A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
Long-lasting voltage-gated CALCIUM CHANNELS found in both excitable and nonexcitable tissue. They are responsible for normal myocardial and vascular smooth muscle contractility. Five subunits (alpha-1, alpha-2, beta, gamma, and delta) make up the L-type channel. The alpha-1 subunit is the binding site for calcium-based antagonists. Dihydropyridine-based calcium antagonists are used as markers for these binding sites.
Pyridine moieties which are partially saturated by the addition of two hydrogen atoms in any position.
A potent vasodilator agent with calcium antagonistic action. It is a useful anti-anginal agent that also lowers blood pressure.
A benzothiazepine derivative with vasodilating action due to its antagonism of the actions of CALCIUM ion on membrane functions.
A calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
CALCIUM CHANNELS that are concentrated in neural tissue. Omega toxins inhibit the actions of these channels by altering their voltage dependence.
A heterogenous group of transient or low voltage activated type CALCIUM CHANNELS. They are found in cardiac myocyte membranes, the sinoatrial node, Purkinje cells of the heart and the central nervous system.
A long-acting dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. It is effective in the treatment of ANGINA PECTORIS and HYPERTENSION.
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of potassium efflux through cell membranes. Blockade of potassium channels prolongs the duration of ACTION POTENTIALS. They are used as ANTI-ARRHYTHMIA AGENTS and VASODILATOR AGENTS.
A potent calcium channel blockader with marked vasodilator action. It has antihypertensive properties and is effective in the treatment of angina and coronary spasms without showing cardiodepressant effects. It has also been used in the treatment of asthma and enhances the action of specific antineoplastic agents.
A benzimidazoyl-substituted tetraline that selectively binds and inhibits CALCIUM CHANNELS, T-TYPE.
A calcium channel blocker with marked vasodilator action. It is an effective antihypertensive agent and differs from other calcium channel blockers in that it does not reduce glomerular filtration rate and is mildly natriuretic, rather than sodium retentive.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
Agents that increase calcium influx into calcium channels of excitable tissues. This causes vasoconstriction in VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE and/or CARDIAC MUSCLE cells as well as stimulation of insulin release from pancreatic islets. Therefore, tissue-selective calcium agonists have the potential to combat cardiac failure and endocrinological disorders. They have been used primarily in experimental studies in cell and tissue culture.
A calcium channel blockader with preferential cerebrovascular activity. It has marked cerebrovascular dilating effects and lowers blood pressure.
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of sodium influx through cell membranes. Blockade of sodium channels slows the rate and amplitude of initial rapid depolarization, reduces cell excitability, and reduces conduction velocity.
A family of structurally related neurotoxic peptides from mollusk venom that inhibit voltage-activated entry of calcium into the presynaptic membrane. They selectively inhibit N-, P-, and Q-type calcium channels.
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
A neurotoxic peptide, which is a cleavage product (VIa) of the omega-Conotoxin precursor protein contained in venom from the marine snail, CONUS geographus. It is an antagonist of CALCIUM CHANNELS, N-TYPE.
A proline analog that acts as a stoichiometric replacement of proline. It causes the production of abnormal proteins with impaired biological activity.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.
A potent antagonist of CALCIUM CHANNELS that is highly selective for VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE. It is effective in the treatment of chronic stable angina pectoris, hypertension, and congestive cardiac failure.
CALCIUM CHANNELS located within the PURKINJE CELLS of the cerebellum. They are involved in stimulation-secretion coupling of neurons.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that form channels to selectively pass chloride ions. Nonselective blockers include FENAMATES; ETHACRYNIC ACID; and TAMOXIFEN.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Potassium channels where the flow of K+ ions into the cell is greater than the outward flow.
CALCIUM CHANNELS located in the neurons of the brain.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
CALCIUM CHANNELS located in the neurons of the brain. They are inhibited by the marine snail toxin, omega conotoxin MVIIC.
A neuropeptide toxin from the venom of the funnel web spider, Agelenopsis aperta. It inhibits CALCIUM CHANNELS, P-TYPE by altering the voltage-dependent gating so that very large depolarizations are needed for channel opening. It also inhibits CALCIUM CHANNELS, Q-TYPE.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Flunarizine is a selective calcium entry blocker with calmodulin binding properties and histamine H1 blocking activity. It is effective in the prophylaxis of migraine, occlusive peripheral vascular disease, vertigo of central and peripheral origin, and as an adjuvant in the therapy of epilepsy.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Potassium channel whose permeability to ions is extremely sensitive to the transmembrane potential difference. The opening of these channels is induced by the membrane depolarization of the ACTION POTENTIAL.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Potassium channels whose activation is dependent on intracellular calcium concentrations.
Heteromultimers of Kir6 channels (the pore portion) and sulfonylurea receptor (the regulatory portion) which affect function of the HEART; PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. KATP channel blockers include GLIBENCLAMIDE and mitiglinide whereas openers include CROMAKALIM and minoxidil sulfate.
A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.
Agents that antagonize ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR. Included are ANGIOTENSIN II analogs such as SARALASIN and biphenylimidazoles such as LOSARTAN. Some are used as ANTIHYPERTENSIVE AGENTS.
A dihydropyridine calcium antagonist with positive inotropic effects. It lowers blood pressure by reducing peripheral vascular resistance through a highly selective action on smooth muscle in arteriolar resistance vessels.
Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.
Venoms of arthropods of the order Araneida of the ARACHNIDA. The venoms usually contain several protein fractions, including ENZYMES, hemolytic, neurolytic, and other TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A piperazine derivative having histamine H1-receptor and calcium-channel blocking activity with vasodilating and antiemetic properties but it induces PARKINSONIAN DISORDERS.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.
Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.
An element of the alkaline earth group of metals. It has an atomic symbol Ba, atomic number 56, and atomic weight 138. All of its acid-soluble salts are poisonous.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Compounds with a BENZENE fused to IMIDAZOLES.
A salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.
A subgroup of TRP cation channels that contain 3-4 ANKYRIN REPEAT DOMAINS and a conserved C-terminal domain. Members are highly expressed in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Selectivity for calcium over sodium ranges from 0.5 to 10.
A major class of calcium activated potassium channels whose members are voltage-dependent. MaxiK channels are activated by either membrane depolarization or an increase in intracellular Ca(2+). They are key regulators of calcium and electrical signaling in a variety of tissues.
An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.
A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.
Unstable isotopes of calcium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ca atoms with atomic weights 39, 41, 45, 47, 49, and 50 are radioactive calcium isotopes.
A dihydropyridine calcium channel antagonist that acts as a potent arterial vasodilator and antihypertensive agent. It is also effective in patients with cardiac failure and angina.
Voltage-gated potassium channels whose primary subunits contain six transmembrane segments and form tetramers to create a pore with a voltage sensor. They are related to their founding member, shaker protein, Drosophila.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
A potassium-selective ion channel blocker. (From J Gen Phys 1994;104(1):173-90)
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
An antidiabetic sulfonylurea derivative with actions similar to those of chlorpropamide.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
One of the POTASSIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS, with secondary effect on calcium currents, which is used mainly as a research tool and to characterize channel subtypes.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
A long-acting calcium-blocking agent with significant anti-anginal activity. The drug produces significant coronary vasodilation and modest peripheral effects. It has antihypertensive and selective anti-arrhythmia activities and acts as a calmodulin antagonist.
Coronary vasodilator that is an analog of iproveratril (VERAPAMIL) with one more methoxy group on the benzene ring.
A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that is the predominant VOLTAGE-GATED POTASSIUM CHANNEL of T-LYMPHOCYTES.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
A subgroup of cyclic nucleotide-regulated ION CHANNELS within the superfamily of pore-loop cation channels. They are expressed in OLFACTORY NERVE cilia and in PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and some PLANTS.
A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after vanilloid receptor. They are very sensitive to TEMPERATURE and hot spicy food and CAPSAICIN. They have the TRP domain and ANKYRIN repeats. Selectivity for CALCIUM over SODIUM ranges from 3 to 100 fold.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
Benzoic acid or benzoic acid esters substituted with one or more nitro groups.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
A major class of calcium-activated potassium channels that are found primarily in excitable CELLS. They play important roles in the transmission of ACTION POTENTIALS and generate a long-lasting hyperpolarization known as the slow afterhyperpolarization.
Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
A class of polyamine and peptide toxins which are isolated from the venom of spiders such as Agelenopsis aperta.
A tetrameric calcium release channel in the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM membrane of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, acting oppositely to SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES. It is important in skeletal and cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and studied by using RYANODINE. Abnormalities are implicated in CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS and MUSCULAR DISEASES.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
A family of voltage-gated potassium channels that are characterized by long N-terminal and C-terminal intracellular tails. They are named from the Drosophila protein whose mutation causes abnormal leg shaking under ether anesthesia. Their activation kinetics are dependent on extracellular MAGNESIUM and PROTON concentration.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Lanthanum. The prototypical element in the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol La, atomic number 57, and atomic weight 138.91. Lanthanide ion is used in experimental biology as a calcium antagonist; lanthanum oxide improves the optical properties of glass.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).
A trace element with the atomic symbol Ni, atomic number 28, and atomic weight 58.69. It is a cofactor of the enzyme UREASE.
Partially saturated 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene compounds.
A highly neurotoxic polypeptide from the venom of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). It consists of 18 amino acids with two disulfide bridges and causes hyperexcitability resulting in convulsions and respiratory paralysis.
A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that is commonly mutated in human episodic ATAXIA and MYOKYMIA.
An element with atomic symbol Cd, atomic number 48, and atomic weight 114. It is a metal and ingestion will lead to CADMIUM POISONING.
A 37-amino acid residue peptide isolated from the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus. It is a neurotoxin that inhibits calcium activated potassium channels.
Agents that inhibit SODIUM CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS. They act as DIURETICS. Excess use is associated with HYPOKALEMIA.
A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after melastatin protein. They have the TRP domain but lack ANKYRIN repeats. Enzyme domains in the C-terminus leads to them being called chanzymes.
A fluorescent calcium chelating agent which is used to study intracellular calcium in tissues.
A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that is selectively inhibited by a variety of SCORPION VENOMS.
A family of delayed rectifier voltage-gated potassium channels that share homology with their founding member, KCNQ1 PROTEIN. KCNQ potassium channels have been implicated in a variety of diseases including LONG QT SYNDROME; DEAFNESS; and EPILEPSY.
Sodium channels found on salt-reabsorbing EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the distal NEPHRON; the distal COLON; SALIVARY DUCTS; SWEAT GLANDS; and the LUNG. They are AMILORIDE-sensitive and play a critical role in the control of sodium balance, BLOOD VOLUME, and BLOOD PRESSURE.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that conducts a delayed rectifier current. It contributes to ACTION POTENTIAL repolarization of MYOCYTES in HEART ATRIA.
The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
Agents used for the treatment or prevention of cardiac arrhythmias. They may affect the polarization-repolarization phase of the action potential, its excitability or refractoriness, or impulse conduction or membrane responsiveness within cardiac fibers. Anti-arrhythmia agents are often classed into four main groups according to their mechanism of action: sodium channel blockade, beta-adrenergic blockade, repolarization prolongation, or calcium channel blockade.
Venoms from mollusks, including CONUS and OCTOPUS species. The venoms contain proteins, enzymes, choline derivatives, slow-reacting substances, and several characterized polypeptide toxins that affect the nervous system. Mollusk venoms include cephalotoxin, venerupin, maculotoxin, surugatoxin, conotoxins, and murexine.
A family of proton-gated sodium channels that are primarily expressed in neuronal tissue. They are AMILORIDE-sensitive and are implicated in the signaling of a variety of neurological stimuli, most notably that of pain in response to acidic conditions.
Venoms from animals of the order Scorpionida of the class Arachnida. They contain neuro- and hemotoxins, enzymes, and various other factors that may release acetylcholine and catecholamines from nerve endings. Of the several protein toxins that have been characterized, most are immunogenic.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.
Agents that antagonize ANGIOTENSIN RECEPTORS. Many drugs in this class specifically target the ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR.
Coronary vasodilator with some antiarrhythmic action.
An analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
Stable calcium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element calcium, but differ in atomic weight. Ca-42-44, 46, and 48 are stable calcium isotopes.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
Non-inflammatory enlargement of the gingivae produced by factors other than local irritation. It is characteristically due to an increase in the number of cells. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p400)
ISOQUINOLINES with a benzyl substituent.
An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Agents that affect the rate or intensity of cardiac contraction, blood vessel diameter, or blood volume.
Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.
A sesquiterpene lactone found in roots of THAPSIA. It inhibits CA(2+)-TRANSPORTING ATPASE mediated uptake of CALCIUM into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
A broad group of eukaryotic six-transmembrane cation channels that are classified by sequence homology because their functional involvement with SENSATION is varied. They have only weak voltage sensitivity and ion selectivity. They are named after a DROSOPHILA mutant that displayed transient receptor potentials in response to light. A 25-amino-acid motif containing a TRP box (EWKFAR) just C-terminal to S6 is found in TRPC, TRPV and TRPM subgroups. ANKYRIN repeats are found in TRPC, TRPV & TRPN subgroups. Some are functionally associated with TYROSINE KINASE or TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A subfamily of shaker potassium channels that shares homology with its founding member, Shab protein, Drosophila. They regulate delayed rectifier currents in the NERVOUS SYSTEM of DROSOPHILA and in the SKELETAL MUSCLE and HEART of VERTEBRATES.
A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.
Any of a variety of eruptive skin disorders characterized by erythema, oozing, vesiculation, and scaling. Etiology is varied.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
2-, 3-, or 4-Pyridinecarboxylic acids. Pyridine derivatives substituted with a carboxy group at the 2-, 3-, or 4-position. The 3-carboxy derivative (NIACIN) is active as a vitamin.
Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
The fluid inside CELLS.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.
A shaker subfamily that is prominently expressed in NEURONS and are necessary for high-frequency, repetitive firing of ACTION POTENTIALS.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.
A major class of calcium-activated potassium channels that were originally discovered in ERYTHROCYTES. They are found primarily in non-excitable CELLS and set up electrical gradients for PASSIVE ION TRANSPORT.
A voltage-gated potassium channel that is expressed primarily in the HEART.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.
An optical isomer of quinine, extracted from the bark of the CHINCHONA tree and similar plant species. This alkaloid dampens the excitability of cardiac and skeletal muscles by blocking sodium and potassium currents across cellular membranes. It prolongs cellular ACTION POTENTIALS, and decreases automaticity. Quinidine also blocks muscarinic and alpha-adrenergic neurotransmission.
Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Coronary vasodilator; inhibits calcium function in muscle cells in excitation-contraction coupling; proposed as antiarrhythmic and antianginal agents.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
A family of inwardly-rectifying potassium channels that are activated by PERTUSSIS TOXIN sensitive G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS. GIRK potassium channels are primarily activated by the complex of GTP-BINDING PROTEIN BETA SUBUNITS and GTP-BINDING PROTEIN GAMMA SUBUNITS.
The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.
A fast inactivating subtype of shaker potassium channels that contains two inactivation domains at its N terminus.
An inhibitor of anion conductance including band 3-mediated anion transport.
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
A pyrazine compound inhibiting SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS. This inhibition creates a negative potential in the luminal membranes of principal cells, located in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Negative potential reduces secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Amiloride is used in conjunction with DIURETICS to spare POTASSIUM loss. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p705)
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
A subgroup of cyclic nucleotide-regulated ION CHANNELS of the superfamily of pore-loop cation channels that are opened by hyperpolarization rather than depolarization. The ion conducting pore passes SODIUM, CALCIUM, and POTASSIUM cations with a preference for potassium.
Spasm of the large- or medium-sized coronary arteries.
An angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor that is used to treat HYPERTENSION and HEART FAILURE.
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
A shaker subfamily of potassium channels that participate in transient outward potassium currents by activating at subthreshold MEMBRANE POTENTIALS, inactivating rapidly, and recovering from inactivation quickly.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A phenothiazine with actions similar to CHLORPROMAZINE. It is used as an antipsychotic and an antiemetic.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A group of slow opening and closing voltage-gated potassium channels. Because of their delayed activation kinetics they play an important role in controlling ACTION POTENTIAL duration.

Ionic currents underlying spontaneous action potentials in isolated cerebellar Purkinje neurons. (1/6563)

Acutely dissociated cell bodies of mouse Purkinje neurons spontaneously fired action potentials at approximately 50 Hz (25 degrees C). To directly measure the ionic currents underlying spontaneous activity, we voltage-clamped the cells using prerecorded spontaneous action potentials (spike trains) as voltage commands and used ionic substitution and selective blockers to isolate individual currents. The largest current flowing during the interspike interval was tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium current (approximately -50 pA between -65 and -60 mV). Although the neurons had large voltage-dependent calcium currents, the net current blocked by cobalt substitution for calcium was outward at all times during spike trains. Thus, the electrical effect of calcium current is apparently dominated by rapidly activated calcium-dependent potassium currents. Under current clamp, all cells continued firing spontaneously (though approximately 30% more slowly) after block of T-type calcium current by mibefradil, and most cells continued to fire after block of all calcium current by cobalt substitution. Although the neurons possessed hyperpolarization-activated cation current (Ih), little current flowed during spike trains, and block by 1 mM cesium had no effect on firing frequency. The outward potassium currents underlying the repolarization of the spikes were completely blocked by 1 mM TEA. These currents deactivated quickly (<1 msec) after each spike. We conclude that the spontaneous firing of Purkinje neuron cell bodies depends mainly on tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium current flowing between spikes. The high firing rate is promoted by large potassium currents that repolarize the cell rapidly and deactivate quickly, thus preventing strong hyperpolarization and restoring a high input resistance for subsequent depolarization.  (+info)

Activation of human D3 dopamine receptor inhibits P/Q-type calcium channels and secretory activity in AtT-20 cells. (2/6563)

The D3 dopamine receptor is postulated to play an important role in the regulation of neurotransmitter secretion at both pre- and postsynaptic terminals. However, this hypothesis and the underlying mechanisms remain untested because of the lack of D3-selective ligands, paucity of appropriate model secretory systems, and the weak and inconsistent coupling of D3 receptors to classical signal transduction pathways. The absence of ligands that selectively discriminate between D3 and D2 receptors in vivo precludes the study of D3 receptor function in the brain and necessitates the use of heterologous expression systems. In this report we demonstrate that activation of the human D3 dopamine receptor expressed in the AtT-20 neuroendocrine cell line causes robust inhibition of P/Q-type calcium channels via pertussis toxin-sensitive G-proteins. In addition, using the vesicle trafficking dye FM1-43, we show that D3 receptor activation significantly inhibits spontaneous secretory activity in these cells. Our results not only support the hypothesis that the D3 receptor can regulate secretory activity but also provide insight into the underlying signaling mechanisms. We propose a functional model in which the D3 receptor tightly regulates neurotransmitter release at a synapse by only allowing the propagation of spikes above a certain frequency or burst-duration threshold.  (+info)

Luteinizing hormone inhibits conversion of pregnenolone to progesterone in luteal cells from rats on day 19 of pregnancy. (3/6563)

We have previously reported that intrabursal ovarian administration of LH at the end of pregnancy in rats induces a decrease in luteal progesterone (P4) synthesis and an increase in P4 metabolism. However, whether this local luteolytic effect of LH is exerted directly on luteal cells or on other structures, such as follicular or stromal cells, to modify luteal function is unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of LH on isolated luteal cells obtained on Day 19 of pregnancy. Incubation of luteal cells with 1, 10, 100, or 1000 ng/ml of ovine LH (oLH) for 6 h did not modify basal P4 production. The addition to the culture medium of 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol (22R-HC, 10 microgram/ml), a membrane-permeable P4 precursor, or pregnenolone (10(-2) microM) induced a significant increase in P4 accumulation in the medium in relation to the control value. When luteal cells were preincubated for 2 h with oLH, a significant (p < 0.01) reduction in the 22R-HC- or pregnenolone-stimulated P4 accumulation was observed. Incubation of luteal cells with dibutyryl cAMP (1 mM, a cAMP analogue) plus isobutylmethylxanthine (1 mM, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor) also inhibited pregnenolone-stimulated P4 accumulation. Incubation with an inositol triphosphate synthesis inhibitor, neomycin (1 mM), or an inhibitor of intracellular Ca2+ mobilization, (8,9-N, N-diethylamino)octyl-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate (1 mM), did not prevent the decrease in pregnenolone-stimulated P4 secretion induced by oLH. It was concluded that the luteolytic action of LH in late pregnancy is due, at least in part, to a direct action on the luteal cells and that an increase in intracellular cAMP level might mediate this effect.  (+info)

Drug-protein binding and blood-brain barrier permeability. (4/6563)

The permeability surface area (PS) product, an index of permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), was measured by using the in situ perfusion method. In the cerebral circulation, the fraction of drug that permeates into the brain through the BBB is not only the unbound fraction but also the fraction dissociated from the protein in the perfusate. The sum of these two fractions, the apparent exchangeable fraction, was estimated by fitting the parameters of the BBB permeability under the condition of varying BSA concentrations in the perfusate. The unbound fraction of drugs in a buffer containing 0.5 mM BSA was measured by using the ultrafiltration method in vitro, and the apparent exchangeable fraction was measured in vivo by using the intracarotid artery injection method. The apparent exchange fraction was 100% for S-8510, 96.5% for diazepam, 90.9% for caffeine, 38.3% for S-312-d, 33.1% for propranolol, and 6.68% for (+)-S-145 Na, and each of these was higher than the corresponding unbound fraction in vitro in all drugs. The apparent exchangeable fractions, for example, were 8 times higher for diazepam and 38 times for S-312-d than the unbound fractions in vitro. The apparent exchangeable fraction of drugs was also estimated from the parameters obtained with the perfusion method. Because drugs can be infused for an arbitrary length of time in the perfusion method, substances with low permeability can be measured. The apparent exchangeable fractions obtained with this method were almost the same as those obtained with the intracarotid artery injection method.  (+info)

Glomerular size-selective dysfunction in NIDDM is not ameliorated by ACE inhibition or by calcium channel blockade. (5/6563)

BACKGROUND: In patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and overt nephropathy glomerular barrier size-selectivity progressively deteriorates with time and is effectively improved by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition. Whether similar glomerular functional changes develop in proteinuric patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), and whether antihypertensive agents can favorably affect glomerular filtration of macromolecules in these patients, has not been documented yet. METHODS: We investigated renal hemodynamics and fractional clearance of neutral dextrans of graded sizes, in nine proteinuric patients with NIDDM and renal biopsy findings of typical diabetic glomerulopathy. Six healthy volunteers served as controls. We also investigated the effects of an ACE inhibitor and of a calcium channel blocker, both given in doses targeted to achieve a comparable level of systemic blood pressure control, on glomerular hemodynamics and sieving function. Theoretical analysis of glomerular macromolecule transport was adopted to evaluate intrinsic glomerular membrane permeability properties. RESULTS: Fractional clearance of large macromolecules (42 to 66 A in radius) was significantly higher in diabetic patients than in controls, and the distribution of membrane pore radii was calculated to be shifted towards larger pore sizes in diabetics (mean radius increased from 55 to 60 A). Despite effective blood pressure control, neither antihypertensive affected glomerular hemodynamics to any significant extent. Fractional clearance of dextrans, as well as of albumin and IgG, and total urinary proteins were not modified by either treatments. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that patients with NIDDM and overt nephropathy develop abnormalities in size-selective function of the glomerular barrier and, at variance to IDDM, such changes were not ameliorated either by ACE inhibition or calcium channel blockade.  (+info)

N-type voltage-dependent calcium channels mediate the nicotinic enhancement of GABA release in chick brain. (6/6563)

The role of voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs) in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR)-mediated enhancement of spontaneous GABAergic inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) was investigated in chick brain slices. Whole cell recordings of neurons in the lateral spiriform (SpL) and ventral lateral geniculate (LGNv) nuclei showed that cadmium chloride (CdCl2) blocked the carbachol-induced increase of spontaneous GABAergic IPSCs, indicating that VDCCs might be involved. To conclusively show a role for VDCCs, the presynaptic effect of carbachol on SpL and LGNv neurons was examined in the presence of selective blockers of VDCC subtypes. omega-Conotoxin GVIA, a selective antagonist of N-type channels, significantly reduced the nAChR-mediated enhancement of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) release in the SpL by 78% compared with control responses. Nifedipine, an L-type channel blocker, and omega-Agatoxin-TK, a P/Q-type channel blocker, did not inhibit the enhancement of GABAergic IPSCs. In the LGNv, omega-Conotoxin GVIA also significantly reduced the nAChR-mediated enhancement of GABA release by 71% from control values. Although omega-Agatoxin-TK did not block the nicotinic enhancement, L-type channel blockers showed complex effects on the nAChR-mediated enhancement. These results indicate that the nAChR-mediated enhancement of spontaneous GABAergic IPSCs requires activation of N-type channels in both the SpL and LGNv.  (+info)

Light-induced calcium influx into retinal axons is regulated by presynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activity in vivo. (7/6563)

Visual activity is thought to be a critical factor in controlling the development of central retinal projections. Neuronal activity increases cytosolic calcium, which was hypothesized to regulate process outgrowth in neurons. We performed an in vivo imaging study in the retinotectal system of albino Xenopus laevis tadpoles with the fluorescent calcium indicator calcium green 1 dextran (CaGD) to test the role of calcium in regulating axon arbor development. We find that visual stimulus to the retina increased CaGD fluorescence intensity in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axon arbors within the optic tectum and that branch additions to retinotectal axon arbors correlated with a local rise in calcium in the parent branch. We find three types of responses to visual stimulus, which roughly correlate with the ON, OFF, and SUSTAINED response types of RGC reported by physiological criteria. Imaging in bandscan mode indicated that patterns of calcium transients were nonuniform throughout the axons. We tested whether the increase in calcium in the retinotectal axons required synaptic activity in the retina; intraocular application of tetrodotoxin (10 microM) or nifedipine (1 and 10 microM) blocked the stimulus-induced increase in RGC axonal fluorescence. A second series of pharmacological investigations was designed to determine the mechanism of the calcium elevation in the axon terminals within the optic tectum. Injection of bis-(o-aminophenoxy)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid-AM (BAPTA-AM) (20 mM) into the tectal ventricle reduced axonal calcium levels, supporting the idea that visual stimulation increases axonal calcium. Injection of BAPTA (20 mM) into the tectal ventricle to chelate extracellular calcium also attenuated the calcium response to visual stimulation, indicating that calcium enters the axon from the extracellular medium. Caffeine (10 mM) caused a large increase in axonal calcium, indicating that intracellular stores contribute to the calcium signal. Presynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) may play a role in axon arbor development and the formation of the topographic retinotectal projection. Injection of nicotine (10 microM) into the tectal ventricle significantly elevated RGC axonal calcium levels, whereas application of the nAChR antagonist alphaBTX (100 nM) reduced the stimulus-evoked rise in RGC calcium fluorescence. These data suggest that light stimulus to the retina increases calcium in the axon terminal arbors through a mechanism that includes influx through nAChRs and amplification by calcium-induced calcium release from intracellular calcium stores. Such a mechanism may contribute to developmental plasticity of the retinotectal system by influencing both axon arbor elaboration and the strength of synaptic transmission.  (+info)

Retinal input induces three firing patterns in neurons of the superficial superior colliculus of neonatal rats. (8/6563)

By using an in vitro isolated brain stem preparation, we recorded extracellular responses to electrical stimulation of the optic tract (OT) from 71 neurons in the superficial superior colliculus (SC) of neonatal rats (P1-13). At postnatal day 1 (P1), all tested neurons (n = 10) already received excitatory input from the retina. Sixty-nine (97%) superficial SC neurons of neonatal rats showed three response patterns to OT stimulation, which depended on stimulus intensity. A weak stimulus evoked only one spike that was caused by activation of non-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors. A moderate stimulus elicited a short train (<250 ms) of spikes, which was induced by activation of both NMDA and non-NMDA receptors. A strong stimulus gave rise to a long train (>300 ms) of spikes, which was associated with additional activation of L-type high-threshold calcium channels. The long train firing pattern could also be induced either by temporal summation of retinal inputs or by blocking gamma-aminobutyric acid-A receptors. Because retinal ganglion cells show synchronous bursting activity before eye opening at P14, the retinotectal inputs appear to be sufficient to activate L-type calcium channels in the absence of pattern vision. Therefore activation of L-type calcium channels is likely to be an important source for calcium influx into SC neurons in neonatal rats.  (+info)

A calcium channel is an ion channel which shows selective permeability to calcium ions. It is sometimes synonymous as voltage-gated calcium channel, although there are also ligand-gated calcium channels. The following tables explain gating, gene, location and function of different types of calcium channels, both voltage and ligand-gated. the receptor-operated calcium channels (in vasoconstriction) P2X receptors L-type calcium channel blockers are used to treat hypertension. In most areas of the body, depolarization is mediated by sodium influx into a cell; changing the calcium permeability has little effect on action potentials. However, in many smooth muscle tissues, depolarization is mediated primarily by calcium influx into the cell. L-type calcium channel blockers selectively inhibit these action potentials in smooth muscle which leads to dilation of blood vessels; this in turn corrects hypertension. T-type calcium channel blockers are used to treat epilepsy. Increased calcium conductance in ...
L-type calcium channel blockers are used to treat hypertension. In most areas of the body, depolarization is mediated by sodium influx into a cell; changing the calcium permeability has little effect on action potentials. However, in many smooth muscle tissues, depolarization is mediated primarily by calcium influx into the cell. L-type calcium channel blockers selectively inhibit these action potentials in smooth muscle which leads to dilation of blood vessels; this in turn corrects hypertension.[8]. T-type calcium channel blockers are used to treat epilepsy. Increased calcium conductance in the neurons leads to increased depolarization and excitability. This leads to a greater predisposition to epileptic episodes. Calcium channel blockers reduce the neuronal calcium conductance and reduce the likelihood of experiencing epileptic attacks.[9]. ...
PURPOSE: We investigated whether dipyridamole and various calcium channel blockers are inhibitors and/or substrates of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). METHODS: The effect of dipyridamole and the calcium channel blockers on mitoxantrone efflu
Calcium channel blockers are drugs that block the entry of calcium into the cells of the heart and blood vessels walls by interacting with calcium channels. They are primarily used to treat hypertension, angina and arrhythmias. Learn about the different classes of calcium channel blocker medications and how they are used.
The calcium channel blockers are a group of drugs which impede calcium ion entry into cells, thereby inhibiting myocardial and smooth muscle contraction, as well as various secretory processes. In theory, these agents might be active in obstructive airways diseases, especially asthma, by blocking airway smooth muscle constriction, mast cell degranulation, mucous gland secretion, and/or vagal neurotransmission. This report reviews the experimental evidence from animal and human studies, both in vitro and in vivo, that the calcium channel blockers inhibit bronchoconstriction. The usefulness of these drugs in patients with the obstructive airways syndromes remains to be determined by future clinical studies ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparison of cardiovascular, renal, and humoral effects of acute administration of two calcium channel blockers in normotensive and hypertensive subjects. AU - Leonetti, Gastone. AU - Cuspidi, Cesare. AU - Sampieri, Lorena. AU - Terzoli, Laura. AU - Zanchetti, Alberto. PY - 1982. Y1 - 1982. N2 - The acute effects of two calcium channel blockers, nifedipine and verapamil, were compared in eight normotensive subjects and eight patients with essential hypertension. Nifedipine 10 mg and verapamil 160 mg orally had no effect on blood pressure of normal subjects, but reduced systolic and diastolic pressures of hypertensive patients to the same extent. The blood pressure reduction caused by nifedipine was more prompt and of lesser duration than that caused by verapamil. In both normal subjects and hypertensive patients nifedipine caused a transient rise in heart rate and plasma renin activity, and plasma catecholamines showed a tendency to increase; verapamil did not affect these ...
Calcium channel blockers are used to treat hypertension, angina, and irregular heartbeats. Find out about these medications and their side effects.
Uehara, A.; Hume, J.R., 1984: Interactions of organic calcium channel antagonists with calcium channels in isolated frog atrial cells test of a modulated receptor hypothesis
The medicines used in the medical treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension may be associated with adverse side effects, which cause different types of health complications in the patient concerned. Anticoagulants are used to reduce the ability of blood clotting. Since the threat comes from the formation of blood clots in the artery, anticoagulants are used to minimize the risk. However, a persistent intake of medication may pose other health risks such as unusual bleeding, chills and fever. Calcium channel blockers are used to relax the muscles of blood vessels, while increasing the quantity of oxygenated blood moving into heart. This, quite obviously, allows heart to put less effort in pumping blood throughout the body. Side effects of calcium channel blockers may involve coughing, shortness of breath, swelling in feet, etc. Cardiac glycosides are used to give strength to the heart, while including specific side effects like vomiting, loss of appetite, etc. Unfortunately yet there is no ...
Calcium channel blockers can cause water retention and can make chest pain worse. This portion of the eMedTV Web site describes other important calcium channel blocker warnings and precautions, including who should not take these drugs.
Hi! I was wondering if anyone here has tried a calcium channel blocker before? If so, what calcium channel blocker did you try and did you have any side-effects? Did it help your migraines? I am...
In the largest randomized controlled trial of treatment for high blood pressure ever conducted in sub-Saharan Africa, two frontline two-drug combinations that included the long-acting calcium channel blocker, amlodipine, were able to drive down blood pressure levels more than a third two-drug combination that did not include amlodipine, according to research presented at the American College of Cardiologys 68th Annual Scientific Session.. ...
Calcium channel blockers work by blocking voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) in cardiac muscle and blood vessels. This decreases intracellular calcium leading to a reduction in muscle contraction. In the heart, a decrease in calcium available for each beat results in a decrease in cardiac contractility. In blood vessels, a decrease in calcium results in less contraction of the vascular smooth muscle and therefore an increase in arterial diameter (CCBs do not work on venous smooth muscle), a phenomenon called vasodilation. Vasodilation decreases total peripheral resistance, while a decrease in cardiac contractility decreases cardiac output. Since blood pressure is determined by cardiac output and peripheral resistance, blood pressure drops. Calcium channel blockers are especially effective against large vessel stiffness, one of the common causes of elevated systolic blood pressure in elderly patients ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ca2+ channel subtypes and pharmacology in the kidney. AU - Hayashi, Koichi. AU - Wakino, Shu. AU - Sugano, Naoki. AU - Ozawa, Yuri. AU - Homma, Koichiro. AU - Saruta, Takao. PY - 2007/2/1. Y1 - 2007/2/1. N2 - A large body of evidence has accrued indicating that voltage-gated Ca channel subtypes, including L-, T-, N-, and P/Q-type, are present within renal vascular and tubular tissues, and the blockade of these Ca channels produces diverse actions on renal microcirculation. Because nifedipine acts exclusively on L-type Ca channels, the observation that nifedipine predominantly dilates afferent arterioles implicates intrarenal heterogeneity in the distribution of L-type Ca channels and suggests that it potentially causes glomerular hypertension. In contrast, recently developed Ca channel blockers (CCBs), including mibefradil and efonidipine, exert blocking action on L-type and T-type Ca channels and elicit vasodilation of afferent and efferent arterioles, which suggests the ...
The pharmacological effects of Ca channel blockers on electrocardiogram (ECG) in the chick embryonic-heart were investigated under different lighting conditions. The fertile eggs of White Leghorn chickens were incubated in dark conditions and used on day 16 of incubation. Three different types of Ca channel blocker, nicardipine, diltiazem and verapamil were injected into the air sac of the fertile eggs under light conditions (450 Lux) or dark conditions (12 Lux). The bipolar lead of ECG patterns was recorded using ECG systems. Heart rates (HRs) were calculated from R-R intervals. Under light conditions, 3 kinds of Ca channel blockers caused a decrease in HRs in a dose-dependent manner and also arrhythmia was provoked. These phenomena were observed more clearly under dark conditions. Furthermore, these enhancements of the drug effects under dark conditions were also observed by concomitant injection of 15-50 g/egg of melatonin even under light conditions. In conclusion, these results suggest that ...
Looks at calcium channel blockers to lower blood pressure. Lists generic and brand names like amlodipine (Norvasc), diltiazem (Cardizem), nifedipine (Procardia), and verapamil (Calan). Covers how they work and side effects.
Background: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a manifestation of atherosclerosis and associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Several preclinical studies suggest that calcium channel blockers (CCB) may prevent the development of atherosclerosis in high-risk patients.. Aim: This study sought to evaluate the effect of CCB treatment for the primary prevention of PAD in patients with hypertension.. Methods: We searched the published literature (MEDLINE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and EMBASE) for trials published after 1990 reporting the effect of CCB on the development of PAD. Criteria for inclusion included a study duration ,6 months, use of a randomized control group not receiving CCB, and availability of outcome data on PAD. We conducted a meta-analysis with random and fixed effects models to combine the results of these studies.. Results: Of 2,006 potentially relevant studies, a total of 7 studies (65,925 patients) met our inclusion criteria. Patients ...
Efonidipine (INN) is a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker marketed by Shionogi & Co. of Japan. It was launched in 1995, under the brand name Landel. The drug blocks both T-type and L-type calcium channels. It has also been studied in atherosclerosis and acute renal failure.
Calcium channel blocker (CCB) toxicity is one of the most lethal prescription drug overdoses; therefore, understanding the emergent management of such cases is essential. Overdoses of immediate-release CCBs are characterized by rapid progression to hypotension, bradydysrhythmia, and cardiac arrest.
Calcium channel blockers and diuretics are often considered good treatment choices for older people with high blood pressure. But research shows that
CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS Calcium channel blockers calcium channel blocker Calcium channel blocker Calcium Loss Diabetic Nephropathy Pancreatic Cancer Cell Lines Can Induce Prostaglandin E2 Production from Human Blood Mononuclear Cells In healthy normal-weight adults cinnamon reduces blood glucose concentration and enhances (eg type 1 or type 2 diabetes). Diabetes Type Ii Complications Diabetic Recipes Oatmeal Cookies Different ingredients that will designed to help control blood sugar levels. Homemade Pancake Mix Recipe Without Baking Powder breakfast; Soups; I was looking for a diabetic peanut butter cookies recipe and decided to try Diabetic Peanut Butter Homemade Pancake Mix Recipe Without Baking Powder Cookies dieT Taste KidsHealth , For Teens , Handling Diabetes When Youre Sick.. National Consortium on Deaf-Blindness. role of adh in diabetes insipidus. When I eat rice its usually either Basmati or Jasmine. Blood Sugar Bone & Joint Daily Stressors Can Cause High Blood Pressure in the ...
The safety of calcium channel blockers in human pregnancy: a prospective, multicenter cohort study. MgS[O.sub.4] prevents left ventricular dysfunction in an animal model of preeclampsia
Learn more about Calcium Channel Blockers at Reston Hospital Center Calcium and Vitamin D -Possible Decreased Action of Drug ...
Learn more about Calcium Channel Blockers at Reston Hospital Center Calcium and Vitamin D -Possible Decreased Action of Drug ...
Learn more about Calcium Channel Blockers at Memorial Hospital Calcium and Vitamin D -Possible Decreased Action of Drug Ginkgo...
Learn more about Calcium Channel Blockers at Memorial Hospital Calcium and Vitamin D -Possible Decreased Action of Drug Ginkgo...
Learn more about Calcium Channel Blockers at LewisGale Regional Health System Calcium and Vitamin D -Possible Decreased Action of Drug ...
NorthShore encourages patients to utilize our medical library. Read our Calcium channel blocker medicines encyclopedia resources online.
Psychology definition for Calcium Channel Blockers in normal everyday language, edited by psychologists, professors and leading students. Help us get better.
A scientific study conducted at the Dr. Rath Research Institute shows that commonly used prescription medications classified as channel blockers (widely used for management of high blood pressure, arrhythmias, angina pectoris and other conditions) can lead to deprivation of vitamin C inside the cells. These findings published in the American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease (June 2016, Vol. 6, No. 2) now explain the reason behind increased risk of heart disease, breast cancer and gum problems reported in many clinical studies with this class of drugs. Most significantly, the study addresses how to overcome this deficiency with vitamin C therefore providing scientific advice for millions of doctors around the world. Prescription drug sales of calcium, sodium and potassium channel blockers have reached $6 billion worldwide. In the United States calcium channel blockers are the eighth largest drug class in prescription sales. They prevent calcium from entering the cells, by blocking specific ...
Having established that the calcium antagonists, including vascular selective calcium antagonists such as amlodipine, have a favourable effect on renal haemodynamics and function (Chapter 10), and...
INDICATIONS Procardia is used for treating certain kinds of angina (chest pain). Procardia is a calcium channel blocking agent. It works by interfering with the normal action of calcium in blood vessel constriction (relaxes the blood vessels) and heart muscle contraction (heart may beat with less force and pump out less blood) and nerve conduction in the heart (heart may beat more slowly and more regularly). Calcium channel blockers are used to dilate (widen) the arteries of the heart and other arteries (reduce angina chest pain and reduce elevated blood pressure), and stabilize the heart rhythm in conditions in which the heart is beating too fast or in an irregular rhythm (antiarrhythmic effects).. INSTRUCTIONS Use Procardia as directed by your doctor.. ...
INDICATIONS Procardia is used for treating certain kinds of angina (chest pain). Procardia is a calcium channel blocking agent. It works by interfering with the normal action of calcium in blood vessel constriction (relaxes the blood vessels) and heart muscle contraction (heart may beat with less force and pump out less blood) and nerve conduction in the heart (heart may beat more slowly and more regularly). Calcium channel blockers are used to dilate (widen) the arteries of the heart and other arteries (reduce angina chest pain and reduce elevated blood pressure), and stabilize the heart rhythm in conditions in which the heart is beating too fast or in an irregular rhythm (antiarrhythmic effects).. INSTRUCTIONS Use Procardia as directed by your doctor.. ...
INDICATIONS Procardia is used for treating certain kinds of angina (chest pain). Procardia is a calcium channel blocking agent. It works by interfering with the normal action of calcium in blood vessel constriction (relaxes the blood vessels) and heart muscle contraction (heart may beat with less force and pump out less blood) and nerve conduction in the heart (heart may beat more slowly and more regularly). Calcium channel blockers are used to dilate (widen) the arteries of the heart and other arteries (reduce angina chest pain and reduce elevated blood pressure), and stabilize the heart rhythm in conditions in which the heart is beating too fast or in an irregular rhythm (antiarrhythmic effects).. INSTRUCTIONS Use Procardia as directed by your doctor.. ...
INDICATIONS Procardia is used for treating certain kinds of angina (chest pain). Procardia is a calcium channel blocking agent. It works by interfering with the normal action of calcium in blood vessel constriction (relaxes the blood vessels) and heart muscle contraction (heart may beat with less force and pump out less blood) and nerve conduction in the heart (heart may beat more slowly and more regularly). Calcium channel blockers are used to dilate (widen) the arteries of the heart and other arteries (reduce angina chest pain and reduce elevated blood pressure), and stabilize the heart rhythm in conditions in which the heart is beating too fast or in an irregular rhythm (antiarrhythmic effects).. INSTRUCTIONS Use Procardia as directed by your doctor.. ...
INDICATIONS Procardia is used for treating certain kinds of angina (chest pain). Procardia is a calcium channel blocking agent. It works by interfering with the normal action of calcium in blood vessel constriction (relaxes the blood vessels) and heart muscle contraction (heart may beat with less force and pump out less blood) and nerve conduction in the heart (heart may beat more slowly and more regularly). Calcium channel blockers are used to dilate (widen) the arteries of the heart and other arteries (reduce angina chest pain and reduce elevated blood pressure), and stabilize the heart rhythm in conditions in which the heart is beating too fast or in an irregular rhythm (antiarrhythmic effects).. INSTRUCTIONS Use Procardia as directed by your doctor.. ...
INDICATIONS Procardia is used for treating certain kinds of angina (chest pain). Procardia is a calcium channel blocking agent. It works by interfering with the normal action of calcium in blood vessel constriction (relaxes the blood vessels) and heart muscle contraction (heart may beat with less force and pump out less blood) and nerve conduction in the heart (heart may beat more slowly and more regularly). Calcium channel blockers are used to dilate (widen) the arteries of the heart and other arteries (reduce angina chest pain and reduce elevated blood pressure), and stabilize the heart rhythm in conditions in which the heart is beating too fast or in an irregular rhythm (antiarrhythmic effects).. INSTRUCTIONS Use Procardia as directed by your doctor.. ...
It is important to understand that there are some treatments that are used to manage the symptoms of ATTR, and other treatments that are used to modify the disease progress of ATTR.. Typically, for congestive heart failure problems, diuretics are prescribed to increase urination, which helps to decrease fluid retention in the body. The same is true for ATTR. They help reduce swelling and shortness of breath. As with any other condition, the use of diuretics for an amyloid heart condition must be carefully controlled by your doctor. All diuretic dosing can be helped by limiting the amount of sodium that you consume.. For other forms of Congestive Heart Failure, beta blockers, ACE inhibitors and Calcium channel blockers are given to increase the pumping power of the heart, but these drugs can be harmful for people with ATTR.. Many of the same disease modifying treatments used for Familial ATTR (hATTR) can be applied to wild-type ATTR. Recent data from a single center, retrospective analysis of ...
If your heart pounding is caused by external triggers, lifestyle changes may be all you need to get back to feeling normal. Removing caffeine and sugar. Drinking fewer drinks or not at all. Calming exercises to help quiet your stress and taking steps to ensure quality sleep. Your doctor may also recommend that you add physical activity to strengthen your heart and switch medications that dont have the same effect as your current medication.. If your condition is more significant, your doctor may prescribe a medication to help regulate the heart. Conditions like anemia sometimes require more than just lifestyle changes as well. Beta blockers and calcium channel blockers are often prescribed to help regulate the heart in the face of underlying conditions.. In the most severe case, surgery may be required to remove blockages causing your heart to work harder or to clear possible arterial issues. After your surgery, its vital that you follow the treatment plan your doctor has in place to prevent ...
A novel engineered protein that uncouples electrical signals from downstream biological responses in excitable cells provides a unique investigative tool with potential therapeutic applications.
Imaging of cellular samples has for several hundred years been a way for scientists to investigate biological systems. With the discovery of immunofluorescence labeling in the 1940s and later genetic fluorescent protein labeling in the 1980s the most important part in imaging, contrast and specificity, was drastically improved. Eversince, we have seen a increased use of fluorescence imaging in biological research, and the application and tools are constantly being developed further.. Specific ion imaging has long been a way to discern signaling events in cell systems. Through use of fluorescent ion reporters, ionic concentrations can be measured inliving cells as result of applied stimuli. Using Ca2+ imaging we have demonstrated that there is a inverse influence by plasma membrane voltage gated calcium channels on angiotensin II type 1 receptor (a protein involved in blood pressure regulation). This has direct implications in treatment of hypertension (high blood pressure),one of the most ...
All medicines may have side effects. Aspirin may cause upset stomach. Nitrates may cause a flush (redness in the face) and headaches. Beta-blockers cause tiredness and sexual problems in some patients. Calcium channel blockers may cause constipation and leg swelling. Fortunately, most patients dont have side effects from these medicines. If you have side effects after taking a medicine, contact your healthcare provider.. Surgery, such as angioplasty or bypass surgery also has potential risks. The major risks can include heart attack, stroke or even death. These are rare and most patients do well. After angioplasty, you can usually expect to return to your previous activity level, or even a better activity level, within a few days. It takes longer (a few weeks or months) to recover from bypass surgery.. ...
OBJECTIVE--To investigate the mechanism of calcium antagonist mediated cytoprotection against the damaging effects of adrenaline in vivo on cardiac myocytes and human endothelial cells from the umbilical vein. METHODS--Human endothelial cells cultured from the umbilical vein and isolated rat cardiac myocytes were treated with plasma from rats given adrenaline 30 minutes previously with pretreatment with calcium antagonists and without. The effect on indices of cell damage that suggest oxidation stress was determined. RESULTS--Pretreatment of rats with calcium antagonists before adrenaline administration largely inhibited the cytotoxic effects of their plasma on the two target cells used. Plasma taken from animals not pretreated with calcium antagonists caused release of oxidised glutathione from cells, a fall in intra-cellular reduced glutathione concentration, a fall in ATP production, and release of angiotensin converting enzyme from the endothelial cells. CONCLUSION--Calcium antagonists ...
Drug-related, laboratory value change adverse events are adverse events(AEs) as determined by the Investigator that can not be denied to be related to the study drugs. The relationship between adverse events and drugs were determined by the Investigator based on his/her clinical judgement. Factors used in determining relatedness included, but are not limited to, the medical history of the participant, use of concomitant medication, and the time course from drug administration to AE occurence ...
A calcium channel blocker with marked vasodilator action. It is an effective antihypertensive agent and differs from other calcium channel blockers in that it does not reduce glomerular filtration rate and is mildly natriuretic, rather than sodium retentive. . ...
An interesting aspect raised by the data presented is that the dual signalling capacity of KARs can be reproduced in a recombinant system by simply expressing GluR5‐2b subunits. In cultured DRG cells, the activation of KARs produces the release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores in a G‐protein‐dependent manner, and the concomitant activation of PKC inhibited voltage‐dependent N‐type calcium channels (Rozas et al, 2003). This non‐canonical signalling is independent of ion channel activity, but both pathways depend on a common ionotropic subunit, GluR5. However, it has recently been proposed that the KA2 subunit is critical to trigger the activation of G‐proteins (Ruiz et al, 2005), possibly participating in a heteromeric complex with GluR6 subunits (Fisahn et al, 2005). Since the initial description in GABAergic terminals (Rodriguez‐Moreno and Lerma, 1998), G‐protein‐linked KAR signalling has been described in many synapses and systems. These include sensory neurons (Rozas et ...
The decreases in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality achieved by controlling hypertension in elderly patients have been well documented. Therapy based on beta blockers and diuretics resulted in a reduction of more than 40 percent in major cardiovascular end points such as stroke, myocardial infarction and total mortality. Hansson and colleagues investigated the potential benefits of newer antihypertensive medications such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and calcium channel blockers in elderly patients.. They enrolled more than 6,600 men and women 70 to 84 years of age who had systolic blood pressures of at least 180 mm Hg, diastolic blood pressures of at least 105 mm Hg, or both. Patients were randomly assigned to one of three treatment strategies: (1) conventional therapy using beta blockers or diuretics; (2) ACE inhibitors or (3) calcium channel blockers. More than 2,000 patients (11,000 patient-years) were followed in each treatment group. The patients were followed ...
Delić-Brkljačić, Diana and Galešić, Krešimir and Ivanac, Gordana and Manola, Šime and Pintarić, Hrvoje and Štambuk, Krešimir and Gaćina, Petar and Radeljić, Vjekoslav (2009) Influence of ATII blockers and calcium channel blockers on renal vascular resistance in patients with essential hypertension. Collegium Antropologicum, 33 (4). pp. 1129-38. ISSN 0350-6134 ...
Delić-Brkljačić, Diana and Galešić, Krešimir and Ivanac, Gordana and Manola, Šime and Pintarić, Hrvoje and Štambuk, Krešimir and Gaćina, Petar and Radeljić, Vjekoslav (2009) Influence of ATII blockers and calcium channel blockers on renal vascular resistance in patients with essential hypertension. Collegium Antropologicum, 33 (4). pp. 1129-38. ISSN 0350-6134 ...
Vasodilators are used to treat hypertension. Read here about the different types like potassium channel openers or D1 receptor agonists and get prepared for your exam!
... and apoptotic death is reduced through the reduction of calcium-dependent apoptotic agents. While some calcium-channel blockers ... Lomerizine (INN) (also known as KB-2796) is a diphenylpiperazine class L-type and T-type calcium channel blocker. This drug is ... Ertel, T. Godfraind with a contribution by E. (2004). Calcium channel blockers. Basel [u.a.]: Birkhauser. p. 139. ISBN ... Lomerizine works as a calcium antagonist by blocking voltage-dependent calcium channels. A study using [3H]Nitrendipine showed ...
"Calcium Channel Blockers". livertox.nih.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-22. "Calcium channel blockers are not recommended for the ... A variety of medications have been developed to relax the blood vessels in the lung, calcium channel blockers are used but only ...
"Dihydropyrimidine calcium channel blockers. 4. Basic 3-substituted-4-aryl-1,4-dihydropyrimidine-5-carboxylic acid esters. ... are widely used in the pharmaceutical industry as calcium channel blockers, antihypertensive agents, and alpha-1-a-antagonists ...
... is a calcium channel blocker. It is the main active metabolite of verapamil. Christiane Pauli-Magnus, Oliver von ...
... is an angioselective calcium channel blocker and inhibits the movement of calcium ions into vascular smooth muscle ... Wang, JG (2009). "A combined role of calcium channel blockers and angiotensin receptor blockers in stroke prevention". Vascular ... It targets L-type calcium channels in muscle cells and N-type calcium channels in the central nervous system which are involved ... calcium channel blockers exacerbate the situation by preventing the flow of calcium ions into cardiac cells, which is required ...
... is a nonselective calcium channel blocker. Scultéty S, Tamáskovits E (1991). "Effect of Ca2+ antagonists on isolated ...
... (Tiapamil) is a calcium channel blocker. Tiapamil has been described as an "antianginal agent". Verapamil ... Cocco, G.; Strozzi, C.; Chu, D. (1979). "Human electropharmacology of the calcium antagonist dimeditiapramine (Ro 11-1781) in ...
"Calcium channel blockers in chronic heart failure. The risks of "physiologically rational" therapy". Circulation. 82 (6): 2254- ... Phosphorylation of calcium channels permits an increase in calcium influx into the cell. This increase in calcium influx ... This PKA will phosphorylate many components of the cardiomyocyte such as calcium channels and components of the myofilaments. ... In those with heart failure there may be a decreased amount of calcium within the cardiomyocytes reducing the available calcium ...
Clomipramine and calcium channel blockers have been tried. While the frequency of the condition is not well studied, some have ... associated with a decline in delta sleep Antidepressant discontinuation syndrome Temporary calcium channel dysfunction PTSD ...
Essali, Adib; Soares-Weiser, Karla; Bergman, Hanna; Adams, Clive E (26 March 2018). "Calcium channel blockers for antipsychotic ... or calcium channel blockers (e.g. diltiazem). Tardive dyskinesia most commonly occurs in people with psychiatric conditions who ...
Lang, Yakun; Gong, Dandan; Fan, Yu (2015). "Calcium channel blocker use and risk of Parkinson's disease: A meta-analysis". ... Gudala, Kapil; Kanukula, Raju; Bansal, Dipika (2015). "Reduced Risk of Parkinson's Disease in Users of Calcium Channel Blockers ... "L-type calcium channel blockers and Parkinson's disease in Denmark". Annals of Neurology. 67 (5): 600-6. doi:10.1002/ana.21937 ... "Use of Calcium Channel Blockers and Parkinson's Disease". American Journal of Epidemiology. 175 (7): 627-35. doi:10.1093/aje/ ...
Class IV drugs are calcium (Ca) channel blockers. They work by inhibiting the action potential of the SA and AV nodes. If the ... Class I agents are sodium (Na) channel blockers (which slow conduction by blocking the Na+ channel) and are divided into 3 ... Not all beta blockers are the same; some are cardio selective (affecting only beta 1 receptors) while others are non-selective ... Class II agents are beta blockers which inhibit SA and AV node depolarization and slow heart rate. They also decrease cardiac ...
L-type calcium channel blockers). Class I antiarrhythmic (sodium channel blocker) characteristics have also been seen, but the ... AH-1058 is a cardioselective L-type calcium channel blocker. AH-1058 binds to the same sites on the alpha-1 subunit of L-type ... verapamil) and benzothiazepines; both of which are well known calcium channel blockers. These sites on the alpha-1 subunit ... AH-1058 is a lipophilic antiarrhythmic calcium channel blocker synthesized by the Pharmaceutical Research Laboratories of ...
It is a calcium channel blocker of the dihydropyridine type. Nifedipine is taken by mouth and comes in fast- and slow-release ... As calcium channel blocker, nifedipine has a risk of causing gingival hyperplasia A number of persons have developed toxicity ... Nifedipine, sold under the brand name Adalat among others, is a calcium channel blocker medication used to manage angina, high ... Flenady V, Wojcieszek AM, Papatsonis DN, Stock OM, Murray L, Jardine LA, Carbonne B (June 2014). "Calcium channel blockers for ...
... is a calcium channel blocker. It is a long acting calcium channel antagonist of the dihydropyridine group. Jin Yang ...
Malik et al., 2013) Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are medications prescribed for the treatment of a number of heart ... Livada, R.; Shiloah, J. (January 2014). "Calcium channel blocker-induced gingival enlargement". Journal of Human Hypertension. ...
... is a calcium channel blocker. It has antibiotic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects and is found in some sponges ...
... is a calcium channel blocker. Felodipine has additionally been found to act as an antagonist of the ... Felodipine is a medication of the calcium channel blocker type which is used to treat high blood pressure. It was patented in ... Felodipine is a member of the 1,4-dihydropyridine class of calcium channel blockers. It is a racemic mixture, and is insoluble ... an in vitro study on human vascular and cardiac tissues comparing how selective various calcium channel blockers are for ...
... is a calcium channel blocker. It is also known as desmethoxyverapamil, which is a phenylalkylamine (PAA) derivative. ... glutathione and calcium channel blockers in the stress-induced ulcer model in rats". Pharmacological Research. 30 (2): 123-35. ... Devapamil not only inhibits by blocking the calcium gated channels, but also by depolarizing the membrane during the sodium- ... The medical characteristics of this drug, and other phenylalkylamines, depends greatly on the state of the calcium channels ...
... is a calcium channel blocker. Benidipine has additionally been found to act as an antagonist of the ... Benidipine is a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker for the treatment of high blood pressure (hypertension). It is a triple ... and N-type calcium channel blocker. It is reno- and cardioprotective. It was patented in 1981 and approved for medical use in ...
... is a calcium channel blocker. Du, Y. L.; Lou, Y. Q. (1989). "Calcium antagonism of enpiperate on isolated rabbit ...
... is a calcium channel blocker. Cilnidipine is approved for use in Japan, China, India, Korea, and some European ... Unlike other calcium antagonists, cilnidipine can act on the N-type calcium channel in addition to acting on the L-type calcium ... May 2002). "Cilnidipine is a novel slow-acting blocker of vascular L-type calcium channels that does not target protein kinase ... February 2013). "The effects of the L/N-type calcium channel blocker (cilnidipine) on sympathetic hyperactive morning ...
... is a calcium channel blocker. It is a chlorine derivative of diltiazem. Giasson S, Garceau D, Homsy W, Dumont L ( ...
calcium channel blockers - specifically nifedipine and diltiazem can be effective. beta blockers - also work. Can make coronary ... Alternative treatments may consist of calcium channel blockers or beta blockers which reduce chest pain by relaxing the muscle ... It is treated with beta-blockers, such as metoprolol however beta blockers can make coronary spasms worse. This is a distinct ...
It belongs to the dihydropyridine class of calcium channel blockers. It is also used for Raynaud's phenomenon. It is available ...
... (INN; brand names Foridon and Ryosidine) is a calcium channel blocker. J. Elks (14 November 2014). The Dictionary of ...
Class IV agents are slow non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers. They decrease conduction through the AV node, and ... Class IV agents affect calcium channels and the AV node. Class V agents work by other or unknown mechanisms. With regard to ... channel. Class II agents are anti-sympathetic nervous system agents. Most agents in this class are beta blockers. Class III ... Class I agents are grouped by what effect they have on the Na+ channel, and what effect they have on cardiac action potentials ...
... is a calcium channel blocker that selectively inhibits L-type calcium channels. Knorr, Andreas M. (1995). "Why is ... It is a calcium channel blocker of the dihydropyridine class. It is sold in the United States under the proprietary name Sular ...
Fenakel K, Lurie S (1990). "The use of calcium channel blockers in obstetrics and gynecology; a review". Eur J Obstet Gynecol ... A review indicated the usefulness of using calcium channel blockers. Heat is effective compared to NSAIDs and is a preferred ...
... acts as a selective N-type voltage-gated calcium channel blocker. This action inhibits the release of pro- ... Klotz U (2006). "Ziconotide-a novel neuron-specific calcium channel blocker for the intrathecal treatment of severe chronic ... Miljanich GP (2004). "Ziconotide: neuronal calcium channel blocker for treating severe chronic pain". Curr Med Chem. 11 (23): ...
鉀離子通道阻滯劑(英語:Potassium channel blocker) (PCB) ... 性鈣通道(英語:Voltage-dependent calcium channel). 突觸後致. 密物質(英語:Postsynaptic density) ... 腎上腺素受體拮抗劑 (α(英語:Alpha blocker) (1(英語:Alpha-1
States in which ginger is exported follow the marketing channels of vegetable marketing in India, and the steps are similar to ... water channels are made 60-80 ft apart to irrigate the crop.[29] ... Blockers. *α-Spinasterol (Vernonia tweediana). *AMG-517. * ...
Calcium Channel Blockers. CCB. 降血壓. 鈣質. Calcium. -. 骨骼細胞營養所需 ... Beta Blockers. β-Blockers. 控制心率、降血壓. 胰高血糖素. Glucagon. -. 升血糖 ... Better Health Channel. [2011-07-
This gene encodes an alpha-1 subunit of a voltage-dependent calcium channel. Calcium channels mediate the influx of calcium ... Zühlke RD, Bouron A, Soldatov NM, Reuter H (May 1998). "Ca2+ channel sensitivity towards the blocker isradipine is affected by ... calcium channel activity. • metal ion binding. • voltage-gated ion channel activity. • ion channel activity. • protein binding ... high voltage-gated calcium channel activity. • voltage-gated calcium channel activity involved in AV node cell action potential ...
Epithelial sodium channel blockers: amiloride and triamterene.. Calcium-sparing diureticsEdit. The term "calcium-sparing ... The reduced concentration of calcium in the urine can lead to an increased rate of calcium in serum. The sparing effect on ... calcium chloride, ammonium chloride 1. Arginine vasopressin. receptor 2 antagonists amphotericin B, lithium[13][14]. Inhibits ... The potassium-sparing diuretics cause a net increase in calcium lost in urine, but the increase is much smaller than the ...
See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Ion channel modulators. Taxon identifiers. *Wikidata: Q122679 ... Blockers. *α-Spinasterol (Vernonia tweediana). *AMG-517. *Asivatrep. *BCTC. *Cannabigerol (cannabis). *Cannabigerolic acid ( ...
Blockers. *α-Spinasterol (Vernonia tweediana). *AMG-517. *Asivatrep. *BCTC. *Cannabigerol (cannabis). *Cannabigerolic acid ( ... See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Ion channel modulators. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title= ...
Ion channel. modulators. Calcium blockers. *Gabapentin. *Gabapentin enacarbil. *Mirogabalin. *Pregabalin. *Ziconotide. Sodium ...
... calcium channel blockers) ବା ବିଟା ବ୍ଲକର (beta blockers) ଦିଆଯାଏ । ଦୀର୍ଘକାଳୀନ ଭିତ୍ତିରେ କେତେକ ଲୋକଙ୍କର ଆସ୍ପିରିନ (aspirin) ବା ...
This has been suggested to be the result of a putative basolateral Na-Ca exchanger and apical calcium channel. ... or epithelial sodium channel blockers such as amiloride can be used to decrease urinary wasting of potassium.[1] ... This symporter is a channel responsible for the transport of multiple electrolytes such as sodium, chloride, calcium, magnesium ... channel (ClC-Kb), and the Na+/K+-ATPase. Indicated also are the recently identified magnesium channel TRPM6 in the apical ...
... raises internal calcium levels in neocortical astrocytes causing them to release glutamate, though this finding has ... Blockers. *α-Spinasterol (Vernonia tweediana). *AMG-517. *Asivatrep. *BCTC. *Cannabigerol (cannabis). *Cannabigerolic acid ( ... See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Ion channel modulators. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title= ...
... but could relate to actions of the drug on voltage-activated calcium channels. Lamotrigine blocks T-type calcium channels ... Ion channel blockers. *Anticonvulsants (e.g., gabapentin, pregabalin, carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, lacosamide, lamotrigine) ... It also blocks L-, N-, and P-type calcium channels and has weak 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT3) receptor inhibition. These ... However, it does inhibit native and recombinant high-voltage-activated calcium channels (N- and P/Q/R-types) at therapeutic ...
General: β-receptor blockers ("beta blockers"), calcium channel blockers, diuretics, cardiac glycosides, antiarrhythmics, ... beta-blockers, α blockers, calcium channel blockers, thiazide diuretics, loop diuretics, aldosterone inhibitors ... General: adrenergic neurone blocker, astringent, ocular lubricant. *Diagnostic: topical anesthetics, sympathomimetics, ... Anti-glaucoma: adrenergic agonists, beta-blockers, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors/hyperosmotics, cholinergics, miotics, ...
Calcium channel blockers. *renin-angiotensin system *ACE inhibitors. *Angiotensin II receptor antagonists ... cation uptake by the receptor channel and contraction of isolated guinea-pig ileum", Eur J Pharmacol, 530 (1-2): 136-43, doi: ...
Ion channel modulators. Calcium. VDCCs. Blockers. *L-type-selective: Dihydropyridines: Amlodipine. *Aranidipine ... The cause is thought to be blockade of hERG voltage-gated potassium channels.[41][42] The risks are dose-dependent, and appear ... the voltage-gated potassium channel KCNH2 gene (hERG/Kv11.1), and the α1D-adrenoceptor ADRA1D gene.[58] ...
Channel. modulators. Sodium blockers. *Hydantoins: Ethotoin. *Fosphenytoin. *Mephenytoin. *Phenytoin#; Ureides: ... Calcium blockers. *Oxazolidinediones: Ethadione. *Paramethadione. *Trimethadione; Succinimides: Ethosuximide#. *Mesuximide. * ...
They are particularly well known in pharmacology as L-type calcium channel blockers, used in the treatment of hypertension. ... Compared with certain other L-type calcium channel blockers (for example those of the phenylalkylamine class such as verapamil ... The pharmaceutical drug finerenone is also a dihydrophyridine derivative, but does not act as a calcium channel blocker but as ... Dihydropyridine class L-type calcium channel blockers include, in alphabetical order (brand names vary in different countries ...
Calcium channel blockers. *Diuretics. *Digoxin. *Oxygen therapy. *Warfarin. *v. *t. *e. Prostanoid signaling modulators ...
Ion channel. modulators. Calcium blockers. *Gabapentin. *Gabapentin enacarbil. *Pregabalin. *Ziconotide. Sodium blockers. * ...
... also known as beta blockers or β-blockers) such as propranolol. L-type calcium channel blockers can induce dilation of the ... Certain calcium channel blocker should be avoided with some beta-receptor blockers since they may cause severe bradycardia and ... Beta-receptor antagonists do not cause vasodilation, but like L-type calcium channel blockers, they do reduce the heart's ... calcium channel blockers). The potential for these contraindications and drug-drug interaction could lead to asystole and ...
In those with chronic AF either beta blockers or calcium channel blockers are recommended.[109] ... They are not as effective as either beta blockers or calcium channel blockers.[5] ... Non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (e.g., diltiazem or verapamil). *Cardiac glycosides (e.g., digoxin) - have less ... calcium sensitivity can lead to an accumulation of intracellular calcium and causes downregulation of L-type calcium channels. ...
N-type calcium-channel blocker.. Intrathecal.. Protein binding = 50%; half-life = 2.9-6.5 hours; excretion = urine (,1%).[122] ... Binds to the α2δ-1 subunit of voltage gated calcium ion channels in the spinal cord. May also modulate NMDA receptors and ... Some novel and investigational analgesics include subtype-selective voltage-gated sodium channel blockers such as funapide and ... Comes in calcium salt form; fairly soluble in water.. Is metabolised to aspirin and urea. As per aspirin.. Oral.. No data.. ...
... fruit juice that can be used to lower blood pressure because it interferes with the metabolism of calcium channel blockers.[34] ...
... calcium channel blockers (isradipine) and growth factors (GDNF).[56] Preclinical research also targets alpha-synuclein.[129] A ... There have been preliminary indications that the use of anti-inflammatory drugs and calcium channel blockers may be protective. ...
Calcium channel blockers. *renin-angiotensin system *ACE inhibitors. *Angiotensin II receptor antagonists ... National Geographic Channel. Archived from the original on 8 July 2016.. *^ United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (2007). ...
These drugs include statins, HIV protease inhibitors, many calcium channel blockers, lidocaine, the benzodiazepines, and ... The drug binds to glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCls) in the membranes of invertebrate nerve and muscle cells, causing ... Yates DM, Wolstenholme AJ (August 2004). "An ivermectin-sensitive glutamate-gated chloride channel subunit from Dirofilaria ... GluCls are invertebrate-specific members of the Cys-loop family of ligand-gated ion channels present in neurons and myocytes. ...
Pregabalin (Lyrica) acts on the voltage-dependent calcium channel to decrease the release of neurotransmitters such as ... Prazosin - Sympatholytic, alpha blocker.. Comorbidity[edit]. GAD and depression[edit]. In the National Comorbidity Survey (2005 ...
"Calcium-Channel Blockers (CCBs)". CV Pharmacology. Retrieved 2020-02-07.. *^ Domenic A. Sica, MD. "Calcium Channel Blocker- ... Calcium channel blockers (CCB), calcium channel antagonists or calcium antagonists[2] are a group of medications that disrupt ... of people receiving calcium channel blocker, is caused by calcium channel blockers' preferential arteriolar or precapillary ... through calcium channels.[3] Calcium channel blockers are used as antihypertensive drugs, i.e., as medications to decrease ...
Calcium channel blockers. *renin-angiotensin system *ACE inhibitors. *Angiotensin II receptor antagonists ... High levels of phosphate induce secondary hypoparathyroidism, resulting in low levels of calcium in the blood. This causes ... blockers of signal transduction). To avoid these connotations for recently developed (against specific molecular or genetic ...
Calcium channel blockers. *renin-angiotensin system *ACE inhibitors. *Angiotensin II receptor antagonists ...
Calcium channel blocker toxicity is the taking of too much of the medications known as calcium channel blockers (CCBs), either ... Calcium channel blockers, also known as calcium channel antagonists, are widely used for a number of health conditions. Thus ... Along with beta blockers and digoxin calcium channel blockers have one of the highest rates of death in overdose. These ... It may not be possible to tell the difference between beta blocker toxicity and calcium channel blocker overdose based on signs ...
they block the small pores in cells that let calcium pass through, and widen blood vessels as well as affect the activity o ... What are calcium channel blockers?. NEXT QUESTION: Which calcium channel blockers have been studied to treat bipolar disorder? ... How do calcium channel blockers work?. ANSWER These drugs are usually used to treat high blood pressure or heart problems. They ... So calcium channel blockers have been studied as a treatment for bipolar disorder, but there isnt enough evidence yet that ...
... also called calcium antagonists, are a newer category of medications which are used to treat heart disease and hypertension. ... Calcium channel blockers, also called calcium antagonists, are a newer category of medications which are used to treat heart ... Calcium channel blockers, like verapamil and its cousins, do not quite lock the revolving door, but they significantly slow ... Do you recommend use of calcium channel blockers for my problem?. Are there alternative drugs for controlling hypertension or ...
Calcium channel blockers are a common type of medication for high blood pressure and heart conditions. We discuss how these ... What is a calcium channel blocker?. Share on Pinterest. A doctor may prescribe calcium channel blockers to treat high blood ... Calcium channel blockers reduce the amount of calcium that can enter muscle cells in the heart and blood vessel walls via these ... Researchers have found that both beta-blockers and calcium channel blockers are effective in lowering blood pressure, making ...
... what calcium channel blocker did you try and did you have any side-effects? Did it help your migraines? I am... ... I was wondering if anyone here has tried a calcium channel blocker before? If so, ... I was wondering if anyone here has tried a calcium channel blocker before? If so, what calcium channel blocker did you try and ... I hope the Calcium Channel Blockers work for you! I dont think the Beta Blocker is working for me either at this point (we ...
Calcium channel blockers are used to treat high blood pressure. Theyre as effective as ACE inhibitors in reducing blood ... What are calcium channel blockers?. Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are a class of medications used to treat high blood ... How calcium channel blockers work. CCBs reduce blood pressure by limiting the amount of calcium or the rate at which calcium ... Natural calcium channel blockers. Magnesium is an example of a nutrient that acts as a natural CCB. Research has shown that ...
They prevent the calcium ions needed for muscle contraction from entering the cells of smooth and cardiac muscle. This causes ... calcium-channel blocker calcium-channel blocker. calcium-channel blocker, any of a class of drugs used in treating hypertension ... Cardizem (diltiazem) is a common calcium-channel blocker. The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, ... Some calcium-channel blockers, such as Procardia (nifedipine), slow the electrical impulses that run through heart muscle, thus ...
Video Tag: Calcium Channel Blockers. SAGES Webinar : Preparing for the ABSITE-December 2017. ... calcium channel blockers, chagas, chest tube, Chicago classification, clear liquids, CO2, corkscrew esophagus, crus, CXR, ... calcium channel blockers, Camerons lesion, carcinoid, cardiac injury, CD117, chest, CHF, chloride, cholangiocarcinoma, ...
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... calcium channel blockers (sometimes called ccbs for short, or calcium antagonists) dont let calcium into certain muscle cells ... How do calcium channel blockers work for high blood pressure?. ANSWER To treat blood high blood pressure, calcium channel ... blockers (sometimes called CCBs for short, or calcium antagonists) dont let calcium into certain muscle cells in your heart ... How do peripheral adrenergic blockers work to treat high blood pressure?. *How do vasodilators work to treat high blood ...
Calcium channel blockers may be effective in treating memory loss associated with Alzheimers. Treating diseased brain cells ... Researchers at the University of Bristol have identified that calcium channel blockers may be effective in treating memory loss ... This overload was due to the overproduction of the gene encoding a channel, known as the L-type channel, which allows calcium ... found treating a diseased brain cell with a blocker of the L-type channel reduced the number of calcium ions able to flow into ...
Calcium-channel blockers are a type of medicine used to treat high blood pressure and heart rhythm disturbances. They are one ... The specific ingredients in each type of calcium-channel blocker vary. However, the main ingredient is called a calcium-channel ... Calcium-channel blockers are a type of medicine used to treat high blood pressure and heart rhythm disturbances. They are one ... Calcium channel blockers. In: Aronson JK, ed. Meylers Side Effects of Drugs. 16th ed. Waltham, MA: Elsevier; 2016:23-39. ...
A type of blood pressure lowering medication, called a calcium-channel blocker, may be linked with an increased risk of a type ... Atomic level analysis reveals how two classes of calcium channel blockers produce different effects An atomic level analysis ... Two-drug combinations containing calcium channel blocker significantly lowers BP In the largest randomized controlled trial of ... two frontline two-drug combinations that included the long-acting calcium channel blocker, amlodipine, were able to drive down ...
One such class of medications is calcium channel blockers, or CCBs. Because untreated GERD can cause serious medical problems, ... British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology: Do Calcium Antagonists Contribute to Gastro-oesophageal Reflux Disease and ...
Calcium Channel Blockers Question:What is the risk of mortality with calcium channel blockers? Answer: There has been a lot of ... Doctors Answers to "Frequently Asked Questions" - Calcium Channel Blockers. These comments are made for the purpose of ... This was initiated after a presentation of data which compared relative mortality of beta-blockers and calcium blockers. This ... by the Food and Drug Administration has recently stated that there appears to be no excess risk with calcium channel blockers- ...
Some calcium channel blockers slow heart rate, which can further reduce blood pressure, relieve chest pain (angina) and control ... Massie BM (1998) The safety of calcium-channel blockers. Clin Cardiol. 21(12 Suppl 2):II12-7. ... Inhibits transmembrane calcium influx (prevents calcium from entering cells) in cardiac (heart) and vascular smooth muscle ( ...
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The calcium channel blockers are a group of drugs which impede calcium ion entry into cells, thereby inhibiting myocardial and ... that the calcium channel blockers inhibit bronchoconstriction. The usefulness of these drugs in patients with the obstructive ...
... Updated: Sep 23, 2019 ... 71] The presumed mechanism of action is through calcium antagonism. More work is needed before this treatment is recommended. ...
Calcium channel blockers synonyms, Calcium channel blockers pronunciation, Calcium channel blockers translation, English ... dictionary definition of Calcium channel blockers. n. Any of a class of drugs that inhibit the movement of calcium ions across ... calcium channel blocker. (redirected from Calcium channel blockers). Also found in: Medical.. Related to Calcium channel ... Calcium channel blockers - definition of Calcium channel blockers by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/ ...
Ventricular tachycardia Periodic paralysis Calcium channel blockers This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check ... the first time the results of an electrophysiologic study of a similar case and the successful use of calcium channel blockers ... Rojas CV, Wang J, Schwartz LS, et al (1991) A Met-to-Val mutation in the skeletal muscle Na+ channel a subunit in hyperkalemic ... Cranefield PF, Aronson RS, Wit AL (1974) Effect of verapamil on the normal action potential and on calcium-dependent slow ...
... ) and What is the role of calcium channel ... What is the role of calcium channel blockers in urinary incontinence treatment?. Updated: Mar 19, 2019 ... 71] The presumed mechanism of action is through calcium antagonism. More work is needed before this treatment is recommended. ... blockers in urinary incontinence treatment? What to Read Next on Medscape. Related Conditions and Diseases. * Urodynamic ...
Portland report that four individuals went into shock recently after clinicians switched them from mibefradil to other calcium ... channel blockers and that one of the four patients died. ... 39 for a list of all the other calcium channel blockers. Let me ... New Warning on Switching from Posicorto Other Calcium Channel Blockers View More ... to other calcium channel blockers and that one of the four patients died. ...
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Calcium channel blockers are medicates that relax the arteries, says Mary Ann McLaughlin, MD, medical director of the Cardiac ... What Are Calcium Channel Blockers? (0:43) Calcium channel blockers are medicates that relax the arteries, says Mary Ann ... calcium channel blocker as a joint is more likely to relax that and prevent that from happening. Calcium Channel Blockers also ... Calcium channel blockers are medications that relax the arteries. So some people have a spasm in their artery, ...
"Calcium-Channel Blockers (CCBs)". CV Pharmacology. Retrieved 2020-02-07.. *^ Domenic A. Sica, MD. "Calcium Channel Blocker- ... Calcium channel blockers (CCB), calcium channel antagonists or calcium antagonists[2] are a group of medications that disrupt ... of people receiving calcium channel blocker, is caused by calcium channel blockers preferential arteriolar or precapillary ... through calcium channels.[3] Calcium channel blockers are used as antihypertensive drugs, i.e., as medications to decrease ...
... , Amlodipine, Norvasc, Nimodipine, Dihydropyridine. ... Dihydropyridine Calcium Channel Blocker. Dihydropyridine Calcium Channel Blocker Aka: Dihydropyridine Calcium Channel Blocker, ... Beta Blocker Beta Blocker Overdose Bile Binding Resin Bradycardia due to Medications Bretylium Calcium Channel Blocker Calcium ... Non-Dihydropyridine Calcium Channel Blocker Norepinephrine PCSK9 Inhibitor Perioperative Beta Blocker Peripheral Acting ...
  • Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are a class of medications used to treat high blood pressure. (healthline.com)
  • The newest guidelines from the American College of Cardiology recommend that ACE inhibitors, diuretics, angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs), and CCBs be the first medications to consider when treating high blood pressure. (healthline.com)
  • CCBs reduce blood pressure by limiting the amount of calcium or the rate at which calcium flows into the heart muscle and arterial cell walls. (healthline.com)
  • N-type, L-type, and T-type voltage-dependent calcium channels are present in the zona glomerulosa of the human adrenal gland, and CCBs can directly influence the biosynthesis of aldosterone in adrenocortical cells, with consequent impact on the clinical treatment of hypertension with these agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • CCBs have been shown to be slightly more effective than beta blockers at lowering cardiovascular mortality, but they are associated with more side effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calcium channel blocker toxicity is the taking of too much of the medications known as calcium channel blockers (CCBs), either by accident or on purpose. (wikipedia.org)
  • To treat blood high blood pressure, calcium channel blockers (sometimes called CCBs for short, or calcium antagonists) don't let calcium into certain muscle cells in your heart and blood vessels, so it's harder for electrical signals to pass. (webmd.com)
  • One such class of medications is calcium channel blockers, or CCBs. (livestrong.com)
  • Several studies showed that calcium channel blockers (CCBs) reduce right ventricular hypertrophy and improve long-term haemodynamics in PAH. (cochrane.org)
  • In this opinion paper, we intend to compare some cardiovascular outcomes of dietary antioxidant supplements versus calcium channel blockers (CCBs). (frontiersin.org)
  • CHICAGO - Calcium channel blockers (CCBs), specifically the short-acting form of CCBs, which are prescribed to treat high blood pressure, were associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer in postmenopausal women, according to a study presented at the AACR Annual Meeting 2018 , April 14-18. (aacr.org)
  • They analyzed four types of antihypertensive drugs: beta blockers, diuretics, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi), and CCBs, and used Cox proportional hazard regression models to obtain hazard ratios for the association of the four types of medication with risk of pancreatic cancer. (aacr.org)
  • Ever-use of ACEi, beta blockers, diuretics, and long-acting CCBs was not associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer. (aacr.org)
  • The authors noted that while further research will be necessary to confirm these findings and understand the mechanisms, "the blockage of the calcium channel caused by use of CCBs may potentially reduce sRAGE release and thus further decrease the levels of anti-inflammatory sRAGE. (aacr.org)
  • Dihydropyridine Ca 2+ channel blockers (CCBs) are widely accepted in the treatment of premature labour. (mdpi.com)
  • Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are a mainstay in treating hypertension (HTN). (ahajournals.org)
  • Ca 2+ channel blockers (CCBs), and especially nifedipine and nicardipine, are among the frequently used tocolytics. (mdpi.com)
  • Question Many of my pregnant or lactating patients are taking calcium channel blockers (CCBs) for hypertension. (cfp.ca)
  • Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are commonly used during pregnancy and lactation to treat hypertension, arrhythmia, and preeclampsia. (cfp.ca)
  • Population-based data from 5 health maintenance organizations in the United States were used to study the risks of perinatal complications and congenital defects among infants exposed in utero to CCBs or β-blockers. (cfp.ca)
  • The risk of neonatal convulsions was in part attributed to the placental transfer of CCBs, leading to a decrease in infants' cellular calcium levels. (cfp.ca)
  • Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are widely used to treat cardiovascular disease (CVD) including hypertension. (frontiersin.org)
  • LTCCs have high sensitivity to calcium channel blockers (CCBs) such as dihydropyridine, phenylalkylamine, and diltiazem ( Triggle, 2007 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are prescribed to patients with Marfan syndrome for prophylaxis against aortic aneurysm progression, despite limited evidence for their efficacy and safety in the disorder. (elifesciences.org)
  • Many in vitro studies have shown that calcium channel blockers (CCBs) inhibit cell proliferation (Sachinidis et al. (strath.ac.uk)
  • Calcium channel blockers, like verapamil and its cousins, do not quite 'lock' the revolving door, but they significantly slow it down. (healthcentral.com)
  • Fendiline Gallopamil Verapamil (Calan, Isoptin) Benzothiazepine calcium channel blockers belong to the benzothiazepine class of compounds and are an intermediate class between phenylalkylamine and dihydropyridines in their selectivity for vascular calcium channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • The calcium channel blocker that caused the greatest number of deaths in 2010 in the United States was verapamil. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cardiovascular drugs that have the most favorable profile would be the class of alpha-blockers, ACE inhibitors and ARBs--venodilators, nitrates and slow calcium channel blockers (with the exception of verapamil, which may cause a significant decrease in heart rate response at peak exercise. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cranefield PF, Aronson RS, Wit AL (1974) Effect of verapamil on the normal action potential and on calcium-dependent slow response canine cardiac Purkinje fibers. (springer.com)
  • Bar-Or D and Gasiel Y. Calcium and calciferol antagonise effect of verapamil in atrial fibrillation. (medicalcityhospital.com)
  • Reversal of the cardiovascular effects of verapamil by calcium and sodium: differences between electrophysiologic and hemodynamic responses. (medicalcityhospital.com)
  • Treatment of severe left ventricular dysfunction with calcium chloride in patients receiving verapamil. (medicalcityhospital.com)
  • Intravenous verapamil for treatment of multifocal atrial tachycardia with and without calcium pretreatment. (medicalcityhospital.com)
  • Calcium gluconate in severe verapamil intoxication. (medicalcityhospital.com)
  • Low-dose calcium pretreatment to prevent verapamil-induced hypotension. (medicalcityhospital.com)
  • non-dihydropyridines, or 'rate-limiting' calcium-channel blockers (for example diltiazem and verapamil). (bupa.co.uk)
  • Other calcium channel blockers, including diltiazem and verapamil, are used to treat rapid heart rates and angina. (verywellhealth.com)
  • The use of calcium salts in the prevention and management of verapamil-induced hypotension. (aafp.org)
  • We share the concern for the possibility of hypotension associated with the use of intravenous calcium channel blockers, which is more common with verapamil than with diltiazem. (aafp.org)
  • 3 Specifically, severe bradyarrhythmias have been reported in a 45-year-old patient receiving intravenous calcium as pretreatment for the use of intravenous verapamil. (aafp.org)
  • Verapamil can interact with beta-blockers, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and certain heart medications. (internationaldrugmart.com)
  • Factors which potentially favour use of calcium channel blockers include arrhythmia (verapamil only), angina, older age and high risk of stroke. (bpac.org.nz)
  • Factors which may weigh against the use of calcium channel blockers include potential drug interactions, and diltiazem and verapamil are contraindicated in heart block and heart failure. (bpac.org.nz)
  • Verapamil and diltiazem may be alternatives to beta blockers for secondary prevention post myocardial infarction if beta blockers are contraindicated or not tolerated. (bpac.org.nz)
  • Verapamil can also be used post myocardial infarction if beta blockers are contraindicated or not tolerated. (bpac.org.nz)
  • Taking too much calcium chamber blockers such as amlodipine , Diltiazem or verapamil. (healthtap.com)
  • Verapamil Calcium Channel Blocker Drug. (123rf.com)
  • AQA-39 is a new bradycardia-inducing drug chemically related to verapamil that reduces potassium conductance and blocks calcium channels. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Four simple, sensitive and accurate spectrophotometric methods have been developed for the determination of some calcium channel blockers: Amlodipine besylate (ADB), Diltiazem hydrochloride (DTZ) and Verapamil hydrochloride (VPM) in pharmaceutical formulations. (scirp.org)
  • Verapamil is the least selective of any calcium channel blocker, and has significant effects on both cardiac and vascular smooth muscle cells. (scirp.org)
  • The Ca 2+ response to 1 nM of AngII was amplified in the presence of therapeutic concentrations of the Ca V 1.2 blockers, nifedipine and verapamil, in vascular smooth muscle cells, cardiomyocytes and HEK293a cells. (diva-portal.org)
  • In the largest randomized controlled trial of treatment for high blood pressure ever conducted in sub-Saharan Africa, two frontline two-drug combinations that included the long-acting calcium channel blocker, amlodipine, were able to drive down blood pressure levels more than a third two-drug combination that did not include amlodipine, according to research presented at the American College of Cardiology's 68th Annual Scientific Session. (news-medical.net)
  • The calcium channel blocker amlodipine decreases the risk of cardiovascular events (such as heart attack or heart-disease related deaths) in patients with coronary artery disease and normal blood pressure, as does the ACE inhibitor enalapril, but to a lesser extent, according to a study in the November 10 issue of JAMA. (eurekalert.org)
  • dihydropyridine calcium-channel blockers (for example amlodipine, felodipine and nifedipine) which make your arteries become wider. (bupa.co.uk)
  • This rapidly expanding class of calcium channel blockers includes the first-generation (nifedipine), second-generation: "amlodipine, felodipine, isradipine" and others. (scirp.org)
  • Some of the newer agents, such as amlodipine and nicerdipine, have the advantage that they show little interaction with other cardiovascular drugs, such as digoxin or warfarine that are often used concomitantly with calcium channel blockers. (scirp.org)
  • Dressler D (2014) Tardive dystonic syndrome induced by the calcium-channel blocker amlodipine. (springer.com)
  • Angiotensin II inhibitors with calcium channel blocking agents is a combination medicine containing both an angiotensin II inhibitor and a calcium channel blocker. (drugs.com)
  • Calcium channel blockers are prescribed for high blood pressure and heart problems, but be careful when using one with diuretics, ACE inhibitors, or other drugs. (everydayhealth.com)
  • The investigators assessed four types of antihypertensive drugs: beta blockers, diuretics, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and calcium channel blockers. (healio.com)
  • PURPOSE: We investigated whether dipyridamole and various calcium channel blockers are inhibitors and/or substrates of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). (biomedsearch.com)
  • ACE inhibitors) and this may present a benefit for calcium channel blocker use in elderly patients. (bpac.org.nz)
  • But research shows that calcium channel blockers, diuretics, ACE inhibitors, and angiotensin receptor blockers are all equally effective for older adults. (sharecare.com)
  • Patients randomized to the control group received either placebo or active treatment with ACE-inhibitors, beta-blockers or diuretics. (ahajournals.org)
  • Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors and calcium influx inhibitors are agents which have previously shown to have cytostatic effects against tumor cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Calcium channel blockers, also called calcium antagonists, are a newer category of medications which are used to treat heart disease and hypertension . (healthcentral.com)
  • They're also called calcium antagonists. (healthline.com)
  • Calcium channel blockers (CCB), calcium channel antagonists or calcium antagonists are a group of medications that disrupt the movement of calcium (Ca2+ ) through calcium channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calcium channel blockers, also known as calcium channel antagonists, are widely used for a number of health conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calcium channel blockers (sometimes called calcium antagonists) are drugs that affect the way calcium passes into certain muscle cells and they are the most commonly prescribed medication for primary Raynaud's phenomenon. (cochrane.org)
  • Long-acting dihydropyridine calcium antagonists. (biomedsearch.com)
  • the effects of calcium channel antagonists on the antidepressant action of alprazolam and imipramine were investigated. (who.int)
  • Uchida S, Yamada S, Nagai K, Deguchi Y, Kimura R (1997) Brain pharmacokinetics and in vivo receptor binding of 1, 4-dihydropyridine calcium channel antagonists. (springer.com)
  • Swart T, Hurley MJ (2016) Calcium channel antagonists as disease-modifying therapy for Parkinson's disease: therapeutic rationale and current status. (springer.com)
  • For those who suffer from angina , calcium channel blockers have proved to be among the most effective medications ever discovered. (healthcentral.com)
  • Researchers have found that both beta-blockers and calcium channel blockers are effective in lowering blood pressure, making them useful treatments for a variety of conditions that affect the heart, including angina and arrhythmia. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Calcium channel blockers are also frequently used to alter heart rate (especially from atrial fibrillation), to prevent peripheral and cerebral vasospasm, and to reduce chest pain caused by angina pectoris. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nisoldipine (Baymycard, Sular, Syscor) Nitrendipine (Cardif, Nitrepin, Baylotensin) Pranidipine (Acalas) Phenylalkylamine calcium channel blockers are relatively selective for myocardium, reduce myocardial oxygen demand and reverse coronary vasospasm, and are often used to treat angina. (wikipedia.org)
  • calcium-channel blocker, any of a class of drugs used in treating hypertension , angina pectoris , and certain arrhythmias . (factmonster.com)
  • Some calcium channel blockers slow heart rate, which can further reduce blood pressure, relieve chest pain (angina) and control an irregular heartbeat. (exrx.net)
  • Medicine) any drug that prevents the influx of calcium ions into cardiac and smooth muscle: used to treat high blood pressure and angina. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • in the diabetic, beta blockers should be replaced by calcium channel blockers for angina or high blood pressure. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Video / Heart Health / Angina / What Are Calcium Channel Blockers? (sharecare.com)
  • However, two large studies in the past five years have generated concerns that they may be dangerous for some individuals, The two studies included an investigation that pooled data from 15 trials involving about 10,000 patients with unstable angina pectoris or heart attack and found an increase in deaths among patients taking a short-acting form of the calcium channel blocker nifedipine. (eurekalert.org)
  • Calcium channel-blockers are used to treat hypertension , angina , heart arrhythmias , and other heart-related conditions. (medicalcityhospital.com)
  • Calcium-channel blockers also prevent angina by widening the coronary arteries that supply your heart. (bupa.co.uk)
  • Stopping calcium-channel blockers suddenly can cause pain and tightness in your chest (angina). (bupa.co.uk)
  • Calcium channel blockers can help reduce the severity and frequency of angina . (wellspan.org)
  • Calcium channel blockers have a favourable effect for treating hypertension with co-existing angina. (bpac.org.nz)
  • Calcium channel blockers can be used as a second-line drug treatment or as an alternative to beta blockers for people with high blood pressure and stable angina. (sharecare.com)
  • The sudden withdrawal of beta blockers can rapidly increase heart rate and lead to unstable angina . (healthtap.com)
  • Calcium channel blockers are common medications that have a low risk of complications. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Calcium channel blockers are used as antihypertensive drugs, i.e., as medications to decrease blood pressure in patients with hypertension. (wikipedia.org)
  • Medications to treat the toxic effects include: intravenous fluids, calcium gluconate, glucagon, high dose insulin, vasopressors and lipid emulsion. (wikipedia.org)
  • The three most common types of heart medications that result in this outcome are calcium channel blockers along with beta blockers and digoxin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Commonly recommended medications include beta blockers, calcium channel blockers and tricyclic antidepressants. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Calcium channel blockers are medications that relax the arteries. (sharecare.com)
  • Calcium channel blockers may interact with other medications, so always tell your doctor about every medication, recreational drug, vitamin, and supplement - whether over-the-counter (OTC) or prescription - that you are taking. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Some evidence suggests that the bioflavonoid naringen may interact with medications in the calcium channel blocker family, increasing blood levels of the drug. (medicalcityhospital.com)
  • The other studied antihypertensive medications, including long-acting calcium channel blockers, did not appear associated with increased risk for pancreatic cancer. (healio.com)
  • Women who had ever used short-acting calcium channel blockers demonstrated significantly lower sRAGE levels compared with those who used any other antihypertensive medications (1,158 pg/mL vs. 1,446 pg/mL, P = 0.032). (healio.com)
  • Calcium channel blockers are a class of medications that are approved to treat high blood pressure, heart failure, cardiac arrhythmias, and similar conditions. (mentalhelp.net)
  • Calcium channel blockers can be used in combination with other medications to lower blood pressure. (verywellhealth.com)
  • When taking calcium channel blockers, you should be certain your doctor knows about all of your current medications and supplements, because calcium channel blockers can interact with other compounds. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Unfortunately, not all people with Marfan disease can tolerate these drugs and other medications called calcium channel blockers, which also lower blood pressure, are often used as an alternative. (elifesciences.org)
  • Belongs to a family of drugs called calcium channel blockers. (fpnotebook.com)
  • Older adults who take blood pressure drugs called calcium channel blockers could experience severe drops in blood pressure if also given antibiotics such as erythromycin (brands like E-Mycin) or clarithromycin (Biaxin), according to a new study. (mcknights.com)
  • It belongs to a class of drugs called calcium channel blockers, which relax blood vessels and thus normalize heartbeats. (internationaldrugmart.com)
  • Dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers can worsen proteinuria in patients with nephropathy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Voltage-Dependent T-Type Calcium Channel Blockers - Pipeline Insight, 2019" offers comprehensive insights of the pipeline (under development) therapeutics scenario and growth prospects across "Voltage-Dependent T-Type Calcium Channel Blockers development. (reportbuyer.com)
  • Along with beta blockers and digoxin calcium channel blockers have one of the highest rates of death in overdose. (wikipedia.org)
  • It may not be possible to tell the difference between beta blocker toxicity and calcium channel blocker overdose based on signs and symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calcium-channel blocker overdose occurs when someone takes more than the normal or recommended amount of this medicine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Overdose with calcium channel blockers can have life-threatening effects on heart rate, blood pressure and respiratory functions. (lortsmith.com)
  • While high doses of intravenous calcium are sometimes used to reverse an overdose of a calcium-channel blocker, the amount of calcium in a daily supplement isn't enough to interfere with the drug's ability to lower blood pressure. (harvard.edu)
  • What the heck is calcium channel blocker overdose really? (healthtap.com)
  • Explain the problem of a calcium channel blocker overdose. (healthtap.com)
  • If you happen to overdose on a calcium channel blocker, seek immediate medical attention. (emedtv.com)
  • Two different calcium channel blockers were included: nifedipine and nicardipine. (cochrane.org)
  • To assess the effects of different calcium channel blockers for primary Raynaud's phenomenon as determined by attack rates, severity scores, participant-preference scores and physiological measurements. (cochrane.org)
  • Choice between the different calcium channel blockers depends on patient tolerability, co-morbidity and drug interactions. (bpac.org.nz)
  • studied the effect of two different calcium channel blockers on mice that have a mutation in Fbn1 -the mouse equivalent of FBN1 -that is similar to those found in humans with Marfan syndrome. (elifesciences.org)
  • The beneficial effect of calcium channel blockers is mediated via their peripheral vasodilatory, antiplatelet, and antileukocytic effects. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • My concern is the hypotensive effect of calcium channel blockers, especially in elderly patients in whom atrial fibrillation is more common. (aafp.org)
  • There is some evidence of a superior protective effect of calcium channel blockers in people with a high risk of stroke when compared with other antihypertensives. (bpac.org.nz)
  • Age and ethnicity have less influence on the antihypertensive effect of calcium channel blockers compared with other agents (e.g. (bpac.org.nz)
  • Calcium channel blockers reduce the amount of calcium that can enter muscle cells in the heart and blood vessel walls via these channels. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The researchers used fruit flies to study AD, using a fluorescent molecule called GCaMP6f, which reports the amount of calcium ions inside brain cells. (bris.ac.uk)
  • Calcium-channel blockers slow down the amount of calcium that can get into heart muscle cells and so reduce how fast and strongly it can contract. (bupa.co.uk)
  • Calcium channel blockers work by reducing the amount of calcium that flows into the heart muscle cells and the cell walls of the arteries. (verywellhealth.com)
  • This report reviews the experimental evidence from animal and human studies, both in vitro and in vivo, that the calcium channel blockers inhibit bronchoconstriction. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Any of a class of drugs that inhibit the movement of calcium ions across the cell membranes of cardiac and smooth muscle and are used to treat cardiovascular disorders. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Zipes DP, Fischer JC (1974) Effects of agents which inhibit the slow channel on sinus node automaticity and atrioventricular conduction in the dog. (springer.com)
  • Calcium channel blockers inhibit the drug efflux in these resistant tumor cells, thereby overcoming of drug resistance. (nih.gov)
  • Coating such devices with calcium channel blockers to inhibit proliferation may provide a delivery platform to minimise restenosis. (strath.ac.uk)
  • When nifedipine was used in combination with other drugs (diuretics and beta-blockers) it seemed to have a safety advantage," says lead author, William Stason, M.D. He is a lecturer in health policy management at the Harvard School of Public Health and consultant to Meta Works, Inc., a Boston group that generated the study. (eurekalert.org)
  • The efficacy of antihypertensive drugs newer than diuretics and beta-blockers has not been established. (nih.gov)
  • Dihydropyridine (DHP) calcium channel blockers are derived from the molecule dihydropyridine and often used to reduce systemic vascular resistance and arterial pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inhibits transmembrane calcium influx (prevents calcium from entering cells) in cardiac (heart) and vascular smooth muscle (blood vessel walls). (exrx.net)
  • Benzothiazepine calcium channel blockers belong to the benzothiazepine class of compounds and are an intermediate class between phenylalkylamine and dihydropyridines in their selectivity for vascular calcium channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cardiac, vascular, and neurologic examinations deserve particular attention, because calcium channel blocker (CCB) toxicity manifests most physical findings in these systems. (medscape.com)
  • They block the channel which gets calcium into cells so that the calcium needed for smooth muscle function is blocked resulting in decreased vascular resistance. (healthtap.com)
  • Some calcium-channel blockers, such as Procardia (nifedipine), slow the electrical impulses that run through heart muscle, thus regulating arrhythmias. (factmonster.com)
  • They prevent the calcium ions needed for muscle contraction from entering the cells of smooth and cardiac muscle. (factmonster.com)
  • Calcium channel blockers are medicates that relax the arteries, says Mary Ann McLaughlin, MD, medical director of the Cardiac Health Program at The Mount Sinai Medical Center. (sharecare.com)
  • When calcium channel blocker (CCB) ingestion is suspected, specifically question the patient or family about symptoms that may indicate cardiac or pulmonary manifestations of calcium channel blocker toxicity. (medscape.com)
  • Hence, as the calcium level continues to drop, the patient begins to experience muscle twitching and cramping, grimacing, and carpopedal spasm, which can quickly progress to tetany, laryngospasm, convulsions, cardiac arrhythmias, and eventually to respiratory and cardiac arrest. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • [ 71 ] The presumed mechanism of action is through calcium antagonism. (medscape.com)
  • We report for the first time the results of an electrophysiologic study of a similar case and the successful use of calcium channel blockers, shedding light on the possible mechanism and management of these patients. (springer.com)
  • The mechanism of action underlying ziconotide's therapeutic profile derives from its potent and selective blockade of neuronal N-type voltage-sensitive calcium channels (NVSCCs). (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Their mechanism of action in tocolysis involves the blockade of L-type Ca 2+ channels, influenced by the Ca 2+ -activated K + channels, beta-adrenergic receptors (β-ARs) and sexual hormones. (mdpi.com)
  • These results might indicate that a major mechanism of VCR resistance could be a defficiency in drug transport and this mechanism can be reversed by calcium channel blockers, while the ADM resistance mechanisms are partly related to drug efflux and only this mechanism of the ADM resistance can be modulated by calcium channel blockers. (nih.gov)
  • Calcium channel blockers also potentiate the drug effects, especially that of vinca alkaloids, in innately resistant tumors cells, indicating that such innate resistant cells also share a similar resistance mechanism to that observed in acquired drug resistance. (nih.gov)
  • Blockade of Cav2.2 (N-type) channels has previously been shown to prevent pain transmission and activity against this channel has been proposed as the mechanism of action of Ziconotide, a neuroactive peptide developed by Elan as a novel non-opioid treatment for severe chronic pain. (pharmiweb.com)
  • This may be due to the fact that nifedipine on its own might act as an antidepressant but blocks one imipramine mechanism that depends on L-type calcium channel activation. (who.int)
  • Voltage-Dependent Calcium Channel Blockers - Pipeline Insight, 2020" report by DelveInsight outlays comprehensive insights of present scenario and growth prospects across the mechanism of action. (reportsnreports.com)
  • A detailed picture of the Voltage-Dependent Calcium Channel Blockers pipeline landscape is provided, which includes the topic Overview and Voltage-Dependent Calcium Channel Blockers mechanism of action. (reportsnreports.com)
  • The recommendations for the treatment of hypertension in black people suggest beginning initial blood pressure treatment with a calcium channel blocker or a thiazide-type diuretic, even in patients with diabetes. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Combining an ACE inhibitor with a calcium channel blocker more effectively reduces the risk of cardiovascular events than an ACE inhibitor with a diuretic, a major new trial concludes. (pulsetoday.co.uk)
  • Current guidance from NICE and the British Hypertension Society recommends combining a calcium channel blocker or a diuretic with an ACE inhibitor as second-line treatment of hypertension, but the best combination has not been established. (pulsetoday.co.uk)
  • But the ACCOMPLISH study, of more than 11,000 hypertensive patients at high risk of cardiovascular events, found treatment with an ACE inhibitor plus a calcium-channel blocker produced better outcomes than an ACE inhibitor plus a diuretic. (pulsetoday.co.uk)
  • Mean blood pressure in the calcium channel blocker group was 131.6/73.3 mmHg, compared with 132.5/74.7 mm Hg in the diuretic group. (pulsetoday.co.uk)
  • The calcium channel blocker group also had fewer recorded adverse events, with a total of 552 (9.6%), compared with 679 (11.8%) with the diuretic. (pulsetoday.co.uk)
  • Patients treated with an ACE inhibitor and a calcium channel blocker were 21% less likely to suffer a cardiovascular disease-related death or non-fatal heart attack or stroke than those in the diuretic group. (pulsetoday.co.uk)
  • 5 Amongst those receiving combination therapy (usually a beta blocker or diuretic), no increase in risk was observed. (nps.org.au)
  • A diuretic or calcium channel blocker is recommended as the first drug treatment for older adults with isolated systolic hypertension (high systolic blood pressure with normal diastolic blood pressure). (sharecare.com)
  • Morbidity and mortality in patients randomised to double-blind treatment with a long-acting calcium-channel blocker or diuretic in the Internationa. (nih.gov)
  • Morbidity and mortality in patients randomised to double-blind treatment with a long-acting calcium-channel blocker or diuretic in the International Nifedipine GITS study: Intervention as a Goal in Hypertension Treatment (INSIGHT). (nih.gov)
  • We compared the effects of the calcium-channel blocker nifedipine once daily with the diuretic combination co-amilozide on cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in high-risk patients with hypertension. (nih.gov)
  • Since lymphatic drainage relies on contraction of the smooth muscle inside the lymphatic vessel supported by voltage-gated calcium channels, inhibition of voltage-gated calcium channel poses a threat towards lymphatic removal of interstitial fluid essential for normal lymphatic system functioning. (wikipedia.org)
  • A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cell membranes or on the release and binding of calcium in intracellular pools. (jove.com)
  • There is evidence that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and calcium are both important components of the same pathways that drive the malignant phenotype, including epithelial cell proliferation and inhibition of apoptosis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Amplification of the AT 1 R response was also observed following inhibition of the calcium permeable transient receptor potential cation channels, suggesting that the activity of AT 1 R is sensitive to calcium influx. (diva-portal.org)
  • Juliana Quero Reimão, Juliana Tonini Mesquita, Daiane Dias Ferreira, and Andre Gustavo Tempone, "Investigation of Calcium Channel Blockers as Antiprotozoal Agents and Their Interference in the Metabolism of Leishmania (L.) infantum ," Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , vol. 2016, Article ID 1523691, 9 pages, 2016. (hindawi.com)
  • There are two different types of calcium channel blocker, which are called dihydropyridines and nondihydropyridines. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Dihydropyridines target a specific type of calcium channel in the body. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Dihydropyridines are used to treat high blood pressure, more frequently than the other classes of calcium channel blocker. (verywellhealth.com)
  • The WMD of all calcium-channel blockers versus placebo (6 trials) and of nifedipine alone versus placebo (5 trials) for the reduction in the frequency of ischemic attacks over a 2-week period was -8.31 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] -15.71, -0.91) and -10.21 (95% CI -20.09, -0.34), respectively. (nih.gov)
  • The SMD of all calcium-channel blockers versus placebo (3 trials) and of nifedipine alone versus placebo (2 trials) for the reduction in the severity of ischemic attacks was -0.69 (95% CI -1.21, -0.17) and -0.99 (95% CI -1.74, -0.24), respectively. (nih.gov)
  • A randomized double-blind, placebo-, and active-controlled study of T-type calcium channel blocker ABT-639 in patients with diabetic peripheral neu. (nih.gov)
  • Calcium channel blockers may be used in people with coronary artery disease to lower their blood pressure. (wellspan.org)
  • They block the small pores in cells that let calcium pass through, and widen blood vessels as well as affect the activity of nerve cells. (webmd.com)
  • They can slow the heart rate and relax blood vessels and they work by diminishing the flow of calcium between cells. (healthcentral.com)
  • Calcium channel blockers are a type of medication that people take to increase the flow of blood and oxygen to the heart. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Doctors may prescribe a calcium channel blocker to treat high blood pressure or a variety of heart conditions. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Doctors commonly use calcium channel blockers to treat high blood pressure . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • For example, by reducing high blood pressure, they believe that calcium channel blockers may be able to lower the risk of Alzheimer's disease . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • However, the American Heart Association recommend calcium channel blockers as a first-line pharmacological treatment for high blood pressure in most people and advise that beta-blockers should be a second-choice option. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • That's good to know though about the Calcium Channel Blockers lowering blood pressure. (medhelp.org)
  • If your neurologist does end up putting you on a blood pressure medication, and it turns out to be a Calcium Channel Blocker instead of a Beta Blocker. (medhelp.org)
  • They tried all the preventatives on me, Imipramine(anti-depressant), Nadolol ( beta blocker) and a few others nothing worked so we thought we had to do something as I have had a migraine now for months---from about the 5th Oct till yesterday I was migraine free with the Diltiazem CD (calcium blocker for blood pressure), so it does help me. (medhelp.org)
  • When calcium flow is limited, your heart's contractions aren't as strong with each beat, and your blood vessels are able to relax. (healthline.com)
  • Most people who have taken too much of a calcium channel blocker, especially diltiazem, get slow heart rate and low blood pressure (vasodilatory shock). (wikipedia.org)
  • How do calcium channel blockers work for high blood pressure? (webmd.com)
  • Calcium-channel blockers are a type of medicine used to treat high blood pressure and heart rhythm disturbances. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A type of blood pressure lowering medication, called a calcium-channel blocker, may be linked with an increased risk of a type of bowel condition called diverticulosis. (news-medical.net)
  • Benoff has for many years investigated whether calcium channel blockers commonly prescribed for high blood pressure and heart disease can serve as male contraceptives. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Calcium channel blockers block calcium from entering cells of the heart and smooth muscle in the walls of blood vessels. (drugs.com)
  • Calcium Channel Blockers also lower blood pressure so it often given in blood pressure medication but it can also prevent Engina or the symptoms of the blocked artery. (sharecare.com)
  • Calcium channel blockers are a class of drugs prescribed for high blood pressure and other heart diseases. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Calcium channel blockers reduce the speed at which calcium moves into heart muscle, blood vessels, and cells in the heart that control your heart rate. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Calcium channel blockers relax and widen blood vessels. (cigna.com)
  • Calcium channel blockers are used to lower high blood pressure . (cigna.com)
  • Calcium channel blockers lower blood pressure and help prevent a heart attack or stroke. (cigna.com)
  • Calcium channel blockers can lower blood pressure or slow the heart rate. (northshore.org)
  • DALLAS, July 7 -- Boston researchers say they have evidence that supports the safety of nifedipine, a calcium channel blocker used to treat high blood pressure. (eurekalert.org)
  • Calcium channel blockers have been used for decades to treat high blood pressure. (eurekalert.org)
  • Calcium plays a key role in how the muscles in your heart and arteries contract to pump blood round your body. (bupa.co.uk)
  • Calcium-channel blockers restrict how much calcium can enter the muscle cells in your blood vessels. (bupa.co.uk)
  • Calcium channel blockers are a common class of medication used to treat high blood pressure and heart arrhythmias (irregular heartbeats. (verywellhealth.com)
  • The research of all available evidence by JNC 8 (Joint National Commission 8) has demonstrated an advantage to the use of calcium channel blockers in certain groups, particularly for the initial treatment of high blood pressure in African-American people. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Calcium channel blockers are sometimes prescribed in combination forms with a statin or another blood pressure medication. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Calcium channel blockers, also called calcium channel antagonist or calcium antagonist, are drugs that prevent calcium from entering muscle cells of the heart and walls of blood vessels. (alleydog.com)
  • Q. My doctor started me on a calcium-channel blocker for high blood pressure. (harvard.edu)
  • In fact, in some people, an oral calcium supplement actually lowers blood pressure around one or two points. (harvard.edu)
  • Since the effect is so small, oral calcium isn't recommended for treating high blood pressure. (harvard.edu)
  • Parathyroid hormone, which causes transfer of exchangeable calcium from bone into the blood stream, maintains calcium homeostasis by preventing either calcium deficit or excess. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • I read this on Michael J Fox's Parkinson's web site about people taking Calcium Channel Blockers but not other type of High Blood Pressure Meds lowered their risks of Paekinson's. (city-data.com)
  • Who should take a calcium channel blocker for high blood pressure? (sharecare.com)
  • Calcium channel blockers and diuretics are often considered good treatment choices for older people with high blood pressure. (sharecare.com)
  • Calcium channel blockers improve the flow of blood in narrowed arteries. (sharecare.com)
  • Lercanidipine is a medication that is classified as a calcium channel blocker: drugs that dilate blood vessels and lower blood pressure. (dokteronline.com)
  • It is thought that calcium channel blockers help reduce stress on blood vessels, but there is little data to show whether these drugs are safe and helpful for patients with Marfan syndrome. (elifesciences.org)
  • Several other types of medication have an effect similar to that of calcium channel blockers. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • After adjustment for demographics, comorbidities, and the use of other sorts of medication, mortality from breast cancer was no higher in women who had taken calcium channel blockers than in women who had never used them. (bmj.com)
  • Alcohol, combined with a calcium channel blocker, can cause severe side effects and may also affect the way the medication works. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Calcium channel blockers are generally safe, but like any medication, need to be taken properly and with care. (everydayhealth.com)
  • If you are taking a calcium channel blocker, you should wait at least four hours after taking the medication before consuming grapefruit or grapefruit juice. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Is there calcium channel blockers in the medication benicar (olmesartan) thanks? (healthtap.com)
  • If you are taking calcium channel blockers and breastfeeding at the same time, it is important to know that the medication does pass through breast milk to your nursing infant. (emedtv.com)
  • Who should take calcium channel blockers? (healthline.com)
  • You should not, however, take calcium channel blockers with grapefruit juice or grapefruit. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Remember to take calcium channel blockers exactly as your doctor or pharmacist recommends. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Package inserts for various calcium channel blockers on eMedTV. (emedtv.com)
  • This intrinsic link between COX-2 and calcium-regulated signaling led to the hypothesis that a COX-2 inhibitor and a calcium influx inhibitor could act cooperatively as anticancer agents. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Long-acting calcium channel blockers are significantly less effective than other antihypertensive agents in reducing the disease's major cardiovascular complications, according to a new metaanalysis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • They share this quality with major therapeutic agents such as dihydropyridine-type calcium channel blockers ( Godfraind, 2004 ) that are established drugs for treating cardiovascular diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • Posicor has a long half-life of 17 to 25 hours and a prolonged washout period may be required after discontinuation of the calcium channel blocker prior to initiation of other antihypertensive agents. (mercola.com)
  • What is the role of calcium channel blockers in urinary incontinence treatment? (medscape.com)
  • Massie BM (1998) The safety of calcium-channel blockers. (exrx.net)
  • An atomic level analysis has revealed how two classes of calcium channel blockers, widely prescribed for heart disease patients, produce separate therapeutic effects through their actions at different sites on the calcium channel molecule. (news-medical.net)
  • Cardizem (diltiazem) is a common calcium-channel blocker. (factmonster.com)
  • Research suggests that the way the brain uses calcium to regulate nerve cells may not work right in some people with bipolar disorder. (webmd.com)
  • So calcium channel blockers have been studied as a treatment for bipolar disorder, but there isn't enough evidence yet that they work. (webmd.com)
  • Which calcium channel blockers have been studied to treat bipolar disorder? (webmd.com)
  • The naturally occurring ù-conotoxins have activity at various Ca channels including the N- (Cav2.2), P/Q- (Cav2.1), R- (Cav2.3), and T- (Cav3.1/3.2) type channels and have served as platforms for the development of therapeutic agents now in development. (pharmiweb.com)
  • Different therapeutic candidates in early-stage, mid-stage and late stage of development for Voltage-Dependent Calcium Channel Blockers. (reportsnreports.com)
  • The Voltage-Dependent Calcium Channel Blockers report provides an Overview of therapeutic pipeline activity and therapeutic assessment of the products by development stage, product type, route of administration, molecule type, and MOA the complete product development cycle, including all clinical and nonclinical stages. (reportsnreports.com)
  • It comprises of detailed profiles of Voltage-Dependent Calcium Channel Blockers therapeutic products with key coverage of involved technology, collaborations, licensing, mergers and acquisition, funding, designations and other product-related details. (reportsnreports.com)
  • However, the main ingredient is called a calcium-channel antagonist. (medlineplus.gov)
  • By using the Ca 2+ reporter GCaMP6f, we observed changes in Ca 2+ signaling when tau was expressed in these neurons, an effect that could be blocked by the L-type Ca 2+ channel antagonist nimodipine or reversed by RNAi knock-down of the L-type channel gene. (biotechnews.com.au)
  • Without calcium, the muscles relax and the arteries dilate. (healthcentral.com)
  • So some people have a spasm in their artery, calcium channel blocker as a joint is more likely to relax that and prevent that from happening. (sharecare.com)
  • The blockage caused by the use of calcium channel blockers may reduce sRAGE release and cause chronic inflammation, a known risk factor for pancreatic cancer and other cancer types. (healio.com)
  • It flows between the heart cells and surrounding fluid through a sort of chemical revolving door - the calcium channel. (healthcentral.com)
  • The more calcium that gets through the door before the electrical signal comes, the more strongly the heart contracts and the harder it works. (healthcentral.com)
  • Beta-blockers slow heart activity by limiting the effects of stress hormones, such as epinephrine and norepinephrine. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Calcium stimulates the heart to contract more forcefully. (healthline.com)
  • Calcium channel blockers are typically used to treat hypertension and have been viewed with caution in the United States since 1995, when the initial findings of several scattered studies found a possible link to heart attacks, strokes, cancer, gastrointestinal bleeding, and perhaps even Parkinson's disease, according to Brant S. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Calcium-channel blockers are medicines that work on the muscle cells of your heart and your arteries. (bupa.co.uk)
  • Calcium causes the forceful contraction of muscles in the heart and it also causes constriction of the muscles in the walls of the artery. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Calcium channel blockers can also lower the heart rate and decrease the heart's pumping action. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Most calcium channel blockers decrease the force of contraction of the ________ (muscle of the heart). (thefullwiki.org)
  • Calcium channel blockers do not actually cure any heart disease but are usually used to control the heart rate or the rhythm. (healthtap.com)
  • Can you tell me commonly prescribed calcium channel blocker recommended by aha? (healthtap.com)
  • What are commonly prescribed calcium channel blockers? (healthtap.com)
  • More than ten thousand cases of calcium channel blocker toxicity were reported in the United States in 2010. (wikipedia.org)
  • Costello M &Syring RS (2008) Calcium channel blocker toxicity. (lortsmith.com)
  • Hayes CL & Knight M (2012) Calcium Channel Blocker Toxicity in Dogs and Cats. (lortsmith.com)
  • The team's findings, published in Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience , found treating a diseased brain cell with a blocker of the L-type channel reduced the number of calcium ions able to flow into the brain cell. (bris.ac.uk)
  • They found that diseased brain cells become overloaded with calcium ions, which at normal levels are important for memory formation. (bris.ac.uk)
  • This overload was due to the overproduction of the gene encoding a channel, known as the L-type channel, which allows calcium ions to flow into the cell from outside. (bris.ac.uk)
  • More of these channels means more calcium ions are able to flow into the cell, disrupting memory formation. (bris.ac.uk)
  • Using a drug to block the L-type channel reversed the effect of disease and reduced the flow of calcium ions to a normal level. (bris.ac.uk)
  • However, if the overproduction of L-type channels was corrected in the diseased flies, their brain cells were no longer overloaded with calcium ions and their memory was just as good as healthy flies. (bris.ac.uk)
  • Findings from the new study-published recently in Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience through an article titled " Restoration of Olfactory Memory in Drosophila Overexpressing Human Alzheimer's Disease-Associated Tau by Manipulation of L-Type Ca2+ Channels "-found that treating a diseased brain cell with a blocker of the L-type channel reduced the number of calcium ions able to flow into the brain cell. (biotechnews.com.au)
  • Treating diseased brain cells with calcium channel blockers: A diseased brain cell (middle) has more L-type channels, and consequently more calcium ions inside it, than a healthy brain cell (left). (biotechnews.com.au)
  • New pharmaceutical products may have both a calcium channel blocker and a second antihypertensive such as an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or an angiotensin receptor blocker. (medscape.com)
  • Atacand ( candesartan ) is an angiotensin receptor blocker. (healthtap.com)
  • Benicar ( olmesartan ) is not a calcium blocker it is an angiotensin receptor blocker. (healthtap.com)
  • No. It's an angiotensin receptor blocker. (healthtap.com)
  • The calcium channel blockers are a group of drugs which impede calcium ion entry into cells, thereby inhibiting myocardial and smooth muscle contraction, as well as various secretory processes. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • The first of these was a case-control study which revealed that patients taking calcium channel blockers had a higher risk of myocardial infarction than those taking diuretics (risk ratio 1.62) or beta blockers (risk ratio 1.57). (nps.org.au)
  • Gabapentinoids, such as gabapentin and pregabalin, are selective blockers of α2δ subunit-containing voltage-gated calcium channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our findings on short-acting calcium channel blocker use and pancreatic cancer risk are novel and of potential broad medical and public health significance if confirmed," Wang said in a press release. (healio.com)
  • Phenylalkylamines are thought to access calcium channels from the intracellular side, although the evidence is somewhat mixed. (wikipedia.org)
  • There has been some anxiety that calcium channel blockers might encourage growth of malignant cells by reducing intracellular calcium concentrations and inhibiting apoptotic gene expression. (bmj.com)
  • Expression data suggest that Drosophila L-type Ca 2+ channel mRNA levels are increased upon tau expression in neurons, thus contributing to the effects observed on memory and intracellular Ca 2+ homeostasis. (biotechnews.com.au)
  • Many patients with hypertension have benefited from calcium channel blockers. (healthcentral.com)
  • Clinicians with the Oregon Poison Center in Portland report that four individuals went into shock recently after clinicians switched them from mibefradil (Posicor) to other calcium channel blockers and that one of the four patients died. (mercola.com)
  • [ 12 ] These onset times should be considered when discharging patients home who may or may not have ingested calcium channel blockers. (medscape.com)
  • Though calcium channel blocker mood regulation effects are smaller in magnitude than those produced by lithium or the anticonvulsant mood stabilizers, they are nevertheless useful for some patients, and thus are deserving of mention. (mentalhelp.net)
  • There are a number of side effects that can occur with calcium channel blockers, but they do not occur in all patients and the benefits of therapy are greater than the risk of side effects. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Side effects associated with calcium channel blockers are less likely to occur in older patients. (verywellhealth.com)
  • 1 Finally, a student asked me why I wasn't pretreating patients with intravenous calcium. (aafp.org)
  • 2 The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) issued an updated hypertension guideline in June 2006 which states that calcium channel blockers are a first line alternative to thiazide diuretics in hypertensive patients over 55 years. (bpac.org.nz)
  • Several preclinical studies suggest that calcium channel blockers (CCB) may prevent the development of atherosclerosis in high-risk patients. (ahajournals.org)
  • Based on the results of this study, calcium-channel blockers appear to be effective in the prevention of PAD in patients with hypertension. (ahajournals.org)
  • This revealed preliminary evidence that aortic tears and aortic repair surgery were more common in patients with Marfan syndrome who had received calcium channel blockers than patients who had been treated with other drugs. (elifesciences.org)
  • Together, these findings suggest that it may be dangerous to treat patients with Marfan syndrome with calcium channel blockers. (elifesciences.org)
  • Hence, this study was designed to evaluate the effect of aging on the sensitivity of small mesenteric arteries to L-type voltage-gated calcium channel (LTCC) blockers and also to investigate whether there was a concomitant change in calcium current density. (frontiersin.org)
  • Background: Blockers of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT 1 R) and the voltage gated calcium channel 1.2 (Ca V 1.2) are commonly used for treatment of hypertension. (diva-portal.org)