Calcium Channels: Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.Calcium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.Calcium Channels, L-Type: Long-lasting voltage-gated CALCIUM CHANNELS found in both excitable and nonexcitable tissue. They are responsible for normal myocardial and vascular smooth muscle contractility. Five subunits (alpha-1, alpha-2, beta, gamma, and delta) make up the L-type channel. The alpha-1 subunit is the binding site for calcium-based antagonists. Dihydropyridine-based calcium antagonists are used as markers for these binding sites.Rotavirus: A genus of REOVIRIDAE, causing acute gastroenteritis in BIRDS and MAMMALS, including humans. Transmission is horizontal and by environmental contamination. Seven species (Rotaviruses A thru G) are recognized.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Rotavirus Infections: Infection with any of the rotaviruses. Specific infections include human infantile diarrhea, neonatal calf diarrhea, and epidemic diarrhea of infant mice.Calcium Channels, N-Type: CALCIUM CHANNELS that are concentrated in neural tissue. Omega toxins inhibit the actions of these channels by altering their voltage dependence.Calcium Channels, T-Type: A heterogenous group of transient or low voltage activated type CALCIUM CHANNELS. They are found in cardiac myocyte membranes, the sinoatrial node, Purkinje cells of the heart and the central nervous system.Calcium Signaling: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.Calcium Channel Agonists: Agents that increase calcium influx into calcium channels of excitable tissues. This causes vasoconstriction in VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE and/or CARDIAC MUSCLE cells as well as stimulation of insulin release from pancreatic islets. Therefore, tissue-selective calcium agonists have the potential to combat cardiac failure and endocrinological disorders. They have been used primarily in experimental studies in cell and tissue culture.Ion Channel Gating: The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.Potassium Channels, Inwardly Rectifying: Potassium channels where the flow of K+ ions into the cell is greater than the outward flow.Calcium Channels, P-Type: CALCIUM CHANNELS located within the PURKINJE CELLS of the cerebellum. They are involved in stimulation-secretion coupling of neurons.Calcium Channels, Q-Type: CALCIUM CHANNELS located in the neurons of the brain.Dihydropyridines: Pyridine moieties which are partially saturated by the addition of two hydrogen atoms in any position.Calcium Channels, R-Type: CALCIUM CHANNELS located in the neurons of the brain. They are inhibited by the marine snail toxin, omega conotoxin MVIIC.Nifedipine: A potent vasodilator agent with calcium antagonistic action. It is a useful anti-anginal agent that also lowers blood pressure.Potassium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by inhibition of potassium efflux through cell membranes. Blockade of potassium channels prolongs the duration of ACTION POTENTIALS. They are used as ANTI-ARRHYTHMIA AGENTS and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Chloride Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that form channels to selectively pass chloride ions. Nonselective blockers include FENAMATES; ETHACRYNIC ACID; and TAMOXIFEN.Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.omega-Conotoxin GVIA: A neurotoxic peptide, which is a cleavage product (VIa) of the omega-Conotoxin precursor protein contained in venom from the marine snail, CONUS geographus. It is an antagonist of CALCIUM CHANNELS, N-TYPE.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Calcium, Dietary: Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).omega-Conotoxins: A family of structurally related neurotoxic peptides from mollusk venom that inhibit voltage-activated entry of calcium into the presynaptic membrane. They selectively inhibit N-, P-, and Q-type calcium channels.Potassium Channels, Voltage-Gated: Potassium channel whose permeability to ions is extremely sensitive to the transmembrane potential difference. The opening of these channels is induced by the membrane depolarization of the ACTION POTENTIAL.Diltiazem: A benzothiazepine derivative with vasodilating action due to its antagonism of the actions of CALCIUM ion on membrane functions.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.KATP Channels: Heteromultimers of Kir6 channels (the pore portion) and sulfonylurea receptor (the regulatory portion) which affect function of the HEART; PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. KATP channel blockers include GLIBENCLAMIDE and mitiglinide whereas openers include CROMAKALIM and minoxidil sulfate.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Verapamil: A calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent.Isradipine: A potent antagonist of CALCIUM CHANNELS that is highly selective for VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE. It is effective in the treatment of chronic stable angina pectoris, hypertension, and congestive cardiac failure.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Potassium Channels, Calcium-Activated: Potassium channels whose activation is dependent on intracellular calcium concentrations.Nitrendipine: A calcium channel blocker with marked vasodilator action. It is an effective antihypertensive agent and differs from other calcium channel blockers in that it does not reduce glomerular filtration rate and is mildly natriuretic, rather than sodium retentive.Mibefradil: A benzimidazoyl-substituted tetraline that selectively binds and inhibits CALCIUM CHANNELS, T-TYPE.Electric Conductivity: The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.Gastroenteritis: INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.Sodium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by inhibition of sodium influx through cell membranes. Blockade of sodium channels slows the rate and amplitude of initial rapid depolarization, reduces cell excitability, and reduces conduction velocity.Barium: An element of the alkaline earth group of metals. It has an atomic symbol Ba, atomic number 56, and atomic weight 138. All of its acid-soluble salts are poisonous.Nimodipine: A calcium channel blockader with preferential cerebrovascular activity. It has marked cerebrovascular dilating effects and lowers blood pressure.omega-Agatoxin IVA: A neuropeptide toxin from the venom of the funnel web spider, Agelenopsis aperta. It inhibits CALCIUM CHANNELS, P-TYPE by altering the voltage-dependent gating so that very large depolarizations are needed for channel opening. It also inhibits CALCIUM CHANNELS, Q-TYPE.TRPC Cation Channels: A subgroup of TRP cation channels that contain 3-4 ANKYRIN REPEAT DOMAINS and a conserved C-terminal domain. Members are highly expressed in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Selectivity for calcium over sodium ranges from 0.5 to 10.Shaker Superfamily of Potassium Channels: Voltage-gated potassium channels whose primary subunits contain six transmembrane segments and form tetramers to create a pore with a voltage sensor. They are related to their founding member, shaker protein, Drosophila.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Large-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels: A major class of calcium activated potassium channels whose members are voltage-dependent. MaxiK channels are activated by either membrane depolarization or an increase in intracellular Ca(2+). They are key regulators of calcium and electrical signaling in a variety of tissues.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Calcium Carbonate: Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated Cation Channels: A subgroup of cyclic nucleotide-regulated ION CHANNELS within the superfamily of pore-loop cation channels. They are expressed in OLFACTORY NERVE cilia and in PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and some PLANTS.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Calcium Chloride: A salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.TRPV Cation Channels: A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after vanilloid receptor. They are very sensitive to TEMPERATURE and hot spicy food and CAPSAICIN. They have the TRP domain and ANKYRIN repeats. Selectivity for CALCIUM over SODIUM ranges from 3 to 100 fold.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Nicardipine: A potent calcium channel blockader with marked vasodilator action. It has antihypertensive properties and is effective in the treatment of angina and coronary spasms without showing cardiodepressant effects. It has also been used in the treatment of asthma and enhances the action of specific antineoplastic agents.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel: A tetrameric calcium release channel in the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM membrane of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, acting oppositely to SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES. It is important in skeletal and cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and studied by using RYANODINE. Abnormalities are implicated in CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS and MUSCULAR DISEASES.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.TRPM Cation Channels: A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after melastatin protein. They have the TRP domain but lack ANKYRIN repeats. Enzyme domains in the C-terminus leads to them being called chanzymes.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Acid Sensing Ion Channels: A family of proton-gated sodium channels that are primarily expressed in neuronal tissue. They are AMILORIDE-sensitive and are implicated in the signaling of a variety of neurological stimuli, most notably that of pain in response to acidic conditions.Spider Venoms: Venoms of arthropods of the order Araneida of the ARACHNIDA. The venoms usually contain several protein fractions, including ENZYMES, hemolytic, neurolytic, and other TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Calcium Phosphates: Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Epithelial Sodium Channels: Sodium channels found on salt-reabsorbing EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the distal NEPHRON; the distal COLON; SALIVARY DUCTS; SWEAT GLANDS; and the LUNG. They are AMILORIDE-sensitive and play a critical role in the control of sodium balance, BLOOD VOLUME, and BLOOD PRESSURE.Kv1.3 Potassium Channel: A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that is the predominant VOLTAGE-GATED POTASSIUM CHANNEL of T-LYMPHOCYTES.Ether-A-Go-Go Potassium Channels: A family of voltage-gated potassium channels that are characterized by long N-terminal and C-terminal intracellular tails. They are named from the Drosophila protein whose mutation causes abnormal leg shaking under ether anesthesia. Their activation kinetics are dependent on extracellular MAGNESIUM and PROTON concentration.Calcium Isotopes: Stable calcium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element calcium, but differ in atomic weight. Ca-42-44, 46, and 48 are stable calcium isotopes.Kv1.2 Potassium Channel: A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that is selectively inhibited by a variety of SCORPION VENOMS.Kv1.1 Potassium Channel: A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that is commonly mutated in human episodic ATAXIA and MYOKYMIA.Calcium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of calcium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ca atoms with atomic weights 39, 41, 45, 47, 49, and 50 are radioactive calcium isotopes.Protein Subunits: Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.Amlodipine: A long-acting dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. It is effective in the treatment of ANGINA PECTORIS and HYPERTENSION.Kv1.5 Potassium Channel: A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that conducts a delayed rectifier current. It contributes to ACTION POTENTIAL repolarization of MYOCYTES in HEART ATRIA.Agatoxins: A class of polyamine and peptide toxins which are isolated from the venom of spiders such as Agelenopsis aperta.Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Small-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels: A major class of calcium-activated potassium channels that are found primarily in excitable CELLS. They play important roles in the transmission of ACTION POTENTIALS and generate a long-lasting hyperpolarization known as the slow afterhyperpolarization.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Ion Transport: The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Mollusk Venoms: Venoms from mollusks, including CONUS and OCTOPUS species. The venoms contain proteins, enzymes, choline derivatives, slow-reacting substances, and several characterized polypeptide toxins that affect the nervous system. Mollusk venoms include cephalotoxin, venerupin, maculotoxin, surugatoxin, conotoxins, and murexine.Transient Receptor Potential Channels: A broad group of eukaryotic six-transmembrane cation channels that are classified by sequence homology because their functional involvement with SENSATION is varied. They have only weak voltage sensitivity and ion selectivity. They are named after a DROSOPHILA mutant that displayed transient receptor potentials in response to light. A 25-amino-acid motif containing a TRP box (EWKFAR) just C-terminal to S6 is found in TRPC, TRPV and TRPM subgroups. ANKYRIN repeats are found in TRPC, TRPV & TRPN subgroups. Some are functionally associated with TYROSINE KINASE or TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES.KCNQ Potassium Channels: A family of delayed rectifier voltage-gated potassium channels that share homology with their founding member, KCNQ1 PROTEIN. KCNQ potassium channels have been implicated in a variety of diseases including LONG QT SYNDROME; DEAFNESS; and EPILEPSY.Shab Potassium Channels: A subfamily of shaker potassium channels that shares homology with its founding member, Shab protein, Drosophila. They regulate delayed rectifier currents in the NERVOUS SYSTEM of DROSOPHILA and in the SKELETAL MUSCLE and HEART of VERTEBRATES.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.KCNQ1 Potassium Channel: A voltage-gated potassium channel that is expressed primarily in the HEART.Egtazic Acid: A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Shaw Potassium Channels: A shaker subfamily that is prominently expressed in NEURONS and are necessary for high-frequency, repetitive firing of ACTION POTENTIALS.Kv1.4 Potassium Channel: A fast inactivating subtype of shaker potassium channels that contains two inactivation domains at its N terminus.Tetrodotoxin: An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Calcium Oxalate: The calcium salt of oxalic acid, occurring in the urine as crystals and in certain calculi.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Chelating Agents: Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Gallopamil: Coronary vasodilator that is an analog of iproveratril (VERAPAMIL) with one more methoxy group on the benzene ring.G Protein-Coupled Inwardly-Rectifying Potassium Channels: A family of inwardly-rectifying potassium channels that are activated by PERTUSSIS TOXIN sensitive G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS. GIRK potassium channels are primarily activated by the complex of GTP-BINDING PROTEIN BETA SUBUNITS and GTP-BINDING PROTEIN GAMMA SUBUNITS.Calcium Gluconate: The calcium salt of gluconic acid. The compound has a variety of uses, including its use as a calcium replenisher in hypocalcemic states.Shal Potassium Channels: A shaker subfamily of potassium channels that participate in transient outward potassium currents by activating at subthreshold MEMBRANE POTENTIALS, inactivating rapidly, and recovering from inactivation quickly.Presynaptic Terminals: The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Fura-2: A fluorescent calcium chelating agent which is used to study intracellular calcium in tissues.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Thapsigargin: A sesquiterpene lactone found in roots of THAPSIA. It inhibits CA(2+)-TRANSPORTING ATPASE mediated uptake of CALCIUM into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.KCNQ2 Potassium Channel: A very slow opening and closing voltage-gated potassium channel that is expressed in NEURONS and is commonly mutated in BENIGN FAMILIAL NEONATAL CONVULSIONS.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Hyperpolarization-Activated Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated Channels: A subgroup of cyclic nucleotide-regulated ION CHANNELS of the superfamily of pore-loop cation channels that are opened by hyperpolarization rather than depolarization. The ion conducting pore passes SODIUM, CALCIUM, and POTASSIUM cations with a preference for potassium.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Tetraethylammonium: A potassium-selective ion channel blocker. (From J Gen Phys 1994;104(1):173-90)Nickel: A trace element with the atomic symbol Ni, atomic number 28, and atomic weight 58.69. It is a cofactor of the enzyme UREASE.Neurotransmitter Agents: Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.Biophysics: The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.Glyburide: An antidiabetic sulfonylurea derivative with actions similar to those of chlorpropamide.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Lanthanum: Lanthanum. The prototypical element in the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol La, atomic number 57, and atomic weight 138.91. Lanthanide ion is used in experimental biology as a calcium antagonist; lanthanum oxide improves the optical properties of glass.Cadmium: An element with atomic symbol Cd, atomic number 48, and atomic weight 114. It is a metal and ingestion will lead to CADMIUM POISONING.Scorpion Venoms: Venoms from animals of the order Scorpionida of the class Arachnida. They contain neuro- and hemotoxins, enzymes, and various other factors that may release acetylcholine and catecholamines from nerve endings. Of the several protein toxins that have been characterized, most are immunogenic.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Nisoldipine: A dihydropyridine calcium channel antagonist that acts as a potent arterial vasodilator and antihypertensive agent. It is also effective in patients with cardiac failure and angina.NAV1.5 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel: A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype that mediates the sodium ion PERMEABILITY of CARDIOMYOCYTES. Defects in the SCN5A gene, which codes for the alpha subunit of this sodium channel, are associated with a variety of CARDIAC DISEASES that result from loss of sodium channel function.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Intermediate-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels: A major class of calcium-activated potassium channels that were originally discovered in ERYTHROCYTES. They are found primarily in non-excitable CELLS and set up electrical gradients for PASSIVE ION TRANSPORT.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.KCNQ3 Potassium Channel: A very slow opening and closing voltage-gated potassium channel that is expressed in NEURONS and is closely related to KCNQ2 POTASSIUM CHANNEL. It is commonly mutated in BENIGN FAMILIAL NEONATAL CONVULSIONS.Large-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channel alpha Subunits: The pore-forming subunits of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels. They form tetramers in CELL MEMBRANES.Ions: An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.Ganglia, Spinal: Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Cations: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Nerve Tissue ProteinsInositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptors: Intracellular receptors that bind to INOSITOL 1,4,5-TRISPHOSPHATE and play an important role in its intracellular signaling. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors are calcium channels that release CALCIUM in response to increased levels of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in the CYTOPLASM.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Ryanodine: A methylpyrrole-carboxylate from RYANIA that disrupts the RYANODINE RECEPTOR CALCIUM RELEASE CHANNEL to modify CALCIUM release from SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM resulting in alteration of MUSCLE CONTRACTION. It was previously used in INSECTICIDES. It is used experimentally in conjunction with THAPSIGARGIN and other inhibitors of CALCIUM ATPASE uptake of calcium into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Delayed Rectifier Potassium Channels: A group of slow opening and closing voltage-gated potassium channels. Because of their delayed activation kinetics they play an important role in controlling ACTION POTENTIAL duration.Calmodulin: A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.NAV1.2 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel: A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype that mediates the sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Defects in the SCN2A gene which codes for the alpha subunit of this sodium channel are associated with benign familial infantile seizures type 3, and early infantile epileptic encephalopathy type 11.Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels: A family of membrane proteins that selectively conduct SODIUM ions due to changes in the TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE. They typically have a multimeric structure with a core alpha subunit that defines the sodium channel subtype and several beta subunits that modulate sodium channel activity.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Myocytes, Cardiac: Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Charybdotoxin: A 37-amino acid residue peptide isolated from the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus. It is a neurotoxin that inhibits calcium activated potassium channels.OxadiazolesLipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Biophysical Phenomena: The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Intracellular Fluid: The fluid inside CELLS.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Strontium: An element of the alkaline earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sr, atomic number 38, and atomic weight 87.62.Flunarizine: Flunarizine is a selective calcium entry blocker with calmodulin binding properties and histamine H1 blocking activity. It is effective in the prophylaxis of migraine, occlusive peripheral vascular disease, vertigo of central and peripheral origin, and as an adjuvant in the therapy of epilepsy.Calcimycin: An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.HEK293 Cells: A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Calcium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain calcium as an integral part of the molecule.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.4-Aminopyridine: One of the POTASSIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS, with secondary effect on calcium currents, which is used mainly as a research tool and to characterize channel subtypes.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Cations, Divalent: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Apamin: A highly neurotoxic polypeptide from the venom of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). It consists of 18 amino acids with two disulfide bridges and causes hyperexcitability resulting in convulsions and respiratory paralysis.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Calcium-Binding Proteins: Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.Potassium Chloride: A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.Caffeine: A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.Receptors, Drug: Proteins that bind specific drugs with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Drug receptors are generally thought to be receptors for some endogenous substance not otherwise specified.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Felodipine: A dihydropyridine calcium antagonist with positive inotropic effects. It lowers blood pressure by reducing peripheral vascular resistance through a highly selective action on smooth muscle in arteriolar resistance vessels.Antihypertensive Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Sulfonylurea Receptors: ATP-BINDING CASSETTE PROTEINS that are highly conserved and widely expressed in nature. They form an integral part of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel complex which has two intracellular nucleotide folds that bind to sulfonylureas and their analogs.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.

Excitatory but not inhibitory synaptic transmission is reduced in lethargic (Cacnb4(lh)) and tottering (Cacna1atg) mouse thalami. (1/164)

Excitatory but not inhibitory synaptic transmission is reduced in lethargic (Cacnb4(lh)) and tottering (Cacna1atg) mouse thalami. Recent studies of the homozygous tottering (Cacna1atg) and lethargic mouse (Cacnb4(lh)) models of absence seizures have identified mutations in the genes encoding the alpha1A and beta4 subunits, respectively, of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (VGCCs). beta subunits normally regulate Ca2+ currents via a direct interaction with alpha1 (pore-forming) subunits of VGCCs, and VGCCs are known to play a significant role in controlling the release of transmitter from presynaptic nerve terminals in the CNS. Because the gene mutation in Cacnb4(lh) homozygotes results in loss of the beta4 subunit's binding site for alpha1 subunits, we hypothesized that synaptic transmission would be altered in the CNS of Cacnb4(lh) homozygotes. We tested this hypothesis by using whole cell recordings of single cells in an in vitro slice preparation to investigate synaptic transmission in one of the critical neuronal populations that generate seizure activity in this strain, the somatosensory thalamus. The primary finding reported here is the observation of a significant decrease in glutamatergic synaptic transmission mediated by both N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and non-NMDA receptors in somatosensory thalamic neurons of Cacnb4(lh) homozygotes compared with matched, nonepileptic mice. In contrast, there was no significant decrease in GABAergic transmission in Cacnb4(lh) homozygotes nor was there any difference in effects mediated by presynaptic GABAB receptors. We found a similar decrease in glutamatergic but not GABAergic responses in Cacna1atg homozygotes, suggesting that the independent mutations in the two strains each affected P/Q channel function by causing defective neurotransmitter release specific to glutamatergic synapses in the somatosensory thalamus. This may be an important factor underlying the generation of seizures in these models.  (+info)

Direct alteration of the P/Q-type Ca2+ channel property by polyglutamine expansion in spinocerebellar ataxia 6. (2/164)

Spinocerebellar ataxia 6 (SCA6) is caused by expansion of a polyglutamine stretch, encoded by a CAG trinucleotide repeat, in the human P/Q-type Ca(2+) channel alpha(1A) subunit. Although SCA6 shares common features with other neurodegenerative glutamine repeat disorders, the polyglutamine repeats in SCA6 are exceptionally small, ranging from 21 to 33. Because this size is too small to form insoluble aggregates that have been blamed for the cause of neurodegeneration, SCA6 is the disorder suitable for exploring the pathogenic mechanisms other than aggregate formation, whose universal role has been questioned. To characterize the pathogenic process of SCA6, we studied the effects of polyglutamine expansion on channel properties by analyzing currents flowing through the P/Q-type Ca(2+) channels with an expanded stretch of 24, 30, or 40 polyglutamines, recombinantly expressed in baby hamster kidney cells. Whereas the Ca(2+) channels with +info)

Ataxic mouse mutants and molecular mechanisms of absence epilepsy. (3/164)

Mouse genetic models for common human diseases have been studied for most of the 20th century. Although many polygenic strain differences and spontaneous single gene mutants have been extensively characterized over the years, knowing their innermost secrets ultimately requires the identity of the mutated genes. One group of neurological mutants, detected initially due to cerebellar dysfunction, was identified as models for epilepsy when they were unexpectedly found to have spike-wave seizures associated with behavioral arrest, a central feature of absence or petit-mal epilepsy. A further surprise was that recently identified defective genes encode different subunits of voltage-gated Ca(2+)channels (VGCCs), implying common seizure mechanisms. In this review we first consider these spontaneous mutants with VGCC defects in the context of other mouse models for epilepsy. Then, from the new wave of genetic and functional studies of these mutants we discuss their prospects for yielding insight into the molecular mechanisms of epilepsy.  (+info)

Action potential-induced dendritic calcium dynamics correlated with synaptic plasticity in developing hippocampal pyramidal cells. (4/164)

In hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells, intracellular calcium increases are required for induction of long-term potentiation (LTP), an activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. LTP is known to develop in magnitude during the second and third postnatal weeks in the rats. Little is known, however, about development of intracellular calcium dynamics during the same postnatal weeks. We investigated postnatal development of intracellular calcium dynamics in the proximal apical dendrites of CA1 pyramidal cells by whole cell patch-clamp recordings and calcium imaging with the Ca(2+) indicator fura-2. Dendritic calcium increases induced by intrasomatically evoked action potentials were slight during the first postnatal week but gradually became robust 3 to 6-fold during the second and third postnatal weeks. These calcium increases were blocked by application of 250 microM CdCl(2), a nonspecific blocker for high-threshold voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs). Under the voltage-clamp condition, both calcium currents and dendritic calcium accumulations induced by depolarization were larger at the late developmental stage (P15-18) than the early stage (P4-7), indicating developmental enhancement of calcium influx mediated by high-threshold VDCCs. Moreover, theta-burst stimulation (TBS), a protocol for LTP induction, induced large intracellular calcium increases at the late developmental stage, in synchrony with maturation of TBS-induced LTP. These results suggest that developmental enhancement of intracellular calcium increases induced by action potentials may underlie maturation of calcium-dependent functions such as synaptic plasticity in hippocampal neurons.  (+info)

Significant role of neuronal non-N-type calcium channels in the sympathetic neurogenic contraction of rat mesenteric artery. (5/164)

1. The possible involvement of pre-junctional non-N-type Ca2+ channels in noradrenaline (NA)-mediated neurogenic contraction by electrical field stimulation (EFS) was examined pharmacomechanically in the isolated rat mesenteric artery. 2. EFS-generated contraction of endothelium-denuded mesenteric artery was frequency-dependent (2 - 32 Hz) and was abolished by tetrodotoxin (TTX, 1 microM), guanethidine (5 microM) or prazosin (100 nM), indicating that NA released from sympathetic nerve endings mediates the contractile response. 3. NA-mediated neurogenic contractions to lower frequency stimulations (2 - 8 Hz) were almost abolished by an N-type Ca2+ channel blocker, omega-conotoxin-GVIA (1 microM) whereas the responses to higher frequency stimulations (12 - 32 Hz) were less sensitive to omega-conotoxin-GVIA. The omega-conotoxin-GVIA-resistant component of the contractile response to 32 Hz stimulation was inhibited partly (10 - 20%) by omega-agatoxin-IVA (10 - 100 nM; concentrations which are relatively selective for P-type channels) and to a greater extent by omega-agatoxin-IVA (1 microM) and omega-conotoxin-MVIIC (3 microM), both of which block Q-type channels at the concentrations used. 4. omega-Agatoxin-IVA (10 - 100 nM) alone inhibited 32 Hz EFS-induced contraction by 10 approximately 20% whereas omega-conotoxin-MVIIC (3 microM) alone inhibited the response by approximately 60%. 5. These omega-toxin treatments did not affect the contractions evoked by exogenously applied NA. 6. These findings show that P- and Q-type as well as N-type Ca2+ channels are involved in the sympathetic neurogenic vascular contraction, and suggest the significant role of non-N-type Ca2+ channels in NA release from adrenergic nerve endings when higher frequency stimulations are applied to the nerve.  (+info)

Ablation of P/Q-type Ca(2+) channel currents, altered synaptic transmission, and progressive ataxia in mice lacking the alpha(1A)-subunit. (6/164)

The Ca(2+) channel alpha(1A)-subunit is a voltage-gated, pore-forming membrane protein positioned at the intersection of two important lines of research: one exploring the diversity of Ca(2+) channels and their physiological roles, and the other pursuing mechanisms of ataxia, dystonia, epilepsy, and migraine. alpha(1A)-Subunits are thought to support both P- and Q-type Ca(2+) channel currents, but the most direct test, a null mutant, has not been described, nor is it known which changes in neurotransmission might arise from elimination of the predominant Ca(2+) delivery system at excitatory nerve terminals. We generated alpha(1A)-deficient mice (alpha(1A)(-/-)) and found that they developed a rapidly progressive neurological deficit with specific characteristics of ataxia and dystonia before dying approximately 3-4 weeks after birth. P-type currents in Purkinje neurons and P- and Q-type currents in cerebellar granule cells were eliminated completely whereas other Ca(2+) channel types, including those involved in triggering transmitter release, also underwent concomitant changes in density. Synaptic transmission in alpha(1A)(-/-) hippocampal slices persisted despite the lack of P/Q-type channels but showed enhanced reliance on N-type and R-type Ca(2+) entry. The alpha(1A)(-/-) mice provide a starting point for unraveling neuropathological mechanisms of human diseases generated by mutations in alpha(1A).  (+info)

Presynaptic Ca(2+) influx at a mouse central synapse with Ca(2+) channel subunit mutations. (7/164)

Genetic alterations in Ca(2+) channel subunits can be used to study the interaction among channel subunits and their roles in channel function. P/Q- and N-type Ca(2+) channels reside at the presynaptic terminal and control the release of neurotransmitter at mammalian central synapses. We used fluorescence imaging techniques to investigate presynaptic Ca(2+) currents and neurotransmitter release at hippocampal Schaffer collateral synapses in both tottering (tg, alpha(1A) subunit) and lethargic (lh, beta(4) subunit) mutant mice. Application of selective toxins revealed a large reduction in presynaptic P/Q-type Ca(2+) transients, from 39% of total in +/+ mice to 6% in tg/tg mice, whereas the proportion of N-type increased from 35 to 68%, respectively. Neurotransmitter release in the tg/tg mutant relied almost exclusively on N-type channels, as shown by the complete blockade of synaptic transmission with omega-conotoxin GVIA. Remarkably, loss of beta4, a subunit predicted to regulate the subcellular targeting and modulation of both P/Q- and N-type channels, resulted in no significant difference in the ratio of Ca(2+) channel subtypes or Ca(2+) dependence of neurotransmitter release in lethargic mice. G-protein-mediated inhibition of Ca(2+) channels was also unaltered. These results indicate that a profound decrease in presynaptic P/Q-type currents leads to dependence of neurotransmitter release on N-type channels. In contrast, absence of beta(4) appears not to compromise either P/Q- or N-type channel function at this hippocampal synapse, implicating rescue of presynaptic Ca(2+) currents by other available beta subunits. The present study reveals compensatory molecular mechanisms in the regulation of presynaptic Ca(2+) entry and neurotransmitter release.  (+info)

P2Y purinoceptors inhibit exocytosis in adrenal chromaffin cells via modulation of voltage-operated calcium channels. (8/164)

We have used combined membrane capacitance measurements (C(m)) and voltage-clamp recordings to examine the mechanisms underlying modulation of stimulus-secretion coupling by a G(i/o)-coupled purinoceptor (P2Y) in adrenal chromaffin cells. P2Y purinoceptors respond to extracellular ATP and are thought to provide an important inhibitory feedback regulation of catecholamine release from central and sympathetic neurons. Inhibition of neurosecretion by other G(i/o)-protein-coupled receptors may occur by either inhibition of voltage-operated Ca(2+) channels or modulation of the exocytotic machinery itself. In this study, we show that the P2Y purinoceptor agonist 2-methylthio ATP (2-MeSATP) significantly inhibits Ca(2+) entry and changes in C(m) evoked by single 200 msec depolarizations or a train of 20 msec depolarizations (2.5 Hz). We found that P2Y modulation of secretion declines during a train such that only approximately 50% of the modulatory effect remains at the end of a train. The inhibition of both Ca(2+) entry and DeltaC(m) are also attenuated by large depolarizing prepulses and treatment with pertussis toxin. Inhibition of N-type, and to lesser extent P/Q-type, Ca(2+) channels contribute to the modulation of exocytosis by 2-MeSATP. The Ca(2+)-dependence of exocytosis triggered by either single pulses or trains of depolarizations was unaffected by 2-MeSATP. When Ca(2+) channels were bypassed and exocytosis was evoked by flash photolysis of caged Ca(2+), the inhibitory effect of 2-MeSATP was not observed. Collectively, these data suggest that inhibition of exocytosis by G(i/o)-coupled P2Y purinoceptors results from inhibition of Ca(2+) channels and the Ca(2+) signal controlling exocytosis rather than a direct effect on the secretory machinery.  (+info)

RecName: Full=Voltage-dependent P/Q-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1A;AltName: Full=Voltage-gated calcium channel subunit alpha Cav2.1;AltName: Full=Calcium channel, L type, alpha-1 polypeptide isoform 4;AltName: Full=Brain calcium channel I; Short=BI ...
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The discussion of Richard Chappells post Understanding (Zombie) Conceivability Arguments: Part II over at Philosophy, etc has prompted me to clarify the sense in which I take (P & ~Q) to be contestable and the reasons whyI take the primary and secondary intensions of statement in Q not to be identical; as it turns out the two…
The discussion of Richard Chappells post Understanding (Zombie) Conceivability Arguments: Part II over at Philosophy, etc has prompted me to clarify the sense in which I take (P & ~Q) to be contestable and the reasons whyI take the primary and secondary intensions of statement in Q not to be identical; as it turns out the two…
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Anti-ABeta Globulomer Antibodies, Antigen-Binding Moieties Thereof, Corresponding Hybridomas, Nucleic Acids, Vectors, Host Cells, Methods of Producing Said Antibodies, Compositions Comprising Said Antibodies, Uses Of Said Antibodies And Methods Of Using Said Antibodies - diagram, schematic, and image 83 ...
Anti-ABeta Globulomer Antibodies, Antigen-Binding Moieties Thereof, Corresponding Hybridomas, Nucleic Acids, Vectors, Host Cells, Methods of Producing Said Antibodies, Compositions Comprising Said Antibodies, Uses Of Said Antibodies And Methods Of Using Said Antibodies - diagram, schematic, and image 78 ...
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II) Next, consider the Rational Root Theorem. This says that if the coefficients ##a_n, a_{n-1}, \ldots, a_0## are all integers (+ or -), then any rational root of the form ##x = p/q ## (with integer ##p,q##) must have the property that ##p## is a divisor of the constant coefficient ##a_0## and ##q## is a divisor of the leading coefficient ##a_n##. For both ##p_1## and ##p_2## we know there is a root between 0 and 1. If ##p_1## has a rational root ##p/q##, ##p## must be a divisor of 50 and ##q## must be a divisor of ##3##. That is, either ##q=1## or ##q=3##. The value ##q=1## will not work because that would make ##x=p/q## an integer, and we already know that ##x=0## and ##x=1## are not roots. So, any possible integer root would be , 1, and we already know there are none. Therefore, if ##p_1## has a rational root we must have ##q = 3##, so ##x = p/3##, where ##p## is a divisor of 50. The only two divisors of 50 that give a result , 1 are 1 and 2, giving the possibilities ##1/3## and ##2/3##. If ...
A general formulation is given as follows Given a transformation Tp Оp в Оp and a homeomorphism ОЁpвq Оp в Оq between the coordinate systems Оp and Оq, then Tpвq Оq в Оq is the topologically conjugate of Tp, if T ОЁ в-T в-ОЁв1. IScheme18 AcO O us se o,7. 33. Bones act does cymbalta increase your heart rate lever arms, and joints provide a fulcrum.
Concerning Robert Hilburns June 25 article, Never Too Old to Rock:The Who? My gosh--they died years ago, yet they continue to plague us.They stopped doing anything worthwhile a long time ago.
In the spirit of Christ and the example of Francis of Assisi, the Mission of OSF HealthCare is to serve persons with the greatest care and love in a community that celebrates the Gift of Life.. ...
Exhibits stronger antimicrobial activity against the Gram-positive bacteria (S.aureus (IC(50) is 7.4 ug/ml)) and fungi (C.albicans (IC(50) is 3.0 ug/ml) and P.pastoris (IC(50) is 0.1 ug/ml)) than Gram-negative bacteria (E.coli no inhibition at 100 ug/ml). Binds to chitin (4.3 uM are required to obtain 50% of binding). Does not cause hemolysis on sheep erythrocytes. Has no blocking activity on the P-type calcium channel.
Real-time qPCR analysis of all α2δ subunit isoforms indicated that neonatal IHCs express mainly α2δ2, whereas mature IHCs exclusively express α2δ2 mRNA. The low expression of α2δ3 mRNA detected in IHCs before hearing onset is in accordance with a small reduction of the Ba2+ current density in immature IHCs of α2δ3−/− mice (Pirone et al., 2014). α2δ2 mRNA was clearly present in both immature and mature IHCs and OHCs. Its low level at P20-P25 can be explained by the downregulation of Cav1.3 currents during development to only one-third of the level present at P6 in IHCs (Beutner and Moser, 2001; Johnson et al., 2005) and similarly also in OHCs (Knirsch et al., 2007). The fact that α2δ1, α2δ3, and α2δ4 mRNA were not detected indicates that α2δ2 is the dominant α2δ isoform that forms Ca2+ channels with Cav1.3 and Cavβ2 in mature IHCs. Interestingly, this L-type channel complex (CaV1.3/β2/α2δ2) is distinct from the P/Q-type channel complex in cerebellar Purkinje cells, ...
Its taken 12 days but I finally have all the milling done. I plan to start the shaping of the parts this week. I http://lumberjocks.com/Betsy/blog_entries/new#have some work on the rockers to get them cleaned up. I sure like working with cherry.. So heres my pile of rocker parts. Not very interesting - but sure was a lot of work. I can now very much appreciate the cost of a nice rocker.. ...
總周邊血管阻力(Total Peripheral Resistance,TPR)可由下列數學公式表示:. R = ΔP/Q[2]. R 代表 TPR。 ΔP 代表全身體循環起終點的血壓變化量。 Q 代表心輸出量. 因此此公式可以解釋為. 總周邊血管阻力 = (平均動脈壓 - 平均靜脈壓)/ 心輸出量. 因此平均動脈壓可以下列公式定義:[3]. ...
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This is the default operator. It will be used if there is no Boolean operator between two terms. For example: default document is the same as default AND document. In this case both terms need to exist within a listing to find a match on that listing.The + character is synonymous with using AND. OR ...
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For over 50 years, Crown Automotive has been the leading manufacturer and distributor of replacement parts for Jeep vehicles. With over 8,000 different part num
John Constantine, when introduced into the DC Universe, was a rare creature. One who aged in real time. Since his introduction in the early eighties, he
A B C D E F G H I K L M N P Q R S T V W Y Z /I: B1=0; BI=-105; BD=-105; /M: SY=B; M= -3, 4,-22, 3, -5,-14, -4, -4,-16, -8,-15,-11, 3,-17, -6,-10, 1, -1,-12,-21, -3, -7; /M: SY=I; M= -3,-27,-21,-32,-24, 2,-29,-22, 27,-23, 23, 20,-24,-24,-18,-21,-18, -7, 21,-19, -2,-22; /M: SY=A; M= 19, -6,-12,-11, -7,-18, -5,-11,-15, -6,-17,-12, -2,-12, -5, -8, 14, 5, -6,-28,-16, -7; /M: SY=H; M=-19, 1,-30, 1, 3,-22,-20, 78,-29, -4,-20, -3, 8,-18, 12, 6, -9,-18,-29,-28, 13, 3; /M: SY=E; M= -9, 12,-29, 21, 44,-30,-17, -1,-28, 7,-21,-19, 2, -4, 17, -1, 1, -9,-27,-30,-19, 30; /M: SY=L; M= -9,-29,-22,-33,-23, 9,-32,-23, 27,-28, 32, 18,-25,-25,-21,-23,-24, -9, 18,-19, 0,-23; /M: SY=R; M=-13, -1,-28, -3, 2,-24,-13, 3,-28, 25,-24,-10, 6,-17, 8, 38, -6, -9,-21,-23,-10, 2; /M: SY=N; M= -5, 13,-18, 4, -1,-19,-12, -5,-16, -3,-19,-13, 18,-14, 2, -4, 12, 18,-14,-32,-14, 0; /M: SY=P; M= -9,-18,-38, -9, 0,-28,-20,-19,-18,-10,-28,-18,-18, 78, -9,-19, -8, -7,-27,-30,-28, -9; /M: SY=L; M= -9,-29,-21,-31,-21, ...
A B C D E F G H I K L M N P Q R S T V W Y Z /I: B0=0; B1=0; BI=-105; BD=-105; /M: SY=K; M=-10, -3,-27, -4, 4,-21,-19, -6,-20, 26,-19, -6, -1,-14, 6, 21, -8, -8,-15,-21, -7, 3; /M: SY=E; M= -4, -2,-24, -2, 7,-20,-17, -5,-15, 4,-11, -6, -3,-12, 6, 3, -3, -5,-13,-24,-10, 6; /M: SY=L; M= -7,-22,-19,-27,-19, 10,-26,-17, 10,-18, 14, 7,-19,-24,-17,-13,-16, -6, 7,-15, 2,-18; /M: SY=L; M= -5,-24,-17,-28,-20, 11,-25,-18, 10,-22, 20, 13,-22,-24,-18,-18,-18, -7, 7,-11, 2,-18; /M: SY=K; M= 2, -1,-22, -3, 4,-21,-13, -5,-19, 7,-17,-10, 0,-12, 4, 6, 2, -2,-14,-25,-13, 3; /M: SY=K; M= -1, 2,-24, 1, 8,-23,-12, -4,-23, 9,-21,-13, 2,-11, 6, 7, 1, -4,-18,-22,-12, 6; /M: SY=Y; M= 2,-12,-19,-17,-11, -2,-18, -2, -3,-13, 0, -1, -9,-19,-10,-12, -7, -6, -4,-17, 3,-12; /M: SY=G; M= -3, -5,-26, -6,-11,-23, 32,-12,-29,-12,-23,-15, 3,-15,-11,-12, 0,-13,-23,-23,-21,-12; /M: SY=I; M= -6,-26,-21,-29,-22, 1,-30,-23, 24,-22, 17, 12,-22,-20,-20,-20,-17, -6, 20,-22, -4,-23; /M: SY=P; M= -6,-10,-30, -6, ...
well its almost there! not quite in the same league as rock yet but steadily getting there. this music is for the younger rockers who discovered the real stuff yet. all in all its not really that bad ...
New genetic data have allowed a more precise definition of 1.2.3.1 Familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) than was possible previously. Specific genetic subtypes have been identified: in FHM1 there are mutations in the CACNA1A gene (coding for a calcium channel) on chromosome 19; in FHM2 there are mutations in the ATP1A2 gene (coding for a K/Na-ATPase) on chromosome 1; and in FHM3 there are mutations in the SCN1A gene (coding for a sodium channel) on chromosome 2. There may be other loci not yet identified. If genetic testing is done, the genetic subtype (if discovered) should be specified at the fifth digit.. It has been shown that 1.2.3.1 Familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) very often presents with brainstem symptoms in addition to the typical aura symptoms, and that headache almost always occurs. Rarely, during FHM attacks, disturbances of consciousness (sometimes including coma), confusion, fever and CSF pleocytosis can occur.. 1.2.3.1 Familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) may be mistaken for ...
Annotation. The Na,K-ATPase is essential for maintaining the transmembrane ion gradients required for normal cell function. Previous studies clearly indicate that a specific Na,K-ATPase inhibitor, ouabain can initiate Src kinase signaling independently of the effects on Na,K-ATPase mediated ion translocation. This Na,K-ATPase-Src signaling has been shown in the kidney and heart, and seems perfectly suited for modulation of vasoconstriction, but has never been studied in smooth muscle cells. Several findings indirectly suggest the importance of Na,K-ATPase-Src complex for vascular remodeling and elevated contraction in resistance arteries in ouabain-induced and other forms of hypertension. Familial hemiplegic migraine type 2 (FHM2), associated with the loss-of-function mutation in the Na,K-ATPase, is characterized by elevated vascular contractility which might depend on Src activation. We have shown that the Na,K-ATPase-dependent Src activation could increase arterial contraction via ...
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Foto: MUI/Presseabteilung; Gerald Obermair mit seinem Team PhD - Student Clemens Schöpf und Stefanie Geisler ,, Presseartikel mypoint. The family of α1 subunits consists of 10 genes, seven of which constitute the high-voltage-activated calcium channels of the CaV1 and CaV2 subgroups (α1A to α1F and α1S). With the exception of two specific α1 subunits expressed in skeletal muscle (see research by The Flucher Lab) and in the retina all isoforms are expressed in the nervous system.. Regarding the auxiliary subunits all of the four β subunits and three of the four α2δ subunits are found in the brain. Because all α1, β, and α2δ subunits can form functional channel complexes with each other, this yields the theoretical number of 60 different brain calcium channels (5 α1 X 4 β X 3 α2δ) not considering the existence of multiple splices of each protein! In our research we address the question why nerve cells express so many different calcium channels subunits and whether individual ...
Cytosolic calcium ion concentrations ([Ca2+]we) were measured in rat neocortical synaptosomes using fura-2 and depolarization of synaptosomal membranes was induced by K+ (30?mM). existence from the P/Q-type Ca2+ route blocker […]. ...
NEW YORK - Rocker Ozzy Osbourne says that hes been diagnosed with Parkinsons disease, a nervous system disorder that affects movement.
Designed to conserve space, the Carolina® Mini Benchtop 3-D Rocker is the perfect addition to any lab. Featuring a 10-1/2 x 7-1/2
Awesome remix. I went to listen to the original before this one to get a feel for it, and also because... it is the remix... cant really listen to a remix without hearing the orginal first.. Anyways... on to the review... I thought this was awesome. The only issue I had with the original was that it was way too long, with this one... I think its to short, I think adding about 30 to 45 seconds would have made this even better. As Ive said before, the length of a song can make or break a song and a lot of times if it comes into play it comes in on the long side, this was one of the rare times where I think a track needed to be longer.. Sweet track,. ...
About two years ago I was granted a permanent visa to reside in Australia . The process to gain residency was a long and frustrating affair, not to mention the cost.The bureaucracy here is finely
The Quick Clip range of Grid from Contactum gives you reliability and depth of range. Whether its switching, dimming or general control you require for commercial and public buildings our Grid range has all the variations you are looking for.. ...
Der angebliche Besitzer der Rechte über an den Schriften von Rudolf Rocker, der stellv. Sachkundige Kleinbourgeois Bürger, Schatzmeister der Unabhängigen Wählergemeinschaft Nordwalde und nach eigener Angabe zuweilen auch Anarchist Heiner Becker versucht nun dem Institut für Syndikalismusforschung (SyFo) im Rahmen des Rechtsstreits um die Urheberrechte an den Werken von Rudolf Rocker seine eigenen Anwaltskosten in Höhe…
高仿苹果iphonex刷机包,山寨iphone x刷机包,高仿山寨苹果8plus刷机包,高仿山寨6splus,高仿山寨7splus刷机包: 精仿苹果7plus主板型号s206,A260w,A266w,A335CP,A353C,A3540,A7132,A8232,A8932,J01DS,J8067,LT8082 M980P,v7-V1.0,W9200,w3592 T8206 9900-875AQ0 9900-895AQ0-A,Q77TD-V1.0.1,R80_MB_V1.0,S89P,M982P_V1.2,S209_7P C355W 648_P1MB1等... 精仿苹果6主板型号:h339p z18_mb_v2.0 A912B A166MW A175MW A175ME A179MW A185MW A192MW A193MW A231CP A235CP A235WP A236_c2k A253C LT6003B LT6003C M718 M818A Q27 Q29 Q30 Q32 Q33 Q36 Q37 Q39 Q64SVN Q65CL Q782P Q711DP R7126D R7326D R7526D R8226 R8228 S106 S106S S106L S201 S201S S201F V75 V76 V77 W9200 W1113 W3215 B606 B808 LT6071 LT6082 E127 E132 E165 等全系列刷机包刷机教程下载,高仿山寨威图vertu刷机包 ...
The California psych rockers recorded this 2015 full-length for Drag City. The atmosphere is quicksilver and the space acoustic. A cascade of hi-fi noises for everyones ears. These are raucous, impassive and inevitable musical expressions. Vinyl-version.
A rocker sole shoe or rocker bottom shoe is a shoe which has a thicker-than-normal sole with rounded heel. Such shoes ensure the wearer does not have flat footing along the proximal-distal axis of the foot. The shoes are generically known by a variety of names including round bottom shoes, round/ed sole shoes, and toning shoes, but also by various brand names. Tyrell & Carter identified at least six standard variations of the rocker sole shoe and named them: toe-only rocker, rocker bar, mild rocker, heel-to-toe rocker, negative heel rocker and double rocker. Rocker soles may replace regular soles on any style of footwear. Some rocker bottom shoes are purpose built to reduce the function or replace the lost function of a joint. For example, a person with a hallux rigidus (stiff big toe) may use a rocker bottom shoe to replace the flexion lost at the metatarsal joint. Rocker bottom shoes are also used to compensate for the lost range of motion, however caused, at the tibiotalar joint (ankle ...
Lamotrigine is a member of the sodium channel blocking class of antiepileptic drugs.[60] This may suppress the release of glutamate and aspartate, two of the dominant excitatory neurotransmitters in the CNS.[61] It is generally accepted to be a member of the sodium channel blocking class of antiepileptic drugs,[62] but it could have additional actions, since it has a broader spectrum of action than other sodium channel antiepileptic drugs such as phenytoin and is effective in the treatment of the depressed phase of bipolar disorder, whereas other sodium channel-blocking antiepileptic drugs are not, possibly on account of its sigma receptor activity. In addition, lamotrigine shares few side effects with other, unrelated anticonvulsants known to inhibit sodium channels, which further emphasises its unique properties.[63]. It is a triazine derivate that inhibits voltage-sensitive sodium channels, leading to stabilization of neuronal membranes. It also blocks L-, N-, and P-type calcium channels and ...
Blog on Omega-Agatoxin IVA biologically active peptide product: The Omega-Agatoxin IVA n/a (Catalog #MBS405654) is a Biologically Active Peptide and is intended for rese...
OR Affliction A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # A B C D E File G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # A B C D E File G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # A B C D E File G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # A B C D E File G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W read more X Y Z # A B C D E File G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # Unexpected emergency INFO ...
I dont know about in the UK, but over here the better automotive supply stores like NAPA carry a variety of gasket materials by the roll. One material is called rubber-fiber compound, and thats what I use for my rocker box cover, sump cover, and primary cover. Its thicker and squishier than paper gasket, and for the most part works without sealer or gasket cement, although I cement them to the covers only, for easy removal of the covers. These stores also sell cork gasket material ...
The Rocker gets its name for the fact that its an orgasmic treat to sit on and rock back and forth (or grind) on! This anal plug is a perfect toy for those who are fans of hands-free play, and who want a thicker plug that provides more of a
This modern palladium solitaire engagement ring setting features a unique rocker shank flat band design. Exquisite milgrain detail adorns all sides of the band. A palladium four prong setting secures your choice of center diamond. Comfort Fit. Proudly made in the USA.
AH Series elbow, made of lightweight material. Cast to a 30° down angle to relieve weight of the hose when connected. Storz Rigid to Swivel Rocker Lug Task Force Tips Legacy 5
English Term to Indian Term. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Indian Term to English Term. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ...
There is hope for children with a painful skin disorder, helped along by celebrities like Pearl Jams Eddie Vedder who are raising money and awareness.
Hi, i currently own a Peavey Valveking 112 but its not really cutting it for what i want to do. I usually play fender guitars and the occasional humbu...
Its interesting that someone attached together the Peter Pan clip and "Walking in the Air." It kind of works--perhaps thats whats really surprising. The movie that the music was created for (as you probably already know) was "The Snowman." A tender piece that probably only mommies and grandmas really appreciate. ...
The Quick Clip range of Grid from Contactum gives you reliability and depth of range. Whether its switching, dimming or general control you require for commercial and public buildings our Grid range has all the variations you are looking for.. ...
09# A B C D E F G I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W XYZ Help H 200; Romeins Cijfer H Afschuivingsmodulus; Fys. H Enthalpie; Fys.Grooth.(warmte energie aanwezig in vochtige lucht) H Equivalentsdosis, Bestralingsdichth.; Nucl.SI Grooth.(in =| Sv = J/kg) H Halt, Halte; OV/Wegv.(bushalte aanduiding) H…
There are a hand full of early rockers which just stay with me as defining moments in rock and roll. When I play these today or hear them occasionally on the radio - the thrill is just the same (well maybe not exactly the same as the first time - but still a thrill!) The…
TY - JOUR. T1 - Familial hemiplegic migraine in a child with seizure disorder. T2 - Clinical history is the key to diagnosis. AU - Balakrishnan, Pranav. AU - Katakam, Phalguna Kousika. AU - Hegde, Asha P.. PY - 2019/3/1. Y1 - 2019/3/1. N2 - Headache is a common presenting complaint in the paediatric population, with often migraine being a clinical diagnosis. Hemiplegic migraine is characterised by aura, sudden onset weakness of one side of the body which usually recovers without any residual neurological deficit. We report a child with a history of seizure disorder, well controlled and off medication for 3 years, who presented with a headache, aura and transient hemiplegia. Similar history in the patients mother suggests the diagnosis of familial hemiplegic migraine. We would like to emphasise the importance of detailed history as an important aid in the diagnosis of neurological disorders in children.. AB - Headache is a common presenting complaint in the paediatric population, with often ...
The R-type calcium channel is a type of voltage-dependent calcium channel. Like the others of this class, the α1 subunit forms the pore through which calcium enters the cell and determines most of the channels properties. This α1 subunit is also known as the calcium channel, voltage-dependent, R type, alpha 1E subunit (CACNA1E) or Cav2.3 which in humans is encoded by the CACNA1E gene. They are strongly expressed in cortex, hippocampus, striatum, amygdala and interpeduncular nucleus. They are poorly understood, but like Q-type calcium channels, they appear to be present in cerebellar granule cells. They have a high threshold of activation and relatively slow kinetics. "Entrez Gene: CACNA1E calcium channel, voltage-dependent, R type, alpha 1E subunit". Soong TW, Stea A, Hodson CD, Dubel SJ, Vincent SR, Snutch TP (May 1993). "Structure and functional expression of a member of the low voltage-activated calcium channel family". Science. 260 (5111): 1133-6. doi:10.1126/science.8388125. PMID ...
Wholesale Wall Switch Rocker - Select 2017 high quality Wholesale Wall Switch Rocker products in best price from certified Chinese Switch manufacturers, Wall Switch suppliers, wholesalers and factory on Made-in-China.com
Question - My 10 years old son is suffering from hemiplegic migraine. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Migraine, Ask a Neurologist
RGK regulation of voltage-gated calcium channels. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Plastic bush engine rocker arm -PIAGGIO- 125-180 cc 2-stroke cheap & Express Delivery in Scooter Center Store order online
Find the entire collection of MBT athletic shoes for women & men at Footwear etc. The rocker sole provides shock absorption & optimum comfort all day long!
Find the entire collection of MBT athletic shoes for women & men at Footwear etc. The rocker sole provides shock absorption & optimum comfort all day long!
The strain that an ageing population continues to place on health and social care is a topic that regularly makes the headlines. With dementia identified as the one of the main causes of disability in later life and expected to double globally by 2030, the assisted living sector is one that will continue to grow and all those involved in the design, manufacture and supply of solutions will continue to have a part to play in easing the burden.. It isnt just high-tech solutions that are working their way through and providing much needed help for this sector. Leading wiring accessories and lighting products supplier, Scolmore Group, is always looking at ways to improve some of the simplest products that have been around for years and seen little development. Switches which feature wide rockers and sockets that have wider gaps between rockers, as well as outboard rockers are all designed to facility the use of products for those with impaired vision. Scolmores most recent innovation is the ...
The best Bassoon lessons in Troy, NY as rated by students. Browse Troy Bassoon teachers - ask questions, read reviews & compare rates!
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e F P ł A Q ł A [ A p f B h A A N Z g A t A W r [ g A P U r [ g A P Q r [ g A V b t A n [ t ^ C V b t A T o A { T m o A e A Q G A Z J h C A t B C A h \ ȂǁB ...
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As for your post OP, as mentioned, I find Castello totally off his rocker. IF indeed this base exsists I dont see how one could will themselves to become male / female / elephant whatever. I find it very hard to believe that you can will yourself into a completely different state. I dont think wanting to change your own sex is a result of brainwashing, what would that achieve? Maybe Im way off here, the flu has constricted my ability to make any sense at the minute. Lol ...
a href= http://crossmediacomunicacao.com.br/index.php/anyone-ever-buy-clomid-online.pdf#haste ,buy generic clomid cheap,/a, All of which, you might say, is too good to be true. Does Johnson mind the mickey-taking that lampoons him as the right-on rocker? “Not really,” he says evenly. “Well, maybe for a little while … I don’t get it too much any more. The first years we started to do the [Ohana Foundation], in 2008, I almost felt like I was on the defensive – half the people were like, ‘OK, youre doing this for your image, I get it.’ So they were trying to find holes in it all the time. But this time around it’s been great. We’ve been doing it for five years and we’re not really coming out and making a thing of it. I don’t feel like I have to explain it as much. And to be honest, it really does make my job easier to explain to my kids – it makes it feel a little more worth doing.&rdquo ...
A new peptide antagonist of voltage-activated calcium channels was purified from venom of the funnel web spider, Agelenopsis aperta. This 48-amino acid peptide, omega-agatoxin (omega-Aga)-IVB, was found to be a potent (Kd, approximately 3 nM) blocker of P-type calcium channels in rat cerebellar Purkinje neurons but had no activity against T-type, L-type, or N-type calcium channels in a variety of neurons. The calcium channel-blocking properties of omega-Aga-IVB were similar to those of another toxin, omega-Aga-IVA, which has 71% amino acid identity with omega-Aga-IVB. The 10-fold greater abundance of omega-Aga-IVB in venom allowed structural studies using NMR spectroscopy. The three-dimensional structure derived from NMR data resulted in a proposed disulfide bond configuration for the peptide. Although omega-Aga-IVB has fewer basic and more acidic residues than does omega-Aga-IVA, the two toxins show conservation of positively charged residues in a mid-peptide region that is predicted to form ...
Hemiplegia is a condition where one side of the body is weakened or paralysed. Find out more about the different types of Hemiplegic Migraines and more.
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. Cav1.3 - Voltage-gated calcium channels. Detailed annotation on the structure, function, physiology, pharmacology and clinical relevance of drug targets.
Voltage-dependent calcium channel subunit alpha-2/delta-1 (CA2D1) antibody | P54289 | Voltage-dependent calcium channel subunit alpha-2/delta-1, Voltage-gated calcium channel subunit alpha-2/delta-1, CACNL2A, CCHL2A, MHS3
RecName: Full=Voltage-dependent calcium channel subunit alpha-2/delta-4;AltName: Full=Voltage-gated calcium channel subunit alpha-2/delta-4;Contains: RecName: Full=Voltage-dependent calcium channel subunit alpha-2-4;Contains: RecName: Full=Voltage-depen ...
Our Deluxe Chair/Rocker Seat Cushion is available in beautiful colors and patterns to suit any décor.The high-performance, richl…
UMTS GSM DECT C2000 WiFi WLAN - Hoogfrequente elektromagnetische straling kan de gezondheid schaden (zie onderbouwing en vele ervaringsverhalen op de website). Het is tijd voor nieuwe blootstellingslimieten en veilige alternatieven voor mobiele communicatie.
Adsorb the virus at 37C for 1-2 hrs; use frequent rocking (every 10-15 min by hand) to avoid drying the cells. Note: Previous protocols have done the dilutions in eppendorf tubes and the adsorption step with 500 ul per well and rocked the plates on the automatic rocker at RT. Ive had problems with the automatic rocker and the lower volume (400 ul/well) that is suggested in this protocol. I think the rocker may actually promote drying of the center of the well by drawing the fluid to the side of the well via capillary action ...
CACNA2D2 - CACNA2D2 (Myc-DDK-tagged)-Human calcium channel, voltage-dependent, alpha 2/delta subunit 2 (CACNA2D2), transcript variant 3 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
View mouse Cacna1s Chr1:136052805-136119822 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
07/21/09 Los Angeles, CA: Michael Franti, Adam Duritz, of Counting Crows and Dan Layus of Augustana perform at the Greek Theatre.
The Giving Tree Band/ Photo: Kevin Malella By Eric Lutz Back in 2008, The Giving Tree Band gave themselves a challenge: record a carbon-neutral album. The group is very into the environment. Nature permeates all their songs. So this seemed like a natural-no pun intended-extension. The Chicago-connected folk-rockers
Baby Bowie: Introduce your littlest rocker to the magic and creativity of David Bowie in this delightful book in the new Baby Rocker board book series
Medline Industries, Inc. All rights reserved. Advancing the Health of Healthcare is a trademark and Medline is a registered trademark of Medline Industries, Inc ...
Childless Mother - A Poem I am a childless mother. There is an empty hole in my heart Where my child is supposed to be. Where there should be squeals and laughter There is nothing but mind-numbing silence. And look, there, in the corner sitting idly, Waiting, is a childs rocker, my rocker- The rocker…
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Idag nåddes världen av sångaren Steve Lees dödsfall efter en olycka i Nevada, USA. Ännu en rocker ur tiden. Steve Lee R.I.P. ...
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... is classified as a selective antagonist of T-type voltage-operated calcium ion channels, because its binding blocks ... Cinnarizine is an antihistamine and calcium channel blocker of the diphenylmethylpiperazine group.[1] It is also known to ... Arab SF, Düwel P, Jüngling E, Westhofen M, Lückhoff A (June 2004). "Inhibition of voltage-gated calcium currents in type II ... hypothesized that cinnarizine exerts its effects by inhibiting the calcium currents in voltage gated channels in type II ...
"Osteoprotegerin expression and secretion are regulated by calcium influx through the L-type voltage-sensitive calcium channel ... This gene encodes an alpha-1 subunit of a voltage-dependent calcium channel. Calcium channels mediate the influx of calcium ... Calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit (also known as Cav1.2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by ... Berger SM, Bartsch D (Aug 2014). "The role of L-type voltage-gated calcium channels Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 in normal and ...
"Molecular characterization of T-type calcium channels". Cell Calcium. 40 (2): 89-96. doi:10.1016/j.ceca.2006.04.012. PMID ... Seizures are believed to originate in the thalamus, where there is an abundance of T-type calcium channels such as those ... a T-type calcium channel". J Neurosci. 25 (19): 4844-55. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0847-05.2005. PMID 15888660. Liang J, Zhang Y, ... "Gating effects of mutations in the Cav3.2 T-type calcium channel associated with childhood absence epilepsy". J Biol Chem. 279 ...
Voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma-3 subunit is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CACNG3 gene. L-type calcium ... This gene is a member of the neuronal calcium channel gamma subunit gene subfamily of the PMP-22/EMP/MP20 family. This gene is ... "Entrez Gene: CACNG3 calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 3". Powers PA, Liu S, Hogan K, Gregg RG (1993). " ... It is an integral membrane protein that is thought to stabilize the calcium channel in an inactive (closed) state. This protein ...
Voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma-1 subunit is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CACNG1 gene. L-type calcium ... 1993). "Localization of the gamma-subunit of the skeletal muscle L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel gene (CACNLG) to ... and gamma-subunits of the human skeletal muscle L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel on chromosome 17q and exclusion as ... This gene is a member of the neuronal calcium channel gamma subunit gene subfamily of the PMP-22/EMP/MP20 family and is located ...
Voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma-4 subunit is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CACNG4 gene. L-type calcium ... This gene is a member of the neuronal calcium channel gamma subunit gene subfamily of the PMP-22/EMP/MP20 family and is located ... "Entrez Gene: CACNG4 calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 4". Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, et al. (2004). " ... Voltage-dependent calcium channel GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000075461 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ...
L-type calcium channels are composed of five subunits. The protein encoded by this gene represents one of these subunits, gamma ... Calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 2, also known as CACNG2 or stargazin is a protein that in humans is encoded ... This gene is a member of the neuronal calcium channel gamma subunit gene subfamily of the PMP-22/EMP/MP20 family. Stargazin is ... It is an integral membrane protein that is thought to stabilize the calcium channel in an inactive (closed) state. This protein ...
1998). "An L-type calcium-channel gene mutated in incomplete X-linked congenital stationary night blindness". Nat. Genet. 19 (3 ... a protein in the voltage-dependent calcium channel complex. Calcium channels mediate the influx of calcium ions into the cell ... Cav1.4 also known as the calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1F subunit (CACNA1F), is a human gene. This gene ... CACNA1F calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1F subunit". Catterall WA, Perez-Reyes E, Snutch TP, Striessnig J ( ...
Proximal muscle weakness is a product of pathogenic autoantibodies directed against P/Q-type voltage-gated calcium channels, ... which activates voltage-dependent calcium channels to allow calcium ions to enter the neuron. Calcium ions bind to sensor ... This type of tumor also expresses voltage-gated calcium channels. Oftentimes, LEMS also occurs alongside myasthenia gravis. ... Upon the arrival of an action potential at the presynaptic neuron terminal, voltage-dependent calcium channels open and Ca2+ ...
The T-type calcium channel is found in neurons throughout the brain. These channels produce particularly large currents in ... Recent research has also been conducted on the T-type calcium channel and how modulation of these channels may allow for the ... Antiepileptic drugs can control absence seizures by inhibiting the T-type calcium channels which prevents low-voltage calcium ... T-type calcium channels have been known to play a role in the spike-and-wave discharges of absence seizures. ...
Sodium channel, voltage-gated, type XI, alpha subunit also known as SCN11A or Nav1.9 is a voltage-gated sodium ion channel ... Nomenclature and structure-function relationships of voltage-gated calcium channels". Pharmacological Reviews. 57 (4): 411-25. ... "Entrez Gene: Sodium channel, voltage-gated, type XI, alpha subunit". Catterall WA, Perez-Reyes E, Snutch TP, Striessnig J ( ... This property is found in similar channels, namely Nav1.8, and has been associated with slower channel kinetics than the ...
Structural model for phenylalkylamine binding to L-type calcium channels. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 284(41), 28332- ... The drug targets L-type Ca+2 channels, and decreases conduction in cells where Ca+2 is required for action potential upstroke ( ... 1995). Electrophysiological effect of BRL-32872, a novel antiarrhythmic agent with potassium and calcium channel blocking ... BRL-32872's class III activity is directed towards the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) K+ channel. hERG channels are ...
The voltage-dependent N-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CACNA1B gene. ... subunits for the calcium channel I-II linker in relation to calcium channel function". The Journal of Physiology. 574 (Pt 2): ... Maximov A, Bezprozvanny I (Aug 2002). "Synaptic targeting of N-type calcium channels in hippocampal neurons". The Journal of ... Calabrese B, Tabarean IV, Juranka P, Morris CE (Nov 2002). "Mechanosensitivity of N-type calcium channel currents". Biophysical ...
... (INN) is a calcium channel blocker. It is a calcium antagonist accompanied with L-type and N-type calcium channel ... Unlike other calcium antagonists, cilnidipine can act on the N-type calcium channel in addition to acting on the L-type calcium ... Due to its blocking action at the N-type and L-type calcium channel, cilnidipine dilates both arterioles and venules, reducing ... May 2002). "Cilnidipine is a novel slow-acting blocker of vascular L-type calcium channels that does not target protein kinase ...
N-type calcium-channel blocker.. Intrathecal.. Protein binding = 50%; half-life = 2.9-6.5 hours; excretion = urine (,1%).[122] ... Binds to the α2δ-1 subunit of voltage gated calcium ion channels in the spinal cord. May also modulate NMDA receptors and ... Comes in calcium salt form; fairly soluble in water.. Is metabolised to aspirin and urea. As per aspirin.. Oral.. No data.. ... Each different type of analgesic has its own associated side effects. Classification[edit]. Analgesics are typically classified ...
... type-1) and atypical (type-2). They are both caused by mutations in CACNA1C, the gene encoding the calcium channel Cav1.2 α ... "Severe arrhythmia disorder caused by cardiac L-type calcium channel mutations". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 102 (23): 8089-8096. ... Cav1.2 Calcium channel Marks M, Whisler S, Clericuzio C, Keating M (1995). "A new form of long QT syndrome associated with ... However, it was linked with calcium channel abnormalities in 2004, and the disorder was thence named "Timothy syndrome" in ...
... calcium channel blocker, inhibits both L-type and T-type calcium channels. Efonidipine exhibits antihypertensive effect through ... It was launched in 1995, under the brand name Landel (ランデル). The drug blocks both T-type and L-type calcium channels. Drug ... Efonidipine is a dual Calcium Channel Blocker (L & T-type). It has a unique chemical structure. The phosphonate moiety (Figure ... Working on sino atrial node cells by inhibiting T-type calcium channel activation, Efonidipine prolongs the late phase-4 ...
Calcium Channels (L-Type). It is the first positive inotropic agent shown to act specifically and directly on calcium channels ... Bay K8644 is a chemical compound that functions as a calcium channel agonist. Bay K8644 is used primarily as a biochemical ... that enhances calcium currents in guinea pig and calf myocardial cells. A new type of positive inotropic agent". Circ Res. 56: ...
"Modulation of A-type potassium channels by a family of calcium sensors". Nature. 403 (6769): 553-556. doi:10.1038/35000592. ... They are integral subunit components of native Kv4 channel complexes. They may regulate A-type currents, and hence neuronal ... "Entrez Gene: KCNIP1 Kv channel interacting protein 1". Burgoyne RD (2007). "Neuronal calcium sensor proteins: generating ... 2001). "Conserved Kv4 N-terminal domain critical for effects of Kv channel-interacting protein 2.2 on channel expression and ...
... on recombinant T-type channels in cell lines demonstrated conclusively that ethosuximide blocks all T-type calcium channel ... and α1I T-type calcium channels, Gomora's team found that ethosuximide blocked the channels with an IC50 of 12 ± 2 mmol/L and ... Gomora JC, Daud AN, Weiergraber M, Perez-Reyes E (2001). "Block of cloned human T-type calcium channels by succinimide ... The primary finding that ethosuximide is a T-type calcium channel blocker gained widespread support, but initial attempts to ...
The relative permeability of calcium and magnesium varies widely among TRPM channels. TRPM4 and TRPM5 are impermeable to ... TRPM6 and TRPM7, for example, contain functional α-kinase segments, which are a type of serine/threonine-specific protein ... Among the functional responsibilities of the TRPM channels are: regulation of calcium oscillations after T cell activation and ... TRPM is a family of transient receptor potential ion channels (M standing for melastatin). Functional TRPM channels are ...
"Modulation of A-type potassium channels by a family of calcium sensors". Nature. 403 (6769): 553-6. doi:10.1038/35000592. PMID ... They are integral subunit components of native Kv4 channel complexes. They may regulate A-type currents, and hence neuronal ... "Entrez Gene: KCNIP2 Kv channel interacting protein 2". Burgoyne RD (Mar 2007). "Neuronal calcium sensor proteins: generating ... Ren X, Shand SH, Takimoto K (Oct 2003). "Effective association of Kv channel-interacting proteins with Kv4 channel is mediated ...
"Modulation of A-type potassium channels by a family of calcium sensors". Nature. 403 (6769): 553-6. doi:10.1038/35000592. PMID ... Schrader LA, Anderson AE, Mayne A, Pfaffinger PJ, Sweatt JD (2002). "PKA modulation of Kv4.2-encoded A-type potassium channels ... They are integral subunit components of native Kv4 channel complexes that may regulate A-type currents, and hence neuronal ... "Entrez Gene: KCNIP3 Kv channel interacting protein 3, calsenilin". Burgoyne RD (2007). "Neuronal Calcium Sensor Proteins: ...
... are also involved in regulation of channels and in calcium signaling. Caveolae also participate in lipid regulation. ... This type of endocytosis is used for example for transcytosis of albumin in endothelial cells or for internalization of the ... Caveolae have been shown to be required for the protection of cells from mechanical stress in multiple tissue types such as the ... In biology, caveolae (Latin for "little caves"; singular, caveola), which are a special type of lipid raft, are small (50-100 ...
This depolarizes the β cells and causes voltage-gated calcium channels to open. The resulting calcium influx induces fusion of ... are affected with type 1 (namely insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. are in diabetic ketoacidosis. A study funded by Novo ... Nateglinide (INN, trade name Starlix) is a drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Nateglinide was developed by Ajinomoto, a ... It achieves this by closing ATP-dependent potassium channels in the membrane of the β cells. ...
Models of this type are typically built in large simulation platforms like GENESIS or NEURON. There have been some attempts to ... With the emergence of two-photon microscopy and calcium imaging, we now have powerful experimental methods with which to test ... Voltage sensitive ion channels are glycoprotein molecules which extend through the lipid bilayer, allowing ions to traverse ... "Intracellular Calcium Dynamics Permit a Purkinje Neuron Model to Perform Toggle and Gain Computations Upon its Inputs" ...
The R-type calcium channel is a type of voltage-dependent calcium channel. Like the others of this class, the α1 subunit forms ... "Entrez Gene: CACNA1E calcium channel, voltage-dependent, R type, alpha 1E subunit". Soong TW, Stea A, Hodson CD, Dubel SJ, ... This α1 subunit is also known as the calcium channel, voltage-dependent, R type, alpha 1E subunit (CACNA1E) or Cav2.3 which in ... They are poorly understood, but like Q-type calcium channels, they appear to be present in cerebellar granule cells. They have ...
Second, if calcium entry through N-type calcium channels is prevented, the delayed generation of damage is prevented. ... Background and Purpose Neuroprotection by antagonists of both L-type and N-type calcium channels occurs in in vivo models of ... that neuroprotection by selective N-type calcium channel antagonists is mediated directly through neuronal calcium channels. In ... and Q-type channels in addition to blocking N-type channels. Valentino et al11 confirmed in vivo that CTX MVIIC was a much more ...
... expresses T-type calcium current was employed to show that inhibiting calcium influx through the T-type calcium channel ... L-type, and a low voltage activated (LVA) T-type. Influx of calcium into the cell through the L-type channel is responsible for ... Furthermore, blocking the calcium influx through the T-type calcium channel arrests cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. ... Calcium Influx via the T-Type Calcium Channel Plays a Permissive Role in Proliferation of Mouse Embryonic Hl-1 Cells. Welcome ...
... piperazine derivatives as T-type calcium channel blockers",. abstract = "To obtain selective and potent inhibitor for T-type ... N2 - To obtain selective and potent inhibitor for T-type calcium channel by ligand based drug design, 2-hydroxy-3-phenoxypropyl ... AB - To obtain selective and potent inhibitor for T-type calcium channel by ligand based drug design, 2-hydroxy-3-phenoxypropyl ... To obtain selective and potent inhibitor for T-type calcium channel by ligand based drug design, 2-hydroxy-3-phenoxypropyl ...
T-type calcium channels in burst-firing, network synchrony, and epilepsy.. Cain SM1, Snutch TP. ... In this review we summarize recent findings concerning the role of T-type calcium channels in burst-firing and discuss how they ... Low voltage-activated (LVA) T-type calcium channels are well regarded as a key mechanism underlying the generation of neuronal ... Publication types, MeSH terms, Substances, Grant support. Publication types. *Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt ...
Among the many types of voltage-gated Ca2+ channel, L-type Ca2+ channels particularly display inactivation and facilitation, ... Calmodulin supports both inactivation and facilitation of L-type calcium channels.. Zühlke RD1, Pitt GS, Deisseroth K, Tsien RW ... L-type Ca2+ channels support Ca2+ entry into cells, which triggers cardiac contraction, controls hormone secretion from ... Publication types, MeSH terms, Substances. Publication types. *Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt ...
Calcium channel blockers are drugs used to lower blood pressure. Learn more from WebMD about how they work and their side ... certain drugs may interact with calcium channel blockers.. How Should I Take Calcium Channel Blockers?. Most calcium channel ... Interactions With Calcium Channel Blockers Calcium channel blockers are drugs used to lower blood pressure. They work by ... Side Effects of Calcium Channel Blockers. Potential side effects from taking a calcium channel blocker include:. * Dizziness or ...
... which inhibits the T-type calcium channel Cav3.2. This calcium channel was highly expressed in human GBM specimens and enriched ... Targetable T-type Calcium Channels Drive Glioblastoma. Ying Zhang, Nichola Cruickshanks, Fang Yuan, Baomin Wang, Mary Pahuski, ... Targetable T-type Calcium Channels Drive Glioblastoma. Ying Zhang, Nichola Cruickshanks, Fang Yuan, Baomin Wang, Mary Pahuski, ... Targetable T-type Calcium Channels Drive Glioblastoma. Ying Zhang, Nichola Cruickshanks, Fang Yuan, Baomin Wang, Mary Pahuski, ...
... were prepared and tested for N-type calcium channel inhibition in a SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma FLIPR assay. N-type or Cav2.2 channel ... Keywords: N-type calcium channel; Cav2.2; channel blocker; pain; FLIPR N-type calcium channel; Cav2.2; channel blocker; pain; ... were prepared and tested for N-type calcium channel inhibition in a SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma FLIPR assay. N-type or Cav2.2 channel ... Inhibition of N-Type Calcium Channels by Fluorophenoxyanilide Derivatives. Ellen C. Gleeson 1,2. ...
Mus musculus calcium channel, voltage-dependent, T type, alpha 1G subunit (Cacna... Mus musculus calcium channel, voltage- ... Mus musculus calcium channel, voltage-dependent, T type, alpha 1G subunit (Cacna1g), transcript variant 3, mRNA. NCBI Reference ... See the reference protein sequence for voltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1G isoform c (NP_001171359.1). ... Calcium Regulation in the Cardiac Cell Calcium Regulation in the Cardiac CellCalcium is a common signaling mechanism, as once ...
Voltage-dependent calcium channel, L-type, alpha-1 subunit (IPR005446) *Voltage-dependent calcium channel, L-type, alpha-1S ... while the Cav3 family mediates T-type calcium currents.. L-type calcium channels are formed from alpha-1S, alpha-1C, alpha-1D, ... The Cav1 family forms channels mediating L-type calcium currents, the Cav2 family mediates P/Q-, N-, and R-type calcium ... Nomenclature of voltage-gated calcium channels.. Neuron 25 533-5 2000. Triggle DJ. 1,4-Dihydropyridines as calcium channel ...
R type, alpha 1E subunit Identifiers Symbol CACNA1E Alt. Symbols CACNL1A6 Entrez 777 HUGO 1392 OMIM ... R-type calcium channel calcium channel, voltage-dependent, ... Calcium channel. Voltage-dependent calcium channel (L-type/Cavα ... The R-type calcium channel is a type of voltage-dependent calcium channel. Like the others of this class, the α1 subunit is the ... 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4), N-type, P-type/Cavα(2.1), Q-type, R-type, T-type, β-subunits (β1, β2, β4), γ-subunits (γ2) • Inositol ...
2011) Location of release sites and calcium-activated chloride channels relative to calcium channels at the photoreceptor ... Lateral Mobility of Presynaptic L-Type Calcium Channels at Photoreceptor Ribbon Synapses. Aaron J. Mercer, Minghui Chen and ... 2004) Role of lipid microdomains in P/Q-type calcium channel (Cav2.1) clustering and function in presynaptic membranes. J Biol ... 2004) The CACNA1F gene encodes an L-type calcium channel with unique biophysical properties and tissue distribution. J Neurosci ...
Long-Lasting calcium channels). The new T-type channels were much different from the L-type calcium channels due to their ... T-type calcium channels are low-voltage activated calcium channels that open during membrane depolarization. These channels aid ... Calcium channel blockers (CCB) such as mibefradil can also block L-type calcium channels, other enzymes, as well as other ... Novel T-type calcium channel inhibitors have recently been discovered which more selectively target the CaV3.3 channel sub-type ...
... which is also similar to another type of calcium channels, known as P-type calcium channels. N-type calcium channels are ... N-type calcium channels are voltage gated calcium channels that are distributed throughout the entire body. These channels are ... The inhibition of this channel by calcium channel blockers can lead to renal microcirculation. N-type calcium channels have ... N-type calcium channels have known functions in the kidney, and heart. There are many known N-type calcium channel blockers, ...
The L-type calcium channel (also known as the dihydropyridine channel, or DHP channel) is part of the high-voltage activated ... This channel has four subunits (Cav1.1, Cav1.2, Cav1.3, Cav1.4). L-type calcium channels are responsible for the excitation- ... In cardiac myocytes, the L-type calcium channel passes inward Ca2+ current and triggers calcium release from the sarcoplasmic ... Rossier, Michel F. (2016). "T-Type Calcium Channel: A Privileged Gate for Calcium Entry and Control of Adrenal Steroidogenesis ...
The Q-type calcium channel is a type of voltage-dependent calcium channel. Like the others of this class, the α1 subunit is the ... They are poorly understood, but like R-type calcium channels, they appear to be present in cerebellar granule cells. They have ... Q-Type Calcium Channel at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ... one that determines most of the channels properties. ...
The P-type calcium channel is a type of voltage-dependent calcium channel. Similar to many other high-voltage-gated calcium ... P-type calcium channels play a similar role to the N-type calcium channel in neurotransmitter release at the presynaptic ... There are many different types of calcium channels, so to prove that the P/Q type calcium channels are directly involved, a P/Q ... corresponds to what is functionally defined as the P-type and Q-type isoforms. P-type and Q-type calcium channels are closely ...
... and 7.5-pS single-channel conductance, we conclude that this channel is a low-voltage-activated T-type calcium channel. ... Molecular characterization of a neuronal low-voltage-activated T-type calcium channel.. Perez-Reyes E1, Cribbs LL, Daud A, ... The molecular diversity of voltage-activated calcium channels was established by studies showing that channels could be ... T-type channels are thought to be involved in pacemaker activity, low-threshold calcium spikes, neuronal oscillations and ...
Tyrosine-kinase-dependent recruitment of RGS12 to the N-type calcium channel.. Schiff ML1, Siderovski DP, Jordan JD, Brothers G ... Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)B receptors couple to Go to inhibit N-type calcium channels in embryonic chick dorsal root ... Publication types, MeSH terms, Substances, Secondary source ID. Publication types. *Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt ... here we show an endogenous agonist-induced tyrosine-kinase-dependent complex of RGS12 and the calcium channel. These results ...
Neurons express multiple types of voltage-gated calcium (Ca2+) channels. Two subtypes of neuronal L-type Ca2+ channels are ... Ca1.2 and CaV1.3 neuronal L-type calcium channels: differential targeting and signaling to pCREB.. Zhang H1, Fu Y, Altier C, ... CaV1.2 and CaV1.3 neuronal L-type calcium channels: differential targeting and signaling to pCREB ... CaV1.2 and CaV1.3 neuronal L-type calcium channels: differential targeting and signaling to pCREB ...
Calcium-mediated neurotoxicity: relationship to specific channel types and role in ischemic damage.. Choi DW. ...
... and R-type Ca2+ channels are replaced by P/Q-type Ca2+ channels with development. In contrast, multiple types of Ca2+ channels ... 1991) N-type and L-type calcium channels are present in nerve growth cones. Numbers increase on synaptogenesis. Dev Brain Res ... Using type-specific Ca2+ channel blocker toxins, we have demonstrated that the contributions of N-type Ca2+ channels to ... Among them, the ω-conotoxin GVIA-sensitive N-type channels and the ω-Aga-IVA-sensitive P/Q-type channels mediate fast synaptic ...
2007a) Reducing agents sensitize C-type nociceptors by relieving high-affinity zinc inhibition of T-type calcium channels. J ... 2005) Silencing of the CaV3.2 T-type calcium channel gene in sensory neurons demonstrates its major role in nociception. EMBO J ... Molecular Mechanisms of Lipoic Acid Modulation of T-Type Calcium Channels in Pain Pathway. Woo Yong Lee, Peihan Orestes, ... 2001b) Cav3.2 channel is a molecular substrate for inhibition of T-type calcium currents in rat sensory neurons by nitrous ...
omega-Conotoxin block of N-type calcium channels in frog and rat sympathetic neurons. LM Boland, JA Morrill and BP Bean ... omega-Conotoxin block of N-type calcium channels in frog and rat sympathetic neurons ... omega-Conotoxin block of N-type calcium channels in frog and rat sympathetic neurons ... omega-Conotoxin block of N-type calcium channels in frog and rat sympathetic neurons ...
  • To obtain selective and potent inhibitor for T-type calcium channel by ligand based drug design, 2-hydroxy-3-phenoxypropyl piperazine derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for in vitro activities. (elsevier.com)
  • Compound 6m and 6q showed high selectivity over hERG channel (IC 50 ratio of hERG/α 1G 6m = 8.5, 6q = 18.38) and they were subjected to measure pharmacokinetics profiles. (elsevier.com)
  • Abstract -The amplitude of the whole-cell L-type Ca 2+ channel current recorded from vascular smooth muscle cells is reportedly greater in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) than in Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). (ahajournals.org)
  • By means of extracellular recordings in the dorsal horn, we showed that windup of dorsal horn neuron discharge was sensitive to the modulators of L -type calcium current. (wiley.com)
  • Swelling-induced [Ca 2+ ] i transients, and RVD in cells grown on a type I collagen matrix, are inhibited by removal of Ca from extracellular solutions, dihydropyridines, and antisense oligodeoxynucleotides directed exclusively to the α 1C isoform of the L-type Ca channel. (springer.com)
  • Furthermore, if addition of conotoxin MVIIA was delayed until after the hypoxic episode, a dose-dependent neuroprotective effect was observed, with an IC 50 of 50 nmol/L. In contrast to hypoxia, none of the compounds was neuroprotective in the model of oxygen-glucose deprivation, although it was determined that extracellular calcium was essential for the generation of ischemic damage. (ahajournals.org)
  • Adler AI, Stratton IM, Neil HA, Yudkin JS, Matthews DR, Cull CA, Wright AD, Turner RC, Holman RR (2000) Association of systolic blood pressure with macrovascular and microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 36): prospective observational study. (springer.com)
  • Colliver TL, Hess EJ, Pothos EN, Sulzer D, Ewing AG (2000) Quantitative and statistical analysis of the shape of amperometric spikes recorded from two populations of cells. (springer.com)
  • The action potential will propagate through the sarcolemma to the interior of the muscle fibers eventually leading to an increase in intracellular calcium levels and subsequently initiating the process of Excitation-contraction coupling. (wikipedia.org)