.
A fast inactivating subtype of shaker potassium channels that contains two inactivation domains at its N terminus.
An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The calcium salt of oxalic acid, occurring in the urine as crystals and in certain calculi.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.
Coronary vasodilator that is an analog of iproveratril (VERAPAMIL) with one more methoxy group on the benzene ring.
A family of inwardly-rectifying potassium channels that are activated by PERTUSSIS TOXIN sensitive G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS. GIRK potassium channels are primarily activated by the complex of GTP-BINDING PROTEIN BETA SUBUNITS and GTP-BINDING PROTEIN GAMMA SUBUNITS.
The calcium salt of gluconic acid. The compound has a variety of uses, including its use as a calcium replenisher in hypocalcemic states.
A shaker subfamily of potassium channels that participate in transient outward potassium currents by activating at subthreshold MEMBRANE POTENTIALS, inactivating rapidly, and recovering from inactivation quickly.
The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
A fluorescent calcium chelating agent which is used to study intracellular calcium in tissues.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A sesquiterpene lactone found in roots of THAPSIA. It inhibits CA(2+)-TRANSPORTING ATPASE mediated uptake of CALCIUM into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
A very slow opening and closing voltage-gated potassium channel that is expressed in NEURONS and is commonly mutated in BENIGN FAMILIAL NEONATAL CONVULSIONS.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A subgroup of cyclic nucleotide-regulated ION CHANNELS of the superfamily of pore-loop cation channels that are opened by hyperpolarization rather than depolarization. The ion conducting pore passes SODIUM, CALCIUM, and POTASSIUM cations with a preference for potassium.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
A potassium-selective ion channel blocker. (From J Gen Phys 1994;104(1):173-90)
A trace element with the atomic symbol Ni, atomic number 28, and atomic weight 58.69. It is a cofactor of the enzyme UREASE.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
An antidiabetic sulfonylurea derivative with actions similar to those of chlorpropamide.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Lanthanum. The prototypical element in the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol La, atomic number 57, and atomic weight 138.91. Lanthanide ion is used in experimental biology as a calcium antagonist; lanthanum oxide improves the optical properties of glass.
An element with atomic symbol Cd, atomic number 48, and atomic weight 114. It is a metal and ingestion will lead to CADMIUM POISONING.
Venoms from animals of the order Scorpionida of the class Arachnida. They contain neuro- and hemotoxins, enzymes, and various other factors that may release acetylcholine and catecholamines from nerve endings. Of the several protein toxins that have been characterized, most are immunogenic.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
A dihydropyridine calcium channel antagonist that acts as a potent arterial vasodilator and antihypertensive agent. It is also effective in patients with cardiac failure and angina.
A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype that mediates the sodium ion PERMEABILITY of CARDIOMYOCYTES. Defects in the SCN5A gene, which codes for the alpha subunit of this sodium channel, are associated with a variety of CARDIAC DISEASES that result from loss of sodium channel function.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A major class of calcium-activated potassium channels that were originally discovered in ERYTHROCYTES. They are found primarily in non-excitable CELLS and set up electrical gradients for PASSIVE ION TRANSPORT.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
A very slow opening and closing voltage-gated potassium channel that is expressed in NEURONS and is closely related to KCNQ2 POTASSIUM CHANNEL. It is commonly mutated in BENIGN FAMILIAL NEONATAL CONVULSIONS.
The pore-forming subunits of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels. They form tetramers in CELL MEMBRANES.
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
A methylpyrrole-carboxylate from RYANIA that disrupts the RYANODINE RECEPTOR CALCIUM RELEASE CHANNEL to modify CALCIUM release from SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM resulting in alteration of MUSCLE CONTRACTION. It was previously used in INSECTICIDES. It is used experimentally in conjunction with THAPSIGARGIN and other inhibitors of CALCIUM ATPASE uptake of calcium into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
A group of slow opening and closing voltage-gated potassium channels. Because of their delayed activation kinetics they play an important role in controlling ACTION POTENTIAL duration.
A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype that mediates the sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Defects in the SCN2A gene which codes for the alpha subunit of this sodium channel are associated with benign familial infantile seizures type 3, and early infantile epileptic encephalopathy type 11.
A family of membrane proteins that selectively conduct SODIUM ions due to changes in the TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE. They typically have a multimeric structure with a core alpha subunit that defines the sodium channel subtype and several beta subunits that modulate sodium channel activity.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
A 37-amino acid residue peptide isolated from the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus. It is a neurotoxin that inhibits calcium activated potassium channels.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The fluid inside CELLS.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
An element of the alkaline earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sr, atomic number 38, and atomic weight 87.62.
Flunarizine is a selective calcium entry blocker with calmodulin binding properties and histamine H1 blocking activity. It is effective in the prophylaxis of migraine, occlusive peripheral vascular disease, vertigo of central and peripheral origin, and as an adjuvant in the therapy of epilepsy.
An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.
A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
Inorganic compounds that contain calcium as an integral part of the molecule.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
One of the POTASSIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS, with secondary effect on calcium currents, which is used mainly as a research tool and to characterize channel subtypes.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
A highly neurotoxic polypeptide from the venom of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). It consists of 18 amino acids with two disulfide bridges and causes hyperexcitability resulting in convulsions and respiratory paralysis.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.
Proteins that bind specific drugs with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Drug receptors are generally thought to be receptors for some endogenous substance not otherwise specified.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A dihydropyridine calcium antagonist with positive inotropic effects. It lowers blood pressure by reducing peripheral vascular resistance through a highly selective action on smooth muscle in arteriolar resistance vessels.
Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
ATP-BINDING CASSETTE PROTEINS that are highly conserved and widely expressed in nature. They form an integral part of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel complex which has two intracellular nucleotide folds that bind to sulfonylureas and their analogs.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The excitable plasma membrane of a muscle cell. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype that mediates the sodium ion PERMEABILITY of SKELETAL MYOCYTES. Defects in the SCN4A gene, which codes for the alpha subunit of this sodium channel, are associated with several MYOTONIC DISORDERS.
A family of voltage-gated eukaryotic porins that form aqueous channels. They play an essential role in mitochondrial CELL MEMBRANE PERMEABILITY, are often regulated by BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS, and have been implicated in APOPTOSIS.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
A proline analog that acts as a stoichiometric replacement of proline. It causes the production of abnormal proteins with impaired biological activity.
Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.

Multiple structural domains contribute to voltage-dependent inactivation of rat brain alpha(1E) calcium channels. (1/107)

We have investigated the molecular determinants that mediate the differences in voltage-dependent inactivation properties between rapidly inactivating (R-type) alpha(1E) and noninactivating (L-type) alpha(1C) calcium channels. When coexpressed in human embryonic kidney cells with ancillary beta(1b) and alpha(2)-delta subunits, the wild type channels exhibit dramatically different inactivation properties; the half-inactivation potential of alpha(1E) is 45 mV more negative than that observed with alpha(1C), and during a 150-ms test depolarization, alpha(1E) undergoes 65% inactivation compared with only about 15% for alpha(1C). To define the structural determinants that govern these intrinsic differences, we have created a series of chimeric calcium channel alpha(1) subunits that combine the major structural domains of the two wild type channels, and we investigated their voltage-dependent inactivation properties. Each of the four transmembrane domains significantly affected the half-inactivation potential, with domains II and III being most critical. In particular, substitution of alpha(1C) sequence in domains II or III with that of alpha(1E) resulted in 25-mV negative shifts in half-inactivation potential. Similarly, the differences in inactivation rate were predominantly governed by transmembrane domains II and III and to some extent by domain IV. Thus, voltage-dependent inactivation of alpha(1E) channels is a complex process that involves multiple structural domains and possibly a global conformational change in the channel protein.  (+info)

An R-type Ca(2+) current in neurohypophysial terminals preferentially regulates oxytocin secretion. (2/107)

Multiple types of voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels are involved in the regulation of neurotransmitter release (Tsien et al., 1991; Dunlap et al., 1995). In the nerve terminals of the neurohypophysis, the roles of L-, N-, and P/Q-type Ca(2+) channels in neuropeptide release have been identified previously (Wang et al., 1997a). Although the L- and N-type Ca(2+) currents play equivalent roles in both vasopressin and oxytocin release, the P/Q-type Ca(2+) current only regulates vasopressin release. An oxytocin-release and Ca(2+) current component is resistant to the L-, N-, and P/Q-type Ca(2+) channel blockers but is inhibited by Ni(2+). A new polypeptide toxin, SNX-482, which is a specific alpha(1E)-type Ca(2+) channel blocker (Newcomb et al., 1998), was used to characterize the biophysical properties of this resistant Ca(2+) current component and its role in neuropeptide release. This resistant component was dose dependently inhibited by SNX-482, with an IC(50) of 4.1 nM. Furthermore, SNX-482 did not affect the other Ca(2+) current types in these CNS terminals. Like the N- and P/Q-type Ca(2+) currents, this SNX-482-sensitive transient Ca(2+) current is high-threshold activated and shows moderate steady-state inactivation. At the same concentrations, SNX-482 blocked the component of oxytocin, but not of vasopressin, release that was resistant to the other channel blockers, indicating a preferential role for this type of Ca(2+) current in oxytocin release from neurohypophysial terminals. Our results suggest that an alpha(1E) or "R"-type Ca(2+) channel exists in oxytocinergic nerve terminals and, thus, functions in controlling only oxytocin release from the rat neurohypophysis.  (+info)

Developmental changes in calcium channel types mediating central synaptic transmission. (3/107)

Multiple types of high-voltage-activated Ca(2+) channels trigger neurotransmitter release at the mammalian central synapse. Among them, the omega-conotoxin GVIA-sensitive N-type channels and the omega-Aga-IVA-sensitive P/Q-type channels mediate fast synaptic transmission. However, at most central synapses, it is not known whether the contributions of different Ca(2+) channel types to synaptic transmission remain stable throughout postnatal development. We have addressed this question by testing type-specific Ca(2+) channel blockers at developing central synapses. Our results indicate that N-type channels contribute to thalamic and cerebellar IPSCs only transiently during early postnatal period and P/Q-type channels predominantly mediate mature synaptic transmission, as we reported previously at the brainstem auditory synapse formed by the calyx of Held. In fact, Ca(2+) currents directly recorded from the auditory calyceal presynaptic terminal were identified as N-, P/Q-, and R-types at postnatal day 7 (P7) to P10 but became predominantly P/Q-type at P13. In contrast to thalamic and cerebellar IPSCs and brainstem auditory EPSCs, N-type Ca(2+) channels persistently contribute to cerebral cortical EPSCs and spinal IPSCs throughout postnatal months. Thus, in adult animals, synaptic transmission is predominantly mediated by P/Q-type channels at a subset of synapses and mediated synergistically by multiple types of Ca(2+) channels at other synapses.  (+info)

alpha(1E) subunits form the pore of three cerebellar R-type calcium channels with different pharmacological and permeation properties. (4/107)

R-type Ca(2+) channels cooperate with P/Q- and N-type channels to control neurotransmitter release at central synapses. The leading candidate as pore-forming subunit of R-type channels is the alpha(1E) subunit. However, R-type Ca(2+) currents with permeation and/or pharmacological properties different from those of recombinant Ca(2+) channels containing alpha(1E) subunits have been described, and therefore the molecular nature of R-type Ca(2+) channels remains not completely settled. Here, we show that the R-type Ca(2+) current of rat cerebellar granule cells consists of two components inhibited with different affinity by the alpha(1E) selective antagonist SNX482 (IC(50) values of 6 and 81 nM) and a third component resistant to SNX482. The SNX482-sensitive R-type current shows the unique permeation properties of recombinant alpha(1E) channels; it is larger with Ca(2+) than with Ba(2+) as charge carrier, and it is highly sensitive to Ni(2+) block and has a voltage-dependence of activation consistent with that of G2 channels with unitary conductance of 15 pS. On the other hand, the SNX482-resistant R-type current shows permeation properties similar to those of recombinant alpha(1A) and alpha(1B) channels; it is larger with Ba(2+) than with Ca(2+) as charge carrier(,) and it has a low sensitivity to Ni(2+) block and a voltage-dependence of activation consistent with that of G3 channels with unitary conductance of 20 pS. Gene-specific knock-down by antisense oligonucleotides demonstrates that the different cerebellar R-type channels are all encoded by the alpha(1E) gene, suggesting the existence of alpha(1E) isoforms with different pore properties.  (+info)

Calcium currents in hair cells isolated from semicircular canals of the frog. (5/107)

L-type and R-type Ca(2+) currents were detected in frog semicircular canal hair cells. The former was noninactivating and nifedipine-sensitive (5 microM); the latter, partially inactivated, was resistant to omega-conotoxin GVIA (5 microM), omega-conotoxin MVIIC (5 microM), and omega-agatoxin IVA (0.4 microM), but was sensitive to mibefradil (10 microM). Both currents were sensitive to Ni(2+) and Cd(2+) (>10 microM). In some cells the L-type current amplitude increased almost twofold upon repetitive stimulation, whereas the R-type current remained unaffected. Eventually, run-down occurred for both currents, but was prevented by the protease inhibitor calpastatin. The R-type current peak component ran down first, without changing its plateau, suggesting that two channel types generate the R-type current. This peak component appeared at -40 mV, reached a maximal value at -30 mV, and became undetectable for voltages > or =0 mV, suggestive of a novel transient current: its inactivation was indeed reversibly removed when Ba(2+) was the charge carrier. The L-type current and the R-type current plateau were appreciable at -60 mV and peaked at -20 mV: the former current did not reverse for voltages up to +60 mV, the latter reversed between +30 and +60 mV due to an outward Cs(+) current flowing through the same Ca(2+) channel. The physiological role of these currents on hair cell function is discussed.  (+info)

The spider toxin omega-Aga IIIA defines a high affinity site on neuronal high voltage-activated calcium channels. (6/107)

The spider toxin omega-agatoxin IIIA (omega-Aga-IIIA) is a potent inhibitor of high voltage-activated calcium currents in the mammalian brain. To establish the biochemical parameters governing its action, we radiolabeled the toxin and examined its binding to native and recombinant calcium channels. In experiments with purified rat synaptosomal membranes, both kinetic and equilibrium data demonstrate one-to-one binding of omega-Aga-IIIA to a single population of high affinity sites, with K(d) = approximately 9 pm and B(max) = approximately 1.4 pmol/mg protein. Partial inhibition of omega-Aga-IIIA binding by omega-conotoxins GVIA, MVIIA, and MVIIC identifies N and P/Q channels as components of this population. omega-Aga-IIIA binds to recombinant alpha(1B) and alpha(1E) calcium channels with a similar high affinity (K(d) = approximately 5-9 pm) in apparent one-to-one fashion. Results from recombinant alpha(1B) binding experiments demonstrate virtually identical B(max) values for omega-Aga-IIIA and omega-conotoxin MVIIA, providing further evidence for a one-to-one stoichiometry of agatoxin binding to calcium channels. The combined evidence suggests that omega-Aga-IIIA defines a unique, high affinity binding site on N-, P/Q-, and R-type calcium channels.  (+info)

CaV2.2 and CaV2.3 (N- and R-type) Ca2+ channels in depolarization-evoked entry of Ca2+ into mouse sperm. (7/107)

As sperm prepare for fertilization, surface Ca(2+) channels must open to initiate required, Ca(2+)-mediated events. However, the molecular identity and functional properties of sperm Ca(2+) channels remain uncertain. Here, we use rapid local perfusion and single-cell photometry to examine the kinetics of calcium responses of mouse sperm to depolarizing stimuli. The linear rise of intracellular [Ca(2+)] evoked by approximately 10-s applications of an alkaline high [K(+)] medium directly reports activity of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels. Little response occurs if external Ca(2+) is removed or if external or internal pH is elevated without depolarization. Responses are inhibited 30-40% by 30-100 micrometer Ni(2+) and more completely by 100-300 micrometer Cd(2+). They resist the dihydropyridines nitrendipine and PN200-110, but 1-10 micrometer mibefradil inhibits reversibly. They also resist the venom toxins calciseptine, omega-conotoxin MVIIC, and kurtoxin, but omega-conotoxin GVIA (5 micrometer) inhibits approximately 50%. GVIA also partially blocks transient, low voltage activated Ca(2+) currents of patch-clamped spermatids. Differential sensitivity of sperm responses to Ni(2+) and Cd(2+) and partial blockade by GVIA indicate that depolarization opens at least two types of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels in epididymal sperm examined prior to capacitation. Involvement of a previously undetected Ca(V)2.2 (N-type) channel, suggested by the action of GVIA, is substantiated by immunodetection of Ca(2+) channel alpha(1B) subunits in sperm and sperm extracts. Resistance to dihydropyridines, calciseptine, MVIIC, and kurtoxin indicates that Ca(V)1, Ca(V)2.1, and Ca(V)3 (L-, P/Q-, and T-type) channels contribute little to this evoked response. Partial sensitivity to 1 micrometer mibefradil and an enhanced sensitivity of the GVIA-resistant component of response to Ni(2+) suggest participation of a Ca(V)2.3 (R-type) channel specified by previously found alpha(1E) subunits. Our examination of depolarization-evoked Ca(2+) entry indicates that mature sperm possess a larger palette of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels than previously thought. Such diversity may permit specific responses to multiple cues encountered on the path to fertilization.  (+info)

Altered pain responses in mice lacking alpha 1E subunit of the voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel. (8/107)

alpha(1) subunit of the voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channel is essential for channel function and determines the functional specificity of various channel types. alpha(1E) subunit was originally identified as a neuron-specific one, but the physiological function of the Ca(2+) channel containing this subunit (alpha(1E) Ca(2+) channel) was not clear compared with other types of Ca(2+) channels because of the limited availability of specific blockers. To clarify the physiological roles of the alpha(1E) Ca(2+) channel, we have generated alpha(1E) mutant (alpha(1E)-/-) mice by gene targeting. The lacZ gene was inserted in-frame and used as a marker for alpha(1E) subunit expression. alpha(1E)-/- mice showed reduced spontaneous locomotor activities and signs of timidness, but other general behaviors were apparently normal. As involvement of alpha(1E) in pain transmission was suggested by localization analyses with 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl beta-d-galactopyranoside staining, we conducted several pain-related behavioral tests using the mutant mice. Although alpha(1E)+/- and alpha(1E)-/- mice exhibited normal pain behaviors against acute mechanical, thermal, and chemical stimuli, they both showed reduced responses to somatic inflammatory pain. alpha(1E)+/- mice showed reduced response to visceral inflammatory pain, whereas alpha(1E)-/- mice showed apparently normal response compared with that of wild-type mice. Furthermore, alpha(1E)-/- mice that had been presensitized with a visceral noxious conditioning stimulus showed increased responses to a somatic inflammatory pain, in marked contrast with the wild-type mice in which long-lasting effects of descending antinociceptive pathway were predominant. These results suggest that the alpha(1E) Ca(2 +) channel controls pain behaviors by both spinal and supraspinal mechanisms.  (+info)

The R-type calcium channel is a type of voltage-dependent calcium channel. Like the others of this class, the α1 subunit forms the pore through which calcium enters the cell and determines most of the channels properties. This α1 subunit is also known as the calcium channel, voltage-dependent, R type, alpha 1E subunit (CACNA1E) or Cav2.3 which in humans is encoded by the CACNA1E gene. They are strongly expressed in cortex, hippocampus, striatum, amygdala and interpeduncular nucleus. They are poorly understood, but like Q-type calcium channels, they appear to be present in cerebellar granule cells. They have a high threshold of activation and relatively slow kinetics. Entrez Gene: CACNA1E calcium channel, voltage-dependent, R type, alpha 1E subunit. Soong TW, Stea A, Hodson CD, Dubel SJ, Vincent SR, Snutch TP (May 1993). Structure and functional expression of a member of the low voltage-activated calcium channel family. Science. 260 (5111): 1133-6. doi:10.1126/science.8388125. PMID ...
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. The isoform alpha-1E gives rise to R-type calcium currents.
R-type calcium channel calcium channel, voltage-dependent, R type, alpha 1E subunit Identifiers Symbol CACNA1E Alt. Symbols CACNL1A6 Entrez 777 HUGO 1392 OMIM
Ulises Meza, Ashish Thapliyal, Roger A Bannister, Brett A Adams. Mol. Pharmacol., 2007 Jan , 71, 284-93. Neurokinin (NK) 1 receptors and CaV2.3 calcium channels are both expressed in nociceptive neurons, and mice lacking either protein display altered responses to noxious stimuli. Here, we examined modulation of CaV2.3 through NK1 receptors expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. We find that NK1 receptors generate complex modulation of CaV2.3. In particular, weak activation of these receptors evokes mainly stimulation of CaV2.3, whereas strong receptor activation elicits profound inhibition that overlaps with channel stimulation. Unlike R-type channels encoded by CaV2.3, L-type (CaV1.3), N-type (CaV2.2), and P/Q-type (CaV2.1) channels are inhibited, but not stimulated, through NK1 receptors. Pharmacological experiments show that protein kinase C (PKC) mediates stimulation of CaV2.3 through NK1 receptors. The signaling mechanisms underlying inhibition were explored by expressing proteins ...
I used save states to practice for most games if they were available in MAME or other emulators. For example, R-Type took me three days to 1CC with save state practice. At my kuso level of skill I generally expect most games will take four days of 2 hours+ per day of save state practice to memorize. That is about a 5 in difficulty. Though various factors may also affect the final difficulty ratings (R-Type basically requiring a one life clear bumps it up a couple points). 1s were generally blind 1CCs. DDP DOJ, the only 10 in my ratings so far, took me 60 hours with focused practice. All final runs were done clean without save states. Much like learning an instrument, I firmly believe in trying to use the most efficient practice possible until you are ready to perform the real thing. Not all games have save state practice available like X-Box 360 only ports and that may affect difficulty ratings as well. I also generally used auto fire when available. I understand there will be some ...
Patients are randomized to receive SNX-111 or placebo (AS PER AMENDMENT 1/22/98: with randomization weighted 2:1 in favor of SNX-111) via external pump and an intrathecal catheter (thin tube inserted into the spinal canal). (AS PER AMENDMENT 1/22/98: the dose is increased every 24 hours, in the absence of onset of analgesia or adverse events. After 2-5 days, patients who respond to their medication continue treatment at home for 5-8 days. Patients who do not respond will be switched to the other regimen (i.e., placebo to SNX-111, or SNX-111 to placebo). After 10 days, responding patients are unblinded and asked to enroll in the long-term, open-label extension protocol. Patients remain on a fixed dose at the therapeutic level found in the previous study. The dose may be increased or decreased at the discretion of the investigator. Patients may continue therapy on a long-term basis until the drug is approved ...
Patients are randomized to receive SNX-111 or placebo (AS PER AMENDMENT 1/22/98: with randomization weighted 2:1 in favor of SNX-111) via external pump and an intrathecal catheter (thin tube inserted into the spinal canal). (AS PER AMENDMENT 1/22/98: the dose is increased every 24 hours, in the absence of onset of analgesia or adverse events. After 2-5 days, patients who respond to their medication continue treatment at home for 5-8 days. Patients who do not respond will be switched to the other regimen (i.e., placebo to SNX-111, or SNX-111 to placebo). After 10 days, responding patients are unblinded and asked to enroll in the long-term, open-label extension protocol. Patients remain on a fixed dose at the therapeutic level found in the previous study. The dose may be increased or decreased at the discretion of the investigator. Patients may continue therapy on a long-term basis until the drug is approved ...
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How is R-type pyruvate kinase abbreviated? R-PK stands for R-type pyruvate kinase. R-PK is defined as R-type pyruvate kinase rarely.
The two fundamental forms of short-term plasticity, short-term depression and facilitation, coexist at most synapses, but little is known about their interaction. Here, we studied the interplay between short-term depression and facilitation at calyx of Held synapses. Stimulation at a low frequency of 10 or 20 Hz, which is in the range of the spontaneous activity of these auditory neurons in vivo, induced synaptic depression. Surprisingly, an instantaneous increase of the stimulation frequency to 100 or 200 Hz following the low-frequency train uncovered a robust facilitation of EPSCs relative to the predepressed amplitude level. This facilitation decayed rapidly (similar to 30 ms) and depended on presynaptic residual Ca2+, but it was not caused by Ca2+ current facilitation. To probe the release probability of the remaining readily releasable vesicles following the low-frequency train we made presynaptic Ca2+ uncaging experiments in the predepressed state of the synapse. We found that low-frequency
The programming group which would eventually become Factor 5 had originally formed in the 1980s, in what cofounder Julian Eggebrecht described as a culture of hacking and multimedia programming on the local demo scene. Eggebrecht attended the Filmhochschule in Munich to become a movie director[citation needed], and all the other members studied computer science.[8]. While its founders were still university students, Factor 5 started out in game development as a part-time activity under partnership with Rainbow Arts for the Amiga computer. There, they had their earliest moderate success with Katakis, an R-Type clone of impressive technical performance.[citation needed] Due to the games obvious similarity to R-Type, rights holder Activision Europe delivered an ultimatum: either Factor 5 accept a contract to perform the official R-Type conversion for the Amiga home computer, or receive a lawsuit for rights infringement. According to Julian Eggebrecht, this was because Activision couldnt find any ...
I hate to be a negative nelly, but the second trailer doesnt bode well IMO. Shitty Euroshmup techno, some lame and rushed looking intro (the way the ship moves is ridiculous), and the fact that there seems to be some inertia present (WTF) quickly made me lose interest in the game. I also agree they should focus on making 8 or so really good levels instead of bloating the game with what are bound to be mediocre filler levels ...
Lu Yihe, Y Timofeeva 2016 Response functions for electrically coupled neuronal network: a method of local point matching and its applications Biological Cybernetics, pp 1-17, doi: 10.1007/s00422-016-0681-y. Y Timofeeva, K Volynski 2015 Calmodulin as a major calcium buffer shaping vesicular release and short-term synaptic plasticity: facilitation through buffer dislocation Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 9:239, doi: 10.3389/fncel.2015.00239. Y S Ermolyuk, F G Alder, R Surges, I Y Pavlov, Y Timofeeva, D M Kullmann, K E Volynski 2013 Differential triggering of spontaneous glutamate release by P/Q-, N- and R-type Ca2+ channels, Nature Neuroscience, 16, 1754-1763, doi:10.1038/nn.3563. Y Timofeeva, S Coombes Network response of gap junction coupled dendrites, in Dendritic Computations through Morphology and Connectivity, Springer, 2013. Y Timofeeva Complexity and Chaos in Dynamical Systems, in Masters of Complexity Science, the London Mathematical Society Lecture Note Series, 2013. Y Timofeeva, ...
Long cycling life is one prerequisite for the commercial application of hydrogen storage materials. The cycling stability of a promising Mg + Mg2Ni + YH2 hydrogen storage nanocomposite made by hydrogen-induced decomposition of the 18R-type long period stacking ordered (LPSO) structure is investigated. At 300
Voltage-gated sodium channels, which initiate action potentials in mammalian brain neurons, are modulated functionally by cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA), resulting in reduced sodium current amplitude. Comparing brain and muscle sodium channels, we show that only the brain channel is modulated by PKA. The brain sodium channel I-II linker is both necessary and sufficient for PKA modulation, as shown by exchanging the I-II linker regions of the two channels. PKA consensus sites in the brain channel I-II linker were eliminated by deletion and site-specific mutagenesis. The mutant channels demonstrated decreased levels of phosphorylation when metabolically labeled in oocytes with [gamma-32P]-ATP, and they did not respond with a reduction in current magnitude after PKA induction. Modulation of the brain channel by PKA phosphorylation was mimicked by adding fixed negative charges at the PKA consensus sites, suggesting that the decrease in current was a direct result of the negative charge at one ...
Since May 2013, 17 pts were enrolled. No dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) were reported in the first cohort (SNX-5422 50 mg/m2 + E), but DLTs (diarrhoea) were reported by 2 pts in the second cohort (SNX-5422 75 mg/m2 + E). Adverse events possibly related to the combination in ≥ 4 of 17 pts in were diarrhoea, nausea, fatigue, dry eyes, paronychia, and rash, all graded 1 or 2; except for 2 cases of grade 3 diarrhoea. No cardiovascular, renal or hepatic toxicities have been observed. 1 Pt reported mild, reversible nictalopia at the DLT level of SNX-5422 75 mg/m2 + E. Pts received a median of two cycles (range 1-6), and 3 remain on study. No partial responses have been seen in 15 evaluable pts; 1 ongoing pt had an 18% decrease from baseline in target lesions in Cycle 4. Stable disease was the best response in 4 pts at 8 wks, 3 pts at 16 weeks and 1 pt at 24 weeks. ...
Since May 2013, 17 pts were enrolled. No dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) were reported in the first cohort (SNX-5422 50 mg/m2 + E), but DLTs (diarrhoea) were reported by 2 pts in the second cohort (SNX-5422 75 mg/m2 + E). Adverse events possibly related to the combination in ≥ 4 of 17 pts in were diarrhoea, nausea, fatigue, dry eyes, paronychia, and rash, all graded 1 or 2; except for 2 cases of grade 3 diarrhoea. No cardiovascular, renal or hepatic toxicities have been observed. 1 Pt reported mild, reversible nictalopia at the DLT level of SNX-5422 75 mg/m2 + E. Pts received a median of two cycles (range 1-6), and 3 remain on study. No partial responses have been seen in 15 evaluable pts; 1 ongoing pt had an 18% decrease from baseline in target lesions in Cycle 4. Stable disease was the best response in 4 pts at 8 wks, 3 pts at 16 weeks and 1 pt at 24 weeks. ...
September 24, 2012 DuPont Nutrition & Health has announced a strategic collaboration with AvidBiotics Corp. to develop novel bactericidal protein technologies. Through this agreement, which includes a DuPont Ventures equity investment, DuPont will gain exclusive, worldwide rights to the technologies for food and food protection applications.. AvidBiotics develops novel, non-antibody proteins targeted against bacteria, viral infections, and cancer. AvidBiotics antibacterial technology is based on R-type bacteriocins (proteins with bactericidal activity). These proteins recognize target bacteria by binding to specific receptors on the bacterial surface, then disrupting the cell envelope to kill the organism promptly. In theory, R-type bacteriocins can be developed against any pathogenic bacteria or spoilage organism of interest.. Ensuring the safety, freshness, and quality of products throughout shelf life is at the top of the food industry agenda, and we are excited by the prospect of ...
... reversibly blocks N-type calcium channels. In addition, it has a low affinity for L or P/Q-type channels. The mechanism by ... Ptu1 is a toxin that can reversibly bind N-type calcium channels. Its isolated from the assassin bug Peirates turpis. The toxin ... Second, Ptu1 has a relatively low binding affinity for N-type calcium channels compared to MVIIA. A possible explanation for ... a toxin from the assassin bug Peirates turpis that blocks the voltage-sensitive calcium channel N-type". Biochemistry. 40 (43 ...
... type-1) and atypical (type-2). They are both caused by mutations in CACNA1C, the gene encoding the calcium channel Cav1.2 α ... With the characterization of Timothy syndrome mutations indicating that they cause defects in calcium currents, calcium channel ... "Severe arrhythmia disorder caused by cardiac L-type calcium channel mutations". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 102 (23): 8089-8096. ... However, it was linked with calcium channel abnormalities in 2004, and the disorder was thence named "Timothy syndrome" in ...
... is a calcium channel blocker, specifically of the phenylalkylamine type. This type is separate from its more common ... which is the most common type of phenylalkylamine style calcium channel blocker. Anipamil has been shown to be a more effective ... Raddino, Riccardo; Poli, Enzo; Pasini, Evasio; Ferrari, Roberto (1992-09-01). "Effects of the novel calcium channel blocker, ... "The effects of dihydropyridine and phenylalkylamine calcium antagonist classes on autonomic function in hypertension: the ...
... acts as a selective N-type voltage-gated calcium channel blocker. This action inhibits the release of pro- ... Klotz U (2006). "Ziconotide-a novel neuron-specific calcium channel blocker for the intrathecal treatment of severe chronic ... Miljanich GP (2004). "Ziconotide: neuronal calcium channel blocker for treating severe chronic pain". Curr Med Chem. 11 (23): ...
It binds more effectively with L-type calcium channels in smooth muscle cells because of its lower resting membrane potential. ... In hypertension, the binding of nitrendipine causes a decrease in the probability of open L-type calcium channels and reduces ... "Molecular determinants of high affinity dihydropyridine binding in L-type calcium channels". The Journal of Biological ... nitrendipine diffuses into the membrane and binds to its high affinity binding site on the inactivated L-type calcium channel ...
Firstly, it directly opens L-type calcium channels (LTCC) in the plasma membrane. Secondly, it renders adenylate cyclase ... Furthermore, in nodal cells such as in the SA node, cAMP directly binds to and opens the HCN channels, increasing their open ... Due to this, more calcium enters the SR and is therefore available for the next contraction. LTCC phosphorylatation increases ... Conversely, TnI phosphorylation results in its facilitated dissociation of calcium from troponin C (TnC) which speeds the ...
... is a calcium channel blocker. Lacroix P, Linee P, Forest MC (January 1991). "Diproteverine (BRL 40015): a new type of calcium ...
Ritz, Beate; Rhodes, Shannon L; Qian, Lei; Schernhammer, Eva; Olsen, Jorgen; Friis, Soren (2009). "L-type calcium channel ... Lang, Yakun; Gong, Dandan; Fan, Yu (2015). "Calcium channel blocker use and risk of Parkinson's disease: A meta-analysis". ... Gudala, Kapil; Kanukula, Raju; Bansal, Dipika (2015). "Reduced Risk of Parkinson's Disease in Users of Calcium Channel Blockers ... Pasternak, Björn; Svanström, Henrik; Nielsen, Nete M; Fugger, Lars; Melbye, Mads; Hviid, Anders (2012). "Use of Calcium Channel ...
... are also involved in regulation of channels and in calcium signaling. Caveolae also participate in lipid regulation. ... This type of endocytosis is used, for example, for transcytosis of albumin in endothelial cells or for internalization of the ... Caveolae have been shown to be required for the protection of cells from mechanical stress in multiple tissue types such as the ... In biology, caveolae (Latin for "little caves"; singular, caveola), which are a special type of lipid raft, are small (50-100 ...
Another Kunitz-type protein present is calcicludine, which blocks high-voltage-activated calcium channels. Individually, most ... is a potent blocker of high-threshold Ca2+ channels with a high affinity for L-type channels in cerebellar granule neurons". ... Another prominent component is a group of proteins known as dendrotoxins; although structurally homologous to Kunitz-type ... a venom peptide of the Kunitz-type protease inhibitor family, ... they block voltage-dependent potassium channels, stimulating ...
Mason, R.P.; Marche, P.; Hintze, T.H. (December 2003). "Novel Vascular Biology of Third-Generation L-Type Calcium Channel ... Calcium channel blockers are medications that prevent the movement of calcium ions across calcium channels. They can be used to ... Amlodipine, hydralazine and dihydropyridine are examples of calcium channel blockers. Other medications such as angiotensin- ... Common types of aneurysm include abdominal aortic aneurysm, thoracic aortic aneurysm and intracranial aneurysm. Most types of ...
... (INN) is an L-type calcium channel blocker that is an analog of verapamil. It is used in the treatment of abnormal ... Sewing KF, Hannemann H (1983). "Calcium channel antagonists verapamil and gallopamil are powerful inhibitors of acid secretion ...
... s exert their insecticidal effect by interacting with ryanodine receptors, a type of calcium channel. This causes loss ...
"Tolperisone-type drugs inhibit spinal reflexes via blockade of voltage-gated sodium and calcium channels". Journal of ... muscle relaxant that acts at the reticular formation in the brain stem by blocking voltage-gated sodium and calcium channels. ... "A comparative study of the action of tolperisone on seven different voltage dependent sodium channel isoforms". European ...
The antibodies attack the voltage-gated calcium channels of the P/Q type.(reference 35) Abnormal activity of this ion channel, ... Mechanism of action can also impair the calcium channels that induce exocytosis of the vesicles. Other ion channels can also be ... The difference is that LEMS is a result of an autoimmune response on the voltage-gated calcium channels of the presynaptic ... in intracellular calcium concentration by causing an increase in ion conductance through voltage gated calcium channels. This ...
... and N-type calcium channel blocker. It is reno- and cardioprotective. It was patented in 1981 and approved for medical use in ... Benidipine is a calcium channel blocker. Benidipine has additionally been found to act as an antagonist of the ... Benidipine is a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker for the treatment of high blood pressure (hypertension). It is a triple ...
This was initially shown by Rodolfo Llinas (Llinas and Hess (1977) and Llinas and Sugimori (1980)). P-type calcium channels ... The P channel". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 560 (1 Calcium Chann): 103-11. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1989.tb24084.x. PMID 2545128. ... They are caused by climbing fiber activation and can involve the generation of calcium-mediated action potentials in the ... PCP4 accelerates both the association and dissociation of calcium (Ca2+) with calmodulin (CaM) in the cytoplasm of Purkinje ...
... reduces high potassium induced smooth muscle contraction, suggesting a blocking effect on L-type calcium channels. One ... suggesting a blocking effect on L-type calcium channels. Triflin is a toxin derived from snake venom. The toxin is produced in ... "Crystal structure of a CRISP family calcium-channel blocker derived from snake venom". Journal of Molecular Biology. 350 (4): ... two snake-venom cysteine-rich secretory proteins that target cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels". Acta Crystallogr F. 61 (Pt ...
"Pharmacological characterization of recombinant N-type calcium channel (Cav2.2) mediated calcium mobilization using FLIPR". ... a selective ligand that labels sigma-type receptors for psychotomimetic opiates and antipsychotic drugs". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ... a comparative analysis by antidepressant type". Journal of Medical Toxicology. 4 (4): 238-50. doi:10.1007/BF03161207. PMC ...
"An L-type calcium-channel gene mutated in incomplete X-linked congenital stationary night blindness". Nat Genet. 19 (3): 260- ... "The CACNA1F gene encodes an L-type calcium channel with unique biophysical properties and tissue distribution". J Neurosci. 24 ... and W1440X alter channel gating or functional expression of Ca(v)1.4 L-type Ca2+ channels". J Neurosci. 25 (1): 252-259. doi: ... "Mutation of the calcium channel gene Cacna1f disrupts calcium signaling, synaptic transmission and cellular organization in ...
... class L-type calcium channel blockers include, in alphabetical order (brand names vary in different countries ... Calcium channel blocker (including section on non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers) Calcium channel Dihydropyridine ... They are particularly well known in pharmacology as L-type calcium channel blockers, used in the treatment of hypertension. ... Compared with certain other L-type calcium channel blockers (for example those of the phenylalkylamine class such as verapamil ...
The vasodilating effects of sulfur dioxide are mediated via ATP-dependent calcium channels and L-type ("dihydropyridine") ... Cyclic-GMP activates protein kinase G, which causes reuptake of Ca2+ and the opening of calcium-activated potassium channels. ... Hydrogen sulfide is also involved in the disease process of type 1 diabetes. The beta cells of the pancreas in type 1 diabetes ... calcium channels. Endogenous sulfur dioxide is also a potent antiinflammatory, antioxidant and cytoprotective agent. It lowers ...
It is a toxin that inhibits cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels and blocks L-type calcium channels, thereby reducing smooth ... suggesting that it blocks L-type calcium channels. Its mode of action is similar to that of some other snake venom toxins from ... They also inhibit cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels. Other snake venom proteins in the CRISP family: Ablomin from the ...
"Impaired functional communication between the L-type calcium channel and mitochondria contributes to metabolic inhibition in ... she recently identified a communication problem between a calcium channel in muscle cells and the protein dystrophin, which may ...
The relative permeability of calcium and magnesium varies widely among TRPM channels. TRPM4 and TRPM5 are impermeable to ... TRPM6 and TRPM7, for example, contain functional α-kinase segments, which are a type of serine/threonine-specific protein ... Among the functional responsibilities of the TRPM channels are: regulation of calcium oscillations after T cell activation and ... TRPM is a family of transient receptor potential ion channels (M standing for wikt:melastatin). Functional TRPM channels are ...
... can block the vasoconstriction in a dose-dependent manner due to the inhibition of L-type calcium channels. Such ... Induces Relaxation of the Coronary Artery Through the Calcium Channel and cGMP-dependent Pathway". Planta medica, 86(10), 708- ...
Results from the ALLHAT trial showed that thiazide-type diuretics and calcium channel blockers were both more effective as ... Although clinical evidence shows calcium channel blockers and thiazide-type diuretics are preferred first-line treatments for ... Calcium channel blockers block the entry of calcium into muscle cells in artery walls. dihydropyridines: amlodipine cilnidipine ... recommends calcium channel blockers to be a first-line treatment either as monotherapy or in combination with thiazide-type ...
"A Brief History of Calcium Channel Discovery" (PDF), in Gerald Zamponi (ed.), Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels, Eurekah.com and ... Under his supervision, two types of calcium currents were discovered: high-voltage activated and low-voltage activated. He also ... 27-47 Kostyuk, P. G., Mironov, S. L., and Shuba, Y. M. (1983). "Two ion-selecting filters in the calcium channel of the somatic ... He was the first to prove directly the presence of calcium channels in neuronal cell membranes. ...
This oscillation is caused by the activation of leaky P/Q-type calcium channels found in the dendrites of the cells. Because of ... Both types of TC neurons synapse on the pyramidal cortical cells which are thought to integrate the signals. In this way, ... The thalamic neurons are typically one of three types: thalamocortical, with axons extending into the cortex, reticular, and ... the leaky channel properties, spontaneous, inherent oscillation can also occur independent of any rhythmic input as well, ...
Specific ion channel isoforms such as Nav1.7 and Nav1.8 sodium channels and Cav3.2 T-type calcium channels have distinct pro- ... Wild-type mice exhibited an antinociceptive effect ten times that of OPM1 knockouts. However, the OPRM1 knockouts still ... Voltage-gated ion channels are implicated in pain sensation and transmission signaling mechanisms within both peripheral ... 2011). "A novel slow-inactivation-specific ion channel modulator attenuates neuropathic pain". Pain. 152 (4): 833-843. doi: ...
Models of this type are typically built in large simulation platforms like GENESIS or NEURON. There have been some attempts to ... With the emergence of two-photon microscopy and calcium imaging, we now have powerful experimental methods with which to test ... Voltage sensitive ion channels are glycoprotein molecules which extend through the lipid bilayer, allowing ions to traverse ... "Intracellular Calcium Dynamics Permit a Purkinje Neuron Model to Perform Toggle and Gain Computations Upon its Inputs" ...
The type of leaf is usually characteristic of a species (monomorphic), although some species produce more than one type of leaf ... Veins sunken below the surface, resulting in a rounded channel. Sometimes confused with "guttered" because the channels may ... Cote, G. G. (2009). "Diversity and distribution of idioblasts producing calcium oxalate crystals in Dieffenbachia seguine ( ... Analyses of vein patterns often fall into consideration of the vein orders, primary vein type, secondary vein type (major veins ...
Other research has also suggested that calcium flow through N-type calcium channels is essential for normal breathing, and is ... L-type calcium channels are known to increase the frequency of action potentials in some neurons, which might be the reason ... P/Q-type calcium channels are mainly responsible for the release of neurotransmitters that excite, or activate, postsynaptic ... Fictive sigh depends critically on synaptic mechanisms that involve P/Q type calcium channels, suggestive of a subset of ...
... which opens ion channels (largely sodium channels, though calcium can enter through these channels as well). The positive ... One type of photosensitive pigment Three types of photosensitive pigment in humans ... This change in the cell's membrane potential causes voltage-gated calcium channels to close. This leads to a decrease in the ... A decrease in the intracellular calcium concentration means that less glutamate is released via calcium-induced exocytosis to ...
The microscopic structure of conifer wood consists of two types of cells: parenchyma, which have an oval or polyhedral shape ... The eggs hatch in about 2 weeks, and the tiny larvae tunnel to the wood and score its surface with their feeding channels. With ... calcium, magnesium, and sulfur, all used in relatively large amounts (Buckman and Brady 1969).[31] Nutrient concentrations in ... All three types or reproductive cycles have a long gap in between pollination and fertilization. ...
Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine ... They form various types of oxides, such as simple oxides (containing the O2− ion), peroxides (containing the O2−. 2 ion, where ... Hellgren, Mikko; Sandberg, Lars; Edholm, Olle (2006). "A comparison between two prokaryotic potassium channels (KirBac1.1 and ... A wheel type radiotherapy device which has a long collimator to focus the radiation into a narrow beam. The caesium-137 ...
... is a hypothesized type of nuclear reaction that would occur at, or near, room temperature. This is compared with ... 265-268 "(...) the equality of the two channels is known to be preserved from high energy through 20 keV and down to about 5 ... Several medium and heavy elements like calcium, titanium, chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, copper and zinc have been reported ... Nuclear fusion of the type postulated would be inconsistent with current understanding and, if verified, would require ...
The link was a single nucleotide polymorphism of two genes involved in calcium channel signaling with neurons. One of these ... Phenylalanine is ingested through food, so a diet should decrease types of foods that have high amounts of phenylalanine. Foods ... Both males and females with larger combs have higher bone density and strength, which allows females to deposit more calcium ... the part of the bone that transfers calcium into developing eggshells) are located at the same locus as the gene affecting comb ...
Diets of this type include NCEP Step I and II. A meta-analysis of 16 trials of 2-12 months' duration found that low-fat diets ( ... "Mitochondrial Ion Channels: Gatekeepers of Life and Death". Physiology. 20 (5): 303-315. doi:10.1152/physiol.00020.2005. ISSN ... The American Diabetes Association recommended a low carbohydrate diet to reduce weight for those with or at risk of Type 2 ... Trapp, Caroline B.; Barnard, Neal D. (2010-04-01). "Usefulness of vegetarian and vegan diets for treating type 2 diabetes". ...
calcium channel activity. • aspartic-type endopeptidase activity. • endopeptidase activity. • hydrolase activity. • aspartic ... The study showed that presenilin-1 is down regulated in cell type while it is overexpressed in the other cell type.[27] Another ... endoplasmic reticulum calcium ion homeostasis. • response to oxidative stress. • autophagosome assembly. • positive regulation ... smooth endoplasmic reticulum calcium ion homeostasis. • synaptic vesicle targeting. • Cajal-Retzius cell differentiation. • ...
They include the myoga (Zingiber mioga), the several types of galangal, the fingerroot (Boesenbergia rotunda), and the bitter ... States in which ginger is exported follow the marketing channels of vegetable marketing in India, and the steps are similar to ... Ginger has the ability to grow in a wide variety of land types and areas, however is best produced when grown in a warm, humid ... On the island of Corfu, Greece, a traditional drink called τσιτσιμπύρα (tsitsibira), a type of ginger beer, is made. The people ...
Calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit (also known as Cav1.2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by ... This gene encodes an alpha-1 subunit of a voltage-dependent calcium channel. Calcium channels mediate the influx of calcium ... calcium channel activity. • metal ion binding. • voltage-gated ion channel activity. • ion channel activity. • protein binding ... high voltage-gated calcium channel activity. • voltage-gated calcium channel activity involved in AV node cell action potential ...
embryonic camera-type eye morphogenesis. • post-embryonic camera-type eye development. • positive regulation of T cell cytokine ... Wnt signaling pathway, calcium modulating pathway. • Wnt signaling pathway, planar cell polarity pathway. • beta-catenin ... "IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology.. ... embryonic camera-type eye development. • multicellular organism development. • cell surface receptor signaling pathway. • ...
Calcium supports child growth in many varying ways. Common sources of calcium are found in dates, grapefruit,oranges, celery, ... Better Health Channel. 2015-02-09. Retrieved 03/04/2015. Check date values in: ,access-date= (help) "Healthy Kids Association ... Data also proposed a decrease in weight gain as a result of increased consumption lessens the risk of developing diabetes type ... A diet rich with Calcium, Vitamin C, B Vitamins, Iodine and Zinc ensures a growing child receives the most benefits from the ...
Epithelial sodium channel blockers: amiloride and triamterene.. Calcium-sparing diureticsEdit. The term "calcium-sparing ... TypesEdit. High ceiling/loop diureticEdit. High ceiling diuretics may cause a substantial diuresis - up to 20%[3] of the ... The reduced concentration of calcium in the urine can lead to an increased rate of calcium in serum. The sparing effect on ... calcium chloride, ammonium chloride 1. Arginine vasopressin. receptor 2 antagonists amphotericin B, lithium[13][14]. Inhibits ...
Manufacturers do not state which particular type of capsaicinoids are used. Personal pepper sprays can range from a low of 0.18 ... because there are six different types of capsaicinoids, causing different levels of irritation. ... See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Ion channel modulators. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title= ...
NMDA receptor activation by rapid successive firing allows calcium influx in addition to sodium. The calcium influx triggered ... Certain types of physical exercise have been shown to markedly (threefold) increase BDNF synthesis in the human brain, a ... will communicate regularly and maintain the synapse structure and function long after the initial activation of NMDA channels. ... Promoter IV activity, leading to the translation of exon IV-containing mRNA, is strongly stimulated by calcium and is primarily ...
TypesEdit. There are three types of dentin, primary, secondary and tertiary.[13][14] Secondary dentin is a layer of dentin ... It is made up of 70% inorganic materials (mainly hydroxylapatite and some non-crystalline amorphous calcium phosphate), 20% ... Dentine consists of microscopic channels, called dentinal tubules, which radiate outward through the dentine from the pulp to ... It is of two types, either reactionary, where dentin is formed from a pre-existing odontoblast, or reparative, where newly ...
Calcium concentrations falling below the needs of some freshwater organisms. *The additive-and possibly synergistic-effects of ... which underlies many larger rivers and can contain substantially more water than is seen in the open channel. It may also be in ... are types of freshwater systems. ...
Ion channel. modulators. Calcium blockers. *Gabapentin. *Gabapentin enacarbil. *Mirogabalin. *Pregabalin. *Ziconotide. Sodium ...
... calcium channel blockers) ବା ବିଟା ବ୍ଲକର (beta blockers) ଦିଆଯାଏ । ଦୀର୍ଘକାଳୀନ ଭିତ୍ତିରେ କେତେକ ଲୋକଙ୍କର ଆସ୍ପିରିନ (aspirin) ବା ... "Types of Arrhythmia". NHLBI. July 1, 2011.. .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{ ...
Varying amounts of potassium, sodium, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc were present.[81] ... reported that in Arabia locusts were eaten frequently and one Arab described to a European traveler the different types of ... Visual neuron of the locust, Ri Channel video, October 2011. *FAO Locust Watch ...
This type of fracture occurs only in very homogeneous minerals. Other types of fracture are fibrous, splintery, and hackly. The ... In a limestone, calcite or aragonite (both CaCO3) form because the rock is rich in calcium and carbonate. A corollary is that a ... They form in the presence of water at low temperatures and pressures, and have channels and voids in their structure. Zeolites ... These rocks may consist of one type of mineral, or may be an aggregate of two or more different types of minerals, spacially ...
These holes are proteins that are called calcium channels. The calcium ions rush into the cell. Calcium also comes out of a ... Types of muscles[change , change source]. There are three kinds of muscles: *Skeletal muscle, the muscle attached to bones. ... This calcium sticks to the specialized proteins actin and myosin. This triggers these proteins to contract the muscle. ...
... but could relate to actions of the drug on voltage-activated calcium channels. Lamotrigine blocks T-type calcium channels ... It also blocks L-, N-, and P-type calcium channels and has weak 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT3) receptor inhibition. These ... However, it does inhibit native and recombinant high-voltage-activated calcium channels (N- and P/Q/R-types) at therapeutic ... Whether this activity on calcium channels accounts for lamotrigine's broader clinical spectrum of activity in comparison with ...
regulation of intracellular calcium activated chloride channel activity. • negative regulation of dendritic spine maintenance. ... type 5 metabotropic glutamate receptor binding. • type 8 metabotropic glutamate receptor binding. • signaling receptor activity ... calcium-mediated signaling using intracellular calcium source. • negative regulation of catalytic activity. • positive ... ion channel binding. • microtubule binding. • ATP-dependent protein binding. • metal ion binding. • tubulin binding. • protein ...
General: β-receptor blockers ("beta blockers"), calcium channel blockers, diuretics, cardiac glycosides, antiarrhythmics, ... Types of medicinesEdit. For the digestive systemEdit. *Upper digestive tract: antacids, reflux suppressants, antiflatulents, ... calcium channel blockers, thiazide diuretics, loop diuretics, aldosterone inhibitors. *Coagulation: anticoagulants, heparin, ...
Calcium channel blockers. *renin-angiotensin system *ACE inhibitors. *Angiotensin II receptor antagonists ... Types[edit]. *5-HT3 receptor antagonists block serotonin receptors in the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract. As ... cation uptake by the receptor channel and contraction of isolated guinea-pig ileum", Eur J Pharmacol, 530 (1-2): 136-43, doi: ...
Ion channel modulators. Calcium. VDCCs. Blockers. *L-type-selective: Dihydropyridines: Amlodipine. *Aranidipine ... The cause is thought to be blockade of hERG voltage-gated potassium channels.[41][42] The risks are dose-dependent, and appear ... the voltage-gated potassium channel KCNH2 gene (hERG/Kv11.1), and the α1D-adrenoceptor ADRA1D gene.[58] ... thereby being free of the extrapyramidal side effects that were associated with drugs of this type.[70] This led to the ...
R type, alpha 1E subunit Identifiers Symbol CACNA1E Alt. Symbols CACNL1A6 Entrez 777 HUGO 1392 OMIM ... R-type calcium channel calcium channel, voltage-dependent, ... Calcium channel. Voltage-dependent calcium channel (L-type/Cavα ... The R-type calcium channel is a type of voltage-dependent calcium channel. Like the others of this class, the α1 subunit is the ... 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4), N-type, P-type/Cavα(2.1), Q-type, R-type, T-type, β-subunits (β1, β2, β4), γ-subunits (γ2) • Inositol ...
Neurokinin 1 receptors trigger overlapping stimulation and inhibition of CaV2.3 (R-type) calcium channels.. Ulises Meza, Ashish ... Unlike R-type channels encoded by CaV2.3, L-type (CaV1.3), N-type (CaV2.2), and P/Q-type (CaV2.1) channels are inhibited, but ... This new information concerning R-type calcium channels and NK1 receptors may help in understanding nociception, synaptic ... Neurokinin (NK) 1 receptors and CaV2.3 calcium channels are both expressed in nociceptive neurons, and mice lacking either ...
The Q-type calcium channel is a type of voltage-dependent calcium channel. Like the others of this class, the α1 subunit is the ... They are poorly understood, but like R-type calcium channels, they appear to be present in cerebellar granule cells. They have ... Q-Type+Calcium+Channel at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ... one that determines most of the channels properties. ...
Calcium channel blockers are a common type of medication for high blood pressure and heart conditions. We discuss how these ... What is a calcium channel blocker?. Share on Pinterest. A doctor may prescribe calcium channel blockers to treat high blood ... Types and examples. There are two different types of calcium channel blocker, which are called dihydropyridines and ... Calcium channel blockers are a type of medication that people take to increase the flow of blood and oxygen to the heart. ...
T-type calcium channels in burst-firing, network synchrony, and epilepsy.. Cain SM1, Snutch TP. ... In this review we summarize recent findings concerning the role of T-type calcium channels in burst-firing and discuss how they ... Low voltage-activated (LVA) T-type calcium channels are well regarded as a key mechanism underlying the generation of neuronal ... Publication types, MeSH terms, Substances, Grant support. Publication types. *Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt ...
Calcium channel blockers are drugs used to lower blood pressure. Learn more from WebMD about how they work and their side ... certain drugs may interact with calcium channel blockers.. How Should I Take Calcium Channel Blockers?. Most calcium channel ... Interactions With Calcium Channel Blockers Calcium channel blockers are drugs used to lower blood pressure. They work by ... Side Effects of Calcium Channel Blockers. Potential side effects from taking a calcium channel blocker include:. * Dizziness or ...
... which inhibits the T-type calcium channel Cav3.2. This calcium channel was highly expressed in human GBM specimens and enriched ... Targetable T-type Calcium Channels Drive Glioblastoma. Ying Zhang, Nichola Cruickshanks, Fang Yuan, Baomin Wang, Mary Pahuski, ... Targetable T-type Calcium Channels Drive Glioblastoma. Ying Zhang, Nichola Cruickshanks, Fang Yuan, Baomin Wang, Mary Pahuski, ... Targetable T-type Calcium Channels Drive Glioblastoma. Ying Zhang, Nichola Cruickshanks, Fang Yuan, Baomin Wang, Mary Pahuski, ...
... were prepared and tested for N-type calcium channel inhibition in a SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma FLIPR assay. N-type or Cav2.2 channel ... Keywords: N-type calcium channel; Cav2.2; channel blocker; pain; FLIPR N-type calcium channel; Cav2.2; channel blocker; pain; ... were prepared and tested for N-type calcium channel inhibition in a SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma FLIPR assay. N-type or Cav2.2 channel ... Inhibition of N-Type Calcium Channels by Fluorophenoxyanilide Derivatives. Ellen C. Gleeson 1,2. ...
Mus musculus calcium channel, voltage-dependent, T type, alpha 1G subunit (Cacna... Mus musculus calcium channel, voltage- ... Mus musculus calcium channel, voltage-dependent, T type, alpha 1G subunit (Cacna1g), transcript variant 3, mRNA. NCBI Reference ... See the reference protein sequence for voltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1G isoform c (NP_001171359.1). ... Calcium Regulation in the Cardiac Cell Calcium Regulation in the Cardiac CellCalcium is a common signaling mechanism, as once ...
Voltage-dependent calcium channel, L-type, alpha-1 subunit (IPR005446) *Voltage-dependent calcium channel, L-type, alpha-1S ... while the Cav3 family mediates T-type calcium currents.. L-type calcium channels are formed from alpha-1S, alpha-1C, alpha-1D, ... The Cav1 family forms channels mediating L-type calcium currents, the Cav2 family mediates P/Q-, N-, and R-type calcium ... Nomenclature of voltage-gated calcium channels.. Neuron 25 533-5 2000. Triggle DJ. 1,4-Dihydropyridines as calcium channel ...
2011) Location of release sites and calcium-activated chloride channels relative to calcium channels at the photoreceptor ... Lateral Mobility of Presynaptic L-Type Calcium Channels at Photoreceptor Ribbon Synapses. Aaron J. Mercer, Minghui Chen and ... 2004) Role of lipid microdomains in P/Q-type calcium channel (Cav2.1) clustering and function in presynaptic membranes. J Biol ... 2004) The CACNA1F gene encodes an L-type calcium channel with unique biophysical properties and tissue distribution. J Neurosci ...
... the possible role of auxiliary subunit composition of the channels in Angiotensin II modulation of L-type calcium channels has ... Angiotensin II regulation of L-type calcium currents in cardiac muscle is controversial and the underlying signaling events are ... L-type calcium channel β subunit modulates angiotensin II responses in cardiomyocytes Channels (Austin). May-Jun 2011;5(3):280- ... the possible role of auxiliary subunit composition of the channels in Angiotensin II modulation of L-type calcium channels has ...
... and R-type Ca2+ channels are replaced by P/Q-type Ca2+ channels with development. In contrast, multiple types of Ca2+ channels ... 1991) N-type and L-type calcium channels are present in nerve growth cones. Numbers increase on synaptogenesis. Dev Brain Res ... Using type-specific Ca2+ channel blocker toxins, we have demonstrated that the contributions of N-type Ca2+ channels to ... Among them, the ω-conotoxin GVIA-sensitive N-type channels and the ω-Aga-IVA-sensitive P/Q-type channels mediate fast synaptic ...
Abstract 16089: Functional Coupling of SK Channels and L-type Calcium Channels in Cardiomyocytes. Xiao-Dong Zhang, Wei Chun ... Abstract 16089: Functional Coupling of SK Channels and L-type Calcium Channels in Cardiomyocytes ... Abstract 16089: Functional Coupling of SK Channels and L-type Calcium Channels in Cardiomyocytes ... Abstract 16089: Functional Coupling of SK Channels and L-type Calcium Channels in Cardiomyocytes ...
Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1C. Q13936. Details. Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit ... Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1F. O60840. Details. Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit ... Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-1. Q02641. Details. Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta ... Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-3. P54284. Details. Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta ...
Calcium signalling through L-type calcium channels: role in pathophysiology of spinal nociceptive transmission, British Journal ... L-type calcium channels and NMDA receptors: a determinant duo for short-term nociceptive plasticity. Authors. *. Pascal Fossat, ... Shohei Yamamoto, Yuma Suzuki, Hideki Ono, Kazuhiko Kume, Masahiro Ohsawa, N- and L-type calcium channels blocker cilnidipine ... Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 L-type calcium channels independently control short- and long-term sensitization to pain, The Journal of ...
T-type Cav3.1 channels augment nitric oxide and co-localize with eNOS. Therefore, the hypothesis... ... T-type Cav3.1 channels augment nitric oxide and co-localize with eNOS. Therefore, the hypothesis was that T-type channels ... and T-type calcium channels in local and remote calcium responses in rat mesenteric terminal arterioles. J Vasc Res 46:138-151 ... Deletion of T-type calcium channels Cav3.1 or Cav3.2 attenuates endothelial dysfunction in aging mice. ...
Reversal of Neuropathic Pain in Diabetes by Targeting Glycosylation of Cav3.2 T-Type Calcium Channels. ... Reversal of Neuropathic Pain in Diabetes by Targeting Glycosylation of Cav3.2 T-Type Calcium Channels ... Reversal of Neuropathic Pain in Diabetes by Targeting Glycosylation of Cav3.2 T-Type Calcium Channels ... Reversal of Neuropathic Pain in Diabetes by Targeting Glycosylation of Cav3.2 T-Type Calcium Channels ...
Reducing agents sensitize C-type nociceptors by relieving high-affinity zinc inhibition of T-type calcium channels J Neurosci ... New evidence that both T-type calcium channels and GABAA channels are responsible for the potent peripheral analgesic effects ... Recent studies have highlighted the importance of T-type calcium channels (T-channels) in peripheral nociception; therefore, ... Silencing of the Cav3.2 T-type calcium channel gene in sensory neurons demonstrates its major role in nociception EMBO J 2005; ...
Recently, several studies have demonstrated that tetrandrine behaves like a calcium entry blocker. In the present investigation ... Tetrandrine: a novel calcium channel antagonist inhibits type I calcium channels in neuroblastoma cells Neuropharmacology. 1991 ... Recently, several studies have demonstrated that tetrandrine behaves like a calcium entry blocker. In the present investigation ... These results showed that tetrandrine inhibited the transient inward current, without affecting the channel kinetics. The ...
Two types of calcium channels in single smooth muscle cells from rabbit ear artery studies with whole-cell and single-channel ... Single L-Type Calcium Channels in Smooth Muscle Cells From Resistance Arteries of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats. Yusuke Ohya ... which inactivated the T-type Ca2+ channels as well as Na+ channels10; and (3) the channel opening disappeared with the ... Single-channel conductance of L-type Ca2+ channels was about 20 pS in both SHR and WKY. We used 50 mmol/L Ba2+ to record the ...
Estradiol receptor antagonist reduces ventricular arrhythmia via L-type calcium channels in chronic heart failure. Minerva ... Estradiol receptor antagonist reduces ventricular arrhythmia via L-type calcium channels in chronic heart failure.. *. ... Estradiol receptor antagonist reduces ventricular arrhythmia via L-type calcium channels in chronic heart failure. Minerva ... Exendin-4 Reduces Ventricular Arrhythmia Activity and Calcium Sparks-Mediated Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Ca Leak in Rats with Heart ...
Reducing Agents Sensitize C-Type Nociceptors by Relieving High-Affinity Zinc Inhibition of T-Type Calcium Channels. Michael T. ... Reducing Agents Sensitize C-Type Nociceptors by Relieving High-Affinity Zinc Inhibition of T-Type Calcium Channels ... Reducing Agents Sensitize C-Type Nociceptors by Relieving High-Affinity Zinc Inhibition of T-Type Calcium Channels ... Reducing Agents Sensitize C-Type Nociceptors by Relieving High-Affinity Zinc Inhibition of T-Type Calcium Channels ...
The isoform alpha-1B gives rise to N-type calcium currents. N-type calcium channels belong to the high-voltage activated (HVA ... Voltage-dependent N-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1B - O55017 (CAC1B_MOUSE) ... Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a ... In many cases, this subunit is sufficient to generate voltage-sensitive calcium channel activity. The auxiliary subunits beta ...
Voltage-dependent calcium channel type A subunit alpha-1 - P91645 (CAC1A_DROME) ... Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a ... variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility ...
Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1D. Details. Name. Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit ... Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1D. Q01668. Details. Drug Relations. Drug Relations. DrugBank ID. Name. ...
The isoform alpha-1E gives rise to R-type calcium currents. ... mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are ... also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, ... Voltage-dependent R-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1E (Brain calcium channel II, BII) (Calcium channel, L type, alpha-1 ... Voltage-dependent R-type calcium channel subunit alphaUniRule annotation. Automatic assertion according to rulesi ...
T-type calcium channels are key contributors to neuronal physiology where they shape electrical activity of nerve cells and ... Senatore A & Spafford JD (2015). Physiology and pathology of voltage-gated T-type calcium channels. In T-type Calcium Channels ... Calcium channel T-type channel Cav3.2 Glucose N-glycosylation Trafficking ... Modulation of Cav3.2 T-type calcium channel permeability by asparagine-linked glycosylation. Channels (Austin) 10(3):175-184 ...
Proliferation of GSCs reportedly requires calcium influx through T-type calcium channels (Cav3.2). In this study we ... Abstract 3147: Comprehensive characterization of the role of T-type calcium channels in glioblastoma. Ying Zhang, Nichola ... Comprehensive characterization of the role of T-type calcium channels in glioblastoma [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the ... Abstract 3147: Comprehensive characterization of the role of T-type calcium channels in glioblastoma ...
L type, alpha 1S subunit ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, and ... calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1S subunit ELISA Kits. Clear ... calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1S subunit ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a ... Mouse Calcium Channel, Voltage Dependent, L-Type, Alpha 1S Subunit (CACNa1S) ELISA Kit ...
CALCIUM CHANNELS that are concentrated in neural tissue. Omega toxins inhibit the actions of these channels by altering their ... Channels, N-Type Calcium; Channels, Neural-Type Calcium; N Type Calcium Channel; N Type Calcium Channels; N Type VDCC; N Type ... N-Type Calcium Channel; Calcium Channels, N-Type; N-Type VDCC; N-Type Voltage-Dependent Calcium Channels; Calcium Channel, N- ... Type; Calcium Channels, N Type; Calcium Channels, Neural-Type; Channel, N-Type Calcium; ...
  • It uses material from the Wikipedia article "R-type_calcium_channel" . (bionity.com)
  • Calcium channel blockers , also called calcium antagonists, treat a variety of conditions, such as high blood pressure, migraines and Raynaud's disease. (drugster.info)
  • Calcium channel blockers are drugs used to lower blood pressure. (drugster.info)
  • The pharmacology of these calcium channel blockers is very well-understood, so an understanding of how they influence myelination could potentially bring us closer to new therapies more rapidly than some other therapeutic possibilities," said Lawrence Wrabetz, MD, professor of neurology and biochemistry and director of the HJKRI. (buffalo.edu)
  • These blockers work by inhibiting the angiotensin II receptors (type I and II), leading to functional inhibition of angiotensin II and subsequent reduction of the blood pressure. (news-medical.net)
  • These medicines can provide long-lasting blood-pressure-lowering effects when consumed together with calcium channel blockers or diuretics. (news-medical.net)
  • Class 1 consists of sodium channel blockers, which are in turn divided into three subgroups-classes 1-A, 1-B, and 1-C. This will be explained in detail in the Mechanism of Action section. (lecturio.com)
  • Sodium channel blockers comprise the class 1 antiarrhythmic compounds according to the Vaughan-Williams classification scheme. (lecturio.com)
  • Therefore, sodium channel blockers have no direct effect on nodal tissue, at least through the blockade of fast sodium channels. (lecturio.com)
  • The differences between the three subgroups within class 1 are that, in addition to affecting phase 0 of the action potentials, sodium channel blockers may also alter the action potential duration (APD) and effective refractory period (ERP). (lecturio.com)
  • Because some sodium channel blockers increase the ERP (class 1-A), while others decrease it (class 1-B) or have no effect on it (class 1-C), the Vaughan-Williams classification recognizes these differences as subclasses of class 1 antiarrhythmic drugs. (lecturio.com)
  • It is not clear whether reducing microalbuminuria on its own is associated with an improved cardiovascular prognosis, but in secondary analyses from studies of angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) in people with type 2 diabetes, reduction in albuminuria was associated with a decreased risk of a CV event. (bjcardio.co.uk)
  • Calcium-channel blockers such as diltiazem, nifedipine or verapamil. (imedi.co.uk)
  • Thus, this project will study the antileishmanial potential of clinically available calcium channel blockers. (fapesp.br)
  • Finally, it will also be in vitro screened other calcium channel blockers against L chagasi. (fapesp.br)
  • Using a variety of chloride channel antagonists, anthracene-9-carboxylic acid (9-AC), rChlorotoxin (ClTx), 4,4'-dintitrostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DNDS), 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino) benzoic acid (NPPB), and picrotoxinin (PTX), we have identified two mechanisms by which pyrethroids may enhance L-glutamate release. (umass.edu)
  • Calcium channel antagonists improve outcomes in some clinical conditions, but mechanisms remain unclear. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The afternoon session opened with Richard B. Silverman , Northwestern University, presenting "CaV1.3-Selective L-Type Calcium Channel Antagonists to Slow the Progression of Parkinson's Disease. (chicagobiomedicalconsortium.org)
  • Nimodipine is one of the most discussed calcium antagonists used in cerebrovascular diseases and, recently, in migraine prophylaxis. (elsevier.com)
  • Depressor responses to peripheral or central infusion of Angiotensin II PH-797804 type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonists (AT1X) are greater in pregnant (P) compared to nonpregnant (NP) animals. (medicalconsultingcenter.com)
  • 2004). A novel R1347Q mutation in the predicted voltage sensor segment of the P/Q-type calcium-channel α1A-subunit in a family with progressive cerebellar ataxia and hemiplegic migraine [6] . (up.pt)
  • A gene on chromosome 22q13.1 that encodes a gamma subunit of a voltage-dependent calcium channel, which regulates AMPA-selective glutamate receptor (AMPAR) trafficking and gating. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Calcium channel blocker. (drugster.info)
  • By blocking the entry of calcium, calcium channel blocker (CCBs) decrease the contraction of the heart and dilate (widen) the arteries. (drugster.info)
  • WebMD explains how calcium channel blocker drugs can increase the supply of blood and oxygen to the heart. (drugster.info)
  • Nimodipine (66085-59-4) is an L-type calcium channel blocker.1 Prevents age-induced learning deficits in a rat model.2 Facilitates recovery of func. (focusbiomolecules.com)
  • To determine whether treatment with a calcium-channel blocker would improve survival and neurologic outcome in acute ischemic stroke, we enrolled 186 patients in a prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of nimodipine (30 mg every six hours), begun within 24 hours of the onset of symptoms of an acute ischemic stroke. (nih.gov)
  • Based in this proposal, we have identified for the first time in literature, the in vitro potential of the calcium channel blocker, nimodipine, against Leishmania (L.) chagasi. (fapesp.br)
  • Acute cerebral hypoxia causes rapid calcium shifts leading to neuronal damage and death. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Neuronal junctophilins 3 and 4 similarly recruit and functionally modify P/Q and N-type calcium channels, but differentially recruit the three ryanodine receptor isoforms to endoplasmic reticulum-plasma membrane junctions. (elifesciences.org)
  • Recent investigations suggest that increased cellular calcium concentrations may be implicated in neuronal death after ischemia. (nih.gov)
  • We investigated whether a homozygous, missense, single nucleotide mutation (R1584P) in the Ca(v)3.2 T-type Ca2+ channel gene, which has been correlated with the expression of absence seizures in GAERS, influenced kindling progression and TRN firing patterns. (acibadem.edu.tr)
  • These results support the theory that LTCCs contribute to the conditioned stimulus of early olfactory learning via the influx of calcium into the cell. (mun.ca)
  • Select pyrethroid binary mixtures (deltamethrin plus S-bioallethrin, β-cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, and fenpropathrin) elicit a more-than-additive response on L-glutamate release from rat brain synaptosomes that is independent of calcium influx. (umass.edu)
  • Rapid influx of calcium ions (Ca 2+) across the plasma membrane has an important role in this response, but the identity of the Ca 2+ channels involved has remained elusive 3,4. (uea.ac.uk)
  • This study thus identifies a plant Ca 2+ channel and its activation mechanisms underlying stomatal closure during immune signalling, and suggests specificity in Ca 2+ influx mechanisms in response to different stresses. (uea.ac.uk)
  • In Phase 2, the potential, arising through the efflux of potassium, is balanced by the influx of calcium, thus causing the action potential to remain as a horizontal line. (lecturio.com)
  • Calmodulin has been shown to be involved into calcium-dependent inactivation of TRPV5/6 channels by binding directly to the distal C-terminal fragment of the channels (de Groot et al. (nih.gov)
  • To explain why certain 2-aminobenzothiazole/oxazole-type K Ca activators (SKAs) are K Ca 3.1 selective we previously generated homology models of the C-terminal calmodulin-binding domain (CaM-BD) of K Ca 3.1 and K Ca 2.3 in complex with CaM using Rosetta modeling software. (elsevier.com)
  • This study provides further evidence that the brain response to acute hypoxia is mediated by calcium, and importantly that manipulation of intracellular calcium flux following hypoxia may reduce cerebral cytotoxic oedema. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Activation by cold or by cooling agents (menthol, icilin) induces a transient rise in intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca 2+ ] i ). (arvojournals.org)
  • 2008). Motor and cognitive deficits in the heterozygous leaner mouse, a Cav2.1 voltage-gated Ca2+ channel mutant . (up.pt)
  • To investigate this, we combined freeze-fracture replica immunogold labeling of Cav2.1 channels, local [Ca2+] imaging, and patch pipette perfusion of EGTA at the calyx of Held. (elsevier.com)
  • The results are of particular interest, he noted, because many therapies are already on the market that target calcium channels for cardiovascular disorders and other diseases. (buffalo.edu)
  • Calcium-activated K+ channels constitute attractive targets for the treatment of neurological and cardiovascular diseases. (elsevier.com)
  • The epithelial Ca(2+) channels TRPV5/6 (transient receptor potential vanilloid 5/6) are thoroughly regulated in order to fine-tune the amount of Ca(2+) reabsorption. (nih.gov)
  • The cold receptor TRPM8 is a member of the melastatin-type transient receptor potential ion channel family. (arvojournals.org)
  • Using these approaches we are investigating (i) precise timing requirements for synaptic plasticity (ii) cell-type specific differences in synaptic plasticity, and (iii) dendritic mechanisms underlying synaptic plasticiy. (oist.jp)
  • Within a dendritic layer, peak spine head calcium levels are either a linear or sigmoidal function of the number of coactive synapses, with nonlinearity depending on the ability of voltage spread in the dendrites to reach calcium spike threshold. (yale.edu)
  • Heterogeneity in cytoplasmic calcium concentration alongside B cell activation and differentiation is measured intravitally using an interdisciplinary imaging approach and novel numerical analysis. (elifesciences.org)
  • We use a computational model of a hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cell to demonstrate that spine head calcium provides an instantaneous readout at each synapse of the postsynaptic weighted sum of all presynaptic activity impinging on the cell. (yale.edu)
  • 1 . Graham BP, Saudargiene A, Cobb S (2014) Spine head calcium as a measure of summed postsynaptic activity for driving synaptic plasticity. (yale.edu)
  • Spine neck plasticity controls postsynaptic calcium signals (Grunditz et al. (yale.edu)
  • We show, via both presynaptic and postsynaptic voltage-clamp measurements, that dihydropyridine (DHP)-sensitive calcium channels also contribute to stimulus-evoked release at developing Xenopus neuromuscular junctions. (elsevier.com)
  • Recent findings suggest a role for the magnesium transporter HIP14 and the P-type transmembrane ATPase ATP13A2 in Mn uptake across cellular membranes. (rsc.org)
  • Minerals and Vitamins: Dry adzuki beans contain a small amount of a wide variety of minerals, including calcium, magnesium and phosphorous. (bmindful.com)
  • We also identify and characterize in vitro four other CaM binding fragments of TRPV5/6, which likely are also involved in TRPV5/6 channel regulation. (nih.gov)
  • Channel regulation is also compromised since cAMP-dependent PKA activity is enhanced, increasing the probability of L-Type Ca 2+ channel opening events. (nature.com)
  • Anderson D, Rehak R, Hameed S, Mehaffey WH, Zamponi GW, Turner RW (2010) Regulation of the KV4.2 complex by CaV3.1 calcium channels. (yale.edu)
  • Regulation of glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission in the chick nucleus laminaris: role of N-type calcium channels. (omeka.net)
  • Cohen JY, Haesler S, Vong L, Lowell BB, Uchida N (2012) Neuron-type-specific signals for reward and punishment in the ventral tegmental area. (yale.edu)
  • abstract = "Studies on the amphibian neuromuscular junction have indicated that N-type calcium channels are the sole mediators of stimulus-evoked neurotransmitter release. (elsevier.com)
  • abstract = "Synaptic efficacy and precision are influenced by the coupling of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (VGCCs) to vesicles. (elsevier.com)
  • Type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, prior neurological history and any spinal or pelvic surgery may all impact on bladder function. (medicalindependent.ie)
  • NEURON mod files from the paper: Miceli et al, Genotype-phenotype correlations in neonatal epilepsies caused by mutations in the voltage sensor of Kv7.2 potassium channel subunits, PNAS 2013 Feb 25. (yale.edu)
  • 1 . Miceli F, Soldovieri MV, Ambrosino P, Barrese V, Migliore M, Cilio MR, Taglialatela M (2013) Genotype-phenotype correlations in neonatal epilepsies caused by mutations in the voltage sensor of K(v)7.2 potassium channel subunits. (yale.edu)
  • Calcium-activated potassium channel (non-voltage-dependent). (ox.ac.uk)
  • This type of action potential is found in non-nodal cardiomyocytes (e.g., atrial and ventricular myocytes and Purkinje tissue). (lecturio.com)
  • A variety of transporters regulate Mn import, including DMT1 or Tf-Tf receptor internalization, choline transporter, citrate transporter, voltage-gated and store-operated calcium channels, and the zinc transporters ZIP8/14. (rsc.org)
  • Here, using computational modeling, we show that a common biomarker of schizophrenia, namely, an increase in delta-oscillation power, may be a direct consequence of altered expression or kinetics of voltage-gated ion channels or calcium transporters. (yale.edu)
  • Some studies suggest that calcium, along with vitamin D, may have benefits beyond bone health: perhaps protecting against cancer, diabetes and high blood pressure. (mayoclinic.org)
  • The Steno-2 trial, involving subjects with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria, randomized subjects to standard, at doctor's discretion, or intensive, with interventions to aggressively treat to goal cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressure, and provide antiplatelet therapy. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Patients with type 2 diabetes typically have elevated triglycerides and decreased HDL cholesterol concentrations, whereas patients with type 1 diabetes typically have triglyceride concentrations lower than those of patients with type 2 diabetes, and their HDL levels are average or even elevated. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Diabetic nephropathy is estimated to affect up to 40% of patients with type 2 diabetes. (bjcardio.co.uk)
  • also compared the effects of an ACE inhibitor and an ARB, by assessing the efficacy of lisinopril, candesartan or both on blood pressure and urinary albumin excretion in 199 patients with hypertension, microalbuminuria and type 2 diabetes. (bjcardio.co.uk)
  • The study found that candesartan 16 mg once daily was as effective as lisinopril 20 mg once daily in reducing blood pressure and microalbuminuria in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes. (bjcardio.co.uk)
  • Studies on a variety of cell types suggest that NAADP evokes Ca²⁺ release from a lysosome-related store and via activation of a receptor distinct from either ryanodine receptors (RyR) or inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP₃) receptors (IP₃R). (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • A role for endothelin receptor type A in migraine without aura susceptibility? (up.pt)
  • PAC1 Receptor signaling occurs via adenylate cyclase stimulation through trimeric Gs proteins, increasing cAMP, and downstream L-type calcium channel interaction. (innoprot.com)
  • Baranauskas G (2004) Cell-type-specific splicing of KChIP4 mRNA correlates with slower kinetics of A-type current. (yale.edu)
  • No references are given in the paper for channel kinetics, so ancestry is unclear. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Channel kinetics are mostly from unknown origins. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Since both ClTx and NPPB are inhibitors of voltage-gated chloride channels (ClC-2) and calcium-activated chloride channels, our findings suggest that these channels are potential target sites for certain pyrethroids and likely are important in pyrethroid neurotoxicity. (umass.edu)
  • various cancers types, the use of checkpoint inhibitors in pancreatic cancers continues to be disappointing up to now. (biomasswars.com)
  • MicrocircuitDB: Spine head calcium in a CA1 pyramidal cell model (Graham et al. (yale.edu)
  • 2010). Sensory neuronopathy in ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 2 . (up.pt)
  • The unusual sensitivity of DHP-sensitive calcium channels to ω-Ctx GVIA in presynaptic terminals raises the possibility that this channel type may have escaped detection in previous physiological studies on adult frog neuromuscular junctions. (elsevier.com)
  • Our findings show that these calcium channels modulate the maturation of oligodendrocytes in the brain after birth , " said Pablo M. Paez, PhD, an assistant professor in the Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology in the Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences at UB and a research scientist with the Hunter James Kelly Research Institute (HJKRI) at UB, where most of the work was done. (buffalo.edu)
  • These channels are normally found along the conduction pathway, especially near the sinoatrial (SA) node and the atrioventricular (AV) node. (lecturio.com)
  • By blocking these channels, these drugs reduce the heart rate and the speed of conduction in the heart. (lecturio.com)
  • The construction with dummy ion Ca prevents the updating of the : internal calcium concentration. (yale.edu)
  • Because the slope of phase 0 depends on the activation of fast sodium channels and the rapid entry of sodium ions into the cell, blocking these channels decreases the slope of phase 0, which also leads to a decrease in the amplitude of the action potential. (lecturio.com)
  • Epub ahead of print] In this paper, functional studies revealed that in homomeric or heteromeric configuration with KV7.2 and/or KV7.3 subunits, R213W and R213Q mutations markedly destabilized the open state, causing a dramatic decrease in channel voltage sensitivity. (yale.edu)
  • In the past few years, the Calcium Hypochlorite market experienced a growth of XXX, the global market size of Calcium Hypochlorite reached XXX million $ in 2020, of what is about XXX million $ in 2015. (reportsintellect.com)
  • Therefore, we predict that the global epidemic will be basically controlled by the end of 2020 and the global Calcium Hypochlorite market size will reach XXX million $ in 2025, with a CAGR of xxx% between 2020-2025. (reportsintellect.com)
  • 74 genes participating in the calcium-mediated signaling biological process from the curated GO Biological Process Annotations dataset. (maayanlab.cloud)