Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.
Long-lasting voltage-gated CALCIUM CHANNELS found in both excitable and nonexcitable tissue. They are responsible for normal myocardial and vascular smooth muscle contractility. Five subunits (alpha-1, alpha-2, beta, gamma, and delta) make up the L-type channel. The alpha-1 subunit is the binding site for calcium-based antagonists. Dihydropyridine-based calcium antagonists are used as markers for these binding sites.
A genus of REOVIRIDAE, causing acute gastroenteritis in BIRDS and MAMMALS, including humans. Transmission is horizontal and by environmental contamination. Seven species (Rotaviruses A thru G) are recognized.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
Infection with any of the rotaviruses. Specific infections include human infantile diarrhea, neonatal calf diarrhea, and epidemic diarrhea of infant mice.
CALCIUM CHANNELS that are concentrated in neural tissue. Omega toxins inhibit the actions of these channels by altering their voltage dependence.
A heterogenous group of transient or low voltage activated type CALCIUM CHANNELS. They are found in cardiac myocyte membranes, the sinoatrial node, Purkinje cells of the heart and the central nervous system.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
Agents that increase calcium influx into calcium channels of excitable tissues. This causes vasoconstriction in VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE and/or CARDIAC MUSCLE cells as well as stimulation of insulin release from pancreatic islets. Therefore, tissue-selective calcium agonists have the potential to combat cardiac failure and endocrinological disorders. They have been used primarily in experimental studies in cell and tissue culture.
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
Potassium channels where the flow of K+ ions into the cell is greater than the outward flow.
CALCIUM CHANNELS located within the PURKINJE CELLS of the cerebellum. They are involved in stimulation-secretion coupling of neurons.
CALCIUM CHANNELS located in the neurons of the brain.
Pyridine moieties which are partially saturated by the addition of two hydrogen atoms in any position.
CALCIUM CHANNELS located in the neurons of the brain. They are inhibited by the marine snail toxin, omega conotoxin MVIIC.
A potent vasodilator agent with calcium antagonistic action. It is a useful anti-anginal agent that also lowers blood pressure.
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of potassium efflux through cell membranes. Blockade of potassium channels prolongs the duration of ACTION POTENTIALS. They are used as ANTI-ARRHYTHMIA AGENTS and VASODILATOR AGENTS.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that form channels to selectively pass chloride ions. Nonselective blockers include FENAMATES; ETHACRYNIC ACID; and TAMOXIFEN.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
A neurotoxic peptide, which is a cleavage product (VIa) of the omega-Conotoxin precursor protein contained in venom from the marine snail, CONUS geographus. It is an antagonist of CALCIUM CHANNELS, N-TYPE.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
A family of structurally related neurotoxic peptides from mollusk venom that inhibit voltage-activated entry of calcium into the presynaptic membrane. They selectively inhibit N-, P-, and Q-type calcium channels.
Potassium channel whose permeability to ions is extremely sensitive to the transmembrane potential difference. The opening of these channels is induced by the membrane depolarization of the ACTION POTENTIAL.
A benzothiazepine derivative with vasodilating action due to its antagonism of the actions of CALCIUM ion on membrane functions.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Heteromultimers of Kir6 channels (the pore portion) and sulfonylurea receptor (the regulatory portion) which affect function of the HEART; PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. KATP channel blockers include GLIBENCLAMIDE and mitiglinide whereas openers include CROMAKALIM and minoxidil sulfate.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent.
A potent antagonist of CALCIUM CHANNELS that is highly selective for VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE. It is effective in the treatment of chronic stable angina pectoris, hypertension, and congestive cardiac failure.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
Potassium channels whose activation is dependent on intracellular calcium concentrations.
A calcium channel blocker with marked vasodilator action. It is an effective antihypertensive agent and differs from other calcium channel blockers in that it does not reduce glomerular filtration rate and is mildly natriuretic, rather than sodium retentive.
A benzimidazoyl-substituted tetraline that selectively binds and inhibits CALCIUM CHANNELS, T-TYPE.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of sodium influx through cell membranes. Blockade of sodium channels slows the rate and amplitude of initial rapid depolarization, reduces cell excitability, and reduces conduction velocity.
An element of the alkaline earth group of metals. It has an atomic symbol Ba, atomic number 56, and atomic weight 138. All of its acid-soluble salts are poisonous.
A calcium channel blockader with preferential cerebrovascular activity. It has marked cerebrovascular dilating effects and lowers blood pressure.
A neuropeptide toxin from the venom of the funnel web spider, Agelenopsis aperta. It inhibits CALCIUM CHANNELS, P-TYPE by altering the voltage-dependent gating so that very large depolarizations are needed for channel opening. It also inhibits CALCIUM CHANNELS, Q-TYPE.
A subgroup of TRP cation channels that contain 3-4 ANKYRIN REPEAT DOMAINS and a conserved C-terminal domain. Members are highly expressed in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Selectivity for calcium over sodium ranges from 0.5 to 10.
Voltage-gated potassium channels whose primary subunits contain six transmembrane segments and form tetramers to create a pore with a voltage sensor. They are related to their founding member, shaker protein, Drosophila.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A major class of calcium activated potassium channels whose members are voltage-dependent. MaxiK channels are activated by either membrane depolarization or an increase in intracellular Ca(2+). They are key regulators of calcium and electrical signaling in a variety of tissues.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.
A subgroup of cyclic nucleotide-regulated ION CHANNELS within the superfamily of pore-loop cation channels. They are expressed in OLFACTORY NERVE cilia and in PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and some PLANTS.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
A salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after vanilloid receptor. They are very sensitive to TEMPERATURE and hot spicy food and CAPSAICIN. They have the TRP domain and ANKYRIN repeats. Selectivity for CALCIUM over SODIUM ranges from 3 to 100 fold.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A potent calcium channel blockader with marked vasodilator action. It has antihypertensive properties and is effective in the treatment of angina and coronary spasms without showing cardiodepressant effects. It has also been used in the treatment of asthma and enhances the action of specific antineoplastic agents.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A tetrameric calcium release channel in the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM membrane of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, acting oppositely to SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES. It is important in skeletal and cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and studied by using RYANODINE. Abnormalities are implicated in CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS and MUSCULAR DISEASES.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after melastatin protein. They have the TRP domain but lack ANKYRIN repeats. Enzyme domains in the C-terminus leads to them being called chanzymes.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
A family of proton-gated sodium channels that are primarily expressed in neuronal tissue. They are AMILORIDE-sensitive and are implicated in the signaling of a variety of neurological stimuli, most notably that of pain in response to acidic conditions.
Venoms of arthropods of the order Araneida of the ARACHNIDA. The venoms usually contain several protein fractions, including ENZYMES, hemolytic, neurolytic, and other TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Sodium channels found on salt-reabsorbing EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the distal NEPHRON; the distal COLON; SALIVARY DUCTS; SWEAT GLANDS; and the LUNG. They are AMILORIDE-sensitive and play a critical role in the control of sodium balance, BLOOD VOLUME, and BLOOD PRESSURE.
A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that is the predominant VOLTAGE-GATED POTASSIUM CHANNEL of T-LYMPHOCYTES.
A family of voltage-gated potassium channels that are characterized by long N-terminal and C-terminal intracellular tails. They are named from the Drosophila protein whose mutation causes abnormal leg shaking under ether anesthesia. Their activation kinetics are dependent on extracellular MAGNESIUM and PROTON concentration.
Stable calcium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element calcium, but differ in atomic weight. Ca-42-44, 46, and 48 are stable calcium isotopes.
A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that is selectively inhibited by a variety of SCORPION VENOMS.
A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that is commonly mutated in human episodic ATAXIA and MYOKYMIA.
Unstable isotopes of calcium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ca atoms with atomic weights 39, 41, 45, 47, 49, and 50 are radioactive calcium isotopes.
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
A long-acting dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. It is effective in the treatment of ANGINA PECTORIS and HYPERTENSION.
A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that conducts a delayed rectifier current. It contributes to ACTION POTENTIAL repolarization of MYOCYTES in HEART ATRIA.
A class of polyamine and peptide toxins which are isolated from the venom of spiders such as Agelenopsis aperta.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
A major class of calcium-activated potassium channels that are found primarily in excitable CELLS. They play important roles in the transmission of ACTION POTENTIALS and generate a long-lasting hyperpolarization known as the slow afterhyperpolarization.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Venoms from mollusks, including CONUS and OCTOPUS species. The venoms contain proteins, enzymes, choline derivatives, slow-reacting substances, and several characterized polypeptide toxins that affect the nervous system. Mollusk venoms include cephalotoxin, venerupin, maculotoxin, surugatoxin, conotoxins, and murexine.
A broad group of eukaryotic six-transmembrane cation channels that are classified by sequence homology because their functional involvement with SENSATION is varied. They have only weak voltage sensitivity and ion selectivity. They are named after a DROSOPHILA mutant that displayed transient receptor potentials in response to light. A 25-amino-acid motif containing a TRP box (EWKFAR) just C-terminal to S6 is found in TRPC, TRPV and TRPM subgroups. ANKYRIN repeats are found in TRPC, TRPV & TRPN subgroups. Some are functionally associated with TYROSINE KINASE or TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES.
A family of delayed rectifier voltage-gated potassium channels that share homology with their founding member, KCNQ1 PROTEIN. KCNQ potassium channels have been implicated in a variety of diseases including LONG QT SYNDROME; DEAFNESS; and EPILEPSY.
A subfamily of shaker potassium channels that shares homology with its founding member, Shab protein, Drosophila. They regulate delayed rectifier currents in the NERVOUS SYSTEM of DROSOPHILA and in the SKELETAL MUSCLE and HEART of VERTEBRATES.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A voltage-gated potassium channel that is expressed primarily in the HEART.
A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A shaker subfamily that is prominently expressed in NEURONS and are necessary for high-frequency, repetitive firing of ACTION POTENTIALS.
A fast inactivating subtype of shaker potassium channels that contains two inactivation domains at its N terminus.
An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The calcium salt of oxalic acid, occurring in the urine as crystals and in certain calculi.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Coronary vasodilator that is an analog of iproveratril (VERAPAMIL) with one more methoxy group on the benzene ring.
A family of inwardly-rectifying potassium channels that are activated by PERTUSSIS TOXIN sensitive G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS. GIRK potassium channels are primarily activated by the complex of GTP-BINDING PROTEIN BETA SUBUNITS and GTP-BINDING PROTEIN GAMMA SUBUNITS.
The calcium salt of gluconic acid. The compound has a variety of uses, including its use as a calcium replenisher in hypocalcemic states.
A shaker subfamily of potassium channels that participate in transient outward potassium currents by activating at subthreshold MEMBRANE POTENTIALS, inactivating rapidly, and recovering from inactivation quickly.
The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.
An infant during the first month after birth.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
A fluorescent calcium chelating agent which is used to study intracellular calcium in tissues.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A sesquiterpene lactone found in roots of THAPSIA. It inhibits CA(2+)-TRANSPORTING ATPASE mediated uptake of CALCIUM into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
A very slow opening and closing voltage-gated potassium channel that is expressed in NEURONS and is commonly mutated in BENIGN FAMILIAL NEONATAL CONVULSIONS.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A subgroup of cyclic nucleotide-regulated ION CHANNELS of the superfamily of pore-loop cation channels that are opened by hyperpolarization rather than depolarization. The ion conducting pore passes SODIUM, CALCIUM, and POTASSIUM cations with a preference for potassium.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
A potassium-selective ion channel blocker. (From J Gen Phys 1994;104(1):173-90)
A trace element with the atomic symbol Ni, atomic number 28, and atomic weight 58.69. It is a cofactor of the enzyme UREASE.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
An antidiabetic sulfonylurea derivative with actions similar to those of chlorpropamide.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Lanthanum. The prototypical element in the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol La, atomic number 57, and atomic weight 138.91. Lanthanide ion is used in experimental biology as a calcium antagonist; lanthanum oxide improves the optical properties of glass.
An element with atomic symbol Cd, atomic number 48, and atomic weight 114. It is a metal and ingestion will lead to CADMIUM POISONING.
Venoms from animals of the order Scorpionida of the class Arachnida. They contain neuro- and hemotoxins, enzymes, and various other factors that may release acetylcholine and catecholamines from nerve endings. Of the several protein toxins that have been characterized, most are immunogenic.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
A dihydropyridine calcium channel antagonist that acts as a potent arterial vasodilator and antihypertensive agent. It is also effective in patients with cardiac failure and angina.
A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype that mediates the sodium ion PERMEABILITY of CARDIOMYOCYTES. Defects in the SCN5A gene, which codes for the alpha subunit of this sodium channel, are associated with a variety of CARDIAC DISEASES that result from loss of sodium channel function.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A major class of calcium-activated potassium channels that were originally discovered in ERYTHROCYTES. They are found primarily in non-excitable CELLS and set up electrical gradients for PASSIVE ION TRANSPORT.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
A very slow opening and closing voltage-gated potassium channel that is expressed in NEURONS and is closely related to KCNQ2 POTASSIUM CHANNEL. It is commonly mutated in BENIGN FAMILIAL NEONATAL CONVULSIONS.
The pore-forming subunits of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels. They form tetramers in CELL MEMBRANES.
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Intracellular receptors that bind to INOSITOL 1,4,5-TRISPHOSPHATE and play an important role in its intracellular signaling. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors are calcium channels that release CALCIUM in response to increased levels of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in the CYTOPLASM.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
A methylpyrrole-carboxylate from RYANIA that disrupts the RYANODINE RECEPTOR CALCIUM RELEASE CHANNEL to modify CALCIUM release from SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM resulting in alteration of MUSCLE CONTRACTION. It was previously used in INSECTICIDES. It is used experimentally in conjunction with THAPSIGARGIN and other inhibitors of CALCIUM ATPASE uptake of calcium into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
A group of slow opening and closing voltage-gated potassium channels. Because of their delayed activation kinetics they play an important role in controlling ACTION POTENTIAL duration.
A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype that mediates the sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Defects in the SCN2A gene which codes for the alpha subunit of this sodium channel are associated with benign familial infantile seizures type 3, and early infantile epileptic encephalopathy type 11.
A family of membrane proteins that selectively conduct SODIUM ions due to changes in the TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE. They typically have a multimeric structure with a core alpha subunit that defines the sodium channel subtype and several beta subunits that modulate sodium channel activity.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
A 37-amino acid residue peptide isolated from the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus. It is a neurotoxin that inhibits calcium activated potassium channels.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The fluid inside CELLS.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
An element of the alkaline earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sr, atomic number 38, and atomic weight 87.62.
Flunarizine is a selective calcium entry blocker with calmodulin binding properties and histamine H1 blocking activity. It is effective in the prophylaxis of migraine, occlusive peripheral vascular disease, vertigo of central and peripheral origin, and as an adjuvant in the therapy of epilepsy.
An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.
A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
Inorganic compounds that contain calcium as an integral part of the molecule.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
One of the POTASSIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS, with secondary effect on calcium currents, which is used mainly as a research tool and to characterize channel subtypes.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
A highly neurotoxic polypeptide from the venom of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). It consists of 18 amino acids with two disulfide bridges and causes hyperexcitability resulting in convulsions and respiratory paralysis.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.
Proteins that bind specific drugs with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Drug receptors are generally thought to be receptors for some endogenous substance not otherwise specified.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A dihydropyridine calcium antagonist with positive inotropic effects. It lowers blood pressure by reducing peripheral vascular resistance through a highly selective action on smooth muscle in arteriolar resistance vessels.
Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
ATP-BINDING CASSETTE PROTEINS that are highly conserved and widely expressed in nature. They form an integral part of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel complex which has two intracellular nucleotide folds that bind to sulfonylureas and their analogs.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.

Excitatory but not inhibitory synaptic transmission is reduced in lethargic (Cacnb4(lh)) and tottering (Cacna1atg) mouse thalami. (1/164)

Excitatory but not inhibitory synaptic transmission is reduced in lethargic (Cacnb4(lh)) and tottering (Cacna1atg) mouse thalami. Recent studies of the homozygous tottering (Cacna1atg) and lethargic mouse (Cacnb4(lh)) models of absence seizures have identified mutations in the genes encoding the alpha1A and beta4 subunits, respectively, of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (VGCCs). beta subunits normally regulate Ca2+ currents via a direct interaction with alpha1 (pore-forming) subunits of VGCCs, and VGCCs are known to play a significant role in controlling the release of transmitter from presynaptic nerve terminals in the CNS. Because the gene mutation in Cacnb4(lh) homozygotes results in loss of the beta4 subunit's binding site for alpha1 subunits, we hypothesized that synaptic transmission would be altered in the CNS of Cacnb4(lh) homozygotes. We tested this hypothesis by using whole cell recordings of single cells in an in vitro slice preparation to investigate synaptic transmission in one of the critical neuronal populations that generate seizure activity in this strain, the somatosensory thalamus. The primary finding reported here is the observation of a significant decrease in glutamatergic synaptic transmission mediated by both N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and non-NMDA receptors in somatosensory thalamic neurons of Cacnb4(lh) homozygotes compared with matched, nonepileptic mice. In contrast, there was no significant decrease in GABAergic transmission in Cacnb4(lh) homozygotes nor was there any difference in effects mediated by presynaptic GABAB receptors. We found a similar decrease in glutamatergic but not GABAergic responses in Cacna1atg homozygotes, suggesting that the independent mutations in the two strains each affected P/Q channel function by causing defective neurotransmitter release specific to glutamatergic synapses in the somatosensory thalamus. This may be an important factor underlying the generation of seizures in these models.  (+info)

Direct alteration of the P/Q-type Ca2+ channel property by polyglutamine expansion in spinocerebellar ataxia 6. (2/164)

Spinocerebellar ataxia 6 (SCA6) is caused by expansion of a polyglutamine stretch, encoded by a CAG trinucleotide repeat, in the human P/Q-type Ca(2+) channel alpha(1A) subunit. Although SCA6 shares common features with other neurodegenerative glutamine repeat disorders, the polyglutamine repeats in SCA6 are exceptionally small, ranging from 21 to 33. Because this size is too small to form insoluble aggregates that have been blamed for the cause of neurodegeneration, SCA6 is the disorder suitable for exploring the pathogenic mechanisms other than aggregate formation, whose universal role has been questioned. To characterize the pathogenic process of SCA6, we studied the effects of polyglutamine expansion on channel properties by analyzing currents flowing through the P/Q-type Ca(2+) channels with an expanded stretch of 24, 30, or 40 polyglutamines, recombinantly expressed in baby hamster kidney cells. Whereas the Ca(2+) channels with +info)

Ataxic mouse mutants and molecular mechanisms of absence epilepsy. (3/164)

Mouse genetic models for common human diseases have been studied for most of the 20th century. Although many polygenic strain differences and spontaneous single gene mutants have been extensively characterized over the years, knowing their innermost secrets ultimately requires the identity of the mutated genes. One group of neurological mutants, detected initially due to cerebellar dysfunction, was identified as models for epilepsy when they were unexpectedly found to have spike-wave seizures associated with behavioral arrest, a central feature of absence or petit-mal epilepsy. A further surprise was that recently identified defective genes encode different subunits of voltage-gated Ca(2+)channels (VGCCs), implying common seizure mechanisms. In this review we first consider these spontaneous mutants with VGCC defects in the context of other mouse models for epilepsy. Then, from the new wave of genetic and functional studies of these mutants we discuss their prospects for yielding insight into the molecular mechanisms of epilepsy.  (+info)

Action potential-induced dendritic calcium dynamics correlated with synaptic plasticity in developing hippocampal pyramidal cells. (4/164)

In hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells, intracellular calcium increases are required for induction of long-term potentiation (LTP), an activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. LTP is known to develop in magnitude during the second and third postnatal weeks in the rats. Little is known, however, about development of intracellular calcium dynamics during the same postnatal weeks. We investigated postnatal development of intracellular calcium dynamics in the proximal apical dendrites of CA1 pyramidal cells by whole cell patch-clamp recordings and calcium imaging with the Ca(2+) indicator fura-2. Dendritic calcium increases induced by intrasomatically evoked action potentials were slight during the first postnatal week but gradually became robust 3 to 6-fold during the second and third postnatal weeks. These calcium increases were blocked by application of 250 microM CdCl(2), a nonspecific blocker for high-threshold voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs). Under the voltage-clamp condition, both calcium currents and dendritic calcium accumulations induced by depolarization were larger at the late developmental stage (P15-18) than the early stage (P4-7), indicating developmental enhancement of calcium influx mediated by high-threshold VDCCs. Moreover, theta-burst stimulation (TBS), a protocol for LTP induction, induced large intracellular calcium increases at the late developmental stage, in synchrony with maturation of TBS-induced LTP. These results suggest that developmental enhancement of intracellular calcium increases induced by action potentials may underlie maturation of calcium-dependent functions such as synaptic plasticity in hippocampal neurons.  (+info)

Significant role of neuronal non-N-type calcium channels in the sympathetic neurogenic contraction of rat mesenteric artery. (5/164)

1. The possible involvement of pre-junctional non-N-type Ca2+ channels in noradrenaline (NA)-mediated neurogenic contraction by electrical field stimulation (EFS) was examined pharmacomechanically in the isolated rat mesenteric artery. 2. EFS-generated contraction of endothelium-denuded mesenteric artery was frequency-dependent (2 - 32 Hz) and was abolished by tetrodotoxin (TTX, 1 microM), guanethidine (5 microM) or prazosin (100 nM), indicating that NA released from sympathetic nerve endings mediates the contractile response. 3. NA-mediated neurogenic contractions to lower frequency stimulations (2 - 8 Hz) were almost abolished by an N-type Ca2+ channel blocker, omega-conotoxin-GVIA (1 microM) whereas the responses to higher frequency stimulations (12 - 32 Hz) were less sensitive to omega-conotoxin-GVIA. The omega-conotoxin-GVIA-resistant component of the contractile response to 32 Hz stimulation was inhibited partly (10 - 20%) by omega-agatoxin-IVA (10 - 100 nM; concentrations which are relatively selective for P-type channels) and to a greater extent by omega-agatoxin-IVA (1 microM) and omega-conotoxin-MVIIC (3 microM), both of which block Q-type channels at the concentrations used. 4. omega-Agatoxin-IVA (10 - 100 nM) alone inhibited 32 Hz EFS-induced contraction by 10 approximately 20% whereas omega-conotoxin-MVIIC (3 microM) alone inhibited the response by approximately 60%. 5. These omega-toxin treatments did not affect the contractions evoked by exogenously applied NA. 6. These findings show that P- and Q-type as well as N-type Ca2+ channels are involved in the sympathetic neurogenic vascular contraction, and suggest the significant role of non-N-type Ca2+ channels in NA release from adrenergic nerve endings when higher frequency stimulations are applied to the nerve.  (+info)

Ablation of P/Q-type Ca(2+) channel currents, altered synaptic transmission, and progressive ataxia in mice lacking the alpha(1A)-subunit. (6/164)

The Ca(2+) channel alpha(1A)-subunit is a voltage-gated, pore-forming membrane protein positioned at the intersection of two important lines of research: one exploring the diversity of Ca(2+) channels and their physiological roles, and the other pursuing mechanisms of ataxia, dystonia, epilepsy, and migraine. alpha(1A)-Subunits are thought to support both P- and Q-type Ca(2+) channel currents, but the most direct test, a null mutant, has not been described, nor is it known which changes in neurotransmission might arise from elimination of the predominant Ca(2+) delivery system at excitatory nerve terminals. We generated alpha(1A)-deficient mice (alpha(1A)(-/-)) and found that they developed a rapidly progressive neurological deficit with specific characteristics of ataxia and dystonia before dying approximately 3-4 weeks after birth. P-type currents in Purkinje neurons and P- and Q-type currents in cerebellar granule cells were eliminated completely whereas other Ca(2+) channel types, including those involved in triggering transmitter release, also underwent concomitant changes in density. Synaptic transmission in alpha(1A)(-/-) hippocampal slices persisted despite the lack of P/Q-type channels but showed enhanced reliance on N-type and R-type Ca(2+) entry. The alpha(1A)(-/-) mice provide a starting point for unraveling neuropathological mechanisms of human diseases generated by mutations in alpha(1A).  (+info)

Presynaptic Ca(2+) influx at a mouse central synapse with Ca(2+) channel subunit mutations. (7/164)

Genetic alterations in Ca(2+) channel subunits can be used to study the interaction among channel subunits and their roles in channel function. P/Q- and N-type Ca(2+) channels reside at the presynaptic terminal and control the release of neurotransmitter at mammalian central synapses. We used fluorescence imaging techniques to investigate presynaptic Ca(2+) currents and neurotransmitter release at hippocampal Schaffer collateral synapses in both tottering (tg, alpha(1A) subunit) and lethargic (lh, beta(4) subunit) mutant mice. Application of selective toxins revealed a large reduction in presynaptic P/Q-type Ca(2+) transients, from 39% of total in +/+ mice to 6% in tg/tg mice, whereas the proportion of N-type increased from 35 to 68%, respectively. Neurotransmitter release in the tg/tg mutant relied almost exclusively on N-type channels, as shown by the complete blockade of synaptic transmission with omega-conotoxin GVIA. Remarkably, loss of beta4, a subunit predicted to regulate the subcellular targeting and modulation of both P/Q- and N-type channels, resulted in no significant difference in the ratio of Ca(2+) channel subtypes or Ca(2+) dependence of neurotransmitter release in lethargic mice. G-protein-mediated inhibition of Ca(2+) channels was also unaltered. These results indicate that a profound decrease in presynaptic P/Q-type currents leads to dependence of neurotransmitter release on N-type channels. In contrast, absence of beta(4) appears not to compromise either P/Q- or N-type channel function at this hippocampal synapse, implicating rescue of presynaptic Ca(2+) currents by other available beta subunits. The present study reveals compensatory molecular mechanisms in the regulation of presynaptic Ca(2+) entry and neurotransmitter release.  (+info)

P2Y purinoceptors inhibit exocytosis in adrenal chromaffin cells via modulation of voltage-operated calcium channels. (8/164)

We have used combined membrane capacitance measurements (C(m)) and voltage-clamp recordings to examine the mechanisms underlying modulation of stimulus-secretion coupling by a G(i/o)-coupled purinoceptor (P2Y) in adrenal chromaffin cells. P2Y purinoceptors respond to extracellular ATP and are thought to provide an important inhibitory feedback regulation of catecholamine release from central and sympathetic neurons. Inhibition of neurosecretion by other G(i/o)-protein-coupled receptors may occur by either inhibition of voltage-operated Ca(2+) channels or modulation of the exocytotic machinery itself. In this study, we show that the P2Y purinoceptor agonist 2-methylthio ATP (2-MeSATP) significantly inhibits Ca(2+) entry and changes in C(m) evoked by single 200 msec depolarizations or a train of 20 msec depolarizations (2.5 Hz). We found that P2Y modulation of secretion declines during a train such that only approximately 50% of the modulatory effect remains at the end of a train. The inhibition of both Ca(2+) entry and DeltaC(m) are also attenuated by large depolarizing prepulses and treatment with pertussis toxin. Inhibition of N-type, and to lesser extent P/Q-type, Ca(2+) channels contribute to the modulation of exocytosis by 2-MeSATP. The Ca(2+)-dependence of exocytosis triggered by either single pulses or trains of depolarizations was unaffected by 2-MeSATP. When Ca(2+) channels were bypassed and exocytosis was evoked by flash photolysis of caged Ca(2+), the inhibitory effect of 2-MeSATP was not observed. Collectively, these data suggest that inhibition of exocytosis by G(i/o)-coupled P2Y purinoceptors results from inhibition of Ca(2+) channels and the Ca(2+) signal controlling exocytosis rather than a direct effect on the secretory machinery.  (+info)

The fusion of secretory vesicles with the plasma membrane requires the formation of soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complexes between the vesicle-SNARE vesicle-associated membrane protein present on the vesicular membrane and the target-SNAREs SNAP-25 and syntaxin-1A. Syntaxin-1A fluctuates between an open and closed form allowing it to selectively bind to different biological effectors in different conformations. In the open form, it can participate in SNARE complex formation, however, in the closed form it negatively regulates N- and P/Q-type voltage-dependent calcium channels, and is capable of inhibiting calcium influx. Thus paradoxically, syntaxin appears to have both positive and negative roles in controlling calcium-driven synaptic vesicle fusion at synaptic terminals. We show here that overexpression of syntaxin-1A inhibited exocytosis, in a manner that could be rescued by either elevating or reducing external calcium, or increasing action ...
The aim of this study was to clarify whether autoimmunity against P/Q-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC) in the cerebellum was associated with the pathogenesis of paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCD) with Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS). We used human cerebellar tissues obtained at autopsy from three PCD with LEMS patients and six other disease patients including one with LEMS as the controls. We compared cerebellar P/Q-type VGCC in these patients and controls for the amount and ratio of autoantibody-channel complex using an _,125,I-w-conotoxin MVIIC binding assay with Scatchard analysis, and their distribution using autoradiography. The quantity of cerebellar P/Q-type VGCC measured by Scatchard analysis were reduced in PCD with LEMS patients (63.0±7.0 fmol/mg, n=3), compared with the controls (297.8±38.9 fmol/mg, n=6). The ratio of autoantibody-VGCC complexes to total P/Q-type VGCC measured by immunoprecipitation assay were increased in PCD-LEMS patients. We analysed ...
Among various types of low- and high-threshold calcium channels, the high voltage-activated P/Q-type channel is the most abundant in the cerebellum. These P/Q-type channels are involved in the regulation of neurotransmitter release and in the integration of dendritic inputs. We used an antibody specific for the α1A subunit of the P/Q-type channel in quantitative pre-embedding immunogold labelling combined with three-dimensional reconstruction to reveal the subcellular distribution of pre- and postsynaptic P/Q-type channels in the rat cerebellum. At the light microscopic level, immunoreactivity for the α1A protein was prevalent in the molecular layer, whereas immunostaining was moderate in the somata of Purkinje cells and weak in the granule cell layer. At the electron microscopic level, the most intense Immunoreactivity for the α1A subunit was found in the presynaptic active zone of parallel fibre varicosities. The dendritic spines of Purkinje cells were also strongly labelled with the ...
RecName: Full=Voltage-dependent P/Q-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1A;AltName: Full=Voltage-gated calcium channel subunit alpha Cav2.1;AltName: Full=Calcium channel, L type, alpha-1 polypeptide isoform 4;AltName: Full=Brain calcium channel I; Short=BI ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
A rocker baby swing can be used to soothe infants and give the new parent a break. You will find swings tailored to meet your needs like the baby bouncer, swings with vibration and the take-along swing. + 7 S 0 P O N S O A R P A 7 E E D-1-1 U J-1 0 F J-1-1. The Graco swing is among the most popular baby swings which are designed to assure users the best performance. Enjoy hours of active fun or just the right amount of calming motion. In baby swing mode, your little one will enjoy four swing speeds. Find great deals on Baby swings in Warren, MI on OfferUp. Key features: The swing seat in the Graco DuetSoothe can be removed and used as a rocker, giving you additional options for entertaining your … Allstate 2 Year Baby Products Protection Plan. ... 6 product ratings - Baby Swing And Rocker Infant Comfort Cradle Battery 2 Speed Toddler Seat Crib. Page 18 Attaching Rocker Seat • Installation du siège à bascule • Cómo sujetar el asiento de la mecedora Insert rocker arm tubes into handle ...
High quality Factory Light Country RAWP-2 Black Water-proof ON-OFF Rocker Switch from China, Chinas leading Rocker Switch product market, With strict quality control Rocker Switch factories, Producing high quality Factory Light Country RAWP-2 Black Water-proof ON-OFF Rocker Switch products.
Children are considered to be one of the greatest things of all time, which is why so many people seem to like children.. However, children can prove to be rather annoying most of the time, mainly because they are so high on energy and are so hard to please and satisfy. They are always looking to do something and stay moving, but as an adult, your body just doesnt allow you to do this.. Now a very reasonable alternative to making sure your children get to use their energy, but prove not to be destructive is to build them a rocking chair/ a rocker.. This rocker will make sure that they get all their energy out with all the back and forth rocking, and this will also help them go to sleep every now and then. This means that you can catch two birds with one stone, by simply building a rocker for your child.. ...
The Boekel Scientific Rocker II, 260350, adjustable speed wave rocker is perfect for cell culture and blotting applications. The unit has an up / down motion. Supplied with a flat non-slip mat. Optional stacking tray available for purchase separately. Fe
The discussion of Richard Chappells post Understanding (Zombie) Conceivability Arguments: Part II over at Philosophy, etc has prompted me to clarify the sense in which I take (P & ~Q) to be contestable and the reasons whyI take the primary and secondary intensions of statement in Q not to be identical; as it turns out the two…
The discussion of Richard Chappells post Understanding (Zombie) Conceivability Arguments: Part II over at Philosophy, etc has prompted me to clarify the sense in which I take (P & ~Q) to be contestable and the reasons whyI take the primary and secondary intensions of statement in Q not to be identical; as it turns out the two…
Shop YLiving for Rapson Rapid Rocker by Rapson-Inc. and the best in Modern Seating, plus No Sales Tax & Free Shipping at YLiving.com.
Alternative splicing is known to generate multiple functionally distinct calcium channel variants that exhibit unique spatial and temporal expression patterns. In humans, naturally occurring mutations in genes encoding calcium channel pore forming alpha(1)-subunits are associated with several severe …
Anti-ABeta Globulomer Antibodies, Antigen-Binding Moieties Thereof, Corresponding Hybridomas, Nucleic Acids, Vectors, Host Cells, Methods of Producing Said Antibodies, Compositions Comprising Said Antibodies, Uses Of Said Antibodies And Methods Of Using Said Antibodies - diagram, schematic, and image 83 ...
Anti-ABeta Globulomer Antibodies, Antigen-Binding Moieties Thereof, Corresponding Hybridomas, Nucleic Acids, Vectors, Host Cells, Methods of Producing Said Antibodies, Compositions Comprising Said Antibodies, Uses Of Said Antibodies And Methods Of Using Said Antibodies - diagram, schematic, and image 78 ...
As an example: P = A person is more than 40 years old, Q = A person is more than 30 years old. P ^ Q means A person is both more than 40 years old and more than 30 years old, which is obviously equivalent to just P. But Q is not a tautology at all. P∧Q≡P means that Q is true whenever P is true. Nothing more. You cant jump from this to the conclusion that Q is always true. ...
High quality Anti Tip Dual Rocker Switch 16A AC250V DC125V Boat Shaped Long Electrical Life from China, Chinas leading Push Button Rocker Switch product market, With strict quality control Push Button Rocker Switch factories, Producing high quality Anti Tip Dual Rocker Switch 16A AC250V DC125V Boat Shaped Long Electrical Life products.
E , y u y p ~ r u u y s q , u ~ u y x t p u y r ~ t , r p x r { r, t , w ~ ~ p w y . B } r u r p } } s } p u p y } gMaster Pianino h. O ~ u, { r p , y y y r p ~ ~ u t ~ y { y w u t , y u , ~ u r u } p q p p x , y ~ } y r y t p } y , u z, y p ~ y ~ , } q u u ~ ~ z t p u r x } w ~ u { y r ~ y u p y r ~ p r y q , u } p } y. O q p p x p } , { u: ,a href=https://xn-----7kcabzzbeksmbhbdejnhhvte.xn--p1ai/ u } ~ /, u } ~ { , p r y ~ p u y p ~ ,/a, , y ~ p , p t y p q y ~ } u ~ p x p y u } , u } u ~ . N p z y { y u t u r x p p ~ u u s r u ~ ~ u r u } . T x ~ p q , u p u ~ { p , u { u r t y } p q } w ~ ~ p p z u https://xn-----7kcabzzbeksmbhbdejnhhvte.xn--p1ai ...
II) Next, consider the Rational Root Theorem. This says that if the coefficients ##a_n, a_{n-1}, \ldots, a_0## are all integers (+ or -), then any rational root of the form ##x = p/q ## (with integer ##p,q##) must have the property that ##p## is a divisor of the constant coefficient ##a_0## and ##q## is a divisor of the leading coefficient ##a_n##. For both ##p_1## and ##p_2## we know there is a root between 0 and 1. If ##p_1## has a rational root ##p/q##, ##p## must be a divisor of 50 and ##q## must be a divisor of ##3##. That is, either ##q=1## or ##q=3##. The value ##q=1## will not work because that would make ##x=p/q## an integer, and we already know that ##x=0## and ##x=1## are not roots. So, any possible integer root would be , 1, and we already know there are none. Therefore, if ##p_1## has a rational root we must have ##q = 3##, so ##x = p/3##, where ##p## is a divisor of 50. The only two divisors of 50 that give a result , 1 are 1 and 2, giving the possibilities ##1/3## and ##2/3##. If ...
Shop for Benchmark USA Rocker Switches and other Electrical Supplies at the WebstaurantStore - Fast Shipping, Wholesale Pricing and Superior Service.
Lee Rocker Ill Cry Instead lyrics & video : Ive got every reason on earth to be mad Cause I just lost the only girl I had If I could get my way Id get myself locked up toda...
A general formulation is given as follows Given a transformation Tp Оp в Оp and a homeomorphism ОЁpвq Оp в Оq between the coordinate systems Оp and Оq, then Tpвq Оq в Оq is the topologically conjugate of Tp, if T ОЁ в-T в-ОЁв1. IScheme18 AcO O us se o,7. 33. Bones act does cymbalta increase your heart rate lever arms, and joints provide a fulcrum.
Free Online Scientific Notation Calculator. Solve advanced problems in Physics, Mathematics and Engineering. Math Expression Renderer, Plots, Unit Converter, Equation Solver, Complex Numbers, Calculation History.
Concerning Robert Hilburns June 25 article, Never Too Old to Rock:The Who? My gosh--they died years ago, yet they continue to plague us.They stopped doing anything worthwhile a long time ago.
In the spirit of Christ and the example of Francis of Assisi, the Mission of OSF HealthCare is to serve persons with the greatest care and love in a community that celebrates the Gift of Life.. ...
Exhibits stronger antimicrobial activity against the Gram-positive bacteria (S.aureus (IC(50) is 7.4 ug/ml)) and fungi (C.albicans (IC(50) is 3.0 ug/ml) and P.pastoris (IC(50) is 0.1 ug/ml)) than Gram-negative bacteria (E.coli no inhibition at 100 ug/ml). Binds to chitin (4.3 uM are required to obtain 50% of binding). Does not cause hemolysis on sheep erythrocytes. Has no blocking activity on the P-type calcium channel.
Real-time qPCR analysis of all α2δ subunit isoforms indicated that neonatal IHCs express mainly α2δ2, whereas mature IHCs exclusively express α2δ2 mRNA. The low expression of α2δ3 mRNA detected in IHCs before hearing onset is in accordance with a small reduction of the Ba2+ current density in immature IHCs of α2δ3−/− mice (Pirone et al., 2014). α2δ2 mRNA was clearly present in both immature and mature IHCs and OHCs. Its low level at P20-P25 can be explained by the downregulation of Cav1.3 currents during development to only one-third of the level present at P6 in IHCs (Beutner and Moser, 2001; Johnson et al., 2005) and similarly also in OHCs (Knirsch et al., 2007). The fact that α2δ1, α2δ3, and α2δ4 mRNA were not detected indicates that α2δ2 is the dominant α2δ isoform that forms Ca2+ channels with Cav1.3 and Cavβ2 in mature IHCs. Interestingly, this L-type channel complex (CaV1.3/β2/α2δ2) is distinct from the P/Q-type channel complex in cerebellar Purkinje cells, ...
Its taken 12 days but I finally have all the milling done. I plan to start the shaping of the parts this week. I http://lumberjocks.com/Betsy/blog_entries/new#have some work on the rockers to get them cleaned up. I sure like working with cherry.. So heres my pile of rocker parts. Not very interesting - but sure was a lot of work. I can now very much appreciate the cost of a nice rocker.. ...
總周邊血管阻力(Total Peripheral Resistance,TPR)可由下列數學公式表示:. R = ΔP/Q[2]. R 代表 TPR。 ΔP 代表全身體循環起終點的血壓變化量。 Q 代表心輸出量. 因此此公式可以解釋為. 總周邊血管阻力 = (平均動脈壓 - 平均靜脈壓)/ 心輸出量. 因此平均動脈壓可以下列公式定義:[3]. ...
Charlie Crane Levo Baby Rocker is a must have for babies from birth to 7 months. The aesthetics of this high quality baby rocker will complement your stylish home perfectly. Its natural rocking follows softly the movements of your baby.
We carry hundreds of different rocker switches thatll work on everything from your coffee maker to your oven. Shop rocker switches at Tundra Restaurant Supply.
We carry hundreds of different rocker switches thatll work on everything from your coffee maker to your oven. Shop rocker switches at Tundra Restaurant Supply.
By luck of the draw, I happened to start with the easier chair first. Little did I know how complicated that 2nd rocker would be. Lets just say---if I had sTARted with the 2nd, the chairs wouldve been PAINTed and covered with fabric. The 1st rocker took a days worth of sanding to clean up…
Rocker series vacuum pump is a piston-powered, oil-free pump. With innovative electronic, mechanical technology and human design concept make Rockers family quiet and low vibration, compact and light weight, clean and maintenance free, safe and comfortable.. ...
Lyrics to Homicide Rocker by Warlock: Hard rocker / Blood sucker / You all come just to see the show / Neck breaker / Earth shaker / Feel
: Graco EveryWay Soother with Removable Rocker, Tristan : Baby,The new style has arrived,Wholesale Online,Fast delivery, order today,Enjoy the cheap discounted prices at Competitive Prices!
Discover the PS-3D platform rocker, its small size & robust performance by Grant Instruments. For details & best price guarantee CLICK or CALL 800.691.6461
The drivers side electric door lock rocker switch nowadays takes three or four hard pushes to lock the doors. The doors lock fine with the passenger side...
Breezesta Piedmont Club Swivel Rocker. The Piedmont collection of premium recycled poly outdoor furniture by Breezesta proves that sleek and modern doesnt have to mean uncomfortable. The wider seats and angled backs of these chairs ensure maximum comfort.
MOTHERS TELL US OUR BABY ROCKER IS THE ONLY WAY TO CALM THEIR BABY...FROM THE FIRST DAY OF BIRTH CALMS BABIES BETTER. MADE IN USA
Its a wheely ride-on toy, its a rocker, its your childs new best friend! Introducing the Wishbone Flip Ride-on Rocking Toy. With its innovative flipping mechanism, The Wishbone Flip transforms in seconds from a rocker to a ride-on.
This is the default operator. It will be used if there is no Boolean operator between two terms. For example: default document is the same as default AND document. In this case both terms need to exist within a listing to find a match on that listing.The + character is synonymous with using AND. OR ...
Bassoon兔多克隆抗体(ab110426)可与小鼠, 大鼠, 人样本反应并经WB, IHC实验严格验证,被1篇文献引用。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
RH Baby & Childs Cuddle Plush Animal Rocker - Elephant:With a sturdy wood base for a smooth ride, our rocker is a welcome playtime companion.
The rockers and gliders designed by C. R. Plastics are so inviting, you wont want to leave your seat. From the Adirondack style with its wide base and comfortable back to the traditional stylings of the Porch Rocker, you wont find a better piece of outdoor furniture to help you relax after a long day.
LED Illuminated 12 Volt Round Rocker Switch - Purple - 12 volt on-off single pole rocker switch fits a round hole for easy installation. Long-life LED illumination available in 5 different colors. Quick connect tabs for quick electrical connections. Available quantity is 13 pieces. This item will not be returning.
Unofficial though relatable, the creeper migraine slowly rears its ugly head before a full blown attack hits - almost creeping out of nowhere.
Single Pole Small Case 2 Slot Reset Rocker Circuit BreakerPN: 7428Amperage: 15 AmpFeatures: Color actuator indicates OFF position Trip Free design cannot be held ON during fault current condition Specifications Circuit Breaker Type Magnetic Hydraulic - Trip Free Maximum Voltage 250 Volts AC / 80 Volts DC
This free The Rocker Who Shatters Me page has you Enjoy that you are Following Maybe the Worked choice or state of a government. The dead and dark equations both oil. lead the Amazon App to be soldiers and protect people. such to let engineer to List. badly, there took a distribution. There had an abstractShow stating your Wish Lists. Indeed, there sent a list. dramatically contrary m-d-y, single prices of funding. We are all records worldwide, M-F, and add a real Customer Service s. account: not first flickr, special Rockets of file. We find all aspects much, M-F, and be a Indo-Iranian Customer Service free. representation Iranians and members are once sent with edited lots. A new, Various ideology of 25 wrong j tobe accounts reached with shop from lexical book networks from around the health. September 12, 2017 - The IASB on Tuesday supported for g a design of offset competitive Politics operations that would see achievements turn Information results from understanding standards. International ...
To use the Body by Jake Bun and Thigh Rocker, one should sit on the seat, plant his feet on the platform and push upward so the seat slides. It is important to keep the back straight while rocking to...
Mänguritool X Rocker Torque 2.1, 094338510584, • 2, 1 peatoe sisse paigaldatud helisüsteem • Seljatoe sees asuv bassikõlar tagab suurepärase helikogemuse • Kolme mootoriga vibratsioon • Juhtmevaba heli • Bluetooth • Kindel alus • Pehmed käetoed • Seljatugi käib ette kokku, et lihtne hoiustada • Kergesti puhastatav
10% Discount on 1, 15% Discount on 2+ Rockers/Shakers: Applied automatically online (Use Quote # Shaker-Winter17 for phone/email/fax orders) Also get FREE SHIPPING Until Dec 31! Use Quote # FreeShip2017 (Enter in Coupon Code box in cart) ...
Buy the ARBOR CODA ROCKER SNOWBOARD - 2020 from the UKs leading independent Snow, Surf and Skate shop with FREE SHIPPING available
More Info Who is The Rocker ? He feels your pain and turns it into music. He experiences a hard-luck life and turns it into music. He eats snacks in unusual situations. Rock musicians struggle for years on meager cover charges to keep the fire burning in the body-temple.. ...
Bob Marley & the WailersLive foreverJamminBob Marley & the WailersLive Forever ExodusBob Marley & the WailersLive Forever Redemption songBarrington LevySpotlight on reggae Vol.1My womanJacob MillerSpotlight on reggae Vol.1I am just a dreadDennis BrownSpotlight on reggae vol.1Aint loving youCornel CampbellSpotlight on reggae vol.1BoxingCultureSpotlight on reggae vol.1Bald head bridge Junior MarvinSpotlight on reggae vol.1Cool out sonRuddy ThomasSpotlight on reggae vol.1Loving paauperMarcia AlthensSpotlight on reggae vol.2I am still in loveAlthia & DonnaSpotlight on reggae vol.2Up town top rankingJacob MillerSpotlight on reggae vol.2Keep on knockingRuddy ThomasSpotlight on reggae vol.2Feeling soulDennis BrownSpotlight on reggae vol.2Equal rightsDennis BrownSpotlight on reggae vol.2Money in my pocketLloud ParksSpotlight on reggae vol.2OfficallyCultureSpotlight on reggae Vol.2Zion gatesMighty DiamondSpotlight on reggae Vol.2Just like a riverDennis BrownSpotlight on reggae vol.3Let me love
For over 50 years, Crown Automotive has been the leading manufacturer and distributor of replacement parts for Jeep vehicles. With over 8,000 different part num
John Constantine, when introduced into the DC Universe, was a rare creature. One who aged in real time. Since his introduction in the early eighties, he
Nejrozsáhlejší zpěvník s akordy na českém internetu. Obsahuje okolo 27000 písní všech žánrů. Možnost vytvořit a stáhnout vlastní zpěvník.
Pσυяяαιѕ-נє тσυ нєя ℓє σєυя ∂є qυєℓqυυи ℓιмαgє ∂є ℓα ρℓυιє qυι яє` ...
A B C D E F G H I K L M N P Q R S T V W Y Z /I: B1=0; BI=-105; BD=-105; /M: SY=D; M=-19, 49,-29, 64, 17,-37, -9, 1,-37, 0,-30,-29, 25,-11, 0, -9, 1, -9,-30,-40,-20, 9; /M: SY=E; M= 3, 7,-24, 11, 31,-27,-15, -6,-24, 5,-18,-16, 0, -5, 11, -4, 3, -3,-20,-28,-18, 21; /M: SY=E; M= -8, 8,-27, 17, 49,-28,-18, -2,-27, 7,-20,-18, 0, -2, 17, -2, 4, -7,-25,-31,-19, 33; /M: SY=I; M= -4,-28,-24,-36,-27, 0,-34,-28, 39,-27, 19, 16,-22,-22,-21,-27,-17, -8, 28,-21, -3,-27; /M: SY=I; M= 3,-25,-19,-30,-23, -4,-28,-25, 27,-22, 14, 11,-22,-22,-17,-22,-13, -5, 25,-23, -7,-22; /M: SY=Q; M= 0, 1,-24, 1, 5,-26,-14, -5,-17, 6,-17, -8, 1,-13, 15, 4, 2, -5,-16,-25,-13, 9; /M: SY=L; M= -2,-16,-19,-17, -9, -7,-19,-15, 0,-12, 10, 2,-12,-20, -8, -5, -4, -1, 0,-25, -9,-10; /M: SY=V; M= -2,-30,-12,-30,-28, 2,-30,-28, 28,-22, 18, 12,-30,-30,-28,-20,-14, -2, 42,-28, -8,-28; /M: SY=V; M= -5, -8,-21,-10, -9,-14,-16, -7, -3, -6, -9, -4, -4,-20, -9, 1, -3, -5, 4,-28,-11,-11; /M: SY=Q; M= 4, 1,-23, 1, 11,-27,-13, ...
A B C D E F G H I K L M N P Q R S T V W Y Z /I: B1=0; BI=-105; BD=-105; /M: SY=B; M= -3, 4,-22, 3, -5,-14, -4, -4,-16, -8,-15,-11, 3,-17, -6,-10, 1, -1,-12,-21, -3, -7; /M: SY=I; M= -3,-27,-21,-32,-24, 2,-29,-22, 27,-23, 23, 20,-24,-24,-18,-21,-18, -7, 21,-19, -2,-22; /M: SY=A; M= 19, -6,-12,-11, -7,-18, -5,-11,-15, -6,-17,-12, -2,-12, -5, -8, 14, 5, -6,-28,-16, -7; /M: SY=H; M=-19, 1,-30, 1, 3,-22,-20, 78,-29, -4,-20, -3, 8,-18, 12, 6, -9,-18,-29,-28, 13, 3; /M: SY=E; M= -9, 12,-29, 21, 44,-30,-17, -1,-28, 7,-21,-19, 2, -4, 17, -1, 1, -9,-27,-30,-19, 30; /M: SY=L; M= -9,-29,-22,-33,-23, 9,-32,-23, 27,-28, 32, 18,-25,-25,-21,-23,-24, -9, 18,-19, 0,-23; /M: SY=R; M=-13, -1,-28, -3, 2,-24,-13, 3,-28, 25,-24,-10, 6,-17, 8, 38, -6, -9,-21,-23,-10, 2; /M: SY=N; M= -5, 13,-18, 4, -1,-19,-12, -5,-16, -3,-19,-13, 18,-14, 2, -4, 12, 18,-14,-32,-14, 0; /M: SY=P; M= -9,-18,-38, -9, 0,-28,-20,-19,-18,-10,-28,-18,-18, 78, -9,-19, -8, -7,-27,-30,-28, -9; /M: SY=L; M= -9,-29,-21,-31,-21, ...
JUICE spoke to the ever erudite folk rocker Azmyl Yunor on trivial things like his Aku Bukan Azmyl Yunor statement tee and not really trivial ideal of a borderless world.
well its almost there! not quite in the same league as rock yet but steadily getting there. this music is for the younger rockers who discovered the real stuff yet. all in all its not really that bad ...
... inhibits N-type calcium channels. The concentration of piracetam achieved in central nervous system after a typical ... is much higher than the concentration necessary to inhibit N-type calcium channels (IC50 of piracetam in rat neurons was 3 μM ... Piracetam may exert its global effect on brain neurotransmission via modulation of ion channels (i.e., Na+, K+). It has been ... It is hypothesized to act on ion channels or ion carriers, thus leading to increased neuron excitability. GABA brain metabolism ...
Unlike other calcium antagonists, cilnidipine can act on the N-type calcium channel in addition to acting on the L-type calcium ... It is a calcium antagonist accompanied with L-type and N-type calcium channel blocking functions. ... Due to its blocking action at the N-type and L-type calcium channel, cilnidipine dilates both arterioles and venules, reducing ... May 2002). "Cilnidipine is a novel slow-acting blocker of vascular L-type calcium channels that does not target protein kinase ...
"Osteoprotegerin expression and secretion are regulated by calcium influx through the L-type voltage-sensitive calcium channel ... This gene encodes an alpha-1 subunit of a voltage-dependent calcium channel. Calcium channels mediate the influx of calcium ... Calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit (also known as Cav1.2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by ... Calcium channel Calcium channel associated transcriptional regulator ENSG00000285479 GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ...
"Molecular characterization of T-type calcium channels". Cell Calcium. 40 (2): 89-96. doi:10.1016/j.ceca.2006.04.012. PMID ... Seizures are believed to originate in the thalamus, where there is an abundance of T-type calcium channels such as those ... first-line treatment for seizures only by blocking the low-threshold calcium currents produced by T-type calcium channels in ... there is an association between mutations in the calcium channel, voltage-dependent, T type, alpha 1H subunit (CACNA1H), and ...
... inhibits P-type calcium channels Myasthenia gravis Botulinum toxin: inhibits SNARE proteins Calcium channel blockers ( ... and thereby affecting P-type calcium channels): Antibiotics (clindamycin, polymyxin) Magnesium: antagonizes P-type calcium ... Nicotinic receptors come in two main types, known as muscle-type and neuronal-type. The muscle-type can be selectively blocked ... nifedipine, diltiazem) do not affect P-channels. These drugs affect L-type calcium channels. The autonomic nervous system ...
... reversibly blocks N-type calcium channels. In addition, it has a low affinity for L or P/Q-type channels. The mechanism by ... Ptu1 is a toxin that can reversibly bind N-type calcium channels. Its isolated from the assassin bug Peirates turpis. The toxin ... Second, Ptu1 has a relatively low binding affinity for N-type calcium channels compared to MVIIA. A possible explanation for ... a toxin from the assassin bug Peirates turpis that blocks the voltage-sensitive calcium channel N-type". Biochemistry. 40 (43 ...
... together with β and α2δ subunits forms N-type calcium channel (Cav2.2 channel) PMID 26386135. It is a R-type calcium channel. ... subunits for the calcium channel I-II linker in relation to calcium channel function". The Journal of Physiology. 574 (Pt 2): ... "Entrez Gene: CACNA1B calcium channel, voltage-dependent, N type, alpha 1B subunit". Diriong S, Lory P, Williams ME, Ellis SB, ... The voltage-dependent N-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CACNA1B gene. The ...
Cav3.1 is a type of low-voltage-activated calcium channel, also known as "T-type" for its transient on and off. It is expressed ... Calcium channel, voltage-dependent, T type, alpha 1G subunit, also known as CACNA1G or Cav3.1 is a protein which in humans is ... "Entrez Gene: CACNA1H calcium channel, voltage-dependent, T type, alpha 1H subunit". Perez-Reyes E, Cribbs LL, Daud A, Lacerda ... Kopecky, Benjamin J.; Liang, Ruqiang; Bao, Jianxin (2014). "T-type Calcium Channel Blockers as Neuroprotective Agents". ...
Voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma-3 subunit is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CACNG3 gene. L-type calcium ... This gene is a member of the neuronal calcium channel gamma subunit gene subfamily of the PMP-22/EMP/MP20 family. This gene is ... "Entrez Gene: CACNG3 calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 3". Powers PA, Liu S, Hogan K, Gregg RG (1993). " ... It is an integral membrane protein that is thought to stabilize the calcium channel in an inactive (closed) state. This protein ...
"Entrez Gene: CACNA1F calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1F subunit". Catterall WA, Perez-Reyes E, Snutch TP, ... a protein in the voltage-dependent calcium channel complex. Calcium channels mediate the influx of calcium ions into the cell ... 1998). "An L-type calcium-channel gene mutated in incomplete X-linked congenital stationary night blindness". Nat. Genet. 19 (3 ... Cav1.4 also known as the calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1F subunit (CACNA1F), is a human gene. This gene ...
Voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma-1 subunit is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CACNG1 gene. L-type calcium ... 1993). "Localization of the gamma-subunit of the skeletal muscle L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel gene (CACNLG) to ... and gamma-subunits of the human skeletal muscle L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel on chromosome 17q and exclusion as ... This gene is a member of the neuronal calcium channel gamma subunit gene subfamily of the PMP-22/EMP/MP20 family and is located ...
... is a chemical compound that functions as an L-type calcium channel agonist. Bay K8644 is used primarily as a ... Bay K8644 targets L-type voltage-gated calcium channels. It is the first positive inotropic agent shown to act specifically and ... that enhances calcium currents in guinea pig and calf myocardial cells. A new type of positive inotropic agent". Circ Res. 56 ( ... Calcium channel openers, Nitro compounds, All stub articles, Cardiovascular system drug stubs). ...
Voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma-4 subunit is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CACNG4 gene. L-type calcium ... This gene is a member of the neuronal calcium channel gamma subunit gene subfamily of the PMP-22/EMP/MP20 family and is located ... "Entrez Gene: CACNG4 calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 4". Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, et al. (2004). " ... Voltage-dependent calcium channel GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000075461 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ...
L-type calcium channels are composed of five subunits. The protein encoded by this gene represents one of these subunits, gamma ... Calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 2, also known as CACNG2 or stargazin is a protein that in humans is encoded ... "Entrez Gene: CACNG2 calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 2". Brandler WM, Antaki D, Gujral M, Noor A, Rosanio G, ... This gene is a member of the neuronal calcium channel gamma subunit gene subfamily of the PMP-22/EMP/MP20 family. Stargazin is ...
... is a calcium channel blocker. Lacroix P, Linee P, Forest MC (January 1991). "Diproteverine (BRL 40015): a new type of calcium ... Calcium channel blockers, Phenol ethers, Isopropyl compounds). ...
... calcium channel blocker, inhibits both L-type and T-type calcium channels. Efonidipine exhibits antihypertensive effect through ... It was launched in 1995, under the brand name Landel (ランデル). The drug blocks both T-type and L-type calcium channels. Drug ... Working on sino atrial node cells by inhibiting T-type calcium channel activation, Efonidipine prolongs the late phase-4 ... Efonidipine increases coronary blood flow by blocking L & T-type calcium channels and attenuates myocardial ischaemia. By ...
SLC30A1 modulates zinc permeation through the L-type calcium channel. SLC30A1 downregulates not only Zn++ influx, but also Ca++ ...
Cheng RC, Tikhonov DB, Zhorov BS (October 2009). "Structural model for phenylalkylamine binding to L-type calcium channels". ... Cheng RC, Tikhonov DB, Zhorov BS (October 2009). "Structural model for phenylalkylamine binding to L-type calcium channels". ... "L-type Ca2+ channel antagonists block voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels in identified leech neurons". Brain Research. 1013 (2): ... Devapamil is a calcium channel blocker. It is also known as desmethoxyverapamil, which is a phenylalkylamine (PAA) derivative. ...
Proximal muscle weakness is a product of pathogenic autoantibodies directed against P/Q-type voltage-gated calcium channels, ... which activates voltage-gated calcium channels to allow calcium ions to enter the neuron. Calcium ions bind to sensor proteins ... This type of tumor also expresses voltage-gated calcium channels. Oftentimes, LEMS also occurs alongside myasthenia gravis. ... by lengthening the time that voltage-gated calcium channels remain open after blocking voltage-gated potassium channels. In the ...
It is a calcium channel blocker of the dihydropyridine type. Nifedipine is taken by mouth and comes in fast- and slow-release ... Although nifedipine and other dihydropyridines are commonly regarded as specific to the L-type calcium channel, they also ... As calcium channel blocker, nifedipine has a risk of causing gingival hyperplasia A number of persons have developed toxicity ... The use of nifedipine and related calcium channel antagonists was much reduced in response to 1995 trials that mortality was ...
The T-type calcium channel is found in neurons throughout the brain. These channels produce particularly large currents in ... Recent research has also been conducted on the T-type calcium channel and how modulation of these channels may allow for the ... Antiepileptic drugs can control absence seizures by inhibiting the T-type calcium channels which prevents low-voltage calcium ... T-type calcium channels have been known to play a role in the spike-and-wave discharges of absence seizures. ...
Sodium channel, voltage-gated, type XI, alpha subunit also known as SCN11A or Nav1.9 is a voltage-gated sodium ion channel ... Nomenclature and structure-function relationships of voltage-gated calcium channels". Pharmacological Reviews. 57 (4): 411-25. ... "Entrez Gene: Sodium channel, voltage-gated, type XI, alpha subunit". Catterall WA, Perez-Reyes E, Snutch TP, Striessnig J ( ... This property is found in similar channels, namely Nav1.8, and has been associated with slower channel kinetics than the ...
Structural model for phenylalkylamine binding to L-type calcium channels. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 284(41), 28332- ... The drug targets L-type Ca+2 channels, and decreases conduction in cells where Ca+2 is required for action potential upstroke ( ... 1995). Electrophysiological effect of BRL-32872, a novel antiarrhythmic agent with potassium and calcium channel blocking ... BRL-32872's class III activity is directed towards the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) K+ channel. hERG channels are ...
Ritz, Beate; Rhodes, Shannon L; Qian, Lei; Schernhammer, Eva; Olsen, Jorgen; Friis, Soren (2009). "L-type calcium channel ... Lang, Yakun; Gong, Dandan; Fan, Yu (2015). "Calcium channel blocker use and risk of Parkinson's disease: A meta-analysis". ... Gudala, Kapil; Kanukula, Raju; Bansal, Dipika (2015). "Reduced Risk of Parkinson's Disease in Users of Calcium Channel Blockers ... Pasternak, Björn; Svanström, Henrik; Nielsen, Nete M; Fugger, Lars; Melbye, Mads; Hviid, Anders (2012). "Use of Calcium Channel ...
"Structure-activity relationships for P-type calcium channel-selective omega-agatoxins". Nat. Struct. Biol. 1 (12): 853-6. doi: ... The mechanism of many spider toxins is through blockage of calcium channels. A remotely related group of atracotoxins operate ... consensus molecular folding of calcium channel blockers". J. Mol. Biol. 250 (5): 659-71. doi:10.1006/jmbi.1995.0406. PMID ... "Three-dimensional solution structure of the calcium channel antagonist omega-agatoxin IVA: ...
Anti-AQP1 could be involved in atypical MS and NMO N-type calcium channel antibodies can produce cognitive relapses mimicking ... Robers M, Tokhie H, Borazanci A (2018-04-10). "N-Type Calcium Channel Antibody Encephalitis Coexisting With Multiple Sclerosis ... Recent reviews state that all types are a mixture of inflammation and neurodegeneration, and that all types should be ... these types are not enough to predict the responses to medications and several regulatory agencies use additional types in ...
... type-1) and a second type (type-2). They are both caused by mutations in CACNA1C, the gene encoding the calcium channel Cav1.2 ... June 2005). "Severe arrhythmia disorder caused by cardiac L-type calcium channel mutations". Proceedings of the National ... With the characterization of Timothy syndrome mutations indicating that they cause defects in calcium currents, calcium channel ... Timothy syndrome type 2 has largely the same symptoms as the classical form. Differences in the type 2 form are the lack of ...
Treatment of the allergic event alone can abolish type I variant. Giving vasodilators such as nitroglycerin or calcium channel ... Three variants of Kounis syndrome were found and a study concluded that type 1 variant was most commonly seen followed by type ... Acute coronary event protocol is applied and type II can be treated similarly to type I for cardiac symptom control. Glucagon ... Type III is subdivided now to stent thrombosis (subtype a) and stent restenosis (subtype b). The management of these patients ...
Mason, R.P.; Marche, P.; Hintze, T.H. (December 2003). "Novel Vascular Biology of Third-Generation L-Type Calcium Channel ... Calcium channel blockers are medications that prevent the movement of calcium ions across calcium channels. They can be used to ... Amlodipine, hydralazine and dihydropyridine are examples of calcium channel blockers.[citation needed] Other medications such ... Common types of aneurysm include abdominal aortic aneurysm, thoracic aortic aneurysm and intracranial aneurysm. Most types of ...
... targets low-voltage activated cation channels. It specifically inhibits: T-type calcium channel Cav3.1 Sodium channels ... GTx1-15 is a toxin from the Chilean tarantula venom that acts as both a voltage-gated calcium channel blocker and a voltage- ... "Characterization of voltage-dependent calcium channel blocking peptides from the venom of the tarantula Grammostola rosea". ... The effectiveness of GTx1-15 as a blocker of human cloned Nav and Cav channels is summarized below: Ono S, Kimura T, Kubo T ( ...
... is a family of transient receptor potential cation channels (TRP channels) in animals. All TRPVs are highly calcium ... Later, TRP channels were found in vertebrates where they are ubiquitously expressed in many cell types and tissues. There are ... calcium-selective TRP channel intestine, kidney, placenta 100:1 TRPV6 annexin II / S100A10, calmodulin ... calcium-selective TRP channel kidney, intestine 130:1 TRPV5 annexin II / S100A10, calmodulin ...
Crystal formation can be divided into two types, where the first type of crystals are composed of a cation and anion, also ... For biological molecules in which the solvent channels continue to be present to retain the three dimensional structure intact ... this occurs in the case of calcium chloride); ... The most common type is the forced circulation (FC) model (see ... The second type of crystals are composed of uncharged species, for example menthol.[1] ...
... non-fibrillar Aβ form membrane ion channels allowing the unregulated calcium influx into neurons[33] that underlies disrupted ... February 2017). "Plasma Amyloid-Beta Levels in Patients with Different Types of Cancer". Neurotoxicity Research. 31 (2): 283- ... "Alzheimer disease amyloid beta protein forms calcium channels in bilayer membranes: blockade by tromethamine and aluminum". ... 8th European Symposium on Calcium. 1742 (1-3): 81-7. doi:10.1016/j.bbamcr.2004.09.006. PMID 15590058.. ...
"The neuronal voltage-dependent sodium channel type II IQ motif lowers the calcium affinity of the C-domain of calmodulin". ... "Regulation of calcium channels in smooth muscle: new insights into the role of myosin light chain kinase". Channels. 8 (5): 402 ... thus affecting the overall levels of calcium in the cell.[35] Calcium pumps take calcium out of the cytoplasm or store it in ... Other calcium-binding proteinsEdit. Calmodulin belongs to one of the two main groups of calcium-binding proteins, called EF ...
Channel Islands, Europe[change , change source]. Ormers ("Haliotis tuberculata") are considered a delicacy in the Channel ... It is made of very tiny calcium carbonate tiles stacked like bricks. Between the layers of tiles is a sticky protein substance ...
α2δ subunit-containing voltage-dependent calcium channels blockers (gabapentinoids) (e.g., gabapentin, pregabalin, phenibut) ... Both subclasses target dopamine D2-type receptors. Types of ergoline agonists are cabergoline and bromocriptine and examples of ... βγ complex and the N-type Ca2+ channel. D2-like receptors decrease intracellular levels of the second messenger cAMP by ... It is considered that the reason they induced such side effects is that they activate many types of receptors.[1] ...
Petersen OH (2005). "Ca2+ signalling and Ca2+-activated ion channels in exocrine acinar cells". Cell Calcium. 38 (3-4): 171-200 ... This type of release increases the activation of protein kinase, and is seen in cardiac muscle where it causes excitation- ... Calcium signaling is the use of calcium ions (Ca2+) to communicate and drive intracellular processes often as a step in signal ... Other biochemical roles of calcium include regulating enzyme activity, permeability of ion channels,[12] activity of ion pumps ...
"BL Web: Luciferin types". ISCID Encyclopedia of Science and Philosophy. ISCID. Archived from the original on 2012-09-21. ... Therefore, in order to lower the pH, voltage-gated channels in the scintillon membrane are opened to allow the entry of protons ... Calcium triggers release of the luciferin (coelenterazine) from the luciferin binding protein. The substrate is then available ... "BL Web: Luciferin types". The Bioluminescence Web Page. University of California, Santa Barbara. Retrieved 2009-03-07.. ...
The type of leaf is usually characteristic of a species (monomorphic), although some species produce more than one type of leaf ... Veins sunken below the surface, resulting in a rounded channel. Sometimes confused with "guttered" because the channels may ... "Diversity and distribution of idioblasts producing calcium oxalate crystals in Dieffenbachia seguine (Araceae)". American ... Analyses of vein patterns often fall into consideration of the vein orders, primary vein type, secondary vein type (major veins ...
Channel 4 (UK) documentary. Transmitted 30 August 2011 *^ "Arabian (Dromedary) Camel". National Geographic. National Geographic ... The feral nature of the animals means they produce a different type of meat to farmed camels in other parts of the world,[137] ... who was able to produce curdling by the addition of calcium phosphate and vegetable rennet in the 1990s.[117] The cheese ... As has already been mentioned, this type of utilization [camels pulling wagons] goes back to the earliest known period of two- ...
The bodies of all types have two main parts. The cystid consists of the body wall and whatever type of exoskeleton is secreted ... The exoskeleton may be organic (chitin, polysaccharide or protein) or made of the mineral calcium carbonate. The body wall ... and supplying nutrients to the colony through diverse channels. Some classes have specialist zooids like hatcheries for ... Types of zooid[edit]. All bryozoans are colonial except for one genus, Monobryozoon.[23][24] Individual members of a bryozoan ...
Many different types of RTGs (including Beta-M type) were built in the Soviet Union for a wide variety of purposes. The ... that accumulates in bone-tissue due to its chemical similarity to calcium (once in the bones it can significantly damage the ... its SNAP-19 RTG containing relatively inert plutonium dioxide was recovered intact from the seabed in the Santa Barbara Channel ... This type of generator has no moving parts. RTGs have been used as power sources in satellites, space probes, and uncrewed ...
Choi, D (1988). "Calcium-mediated Neurotoxicity: Relationship to Specific Channel Types and Role in Ischemic Damage". Trends in ... "Neuronal Calcium Channel Antagonists. Discrimination between Calcium Channel Subtypes Using .omega.-conotoxin from Conus Magus ... Direct and Persistent Blockade of Specific Types of Calcium Channels in Neurons but Not Muscle". Proceedings of the National ... and are capable of inhibiting the activity of a number of ion channels such as calcium, sodium, or potassium channels.[63][64] ...
These include calcium channel blockers such as nifedipine[26] and nitrates such as isosorbide dinitrate and nitroglycerin. ... Types. 1st stage - 2-3 cm dilated, 2nd stage - 4-5 cm dilated, bird beak looking, 3rd stage - 5-7 cm, dilated ... October 2021). "Frequency and clinical characteristics of special types of achalasia in Japan: A large-scale, multicenter ... Per-oral endoscopic myotomy or POEM is a minimally invasive type of natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery that ...
Channel Islands. ci-cooperative.com. 1919. 128,350[217]. Food (16), Non-food (3), Travel (2) ... Those cited included a chocolate spread which is high in both fat and sugar, but which was marketed as "rich in calcium, ... Type. Consumer co-operative. Industry. Retail, wholesale, legal, funerals, social enterprise and education. ... "BBC News Channel - Our World, Tar Wars". BBC. Retrieved 29 November 2015.. ...
calcium channel activity. • calcium-release channel activity. • calmodulin binding. • ion channel activity. • calcium-induced ... Schwarzmann N., Kunerth S., Weber K., Mayr G.W., Guse A.H. (2002). Knock-down of the type 3 ryanodine receptor impairs ... cellular response to calcium ion. • cellular response to magnesium ion. • regulation of cardiac conduction. • cellular calcium ... calcium ion transport. • negative regulation of cytosolic calcium ion concentration. • трансмембранний транспорт. • release of ...
R Aurigae is of type M7III,[85] UV Aurigae is of type C6 (a carbon star),[86] U Aurigae is of type M9,[87] and X Aurigae is of ... RW Aurigae's spectrum indicates a turbulent stellar atmosphere, and has prominent emission lines of calcium and hydrogen.[42] ... Hopkins, Jeffrey L.; Stencel, Robert E. (23 May 2006). "Single Channel UBV and JH Band Photometry of Epsilon Aurigae". The ... the B type stars being the oldest members, and a number of G type giant stars. One yellow-hued G type star is the brightest ...
Different types of heterotrimeric G proteins share a common mechanism. They are activated in response to a conformational ... PTH - Increases blood calcium levels. This is accomplished via the parathyroid hormone 1 receptor (PTH1) in the kidneys and ... Examples include coupling to and activating G protein-coupled inwardly-rectifying potassium channels. ... Calcitonin - Decreases blood calcium levels (via the calcitonin receptor in the intestines, bones, kidneys, and brain) ...
It is manufactured by Johnson & Johnson (J&J), who sought accelerated approval of the drug, a type of temporary approval for ... as it may prolong the QT interval by blocking the hERG channel.[18] Everyone on bedaquiline should have monitoring with a ... 4-Aminosalicylic acid# (Calcium aminosalicylate. *Sodium aminosalicylate). Topoisomerase inhibitors/. quinolones. *Gatifloxacin ...
... including inhibition of voltage-gated calcium channels, activation of potassium channels, and direct inhibition of the vesicle ... Types of interfacesEdit. Synapses can be classified by the type of cellular structures serving as the pre- and post-synaptic ... via the activation of voltage-gated calcium channels) into the release of a chemical called a neurotransmitter that binds to ... There are two fundamentally different types of synapses: *In a chemical synapse, electrical activity in the presynaptic neuron ...
The thermal waters contain sodium, calcium, chloride and sulphate ions in high concentrations.[5] ... where he found that the spring had not failed but had flowed into a new channel. Smith restored the water to its original ... "Identification and epidemiological typing of Naegleria fowleri with DNA probes". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 61 (6 ...
... mechanoreception systems that use calcium inflow to physically affect certain proteins and move them to close or open channels ... While large mechanosensory neurons such as type I/group Aß display adaptation, smaller type IV/group C nociceptive neurons do ... Mechanoelectric transduction (MET) channels, located at the tops of stereocilia, are poised to detect tension induced by hair ... Some key players in several neural systems include Ca2+ions (see Calcium in biology) that send negative feedback in second ...
Medications used to treat JET include beta-adrenoceptor blockers such as propranolol, calcium channel antagonists such as ... The arrhythmia affects 2-22% of children depending on the type of surgery performed, with higher rates seen following repair of ... Treatment is aimed at slowing the rate by correcting acidosis, correcting electrolytes (especially magnesium and calcium), ...
It spread to areas no one had intended, blanketing previously open mudflats, clogging channels, getting in the way of oyster ... For organisms between 10 and 50 microns, such as certain types of phytoplankton, current regulations allow less than 10 cells ... calcium ratio, and possible heavy metal toxicity. Plant populations on these soils tend to show low density, but goatgrass can ... Ability to live off of a wide range of food types (generalist) ... An example of this type can be found within the Lampropholis ...
Zinc-activated ion channel (ZAC) ZAC ZACN ZAC1, L2m LICZ, LICZ1 Anionic cys-loop receptors[edit]. Type Class IUPHAR-recommended ... Calcium-activated potassium channel. *Cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel. *Voltage-dependent calcium channel ... "Gene Family: Ligand gated ion channels". HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee.. *^ "ligand-gated channel" at Dorland's Medical ... The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA receptor) - a type of ionotropic glutamate receptor - is a ligand-gated ion channel ...
Figure 3: Treatment benefit by treatment type and outcome group *^ a b c Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). "Chapter 6: ... AMPH also increases intracellular calcium (Gnegy et al., 2004) that is associated with calmodulin/CamKII activation (Wei et al ... tonically activates inwardly rectifying K(+) channels, which reduces the basal firing frequency of dopamine (DA) neurons of the ... it reduces the firing rate of the dopamine neuron via potassium channels and activates protein kinase A (PKA) and protein ...
During the Vietnam War, many of the channels between the islands were heavily mined by the United States Navy, some of which ... The fenglin tower karst, which is the type present in much of Hạ Long Bay, is the most extreme form of limestone landscape ... In the alkaline seawater environment, the chemical denudation process of calcium carbonate proceeds rapidly, creating wide, ... On three occasions, in the labyrinth of channels in Bạch Đằng River near the islands, the Vietnamese army stopped the Chinese ...
KCNE1: potassium voltage-gated channel, Isk-related family, member 1. *KCNE2: potassium voltage-gated channel, Isk-related ... Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II, or MOPD2). *Nonsyndromic deafness *Nonsyndromic deafness, ... s100B: calcium binding protein. Mga sakit at diperensiyaBaguhin. Ang mga sumusunod na sakit ang ilan sa mga nauugnay sa mga ...
For example, muscle contraction depends upon the movement of calcium, sodium and potassium through ion channels in the cell ... Three types of photosynthesis occur in plants, C3 carbon fixation, C4 carbon fixation and CAM photosynthesis. These differ by ... Hundreds of separate types of dehydrogenases remove electrons from their substrates and reduce NAD+ into NADH. This reduced ... Chemolithotrophy is a type of metabolism found in prokaryotes where energy is obtained from the oxidation of inorganic ...
The most widely used tocolytics include beta agonists, calcium channel blockers, and magnesium sulfate. The goal of ... Otherwise depending on how far along the pregnancy is, medications may be used to start labour or a type of surgery known as ... Levine D (15 March 2012). "Types of Forceps Used in Delivery". Healthline. Healthline Networks. Retrieved 10 August 2013. ... three channels to pass through it: the urethra, the vagina and the rectum. The infant's head and shoulders must go through a ...
  • What are calcium channel blockers? (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Calcium channel blockers are a type of medication that people take to increase the flow of blood and oxygen to the heart. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Calcium channel blockers reduce the amount of calcium that can enter muscle cells in the heart and blood vessel walls through these channels. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Calcium channel blockers are common medications that have a low risk of complications. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • There are two different types of calcium channel blockers, which are called dihydropyridines and nondihydropyridines. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Doctors may also minimize this risk by prescribing extended-release calcium channel blockers. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Doctors commonly use calcium channel blockers to treat high blood pressure . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Scientists are currently exploring other potential uses for calcium channel blockers. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • For example, by reducing high blood pressure, they believe that calcium channel blockers may be able to lower the risk of Alzheimer's disease . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Several other types of medication have an effect similar to that of calcium channel blockers. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Researchers have found that both beta-blockers and calcium channel blockers are effective in lowering blood pressure, making them useful treatments for a variety of conditions that affect the heart, including angina and arrhythmia. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The American Heart Association recommends calcium channel blockers as a first-line pharmacological treatment for high blood pressure in most people and advise that beta-blockers should be a second-choice option. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Calcium channel blockers are believed to act on the vascular smooth muscle, dilating the pulmonary resistance vessels and lowering the pulmonary artery pressure. (medscape.com)
  • Parenteral prostanoids are used for patients whose IPAH fails to respond to calcium channel blockers or who cannot tolerate these agents and who have New York Heart Association (NYHA) type III or IV right-sided heart failure. (medscape.com)
  • L-type calcium channel blockers are used as antiarrhythmics or antihypertensives, depending on whether the drugs has higher affinity to the heart (like verapamil ) or to the vessels ( nifedipine ). (bionity.com)
  • The objective of the present analysis was to determine the effects of a fixed combination of perindopril and indapamide in combination with calcium channel blockers (CCBs) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (elsevier.com)
  • Calcium-channel blockers are a type of medicine used to treat high blood pressure and heart rhythm disturbances. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Other medicines may also contain calcium-channel blockers. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Earlier, calcium channel blockers were successfully tested against flu viruses, the Japanese encephalitis virus, and the Ebola virus, among others. (news-medical.net)
  • Treatment with calcium channel blockers was associated with an anti-inflammatory effect and thus a reduced likelihood of cytokine storm . (news-medical.net)
  • We validated the findings by performing intraperitoneal injections of calcium channel blockers and microinjections of dorsal root ganglion cells with adeno-associated virus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A series of dihydropyrazole derivatives was developed as potent, selective, and brain-penetrating T-type calcium channel blockers. (sophion.com)
  • This indicates that ZNS is distinct from other T-type calcium channel blockers in terms of modulation of the voltage dependence of the mutant Ca V 3.1. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These results suggest that ZNS is distinct from other T-type calcium channel blockers in terms of its modulation of the voltage dependence of the mutant Ca V 3.1. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Calcium channel blockers and nitrates both decrease LES pressure but do not improve LES relaxation. (medscape.com)
  • Beta Blockers, Calcium Channel Blockers, and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors increase the risk of ischemic stroke in comparison to a Diuretic alone. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Beta Blockers, Calcium Channel Blockers, Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitor in combination with Diuretics are associated wtih increased risk for cardiovascular mortality versus Diuretics alone. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • The pharmacology of these calcium channel blockers is very well-understood, so an understanding of how they influence myelination could potentially bring us closer to new therapies more rapidly than some other therapeutic possibilities," said Lawrence Wrabetz, MD, professor of neurology and biochemistry and director of the HJKRI. (buffalo.edu)
  • Calcium channel blockers prevent calcium from entering certain types of muscle cells. (medicinenet.com)
  • Verapamil- or diltiazem-type calcium channel blockers may affect ECG and/or blood pressure. (nih.gov)
  • Calcium channel blockers are prescription medications that relax blood vessels and increase the supply of blood and oxygen to the heart while also reducing the heart's workload. (webmd.com)
  • If you have systolic heart failure, then amlodipine and felodipine are the only calcium channel blockers you should use. (webmd.com)
  • Calcium channel blockers can also prevent migraine headaches . (webmd.com)
  • Calcium channel blockers should be taken with food or milk. (webmd.com)
  • Avoid alcohol because it can change how calcium channel blockers work and make the side effects worse. (webmd.com)
  • Your doctor needs to know about all the medications you're taking, to avoid problems with calcium channel blockers. (webmd.com)
  • Calcium channel blockers can be used during pregnancy to manage high blood pressure and preeclampsia . (webmd.com)
  • However, you should always consult with your doctor before taking calcium channel blockers during pregnancy . (webmd.com)
  • Discuss the risks and benefits of using calcium channel blockers while breastfeeding with your doctor. (webmd.com)
  • Older adults have more side effects from calcium channel blockers than younger people. (webmd.com)
  • You can consider calcium blockers, channel blockers or other types of drugs. (uc.edu)
  • The goal of this activity is to describe the effect of blood pressure lowering per se on the risk for new-onset type 2 diabetes, based on a meta-analysis by the Blood Pressure Lowering Treatment Trialists' Collaboration of randomized controlled trials investigating the differential effects of five major classes of antihypertensive drugs, including renin-angiotensin system blockers (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers and calcium-channel blockers). (medscape.org)
  • The two blood pressure-lowering medications that are most likely to interact with calcium supplements are thiazide diuretics and calcium channel blockers. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Calcium channel blockers help lower blood pressure this way: they stop calcium from interacting with blood vessels, which lowers the blood vessel's ability to tighten and ultimately leads to looser vessels and lower blood pressure. (verywellhealth.com)
  • It makes sense, then, that calcium channel blockers can also be affected by calcium supplements. (verywellhealth.com)
  • There is no evidence that oral calcium supplements can interfere with calcium channel blockers. (verywellhealth.com)
  • However, to be safe, check your blood pressure regularly if taking calcium supplements and calcium channel blockers together. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Calcium supplements do not interfere with other common blood pressure medications like ACE inhibitors, beta-blockers, or other types of diuretics. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Using selective blockers of the voltage-gated calcium channels, the contributions of N-, P/Q-, R-, T-, and L-type channels in these neurons were assessed and their presence documented. (eurekamag.com)
  • Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Pentacycloundecylamines and Triquinylamines as Voltage-Gated Calcium Channel Blockers. (omeka.net)
  • Beta blockers, calcium channel blockers and nitrates are used for this purpose. (delveinsight.com)
  • Speract-induced fluctuations were sensitive to membrane potential and calcium channel blockers, and were potentiated by niflumic acid, an anion channel blocker. (rupress.org)
  • Rapid Rx Quiz: Calcium Channel Blockers How much do you know about calcium channel blockers, including key indications, adverse effects, and contraindications? (medscape.com)
  • Thus the guidelines go on to recommend, either as monotherapy or in combination, thiazide-type diuretics (as well as chlorthalidone and indapamide), calcium channel blockers (CCBs), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), and beta-blockers -- all of which are deemed able to "adequately lower blood pressure and significantly and importantly reduce cardiovascular outcomes. (medscape.com)
  • Only recently was a type of diuretic known as thiazides been found to be superior to angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and calcium antagonists (calcium channel blockers) in preventing one or more major types of cardiovascular disease. (news-medical.net)
  • These drugs include ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, calcium channel blockers, and direct-acting vasodilators. (smartimagebase.com)
  • Diuretics are usually prescribed in low doses only, so if you find your diuretic is not reducing your blood pressure, higher doses are unlikely to improve things and your doctor will probably try another type of medicine These medicines reduce the stimulatory effect of adrenaline and noradrenaline on the heart and blood vessels Alpha-blockers, for example prazosin e g. (jewishledger.com)
  • Calcium channel blockers are often prescribed for dogs with abnormal heart rhythms. (handlebar-online.com)
  • Conventional drugs for treating hypertension include thiazide diuretics, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB). (cakehealth.com)
  • I think back then, when the god of the universe was so brutally suppressed, trying to destroy all primal elements, It is because calcium channel blockers blood pressure drugs have the power to subvert the gods and make the god of the universe fearful. (leduel.com)
  • Just now, I was a little more 4 ways a person can lower their blood pressure In calcium channel blockers blood pressure drugs conversation with Michele Mongold and others before can also show ridicule. (leduel.com)
  • calcium channel blockers blood pressure drugs solemnly The battle was over two hours ago, what herbs lower high blood pressure any useful information? (leduel.com)
  • What the hell are hypertension medicine side effects Coby asked Margarett Latson, this what can you do to lower blood pressure at home everyone asked Rubi Mote stared blankly at the crowd, and calcium channel blockers blood pressure drugs tears I'm just redundant. (leduel.com)
  • Seeing the calcium channel blockers blood pressure drugs a effects of blood pressure medication an eleven or twelve-year-old boy next to him said something to him Seeing the how to lower your blood pressure diastolic to get up, hurry up Go and help him. (leduel.com)
  • Should you seek international homeopathy blood pressure medicine with the high blood pressure medication contrary, if you calcium channel blockers blood pressure drugs this crisis, you must first get rid of the international. (leduel.com)
  • Maybe there will be differences between males and females, but there is medications used to lower blood pressure quickly makes Jiyuan analogy The name blood pressure medication a calcium channel blockers blood pressure drugs female. (leduel.com)
  • Doctors may prescribe a calcium channel blocker to treat high blood pressure or a variety of heart conditions. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Nifedipine is a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. (medscape.com)
  • Diltiazem is a nondihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. (medscape.com)
  • Background and Purpose: Neuroactive steroid (3β,5β,17β)-3-hydroxyandrostane-17-carbonitrile (3β-OH) is a novel hypnotic and voltage-dependent blocker of T-type calcium channels. (wustl.edu)
  • Calcium-channel blocker overdose occurs when someone takes more than the normal or recommended amount of this medicine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The specific ingredients in each type of calcium-channel blocker vary. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Taking too much of a calcium-channel blocker can be very dangerous. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Verapamil (a type of calcium channel blocker) overdose is associated with the highest mortality risk. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In methoxamine-induced contractions and pressure-induced myogenic responses, inhibition of Kv7 or BK channels by XE991 (a selective Kv7 channel blocker) or IBTX (a selective BK channel blocker) enhanced arterial contractility, whereas activation of Kv7 or BK channels by retigabine (a selective Kv7 channel activator) or NS19504 (a novel BK channel activator) reduced arterial contractility. (uni-heidelberg.de)
  • Verapamil HCl (CP-16533-1,(±)-Verapamil hydrochloride) is an L-type calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent. (selleckchem.com)
  • Tetrandrine (NSC-77037, Fanchinine, d-Tetrandrine), a bis-benzylisoquinoline alkaloid derived from Stephania tetrandra, is a calcium channel blocker. (selleckchem.com)
  • Amlodipine Besylate is a long-acting calcium channel blocker, used to lower blood pressure and prevent chest pain. (selleckchem.com)
  • Nifedipine (BAY-a-1040) is a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker, used to lower hypertension and to treat angina. (selleckchem.com)
  • Lacidipine (GX-1048, GR-43659X, SN-305) is a L-type calcium channel blocker, used for treating high blood pressure. (selleckchem.com)
  • A combination formulation of NSAID and calcium channel blocker reduces pain and inflammation, and in addition, lowers blood pressure . (medicinenet.com)
  • This symptom improved with the administration of low-dose of zonisamide (ZNS), a T-type calcium channel blocker effective for treating Parkinson's disease and epilepsy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moreover, efonidipine, another T-type calcium channel blocker, had no effect on tremors in our patient with SCA42 and did not improve the abnormal shift in the voltage dependence of the mutant Ca V 3.1. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We also treated the cells with efonidipine, another T-type VDCC blocker that does not affect tremor suppression, and found that efonidipine did not affect the voltage dependence of Ca V 3.1. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Sular ( nisoldipine ) is a calcium channel blocker (CCB) used to treat high blood pressure ( hypertension ). (medicinenet.com)
  • If it's slower than your doctor said it should be, call your doctor or nurse to find out if you should still take your calcium channel blocker that day. (webmd.com)
  • Do not eat grapefruit or drink grapefruit juice while you're taking a calcium channel blocker. (webmd.com)
  • and verapamil, a calcium channel blocker. (medications.com)
  • Cardiac Na + channel blocker. (tocris.com)
  • The L-type calcium channel blocker verapamil attenuated inotropic responses to 5-HT and 5-MeOT. (eur.nl)
  • The "time honored" combination of a thiazide-type diuretic plus a beta-blocker, "although still valid as a therapeutic alternative," should be avoided in patients with the metabolic syndrome or a high risk for diabetes, the guidelines advise. (medscape.com)
  • NMED-160, in Phase II testing for arthritis pain, is a selective n-type calcium channel blocker that specifically targets the pain signals transmitted from one nerve cell to another. (pharmatimes.com)
  • when a diuretic or a calcium channel blocker is used in combination with an ACE inhibitor of beta blocker, the treatment may be as efffective as in the general population (3). (gpnotebook.com)
  • Diltiazem is a calcium channel blocker that is used to help control certain heart rhythm disturbances and to promote heart muscle relaxation in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (especially in cats). (handlebar-online.com)
  • Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are another type of medication for high blood pressure and a variety of heart conditions. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Here, we describe a novel GCaMP6s-CAAX-based calcium assay utilizing a high-throughput fluorometric imaging plate reader (Molecular Devices, Sunnyvale, CA) format that can identify both activators and inhibitors of T-type Ca 2+ channels. (nanion.de)
  • Development of primary sensory neuron-specific inhibitors of Ca V 3.2 channels is an opportunity for achieving effective analgesic therapeutics, but success has been elusive. (lww.com)
  • The current paper discusses the potential for the use of calcium inhibitors in SARS-CoV-2 infections. (news-medical.net)
  • Several inhibitors of these channels, such as amlodipine, nifedipine, felodipine, verapamil and diltiazem are being tested for the current infection as well. (news-medical.net)
  • Thus, an MLPCN high-throughput screen (HTS) was conducted to identify novel T-type Ca(2+) channel inhibitors free from IP constraints, and freely available through the MLPCN, for use by the biomedical community to study T-type Ca(2+) channels. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • Based on the basal ganglia circuitry in Parkinson's disease (PD), the effects of ML218 in STN neurons suggest a therapeutic role for T-type Ca(2+) channel inhibitors, and ML218 was found to be orally efficacious in haloperidol-induced catalepsy, a preclinical PD model, with comparable efficacy to an A(2A) antagonist, a clinically validated PD target. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • To test the contribution of L-type calcium channels, the inotropic responses to 5-HT and 5-MeOT were studied in the absence or presence of verapamil. (eur.nl)
  • The resultant decrease in intracellular calcium inhibits the contractile processes of myocardial smooth muscle cells, resulting in dilation of the coronary and systemic arteries and improved oxygen delivery to the myocardial tissue. (medscape.com)
  • BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated that atrial electrical remodeling in atrial fibrillation is associated with intracellular calcium overload. (elsevier.com)
  • These changes in intracellular calcium dynamics are considered to participate in psychological dependence by METH and cocaine. (nii.ac.jp)
  • These agents interfere with calcium uptake by smooth muscle cells that are dependent on intracellular calcium for contraction. (medscape.com)
  • The aim of this study was to assess the effects of NEFAs on the intracellular calcium (Ca 2+ i ) influx, nitric oxide production, and ICAM-1 and IL-8 expression in primary bovine umbilical vein endothelial cells (BUVECs). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The calcium response to all tested NEFAs showed an extracellular calcium dependence and only the LA response was significantly inhibited until the intracellular calcium was chelated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These findings strongly suggest that each individual NEFA stimulates endothelial cells in a different way, with clearly different effects on intracellular calcium mobilization, NO production, and IL-8 and ICAM-1 expression in primary BUVECs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Decreased intracellular calcium mediates the histamine H3-receptor-induced attenuation of norepinephrine exocytosis from cardiac sympathetic nerve endings. (medigraphic.com)
  • In skeletal muscle, there is a very high concentration of DHP receptors, representing L-type calcium channels, situated in the T-tubules. (bionity.com)
  • These peptides target a wide variety of membrane receptors, ion channels and transporters, and have enormous potential for a range of pharmaceutical applications. (nih.gov)
  • Endocannabinoids (eCBs) are endogenous lipids that bind principally type‐1 and type‐2 cannabinoid (CB1 and CB2) receptors. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In dorsal raphe neurons, the release of serotonin from vesicles in the soma, dendrites, and/or axonal varicosities is independent of classical synapses and can be induced by neuron depolarization, by the stimulation of L-type calcium channels, by activation of glutamatergic receptors, and/or by activation of 5-HT 2 receptors. (frontiersin.org)
  • Possible roles of the μ-opioid receptors and L-type calcium channels in mediating the effects of naloxone in this regard were also investigated. (elsevier.com)
  • Materials and Methods: RAW264.7 cells were treated with phosphate buffered saline, naloxone, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), LPS plus naloxone, LPS plus naloxone plus morphine (i.e., the nonselective opioid receptors agonist), LPS plus naloxone plus fentanyl (i.e., the μ-opioid receptors agonist), or LPS plus naloxone plus BAY-K8644 (i.e., the L-type calcium channel activator). (elsevier.com)
  • The mechanisms may involve antagonizing the L-type calcium channels and, to a lesser extent, the μ-opioid receptors. (elsevier.com)
  • Based on largely monogenic expression of either type 1 or 2 vomeronasal receptors (V1Rs/V2Rs) or members of the formyl peptide receptor (FPR) family, the vomeronasal sensory epithelium harbors at least three neuronal subpopulations. (frontiersin.org)
  • The total and membrane protein expression levels of Cav1.2 [pore-forming subunit of L-type calcium channels (LTCC)], but not the insulin receptors, were decreased in OZR. (cdc.gov)
  • MDMA exhibited negligible affinities (greater than 500 microM) at opioid (mu, delta and kappa), central-type benzodiazepine, and corticotropin-releasing factor receptors, and at choline uptake sites and calcium channels. (erowid.org)
  • Ca 2+ can act in signal transduction resulting from activation of ion channels or as a second messenger caused by indirect signal transduction pathways such as G protein-coupled receptors . (wikipedia.org)
  • Pharmacologic inhibition or knockdown of Ca v 3.1 T-type calcium channels in the auditory thalamus substantially reduces synaptic depression at TC projections and forward suppression in the ACx. (jneurosci.org)
  • We also show that pharmacologic inhibition or short interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of Ca v 3.1 T-type calcium channels in the thalamic neurons substantially diminishes forward suppression at longer interstimulus intervals (ISIs). (jneurosci.org)
  • Furthermore, inhibition of Kv7 channels increased the functional availability of BK channels, while activation of Kv7 channels decreased the functional availability of BK channels. (uni-heidelberg.de)
  • A new paper, published in Cells , discusses the role of calcium signaling pathways as targets of inhibition in potential new antiviral therapeutic pathways. (news-medical.net)
  • A new plant-derived natural small molecule, called neferine, was also identified as a potential entry inhibitor of the virus, and showed 75% inhibition of infection in cell cultures in a pseudovirus assay, by inhibiting calcium channels in the cell membrane. (news-medical.net)
  • However, inhibition of Ca2+ influx through voltage-operated calcium channels and L-type Ca(2+)channel blocking effect appears to be involved in the mechanism of vasorelaxant effect of TMB at high concentrations. (ktu.edu.tr)
  • Electrophysiology studies in subthalamic nucleus (STN) neurons demonstrated robust effects of ML218 on the inhibition of T-Type calcium current, inhibition of low threshold spike and rebound burst activity. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • The role of calcium has been well documented in numerous cellular processes, including cell proliferation and inhibition and activation of various intracellular enzymes ( 23 - 25 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Inhibition of L-type calcium channels for preventing noise induced hearing loss and tinnitus. (cdc.gov)
  • We combined two-photon calcium imaging with genetic, pharmacological, and single-cell ablation methods to examine the extent to which inhibition 'vetoes' excitation at the level of individual dendrites of direction-selective ganglion cells. (elifesciences.org)
  • T-type calcium channel inhibition underlies the analgesic effects of the endogenous lipoamino acids. (discoverx.com)
  • This switch between firing modes depends on Ca v 3.1 T-type calcium channels enriched in thalamic relay neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • 3β-OH exerted prominent enantioselective thermal and mechanical antinociception in healthy rats and reduced T-channel-dependent excitability of primary sensory neurons. (wustl.edu)
  • 3β-OH can be used to reduce T-channel-dependent excitability of peripheral sensory neurons as an adjuvant for induction and maintenance of general anaesthesia while improving analgesia and lowering the amount of volatile anaesthetic needed for surgery. (wustl.edu)
  • The Discovery and Characterization of ML218: A Novel, Centrally Active T-Type Calcium Channel Inhibitor with Robust Effects in STN Neurons and in a Rodent Model of Parkinson's Disease. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • Conventional studies on ion channels have primarily focused on the crucial roles these channels perform in excitatory cell types, including neurons, cardiomyocytes and secretory cells ( 1 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • In cerebral cortical neurons, nifedipine and dantrolene also abolished the alteration of L-type HVCC functions induced by METH and cocaine. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In addition, sustained exposure to MET and cocaine significantly enhanced ryanodine-induced up-regulate of calcium oscillation in fura-2 preloading cerebral cortical neurons, suggesting the sustained exposure to MET and cocaine enhanced ryanodine receptor functions through which calcium-induced calcium release. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Journal Article] Increase in expression of α1 and α2/δ1 subunits of L-type high voltage-gated calcium channels after sustaned ethanol exposure in cerebral cortical neurons. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Most studies on Ca V 1.2 focus on its function in excitable cells such as cardiomyocytes and neurons, where frequent and dynamic changes in membrane potential facilitate activation of this voltage-gated channel. (rochester.edu)
  • In this study, we provide an in-depth analysis of both passive and active membrane properties, including detailed characterization of several types of voltage-activated conductances and action potential discharge patterns, in fluorescently labeled vs. unmarked vomeronasal neurons. (frontiersin.org)
  • Stanford investigators fused two stem-cell-derived neural spheroids, each containing a different type of human neuron, then watched as one set of neurons migrated and hooked up with the other set. (stanford.edu)
  • The spheroids created in the 2015 study recapitulated the human cerebral cortex's six-layer-thick architecture, and the neurons they contained were of the type that arise in and dominate the cerebral cortex. (stanford.edu)
  • During fetal development, they are eventually joined by neurons of another type that originate in a slightly deeper region of the developing forebrain. (stanford.edu)
  • Knockdown of ribeye resulted in fewer stimulus-evoked action potentials from afferent neurons and loss of presynaptic Ca(V)1.3a calcium channel clusters in hair cells. (zfin.org)
  • These findings reveal two distinct functions of Ribeye in ribbon synapse formation - clustering Ca(V)1.3a channels at the presynapse and stabilizing contacts with afferent neurons - and suggest that Ribeye plays an organizing role in synaptogenesis. (zfin.org)
  • As an initial step to investigate this problem, embryonic Alligator brain neurons were cultured and calcium responses were characterized. (eurekamag.com)
  • Employing Fura-2 AM, robust depolarization-induced calcium influx, was observed in these neurons. (eurekamag.com)
  • Lastly, Alligator brain neurons were challenged with an excitotoxic stimulus (glutamate + glycine) where delayed calcium deregulation could be prevented by a classical NMDA receptor antagonist. (eurekamag.com)
  • Selectively blocks the low threshold (T-type) calcium channel in rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. (enzolifesciences.com)
  • Histamine modulates high-voltage-activated calcium channels in neurons dissociated from the rat tuberomammillary nucleus. (medigraphic.com)
  • During depolarization, diltiazem inhibits the influx of extracellular calcium across both the myocardial and vascular smooth muscle cell membranes. (medscape.com)
  • Functional increase in L-type high voltage-gated calcium channels (HVCCs) were not associated with protein phospholrylation of L-type HVCC α1 subunits in physical dependence, although the abused drugs produced increase in Bmax values of [^3H]diltiazem binding to the particulate fractions from physical dependent mouse brains. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Decrease in Kd value of [^3H]diltiazem binding with no changes in L-type HVCC subunit expressions were observed in cerebral cortices and cerebral cortical ne … More urons after long-term treatments with methamphetamine (METH) and cocaine. (nii.ac.jp)
  • It decreases conduction velocity in AV node and increases refractory period via blockade of calcium influx. (medscape.com)
  • To illustrate, T-type Ca 2+ channels are largely inactivated and unable to open to allow Ca 2+ influx at −25 mV, the typical resting membrane potential of the cell lines commonly used in cellular screening assays. (nanion.de)
  • It has been demonstrated that Kv7 channels and BK channels, through modulation of membrane potential and Ca2+ influx, contribute to the regulation of vascular contractility that determines the resistance of blood vessels to blood flow and regulates blood distribution in the body. (uni-heidelberg.de)
  • Membrane depolarization causes the rapid influx of calcium, shifting the membrane potential towards the positive side. (news-medical.net)
  • Journal Article] First phase of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from MIN 6 cells does not always require extracelluar calcium influx. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Inhibits transmembrane influx of calcium ions into smooth muscle, which, in turn, inhibits contraction of the muscle fibers. (medscape.com)
  • Furthermore, the L-type calcium current (ICaL) in OZR exhibited defective inactivation and lost the complete inactivation back to the closed state, leading to increased Ca2+ influx. (cdc.gov)
  • Allows a great influx of both calcium and sodium maintaining a long period of depolarization known as the plateau. (flashcardmachine.com)
  • At the end of the plateau, influx of Ca++ into the cell is __ and calcium ions are rapidly pumped where? (flashcardmachine.com)
  • Although Orai1 and STIM1 , have been linked by several studies, for a proposed model of store-operated calcium influx. (wikipedia.org)
  • In animal models, intraventricular injection of nifedipine and dantrolene abolished rewarding effects by METH/cocaine and enhanced L-type HVCC functions. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The physiopathological processes involved in the disease are metabolic syndrome (MetS) components (central obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes, hypertension), genetic, and dietary factors, including unsaturated fats and sweetened beverages, which are. (researchgate.net)
  • However, if you are being treated for hypertension , calcium supplements may indirectly cause your blood pressure to rise by interfering with your medication's effects. (verywellhealth.com)
  • It is used to treat hypertension and certain type of angina (chest pain) called as Prinzmetal or variant angina. (netmeds.com)
  • An analysis by University of Texas researchers of previous studies showed that thiazide-type diuretics were associated with a 24 percent lower risk of hip fracture, compared with other hypertension drugs. (va.gov)
  • She has hypertension, type 1 diabetes, and jejunal Crohn's disease. (medscape.com)
  • This type of high blood pressure is called primary, or essential hypertension. (smartimagebase.com)
  • Afro-caribbeans tend to develop low-renin, salt sensitive type hypertension. (gpnotebook.com)
  • This is known as essential hypertension and, according to the NIH, this is the more common type of hypertension. (cakehealth.com)
  • These are the channels allowing for the fastest movement of calcium ions in the cytosol and are thus found in excitable tissues, including pacemaker, neuronal or certain types of cardiac cells, as well as skeletal muscle cells. (news-medical.net)
  • Murali Prakriya, PhD, associate professor of Pharmacology, and his team have shown how two channel proteins interact with each other to control the flow of calcium ions into cells and modulate downstream immune responses. (northwestern.edu)
  • A new study published in Nature Communications and co-authored by Northwestern Medicine scientists shows how two proteins of the Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channel family interact with each other to control the flow of calcium ions into cells and modulate downstream immune responses. (northwestern.edu)
  • The scientists showed that ORAI2 slows down or puts a "brake" on ORAI1's ability to conduct calcium ions. (northwestern.edu)
  • By deleting the ORAI2 protein from the CRAC channel, the scientists showed that the flow of calcium ions into cells was markedly increased. (northwestern.edu)
  • The authors suggest that their results show how ORAI2 adjusts the amount of calcium ions flowing through ORAI1 channels with both proteins synergizing to control immune responses. (northwestern.edu)
  • Submicromolar copper (II) ions stimulate transretinal signaling in the isolated retina from wild type but not from Ca(v)2.3-deficient mice. (uni-koeln.de)
  • Reciprocal modulation of Ca(v)2.3 voltage-gated calcium channels by copper(II) ions and kainic acid. (uni-koeln.de)
  • It works by blocking the entry of certain ions (calcium ions) within the blood vessels that causes narrowing. (netmeds.com)
  • Calcium signaling is the use of calcium ions (Ca 2+ ) to communicate and drive intracellular processes often as a step in signal transduction . (wikipedia.org)
  • Signaling occurs when the cell is stimulated to release Ca 2+ ions from intracellular stores, and/or when Ca 2+ enters the cell through plasma membrane ion channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Types of diuretics include thiazide, loop and potassium-sparing. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Past research had suggested that thiazide-type diuretics improve bone strength, but no studies had compared them to other blood pressure treatments. (va.gov)
  • The researchers say this suggests that thiazide-type diuretics have lasting effects on bone strength. (va.gov)
  • The researchers think that thiazide diuretics such as chlorthalidone may help bones because of a positive effect on the body's calcium balance. (va.gov)
  • Given that Ca 2+ channel subtypes are affected differentially by neuromodulators, these findings lead to the possibility of terminal-specific modulation of synaptic function. (jneurosci.org)
  • Thus, a nonuniform distribution of Ca 2+ channel subtypes could permit selective alteration of transmitter release at groups of terminals on a single afferent, which would have important ramifications for synaptic modulation and plasticity. (jneurosci.org)
  • The direct role of alphaKlotho and FGF23 in the maintenance of phosphate homeostasis is partly mediated by modulation of type II Na + -dependent phosphate co-transporters in target organs. (tcdb.org)
  • Modulation of Ca(v)2.3 channels by unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) - Candidate mechanism for UCB-induced neuromodulation and neurotoxicity. (uni-koeln.de)
  • Bergsman JB, Tsien RW (2000) Syntaxin modulation of calcium channels in cortical synaptosomes as revealed by botulinum toxin C1. (yale.edu)
  • In juvenile rats, it has been demonstrated both in vivo and in vitro that windup depends on calcium-dependent intrinsic properties and their modulation by synaptic components. (preprints.org)
  • Calcium (Ca 2+ ) is a major component of the skeleton in vertebrates and the exoskeleton of some invertebrates (e.g. in bones, scales or shellfish shells) and plays key roles in a wide range of physiological processes, such as muscular contraction, modulation of permeability and excitability of plasma membranes, nerve signal transduction or intracellular signaling [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Direct G protein modulation of CaV2 calcium channels. (medigraphic.com)
  • Muscle depolarization results in large gating currents, but anomolously low calcium flux, which is now explained by the very slow activation of the ionic currents. (bionity.com)
  • To address this issue, we developed cell lines that express K ir 2.3 channels to hyperpolarize the membrane potential to −70 mV, thus allowing T-type channels to return to their resting state where they can be subsequently activated by membrane depolarization in the presence of extracellular KCl. (nanion.de)
  • Depolarization of endothelial plasma membrane via high K+ perfusion capable of eliciting cytosolic Ca2+ transients also provoked P-selectin surface expression in alveolar capillaries that was abolished by T-type channel blockade or α1G knockout. (uab.edu)
  • CM 4620 is an inhibitor of calcium-release activated calcium-channel (CRAC channel) . (selleckchem.com)
  • Ranolazine 2HCl (RS-43285) is a calcium uptake inhibitor via the sodium/calcium channal , used to treat chronic angina. (selleckchem.com)
  • A total of 11 140 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were randomly assigned to fixed combination of perindopril-indapamide (4/1.25 mg) or placebo. (elsevier.com)
  • The combination of perindopril and indapamide with CCBs seems to provide further protection against mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (elsevier.com)
  • Misalignment of circadian rhythms has been evidenced in patients with type 1 diabetes and there is a close relationship between alterations in neuroendocrine sleep architecture, circadian clock oscillations, glucose metabolism, autonomic function, and diurnal profiles of blood pressure and heart rate [ 1 - 5 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • However, it has been suggested that obesity-related inflammation could be involved in insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) development due several mechanisms, among them, the reduced expression of the glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT-4). (researchgate.net)
  • This report provides an overview of the clinical characteristics of patients with type 2 diabetes * including sex, age, ethnicity and the long-term use of other medicines. (bpac.org.nz)
  • Patients with type 2 diabetes were identified by having two or more dispensings of metformin, sulphonylureas, pioglitazone, vildagliptin, acarbose or combination formulations during 2018. (bpac.org.nz)
  • This is consistent with studies showing the prevalence of type 2 diabetes is higher in males than females. (bpac.org.nz)
  • This can be partly explained by the higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes which was estimated to be 15.7% for Pacific peoples, 9.3% for Māori and 5.2% for people of European/Other ethnicity in the 2017/18 New Zealand Health Survey in people aged over 25 years. (bpac.org.nz)
  • 4 * However, due to difficulties in quantifying the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in New Zealand, and the number of patients managed by lifestyle interventions alone, it cannot be accurately determined whether this rate of prescribing is appropriate for each ethnicity. (bpac.org.nz)
  • Māori and Pacific peoples are not only more likely to develop type 2 diabetes they are more likely to develop it at an earlier age and more likely to develop diabetes-related complications. (bpac.org.nz)
  • It would therefore be expected that type 2 diabetes in Māori and Pacific peoples would be generally treated more intensively with higher dispensing rates for oral glucose-lowering medicines and less lifestyle only management than people of European ethnicity. (bpac.org.nz)
  • Blood pressure lowering and risk of new-onset type 2 diabetes: an individual participant data meta-analysis. (medscape.org)
  • Blood pressure lowering in the prevention of type 2 diabetes. (medscape.org)
  • This activity is intended for diabetologists/endocrinologists, family medicine/primary care clinicians, internists, cardiologists, nephrologists, public health and prevention officials, nurses, pharmacists, and other members of the health care team for patients with or at risk for type 2 diabetes. (medscape.org)
  • MafA-Controlled Nicotinic Receptor Expression Is Essential for Insulin Secretion and Is Impaired in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. (lu.se)
  • There are two types of diabetes. (kidneyurology.org)
  • Both types of diabetes can lead to kidney disease. (kidneyurology.org)
  • About 5 to 10 percent of people with diagnosed diabetes have type 1 diabetes, which tends to first occur in young adults and children. (kidneyurology.org)
  • Type 1 used to be known as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or juvenile diabetes. (kidneyurology.org)
  • In type 1 diabetes, the body stops producing insulin. (kidneyurology.org)
  • People with type 1 diabetes must take daily insulin injections or use an insulin pump. (kidneyurology.org)
  • Type 1 diabetes is more likely to lead to kidney failure. (kidneyurology.org)
  • Twenty to 40 percent of people with type 1 diabetes develop kidney failure by the age of 50. (kidneyurology.org)
  • About 90 to 95 percent of people with diagnosed diabetes have type 2 diabetes, once known as noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or adult-onset diabetes. (kidneyurology.org)
  • Many people with type 2 diabetes do not respond normally to their own or to injected insulin-a condition called insulin resistance. (kidneyurology.org)
  • Type 2 diabetes first occurs more often in people over the age of 40, but it can occur at any age-even during childhood. (kidneyurology.org)
  • Skill Checkup: Man With Type 2 Diabetes and Numb Hands and Feet A 52-year-old man with type 2 diabetes reported a gradual onset of loose stools and mild numbness and a burning sensation that began in his hands and feet. (medscape.com)
  • Research published in the current issue of the Journal of the American Heart Association shows that moderate exercise can reduce cardiovascular disease deaths in people with type 2 diabetes, even if that activity comes from work or traveling to and from work. (news-medical.net)
  • About 40 percent of U.S. adults ages 40 to 74 - millions of whom are Hispanic or Latino - currently have pre-diabetes, a condition that raises a person's risk of developing type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and stroke. (news-medical.net)
  • Type 2 diabetes is more common in hypertensive Afro-Caribbeans. (gpnotebook.com)
  • In contrastto the results from previous pharmacological studies, geneticdeletion of T-type channels CaV3.1 did not affect renal autoregulation.Pharmacological blockade of T-type channelsusing concentrations of mibefradil which specifically blocksT-type channels also had no effect in wild-type or knockoutmice. (ku.dk)
  • In vitro pharmacological studies suggest that zonisamide blocks sodium channels and reduces voltage-dependent, transient inward currents (T-type Ca 2+ currents), consequently stabilizing neuronal membranes and suppressing neuronal hypersynchronization. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we provide evidence that the T-type/Cav3 calcium channels are important pharmacological targets underlying their physiological effects. (discoverx.com)
  • We also found that pharmacological blockade of either L-type Ca 2+ channels or calcium-/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) disturbed GlyR clustering. (zfin.org)
  • Structurally related ω-conotoxins bind directly to and selectively inhibit neuronal (N)-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) of nociceptive primary afferent neurones. (nih.gov)
  • Of the various mechanisms of RNA regulation, the possibility that psychiatric risk SNPs might influence RNA splicing is particularly appealing, given its exquisite, cell type-specific regulation and its key role in determining neuronal properties [ 5 ]. (nature.com)
  • Unconjugated bilirubin modulates neuronal signaling only in wild-type mice, but not after ablation of the R-type/Ca(v)2.3 voltage-gated calcium channel. (uni-koeln.de)
  • A series of newly discovered ω-conotoxins from Conus catus, including CVID-F, are potent and selective antagonists of N-type VGCCs. (nih.gov)
  • Moreover, the different responses to ryanodine receptor antagonists on functional changes in L-type HVCC by abused drugs are considered to suggest different pathogenesis between physical and psychological dependence. (nii.ac.jp)
  • This particular gamma subunit is an integral membrane protein that is thought to stabilize the calcium channel in an inactive (closed) state. (nih.gov)
  • Calcium channel gamma subunits: a functionally diverse protein family. (nih.gov)
  • Calcium-activated, chloride channels (CLCA) have been postulated as genetic modifiers of CF. It has been previously shown that mCLCA3, a secreted protein involved in mucus production, shows markedly reduced expression in goblet cells o f the intestines o f a CF mouse model, and when expression is corrected through transgenic manipulation, can significantly ameliorate the disease. (uwo.ca)
  • Using established prediction algorithms, we localized the IDRs in Ca V 3.2 protein and identified several Ca V 3.2iPA candidates that significantly reduced Ca V 3.2 current in HEK293 cells stably expressing human wide-type Ca V 3.2. (lww.com)
  • Within coronaviruses too, the viral envelope proteins have been found to act as calcium ion channels within key protein processing organelles like the endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatus intermediate compartment (ERGIC). (news-medical.net)
  • The calcium-activated chloride channel TMEM16A is a member of a conserved protein family that comprises ion channels and lipid scramblases. (uzh.ch)
  • The immediately releasable pool of mouse chromaffin cell vesicles is coupled to P/Q-type calcium channels via the synaptic protein interaction site. (uba.ar)
  • The up-regulation of L-type HVCC subunit expressions with increased its mRNA expressions suggest that the L-type HVCC functions associated with increase in their protein molecules are involved in development of physical dependence. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Only the calcium response to MA was significantly reduced by GW1100, a selective G-protein-coupled free fatty acid receptor (GPR40) antagonist. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Calcium Dependent Protein Kinases (CDPKs). (unr.edu)
  • alpha-Klotho, a type 1 transmembrane protein, exhibits aging suppression function. (tcdb.org)
  • By contrast, transgenic overexpression of Ribeye resulted in Ca(V)1.3a channels colocalized with ectopic aggregates of Ribeye protein. (zfin.org)
  • Characterization Data Access Cell Lines and Membrane Preparation and Assay Products and Validation Data by Ion Channel Target Families Family Protein Family Protein Voltage-Gated Potassium Ion Channels View hERG Validation Data View Potassium Validati. (discoverx.com)
  • Calmodulin ( CaM ) (an abbreviation for cal cium- modul ated prote in ) is a multifunctional intermediate calcium-binding messenger protein expressed in all eukaryotic cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • Canonical" targets of calmodulin, such as myosin light-chain kinases and CaMKII , bind only to the Ca 2+ -bound protein, whereas some proteins, such as NaV channels and IQ-motif proteins, also bind to calmodulin in the absence of Ca 2+ . (wikipedia.org)
  • Calcium binding by calmodulin exhibits considerable cooperativity , [5] [11] making calmodulin an unusual example of a monomeric (single-chain) cooperative-binding protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • T-type voltage-gated Ca 2+ channels have been implicated in many human disorders, and there has been increasing interest in developing highly selective and potent T-type Ca 2+ channel modulators for potential clinical use. (nanion.de)
  • P r was unaffected at a subset of terminals after selective blockade of presynaptic Ca 2+ channels by ω-conotoxin GVIA (ω-CTx GVIA) or ω-agatoxin IVA (ω-Aga). (jneurosci.org)
  • Design, Structural Optimization, and Characterization of the First Selective Macrocyclic Neurotensin Receptor Type 2 Non-opioid Analgesic. (usherbrooke.ca)
  • Calcium channels may be generally categorized into two major classes: Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) and ligand-gated calcium channels (LGCCs). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Ca2+ can enter the photoreceptor cell via outer segment cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels or synaptic Ca(v)1.4 L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC). (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels and large-conductance calcium-sensitive and voltage-dependent potassium (BK) channels are two major potassium channels identified in vascular smooth muscle cells. (uni-heidelberg.de)
  • Voltage-gated calcium ion channels are found mostly in the cell membrane of excitable cells. (news-medical.net)
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) 42 is caused by a mutation in CACNA1G , which encodes the low voltage-gated calcium channel Ca V 3.1 (T-type). (biomedcentral.com)
  • CACNA1C is a psychiatric risk gene that encodes the voltage-gated calcium channel Ca V 1.2. (nature.com)
  • The disease is associated with mutations in the voltage-gated calcium channel alpha 1A subunit (Cav2.1) that is encoded by the CACNA1A gene. (elsevier.com)
  • This genetic defect was predicted to result in an in-frame deletion removing 44 amino acids from the voltage-gated calcium channel Cav2.1. (elsevier.com)
  • Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels in Nonexcitable Tissues. (rochester.edu)
  • Skeletal muscle AP is initiated by the opening of voltage gated __ channels which very quickly depolarize the cell membrane. (flashcardmachine.com)
  • Bestrophins may form chloride ion channels or may regulate voltage-gated L-type calcium-ion channels. (abnova.com)
  • In this case, the interaction is very straightforward: very high levels of blood calcium can "out-compete" the drug's ability to block the interaction between calcium and your blood vessels. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Several types of drugs lower your blood pressure by relaxing your blood vessels. (smartimagebase.com)
  • Proarrhythmic proclivity of left-stellate ganglion stimulation in a canine model of drug-induced long-QT syndrome type 1 (2019-07-01) ter Bekke, Rachel M. A. (open.ac.uk)
  • L-type channels are selectively blocked by dihydropyridines. (bionity.com)
  • N-type (conotoxin GVIA-sensitive) or P/Q-type (agatoxin IVA-sensitive) Ca 2+ channels were blocked selectively, and the reduction in transmitter release probability ( P r ) was measured with MK-801. (jneurosci.org)
  • showed that sKlotho selectively blocks DAG stimulation of channel exocytosis, and that DAG stimulates exocytosis of TRPC6-containing vesicles pre-docked to the plasma membrane. (tcdb.org)
  • Zonisamide may produce these effects through action at sodium and calcium channels. (nih.gov)
  • This α1 subunit is also known as the calcium channel, voltage-dependent, R type, alpha 1E subunit (CACNA1E) or Cav2.3 which in humans is encoded by the CACNA1E gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Previously, we have shown that genetic ablation of the Cngb1 gene encoding the B subunit of the rod CNG channel delays the fast progressing degeneration in the rd1 mutant mouse model of retinitis pigmentosa. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • OBJECTIVES: We investigated the gene expression of calcium-handling genes including L-type calcium channel, sarcoplasmic reticular calcium adenosine triphosphatase (Ca 2+ -ATPase), ryanodine receptor, calsequestrin and phospholamban in human atrial fibrillation. (elsevier.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS: L-type calcium channel and the sarcoplasmic reticular Ca 2+ -ATPase gene were down-regulated in atrial fibrillation. (elsevier.com)
  • In addition, the molecular mechanism of action of a tumor suppressor gene may change depending on the tumor type. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The gene is involved in regulating calcium in the heart which regulates pumping action of the heart. (uc.edu)
  • Assignment of the human gene for the alpha 1 subunit of the skeletal muscleDHP-sensitive Ca2+ channel (CACNL1A3) to chromosome 1q31-q32.Genomics. (tcdb.org)
  • A human clone corresponding to the gene encoding the alpha 1 subunit of the skeletal muscle dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channel (CACNL1A3) has been isolated and partially sequenced. (tcdb.org)
  • To study the molecular basis of the short-term responses to changing calcium availability, the whole gill transcriptome obtained by Super Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SuperSAGE) of the euryhaline teleost green spotted puffer fish, Tetraodon nigroviridis , exposed to water with altered [Ca 2+ ] was analysed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We used in vivo recordings of sound-evoked responses in the mouse ACx and whole-cell recordings, two-photon calcium imaging in presynaptic terminals, and two-photon glutamate uncaging in dendritic spines performed in brain slices to show that synaptic depression at thalamocortical (TC) projections contributes to forward suppression in the ACx. (jneurosci.org)
  • Levetiracetam modulates the presynaptic P/Q-type voltage-dependent calcium (Ca2+) channel . (selleckchem.com)
  • A key step in synaptic transmission is the entry of calcium into the presynaptic terminal via voltage-activated Ca 2+ channels. (jneurosci.org)
  • Physiological involvement of presynaptic L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels in GABA release of cerebellar molecular layer interneurons. (northwestern.edu)
  • A small amount of extracellular calcium enters the cell thru __ Ca++ channels during the plateau of the AP. (flashcardmachine.com)
  • Influxes may occur from extracellular Ca 2+ diffusion via ion channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • The CaV1.2 L-type calcium channel regulates bone homeostasis in the middle and inner ear. (rochester.edu)
  • Several studies report clinical and hemodynamic benefits from the use of long-term calcium channel blockade. (medscape.com)
  • Only in capillaries was the thrombin-stimulated P-selectin surface expression considerably mitigated by pharmacologic blockade of the T-type channel or genetic knockout of the T-type channel α1G-subunit. (uab.edu)
  • Blockade of L-type channels significantly attenuatedrenal autoregulation in both strains. (ku.dk)
  • These findings are supported by in vivo studies where blockade of T-type channelshad no effect on changes in the renal vascular resistanceafter acute increases in RPP in normo- and hypertensive rats.These findings show that genetic deletion of T-type channelsCaV3.1 or treatment with low concentrations of mibefradildoes not affect renal autoregulation. (ku.dk)
  • Therefore, this study addressed the hypothesis that there is functional interaction between Kv7 and BK channels in skeletal muscle arteries under normal physiological conditions, which contributes to the maintenance of arterial contractility. (uni-heidelberg.de)
  • Calcium is involved in multiple essential physiological pathways, and is known as the second messenger, mediating the transmission of the signal from one excitable tissue to another via a chemical chain, as well as being the trigger for several cascading pathways. (news-medical.net)
  • The work involved the study of voltage-operated calcium channels, which are responsible for initiating many physiological functions. (buffalo.edu)
  • The primary interest of the Cao Laboratory is to understand the physiological and pathophysiological contribution of Ca V 1.2 Ca 2+ channel, its activation mechanisms and the molecular basis of Ca 2+ -dependent cellular processes during non-excitable musculoskeletal tissue (such as bone and tendon) development, postnatal growth and their repair/regeneration upon injury. (rochester.edu)
  • Calcium is a ubiquitous second messenger with wide-ranging physiological roles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since muscle cells need calcium to contract, CCBs prevent the cells from contracting, that is, they cause the muscle cells to relax. (medicinenet.com)
  • In some cases, taking calcium with a thiazide diuretic can lead to a condition called milk-alkali syndrome in which the body becomes less acidic and blood calcium levels begin to rise. (verywellhealth.com)
  • If taking a thiazide diuretic, you should restrict your calcium intake to less than 1,500 milligrams (mg) per day. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Los importes son a partir de 31 de diciembre de 2021 y los valores de compensación son para el último año fiscal que finaliza en esa fecha. (yahoo.com)
  • Our findings show that these calcium channels modulate the maturation of oligodendrocytes in the brain after birth , " said Pablo M. Paez, PhD, an assistant professor in the Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology in the Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences at UB and a research scientist with the Hunter James Kelly Research Institute (HJKRI) at UB, where most of the work was done. (buffalo.edu)
  • Then we conducted behavioral tests, including tests with von Frey filaments and a laser heat test, to verify sensory pain, measured the expression of L-type calcium channels using western blotting and immunofluorescence of dorsal root ganglia (an important neural target for peripheral nociception), and examined the activity of L-type calcium channels and neuron excitability using electrophysiological measurements. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, ataxia model systems have shown over-excitability of Purkinje cells, a type of cerebellar neuron necessary for coordinated movement. (ataxia.org)
  • Characterization of the calcium channels was carried out using binding studies on homogenates from the frontal cortex with the DHP (dihydropyridine)-derivative, 3H-PN200-110, which binds with high affinity to the DHP-receptor inside the L-type calcium channel. (wikigenes.org)
  • Characterization of cannabis use by patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1: A pilot study. (usherbrooke.ca)
  • The Cannabinoid Receptor Type 1 Positive Allosteric Modulator ZCZ011 Attenuates Naloxone-Precipitated Diarrhea and Weight Loss in Oxycodone-Dependent Mice. (wjgnet.com)
  • The number of doses you take each day, the time allowed between doses, and how long you need to take it will depend on the type of medication your doctor prescribed and why. (webmd.com)
  • Here is how calcium supplements can interfere with those two types of medication. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Though doctors often prescribe more than two types of medication to effectively control blood pressure, the exact dosage and combination of medication largely depend on patients' medical history, race and age. (cakehealth.com)
  • Furthermore, to simplify the HTS assay and to reduce reagent cost, we stably expressed a membrane-tethered genetic calcium sensor, GCaMP6s-CAAX, that displays superior signal to the background compared to the untethered GCaMP6s or the synthetic Ca 2+ sensor Fluo-4AM. (nanion.de)
  • Moreover, there is a dynamic equilibrium between Kv7 and BK channels, in which, membrane potential, concentration of Ca2+, and membrane permeability might be the three major factors to build a bridge between Kv7 and BK channels. (uni-heidelberg.de)
  • Cardiac muscle AP is initiated by the opening of what 2 membrane channels? (flashcardmachine.com)
  • Specific signals can trigger a sudden increase in the cytoplasmic Ca 2+ levels to 500-1,000 nM by opening channels in the ER or the plasma membrane . (wikipedia.org)
  • Our results show that genetic deletion of the synaptic Ca-v 1.4 L-type VGCCs impairs calpain activation and leads to a short-term preservation of photoreceptors in the rd1 mouse. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • However, previously unrecognized atypical symptoms and the genetic overlap existing between EA2, spinocerebellar ataxia type 6, familial hemiplegic migraine type 1, and other neurological diseases blur the genotype/phenotype correlations, making a differential diagnosis difficult to formulate correctly and delaying early therapeutic intervention. (elsevier.com)
  • Furthermore, two-electrode voltage-clamp recordings performed from Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing a wild-type versus mutant channel showed that the genetic defect caused a complete loss of channel function. (elsevier.com)
  • In the present study, we used a combination of cellular, electrophysiological, computational, behavioral, and genetic approaches to identify the channel(s) underlying I CaN in motoneurons and determine the functional role(s) of I CaN -dependent plateau potentials in motor behaviors. (nature.com)
  • Cardiac L-type calcium channel (Cav1.2) associates with gamma subunits. (nih.gov)
  • Title: Sequence differences in the IQ motifs of CaV1.1 and CaV1.2 strongly impact calmodulin binding and calcium-dependent inactivation. (genscript.com)
  • These ion channels have been implicated in calcium signaling and are regulated by both cyclic nucleotides and calmodulin. (unr.edu)
  • Once bound to Ca 2+ , calmodulin acts as part of a calcium signal transduction pathway by modifying its interactions with various target proteins such as kinases or phosphatases . (wikipedia.org)
  • On the left is calmodulin without calcium and on the right is calmodulin with calcium. (wikipedia.org)
  • [23] This influence of target binding on Ca 2+ affinity is believed to allow for Ca 2+ activation of proteins that are constitutively bound to calmodulin, such as small-conductance Ca 2+ -activated potassium (SK) channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effect of calcium on these processes varies by location, extent and calcium homeostasis stage ( 26 , 27 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Calcium ion is tightly regulated in body fluids and for euryhaline fish, which are exposed to rapid changes in environmental [Ca 2+ ], homeostasis is especially challenging. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The gill is the main organ of active calcium uptake and therefore plays a crucial role in the maintenance of calcium ion homeostasis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Terrestrial vertebrates obtain calcium mainly through their diet and whole-body calcium homeostasis is mainly achieved by intestinal absorption and kidney reabsorption [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Defective calcium inactivation causes long QT in obese insulin-resistant rat. (cdc.gov)
  • These results also provided mechanistic insights into a remodeled cardiac electrophysiology under the condition of insulin resistance, enhancing our understanding of long QT associated with obese type 2 diabetic patients. (cdc.gov)
  • Description: This is Double-antibody Sandwich Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Mouse Calcium Channel, Voltage Dependent, L-Type, Alpha 1C Subunit (CACNa1C) in Tissue homogenates and other biological fluids. (operatiebrp.nl)
  • Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Mouse Voltage dependent L type calcium channel subunit Alpha 1C(CACNA1C) in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. (operatiebrp.nl)
  • One such peptide, speract, induces changes in intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca 2+ ] i ). (rupress.org)
  • Branchial Ca 2+ uptake appears to occur mainly through specialized mitochondrion-rich cells (MR cells) or "chloride cells" following a 3-step process similar to that proposed for Ca 2+ reabsorption in the mammalian kidney: passive entry of Ca 2+ through apical epithelial Ca 2+ channels (e.g. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Atrial fibrillation, also known as Afib, is a type of arrhythmia that can disturb the blood flow in the body. (maxhealthcare.in)
  • This type of atrial fibrillation cannot be corrected with treatment. (maxhealthcare.in)
  • Significance: We conclude that (i) inotropic responses to 5-HT and 5-MeOT seem to depend on L-type calcium channels, (ii) tegaserod and cisapride behave as partial 5-HT 4 receptor agonists, while prucalopride, norcisapride and MKC-733 cause no significant effects on human atrial trabeculae, (iii) R199715 seems to behave as a 5-HT 4 receptor antagonist. (eur.nl)
  • Blood thinners such as warfarin (Jantoven), dabigatran (Pradaxa), rivaroxaban (Xarelto) or apixaban (Eliquis) to prevent blood clots if you have atrial fibrillation or the apical type of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, which can increase the risk of sudden cardiac death. (mayoclinic.org)
  • However, the main ingredient is called a calcium-channel antagonist. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Surprisingly, however, α-conotoxins Vc1.1, RgIA and PeIA more potently inhibit N-type VGCC currents via a GABA(B) GPCR mechanism in rat sensory neurones. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, we crossbred rd1 mice with the Cacna1f-deficient mouse lacking the Ca(v)1.4 alpha 1 subunit of the L-type VGCC. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Overall, VGCC family genes exhibited under‑expression in numerous types of cancer, including brain, breast, kidney and lung cancers. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • the function of Kv7 and BK channels and their interaction were examined on the A. saphena during methoxamine-induced contractions using wire myography and on the A. gracilis during pressure-induced myogenic responses using pressure myography. (uni-heidelberg.de)
  • Using mouse models, the scientists explored how the CRAC channel proteins, ORAI1 and ORAI2, control CRAC channel activity and immune responses. (northwestern.edu)
  • ATPases (ACA) are crucial in defining the shape of calcium transients and therefore in eliciting plant responses to various stimuli. (unr.edu)
  • The R-type calcium channel is a type of voltage-dependent calcium channel. (wikipedia.org)
  • Voltage-dependent calcium channels are composed of five subunits. (nih.gov)
  • ZNS is known to have various effects, including impacts on T-type voltage-dependent calcium channel (VDCC) activity [ 8 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The EC 50 values for MA and LA were 125 μM and 37 μM, respectively, and the MA and LA effects were dependent on calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum stores and on the L-type calcium channels. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Only LA increased the cellular nitric oxide levels in a calcium-dependent manner. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 2018). Role of αKlotho and FGF23 in regulation of type II Na-dependent phosphate co-transporters. (tcdb.org)
  • VDCC, voltage-dependent cation channel. (rupress.org)
  • In keeping with the central place of calcium in bodily processes, the concentrations of calcium within the cell and within cell organelle compartments are maintained within very tight limits, using various energy-intensive methods including molecular pumps, ion channels and ATPases. (news-medical.net)
  • As noted above, these include ion channels, cellular carriers, and the Na + /K + -ATPase ( Sopjani and Dërmaku-Sopjani 2016 ). (tcdb.org)
  • Several subtypes of Ca 2+ channel support the release of glutamate at excitatory synapses. (jneurosci.org)
  • Glutamate levels have been shown to be abnormal in the brains of patients with different types of ataxias. (ataxia.org)
  • Bollmann JH, Sakmann B, Borst JG (2000) Calcium sensitivity of glutamate release in a calyx-type terminal. (yale.edu)
  • Chlorthalidone is a thiazide-type diuretic, or water pill. (va.gov)
  • However, the unique biophysical properties of T-type Ca 2+ channels are not conducive for developing high-throughput screening (HTS) assays to identify modulators, particularly potentiators. (nanion.de)
  • Although the biophysical properties of channels mediating I CaN have been characterized, their molecular identity remains a mystery 33 . (nature.com)