Long-lasting voltage-gated CALCIUM CHANNELS found in both excitable and nonexcitable tissue. They are responsible for normal myocardial and vascular smooth muscle contractility. Five subunits (alpha-1, alpha-2, beta, gamma, and delta) make up the L-type channel. The alpha-1 subunit is the binding site for calcium-based antagonists. Dihydropyridine-based calcium antagonists are used as markers for these binding sites.
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
CALCIUM CHANNELS that are concentrated in neural tissue. Omega toxins inhibit the actions of these channels by altering their voltage dependence.
A heterogenous group of transient or low voltage activated type CALCIUM CHANNELS. They are found in cardiac myocyte membranes, the sinoatrial node, Purkinje cells of the heart and the central nervous system.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
Agents that increase calcium influx into calcium channels of excitable tissues. This causes vasoconstriction in VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE and/or CARDIAC MUSCLE cells as well as stimulation of insulin release from pancreatic islets. Therefore, tissue-selective calcium agonists have the potential to combat cardiac failure and endocrinological disorders. They have been used primarily in experimental studies in cell and tissue culture.
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
Potassium channels where the flow of K+ ions into the cell is greater than the outward flow.
CALCIUM CHANNELS located in the neurons of the brain.
Pyridine moieties which are partially saturated by the addition of two hydrogen atoms in any position.
CALCIUM CHANNELS located in the neurons of the brain. They are inhibited by the marine snail toxin, omega conotoxin MVIIC.
A potent vasodilator agent with calcium antagonistic action. It is a useful anti-anginal agent that also lowers blood pressure.
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of potassium efflux through cell membranes. Blockade of potassium channels prolongs the duration of ACTION POTENTIALS. They are used as ANTI-ARRHYTHMIA AGENTS and VASODILATOR AGENTS.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that form channels to selectively pass chloride ions. Nonselective blockers include FENAMATES; ETHACRYNIC ACID; and TAMOXIFEN.
A neurotoxic peptide, which is a cleavage product (VIa) of the omega-Conotoxin precursor protein contained in venom from the marine snail, CONUS geographus. It is an antagonist of CALCIUM CHANNELS, N-TYPE.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
A family of structurally related neurotoxic peptides from mollusk venom that inhibit voltage-activated entry of calcium into the presynaptic membrane. They selectively inhibit N-, P-, and Q-type calcium channels.
Potassium channel whose permeability to ions is extremely sensitive to the transmembrane potential difference. The opening of these channels is induced by the membrane depolarization of the ACTION POTENTIAL.
A benzothiazepine derivative with vasodilating action due to its antagonism of the actions of CALCIUM ion on membrane functions.
Heteromultimers of Kir6 channels (the pore portion) and sulfonylurea receptor (the regulatory portion) which affect function of the HEART; PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. KATP channel blockers include GLIBENCLAMIDE and mitiglinide whereas openers include CROMAKALIM and minoxidil sulfate.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent.
A potent antagonist of CALCIUM CHANNELS that is highly selective for VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE. It is effective in the treatment of chronic stable angina pectoris, hypertension, and congestive cardiac failure.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
Potassium channels whose activation is dependent on intracellular calcium concentrations.
A calcium channel blocker with marked vasodilator action. It is an effective antihypertensive agent and differs from other calcium channel blockers in that it does not reduce glomerular filtration rate and is mildly natriuretic, rather than sodium retentive.
A benzimidazoyl-substituted tetraline that selectively binds and inhibits CALCIUM CHANNELS, T-TYPE.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of sodium influx through cell membranes. Blockade of sodium channels slows the rate and amplitude of initial rapid depolarization, reduces cell excitability, and reduces conduction velocity.
An element of the alkaline earth group of metals. It has an atomic symbol Ba, atomic number 56, and atomic weight 138. All of its acid-soluble salts are poisonous.
A calcium channel blockader with preferential cerebrovascular activity. It has marked cerebrovascular dilating effects and lowers blood pressure.
A neuropeptide toxin from the venom of the funnel web spider, Agelenopsis aperta. It inhibits CALCIUM CHANNELS, P-TYPE by altering the voltage-dependent gating so that very large depolarizations are needed for channel opening. It also inhibits CALCIUM CHANNELS, Q-TYPE.
A subgroup of TRP cation channels that contain 3-4 ANKYRIN REPEAT DOMAINS and a conserved C-terminal domain. Members are highly expressed in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Selectivity for calcium over sodium ranges from 0.5 to 10.
Voltage-gated potassium channels whose primary subunits contain six transmembrane segments and form tetramers to create a pore with a voltage sensor. They are related to their founding member, shaker protein, Drosophila.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A major class of calcium activated potassium channels whose members are voltage-dependent. MaxiK channels are activated by either membrane depolarization or an increase in intracellular Ca(2+). They are key regulators of calcium and electrical signaling in a variety of tissues.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.
A subgroup of cyclic nucleotide-regulated ION CHANNELS within the superfamily of pore-loop cation channels. They are expressed in OLFACTORY NERVE cilia and in PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and some PLANTS.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after vanilloid receptor. They are very sensitive to TEMPERATURE and hot spicy food and CAPSAICIN. They have the TRP domain and ANKYRIN repeats. Selectivity for CALCIUM over SODIUM ranges from 3 to 100 fold.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A potent calcium channel blockader with marked vasodilator action. It has antihypertensive properties and is effective in the treatment of angina and coronary spasms without showing cardiodepressant effects. It has also been used in the treatment of asthma and enhances the action of specific antineoplastic agents.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A tetrameric calcium release channel in the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM membrane of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, acting oppositely to SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES. It is important in skeletal and cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and studied by using RYANODINE. Abnormalities are implicated in CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS and MUSCULAR DISEASES.
A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after melastatin protein. They have the TRP domain but lack ANKYRIN repeats. Enzyme domains in the C-terminus leads to them being called chanzymes.
A family of proton-gated sodium channels that are primarily expressed in neuronal tissue. They are AMILORIDE-sensitive and are implicated in the signaling of a variety of neurological stimuli, most notably that of pain in response to acidic conditions.
Venoms of arthropods of the order Araneida of the ARACHNIDA. The venoms usually contain several protein fractions, including ENZYMES, hemolytic, neurolytic, and other TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL.
Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Sodium channels found on salt-reabsorbing EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the distal NEPHRON; the distal COLON; SALIVARY DUCTS; SWEAT GLANDS; and the LUNG. They are AMILORIDE-sensitive and play a critical role in the control of sodium balance, BLOOD VOLUME, and BLOOD PRESSURE.
A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that is the predominant VOLTAGE-GATED POTASSIUM CHANNEL of T-LYMPHOCYTES.
A family of voltage-gated potassium channels that are characterized by long N-terminal and C-terminal intracellular tails. They are named from the Drosophila protein whose mutation causes abnormal leg shaking under ether anesthesia. Their activation kinetics are dependent on extracellular MAGNESIUM and PROTON concentration.
Stable calcium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element calcium, but differ in atomic weight. Ca-42-44, 46, and 48 are stable calcium isotopes.
A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that is selectively inhibited by a variety of SCORPION VENOMS.
A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that is commonly mutated in human episodic ATAXIA and MYOKYMIA.
Unstable isotopes of calcium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ca atoms with atomic weights 39, 41, 45, 47, 49, and 50 are radioactive calcium isotopes.
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
A long-acting dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. It is effective in the treatment of ANGINA PECTORIS and HYPERTENSION.
A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that conducts a delayed rectifier current. It contributes to ACTION POTENTIAL repolarization of MYOCYTES in HEART ATRIA.
A class of polyamine and peptide toxins which are isolated from the venom of spiders such as Agelenopsis aperta.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
A major class of calcium-activated potassium channels that are found primarily in excitable CELLS. They play important roles in the transmission of ACTION POTENTIALS and generate a long-lasting hyperpolarization known as the slow afterhyperpolarization.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Venoms from mollusks, including CONUS and OCTOPUS species. The venoms contain proteins, enzymes, choline derivatives, slow-reacting substances, and several characterized polypeptide toxins that affect the nervous system. Mollusk venoms include cephalotoxin, venerupin, maculotoxin, surugatoxin, conotoxins, and murexine.
A broad group of eukaryotic six-transmembrane cation channels that are classified by sequence homology because their functional involvement with SENSATION is varied. They have only weak voltage sensitivity and ion selectivity. They are named after a DROSOPHILA mutant that displayed transient receptor potentials in response to light. A 25-amino-acid motif containing a TRP box (EWKFAR) just C-terminal to S6 is found in TRPC, TRPV and TRPM subgroups. ANKYRIN repeats are found in TRPC, TRPV & TRPN subgroups. Some are functionally associated with TYROSINE KINASE or TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES.
A family of delayed rectifier voltage-gated potassium channels that share homology with their founding member, KCNQ1 PROTEIN. KCNQ potassium channels have been implicated in a variety of diseases including LONG QT SYNDROME; DEAFNESS; and EPILEPSY.
A subfamily of shaker potassium channels that shares homology with its founding member, Shab protein, Drosophila. They regulate delayed rectifier currents in the NERVOUS SYSTEM of DROSOPHILA and in the SKELETAL MUSCLE and HEART of VERTEBRATES.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A voltage-gated potassium channel that is expressed primarily in the HEART.
A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A shaker subfamily that is prominently expressed in NEURONS and are necessary for high-frequency, repetitive firing of ACTION POTENTIALS.
A fast inactivating subtype of shaker potassium channels that contains two inactivation domains at its N terminus.
An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The calcium salt of oxalic acid, occurring in the urine as crystals and in certain calculi.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.
Coronary vasodilator that is an analog of iproveratril (VERAPAMIL) with one more methoxy group on the benzene ring.
A family of inwardly-rectifying potassium channels that are activated by PERTUSSIS TOXIN sensitive G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS. GIRK potassium channels are primarily activated by the complex of GTP-BINDING PROTEIN BETA SUBUNITS and GTP-BINDING PROTEIN GAMMA SUBUNITS.
The calcium salt of gluconic acid. The compound has a variety of uses, including its use as a calcium replenisher in hypocalcemic states.
A shaker subfamily of potassium channels that participate in transient outward potassium currents by activating at subthreshold MEMBRANE POTENTIALS, inactivating rapidly, and recovering from inactivation quickly.
The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
A fluorescent calcium chelating agent which is used to study intracellular calcium in tissues.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A sesquiterpene lactone found in roots of THAPSIA. It inhibits CA(2+)-TRANSPORTING ATPASE mediated uptake of CALCIUM into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
A very slow opening and closing voltage-gated potassium channel that is expressed in NEURONS and is commonly mutated in BENIGN FAMILIAL NEONATAL CONVULSIONS.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A subgroup of cyclic nucleotide-regulated ION CHANNELS of the superfamily of pore-loop cation channels that are opened by hyperpolarization rather than depolarization. The ion conducting pore passes SODIUM, CALCIUM, and POTASSIUM cations with a preference for potassium.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
A potassium-selective ion channel blocker. (From J Gen Phys 1994;104(1):173-90)
A trace element with the atomic symbol Ni, atomic number 28, and atomic weight 58.69. It is a cofactor of the enzyme UREASE.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
An antidiabetic sulfonylurea derivative with actions similar to those of chlorpropamide.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Lanthanum. The prototypical element in the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol La, atomic number 57, and atomic weight 138.91. Lanthanide ion is used in experimental biology as a calcium antagonist; lanthanum oxide improves the optical properties of glass.
An element with atomic symbol Cd, atomic number 48, and atomic weight 114. It is a metal and ingestion will lead to CADMIUM POISONING.
Venoms from animals of the order Scorpionida of the class Arachnida. They contain neuro- and hemotoxins, enzymes, and various other factors that may release acetylcholine and catecholamines from nerve endings. Of the several protein toxins that have been characterized, most are immunogenic.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
A dihydropyridine calcium channel antagonist that acts as a potent arterial vasodilator and antihypertensive agent. It is also effective in patients with cardiac failure and angina.
A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype that mediates the sodium ion PERMEABILITY of CARDIOMYOCYTES. Defects in the SCN5A gene, which codes for the alpha subunit of this sodium channel, are associated with a variety of CARDIAC DISEASES that result from loss of sodium channel function.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A major class of calcium-activated potassium channels that were originally discovered in ERYTHROCYTES. They are found primarily in non-excitable CELLS and set up electrical gradients for PASSIVE ION TRANSPORT.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
A very slow opening and closing voltage-gated potassium channel that is expressed in NEURONS and is closely related to KCNQ2 POTASSIUM CHANNEL. It is commonly mutated in BENIGN FAMILIAL NEONATAL CONVULSIONS.
The pore-forming subunits of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels. They form tetramers in CELL MEMBRANES.
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Intracellular receptors that bind to INOSITOL 1,4,5-TRISPHOSPHATE and play an important role in its intracellular signaling. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors are calcium channels that release CALCIUM in response to increased levels of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in the CYTOPLASM.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
A methylpyrrole-carboxylate from RYANIA that disrupts the RYANODINE RECEPTOR CALCIUM RELEASE CHANNEL to modify CALCIUM release from SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM resulting in alteration of MUSCLE CONTRACTION. It was previously used in INSECTICIDES. It is used experimentally in conjunction with THAPSIGARGIN and other inhibitors of CALCIUM ATPASE uptake of calcium into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
A group of slow opening and closing voltage-gated potassium channels. Because of their delayed activation kinetics they play an important role in controlling ACTION POTENTIAL duration.
A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype that mediates the sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Defects in the SCN2A gene which codes for the alpha subunit of this sodium channel are associated with benign familial infantile seizures type 3, and early infantile epileptic encephalopathy type 11.
A family of membrane proteins that selectively conduct SODIUM ions due to changes in the TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE. They typically have a multimeric structure with a core alpha subunit that defines the sodium channel subtype and several beta subunits that modulate sodium channel activity.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
A 37-amino acid residue peptide isolated from the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus. It is a neurotoxin that inhibits calcium activated potassium channels.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The fluid inside CELLS.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
An element of the alkaline earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sr, atomic number 38, and atomic weight 87.62.
Flunarizine is a selective calcium entry blocker with calmodulin binding properties and histamine H1 blocking activity. It is effective in the prophylaxis of migraine, occlusive peripheral vascular disease, vertigo of central and peripheral origin, and as an adjuvant in the therapy of epilepsy.
An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.
A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
Inorganic compounds that contain calcium as an integral part of the molecule.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
One of the POTASSIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS, with secondary effect on calcium currents, which is used mainly as a research tool and to characterize channel subtypes.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
A highly neurotoxic polypeptide from the venom of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). It consists of 18 amino acids with two disulfide bridges and causes hyperexcitability resulting in convulsions and respiratory paralysis.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.
Proteins that bind specific drugs with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Drug receptors are generally thought to be receptors for some endogenous substance not otherwise specified.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A dihydropyridine calcium antagonist with positive inotropic effects. It lowers blood pressure by reducing peripheral vascular resistance through a highly selective action on smooth muscle in arteriolar resistance vessels.
Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
ATP-BINDING CASSETTE PROTEINS that are highly conserved and widely expressed in nature. They form an integral part of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel complex which has two intracellular nucleotide folds that bind to sulfonylureas and their analogs.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The excitable plasma membrane of a muscle cell. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype that mediates the sodium ion PERMEABILITY of SKELETAL MYOCYTES. Defects in the SCN4A gene, which codes for the alpha subunit of this sodium channel, are associated with several MYOTONIC DISORDERS.
A family of voltage-gated eukaryotic porins that form aqueous channels. They play an essential role in mitochondrial CELL MEMBRANE PERMEABILITY, are often regulated by BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS, and have been implicated in APOPTOSIS.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
A proline analog that acts as a stoichiometric replacement of proline. It causes the production of abnormal proteins with impaired biological activity.
Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.
One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.
The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.
The electrical properties, characteristics of living organisms, and the processes of organisms or their parts that are involved in generating and responding to electrical charges.

Activation of human D3 dopamine receptor inhibits P/Q-type calcium channels and secretory activity in AtT-20 cells. (1/3011)

The D3 dopamine receptor is postulated to play an important role in the regulation of neurotransmitter secretion at both pre- and postsynaptic terminals. However, this hypothesis and the underlying mechanisms remain untested because of the lack of D3-selective ligands, paucity of appropriate model secretory systems, and the weak and inconsistent coupling of D3 receptors to classical signal transduction pathways. The absence of ligands that selectively discriminate between D3 and D2 receptors in vivo precludes the study of D3 receptor function in the brain and necessitates the use of heterologous expression systems. In this report we demonstrate that activation of the human D3 dopamine receptor expressed in the AtT-20 neuroendocrine cell line causes robust inhibition of P/Q-type calcium channels via pertussis toxin-sensitive G-proteins. In addition, using the vesicle trafficking dye FM1-43, we show that D3 receptor activation significantly inhibits spontaneous secretory activity in these cells. Our results not only support the hypothesis that the D3 receptor can regulate secretory activity but also provide insight into the underlying signaling mechanisms. We propose a functional model in which the D3 receptor tightly regulates neurotransmitter release at a synapse by only allowing the propagation of spikes above a certain frequency or burst-duration threshold.  (+info)

Regulation of cardiac L-type Ca2+ channel by coexpression of G(alpha s) in Xenopus oocytes. (2/3011)

Activation of G(alpha s) via beta-adrenergic receptors enhances the activity of cardiac voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels of the L-type, mainly via protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent phosphorylation. Contribution of a PKA-independent effect of G(alpha s) has been proposed but remains controversial. We demonstrate that, in Xenopus oocytes, antisense knockdown of endogenous G(alpha s) reduced, whereas coexpression of G(alpha s) enhanced, currents via expressed cardiac L-type channels, independently of the presence of the auxiliary subunits alpha2/delta or beta2A. Coexpression of G(alpha s) did not increase the amount of alpha1C protein in whole oocytes or in the plasma membrane (measured immunochemically). Activation of coexpressed beta2 adrenergic receptors did not cause a detectable enhancement of channel activity; rather, a small cAMP-dependent decrease was observed. We conclude that coexpression of G(alpha s), but not its acute activation via beta-adrenergic receptors, enhances the activity of the cardiac L-type Ca2+ channel via a PKA-independent effect on the alpha1C subunit.  (+info)

Local control models of cardiac excitation-contraction coupling. A possible role for allosteric interactions between ryanodine receptors. (3/3011)

In cardiac muscle, release of activator calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum occurs by calcium- induced calcium release through ryanodine receptors (RyRs), which are clustered in a dense, regular, two-dimensional lattice array at the diad junction. We simulated numerically the stochastic dynamics of RyRs and L-type sarcolemmal calcium channels interacting via calcium nano-domains in the junctional cleft. Four putative RyR gating schemes based on single-channel measurements in lipid bilayers all failed to give stable excitation-contraction coupling, due either to insufficiently strong inactivation to terminate locally regenerative calcium-induced calcium release or insufficient cooperativity to discriminate against RyR activation by background calcium. If the ryanodine receptor was represented, instead, by a phenomenological four-state gating scheme, with channel opening resulting from simultaneous binding of two Ca2+ ions, and either calcium-dependent or activation-linked inactivation, the simulations gave a good semiquantitative accounting for the macroscopic features of excitation-contraction coupling. It was possible to restore stability to a model based on a bilayer-derived gating scheme, by introducing allosteric interactions between nearest-neighbor RyRs so as to stabilize the inactivated state and produce cooperativity among calcium binding sites on different RyRs. Such allosteric coupling between RyRs may be a function of the foot process and lattice array, explaining their conservation during evolution.  (+info)

L-type Ca2+ channels and K+ channels specifically modulate the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous Ca2+ oscillations and have distinct roles in prolactin release in GH3 cells. (4/3011)

GH3 cells showed spontaneous rhythmic oscillations in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and spontaneous prolactin release. The L-type Ca2+ channel inhibitor nimodipine reduced the frequency of Ca2+ oscillations at lower concentrations (100nM-1 microM), whereas at higher concentrations (10 microM), it completely abolished them. Ca2+ oscillations persisted following exposure to thapsigargin, indicating that inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-sensitive intracellular Ca2+ stores were not required for spontaneous activity. The K+ channel inhibitors Ba2+, Cs+, and tetraethylammonium (TEA) had distinct effects on different K+ currents, as well as on Ca2+ oscillations and prolactin release. Cs+ inhibited the inward rectifier K+ current (KIR) and increased the frequency of Ca2+ oscillations. TEA inhibited outward K+ currents activated at voltages above -40 mV (grouped within the category of Ca2+ and voltage-activated currents, KCa,V) and increased the amplitude of Ca2+ oscillations. Ba2+ inhibited both KIR and KCa,V and increased both the amplitude and the frequency of Ca2+ oscillations. Prolactin release was increased by Ba2+ and Cs+ but not by TEA. These results indicate that L-type Ca2+ channels and KIR channels modulate the frequency of Ca2+ oscillations and prolactin release, whereas TEA-sensitive KCa,V channels modulate the amplitude of Ca2+ oscillations without altering prolactin release. Differential regulation of these channels can produce frequency or amplitude modulation of calcium signaling that stimulates specific pituitary cell functions.  (+info)

Beta2-adrenergic receptor overexpression in the developing mouse heart: evidence for targeted modulation of ion channels. (5/3011)

1. We studied the effect of overexpression of the beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta2-AR) in the heart on ion channel currents in single cells isolated from hearts of fetal and neonatal transgenic and wild-type mice. The beta2-AR transgene construct was under the control of the murine alpha-myosin heavy chain (alpha-MHC) promoter, and ion channel activity was measured at distinct developmental stages using whole-cell and perforated patch clamp techniques. 2. We found no change in L-type Ca2+ channel current (ICa) density in early embryonic stages (E11-13) of beta2-AR transgenic positive (TG+) mice, but significant increases in ICa density in intermediate (E14-16, 152 %) and late (E17-19, 173.7 %) fetal and neonatal (1 day post partum, 161 %) TG+ compared with transgenic negative (TG-) mice. This increase in ICa was accompanied by a negative shift in the peak of the current-voltage relationship in TG+ mice. 3. Transient (< 3 min) or prolonged (16-24 h) exposure of TG- neonatal stage myocytes to 8-Br-cAMP (300 microM) increased ICa density and caused a shift in the current-voltage relationship to a similar extent to that seen in TG+ mice. In TG+ myocytes, 8-Br-cAMP had no effect. Exposure of TG+ cells to Rp-cAMPS reversed both the shift in voltage dependence and reduced the peak current density observed in these myocytes. We concluded from these results that the L-type Ca2+ channel is maximally modulated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) in TG+ mice and that the alpha-MHC promoter is functional in the ventricle as early as embryonic day 14. 4. In contrast, we found that slow delayed rectifier K+ channels were not changed significantly at any of the developmental stages studied by the overexpression of beta2-ARs compared with TG- mice. The sensitivity of murine slow delayed rectifier K+ channels to cAMP was tested by both transient and prolonged exposure to 8-Br-cAMP (300 microM), which increased the slow delayed rectifier K+ channel current (IK,s) density to a similar extent in both TG- and TG+ neonatal myocytes. In addition, we found that there was no difference in the concentration dependence of the response of ICa and IK,s to 8-Br-cAMP. 5. Thus, overexpression of the beta2-AR in the heart results in distinct modulation of ICa, but not IK,s, and this is not due to differences in the 8-Br-cAMP sensitivity of the two channels. Instead, these results are consistent with both compartmentalization of beta2-AR-controlled cAMP and distinct localization of L-type Ca2+ and slow delayed rectifier K+ channels. This cAMP is targeted preferentially to the L-type Ca2+ channel and is not accessible to the slow delayed rectifier K+ channel.  (+info)

Relationship between L-type Ca2+ current and unitary sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release events in rat ventricular myocytes. (6/3011)

1. The time courses of Ca2+ current and Ca2+ spark occurrence were determined in single rat ventricular myocytes voltage clamped with patch pipettes containing 0.1 microM fluo-3. Acquisition of line-scan images on a laser scanning confocal microscope was synchronized with measurement of Cd2+-sensitive Ca2+ currents. In most cells, individual Ca2+ sparks were observed by reducing Ca2+ current density with nifedipine (0.1-8 microM). 2. Ca2+ sparks elicited by depolarizing voltage-clamp pulses had a peak [Ca2+] amplitude of 289 +/- 3 nM with a decay half-time of 20.8 +/- 0.2 ms and a full width at half-maximum of 1.40 +/- 0.03 microm (mean +/- s. e.m., n = 345), independent of the membrane potential. 3. The time between the beginning of a depolarization and the initiation of each Ca2+ spark was calculated and data were pooled to construct waiting time histograms. Exponential functions were fitted to these histograms and to the decaying phase of the Ca2+ current. This analysis showed that the time constants describing Ca2+ current and Ca2+ spark occurrence at membrane potentials between -30 mV and +30 mV were not significantly different. At +50 mV, in the absence of nifedipine, the time constant describing Ca2+ spark occurrence was significantly larger than the time constant of the Ca2+ current. 4. A simple model is developed using Poisson statistics to relate macroscopic Ca2+ current to the opening of single L-type Ca2+ channels at the dyad junction and to the time course of Ca2+ spark occurrence. The model suggests that the time courses of macroscopic Ca2+ current and Ca2+ spark occurrence should be closely related when opening of a single L-type Ca2+ channel initiates a Ca2+ spark. By comparison with the data, the model suggests that Ca2+ sparks are initiated by the opening of a single L-type Ca2+ channel at all membrane potentials encountered during an action potential.  (+info)

Kinetics of inactivation and restoration from inactivation of the L-type calcium current in human myotubes. (7/3011)

1. Inactivation and recovery kinetics of L-type calcium currents were measured in myotubes derived from satellite cells of human skeletal muscle using the whole cell patch clamp technique. 2. The time course of inactivation at potentials above the activation threshold was obtained from the decay of the current during 15 s depolarizing pulses. At subthreshold potentials, prepulses of different durations, followed by +20 mV test pulses, were used. The time course could be well described by single exponential functions of time. The time constant decreased from 17.8 +/- 7.5 s at -30 mV to 1.78 +/- 0.15 s at +50 mV. 3. Restoration from inactivation caused by 15 s depolarization to +20 mV was slowed by depolarization in the restoration interval. The time constant increased from 1.11 +/- 0.17 s at -90 mV to 7.57 +/- 2.54 s at -10 mV. 4. Restoration showed different kinetics depending on the duration of the conditioning depolarization. While the time constant was similar at restoration potentials of -90 and -50 mV after a 1 s conditioning prepulse, it increased with increasing prepulse duration at -50 mV and decreased at -90 mV. 5. The experiments showed that the rates of inactivation and restoration of the L-type calcium current in human myotubes were not identical when observed at the same potential. The results indicate the presence of more than one inactivated state and point to different voltage-dependent pathways for inactivation and restoration.  (+info)

Diazepam-binding inhibitor33-50 elicits Ca2+ oscillation and CCK secretion in STC-1 cells via L-type Ca2+ channels. (8/3011)

We recently isolated and characterized 86-amino acid CCK-releasing peptide from porcine intestinal mucosa. The sequence of this peptide is identical to that of porcine diazepam-binding inhibitor (DBI). Intraduodenal administration of DBI stimulates the CCK release and elicits pancreatic secretion in rats. In this study we utilized a murine tumor cell line (STC-1 cells) that contains CCK to examine if DBI directly acts on these cells to stimulate CCK release. We investigated the cellular mechanisms responsible for this action. We showed that DBI33-50, a biologically active fragment of DBI1-86, significantly stimulated CCK secretion in STC-1 cells. This action was abolished by Ca2+-free medium. The mean basal intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) was 52 nM in fura 2-loaded STC-1 cells. DBI33-50 (1-1,000 nM) elicited Ca2+ oscillations; DBI33-50 (10 nM) increased the oscillation frequency to 5 cycles/10 min and elicited a net [Ca2+]i increase (peak - basal) to 157 nM. In contrast, bombesin and forskolin caused an initial transient [Ca2+]i followed by a small sustained [Ca2+]i plateau. Withdrawal of extracellular Ca2+ abolished Ca2+ oscillations stimulated by DBI33-50. L-type Ca2+ channel blockers nifedipine and diltiazem (3-10 microM) markedly attenuated DBI-stimulated Ca2+ oscillations. In other cell types L-type Ca2+ channels are activated by cAMP-protein kinase A. DBI33-50 failed to stimulate cAMP formation in STC-1 cells. Similarly, DBI33-50 had no effect on myo-inositol 1,4, 5-trisphosphate concentration ([IP3]), whereas bombesin caused an eightfold increase in [IP3] over basal. In addition, inhibitors of phospholipase C (U-73122), phospholipase A2 (ONO-RS-082), and protein tyrosine kinase (genistein) did not alter the Ca2+ oscillations elicited by DBI33-50. It appears that DBI33-50 acts directly on STC-1 cells to elicit Ca2+ oscillations via the voltage-dependent L-type Ca2+ channels, resulting in the secretion of CCK. Mediation of this action is by intracellular mechanisms independent of the traditional signal transduction pathways, including phospholipase C, phospholipase A2, protein tyrosine kinase, and cAMP systems.  (+info)

Read Ca2+ Calmodulin Kinase and Calcineurin Mediate IGF-1-induced Skeletal Muscle Dihydropyridine Receptor α1S Transcription, The Journal of Membrane Biology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Headline: Bitcoin & Blockchain Searches Exceed Trump! Blockchain Stocks Are Next!. L-Type Calcium Channel Blockers-Pipeline Insights, 2016″, report provides in depth insights on the pipeline drugs and their development activities around the L-Type Calcium Channel Blockers. The Report covers the product profiles in various stages of development including Discovery, Pre-clinical, IND, Phase I, Phase II, Phase III and Preregistration. Report covers the product clinical trials information and other development activities including technology, licensing, collaborations, acquisitions, fundings, patent and USFDA & EMA designations details. Report also provides detailed information on the discontinued and dormant drugs that have gone inactive over the years for L-Type Calcium Channel Blockers. Report also assesses the L-Type Calcium Channel Blockers therapeutics by Monotherapy, Combination products, Molecule type and Route of Administration.. For more information about this report: ...
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. The isoform alpha-1S gives rise to L-type calcium currents. Long-lasting (L-type) calcium channels belong to the high-voltage activated (HVA) group. They are blocked by dihydropyridines (DHP), phenylalkylamines, benzothiazepines, and by omega-agatoxin-IIIA (omega-Aga-IIIA). They are however insensitive to omega-conotoxin-GVIA (omega-CTx-GVIA) and omega-agatoxin-IVA (omega-Aga-IVA). Calcium channels containing the alpha-1S subunit play an important role in excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscle ...
The Institute of Physiology at the University of WĂĽrzburg offers a PhD Position (TV-L 65 %) in the project: Targeting of L-type voltage-gated calcium...
Astrocytes are activated by ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) in vivo and in vitro, however, the consequences on the L-type calcium channel (LCC) of neurons are still poorly understood. Therefore, in the present study, whole-cell patch clamp, western-blot and RT-PCR assay were performed to evaluate the effects of CNTF-treated astrocyte conditioned medium (CNTF-ACM) on LCC current (I(Ca)-L) and the expression of Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 in Sprague-Dawley rat cortical neurons. The results revealed that CNTF-ACM enhanced the amplitude of Ica-L and the expression of Cav1.3 significantly, but had no effects on Cav1.2 expression. We also found an increase in the concentration of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) in CNTF-ACM by ELISA assay. Taken together, these findings indicate that CNTF induces the release of factors, including FGF-2, from astrocytes, thereby potentiating the activity of LCC in cortical neurons.. ...
L-type (CaV1.2) voltage-gated calcium channels play critical roles in membrane excitability, gene expression, cardiac and smooth muscle contraction. Alternative splicing enriches the functional diversity of the pore-forming CaV1.2 alpha-1 subunit. Systematic screening of the human CaV1.2 alpha-1 gene by the transcript-scanning method revealed 19 of the 55 exons were subjected to alternative splicing, and two of these were novel exons. A large IVS3-S4 variability resulting from combinatorial utilization of exons 31-33 demonstrated a correlation between increased IVS3-S4 linker length and more depolarized activation potentials.Sixty-four splicing profiles of CaV1.2 alpha-1 subunit were identified from 6 full-length cDNA libraries generated from heart and aortic tissues of the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats and Wistar Kyoto Rats. The tissue-selective and pathologically induced splicing profiles of 10 alternatively spliced exons assessed indicated a striking alteration in exon utilization and ...
This project is supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (award #111062), Alberta Innovates - Health Solutions, and by The Metabolomics Innovation Centre (TMIC), a nationally-funded research and core facility that supports a wide range of cutting-edge metabolomic studies. TMIC is funded by Genome Alberta, Genome British Columbia, and Genome Canada, a not-for-profit organization that is leading Canadas national genomics strategy with funding from the federal government. Maintenance, support, and commercial licensing is provided by OMx Personal Health Analytics, Inc. Designed by Educe Design & Innovation Inc. ...
This project is supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (award #111062), Alberta Innovates - Health Solutions, and by The Metabolomics Innovation Centre (TMIC), a nationally-funded research and core facility that supports a wide range of cutting-edge metabolomic studies. TMIC is funded by Genome Alberta, Genome British Columbia, and Genome Canada, a not-for-profit organization that is leading Canadas national genomics strategy with funding from the federal government. Maintenance, support, and commercial licensing is provided by OMx Personal Health Analytics, Inc. Designed by Educe Design & Innovation Inc. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Angiotensin II increases expression of α1C subunit of L-type calcium channel through a reactive oxygen species and cAMP response element-binding protein-dependent pathway in HL-1 myocytes. AU - Tsai, Chia Ti. AU - Wang, Danny Ling. AU - Chen, Wen Pin. AU - Hwang, Juey Jen. AU - Hsieh, Chia Shan. AU - Hsu, Kuan Lih. AU - Tseng, Chuen Den. AU - Lai, Ling Ping. AU - Tseng, Yung Zu. AU - Chiang, Fu Tien. AU - Lin, Jiunn Lee. PY - 2007/5/1. Y1 - 2007/5/1. N2 - Angiotensin II (Ang II) is involved in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation (AF). L-type calcium channel (LCC) expression is altered in AF remodeling. We investigated whether Ang II modulates LCC current through transcriptional regulation, by using murine atrial HL-1 cells, which have a spontaneous calcium transient, and an in vivo rat model. Ang II increased LCC α1C subunit mRNA and protein levels and LCC current density, which resulted in an augmented calcium transient in atrial myocytes. An ≈2-kb promoter region of LCC ...
Red-fluorescing cells were visualized on an Olympus 1×51 fluorescent microscope (Olympus, Center Valley, PA). Whole-cell currents were recorded with an Axopatch 200A amplifier (Molecular Devices, Sunnyvale, CA). Data were sampled at 2 to 10 kHz, low pass-filtered at 1 kHz, and analyzed using pClamp v9.2 (Molecular Devices). After pipette and membrane capacitance compensation, the series resistance was corrected by 80 to 90% with a 20- to 100-μs lag time. Cells with a series resistance greater than 20 MΩ were not used for analysis. After whole-cell break-in, Ba2+ currents were elicited in voltage-clamp mode by stepping from a holding potential (Vh) of −80 mV to test potentials (Vt) of 0 (Cav1.2) or −25 mV (Cav1.3) for 200 ms. Current rundown, plotted as total charge transfer elicited at 10-s intervals (or higher frequencies, as indicated), was fitted with a one- or two-phase exponential decay curve. Recordings using this protocol were not leak-subtracted.. Drugs were applied by gravity ...
The present study demonstrated that the opening of the L-type Ca2+ channels was increased in arterial smooth muscle cells from SHR compared with WKY. However, the single-channel conductance and open time did not differ between SHR and WKY. Thus, an increased opening of the single channels would contribute greatly to the increased amplitude of the whole-cell current.. The unitary inward current recorded in the present study was considered to be L-type Ca2+ channel currents from the following findings: (1) single-channel conductance and open time were basically the same as those of the L-type Ca2+ channel in other arterial tissues studied10,11,13; (2) the holding potential was −40 mV, which inactivated the T-type Ca2+ channels as well as Na+ channels10; and (3) the channel opening disappeared with the application of nifedipine, suggesting that the channel is sensitive to dihydropyridines.10 11 Whole-cell amplitude (I) consisted of several parameters, such as the amplitude of the single-channel ...
Calcium channel L type DHPR alpha 2 subunit兔多克隆抗体(ab42586)可与人样本反应并经WB实验严格验证,被1篇文献引用。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
With PDEs inactivated by IBMX, we assume that there are two pathways for inhibition of ICa(L) by cGMP/PKG, namely, phosphorylation of the α1c subunit that antagonizes the stimulant effect of cAMP/PKA and/or activation of PP that dephosphorylates the α1c subunit. Can 8-Br-cGMP or CCh suppress Ca2+ current through L-type channels in the presence of ATPγS, which allows kinases to thiophosphorylate substrates that resist phosphatase action? Irreversible suppression by 8-Br-cGMP would indicate that thiophosphorylation of the channel had occurred at a site different from that acted upon by cAMP/PKA (Méry et al., 1991; Sumii and Sperelakis, 1995). Alternatively, failure of 8-Br-cGMP to suppress ICa(L) in ATPγS would indicate that the thiophosphorylated channel was resistant to phosphatase. Our results are consistent with the PP hypothesis for inhibition by cGMP of current through L-type channels in guinea pig ventricular myocytes.. Neurotransmitter regulation of ICa(L) by reversible ...
BioAssay record AID 1084627 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of L-type calcium channel in Rattus norvegicus Wistar (rat) thoracic aorta assessed as relaxation of KCl-induced vasoconstriction at 10-11 M after 30 min relative to control.
We have found that phospholemman (PLM) associates with and modulates the gating of cardiac L-type calcium channels (Wang et al., Biophys J 98: 1149-1159, 2010). The short 17 amino acid extracellular NH2-terminal domain of PLM contains a highly conserved PFTYD sequence that defines it as a member of the FXYD family of ion transport regulators. Although we have learned a great deal about PLM-dependent changes in calcium channel gating, little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying the observed changes. Therefore, we investigated the role of the PFTYD segment in the modulation of cardiac calcium channels by individually replacing Pro-8, Phe-9, Thr-10, Tyr-11, and Asp-12 with alanine (P8A, F9A, T10A, Y11A, D12A). In addition, Asp-12 was changed to lysine (D12K) and cysteine (D12C). As expected, wild-type PLM significantly slows channel activation and deactivation and enhances voltage-dependent inactivation (VDI). We were surprised to find that amino acid substitutions at Thr-10 and ...
Our study demonstrates that myocytes lacking the PTEN gene have elevated cardiac L-type Ca2+ currents accompanied by negative shifts in voltage-dependent channel activation, which were unrelated to incomplete voltage control arising from uncompensated RS. Our results further establish that the elevations in ICa,L observed in PTEN-deficient hearts occur without increases in channel expression but are eliminated by PI3K or PKB inhibitors and by dominant-negative PI3Kα suppression. These findings suggest that ICa,L enhancements and voltage shifts of ICa,L activation in PTEN-deficient myocytes result from elevated PI(3,4,5)P3 levels leading to tonic PKB activation and phosphorylation of target proteins involved in L-type Ca2+ channel regulation. These results are consistent with the conclusion that the dominant physiological function of PTEN is the breakdown of the PI3K-generated second messenger PI(3,4,5)P3 to PI(4,5)P2.21 The increases in ICa,L observed in PTEN-deficient myocytes are similar to ...
To identify regions that are involved in the formation of the dihydropyridine receptor site of skeletal muscle L-type Ca2+ channels, the alpha 1 subunit of the channel complex was specifically labeled with the 1,4-dihydropyridine-receptor-selective photoaffinity probe [3H]diazipine. Photoaffinity-labeled regions were identified by probing labeled proteolytic fragments with several anti-peptide antibodies recognizing different segments of the alpha 1 sequence. Forty to 50% of the alpha 1-associated [3H]diazipine label was contained in the tryptic fragment between Arg-988 and Ala-1023 derived from the loop between segments S5 and S6 in domain III. This region corresponds to a portion of the channel that is believed to contribute to formation of the transmembrane pore. Twenty to 30% of the labeling occurred in a V8 protease fragment between Glu-1349 and Trp-1391. This fragment contains transmembrane segment S6 of domain IV and has previously been shown to form part of the drug receptor for ...
It has recently become evident that discrete clusters of L-type Ca2+ channels (LTCCs) exist along the cardiomyocyte sarcolemma in association with distinct membrane structures. Such microdomain-specific localization impact channel function and regulation by a variety of neurohormonal pathways, including adrenergic and adenosine. Disruption in their subcellular targeting may contribute to the pathophysiology of cardiac diseases, including heart failure (HF). We used Ca2+ imaging and super-resolution scanning patch clamp to examine microdomain-specific regulation of LTCCs in atrial myocytes isolated from control and 16-weeks post-MI HF rats. In control, β1 adrenergic receptors (β1ARs) stimulation (ISO 100 nM and β2AR antagonist ICI 50 nM) enhanced spontaneous Ca2+ release events while the following adenosine A1 receptors (AdoA1Rs) stimulation (2-MeCCPA 200 nM) abolished β1ARs effects. Non-localized β1ARs stimulation (ISO 2 μM and ICI 50 nM in external solution) activated single LTCCs in ...
WORKLIST ENTRIES (1): LVDCCALPHA1C View alignment Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel alpha-1C subunit signature Type of fingerprint: COMPOUND with 13 elements Links: PRINTS; PR00167 CACHANNEL; PR01629 TVDCCALPHA1; PR01630 LVDCCALPHA1 PRINTS; PR01631 NVDCCALPHA1; PR01632 PQVDCCALPHA1; PR01633 RVDCCALPHA1 PRINTS; PR01634 LVDCCALPHA1S; PR01636 LVDCCALPHA1D Creation date 20-DEC-2001 1. WILLIAMS, M.E., BRUST, P.F., FELDMAN, D.H., PATTHI, S., SIMERSON, S., MAROUFI, A., MCCUE, A.F., VELICELBI, G., ELLIS, S.B. AND HARPOLD, M.M. Structure and functional expression of an omega-conotoxin sensitive human N-type calcium channel. SCIENCE 257 389-395 (1992). 2. MORI, Y., FRIEDRICH, T., KIM, MS., MIKAMI, A., NAKAI, J., RUTH, P., BOSSE, E., HOFMANN, F., FLOCKERZI, V., FURUICHI, T., MIKOSHIBA, K., IMOTO, K., TANABE, T. AND NUMA, S. Primary structure and functional expression from complementary DNA of a brain calcium channel. NATURE 350 398-402 (1991). 3. ASHCROFT, F.M. Voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. IN ION ...
ID M9PBC0_DROME Unreviewed; 2023 AA. AC M9PBC0; DT 26-JUN-2013, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 26-JUN-2013, sequence version 1. DT 22-NOV-2017, entry version 39. DE RecName: Full=Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha {ECO:0000256,RuleBase:RU003808}; GN Name=Ca-alpha1D {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AGB93018.1, GN ECO:0000313,FlyBase:FBgn0001991}; GN Synonyms=alpha1 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AGB93018.1}, alpha1D GN {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AGB93018.1}, BG:DS02795.1 GN {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AGB93018.1}, Ca-_1D {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AGB93018.1}, GN Ca-a1D {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AGB93018.1}, Ca-alpha1 GN {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AGB93018.1}, ca-alpha1D GN {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AGB93018.1}, ca-alpha1d GN {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AGB93018.1}, Ca-alpha[[1]]D GN {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AGB93018.1}, Ca_alpha1D GN {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AGB93018.1}, Caalpha1D GN {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AGB93018.1}, cad {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AGB93018.1}, caID GN {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AGB93018.1}, DmCa1alpha1 GN {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AGB93018.1}, DmCa1D {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AGB93018.1}, GN ...
WORKLIST ENTRIES (1): LVDCCALPHA1D View alignment Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel alpha-1D subunit signature Type of fingerprint: COMPOUND with 5 elements Links: PRINTS; PR00167 CACHANNEL; PR01629 TVDCCALPHA1; PR01630 LVDCCALPHA1 PRINTS; PR01631 NVDCCALPHA1; PR01632 PQVDCCALPHA1; PR01633 RVDCCALPHA1 PRINTS; PR01634 LVDCCALPHA1S; PR01635 LVDCCALPHA1C Creation date 20-DEC-2001 1. WILLIAMS, M.E., BRUST, P.F., FELDMAN, D.H., PATTHI, S., SIMERSON, S., MAROUFI, A., MCCUE, A.F., VELICELBI, G., ELLIS, S.B. AND HARPOLD, M.M. Structure and functional expression of an omega-conotoxin sensitive human N-type calcium channel. SCIENCE 257 389-395 (1992). 2. MORI, Y., FRIEDRICH, T., KIM, MS., MIKAMI, A., NAKAI, J., RUTH, P., BOSSE, E., HOFMANN, F., FLOCKERZI, V., FURUICHI, T., MIKOSHIBA, K., IMOTO, K., TANABE, T. AND NUMA, S. Primary structure and functional expression from complementary DNA of a brain calcium channel. NATURE 350 398-402 (1991). 3. ASHCROFT, F.M. Voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. IN ION ...
All L-type calcium channels are encoded by one of the CaV1 channel genes. These channels play a major role as a Ca2+ entry pathway in skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscles as well as in neurons, endocrine cells and possibly in non-excitable cells such as hematopoetic and epithelial cells. All CaV1 channels are influenced by dihydropyridines (DHP) and are also referred to as DHP receptors.. While the CaV1.1 and CaV1.4 isoforms are expressed in restricted tissues (skeletal muscle and retina, respectively), the expression of CaV1.2 is ubiquitous and CaV1.3 channels are found in the heart, brain and pancreas. Several peptidyl toxins are described that are specific L-type channel blockers, but so far no selective blocker for one of the CaV1 isoforms have been described. These include the Mamba toxins Calcicludine (#SPC-650), Calciseptine (#C-500) and FS-2 (#F-700).. ...
Neurons fired as the specific calcium channels at play, called L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (LTCCs), boosted the release of a neurotransmitter called GABA.
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Contraction of the heart is a complex process initiated by the electrical excitation of cardiac myocytes (excitation-contraction coupling, ECC). In cardiac myocytes, Ca2+ influx induced by activation of voltage-dependent L-type Ca channels (DHP receptors) upon membrane depolarization triggers the release of Ca2+ via Ca2+ release channels (ryanodine receptors) of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) through a Ca2+ -induced Ca release (CICR) mechanism. Ca2+ ions released via the CICR mechanism diffuse through the cytosolic space to contractile proteins to bind to troponinC resulting in the release of inhibition induced by troponinI. The Ca2+ binding to troponinC thereby triggers the sliding of thin and thick filaments, that is, the activation of a crossbridge and subsequent cardiac force development and/or cell shortening. Recovery occurs as Ca2+ is pumped out of the cell by the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) or is returned to the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) by sarco(endo)plasmic Ca2+ -ATPase (SERCA) pumps on ...
Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is believed to be one of the most selective inhibitors of voltage-gated fast Na+ channels in excitable tissues. Recently, however, TTX has been shown to block L-type Ca2+ current (ICa) in canine cardiac cells. In the present study, the TTX-sensitivity of ICa was studied in isolated canine ventricular myocytes as a function of (1) channel phosphorylation, (2) extracellular pH and (3) the redox potential of the bathing medium using the whole cell voltage clamp technique. Fifty-five micromoles of TTX (IC50 value obtained under physiological conditions) caused 60% ± 2% inhibition of ICa in acidic (pH = 6.4), while only a 26% ± 2% block in alkaline (pH = 8.4) milieu. Similarly, the same concentration of TTX induced 62% ± 6% suppression of ICa in a reductant milieu (containing glutathione + ascorbic acid + dithiothreitol, 1 mM each), in contrast to the 31% ± 3% blockade obtained in the presence of a strong oxidant (100 μM H2O2). Phosphorylation of the channel protein (induced by 3 μM
The small GTPase Rap1 contributes to fear learning and cortico-amygdala plasticity by inhibiting glutamate release from cortical neurons, but mechanisms of this inhibition remain unknown. Conversely, L-type calcium channels (LTCCs) become involved in glutamate release after fear learning and LTP ind …
Cacna1c (untagged) - Mouse calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit (Cacna1c), transcript variant 11, 10 µg.
The effects of RX871024, a compound with an imidazoline structure, on cytoplasmic-free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in mouse pancreatic β-cells were studied. RX871024 modulates [Ca2+]i; by at least two mechanisms. One mechanism involves closure ofATPregulated K+ channels, resulting in membrane depolarization, opening of voltage-gated L-type Ca2+ channels, and a subsequent increase in [Ca2+]i. Another mechanism, reported here for the first time, deals with RX871024-induced mobilization of Ca2+ from nonmitochondrial thapsigargin-sensitive intracellular stores. Reduced glutathione, inhibitors of cytochrome P-450, and monoaminooxidases A and B blocked this Ca2+ mobilization. It is concluded that the mechanism of RX871024-induced Ca2+ mobilization from intracellular stores involves changes in the oxidation/reduction state of the pancreatic β-cell and may be controlled by cytochrome P-450.. ...
Cacna1d (untagged) - Mouse calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1D subunit (Cacna1d), transcript variant 2, (10ug), 10 µg.
This gene encodes beta-2-adrenergic receptor which is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. This receptor is directly associated with one of its ultimate effectors, the class C L-type calcium channel Ca(V)1.2. This receptor-channel complex also contains a G protein, an adenylyl cyclase, cAMP-dependent kinase, and the counterbalancing phosphatase, PP2A. The assembly of the signaling complex provides a mechanism that ensures specific and rapid signaling by this G protein-coupled receptor. This gene is intronless. Different polymorphic forms, point mutations, and/or downregulation of this gene are associated with nocturnal asthma, obesity and type 2 diabetes ...
Volume 148, No. 2, August 8, 2016. Pages 91-95.. In the original version of this Commentary, the following text was included in the ninth paragraph:. Although a left shift of V1/2 upon coexpression of α2δ-1 has consistently been observed in past studies, the magnitude reported here is unprecedented. Even in earlier experiments from the Olcese laboratory, shifts of only −10 mV were reported (Platano et al., 2000). At this time, the reason for this unusually large voltage shift upon coexpression of α2δ-1 remains unknown.. After publication, the author noticed that a −50-mV shift of the voltage dependence of the tail currents in the presence of the α2δ-1 subunit, similar to that found in the paper of reference (Savalli et al., 2016), had been reported in the earlier study by Platano et al. (2000; Fig. 5 E). In contrast, the statement in our Commentary related to the shift of IV curves, which indeed is much smaller (−10 mV) than that determined from the tail currents (Platano et al., ...
Providing blood vessels at the proper situations of nationwide emergencies and war-like scenarios is normally a task towards the blood vessels transfusion companies. hemorrhage and rebuilding sufficient oxygen delivery towards the tissue. Medical procedures and control of coagulopathy must stop hemorrhage in these individuals. Resuscitation with liquids and crimson cells are essential to boost perfusion and air delivery to tissue. Once individuals are resuscitated and further bleeding is halted, use of traditional transfusion triggers is recommended to avoid excessive transfusion and adverse outcomes. A host of new systems are being developed that have the potential of reducing blood loss. These will help in reducing the transfusion requirements in stress patients with massive hemorrhage. delivery system is the need of the hour. This requires a detailed coordination between blood center and GSI-IX reversible enzyme inhibition hospital, with developed communication and info system, transportation ...
Compare calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1S subunit ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, and more.
Caveolin-3 (Cav-3) is a protein that has been implicated in t-tubule formation and function in cardiac ventricular myocytes. In cardiac hypertrophy and failure, Cav-3 expression decreases, t-tubule structure is disrupted and excitation-contraction coupling (ECC) is impaired. However, the extent to which the decrease in Cav-3 expression underlies these changes is unclear. We therefore investigated the structure and function of myocytes isolated from the hearts of Cav-3 KO mice. These mice showed cardiac dilatation and decreased ejection fraction in vivo, compared to WT controls. Isolated KO myocytes showed cellular hypertrophy and altered t-tubule structure, and decreased L-type Ca channel (LTCC) current (ICa) density. This decrease in density occurred predominantly in the t-tubules, with no change in total ICa, and was therefore a consequence of the increase in membrane area. Cav-3 KO had no effect on LTCC expression, and C3SD peptide, which mimics the scaffolding domain of Cav-3, had no effect ...
HEK293-HuCACNA1C/CACNB2/CACNA2D1 cell line is a hypotriploid human cell line, which has been transfected with a human calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit (CACNA1C), a human calcium channel, voltage-dependent, alpha 2/delta subunit 1 (CACNA2D1) and a human calcium channel, voltage-dependent, beta 2 subunit (CACNB2) to allow stably express of the human CACNA1C, CACNB2, and CACNA2D1. It is an example of a cell line transfected using our proprietary CBTGS gene screening and amplificatio
PDE4 is the predominant PDE family that controls cAMP and LTCC in rodent cardiomyocytes. In the present study, we show that Pde4a, Pde4b, and Pde4d are expressed in mouse heart, but only PDE4B and PDE4D are associated with CaV1.2 channels. Whereas β-AR stimulation of ICa,L is normal in Pde4a-/- and Pde4d-/- myocytes, the β-AR responses of ICa,L, Ca2+ transients, and contraction are enhanced in myocytes from Pde4b-/- mice, and this is accompanied by an increased propensity for arrhythmia. β-AR stimulation of Ca2+ transients and contraction are also enhanced in myocytes from Pde4d-/- mice independently of ICa,L. For the first time to our knowledge, our results identify PDE4B as a major regulator of ICa,L and cardiac function and suggest that PDE4B and PDE4D regulate ECC by different mechanisms. In mouse ventricular myocytes, pharmacological inhibition of PDE4 does not affect basal ICa,L but strongly enhances the effect of β-AR stimulation (Figure 1). A similar regulation of ICa,L by PDE4 was ...
A phenomenon that has fostered much experimental investigation and theoretical speculation is gain in cardiac E-C coupling. So-called macroscopic or whole-cell gain may be defined as the ratio of the total flux through the SR Ca2+ release channels (RyR) to that through the L-type Ca2+ channels (LCC). Experimentally, gain was found early on to be relatively high, and this observation, together with the seemingly incompatible fact that Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release (CICR) is normally tightly controlled in cardiac muscle, led to the development of the modern understanding of cardiac E-C coupling, the local control theory. Gain reflects not only the operation of the fundamental processes that underlie normal E-C coupling, but also those involved in important pathological conditions of the heart, particularly those produced by uncontrolled SR Ca2+ release, such as triggered arrhythmias.1. In the heart, it can be said that not all Ca2+ currents (ICa) are created equal; ICa at negative potentials ...
TITLE l-calcium channel : l-type calcium channel UNITS { (mA) = (milliamp) (mV) = (millivolt) FARADAY = 96520 (coul) R = 8.3134 (joule/degC) KTOMV = .0853 (mV/degC) } PARAMETER { v (mV) celsius (degC) gcalbar=.003 (mho/cm2) ki=.001 (mM) cai = 50.e-6 (mM) cao = 2 (mM) q10 = 5 mmin=0.2 tfa = 1 a0m =0.1 zetam = 2 vhalfm = 4 gmm=0.1 ggk } NEURON { SUFFIX cal USEION ca READ cai,cao WRITE ica RANGE gcalbar,cai, ica, gcal, ggk GLOBAL minf,tau } STATE { m } ASSIGNED { ica (mA/cm2) gcal (mho/cm2) minf tau (ms) } INITIAL { rate(v) m = minf } BREAKPOINT { SOLVE state METHOD cnexp gcal = gcalbar*m*m*h2(cai) ggk=ghk(v,cai,cao) ica = gcal*ggk } FUNCTION h2(cai(mM)) { h2 = ki/(ki+cai) } FUNCTION ghk(v(mV), ci(mM), co(mM)) (mV) { LOCAL nu,f f = KTF(celsius)/2 nu = v/f ghk=-f*(1. - (ci/co)*exp(nu))*efun(nu) } FUNCTION KTF(celsius (DegC)) (mV) { KTF = ((25./293.15)*(celsius + 273.15)) } FUNCTION efun(z) { if (fabs(z) , 1e-4) { efun = 1 - z/2 }else{ efun = z/(exp(z) - 1) } } FUNCTION alp(v(mV)) (1/ms) { alp = ...
A budget friendly reagent pack (#ESD-100) from Alomone Labs containing Cav1.2-specific antibodies, membrane lysates, & biologically active channel blockers & activators. Lyophilized powder. Economical. Worldwide shipping at room temperature. Your top supplier for L-type Cav channel research!
TITLE l-calcium channel : l-type calcium channel UNITS { (mA) = (milliamp) (mV) = (millivolt) (molar) = (1/liter) (mM) = (millimolar) FARADAY = 96520 (coul) R = 8.3134 (joule/degC) KTOMV = .0853 (mV/degC) } PARAMETER { v (mV) celsius (degC) glcabar (mho/cm2) ki=.001 (mM) cai (mM) cao (mM) tfa=1 } NEURON { SUFFIX lca USEION lca READ elca WRITE ilca VALENCE 2 USEION ca READ cai, cao VALENCE 2 RANGE glcabar, cai, ilca, elca GLOBAL minf,matu } STATE { m } ASSIGNED { ilca (mA/cm2) glca (mho/cm2) minf matu (ms) elca (mV) } INITIAL { rate(v) m = minf VERBATIM cai=_ion_cai; ENDVERBATIM } BREAKPOINT { SOLVE state METHOD cnexp glca = glcabar*m*m*h2(cai) ilca = glca*ghk(v,cai,cao) } FUNCTION h2(cai(mM)) { h2 = ki/(ki+cai) } FUNCTION ghk(v(mV), ci(mM), co(mM)) (mV) { LOCAL nu,f f = KTF(celsius)/2 nu = v/f ghk=-f*(1. - (ci/co)*exp(nu))*efun(nu) } FUNCTION KTF(celsius (DegC)) (mV) { KTF = ((25./293.15)*(celsius + 273.15)) } FUNCTION efun(z) { if (fabs(z) , 1e-4) { efun = 1 - z/2 }else{ efun = z/(exp(z) - 1) } ...
View mouse Cacna1s Chr1:136052805-136119822 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
Plasmid CaV1.2 from Dr. Diane Lipscombes lab contains the insert Calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit and is published in J Neurosci. 2005 Nov 2. 25(44):10247-51. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
pep chromosome:GRCm38:6:118593892:119107975:-1 gene:ENSMUSG00000051331 transcript:ENSMUST00000112793 gene_biotype:protein_coding transcript_biotype:protein_coding gene_symbol:Cacna1c description:calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit [Source:MGI Symbol;Acc:MGI:103013 ...
Solution providers say health care VDI projects are in demand, driven by the end of Windows XP support and the BYOD trend. VARs can profit on the desktop virtualization surge in this vertical market.
Im afraid that Im going to have to call a halt to this. This is the CloneVDI support topic. We have already established that you do not have a CloneVDI problem, you have a damaged (truncated) VDI. You can go elsewhere to discuss that, but there is really no point: a truncated VDI cannot be repaired: you need another copy of the original file ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - L-type voltage-gated calcium channels mediate NMDA-independent associative long-term potentiation at thalamic input synapses to the amygdala. AU - Weisskopf, Marc G.. AU - Bauer, Elizabeth P.. AU - Ledoux, Joseph. PY - 1999/12/1. Y1 - 1999/12/1. N2 - Long-term potentiation (LTP) in the amygdala is a leading candidate mechanism to explain fear conditioning, a prominent model of emotional memory. LTP occurs in the pathway from the auditory thalamus to the lateral amygdala, and during fear conditioning LTP-like changes occur in the synapses of this pathway. Nevertheless, LTP has not been investigated in the thalamoamygdala pathway using in vitro recordings; hence little is known about the underlying mechanisms. We therefore examined thalamoamygdala LTP in vitro using visualized whole-cell patch recording. LTP at these synapses was dependent on postsynaptic calcium entry, similar to synaptic plasticity in other regions of the brain. However, unlike many forms of synaptic plasticity, ...
Looking for online definition of calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1F subunit in the Medical Dictionary? calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1F subunit explanation free. What is calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1F subunit? Meaning of calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1F subunit medical term. What does calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1F subunit mean?
Looking for online definition of calcium channel, L type, alpha 2 polypeptide in the Medical Dictionary? calcium channel, L type, alpha 2 polypeptide explanation free. What is calcium channel, L type, alpha 2 polypeptide? Meaning of calcium channel, L type, alpha 2 polypeptide medical term. What does calcium channel, L type, alpha 2 polypeptide mean?
Angiotensin II regulation of L-type calcium currents in cardiac muscle is controversial and the underlying signaling events are not completely understood. Moreover, the possible role of auxiliary subunit composition of the channels in Angiotensin II modulation of L-type calcium channels has not yet …
TY - JOUR. T1 - Timothy syndrome 1 genotype without syndactyly and major extracardiac manifestations. AU - Sepp, Róbert. AU - Hategan, Lidia. AU - Bácsi, Attila. AU - Cseklye, Judit. AU - Környei, László. AU - Borbás, János. AU - Széll, Márta. AU - Forster, T.. AU - Nagy, István. AU - Hegedűs, Zoltán. PY - 2017/3/1. Y1 - 2017/3/1. N2 - Timothy syndrome 1 (TS1) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by multisystem abnormalities including QT prolongation, congenital heart defects, facial dysmorphism, episodic hypoglycemia, and neurological symptoms. A morphological hallmark of TS1 is syndactyly, present in all cases. TS1 is caused by the canonical p.Gly406Arg mutation in the alternatively spliced exon 8A in the CACNA1C gene, encoding for the main cardiac L-type calcium channel. A variant case of TS1 is reported. The proband had intermittent fetal bradycardia with heart rate of 72 bpm. On the first day of life bradycardia due to 2:1 atrioventricular (AV) block and marked QTc ...
Malignant hyperthermia susceptibility (MHS) is an autosomal dominant disorder of skeletal muscle which manifests as a potentially fatal hypermetabolic crisis triggered by commonly used anaesthetic agents. The demonstration of genetic heterogeneity in MHS prompted the investigation of the roles played by calcium regulatory proteins other than the ryanodine receptor (RYR1), which is known to be linked to MHS in fewer than half of the European MHS families studied to date. Previously, we have excluded the genes encoding the skeletal muscle L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel alpha(1)-, beta(1)- and gamma-subunits as candidates for MHS. In this report, we describe the cloning and partial DNA sequence analysis of the gene encoding the alpha(2)/delta-subunits, CACNL2A, and its localization on the proximal long arm of chromosome 7q. A new dinucleotide repeat marker close to CACNL2A was identified at the D7S849 locus and tested for linkage in six MHS families. D7S849 and flanking genetic markers ...
BioAssay record AID 415111 submitted by ChEMBL: Displacement of [3H]diltiazem from L-type calcium channel in Sprague-Dawley rat cardiac myocytes by liquid scintillation counting.
Background. Small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (SK) channels play significant roles in regulating the excitability of cardiomyocytes (CMs). SK channels are unique in that they are gated solely by intracellular Ca2+ and hence, function to integrate intracellular Ca2+ and membrane potentials on a beat-to-beat basis in the heart. Our previous studies revealed that cardiac SK2 channels coupled with L-type Ca2+ channels (LTCCs) through a physical bridge, α-actinin2, suggesting that LTCCs may be functionally coupled with SK2 channels by providing local Ca2+ domain to activate the SK channels. However, a recent study suggested that sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release is necessary and sufficient for the activation of cardiac SK channels. The objective of the study is to examine the mechanisms of SK channel activation in native CMs.. Methods and Results. By using a voltage-clamp protocol in rabbit CMs to activate LTCCs followed immediately by a test voltage to monitor the SK currents, we recorded ...
In the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, pain-transmitting neurons exhibit action potential windup, a form of short-term plasticity, which consists of a progressive increase in neuronal response during repetitive stimulation of nociceptive input fibers. Windup depends on N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation, but previous in vitro studies indicated that windup also relies on intrinsic plateau properties of spinal neurons. In the present study, we considered the possible involvement of these properties in windup in vivo. For this purpose, we first studied a nociceptive flexion reflex in the rat. We showed that windup of the reflex is actually suppressed by blockers of L-type calcium current and Ca2+-activated non-specific cationic current (Ican), the two main depolarizing conductances of plateau potentials. We further showed that, during windup, NMDA receptors provide a critical excitatory component in a dynamic balance of excitatory and inhibitory inputs which ultimately activates L-type ...
The regulation of protein phosphorylation requires a balance in the activity of protein kinases and protein phosphatases. Our previous data indicates that Src can increase ERK activity through Raf kinase in response to ischemic stimuli. This study examined the molecular mechanisms by which Src activates ERK cascade through protein phosphatases following cerebral ischemia. Ischemia-induced Src activation is followed by phosphorylation of PP2A at Tyr307 leading to its inhibition in the rat hippocampus. SU6656, a Src inhibitor, up-regulates PP2A activity, resulting in a significant decreased activity in ERK and its targets, CREB and ERα. In addition, the PP2A inhibitor, cantharidin, led to an up-regulation of ERK activity and was able to counteract Src inhibition during ischemia. Src induces up-regulation of ERK activity and its target transcription factors, CREB and ERα, through attenuation of PP2A activity. Therefore, activation of ERK is the result of a crosstalk between two pathways, Raf-dependent
ID H3BA90_LATCH Unreviewed; 2064 AA. AC H3BA90; DT 18-APR-2012, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 18-APR-2012, sequence version 1. DT 25-OCT-2017, entry version 39. DE RecName: Full=Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha {ECO:0000256,RuleBase:RU003808}; GN Name=CACNA1C {ECO:0000313,Ensembl:ENSLACP00000018811}; OS Latimeria chalumnae (West Indian ocean coelacanth). OC Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; OC Coelacanthiformes; Coelacanthidae; Latimeria. OX NCBI_TaxID=7897 {ECO:0000313,Ensembl:ENSLACP00000018811, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000008672}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,Ensembl:ENSLACP00000018811} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=Wild caught {ECO:0000313,Ensembl:ENSLACP00000018811}; RX PubMed=9215903; RA Zardoya R., Meyer A.; RT The complete DNA sequence of the mitochondrial genome of a living RT fossil, the coelacanth (Latimeria chalumnae).; RL Genetics 146:995-1010(1997). RN [2] {ECO:0000313,Ensembl:ENSLACP00000018811} ...
Several lines of evidence suggest that electromechanical alternans is linked to alterations in cellular Ca2+homeostasis (33). Calcium homeostasis is not only important for excitation-contraction coupling but it also significantly influences the action potential (AP) profile and duration (APD). Excitation leads to the opening of voltage-gated L-type Ca2+channels, allowing the entry of a small amount of Ca2+into the cell. The small amount of Ca2+that enters the cell through the L-type Ca2+channel triggers a larger release of Ca2+from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) via Ca2+release channels or ryanodine receptors (so-called calcium-induced calcium release), activating the myofilaments and leading to contraction. During relaxation, Ca2+is sequestered in the SR by the SR Ca2+adenosine triphosphatase and extruded from the cell by the sodium calcium exchanger. The change in intracellular Ca2+during the cardiac cycle or calcium transient has direct and indirect effects on a number of ionic currents in ...
Voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma-4 subunit is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CACNG4 gene.[5][6] L-type calcium channels are composed of five subunits. The protein encoded by this gene represents one of these subunits, gamma, and is one of several gamma subunit proteins. It is an integral membrane protein that is thought to stabilize the calcium channel in an inactive (closed) state. This gene is a member of the neuronal calcium channel gamma subunit gene subfamily of the PMP-22/EMP/MP20 family and is located in a cluster with two similar gamma subunit-encoding genes.[6] ...
Rem, Rem2, Rad, Gem/Kir (RGK) subfamily of Ras GTPases. RGK subfamily. The RGK (Rem, Rem2, Rad, Gem/Kir) subfamily of Ras GTPases are expressed in a tissue-specific manner and are dynamically regulated by transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms in response to environmental cues. RGK proteins bind to the beta subunit of L-type calcium channels, causing functional down-regulation of these voltage-dependent calcium channels, and either termination of calcium-dependent secretion or modulation of electrical conduction and contractile function. Inhibition of L-type calcium channels by Rem2 may provide a mechanism for modulating calcium-triggered exocytosis in hormone-secreting cells, and has been proposed to influence the secretion of insulin in pancreatic beta cells. RGK proteins also interact with and inhibit the Rho/Rho kinase pathway to modulate remodeling of the cytoskeleton. Two characteristics of RGK proteins cited in the literature are N-terminal and C-terminal extensions beyond the ...
Voltage-dependent calcium channel subunit alpha-2/delta-1 (CA2D1) antibody | P54289 | Voltage-dependent calcium channel subunit alpha-2/delta-1, Voltage-gated calcium channel subunit alpha-2/delta-1, CACNL2A, CCHL2A, MHS3
This gene encodes beta-2-adrenergic receptor which is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. This receptor is directly associated with one of its ultimate effectors, the class C L-type calcium channel Ca(V)1.2. This receptor-channel complex also contains a G protein, an adenylyl cyclase, cAMP-dependent kinase, and the counterbalancing phosphatase, PP2A. The assembly of the signaling complex provides a mechanism that ensures specific and rapid signaling by this G protein-coupled receptor. This gene is intronless. Different polymorphic forms, point mutations, and/or downregulation of this gene are associated with nocturnal asthma, obesity and type 2 diabetes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Voltage-dependent N-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1B (Brain calcium channel III) (BIII) (Calcium channel; L type; alpha-1 polypeptide isoform 5) (Voltage-gated calcium channel subunit alpha Cav2.2 ...
OBJECTIVE: The L-type Ca(2+) current (I(Ca,L)) contributes to the generation and modulation of the pacemaker action potential (AP). We investigated facilitation of I(Ca,L) in sino-atrial cells. METHODS: Facilitation was studied in regularly-beating cells isolated enzymatically from young albino rabbits (0.8-1 kg). We used the whole-cell patch-clamp technique to vary the frequency of the test depolarizations evoked at -10 mV or the conditioning diastolic membrane potential prior to the test pulse. RESULTS: High frequencies (range 0.2-3.5 Hz) slowed the decay kinetics of I(Ca,L) evoked from a holding potential (HP) of -80 mV in 68% of cells resulting in a larger Ca(2+) influx during the test pulse. The amount of facilitation increased progressively between 0.2 and 3.0 Hz. When the frequency was changed from 0.1 to 1 Hz, the averaged increase in the time integral of I(Ca,L) was 27+/-7% (n=22). Application of conditioning voltages between -80 and -50 mV induced similar facilitation of I(Ca,L) in 73% of
anti-Calcium Channel, Voltage-Dependent, L Type, alpha 1D Subunit (CACNA1D) antibody (Alexa Fluor 555) ABIN886081 from antibodies-online
RGK regulation of voltage-gated calcium channels. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. Cav1.3 - Voltage-gated calcium channels. Detailed annotation on the structure, function, physiology, pharmacology and clinical relevance of drug targets.
The result of purified G protein subunits s and on L-type Ca2+ channels in vascular smooth muscle as well as the possible pathways involved were investigated using freshly isolated smooth muscle cells from rabbit portal vein as well as the whole-cell patch clamp technique. subunits with GDP destined to SIS the subunits. Upon dissociation Tivozanib (AV-951) of subunits from dimers by exchange of GTP for GDP, both GTP-bound subunits and dimers are turned on and connect to their effectors such as for example adenylyl cyclases and ion stations (Hepler & Gilman, 1992). Though it is more developed that subunits of Gs proteins play a significant function in the legislation of L-type Ca2+ stations, there is absolutely no immediate proof for modulation of L-type Ca2+ stations by subunits of G protein. Furthermore, the function of G proteins subunits in the legislation of VSM L-type Ca2+ stations has not however been examined in virtually any detail. In todays study, we looked into the consequences of ...
Elevated blood glucose (hyperglycemia) is a hallmark metabolic abnormality in diabetes. Hyperglycemia is associated with protein kinase A-dependent (PKA-dependent) stimulation of L-type Ca2+ channels in arterial myocytes resulting in increased vasoconstriction. However, the mechanisms by which glucose activates PKA remain unclear. Here, we showed that elevating extracellular glucose stimulates cAMP production in arterial myocytes, and that this was specifically dependent on adenylyl cyclase 5 (AC5) activity. Super-resolution imaging suggested nanometer proximity between subpopulations of AC5 and the L-type Ca2+ channel pore-forming subunit CaV1.2. In vitro, in silico, ex vivo, and in vivo experiments revealed that this close association is critical for stimulation of L-type Ca2+ channels in arterial myocytes and increased myogenic tone upon acute hyperglycemia. This pathway supported the increase in L-type Ca2+ channel activity and myogenic tone in 2 animal models of diabetes. Our collective ...
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BAYK 8644 is a L-type Ca2+ channel activator (EC50 = 17.3 nM). BAYK 8644 has positive inotropic, vasoconstrictive and behavioral effects in vivo.
1 Answer (question resolved) - Posted in: cartia xt, high blood pressure - Answer: Cartia XT is an extended release calcium channel beta blocker. I ...
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... is classified as a selective antagonist of T-type voltage-operated calcium ion channels, because its binding blocks ... Cinnarizine is an antihistamine and calcium channel blocker of the diphenylmethylpiperazine group.[1] It is prescribed for ... Arab SF, Düwel P, Jüngling E, Westhofen M, Lückhoff A (June 2004). "Inhibition of voltage-gated calcium currents in type II ... hypothesized that cinnarizine exerts its effects by inhibiting the calcium currents in voltage gated channels in type II ...
N-type calcium-channel blocker.. Intrathecal.. Protein binding = 50%; half-life = 2.9-6.5 hours; excretion = urine (,1%).[122] ... Binds to the α2δ-1 subunit of voltage gated calcium ion channels in the spinal cord. May also modulate NMDA receptors and ... Comes in calcium salt form; fairly soluble in water.. Is metabolised to aspirin and urea. As per aspirin.. Oral.. No data.. ... Each different type of analgesic has its own associated side effects. Classification[edit]. Analgesics are typically classified ...
Cheng, R. C., Tikhonov, D. B., & Zhorov, B. S. (2009). Structural model for phenylalkylamine binding to L-type calcium channels ... The drug targets L-type Ca+2 channels, and decreases conduction in cells where Ca+2 is required for action potential upstroke ( ... BRL-32872's class III activity is directed towards the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) K+ channel.[4] hERG channels are ... 1995). Electrophysiological effect of BRL-32872, a novel antiarrhythmic agent with potassium and calcium channel blocking ...
"Osteoprotegerin expression and secretion are regulated by calcium influx through the L-type voltage-sensitive calcium channel ... This gene encodes an alpha-1 subunit of a voltage-dependent calcium channel. Calcium channels mediate the influx of calcium ... Calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit (also known as Cav1.2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by ... Berger SM, Bartsch D (Aug 2014). "The role of L-type voltage-gated calcium channels Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 in normal and ...
"Molecular characterization of T-type calcium channels". Cell Calcium. 40 (2): 89-96. doi:10.1016/j.ceca.2006.04.012. PMID ... Seizures are believed to originate in the thalamus, where there is an abundance of T-type calcium channels such as those ... a T-type calcium channel". J Neurosci. 25 (19): 4844-55. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0847-05.2005. PMID 15888660. Liang J, Zhang Y, ... "Gating effects of mutations in the Cav3.2 T-type calcium channel associated with childhood absence epilepsy". J Biol Chem. 279 ...
... (INN) is a calcium channel blocker. It is a calcium antagonist accompanied with L-type and N-type calcium channel ... Unlike other calcium antagonists, cilnidipine can act on the N-type calcium channel in addition to acting on the L-type calcium ... Due to its blocking action at the N-type and L-type calcium channel, cilnidipine dilates both arterioles and venules, reducing ... May 2002). "Cilnidipine is a novel slow-acting blocker of vascular L-type calcium channels that does not target protein kinase ...
The voltage-dependent N-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CACNA1B gene. ... subunits for the calcium channel I-II linker in relation to calcium channel function". The Journal of Physiology. 574 (Pt 2): ... Maximov A, Bezprozvanny I (Aug 2002). "Synaptic targeting of N-type calcium channels in hippocampal neurons". The Journal of ... Calabrese B, Tabarean IV, Juranka P, Morris CE (Nov 2002). "Mechanosensitivity of N-type calcium channel currents". Biophysical ...
The antibodies attack the voltage gated calcium channels of the P/Q type.(reference 35) Abnormal activity of this ion channel, ... Mechanism of action can also impair the calcium channels that induce exocytosis of the vesicles. Other ion channels can also be ... The difference is that LEMS is a result of an autoimmune response on the voltage gated calcium channels of the presynaptic ... in intracellular calcium concentration by causing an increase in ion conductance through voltage gated calcium channels. This ...
Voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma-3 subunit is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CACNG3 gene. L-type calcium ... This gene is a member of the neuronal calcium channel gamma subunit gene subfamily of the PMP-22/EMP/MP20 family. This gene is ... "Entrez Gene: CACNG3 calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 3". Powers PA, Liu S, Hogan K, Gregg RG (1993). " ... It is an integral membrane protein that is thought to stabilize the calcium channel in an inactive (closed) state. This protein ...
1998). "An L-type calcium-channel gene mutated in incomplete X-linked congenital stationary night blindness". Nat. Genet. 19 (3 ... a protein in the voltage-dependent calcium channel complex. Calcium channels mediate the influx of calcium ions into the cell ... Cav1.4 also known as the calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1F subunit (CACNA1F), is a human gene. This gene ... CACNA1F calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1F subunit". Catterall WA, Perez-Reyes E, Snutch TP, Striessnig J ( ...
Voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma-1 subunit is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CACNG1 gene. L-type calcium ... 1993). "Localization of the gamma-subunit of the skeletal muscle L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel gene (CACNLG) to ... and gamma-subunits of the human skeletal muscle L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel on chromosome 17q and exclusion as ... This gene is a member of the neuronal calcium channel gamma subunit gene subfamily of the PMP-22/EMP/MP20 family and is located ...
Voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma-4 subunit is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CACNG4 gene. L-type calcium ... This gene is a member of the neuronal calcium channel gamma subunit gene subfamily of the PMP-22/EMP/MP20 family and is located ... "Entrez Gene: CACNG4 calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 4". Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, et al. (2004). " ... Voltage-dependent calcium channel GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000075461 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ...
L-type calcium channels are composed of five subunits. The protein encoded by this gene represents one of these subunits, gamma ... Calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 2, also known as CACNG2 or stargazin is a protein that in humans is encoded ... This gene is a member of the neuronal calcium channel gamma subunit gene subfamily of the PMP-22/EMP/MP20 family. Stargazin is ... It is an integral membrane protein that is thought to stabilize the calcium channel in an inactive (closed) state. This protein ...
N-type calcium-channel blocker.. Intrathecal.. Protein binding = 50%; half-life = 2.9-6.5 hours; excretion = urine (,1%).[120] ... Binds to the α2δ-1 subunit of voltage gated calcium ion channels in the spinal cord. May also modulate NMDA receptors and ... Comes in calcium salt form; fairly soluble in water.. Is metabolised to aspirin and urea. As per aspirin.. Oral.. No data.. ... Comes in free form and calcium salt; acetic acid derivative.. As per diclofenac.. PO.. No data.. As per diclofenac.. As per ...
... an ionic current through the L-type calcium channel. ...
... is a cardioselective L-type calcium channel blocker. AH-1058 binds to the same sites on the alpha-1 subunit of L-type ... These sites on the alpha-1 subunit differ from the active site of the calcium channel, meaning AH-1058 binds L-type calcium ... L-type calcium channel blockers). Class I antiarrhythmic (sodium channel blocker) characteristics have also been seen, but the ... In addition AH-1058 appears to interact with multiple states of L-type calcium channels (i.e. resting and inactive) to suppress ...
... calcium channel blocker, inhibits both L-type and T-type calcium channels. Efonidipine exhibits antihypertensive effect through ... It was launched in 1995, under the brand name Landel (ランデル). The drug blocks both T-type and L-type calcium channels. Drug ... Efonidipine is a dual Calcium Channel Blocker (L & T-type). It has a unique chemical structure. The phosphonate moiety (Figure ... Working on sino atrial node cells by inhibiting T-type calcium channel activation, Efonidipine prolongs the late phase-4 ...
... modulates zinc permeation through the L-type calcium channel. SLC30A1 downregulates not only Zn++ influx, but also Ca++ ...
Proximal muscle weakness is a product of pathogenic autoantibodies directed against P/Q-type voltage-gated calcium channels, ... which activates voltage-dependent calcium channels to allow calcium ions to enter the neuron. Calcium ions bind to sensor ... This type of tumor also expresses voltage-gated calcium channels. Oftentimes, LEMS also occurs alongside myasthenia gravis. ... Upon the arrival of an action potential at the presynaptic neuron terminal, voltage-dependent calcium channels open and Ca2+ ...
It is a calcium channel blocker of the dihydropyridine type. Nifedipine was discovered in 1969 and approved for use in the ... Although nifedipine and other dihydropyridines are commonly regarded as specific to the L-type calcium channel, they also ... L-type Ca2+ channels in rabbit arteriolar smooth muscle store refilling through a pathway not involving L-type Ca2+ channels in ... The use of nifedipine and related calcium channel antagonists was much reduced in response to 1995 trials that mortality was ...
The T-type calcium channel is found in neurons throughout the brain. These channels produce particularly large currents in ... Recent research has also been conducted on the T-type calcium channel and how modulation of these channels may allow for the ... Antiepileptic drugs can control absence seizures by inhibiting the T-type calcium channels which prevents low-voltage calcium ... T-type calcium channels have been known to play a role in the spike-and-wave discharges of absence seizures. ...
Sodium channel, voltage-gated, type XI, alpha subunit also known as SCN11A or Nav1.9 is a voltage-gated sodium ion channel ... Nomenclature and structure-function relationships of voltage-gated calcium channels". Pharmacological Reviews. 57 (4): 411-25. ... "Entrez Gene: Sodium channel, voltage-gated, type XI, alpha subunit". Catterall WA, Perez-Reyes E, Snutch TP, Striessnig J ( ... This property is found in similar channels, namely Nav1.8, and has been associated with slower channel kinetics than the ...
"Functional coupling of intracellular calcium and inactivation of voltage-gated Kv1.1/Kvbeta1.1 A-type K+ channels". Proc. Natl ... channel), voltage gated potassium channel HBK1, voltage gated potassium channel subunit Kv1.1, voltage-gated K+ channel HuKI ... potassium channel activity. • delayed rectifier potassium channel activity. • voltage-gated ion channel activity. • GO:0015388 ... Mutations in this gene cause episodic ataxia type 1. See also[edit]. *GABRA3 - a channel subunit which undergoes similar RNA ...
"Structure-activity relationships for P-type calcium channel-selective omega-agatoxins". Nat. Struct. Biol. 1 (12): 853-6. doi: ... The mechanism of many spider toxins is through blockage of calcium channels. A remotely related group of atracotoxins operate ... consensus molecular folding of calcium channel blockers". J. Mol. Biol. 250 (5): 659-71. doi:10.1006/jmbi.1995.0406. PMID ... "Three-dimensional solution structure of the calcium channel antagonist omega-agatoxin IVA: ...
... type-1) and atypical (type-2). They are both caused by mutations in CACNA1C, the gene encoding the calcium channel Cav1.2 α ... "Severe arrhythmia disorder caused by cardiac L-type calcium channel mutations". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 102 (23): 8089-8096. ... Cav1.2 Calcium channel Marks M, Whisler S, Clericuzio C, Keating M (1995). "A new form of long QT syndrome associated with ... However, it was linked with calcium channel abnormalities in 2004, and the disorder was thence named "Timothy syndrome" in ...
Giving vasodilators such as nitroglycerin or calcium channel blockers is recommended. Antihistamine and mast cell stabilizers e ... Type II occurs in people with underlying asymptomatic coronary artery disease where an allergic reaction leads to either ... Corticosteroids, antihistamine, vasodilators such as nitroglycerin and calcium channel blockers are given when appropriate.[ ... Type III occurs in the setting of coronary thrombosis (including stent thrombosis) where aspirated thrombus stained with ...
Calcium Channels (L-Type). It is the first positive inotropic agent shown to act specifically and directly on calcium channels ... Bay K8644 is a chemical compound that functions as a calcium channel agonist. Bay K8644 is used primarily as a biochemical ... that enhances calcium currents in guinea pig and calf myocardial cells. A new type of positive inotropic agent". Circ Res. 56: ...
... targets low-voltage activated cation channels. It specifically inhibits: T-type calcium channel Cav3.1 Sodium channels ... GTx1-15 is a toxin from the Chilean tarantula venom that acts as both a voltage-gated calcium channel blocker and a voltage- ... "Characterization of voltage-dependent calcium channel blocking peptides from the venom of the tarantula Grammostola rosea". ... The effectiveness of GTx1-15 as a blocker of human cloned Nav and Cav channels is summarized below: Ono S, Kimura T, Kubo T ( ...
Discovery of the P-type calcium channel in the Purkinje cells. Discovery of low threshold spikes generated by low voltage ... activated calcium conductaces (presently known as due to T-type calcium channel) in inferior olive and thalamus neurons. ... Different types of voltage-dependent ionic conductances". The Journal of Physiology. 315: 549-567. ISSN 0022-3751. PMC 1249398 ... Direct demonstration of calcium concentration microdomains at the presynaptic active zone. Utilization of ...
Models of this type are typically built in large simulation platforms like GENESIS or NEURON. There have been some attempts to ... With the emergence of two-photon microscopy and calcium imaging, we now have powerful experimental methods with which to test ... Voltage sensitive ion channels are glycoprotein molecules which extend through the lipid bilayer, allowing ions to traverse ... "Intracellular Calcium Dynamics Permit a Purkinje Neuron Model to Perform Toggle and Gain Computations Upon its Inputs" ...
The type of leaf is usually characteristic of a species (monomorphic), although some species produce more than one type of leaf ... Veins sunken below the surface, resulting in a rounded channel. Sometimes confused with "guttered" because the channels may ... Cote, G. G. (2009). "Diversity and distribution of idioblasts producing calcium oxalate crystals in Dieffenbachia seguine ( ... Analyses of vein patterns often fall into consideration of the vein orders, primary vein type, secondary vein type (major veins ...
Other research has also suggested that calcium flow through N-type calcium channels is essential for normal breathing, and is ... L-type calcium channels are known to increase the frequency of action potentials in some neurons, which might be the reason ... P/Q-type calcium channels are mainly responsible for the release of neurotransmitters that excite, or activate, postsynaptic ... Fictive sigh depends critically on synaptic mechanisms that involve P/Q type calcium channels, suggestive of a subset of ...
... which opens ion channels (largely sodium channels, though calcium can enter through these channels as well). The positive ... One type of photosensitive pigment Three types of photosensitive pigment in humans ... This change in the cell's membrane potential causes voltage-gated calcium channels to close. This leads to a decrease in the ... A decrease in the intracellular calcium concentration means that less glutamate is released via calcium-induced exocytosis to ...
The microscopic structure of conifer wood consists of two types of cells: parenchyma, which have an oval or polyhedral shape ... The eggs hatch in about 2 weeks, and the tiny larvae tunnel to the wood and score its surface with their feeding channels. With ... calcium, magnesium, and sulfur, all used in relatively large amounts (Buckman and Brady 1969).[31] Nutrient concentrations in ... All three types or reproductive cycles have a long gap in between pollination and fertilization. ...
Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine ... They form various types of oxides, such as simple oxides (containing the O2− ion), peroxides (containing the O2−. 2 ion, where ... Hellgren, Mikko; Sandberg, Lars; Edholm, Olle (2006). "A comparison between two prokaryotic potassium channels (KirBac1.1 and ... A wheel type radiotherapy device which has a long collimator to focus the radiation into a narrow beam. The caesium-137 ...
... is a hypothesized type of nuclear reaction that would occur at, or near, room temperature. This is compared with ... 265-268 "(...) the equality of the two channels is known to be preserved from high energy through 20 keV and down to about 5 ... Several medium and heavy elements like calcium, titanium, chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, copper and zinc have been reported ... Nuclear fusion of the type postulated would be inconsistent with current understanding and, if verified, would require ...
The link was a single nucleotide polymorphism of two genes involved in calcium channel signaling with neurons. One of these ... Phenylalanine is ingested through food, so a diet should decrease types of foods that have high amounts of phenylalanine. Foods ... Both males and females with larger combs have higher bone density and strength, which allows females to deposit more calcium ... the part of the bone that transfers calcium into developing eggshells) are located at the same locus as the gene affecting comb ...
Diets of this type include NCEP Step I and II. A meta-analysis of 16 trials of 2-12 months' duration found that low-fat diets ( ... "Mitochondrial Ion Channels: Gatekeepers of Life and Death". Physiology. 20 (5): 303-315. doi:10.1152/physiol.00020.2005. ISSN ... The American Diabetes Association recommended a low carbohydrate diet to reduce weight for those with or at risk of Type 2 ... Trapp, Caroline B.; Barnard, Neal D. (2010-04-01). "Usefulness of vegetarian and vegan diets for treating type 2 diabetes". ...
calcium channel activity. • aspartic-type endopeptidase activity. • endopeptidase activity. • hydrolase activity. • aspartic ... The study showed that presenilin-1 is down regulated in cell type while it is overexpressed in the other cell type.[27] Another ... endoplasmic reticulum calcium ion homeostasis. • response to oxidative stress. • autophagosome assembly. • positive regulation ... smooth endoplasmic reticulum calcium ion homeostasis. • synaptic vesicle targeting. • Cajal-Retzius cell differentiation. • ...
They include the myoga (Zingiber mioga), the several types of galangal, the fingerroot (Boesenbergia rotunda), and the bitter ... States in which ginger is exported follow the marketing channels of vegetable marketing in India, and the steps are similar to ... Ginger has the ability to grow in a wide variety of land types and areas, however is best produced when grown in a warm, humid ... On the island of Corfu, Greece, a traditional drink called τσιτσιμπύρα (tsitsibira), a type of ginger beer, is made. The people ...
embryonic camera-type eye morphogenesis. • post-embryonic camera-type eye development. • positive regulation of T cell cytokine ... Wnt signaling pathway, calcium modulating pathway. • Wnt signaling pathway, planar cell polarity pathway. • beta-catenin ... "IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology.. ... embryonic camera-type eye development. • multicellular organism development. • cell surface receptor signaling pathway. • ...
Calcium supports child growth in many varying ways. Common sources of calcium are found in dates, grapefruit,oranges, celery, ... Better Health Channel. 2015-02-09. Retrieved 03/04/2015. Check date values in: ,access-date= (help) "Healthy Kids Association ... Data also proposed a decrease in weight gain as a result of increased consumption lessens the risk of developing diabetes type ... A diet rich with Calcium, Vitamin C, B Vitamins, Iodine and Zinc ensures a growing child receives the most benefits from the ...
Epithelial sodium channel blockers: amiloride and triamterene.. Calcium-sparing diureticsEdit. The term "calcium-sparing ... TypesEdit. High ceiling/loop diureticEdit. High ceiling diuretics may cause a substantial diuresis - up to 20%[3] of the ... The reduced concentration of calcium in the urine can lead to an increased rate of calcium in serum. The sparing effect on ... calcium chloride, ammonium chloride 1. Arginine vasopressin. receptor 2 antagonists amphotericin B, lithium[13][14]. Inhibits ...
Manufacturers do not state which particular type of capsaicinoids are used. Personal pepper sprays can range from a low of 0.18 ... because there are six different types of capsaicinoids, causing different levels of irritation. ... See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Ion channel modulators. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title= ...
NMDA receptor activation by rapid successive firing allows calcium influx in addition to sodium. The calcium influx triggered ... Certain types of physical exercise have been shown to markedly (threefold) increase BDNF synthesis in the human brain, a ... will communicate regularly and maintain the synapse structure and function long after the initial activation of NMDA channels. ... Promoter IV activity, leading to the translation of exon IV-containing mRNA, is strongly stimulated by calcium and is primarily ...
TypesEdit. There are three types of dentin, primary, secondary and tertiary.[13][14] Secondary dentin is a layer of dentin ... It is made up of 70% inorganic materials (mainly hydroxylapatite and some non-crystalline amorphous calcium phosphate), 20% ... Dentine consists of microscopic channels, called dentinal tubules, which radiate outward through the dentine from the pulp to ... It is of two types, either reactionary, where dentin is formed from a pre-existing odontoblast, or reparative, where newly ...
Calcium concentrations falling below the needs of some freshwater organisms. *The additive-and possibly synergistic-effects of ... which underlies many larger rivers and can contain substantially more water than is seen in the open channel. It may also be in ... are types of freshwater systems. ...
Ion channel. modulators. Calcium blockers. *Gabapentin. *Gabapentin enacarbil. *Mirogabalin. *Pregabalin. *Ziconotide. Sodium ...
... calcium channel blockers) ବା ବିଟା ବ୍ଲକର (beta blockers) ଦିଆଯାଏ । ଦୀର୍ଘକାଳୀନ ଭିତ୍ତିରେ କେତେକ ଲୋକଙ୍କର ଆସ୍ପିରିନ (aspirin) ବା ... "Types of Arrhythmia". NHLBI. July 1, 2011.. .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{ ...
Varying amounts of potassium, sodium, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc were present.[81] ... reported that in Arabia locusts were eaten frequently and one Arab described to a European traveler the different types of ... Visual neuron of the locust, Ri Channel video, October 2011. *FAO Locust Watch ...
This type of fracture occurs only in very homogeneous minerals. Other types of fracture are fibrous, splintery, and hackly. The ... In a limestone, calcite or aragonite (both CaCO3) form because the rock is rich in calcium and carbonate. A corollary is that a ... They form in the presence of water at low temperatures and pressures, and have channels and voids in their structure. Zeolites ... These rocks may consist of one type of mineral, or may be an aggregate of two or more different types of minerals, spacially ...
These holes are proteins that are called calcium channels. The calcium ions rush into the cell. Calcium also comes out of a ... Types of muscles[change , change source]. There are three kinds of muscles: *Skeletal muscle, the muscle attached to bones. ... This calcium sticks to the specialized proteins actin and myosin. This triggers these proteins to contract the muscle. ...
... but could relate to actions of the drug on voltage-activated calcium channels. Lamotrigine blocks T-type calcium channels ... It also blocks L-, N-, and P-type calcium channels and has weak 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT3) receptor inhibition. These ... However, it does inhibit native and recombinant high-voltage-activated calcium channels (N- and P/Q/R-types) at therapeutic ... Whether this activity on calcium channels accounts for lamotrigine's broader clinical spectrum of activity in comparison with ...
regulation of intracellular calcium activated chloride channel activity. • negative regulation of dendritic spine maintenance. ... type 5 metabotropic glutamate receptor binding. • type 8 metabotropic glutamate receptor binding. • signaling receptor activity ... calcium-mediated signaling using intracellular calcium source. • negative regulation of catalytic activity. • positive ... ion channel binding. • microtubule binding. • ATP-dependent protein binding. • metal ion binding. • tubulin binding. • protein ...
General: β-receptor blockers ("beta blockers"), calcium channel blockers, diuretics, cardiac glycosides, antiarrhythmics, ... Types of medicinesEdit. For the digestive systemEdit. *Upper digestive tract: antacids, reflux suppressants, antiflatulents, ... calcium channel blockers, thiazide diuretics, loop diuretics, aldosterone inhibitors. *Coagulation: anticoagulants, heparin, ...
Calcium channel blockers. *renin-angiotensin system *ACE inhibitors. *Angiotensin II receptor antagonists ... Types[edit]. *5-HT3 receptor antagonists block serotonin receptors in the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract. As ... cation uptake by the receptor channel and contraction of isolated guinea-pig ileum", Eur J Pharmacol, 530 (1-2): 136-43, doi: ...
Ion channel modulators. Calcium. VDCCs. Blockers. *L-type-selective: Dihydropyridines: Amlodipine. *Aranidipine ... The cause is thought to be blockade of hERG voltage-gated potassium channels.[41][42] The risks are dose-dependent, and appear ... the voltage-gated potassium channel KCNH2 gene (hERG/Kv11.1), and the α1D-adrenoceptor ADRA1D gene.[58] ... thereby being free of the extrapyramidal side effects that were associated with drugs of this type.[70] This led to the ...
They are particularly well known in pharmacology as L-type calcium channel blockers, used in the treatment of hypertension. ... Compared with certain other L-type calcium channel blockers (for example those of the phenylalkylamine class such as verapamil ... Dihydropyridine class L-type calcium channel blockers include, in alphabetical order (brand names vary in different countries ... The pharmaceutical drug finerenone is also a dihydrophyridine derivative, but does not act as a calcium channel blocker but as ...
Two types of calcium channels in single smooth muscle cells from rabbit ear artery studies with whole-cell and single-channel ... Single L-Type Calcium Channels in Smooth Muscle Cells From Resistance Arteries of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats. Yusuke Ohya ... which inactivated the T-type Ca2+ channels as well as Na+ channels10; and (3) the channel opening disappeared with the ... Single-channel conductance of L-type Ca2+ channels was about 20 pS in both SHR and WKY. We used 50 mmol/L Ba2+ to record the ...
Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1D. Details. Name. Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit ... Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1D. Q01668. Details. Drug Relations. Drug Relations. DrugBank ID. Name. ...
L type, alpha 1S subunit ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, and ... calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1S subunit ELISA Kits. Clear ... calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1S subunit ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a ... Mouse Calcium Channel, Voltage Dependent, L-Type, Alpha 1S Subunit (CACNa1S) ELISA Kit ...
IPR005450 Voltage-dependent calcium channel, L-type, alpha-1S subunit. IPR005446 Voltage-dependent calcium channel, L-type, ... IPR031649 Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel, IQ-associated domain. IPR031688 Voltage-gated calcium channel subunit alpha ... IPR002077 Voltage-dependent calcium channel, alpha-1 subunit. IPR014873 Voltage-dependent calcium channel, alpha-1 subunit, IQ ... CACNA1S, calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 S. Orthology source: HGNC, HomoloGene ...
L-type voltage-gated calcium channel. PAA. phenylalkylamine. TEA. tetraethylammonium. WT. wild type. LB. Luria-Bertani. HEK. ... 1985) Interactions of organic calcium channel antagonists with calcium channels in single frog atrial cells. J Gen Physiol 85: ... Inhibition of Recombinant L-Type Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels by Positive Allosteric Modulators of GABAA Receptors. Damien E ... Inhibition of Recombinant L-Type Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels by Positive Allosteric Modulators of GABAA Receptors. Damien E ...
Expression of the α2δ subunit interferes with prepulse facilitation in cardiac L-type calcium channels. Biophys. J. 78:2959- ... Correction: Specific contributions of the four voltage-sensing domains in L-type calcium channels to gating and modulation. ... Correction: Specific contributions of the four voltage-sensing domains in L-type calcium channels to gating and modulation ...
Calcium Channels, L-Type Cerebral Cortex Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Culture Media, Conditioned DNA Primers Enzyme-Linked ... Calcium Channels, L-Type Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Culture Media, Conditioned DNA Primers ... Ciliary neurotrophic factor-treated astrocyte conditioned medium regulates the L-type calcium channel activity in rat cortical ... Ciliary neurotrophic factor-treated astrocyte conditioned medium regulates the L-type calcium channel activity in rat cortical ...
L type, alpha 1C subunit (Cacna1c), transcript variant 11, 10 µg. ... Home » cDNA » Mouse cDNA » Cacna1c (untagged) - Mouse calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit (Cacna1c), ... MC229677 Cacna1c (untagged) - Mouse calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit (Cacna1c), transcript variant ... Properties for Cacna1c (untagged) - Mouse calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit (Cacna1c), transcript ...
L type, alpha 1D subunit (Cacna1d), transcript variant 2, (10ug), 10 µg. ... Home » cDNA » Mouse cDNA » Cacna1d (untagged) - Mouse calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1D subunit (Cacna1d), ... MC225197 Cacna1d (untagged) - Mouse calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1D subunit (Cacna1d), transcript variant ... Properties for Cacna1d (untagged) - Mouse calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1D subunit (Cacna1d), transcript ...
L-type (CaV1.2) voltage-gated calcium channels play critical roles in membrane excitability, gene expression, cardiac and ... TANG ZHENZHI (2006-01-17). Molecular and functional study of splice variations of the L-type voltage-gated calcium channel ... Molecular and functional study of splice variations of the L-type voltage-gated calcium channel CaV1.2 alpha1-subunit. ... voltage-gated calcium channel; CaV1.2; alternative splicing; splice variant; cardiovascular system; Spontaneously Hypertensive ...
Calcium channel blockers are a common type of medication for high blood pressure and heart conditions. We discuss how these ... What is a calcium channel blocker?. Share on Pinterest. A doctor may prescribe calcium channel blockers to treat high blood ... Types and examples. There are two different types of calcium channel blocker, which are called dihydropyridines and ... Calcium channel blockers are a type of medication that people take to increase the flow of blood and oxygen to the heart. ...
T-type calcium channels in burst-firing, network synchrony, and epilepsy.. Cain SM1, Snutch TP. ... In this review we summarize recent findings concerning the role of T-type calcium channels in burst-firing and discuss how they ... Low voltage-activated (LVA) T-type calcium channels are well regarded as a key mechanism underlying the generation of neuronal ... Publication types, MeSH terms, Substances, Grant support. Publication types. *Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt ...
Calcium channel blockers are drugs used to lower blood pressure. Learn more from WebMD about how they work and their side ... certain drugs may interact with calcium channel blockers.. How Should I Take Calcium Channel Blockers?. Most calcium channel ... Interactions With Calcium Channel Blockers Calcium channel blockers are drugs used to lower blood pressure. They work by ... Side Effects of Calcium Channel Blockers. Potential side effects from taking a calcium channel blocker include:. * Dizziness or ...
... which inhibits the T-type calcium channel Cav3.2. This calcium channel was highly expressed in human GBM specimens and enriched ... Targetable T-type Calcium Channels Drive Glioblastoma. Ying Zhang, Nichola Cruickshanks, Fang Yuan, Baomin Wang, Mary Pahuski, ... Targetable T-type Calcium Channels Drive Glioblastoma. Ying Zhang, Nichola Cruickshanks, Fang Yuan, Baomin Wang, Mary Pahuski, ... Targetable T-type Calcium Channels Drive Glioblastoma. Ying Zhang, Nichola Cruickshanks, Fang Yuan, Baomin Wang, Mary Pahuski, ...
... were prepared and tested for N-type calcium channel inhibition in a SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma FLIPR assay. N-type or Cav2.2 channel ... Keywords: N-type calcium channel; Cav2.2; channel blocker; pain; FLIPR N-type calcium channel; Cav2.2; channel blocker; pain; ... were prepared and tested for N-type calcium channel inhibition in a SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma FLIPR assay. N-type or Cav2.2 channel ... Inhibition of N-Type Calcium Channels by Fluorophenoxyanilide Derivatives. Ellen C. Gleeson 1,2. ...
Mus musculus calcium channel, voltage-dependent, T type, alpha 1G subunit (Cacna... Mus musculus calcium channel, voltage- ... Mus musculus calcium channel, voltage-dependent, T type, alpha 1G subunit (Cacna1g), transcript variant 3, mRNA. NCBI Reference ... See the reference protein sequence for voltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1G isoform c (NP_001171359.1). ... Calcium Regulation in the Cardiac Cell Calcium Regulation in the Cardiac CellCalcium is a common signaling mechanism, as once ...
Voltage-dependent calcium channel, L-type, alpha-1 subunit (IPR005446) *Voltage-dependent calcium channel, L-type, alpha-1S ... while the Cav3 family mediates T-type calcium currents.. L-type calcium channels are formed from alpha-1S, alpha-1C, alpha-1D, ... The Cav1 family forms channels mediating L-type calcium currents, the Cav2 family mediates P/Q-, N-, and R-type calcium ... Nomenclature of voltage-gated calcium channels.. Neuron 25 533-5 2000. Triggle DJ. 1,4-Dihydropyridines as calcium channel ...
R type, alpha 1E subunit Identifiers Symbol CACNA1E Alt. Symbols CACNL1A6 Entrez 777 HUGO 1392 OMIM ... R-type calcium channel calcium channel, voltage-dependent, ... Calcium channel. Voltage-dependent calcium channel (L-type/Cavα ... The R-type calcium channel is a type of voltage-dependent calcium channel. Like the others of this class, the α1 subunit is the ... 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4), N-type, P-type/Cavα(2.1), Q-type, R-type, T-type, β-subunits (β1, β2, β4), γ-subunits (γ2) • Inositol ...
2011) Location of release sites and calcium-activated chloride channels relative to calcium channels at the photoreceptor ... Lateral Mobility of Presynaptic L-Type Calcium Channels at Photoreceptor Ribbon Synapses. Aaron J. Mercer, Minghui Chen and ... 2004) Role of lipid microdomains in P/Q-type calcium channel (Cav2.1) clustering and function in presynaptic membranes. J Biol ... 2004) The CACNA1F gene encodes an L-type calcium channel with unique biophysical properties and tissue distribution. J Neurosci ...
The R-type calcium channel is a type of voltage-dependent calcium channel. Like the others of this class, the α1 subunit forms ... "Entrez Gene: CACNA1E calcium channel, voltage-dependent, R type, alpha 1E subunit". Soong TW, Stea A, Hodson CD, Dubel SJ, ... This α1 subunit is also known as the calcium channel, voltage-dependent, R type, alpha 1E subunit (CACNA1E) or Cav2.3 which in ... They are poorly understood, but like Q-type calcium channels, they appear to be present in cerebellar granule cells. They have ...
Long-Lasting calcium channels). The new T-type channels were much different from the L-type calcium channels due to their ... T-type calcium channels are low-voltage activated calcium channels that open during membrane depolarization. These channels aid ... Calcium channel blockers (CCB) such as mibefradil can also block L-type calcium channels, other enzymes, as well as other ... Novel T-type calcium channel inhibitors have recently been discovered which more selectively target the CaV3.3 channel sub-type ...
... the possible role of auxiliary subunit composition of the channels in Angiotensin II modulation of L-type calcium channels has ... Angiotensin II regulation of L-type calcium currents in cardiac muscle is controversial and the underlying signaling events are ... L-type calcium channel β subunit modulates angiotensin II responses in cardiomyocytes Channels (Austin). May-Jun 2011;5(3):280- ... the possible role of auxiliary subunit composition of the channels in Angiotensin II modulation of L-type calcium channels has ...
... and R-type Ca2+ channels are replaced by P/Q-type Ca2+ channels with development. In contrast, multiple types of Ca2+ channels ... 1991) N-type and L-type calcium channels are present in nerve growth cones. Numbers increase on synaptogenesis. Dev Brain Res ... Using type-specific Ca2+ channel blocker toxins, we have demonstrated that the contributions of N-type Ca2+ channels to ... Among them, the ω-conotoxin GVIA-sensitive N-type channels and the ω-Aga-IVA-sensitive P/Q-type channels mediate fast synaptic ...
Abstract 16089: Functional Coupling of SK Channels and L-type Calcium Channels in Cardiomyocytes. Xiao-Dong Zhang, Wei Chun ... Abstract 16089: Functional Coupling of SK Channels and L-type Calcium Channels in Cardiomyocytes ... Abstract 16089: Functional Coupling of SK Channels and L-type Calcium Channels in Cardiomyocytes ... Abstract 16089: Functional Coupling of SK Channels and L-type Calcium Channels in Cardiomyocytes ...
Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1C. Q13936. Details. Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit ... Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1F. O60840. Details. Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit ... Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-1. Q02641. Details. Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta ... Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-3. P54284. Details. Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta ...
Calcium signalling through L-type calcium channels: role in pathophysiology of spinal nociceptive transmission, British Journal ... L-type calcium channels and NMDA receptors: a determinant duo for short-term nociceptive plasticity. Authors. *. Pascal Fossat, ... Shohei Yamamoto, Yuma Suzuki, Hideki Ono, Kazuhiko Kume, Masahiro Ohsawa, N- and L-type calcium channels blocker cilnidipine ... Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 L-type calcium channels independently control short- and long-term sensitization to pain, The Journal of ...
T-type Cav3.1 channels augment nitric oxide and co-localize with eNOS. Therefore, the hypothesis... ... T-type Cav3.1 channels augment nitric oxide and co-localize with eNOS. Therefore, the hypothesis was that T-type channels ... and T-type calcium channels in local and remote calcium responses in rat mesenteric terminal arterioles. J Vasc Res 46:138-151 ... Deletion of T-type calcium channels Cav3.1 or Cav3.2 attenuates endothelial dysfunction in aging mice. ...
Reversal of Neuropathic Pain in Diabetes by Targeting Glycosylation of Cav3.2 T-Type Calcium Channels. ... Reversal of Neuropathic Pain in Diabetes by Targeting Glycosylation of Cav3.2 T-Type Calcium Channels ... Reversal of Neuropathic Pain in Diabetes by Targeting Glycosylation of Cav3.2 T-Type Calcium Channels ... Reversal of Neuropathic Pain in Diabetes by Targeting Glycosylation of Cav3.2 T-Type Calcium Channels ...
Reducing agents sensitize C-type nociceptors by relieving high-affinity zinc inhibition of T-type calcium channels J Neurosci ... New evidence that both T-type calcium channels and GABAA channels are responsible for the potent peripheral analgesic effects ... Recent studies have highlighted the importance of T-type calcium channels (T-channels) in peripheral nociception; therefore, ... Silencing of the Cav3.2 T-type calcium channel gene in sensory neurons demonstrates its major role in nociception EMBO J 2005; ...
Estradiol receptor antagonist reduces ventricular arrhythmia via L-type calcium channels in chronic heart failure. Minerva ... Estradiol receptor antagonist reduces ventricular arrhythmia via L-type calcium channels in chronic heart failure.. *. ... Estradiol receptor antagonist reduces ventricular arrhythmia via L-type calcium channels in chronic heart failure. Minerva ... Exendin-4 Reduces Ventricular Arrhythmia Activity and Calcium Sparks-Mediated Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Ca Leak in Rats with Heart ...
... deactivation and single-channel conductance. Low-voltage-activated channels are called T type because their currents are both ... The molecular diversity of voltage-activated calcium channels was established by studies showing that channels could be ... and 7.5-pS single-channel conductance, we conclude that this channel is a low-voltage-activated T-type calcium channel. ... Molecular characterization of a neuronal low-voltage-activated T-type calcium channel Nature. 1998 Feb 26;391(6670):896-900. ...
Reducing Agents Sensitize C-Type Nociceptors by Relieving High-Affinity Zinc Inhibition of T-Type Calcium Channels. Michael T. ... Reducing Agents Sensitize C-Type Nociceptors by Relieving High-Affinity Zinc Inhibition of T-Type Calcium Channels ... Reducing Agents Sensitize C-Type Nociceptors by Relieving High-Affinity Zinc Inhibition of T-Type Calcium Channels ... Reducing Agents Sensitize C-Type Nociceptors by Relieving High-Affinity Zinc Inhibition of T-Type Calcium Channels ...
The isoform alpha-1B gives rise to N-type calcium currents. N-type calcium channels belong to the high-voltage activated (HVA ... Voltage-dependent N-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1B - O55017 (CAC1B_MOUSE) ... Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a ... In many cases, this subunit is sufficient to generate voltage-sensitive calcium channel activity. The auxiliary subunits beta ...
Voltage-dependent calcium channel type A subunit alpha-1 - P91645 (CAC1A_DROME) ... Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a ... variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility ...
The isoform alpha-1E gives rise to R-type calcium currents. ... mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are ... also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, ... Voltage-dependent R-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1E (Brain calcium channel II, BII) (Calcium channel, L type, alpha-1 ... Voltage-dependent R-type calcium channel subunit alphaUniRule annotation. Automatic assertion according to rulesi ...
T-type calcium channels are key contributors to neuronal physiology where they shape electrical activity of nerve cells and ... Senatore A & Spafford JD (2015). Physiology and pathology of voltage-gated T-type calcium channels. In T-type Calcium Channels ... Calcium channel T-type channel Cav3.2 Glucose N-glycosylation Trafficking ... Modulation of Cav3.2 T-type calcium channel permeability by asparagine-linked glycosylation. Channels (Austin) 10(3):175-184 ...
Proliferation of GSCs reportedly requires calcium influx through T-type calcium channels (Cav3.2). In this study we ... Abstract 3147: Comprehensive characterization of the role of T-type calcium channels in glioblastoma. Ying Zhang, Nichola ... Comprehensive characterization of the role of T-type calcium channels in glioblastoma [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the ... Abstract 3147: Comprehensive characterization of the role of T-type calcium channels in glioblastoma ...
  • The Cav1 family forms channels mediating L-type calcium currents, the Cav2 family mediates P/Q-, N-, and R-type calcium currents, while the Cav3 family mediates T-type calcium currents. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Angiotensin II regulation of L-type calcium currents in cardiac muscle is controversial and the underlying signaling events are not completely understood. (nih.gov)
  • In fact, Ca 2+ currents directly recorded from the auditory calyceal presynaptic terminal were identified as N-, P/Q-, and R-types at postnatal day 7 (P7) to P10 but became predominantly P/Q-type at P13. (jneurosci.org)
  • SK currents coupled with Ca 2+ influx via LTCCs continued to be elicited after application of caffeine, ryanodine or thapsigargin to deplete SR Ca 2+ store, suggesting that LTCCs provide the immediate Ca 2+ microdomain for the activation of SK channels in CMs. (ahajournals.org)
  • BAY K 8644 (10(-8)-10(-4) M) produced a dose-dependent stimulation in CCK release with a mean effective concentration value of 0.2 mu M Recordings of single-channel currents from inside-out membrane patches showed activation of calcium channels by BAY K 8644 (1 mu M), with a primary channel conductance of 26.0 +/- 1.2 pS. (rti.org)
  • These disturbances were accompanied by significant biophysical and biochemical modulation of T-channels in dorsal root ganglion neurons as measured by a large increase in the amplitude of T-currents and the expression of mRNA. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • To further test the hypothesis that activation of L-type Ca 2+ channels in arterial smooth muscle cells would be enhanced in SHR, we recorded single Ca 2+ channel currents in resistance mesenteric artery cells from SHR and WKY (8 to 9 weeks of age) using a cell-attached patch clamp technique. (ahajournals.org)
  • The amplitude of whole-cell L-type Ca 2+ channel currents is increased in resistance mesenteric arteries of young SHR, in cerebral arteries of adult stroke-prone SHR, and in azygous vein of neonatal SHR compared with age-matched WKY. (ahajournals.org)
  • Here, we demonstrate that reducing agents as well as endogenous metal chelators sensitize C-type dorsal root ganglion nociceptors by chelating Zn 2+ ions off specific extracellular histidine residues on Ca v 3.2 T-channels, thus relieving tonic channel inhibition, enhancing Ca v 3.2 currents, and lowering the threshold for nociceptor excitability in vitro and in vivo . (jneurosci.org)
  • Here, we show that reducing agents selectively sensitize C-type nociceptors that express Ca v 3.2 T-currents. (jneurosci.org)
  • The isoform alpha-1B gives rise to N-type calcium currents. (rcsb.org)
  • Recently, it was demonstrated that asparagine-linked glycosylation not only plays an essential role in regulating cell surface expression of Ca v 3.2 channels, but may also support glucose-dependent potentiation of T-type currents. (springer.com)
  • The authors of this paper studied the effect of PnTx3-6 on a panel of recombinant Ca channels and on Ca channel currents recorded from neuroblastoma cells. (pharmiweb.com)
  • In contrast, DB1, DB6 and midget bipolar cells lacked T-type currents. (arvojournals.org)
  • one type, which we denote as DB3a, expressed large voltage-gated sodium currents but lacked T-type calcium currents, while a second type, which we denote as DB3b, exhibited large T-type calcium currents but lacked sodium currents. (arvojournals.org)
  • T-type currents remained in cells in which the axon terminal system had been removed, suggesting localization of channels in the somatic and/or dendritic compartments. (arvojournals.org)
  • Immunohistochemistry for the T-type calcium channel subunit, CaV3.1, revealed expression in the somatodendritic compartment of the same bipolar cell types that exhibited T-type currents by electrophysiology. (arvojournals.org)
  • These data demonstrate the presence of CaV3.1-mediated currents in sub-types of primate bipolar cells. (arvojournals.org)
  • Comparing the isolated T-type calcium currents in cells with and without processes revealed that cells with dendrites had much larger T-type currents than soma-only cells and we concluded that the dendrites had 4 to 12 times the channel density as that observed in the soma. (arvojournals.org)
  • Voltage-clamp data were used to construct a model of the T-type currents and this model was used to study the roles which T-type calcium channels can play in contributing to ganglion cell function. (arvojournals.org)
  • A diverse set of calcium channels contribute to the timely regulation of calcium currents at cellular level. (nc3rs.org.uk)
  • Herein, I show that cocaine, in pharmacological doses, selectively and potently enhances L-type calcium channel currents in isolated rat ventricular myocytes. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Myocytes isolated from the RV of pulmonary hypertensive rats that displayed elevated T-type currents and RV dysfunction, also showed impaired contractility with decreased sensitivity to Ca 2+ . (ahajournals.org)
  • The cells displayed typical high-voltage activated calcium currents sensitive to the L-type Ca v blocker calciseptine. (ahajournals.org)
  • Cardiac myocytes express two types of voltage operated calcium currents, a high voltage activated (HVA) L-type, and a low voltage activated (LVA) T-type. (illinois.edu)
  • Several subtypes of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels are known and the L-type has been found to be the main contributor to electrical Ca2+ currents in beta-cells. (avhandlingar.se)
  • The cell line was pharmacologically characterized by ion channel specific modulators, and revealed functional P/Q-type calcium currents. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The T-type channels generate currents that are both transient, owing to fast inactivation, and tiny, owing to small conductance. (nih.gov)
  • Accordingly, we performed voltage-clamp experiments to compare the currents carried by L-type channels during depolarizing waveforms that approximated APs or dendritic EPSPs. (umn.edu)
  • The T-type channel is regulated by both dopamine and other neurotransmitters, which inhibit T-type currents. (alchetron.com)
  • The opening and closing of these channels by depolarizing stimuli, such as action potentials, allows Ca2+ ions to enter neurons down a steep electrochemical gradient, producing transient intracellular Ca2+ signals. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Recent studies have demonstrated an important role for T-type Ca 2+ channels (T-channels) in controlling the excitability of peripheral pain-sensing neurons (nociceptors). (jneurosci.org)
  • Calcium channels containing alpha-1B subunit may play a role in directed migration of immature neurons. (rcsb.org)
  • Duzhyy DE, Viatchenko-Karpinski VY, Khomula EV, Voitenko NV, Belan PV (2015) Upregulation of T-type Ca2+ channels in long-term diabetes determines increased excitability of a specific type of capsaicin-insensitive DRG neurons. (springer.com)
  • T-type channels have been first well described functionally in primary sensory neurons ( Carbone and Lux, 1984 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • L-type calcium channels and MAP kinase contribute to thyrotropin-releasing hormone induced depolarization in thalamic paraventricular nucleus neurons. (physiology.org)
  • Collectively, the data imply that TRH-induced depolarization and inward current in PVT neurons involve both a dependency on extracellular Ca 2+ influx via opening of L-type Ca 2+ channels, a sensitivity of a TRPC-like component to intracellular Ca 2+ release via ryanodine channels, and a modulation by MAPK of a GIRK-like conductance component. (physiology.org)
  • Neurons express at least nine types of voltage-gated Ca 2+ channels that are specialized for different functions ( 2 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • The egg-laying circuit comprises three cell-types: the serotonergic HSNs, the cholinergic ventral cord neurons VC4 and VC5, and electrically coupled vulval and uterine muscles, of which the vulval muscles (VMs) receive direct synaptic input from motor neurons ( Figure 1-figure supplement 1 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • For many neurons, N-type calcium channels provide the primary pathway for calcium influx during an action potential. (rupress.org)
  • Studies on neonatal rat sympathetic neurons found that N-channels, like L-type calcium channels, could gate in different modes. (rupress.org)
  • This 48-amino acid peptide, omega-agatoxin (omega-Aga)-IVB, was found to be a potent (Kd, approximately 3 nM) blocker of P-type calcium channels in rat cerebellar Purkinje neurons but had no activity against T-type, L-type, or N-type calcium channels in a variety of neurons. (aspetjournals.org)
  • CACNA1E gives rise to R-type calcium channels that belong to the high-voltage activated (HVA) group, which may be involved in modulating firing patterns of neurons important for information processing. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • facilitate trafficking and targeting of the voltage-gated N-type Ca 2+ channel (Cav2.2) in neurons. (biologists.org)
  • In this study, we have used immunocytochemistry, immunoprecipitation, biotinylation, electrophysiology and a transmitter-release radioimmunoassay to demonstrate the effect(s) of CRMP-2 on Ca 2+ channel function and transmitter release in sensory neurons. (biologists.org)
  • Ciliary neurotrophic factor-treated astrocyte conditioned medium regulates the L-type calcium channel activity in rat cortical neurons. (nextbio.com)
  • β-Hydroxybutyrate modulates N-type calcium channels in rat sympathetic neurons by acting as an agonist for the G-protein-coupled receptor FFA3. (semanticscholar.org)
  • However, it is not known whether presynaptic N-type Ca 2+ channels contribute to short-term synaptic plasticity (STP) mediated by GABA release at inhibitory synapses of cultured hippocampal neurons. (begellhouse.com)
  • These results confirm that N-type Ca 2+ channels are highly involved in inhibitory synaptic transmission and short-term synaptic plasticity in cultured hippocampal neurons. (begellhouse.com)
  • The purpose of the present study was to determine the ability of different Gβγ combinations to produce VD inhibition of N-type Ca 2+ channels in rat superior cervical ganglion neurons. (elsevier.com)
  • T-type channels serve pacemaking functions in both central neurons and cardiac nodal cells and support calcium signaling in secretory cells and vascular smooth muscle. (nih.gov)
  • [7] [8] Blockade of N-type calcium channels in sensory neurons has therapeutic potential for the treatment of certain types of pain, particularly neuropathic pain. (ipfs.io)
  • Activity-dependent gene expression in neurons shows a remarkable ability to differentiate between different types of stimulation: orthodromic inputs that engage synaptic transmission are much more effective than antidromic stimuli that do not. (umn.edu)
  • This disrupts calcium homeostasis and leads to a loss of cerebellar neurons, including cerebellar Purkinje cells. (tamu.edu)
  • As a member of the Ca v 3 subfamily of voltage-gated calcium channels, the function of the T-type channel is important for the repetitive firing of action potentials in cells with rhythmic firing patterns such as cardiac muscle cells and neurons in the thalamus of the brain. (alchetron.com)
  • In this study, we found that neurons showed an increase in viability after treatment with either L-type or T-type calcium channel antagonists. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Calcium signaling pathways play a vital role in the survival of neurons. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus it raises the possibility of protecting neurons by identifying chemicals able to modulate calcium homeostasis in neurons during aging. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this case, Noebels and his colleagues overexpressed a new "T-type" calcium channel gene in the neurons by inserting a second copy of the gene. (bcm.edu)
  • 1,4-dihydropyridines act as antagonists of these channels [ PMID: 12825828 , PMID: 15336981 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Ca v 1.3 channels were less sensitive to pentobarbital inhibition than Ca v 1.2 channels, similar to dihydropyridine (DHP) L-VGCC antagonists. (aspetjournals.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that T-type calcium channel antagonists have potential for alleviating nicotine addiction by selectively decreasing the incentive motivational properties of nicotine. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Background and Purpose Neuroprotection by antagonists of both L-type and N-type calcium channels occurs in in vivo models of ischemia. (ahajournals.org)
  • The site of action of calcium channel antagonists is unclear, however, and it is likely that a combination of vascular and direct neuronal actions occurs. (ahajournals.org)
  • Conclusions These studies present clear evidence that neuroprotection by selective N-type calcium channel antagonists is mediated directly through neuronal calcium channels. (ahajournals.org)
  • 10 11 12 Such contradictory results could be explained if the effects of calcium channel antagonists are all mediated by effects on blood flow in vivo, or it may be that in dissociated cell cultures subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation, cell death occurs through pathways where voltage-gated calcium channels are relatively less important than in vivo. (ahajournals.org)
  • Uchida S, Yamada S, Nagai K, Deguchi Y, Kimura R (1997) Brain pharmacokinetics and in vivo receptor binding of 1, 4-dihydropyridine calcium channel antagonists. (springer.com)
  • Swart T, Hurley MJ (2016) Calcium channel antagonists as disease-modifying therapy for Parkinson's disease: therapeutic rationale and current status. (springer.com)
  • During the past three decades, Ca 2+ channel antagonists belonging to many structurally diverse classes, such as dihydropyridines, phenylalkylamines, and benzothiazepines, have been developed for the treatment of hypertension and chronic stable angina pectoris ( Oparil and Calhoun, 1991 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Calcium antagonists: Do they equally protect against kidney injury? (uchicago.edu)
  • The calcium channel antagonists (CCAs) are commonly used in the therapy of various cardiovascular diseases and are under investigation due to their potential in modulating calcium-dependent neurotransmitter release. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • A set of fluorophenoxyanilides, designed to be simplified analogues of previously reported ω-conotoxin GVIA mimetics, were prepared and tested for N-type calcium channel inhibition in a SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma FLIPR assay. (mdpi.com)
  • In cardiomyocytes, Angiotensin II exposure induces rapid inhibition of L-type current with a magnitude that is correlated with the rate of current inactivation. (nih.gov)
  • Over-expression of individual b subunits in heterologous systems reveals that the magnitude of Angiotensin II inhibition is dependent on the Ca(v)β subunit isoform, with Ca(v)β(1b) containing channels being more strongly regulated. (nih.gov)
  • Moreover, PLC or diacylglycerol lipase inhibition prevents the Angiotensin II effect on L-type calcium channels, while PKC inhibition with chelerythrine does not, suggesting a role of arachidonic acid in this process. (nih.gov)
  • These data demonstrate that Ca(v)β subunits alter the magnitude of inhibition of L-type current by Angiotensin II. (nih.gov)
  • It is concluded that inhibition of potassium channel activity depolarizes the plasma membrane, thereby activating L-type, but not T-type, calcium channels. (rti.org)
  • We then demonstrate that the sensitization is facilitated through a novel mechanism, whereby reducing agents chelate Zn 2+ ions off specific extracellular histidine residues in domain I of Ca v 3.2, thereby relieving tonic channel inhibition. (jneurosci.org)
  • Compared with Ca v 1.2, recombinant Ca v 1.3 channels were 1.5-fold less sensitive to inhibition by flurazepam, 3-fold less sensitive to inhibition by pentobarbital, and 3-fold more sensitive to inhibition by diltiazem. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The n5209 suppressor of peptidergic inhibition affects the T-type calcium channel gene cca-1 . (elifesciences.org)
  • Inhibition of K V channels with 4-AP inhibited 21% of the current. (ahajournals.org)
  • Our results suggest that NNC55-0396 could be a more favorable T-type Ca 2+ antagonist than its parent compound, mibefradil, which was withdrawn from the market because of strong inhibition of CYP3A4. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Fujita T, Ando K, Nishimura H, Ideura T, Yasuda G, Isshiki M, Takahashi K, Cilnidipine versus Amlodipine Randomised Trial for Evaluation in Renal Disease (CARTER) Study Investigators: Antiproteinuric effect of the calcium channel blocker cilnidipine added to renin-angiotensin inhibition in hypertensive patients with chronic renal disease. (springermedizin.de)
  • Inhibition of TRPC 3 attenuates vascular calcium influx in spontaneously hypertensive rats ( SHR s). (ahajournals.org)
  • Activation of several G-protein-coupled receptors leads to voltage- dependent (VD) inhibition of N- and P/Q-type Ca 2+ channels via G-protein βγ subunits (Gβγ). (elsevier.com)
  • Various Gβγ combinations were heterologously overexpressed by intranuclear microinjection of cDNA and tonic VD Ca 2+ channel inhibition evaluated using the whole-cell voltage-clamp technique. (elsevier.com)
  • Overexpression of Gβ1-Gβ5, in combination with several different Gγ subunits, resulted in tonic VD Ca 2+ channel inhibition. (elsevier.com)
  • Inhibition of the activation pathway of the T-type calcium channel Ca(V)3.1 by ProTxII. (uchicago.edu)
  • The molecular basis for T-type Ca2+ channel inhibition by G protein beta2gamma2 subunits. (uchicago.edu)
  • We conclude that palmitate increases alpha-cell exocytosis principally by enhanced Ca(2+) entry via l-type Ca(2+) channels and, possibly, relief from paracrine inhibition by somatostatin released by neighboring delta-cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The alpha-1 subunit forms the pore for the import of extracellular calcium ions and, though regulated by the other subunits, is primarily responsible for the pharmacological properties of the channel [ PMID: 11031246 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • L-type calcium channels are formed from alpha-1S, alpha-1C, alpha-1D, and alpha-1F subunits. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • α 2 δ 4 antibodies labeled photoreceptor terminals and colocalized with antibodies to synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2 and voltage-gated Ca 2+ channel 1.4 (Ca V 1.4) α 1 subunits. (jneurosci.org)
  • L-type Ca V channels are composed of a pore-forming α subunit, with accessory β, α 2 δ and γ subunits ( Catterall, 2000 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • In this work we study the role of Ca(v)β subunits and the intracellular signaling responsible for L-type calcium current modulation by Angiotensin II. (nih.gov)
  • 11 ) involving isoform-specific oligonucleotides that downregulate each of the three isoforms of pore-forming subunits of T-channel, Ca v 3.1 (α1G), Ca v 3.2 (α1H), and Ca v 3.3 (α1I), in DRG cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The auxiliary subunits beta and alpha-2/delta linked by a disulfide bridge regulate the channel activity. (rcsb.org)
  • Dubel SJ, Altier C, Chaumont S, Lory P, Bourinet E, Nargeot J (2004) Plasma membrane expression of T-type calcium channel alpha(1) subunits is modulated by high voltage-activated auxiliary subunits. (springer.com)
  • By use of the whole-cell voltage-clamp technique, the current studies investigated the effects of BDZs (diazepam, flurazepam, and desalkylflurazepam), allopregnanolone, pentobarbital, and ethanol on recombinant L-VGCCs containing the neuronal L-type α 1 subunit, Ca v 1.2 or Ca v 1.3, along with β 3 and α 2 δ-1 subunits. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Antibodies to the three major classes of T-type calcium channel subunits (G,H,I) were developed and applied to the rat and tiger salamander retinas. (arvojournals.org)
  • The calcium channel consists of a complex of alpha-1, alpha-2/delta, beta, and gamma subunits in a 1:1:1:1 ratio. (biomol.com)
  • To this end, mutant Gβ subunits were constructed that differentially modulated N-type Ca 2+ and G-protein-gated inward rectifier K + channels. (elsevier.com)
  • Calcium channels are made up of subunits in various ratios, known by letters of the Greek alphabet (alpha, beta etc. (painonline.com)
  • This gene encodes one of the five subunits of the slowly inactivating L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel in skeletal muscle cells. (nih.gov)
  • The family of low-voltage activated, or T-type calcium channels, comprise of three members (Ca v 3.1, Ca v 3.2, and Ca v 3.3) based on their respective main pore-forming alpha subunits: α1G, α1H, and α1I. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An early cellular response of osteoblasts to swelling is plasma membrane depolarization, accompanied by a transient increase in intracellular calcium ([Ca 2+ ] i ), which initiates regulatory volume decrease (RVD). (springer.com)
  • Importantly, elevated intracellular calcium levels via this mechanism triggering second messenger pathways and gene activation may contribute to many of the cardiovascular and central nervous system effects of cocaine. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Alterations in intracellular calcium (Ca 2+ ) have a significant impact on Ca 2+ signaling, an integral part of the cardiac response to pathological conditions. (ahajournals.org)
  • Vasodilators generally stimulate renin release by increasing the intracellular concentration of cAMP and vasoconstrictors generally inhibit renin release by increasing the intracellular calcium concentration. (ahajournals.org)
  • Cognitive and functional decline with age is correlated with deregulation of intracellular calcium, which can lead to neuronal death in the brain. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ball CJ, Wilson DP, Turner SP, Saint DA, Beltrame JF (2009) Heterogeneity of L- and T-channels in the vasculature: rationale for the efficacy of combined L- and T-blockade. (springer.com)
  • Blockade of potassium channels with barium chloride (5 mM) increased the release of CCK by 374.6 +/- 46.6% of control levels. (rti.org)
  • For example, it has been shown that pharmacological blockade of T-channels with mibefradil and ethosuximide ( 9 ), and with (3β,5α,17β)-17-hydroxyestrane-3-carbonitrile (ECN) ( 10 ), alleviates mechanical hypersensitivity induced by peripheral nerve injury in rats. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Blockade of Cav2.2 (N-type) channels has previously been shown to prevent pain transmission and activity against this channel has been proposed as the mechanism of action of Ziconotide, a neuroactive peptide developed by Elan as a novel non-opioid treatment for severe chronic pain. (pharmiweb.com)
  • TRH-induced inward current was unchanged by T-type Ca 2+ channel blockade, but was decreased by blockade of high-voltage-activated Ca 2+ channels (HVACCs). (physiology.org)
  • The aim of this project is to develop an Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) that describes the series of causally related key events triggered by the blockade of L-type calcium channel, and that can ultimately lead to heart failure. (nc3rs.org.uk)
  • 1 2 Removal of extracellular calcium has been demonstrated to prevent glutamate-induced neuronal death in such cultures, 3 4 5 and blockade of VSCCs by nifedipine reduces the damage that follows exposure to glutamate receptor agonists. (ahajournals.org)
  • 9 This is in contrast to data from in vivo studies in which there is clear evidence that blockade of either L-type or N-type calcium channels is neuroprotective. (ahajournals.org)
  • Blockade of K + channels with TEA inhibited 83% of the current at +105 mV. (ahajournals.org)
  • Blockade of calcium-sensitive voltage-gated K + channels (BK Ca ) with charybdotoxin or iberiotoxin inhibited 89% and 82% of the current, respectively. (ahajournals.org)
  • Mibefradil induces coronary and peripheral vasodilation through a direct effect on smooth muscle via blockade of T-type and L-type Ca 2+ channels ( Massie, 1997 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • However, blockade of the RyRs also slightly improved spatial memory of the LPS-infused rats, demonstrating that other Ca +2 channels are dysregulated during chronic neuroinflammation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Blockade of the N-type calcium channel is a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of alcoholism . (ipfs.io)
  • In addition, TTA-P2 or nifedipine also inhibited aldosterone secretion stimulated by angiotensin II- or elevations in extracellular K + . Remarkably, blockade of either L- or T-type calcium channels inhibits basal and stimulated aldosterone production to a similar extent. (bioscientifica.com)
  • Their low threshold for activation combined with a rapid and transient calcium conductance generates low-threshold calcium potentials (LTCPs), upon the crest of which high frequency action potentials fire for a brief period. (nih.gov)
  • Voltage-gated calcium channels are classified as T, L, N, P, Q and R, and are distinguished by their sensitivity to pharmacological blocks, single-channel conductance kinetics, and voltage-dependence. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Small conductance Ca 2+ -activated K + (SK) channels play significant roles in regulating the excitability of cardiomyocytes (CMs). (ahajournals.org)
  • Single-channel conductance (20 pS) and open time (1 ms at 0 mV) did not differ in the two strains. (ahajournals.org)
  • 0 mV, have a slope conductance of ∼20 pS, a single channel current at 0 mV of 1.4 pA, and are active from a holding potential of −40 mV. (rupress.org)
  • This potentiation by cocaine is due to an increase and decrease, respectively, in the calcium channel opening and closing rates, with no apparent effects on voltage-dependence or single-channel conductance. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The new T-type channels were much different from the L-type calcium channels due to their ability to be activated by more negative membrane potentials, had small single channel conductance, and also were unresponsive to calcium antagonist drugs that were present. (alchetron.com)
  • Moreover, (3β,5α,17β)-17-hydroxyestrane-3-carbonitrile (ECN), a novel neuroactive steroid and selective T-channel antagonist, provided dose-dependent alleviation of neuropathic thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity in diabetic ob/ob mice. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Estradiol receptor antagonist reduces ventricular arrhythmia via L-type calcium channels in chronic heart failure. (medworm.com)
  • Structure and properties of omega-agatoxin IVB, a new antagonist of P-type calcium channels. (aspetjournals.org)
  • A new peptide antagonist of voltage-activated calcium channels was purified from venom of the funnel web spider, Agelenopsis aperta. (aspetjournals.org)
  • is certainly a selective serotonin antagonist that works on the 5-HT type 3 (5-HT3) receptor. (healthcarecoremeasures.com)
  • Low voltage-activated (LVA) T-type calcium channels are well regarded as a key mechanism underlying the generation of neuronal burst-firing. (nih.gov)
  • T-type calcium channels are key contributors to neuronal physiology where they shape electrical activity of nerve cells and contribute to the release of neurotransmitters. (springer.com)
  • Voltage-activated Ca channels play a major role in many physiological processes including release of neurotransmitters and the regulation of neuronal excitability. (pharmiweb.com)
  • The Kelch-like 1 protein (KLHL1) is a neuronal actin-binding protein that modulates calcium channel function. (hindawi.com)
  • Benzodiazepines (BDZs) depress neuronal excitability via positive allosteric modulation of inhibitory GABA A receptors (GABA A R). BDZs and other positive GABA A R modulators, including barbiturates, ethanol, and neurosteroids, can also inhibit L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (L-VGCCs), which could contribute to reduced neuronal excitability. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Increases in the intracellular concentration of calcium ([Ca 2+ ] i ) activate various signaling pathways that lead to the expression of genes that are essential for dendritic development, neuronal survival, and synaptic plasticity. (sciencemag.org)
  • Voltage-gated Ca 2+ channels have a central role in neuronal function and are essential for converting electrical activity into biochemical events ( 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Activation of the L-type Ca 2+ channel (LTC) specifically increases the expression of a group of Ca 2+ -regulated genes, including those encoding c-Fos, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and Bcl-2, that are important for neuronal survival, learning, and other adaptive responses in the nervous system ( 3 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • We have investigated the effects of blocking neuronal calcium channels using an organotypic hippocampal-slice model of ischemia. (ahajournals.org)
  • This damage was prevented by preincubation with omega conotoxin MVIIA, a selective N-type calcium channel blocker, and omega conotoxin MVIIC, which blocks N-type and other presynaptic neuronal calcium channels. (ahajournals.org)
  • Voltage-gated Ca 2+ channels and interacting proteins are essential in neuronal signaling and synaptic transmission during this period. (biologists.org)
  • T-type channels are thought to be involved in pacemaker activity, low-threshold calcium spikes, neuronal oscillations and resonance, and rebound burst firing. (nih.gov)
  • Prolonged neuroinflammation produces elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species which can alter neuronal Ca +2 homeostasis via L-type voltage-dependent Ca +2 channels (L-VDCCs) and ryanodine receptors (RyRs). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Not only are T-type calcium channels known to be present within cardiac and smooth muscle, but also are present in many neuronal cells within the central nervous system. (alchetron.com)
  • Abstract -The amplitude of the whole-cell L-type Ca 2+ channel current recorded from vascular smooth muscle cells is reportedly greater in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) than in Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). (ahajournals.org)
  • Multiple types of high-voltage-activated Ca 2+ channels trigger neurotransmitter release at the mammalian central synapse. (jneurosci.org)
  • N-type calcium channels belong to the 'high-voltage activated' (HVA) group and are blocked by omega-conotoxin-GVIA (omega-CTx-GVIA) and by omega-agatoxin-IIIA (omega-Aga-IIIA). (rcsb.org)
  • We studied the sensitivity of GABAergic paired pulse depression (PPD) as a common form of STP to selective N-type high-voltage-activated Ca 2+ channels blocker omega-conotoxin (ω-CgTx). (begellhouse.com)
  • Long-lasting (L-type) calcium channels belong to the 'high-voltage activated' (HVA) group. (nih.gov)
  • Application of mibefradil, a T-type calcium channel blocker, to sural nerve receptive fields increased mechanical thresholds of Aβ-, Aδ- and C-fibers, confirming the functional involvement of accumulated channels in the sural nerve in SNI rats. (frontiersin.org)
  • NFAT activation was markedly stimulated by over expressing the human Ca v 3.2 T-type Ca 2+ channel cDNA in NRVM, and this activation was inhibited by cyclosporin A (a calcineurin inhibitor), by T-type selective concentrations of mibefradil and NiCl 2 , and in the absence of extracellular Ca 2+ . (ahajournals.org)
  • A novel mibefradil derivative, NNC55-0396, designed to be hydrolysis-resistant, was shown to be a selective T-type Ca 2+ channel inhibitor without L-type Ca 2+ channel efficacy. (aspetjournals.org)
  • T-type calcium channels belong to the 'low-voltage activated (LVA)' group and are strongly blocked by mibefradil. (nih.gov)
  • An inner pore residue (Asn406) in the Nav1.5 channel controls slow inactivation and enhances mibefradil block to T-type Ca2+ channel levels. (uchicago.edu)
  • Proliferation of GSCs reportedly requires calcium influx through T-type calcium channels (Cav3.2). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Makarenko VV, Ahmmed GU, Peng YJ, Khan SA, Nanduri J, Kumar GK, Fox AP, Prabhakar NR. CaV3.2 T-type Ca2+ channels mediate the augmented calcium influx in carotid body glomus cells by chronic intermittent hypoxia. (uchicago.edu)
  • Protein kinase A activity controls the regulation of T-type CaV3.2 channels by Gbetagamma dimers. (uchicago.edu)
  • We examined the lateral membrane mobility of presynaptic L-type Ca 2+ channels at photoreceptor ribbon synapses of the tiger salamander ( Ambystoma tigrinum ) retina. (jneurosci.org)
  • Our results show that Ca V channels at rod and cone synapses are not fixed, but move within a membrane domain equal to or slightly larger than the area beneath the synaptic ridge at the base of the ribbon. (jneurosci.org)
  • Pharmacological disruption of the cytoskeleton or membrane cholesterol significantly increased the dimensions of the confinement domain of Ca V channels, suggesting that macromolecular scaffolds are important for organizing the synapse. (jneurosci.org)
  • SK channels are unique in that they are gated solely by intracellular Ca 2+ and hence, function to integrate intracellular Ca 2+ and membrane potentials on a beat-to-beat basis in the heart. (ahajournals.org)
  • On the other hand, the number of radiolabeled dihydropyridine (PN200-110) bindings to the aorta of SHR did not differ from that of WKY, 4 5 suggesting that the density of Ca 2+ channels in the membrane is not increased in SHR. (ahajournals.org)
  • In the present study, we show that site-specific N-glycosylation of Ca v 3.2 is essential to stabilize expression of the channel at the plasma membrane. (springer.com)
  • In contrast, elevated external glucose concentration appears to potentiate intracellular forward trafficking of the channel to the cell surface, resulting in an increased steady-state expression of the channel protein at the plasma membrane. (springer.com)
  • We sought to understand these processes by studying L-Type Calcium Channel (LTCC) activity and sub-type-specific βAR-cAMP signaling within cardiomyocyte membrane microdomains. (frontiersin.org)
  • The authors have previously demonstrated a hypotonically induced depolarization of the osteoblast plasma membrane, sufficient to open L-type Ca channels and mediate Ca 2+ influx. (springer.com)
  • Electrophysiological measurements revealed elevated membrane capacitance in RV myocytes indicative of RV hypertrophy, and T-type current density was also increased. (ahajournals.org)
  • Cell membrane depolarization, followed by activation of Ca v , and calcium influx, has been suggested to inhibit renin release. (ahajournals.org)
  • The ion channels responsible for setting the membrane potential of JG cells are not known with certainty. (ahajournals.org)
  • Synaptic transmission induces depolarization in the postsynaptic membrane and activates the L-type voltage sensitive Ca 2+ channels (L-VSCC). (asahq.org)
  • Calcium channels mediate the influx of calcium ions into the cell upon membrane polarization. (biomol.com)
  • Ca V 2.2 (N-type) and Ca V 1.2 (L-type) calcium channels gate differently in response to membrane depolarization, which is critical to the unique physiological functions mediated by these channels. (elsevier.com)
  • Ion channels are integral membrane proteins that help establish and control the small voltage gradient across the plasma membrane of living cells by allowing the flow of ions down their electrochemical gradient. (creativebiomart.net)
  • L-type (CaV1.2) voltage-gated calcium channels play critical roles in membrane excitability, gene expression, cardiac and smooth muscle contraction. (nus.edu.sg)
  • T-type calcium channels are low-voltage activated calcium channels that open during membrane depolarization. (alchetron.com)
  • Like any other channel in a cell membrane, the primary function of the T-type voltage gated calcium channel is to allow passage of ions, in this case calcium, through the membrane when the channel is activated. (alchetron.com)
  • When membrane depolarization occurs in a cell membrane where these channels are embedded, they open and allow calcium to enter the cell, which leads to several different cellular events depending on where in the body the cell is found. (alchetron.com)
  • When an action potential depolarizes the cell membrane, voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, changes in SK channel activation kinetics following SR Ca 2+ depletion suggest both LTCC-mediated Ca 2+ influx and SR Ca 2+ release are necessary for the activation of cardiac SK channels. (ahajournals.org)
  • These results showed that tetrandrine inhibited the transient inward current, without affecting the channel kinetics. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we examine the gating kinetics of single N-channels. (rupress.org)
  • As a first step, we examined the effect of domain exchange between N-type and L-type channels on activationdeactivation kinetics, which were significantly different between these channels. (elsevier.com)
  • The corresponding mutations affect the T-type calcium channel CCA-1 and symmetrically re-tune its voltage-dependencies of activation and inactivation towards more hyperpolarized potentials. (elifesciences.org)
  • RyR expression is altered in patients with AD and mild cognitive impairment [ 10 ], and patients with sporadic AD both have L-VDCC and RyR mutations that interact to increase and have amyloid deposition [ 11 ], demonstrating the importance of these two channels in the AD pathology. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, recent clinical studies show that somatic mutations in L-type calcium channels are the second most prevalent cause of aldosterone-producing adenoma. (bioscientifica.com)
  • Mutations of the á1A subunit of P/Q-type voltage-gated calcium channels are responsible for several inherited disorders affecting humans, including familial hemiplegic migraine, episodic ataxia type 2 and spinocerebellar ataxia type 6. (tamu.edu)
  • Because of its similarities with human P/Qtype voltage-gated calcium channel mutations, leaner mouse has served as a model for these disorders to aid our understanding of calcium channel function and neurodegeneration associated with calcium channel dysfunction. (tamu.edu)
  • In the second study we found that glucose stimulation of an insulin secreting cell line induces the internalization of the L-type channel isoform Cav1.2. (avhandlingar.se)
  • In the last part of this thesis we gathered genetic, molecular and functional data about the two main L-type Ca2+ channel isoforms Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 in order to identify significant differences that may allow for development of currently unavailable isoform specific drugs. (avhandlingar.se)
  • Specifically, Cav1.2 is a cardiac L-type calcium channel and is important for excitation and contraction of the heart. (creativebiomart.net)
  • This study provides essential evidence for the molecular diversity of CaV1.2 calcium channels in the cardiovascular system. (nus.edu.sg)
  • At most synapses, presynaptic Ca 2+ channels are positioned near vesicle release sites, and increasing this distance reduces synaptic strength. (jneurosci.org)
  • but the mobility of presynaptic Ca V channels has not been explored. (jneurosci.org)
  • Consistent with the proposal that synaptic vesicle fusion may cause a disorganization of presynaptic release proteins ( Neher and Sakaba, 2008 ), we found that fusion of adjacent synaptic vesicles caused brief jumps in Ca V channel position, propelling channels toward the edge of the confinement domain. (jneurosci.org)
  • Neurotransmitter release is triggered by Ca 2+ entry through presynaptic voltage-dependent Ca 2+ channels ( Katz, 1969 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • this interaction induces a deacrease in the number of presynaptic functional CACNA1B channels at the cell surface (PubMed:24709664). (rcsb.org)
  • We recently identified the presynaptic N-type voltage-gated Ca 2+ channel (Cav2.2) as a CRMP-2-interacting partner. (biologists.org)
  • A variety of interactions between Ca 2+ channels and presynaptic proteins contribute to the molecular and mechanistic complexities of the vesicle release cycle and synaptic transmission ( Sudhof, 1995 ). (biologists.org)
  • Regulation of presynaptic Ca 2+ channels and interacting proteins has a significant impact on synaptic strength. (biologists.org)
  • There is evidence that migraine, Alzheimer's disease, and epilepsy involve a gain-of-function of the channel, leading to abnormal presynaptic vesicle release. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Cav2.1[EFb] channels show somatic, proximal and distal dendritic localization while Cav2.1[EFa] channels are expressed in the cell bodies, proximal dendrites as well as presynaptic terminals. (nus.edu.sg)
  • N-type ('N' for "Neural-Type" ) calcium channels are found primarily at presynaptic terminals and are involved in neurotransmission . (ipfs.io)
  • Under the terms of the agreement, Neuromed grants Merck an exclusive worldwide license to research, develop and commercialize NMED-160 and other compounds that selectively target the N-type calcium channel. (bionity.com)
  • The features of the LTC that specify its functions are not known, but one possibility is that Ca 2+ -binding proteins bound to the channel sense the local Ca 2+ concentration and selectively activate signaling pathways when the channel opens. (sciencemag.org)
  • L-type calcium channels selectively signal to the nucleus. (sciencemag.org)
  • The latter effect was abolished by isradipine, suggesting that palmitate selectively modulates l-type Ca(2+) channels. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Collectively, our data further support a role for Ca v 3.2 channels in peripheral nociception and identify a novel mechanism for Ca v 3.2 modulation that underlies nociceptor sensitization. (jneurosci.org)
  • The report provides detailed coverage of the pipeline landscape for this mechanism of action, equipped with data from multiple sources with complete pipeline analysis by developmental stage, associated indications, route of administration and molecule type. (reportbuyer.com)
  • This approach has allowed us to separate the Ca 2+ -conducting properties of the LTC from its signaling properties and has provided insight into the mechanism by which voltage-gated channels regulate gene expression. (sciencemag.org)
  • Our results indicate that T-type calcium channels are critical regulators of a C. elegans serotonergic circuit and demonstrate a mechanism in which T-type channels functionally gate inhibitory modulation in vivo . (elifesciences.org)
  • Introduction: Functional and structural diversity among voltage-gated calcium channels is an important mechanism employed by cells to optimize calcium dependent signaling. (sid.ir)
  • Although CICR was first proposed for skeletal muscle in the 1970s, it is now known that CICR is unlikely to be the primary mechanism for activating SR calcium release. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pore is formed by the alpha-1 subunit which incorporates the conduction pore, the voltage sensor and gating apparatus, and the known sites of channel regulation by second messengers, drugs, and toxins [ PMID: 14657414 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Structure and regulation of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • To investigate the up regulation of cardiac T-type Ca 2+ channels in vivo , rats were maintained in chronic hypoxia, where they developed significantly elevated RV systolic pressure, RV hypertrophy and reduced cardiac output. (ahajournals.org)
  • These findings support a novel role for CRMP-2 in the regulation of N-type Ca 2+ channels and in transmitter release. (biologists.org)
  • Improper function and regulation of these Ca 2+ channels contributes to epilepsy, migraine, ataxia and other neurological diseases. (biologists.org)
  • Calcium regulation: Isn't that spatial? (deepdyve.com)
  • In conclusion this thesis not only supports the notion of L-type Ca2+ channels being essential for beta-cell function but also reveals new aspects that help to understand their regulation in health and disease with the prospect of this being of relevance for future scientific work. (avhandlingar.se)
  • Souvannakitti D, Nanduri J, Yuan G, Kumar GK, Fox AP, Prabhakar NR. NADPH oxidase-dependent regulation of T-type Ca2+ channels and ryanodine receptors mediate the augmented exocytosis of catecholamines from intermittent hypoxia-treated neonatal rat chromaffin cells. (uchicago.edu)
  • In ZG cells, calcium entry through voltage-gated calcium channels plays a central role in the regulation of aldosterone secretion. (bioscientifica.com)
  • The naturally occurring ù-conotoxins have activity at various Ca channels including the N- (Cav2.2), P/Q- (Cav2.1), R- (Cav2.3), and T- (Cav3.1/3.2) type channels and have served as platforms for the development of therapeutic agents now in development. (pharmiweb.com)
  • Here, we examine the localization and functional expression of the T-type calcium channel subunit, CaV3.1, in bipolar cells of the macaque monkey retina. (arvojournals.org)
  • Evaluation of a Two-Site, Three-Barrier Model for Permeation in CaV3.1 (α1G) T-Type Calcium. (deepdyve.com)
  • We further showed that, during windup, NMDA receptors provide a critical excitatory component in a dynamic balance of excitatory and inhibitory inputs which ultimately activates L -type calcium channels. (wiley.com)
  • 5 MAP kinase has been shown to be activated by calcium influx through both N -methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and L-type Ca 2+ channels. (asahq.org)
  • Where they terminate at a synapse, nociceptors have a unique set of ion channels and receptors which control release of pain neurotransmitters. (painonline.com)
  • Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. (rcsb.org)
  • A gene on chromosome 1q25-q31 that encodes the alpha-1E subunit of a voltage-dependent calcium channel, which mediates the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • These channels are also involved in various calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and apoptosis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The Ca v 2.2 gene whic h encodes the functional core of the N-type calcium channels ( a 1B ( has the potential to generate several Ca v 2.2 splice variants with different properties. (sid.ir)
  • This gene encodes an alpha-1 subunit of a voltage-dependent calcium channel. (biomol.com)
  • This gene encodes a T-type, low-voltage activated calcium channel. (nih.gov)
  • The α 1 subunit is also known as the calcium channel, voltage-dependent, N type, alpha 1B subunit ( CACNA1B ) or Ca v 2.2 [1] which in humans is encoded by the CACNA1B gene . (ipfs.io)
  • Calmodulin supports both inactivation and facilitation of L-type calcium channels. (nih.gov)
  • Among the many types of voltage-gated Ca2+ channel, L-type Ca2+ channels particularly display inactivation and facilitation, both of which are closely linked to the earlier entry of Ca2+ ions. (nih.gov)
  • All GABA A R modulators induced a negative shift in the steady-state inactivation curve of Ca v 1.3 channels, but only BDZs and pentobarbital induced a negative shift in Ca v 1.2 channel inactivation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Although N-channel P o during individual sweeps at +40 mV was often high (∼0.8), mean P o was reduced by null sweeps, low P o gating, inactivation, and slow activation. (rupress.org)
  • Effects on permeation were isolated using instantaneous current-voltage relationships (IIV) after strong, brief depolarizations to activate channels with minimal inactivation. (deepdyve.com)
  • The n5209 mutation changes the voltage-dependence of steady-state activation and inactivation of T-type channels. (elifesciences.org)
  • A particularity of this type of channel is an opening at quite negative potentials and a voltage-dependent inactivation. (nih.gov)
  • Another important facet of the T-type voltage gated calcium channel is its fast voltage-dependent inactivation compared to that of other calcium channels. (alchetron.com)
  • They are poorly understood, but like R-type calcium channels, they appear to be present in cerebellar granule cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our results indicate that N-type channels contribute to thalamic and cerebellar IPSCs only transiently during early postnatal period and P/Q-type channels predominantly mediate mature synaptic transmission, as we reported previously at the brainstem auditory synapse formed by the calyx of Held. (jneurosci.org)
  • In contrast to thalamic and cerebellar IPSCs and brainstem auditory EPSCs, N-type Ca 2+ channels persistently contribute to cerebral cortical EPSCs and spinal IPSCs throughout postnatal months. (jneurosci.org)
  • The leaner mouse also carries a mutation in the alpha(1A) subunit of P/Q-type voltage-gated calcium channels, which results in a severe cerebellar atrophy and ataxia. (tamu.edu)
  • P/Q type calcium-channel antibodies in paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration with lung cancer. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Aβ-, Aδ- and C-fibers of the uninjured sural nerve were sensitized revealed by in vivo single-unit recording, which were accompanied by accumulation of Ca v 3.2 T-type calcium channel proteins shown by Western blotting. (frontiersin.org)
  • The modulation of calcium channels by the actin cytoskeleton or actin-binding proteins (ABP) is not well understood. (hindawi.com)
  • In addition, a yeast-two-hybrid screen was performed to find potential interacting proteins with the EF-hand of the Cav2.1[EFa] channel. (nus.edu.sg)
  • Certain proteins such as caveolins and Ca2+ channels found in the heart control the cardiac contractile function and could offer protection during hypertrophy. (grantome.com)
  • Here we focus on new research describing a constituent of the venom from the Brazilian Wandering Spider as another Cav2.2 channel blocker. (pharmiweb.com)
  • Cav2.2 (N-type) channels were most sensitive to PnTx3-6, blocked at low nanomolar potency, with activity observed in both transfected HEK cells and neuroblastoma cell lines. (pharmiweb.com)
  • N-type calcium channels are important for neurotransmitter release at synapses of the peripheral and central nervous system. (rupress.org)
  • The distinct subcellular localization of Cav2.1[EFa] and Cav2.1[EFb] channels suggests compartmentalized roles of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels in neurotransmitter release and generation of synaptic plasticity. (nus.edu.sg)
  • [6] Strong depolarization by an action potential causes these channels to open and allow influx of Ca 2+ , initiating vesicle fusion and release of stored neurotransmitter. (ipfs.io)
  • In skeletal muscle, the L-type calcium channels act as a voltage sensor for excitation-contraction coupling, and in cardiac muscle, they provide a pathway for calcium influx. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • CONCLUSIONS Our results indicate that pharmacological antagonism of T-channels is potentially an important novel therapeutic approach for the management of painful diabetic neuropathy. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Thus a combination of kinetic and pharmacological evidence supports the hypothesis that domain III is an important regulator of N-channel closing. (elsevier.com)
  • Pharmacological evidence of T-type calcium channels suggest that they play a role in several forms cancer, absence epilepsy, pain, and Parkinson's disease. (alchetron.com)
  • As with other sub-types of voltage-gated calcium channel, the α 1 subunit forms the pore through which calcium enters the cell and determines most of the channel's properties. (ipfs.io)
  • The α 1 subunit of T-type channels is the primary subunit that forms the pore of the channel, and allows for entry of calcium. (alchetron.com)
  • The authors further demonstrate that substrate interaction determines which specific α 1 Ca channel subunit isoform predominates and mediates Ca 2+ entry and RVD. (springer.com)
  • The present study aims to investigate the possible contribution of Ca v 3.2 T-type calcium channels in uninjured afferent nerve fibers to neuropathic pain in rats with spared nerve injury (SNI). (frontiersin.org)
  • These results suggest that axonal accumulation of Ca v 3.2 T-type calcium channels plays an important role in the uninjured sural nerve sensitization and contributes to neuropathic pain. (frontiersin.org)
  • The functional properties of bipolar cells are shaped by the inventory and sub-cellular distribution of voltage-gated ion channels they express. (arvojournals.org)
  • These voltage-gated ion channels can contribute to several functional reqirements of ganglion cells. (arvojournals.org)
  • This study aimed at identifying the type and functional significance of potassium channels and voltage-dependent calcium channels (Ca v ) in single rat JG cells using whole-cell patch clamp. (ahajournals.org)
  • We conclude that JG cells express functional cAMP-sensitive BK Ca channels (the ZERO splice variant) and voltage-dependent L-type Ca 2+ channels. (ahajournals.org)
  • On the basis of their voltage activation properties, the voltage-gated calcium classes can be further divided into two broad groups: the low (T-type) and high (L, N, P, Q and R-type) threshold-activated channels. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • However, the role of voltage-gated calcium channels in cocaine-induced responses is not clear. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Electrophysiological experiments, carried out on mouse pancreatic B-cells, showed that glacontryphan-M blocks L-type voltage-gated calcium ion channel activity in a calcium-dependent manner. (lu.se)
  • CACNA1C has several biochemical functions, for example, calcium channel activity, high voltage-gated calcium channel activity, ion channel activity. (creativebiomart.net)
  • The leaner mutation causes reduced calcium ion influx upon activation of P/Q-type voltage-gated calcium channels. (tamu.edu)
  • Within cardiac and smooth muscle cells voltage-gated calcium channel activation initiates contraction directly by allowing the cytosolic concentration to increase. (alchetron.com)
  • Although all of these functions of the T-type voltage gated calcium channel are important, quite possibly the most important of its functions is its ability to generate potentials that allow for rhythmic bursts of action potentials in cardiac cells of the sinoatrial node of the heart and in the thalamus of the brain. (alchetron.com)
  • Calcium homeostasis can be regulated by several types of calcium channels, including voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs). (biomedcentral.com)
  • These channels are examples of molecular signal-transduction units that regulate themselves through their own activity. (nih.gov)
  • Despite extensive biophysical analysis, the molecular basis of autoregulation remains unclear, although a putative Ca2+-binding EF-hand motif and a nearby consensus calmodulin-binding isoleucine-glutamine ('IQ') motif in the carboxy terminus of the alpha1C channel subunit have been implicated. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, although Ca V channels are mobile, molecular scaffolds confine them beneath the ribbon to maintain neurotransmission even at high release rates. (jneurosci.org)
  • We conclude that Ca V channels are mobile, but molecular scaffolds maintain channels within a confinement area beneath the ribbon to support synaptic release even at high rates. (jneurosci.org)
  • However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the functions of T-channels in nociceptors are poorly understood. (jneurosci.org)
  • Another area that is being extensively mined for new molecular targets includes the voltage-activated Ca channels. (pharmiweb.com)
  • This represents the first molecular identification of the Ca channels that transduce the initiation signal for RVD by osteoblastic cells. (springer.com)
  • We have used the patch-clamp technique in combination with molecular techniques to define the ion channels involved in the outward current and to study the presence of Ca v in JG cells and their possible interaction with the secretory process. (ahajournals.org)
  • Moreover, the possible role of auxiliary subunit composition of the channels in Angiotensin II modulation of L-type calcium channels has not yet been explored. (nih.gov)
  • Ca(v)β(2a) containing channels were insensitive to modulation and this effect was partially due to the N-terminal palmitoylation sites of this subunit. (nih.gov)
  • Although the effective treatment of chronic pain remains elusive, recent findings suggest the importance of T-channels in peripheral nociception, raising the possibility that modulation of those channels might be therapeutic in the treatment of acute ( 6 , 7 ) and chronic ( 8 ) pain. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • L-channels lack this response to roscovitine, which allowed us to use N-L chimeras to test the role of domain III in roscovitine modulation of N-channel deactivation. (elsevier.com)
  • Robust Ca 2+ channel modulation required coexpression of both Gβ and Gγ. (elsevier.com)
  • Therefore, the hypothesis was that T-type channels contribute to the endothelial dysfunction of aging. (springer.com)
  • In conclusion, T-type calcium channel-deficient mice develop less age-dependent endothelial dysfunction. (springer.com)
  • These findings suggest that T-type channels play an important role in age-induced endothelial dysfunction. (springer.com)
  • Furthermore, dysfunction of Ca channels is implicated in numerous CNS disorders ranging from epilepsy to chronic pain. (pharmiweb.com)
  • Dysfunction of P/Q-type calcium channels is thought to underlie a variety of neurological diseases. (eurekaselect.com)
  • It shares sequence characteristics with all voltage-dependent cation channels, and exploits the same 6-helix bundle structural motif - in both sodium and calcium channels, this motif is repeated 4 times within the sequence to give a 24-helix bundle. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • T-type calcium channels are activated in the same range as voltage-gated sodium channels, which is at about -55 mV. (alchetron.com)
  • This is very important for the heart when stimulated by the sympathetic nervous system that causes the heart rate to increase, in that not only does the T-type calcium channel provide an extra depolarization punch in addition to the voltage gated sodium channels to cause a stronger depolarization, but it also helps provide a quicker depolarization of the cardiac cells. (alchetron.com)
  • By means of extracellular recordings in the dorsal horn, we showed that windup of dorsal horn neuron discharge was sensitive to the modulators of L -type calcium current. (wiley.com)
  • The channel activity is directed by the pore-forming and voltage-sensitive alpha-1 subunit. (rcsb.org)
  • The pore-forming α1 subunit of T-type channels has at least three subtypes, α1G (Ca v 3.1), α1H (Ca v 3.2) and α1I (Ca v 3.3). (frontiersin.org)
  • p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. (uniprot.org)
  • The Ca 2+ influx through L-type voltage sensitive Ca 2+ channels activates the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling pathway. (asahq.org)
  • Both the pharmacologically isolated GIRK-like and the TRPC-like components of the TRH-induced response were decreased by nifedipine and increased by BayK8644, implying Ca 2+ influx via L-type Ca 2+ channels. (physiology.org)
  • Enhanced T-type channel expression has been causally linked to a number of pathological conditions including peripheral painful diabetic neuropathy. (springer.com)
  • Collectively, our study indicates that glucose and N-glycosylation act in concert to control the expression of Ca v 3.2 channels, and that alteration of these mechanisms may contribute to the altered expression of T-type channels in pathological conditions. (springer.com)
  • Thus, when expressed in pathological conditions, T-type Ca 2+ channels may play a dual role as a signaling intermediary, as well as a modifier of ventricular contractile function. (ahajournals.org)
  • However, the induction of pathological hypertrophic Ca2+ signaling results from the re-expression and activation of fetal T-type Ca2+ channels (TTCC). (grantome.com)
  • Swelling-induced [Ca 2+ ] i transients, and RVD in cells grown on a type I collagen matrix, are inhibited by removal of Ca from extracellular solutions, dihydropyridines, and antisense oligodeoxynucleotides directed exclusively to the α 1C isoform of the L-type Ca channel. (springer.com)
  • Ca 2+ transients and RVD in cells grown on untreated glass cover slips were inhibited by similar maneuvers, but only by antisense oligodeoxynucleotides directed to the α 1S isoform of the L-type Ca channel. (springer.com)
  • However, which L-type isoform is operative in human beta-cells and how the L-type channels may be regulated in health and disease are two questions that remain unanswered and formed the basis for this thesis. (avhandlingar.se)
  • The third study revealed that the L-type Ca2+ channel isoform Cav1.3 is the major isoform in enriched human beta-cells and that islets of type 2 diabetes patients express reduced levels of Cav1.3 mRNA than controls. (avhandlingar.se)
  • However, there is more than one type and the subtypes have subtypes, so it is necessary to pinpoint the real evildoer and Castiglioni may have done it. (painonline.com)
  • The corresponding influx of calcium serves to trigger secretion of CCK. (rti.org)
  • Influx of calcium into the cell through the L-type channel is responsible for excitation-contraction coupling in the heart. (illinois.edu)
  • Voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (VDCC) are a family of molecules that allow cells to couple electrical activity to intracellular Ca2+ signalling. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • In many cases, this subunit is sufficient to generate voltage-sensitive calcium channel activity. (rcsb.org)
  • Based on indirect experimental evidence, the difference may be associated with their differing activity on the voltage-operated calcium channel (L-VOCC). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Glacontryphan-M is the first contryphan reported to modulate the activity of L-type calcium ion channels. (lu.se)
  • In addition, its substrate NADPH reduces L-type channel activity while at the same time it is increasing the rate of insulin release. (avhandlingar.se)
  • Our studies of the e37a/e37b splice site reveal a multifunctional domain in the C-terminus of Ca(V)2.2 that regulates the overall activity of N-type calcium channels in nociceptors. (painonline.com)
  • Previous studies in animal adrenals and human adrenal adrenocortical cell lines suggest that the T-type but not the L-type calcium channel activity drives aldosterone production. (bioscientifica.com)
  • T-type calcium channels function to control the pace-making activity of the SA Node within the heart and relay rapid action potentials within the thalamus. (alchetron.com)
  • Among them, the L-type calcium channel is responsible for the excitation-contraction coupling of skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscle. (nc3rs.org.uk)
  • Therefore, while they helped provide stronger and quicker depolarization of cardiac muscle cells and thalamus nerve cells, T-type channels also allow for more frequent depolarization events. (alchetron.com)