Calcium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.Calcium Channels: Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.Calcium Channels, L-Type: Long-lasting voltage-gated CALCIUM CHANNELS found in both excitable and nonexcitable tissue. They are responsible for normal myocardial and vascular smooth muscle contractility. Five subunits (alpha-1, alpha-2, beta, gamma, and delta) make up the L-type channel. The alpha-1 subunit is the binding site for calcium-based antagonists. Dihydropyridine-based calcium antagonists are used as markers for these binding sites.Dihydropyridines: Pyridine moieties which are partially saturated by the addition of two hydrogen atoms in any position.Nifedipine: A potent vasodilator agent with calcium antagonistic action. It is a useful anti-anginal agent that also lowers blood pressure.Diltiazem: A benzothiazepine derivative with vasodilating action due to its antagonism of the actions of CALCIUM ion on membrane functions.Verapamil: A calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Calcium Channels, N-Type: CALCIUM CHANNELS that are concentrated in neural tissue. Omega toxins inhibit the actions of these channels by altering their voltage dependence.Calcium Channels, T-Type: A heterogenous group of transient or low voltage activated type CALCIUM CHANNELS. They are found in cardiac myocyte membranes, the sinoatrial node, Purkinje cells of the heart and the central nervous system.Amlodipine: A long-acting dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. It is effective in the treatment of ANGINA PECTORIS and HYPERTENSION.Potassium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by inhibition of potassium efflux through cell membranes. Blockade of potassium channels prolongs the duration of ACTION POTENTIALS. They are used as ANTI-ARRHYTHMIA AGENTS and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Nicardipine: A potent calcium channel blockader with marked vasodilator action. It has antihypertensive properties and is effective in the treatment of angina and coronary spasms without showing cardiodepressant effects. It has also been used in the treatment of asthma and enhances the action of specific antineoplastic agents.Mibefradil: A benzimidazoyl-substituted tetraline that selectively binds and inhibits CALCIUM CHANNELS, T-TYPE.Nitrendipine: A calcium channel blocker with marked vasodilator action. It is an effective antihypertensive agent and differs from other calcium channel blockers in that it does not reduce glomerular filtration rate and is mildly natriuretic, rather than sodium retentive.Calcium Signaling: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.Calcium Channel Agonists: Agents that increase calcium influx into calcium channels of excitable tissues. This causes vasoconstriction in VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE and/or CARDIAC MUSCLE cells as well as stimulation of insulin release from pancreatic islets. Therefore, tissue-selective calcium agonists have the potential to combat cardiac failure and endocrinological disorders. They have been used primarily in experimental studies in cell and tissue culture.Nimodipine: A calcium channel blockader with preferential cerebrovascular activity. It has marked cerebrovascular dilating effects and lowers blood pressure.Sodium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by inhibition of sodium influx through cell membranes. Blockade of sodium channels slows the rate and amplitude of initial rapid depolarization, reduces cell excitability, and reduces conduction velocity.omega-Conotoxins: A family of structurally related neurotoxic peptides from mollusk venom that inhibit voltage-activated entry of calcium into the presynaptic membrane. They selectively inhibit N-, P-, and Q-type calcium channels.Ion Channel Gating: The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.omega-Conotoxin GVIA: A neurotoxic peptide, which is a cleavage product (VIa) of the omega-Conotoxin precursor protein contained in venom from the marine snail, CONUS geographus. It is an antagonist of CALCIUM CHANNELS, N-TYPE.Azetidinecarboxylic Acid: A proline analog that acts as a stoichiometric replacement of proline. It causes the production of abnormal proteins with impaired biological activity.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Antihypertensive Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Isradipine: A potent antagonist of CALCIUM CHANNELS that is highly selective for VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE. It is effective in the treatment of chronic stable angina pectoris, hypertension, and congestive cardiac failure.Calcium Channels, P-Type: CALCIUM CHANNELS located within the PURKINJE CELLS of the cerebellum. They are involved in stimulation-secretion coupling of neurons.Chloride Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that form channels to selectively pass chloride ions. Nonselective blockers include FENAMATES; ETHACRYNIC ACID; and TAMOXIFEN.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Potassium Channels, Inwardly Rectifying: Potassium channels where the flow of K+ ions into the cell is greater than the outward flow.Calcium Channels, Q-Type: CALCIUM CHANNELS located in the neurons of the brain.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Calcium Channels, R-Type: CALCIUM CHANNELS located in the neurons of the brain. They are inhibited by the marine snail toxin, omega conotoxin MVIIC.omega-Agatoxin IVA: A neuropeptide toxin from the venom of the funnel web spider, Agelenopsis aperta. It inhibits CALCIUM CHANNELS, P-TYPE by altering the voltage-dependent gating so that very large depolarizations are needed for channel opening. It also inhibits CALCIUM CHANNELS, Q-TYPE.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Flunarizine: Flunarizine is a selective calcium entry blocker with calmodulin binding properties and histamine H1 blocking activity. It is effective in the prophylaxis of migraine, occlusive peripheral vascular disease, vertigo of central and peripheral origin, and as an adjuvant in the therapy of epilepsy.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Potassium Channels, Voltage-Gated: Potassium channel whose permeability to ions is extremely sensitive to the transmembrane potential difference. The opening of these channels is induced by the membrane depolarization of the ACTION POTENTIAL.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Potassium Channels, Calcium-Activated: Potassium channels whose activation is dependent on intracellular calcium concentrations.KATP Channels: Heteromultimers of Kir6 channels (the pore portion) and sulfonylurea receptor (the regulatory portion) which affect function of the HEART; PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. KATP channel blockers include GLIBENCLAMIDE and mitiglinide whereas openers include CROMAKALIM and minoxidil sulfate.Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors: A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers: Agents that antagonize ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR. Included are ANGIOTENSIN II analogs such as SARALASIN and biphenylimidazoles such as LOSARTAN. Some are used as ANTIHYPERTENSIVE AGENTS.Felodipine: A dihydropyridine calcium antagonist with positive inotropic effects. It lowers blood pressure by reducing peripheral vascular resistance through a highly selective action on smooth muscle in arteriolar resistance vessels.Diuretics: Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.Spider Venoms: Venoms of arthropods of the order Araneida of the ARACHNIDA. The venoms usually contain several protein fractions, including ENZYMES, hemolytic, neurolytic, and other TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Cinnarizine: A piperazine derivative having histamine H1-receptor and calcium-channel blocking activity with vasodilating and antiemetic properties but it induces PARKINSONIAN DISORDERS.Adrenergic beta-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.Calcium, Dietary: Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.Barium: An element of the alkaline earth group of metals. It has an atomic symbol Ba, atomic number 56, and atomic weight 138. All of its acid-soluble salts are poisonous.Electric Conductivity: The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Benzimidazoles: Compounds with a BENZENE fused to IMIDAZOLES.Calcium Chloride: A salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.TRPC Cation Channels: A subgroup of TRP cation channels that contain 3-4 ANKYRIN REPEAT DOMAINS and a conserved C-terminal domain. Members are highly expressed in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Selectivity for calcium over sodium ranges from 0.5 to 10.Large-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels: A major class of calcium activated potassium channels whose members are voltage-dependent. MaxiK channels are activated by either membrane depolarization or an increase in intracellular Ca(2+). They are key regulators of calcium and electrical signaling in a variety of tissues.Tetrodotoxin: An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.Egtazic Acid: A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.Calcium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of calcium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ca atoms with atomic weights 39, 41, 45, 47, 49, and 50 are radioactive calcium isotopes.Nisoldipine: A dihydropyridine calcium channel antagonist that acts as a potent arterial vasodilator and antihypertensive agent. It is also effective in patients with cardiac failure and angina.Shaker Superfamily of Potassium Channels: Voltage-gated potassium channels whose primary subunits contain six transmembrane segments and form tetramers to create a pore with a voltage sensor. They are related to their founding member, shaker protein, Drosophila.TetrazolesMyocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Tetraethylammonium: A potassium-selective ion channel blocker. (From J Gen Phys 1994;104(1):173-90)Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Glyburide: An antidiabetic sulfonylurea derivative with actions similar to those of chlorpropamide.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.4-Aminopyridine: One of the POTASSIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS, with secondary effect on calcium currents, which is used mainly as a research tool and to characterize channel subtypes.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Chelating Agents: Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.Potassium Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Bepridil: A long-acting calcium-blocking agent with significant anti-anginal activity. The drug produces significant coronary vasodilation and modest peripheral effects. It has antihypertensive and selective anti-arrhythmia activities and acts as a calmodulin antagonist.Gallopamil: Coronary vasodilator that is an analog of iproveratril (VERAPAMIL) with one more methoxy group on the benzene ring.Kv1.3 Potassium Channel: A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that is the predominant VOLTAGE-GATED POTASSIUM CHANNEL of T-LYMPHOCYTES.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated Cation Channels: A subgroup of cyclic nucleotide-regulated ION CHANNELS within the superfamily of pore-loop cation channels. They are expressed in OLFACTORY NERVE cilia and in PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and some PLANTS.TRPV Cation Channels: A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after vanilloid receptor. They are very sensitive to TEMPERATURE and hot spicy food and CAPSAICIN. They have the TRP domain and ANKYRIN repeats. Selectivity for CALCIUM over SODIUM ranges from 3 to 100 fold.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Potassium Chloride: A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Nitrobenzoates: Benzoic acid or benzoic acid esters substituted with one or more nitro groups.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Small-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels: A major class of calcium-activated potassium channels that are found primarily in excitable CELLS. They play important roles in the transmission of ACTION POTENTIALS and generate a long-lasting hyperpolarization known as the slow afterhyperpolarization.Calcium Carbonate: Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Ion Transport: The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.Agatoxins: A class of polyamine and peptide toxins which are isolated from the venom of spiders such as Agelenopsis aperta.Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel: A tetrameric calcium release channel in the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM membrane of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, acting oppositely to SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES. It is important in skeletal and cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and studied by using RYANODINE. Abnormalities are implicated in CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS and MUSCULAR DISEASES.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Ether-A-Go-Go Potassium Channels: A family of voltage-gated potassium channels that are characterized by long N-terminal and C-terminal intracellular tails. They are named from the Drosophila protein whose mutation causes abnormal leg shaking under ether anesthesia. Their activation kinetics are dependent on extracellular MAGNESIUM and PROTON concentration.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Lanthanum: Lanthanum. The prototypical element in the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol La, atomic number 57, and atomic weight 138.91. Lanthanide ion is used in experimental biology as a calcium antagonist; lanthanum oxide improves the optical properties of glass.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Imidazoles: Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).Nickel: A trace element with the atomic symbol Ni, atomic number 28, and atomic weight 58.69. It is a cofactor of the enzyme UREASE.Tetrahydronaphthalenes: Partially saturated 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene compounds.OxadiazolesApamin: A highly neurotoxic polypeptide from the venom of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). It consists of 18 amino acids with two disulfide bridges and causes hyperexcitability resulting in convulsions and respiratory paralysis.Kv1.1 Potassium Channel: A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that is commonly mutated in human episodic ATAXIA and MYOKYMIA.Cadmium: An element with atomic symbol Cd, atomic number 48, and atomic weight 114. It is a metal and ingestion will lead to CADMIUM POISONING.Charybdotoxin: A 37-amino acid residue peptide isolated from the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus. It is a neurotoxin that inhibits calcium activated potassium channels.Sodium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit SODIUM CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS. They act as DIURETICS. Excess use is associated with HYPOKALEMIA.TRPM Cation Channels: A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after melastatin protein. They have the TRP domain but lack ANKYRIN repeats. Enzyme domains in the C-terminus leads to them being called chanzymes.Fura-2: A fluorescent calcium chelating agent which is used to study intracellular calcium in tissues.Kv1.2 Potassium Channel: A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that is selectively inhibited by a variety of SCORPION VENOMS.KCNQ Potassium Channels: A family of delayed rectifier voltage-gated potassium channels that share homology with their founding member, KCNQ1 PROTEIN. KCNQ potassium channels have been implicated in a variety of diseases including LONG QT SYNDROME; DEAFNESS; and EPILEPSY.Epithelial Sodium Channels: Sodium channels found on salt-reabsorbing EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the distal NEPHRON; the distal COLON; SALIVARY DUCTS; SWEAT GLANDS; and the LUNG. They are AMILORIDE-sensitive and play a critical role in the control of sodium balance, BLOOD VOLUME, and BLOOD PRESSURE.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Kv1.5 Potassium Channel: A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that conducts a delayed rectifier current. It contributes to ACTION POTENTIAL repolarization of MYOCYTES in HEART ATRIA.Presynaptic Terminals: The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Anti-Arrhythmia Agents: Agents used for the treatment or prevention of cardiac arrhythmias. They may affect the polarization-repolarization phase of the action potential, its excitability or refractoriness, or impulse conduction or membrane responsiveness within cardiac fibers. Anti-arrhythmia agents are often classed into four main groups according to their mechanism of action: sodium channel blockade, beta-adrenergic blockade, repolarization prolongation, or calcium channel blockade.Mollusk Venoms: Venoms from mollusks, including CONUS and OCTOPUS species. The venoms contain proteins, enzymes, choline derivatives, slow-reacting substances, and several characterized polypeptide toxins that affect the nervous system. Mollusk venoms include cephalotoxin, venerupin, maculotoxin, surugatoxin, conotoxins, and murexine.Acid Sensing Ion Channels: A family of proton-gated sodium channels that are primarily expressed in neuronal tissue. They are AMILORIDE-sensitive and are implicated in the signaling of a variety of neurological stimuli, most notably that of pain in response to acidic conditions.Scorpion Venoms: Venoms from animals of the order Scorpionida of the class Arachnida. They contain neuro- and hemotoxins, enzymes, and various other factors that may release acetylcholine and catecholamines from nerve endings. Of the several protein toxins that have been characterized, most are immunogenic.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Neurotransmitter Agents: Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.Protein Subunits: Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Calcium Phosphates: Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists: Agents that antagonize ANGIOTENSIN RECEPTORS. Many drugs in this class specifically target the ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR.Lidoflazine: Coronary vasodilator with some antiarrhythmic action.Niflumic Acid: An analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.Calcium Isotopes: Stable calcium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element calcium, but differ in atomic weight. Ca-42-44, 46, and 48 are stable calcium isotopes.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Gingival Hyperplasia: Non-inflammatory enlargement of the gingivae produced by factors other than local irritation. It is characteristically due to an increase in the number of cells. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p400)Benzylisoquinolines: ISOQUINOLINES with a benzyl substituent.Calcimycin: An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.ThiazepinesSignal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Cardiovascular Agents: Agents that affect the rate or intensity of cardiac contraction, blood vessel diameter, or blood volume.Extracellular Space: Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.Thapsigargin: A sesquiterpene lactone found in roots of THAPSIA. It inhibits CA(2+)-TRANSPORTING ATPASE mediated uptake of CALCIUM into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Transient Receptor Potential Channels: A broad group of eukaryotic six-transmembrane cation channels that are classified by sequence homology because their functional involvement with SENSATION is varied. They have only weak voltage sensitivity and ion selectivity. They are named after a DROSOPHILA mutant that displayed transient receptor potentials in response to light. A 25-amino-acid motif containing a TRP box (EWKFAR) just C-terminal to S6 is found in TRPC, TRPV and TRPM subgroups. ANKYRIN repeats are found in TRPC, TRPV & TRPN subgroups. Some are functionally associated with TYROSINE KINASE or TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Shab Potassium Channels: A subfamily of shaker potassium channels that shares homology with its founding member, Shab protein, Drosophila. They regulate delayed rectifier currents in the NERVOUS SYSTEM of DROSOPHILA and in the SKELETAL MUSCLE and HEART of VERTEBRATES.Rats, Inbred SHR: A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.Skin Diseases, Eczematous: Any of a variety of eruptive skin disorders characterized by erythema, oozing, vesiculation, and scaling. Etiology is varied.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Nicotinic Acids: 2-, 3-, or 4-Pyridinecarboxylic acids. Pyridine derivatives substituted with a carboxy group at the 2-, 3-, or 4-position. The 3-carboxy derivative (NIACIN) is active as a vitamin.Sodium Channels: Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Intracellular Fluid: The fluid inside CELLS.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Calmodulin: A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.Shaw Potassium Channels: A shaker subfamily that is prominently expressed in NEURONS and are necessary for high-frequency, repetitive firing of ACTION POTENTIALS.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Tetraethylammonium CompoundsHydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Receptors, Nicotinic: One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.Intermediate-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels: A major class of calcium-activated potassium channels that were originally discovered in ERYTHROCYTES. They are found primarily in non-excitable CELLS and set up electrical gradients for PASSIVE ION TRANSPORT.KCNQ1 Potassium Channel: A voltage-gated potassium channel that is expressed primarily in the HEART.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Indoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.Quinidine: An optical isomer of quinine, extracted from the bark of the CHINCHONA tree and similar plant species. This alkaloid dampens the excitability of cardiac and skeletal muscles by blocking sodium and potassium currents across cellular membranes. It prolongs cellular ACTION POTENTIALS, and decreases automaticity. Quinidine also blocks muscarinic and alpha-adrenergic neurotransmission.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Fendiline: Coronary vasodilator; inhibits calcium function in muscle cells in excitation-contraction coupling; proposed as antiarrhythmic and antianginal agents.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.G Protein-Coupled Inwardly-Rectifying Potassium Channels: A family of inwardly-rectifying potassium channels that are activated by PERTUSSIS TOXIN sensitive G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS. GIRK potassium channels are primarily activated by the complex of GTP-BINDING PROTEIN BETA SUBUNITS and GTP-BINDING PROTEIN GAMMA SUBUNITS.Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Kv1.4 Potassium Channel: A fast inactivating subtype of shaker potassium channels that contains two inactivation domains at its N terminus.4,4'-Diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-Disulfonic Acid: An inhibitor of anion conductance including band 3-mediated anion transport.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Amiloride: A pyrazine compound inhibiting SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS. This inhibition creates a negative potential in the luminal membranes of principal cells, located in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Negative potential reduces secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Amiloride is used in conjunction with DIURETICS to spare POTASSIUM loss. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p705)Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Hyperpolarization-Activated Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated Channels: A subgroup of cyclic nucleotide-regulated ION CHANNELS of the superfamily of pore-loop cation channels that are opened by hyperpolarization rather than depolarization. The ion conducting pore passes SODIUM, CALCIUM, and POTASSIUM cations with a preference for potassium.Coronary Vasospasm: Spasm of the large- or medium-sized coronary arteries.Enalapril: An angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor that is used to treat HYPERTENSION and HEART FAILURE.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Shal Potassium Channels: A shaker subfamily of potassium channels that participate in transient outward potassium currents by activating at subthreshold MEMBRANE POTENTIALS, inactivating rapidly, and recovering from inactivation quickly.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Trifluoperazine: A phenothiazine with actions similar to CHLORPROMAZINE. It is used as an antipsychotic and an antiemetic.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.

Ionic currents underlying spontaneous action potentials in isolated cerebellar Purkinje neurons. (1/6563)

Acutely dissociated cell bodies of mouse Purkinje neurons spontaneously fired action potentials at approximately 50 Hz (25 degrees C). To directly measure the ionic currents underlying spontaneous activity, we voltage-clamped the cells using prerecorded spontaneous action potentials (spike trains) as voltage commands and used ionic substitution and selective blockers to isolate individual currents. The largest current flowing during the interspike interval was tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium current (approximately -50 pA between -65 and -60 mV). Although the neurons had large voltage-dependent calcium currents, the net current blocked by cobalt substitution for calcium was outward at all times during spike trains. Thus, the electrical effect of calcium current is apparently dominated by rapidly activated calcium-dependent potassium currents. Under current clamp, all cells continued firing spontaneously (though approximately 30% more slowly) after block of T-type calcium current by mibefradil, and most cells continued to fire after block of all calcium current by cobalt substitution. Although the neurons possessed hyperpolarization-activated cation current (Ih), little current flowed during spike trains, and block by 1 mM cesium had no effect on firing frequency. The outward potassium currents underlying the repolarization of the spikes were completely blocked by 1 mM TEA. These currents deactivated quickly (<1 msec) after each spike. We conclude that the spontaneous firing of Purkinje neuron cell bodies depends mainly on tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium current flowing between spikes. The high firing rate is promoted by large potassium currents that repolarize the cell rapidly and deactivate quickly, thus preventing strong hyperpolarization and restoring a high input resistance for subsequent depolarization.  (+info)

Activation of human D3 dopamine receptor inhibits P/Q-type calcium channels and secretory activity in AtT-20 cells. (2/6563)

The D3 dopamine receptor is postulated to play an important role in the regulation of neurotransmitter secretion at both pre- and postsynaptic terminals. However, this hypothesis and the underlying mechanisms remain untested because of the lack of D3-selective ligands, paucity of appropriate model secretory systems, and the weak and inconsistent coupling of D3 receptors to classical signal transduction pathways. The absence of ligands that selectively discriminate between D3 and D2 receptors in vivo precludes the study of D3 receptor function in the brain and necessitates the use of heterologous expression systems. In this report we demonstrate that activation of the human D3 dopamine receptor expressed in the AtT-20 neuroendocrine cell line causes robust inhibition of P/Q-type calcium channels via pertussis toxin-sensitive G-proteins. In addition, using the vesicle trafficking dye FM1-43, we show that D3 receptor activation significantly inhibits spontaneous secretory activity in these cells. Our results not only support the hypothesis that the D3 receptor can regulate secretory activity but also provide insight into the underlying signaling mechanisms. We propose a functional model in which the D3 receptor tightly regulates neurotransmitter release at a synapse by only allowing the propagation of spikes above a certain frequency or burst-duration threshold.  (+info)

Luteinizing hormone inhibits conversion of pregnenolone to progesterone in luteal cells from rats on day 19 of pregnancy. (3/6563)

We have previously reported that intrabursal ovarian administration of LH at the end of pregnancy in rats induces a decrease in luteal progesterone (P4) synthesis and an increase in P4 metabolism. However, whether this local luteolytic effect of LH is exerted directly on luteal cells or on other structures, such as follicular or stromal cells, to modify luteal function is unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of LH on isolated luteal cells obtained on Day 19 of pregnancy. Incubation of luteal cells with 1, 10, 100, or 1000 ng/ml of ovine LH (oLH) for 6 h did not modify basal P4 production. The addition to the culture medium of 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol (22R-HC, 10 microgram/ml), a membrane-permeable P4 precursor, or pregnenolone (10(-2) microM) induced a significant increase in P4 accumulation in the medium in relation to the control value. When luteal cells were preincubated for 2 h with oLH, a significant (p < 0.01) reduction in the 22R-HC- or pregnenolone-stimulated P4 accumulation was observed. Incubation of luteal cells with dibutyryl cAMP (1 mM, a cAMP analogue) plus isobutylmethylxanthine (1 mM, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor) also inhibited pregnenolone-stimulated P4 accumulation. Incubation with an inositol triphosphate synthesis inhibitor, neomycin (1 mM), or an inhibitor of intracellular Ca2+ mobilization, (8,9-N, N-diethylamino)octyl-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate (1 mM), did not prevent the decrease in pregnenolone-stimulated P4 secretion induced by oLH. It was concluded that the luteolytic action of LH in late pregnancy is due, at least in part, to a direct action on the luteal cells and that an increase in intracellular cAMP level might mediate this effect.  (+info)

Drug-protein binding and blood-brain barrier permeability. (4/6563)

The permeability surface area (PS) product, an index of permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), was measured by using the in situ perfusion method. In the cerebral circulation, the fraction of drug that permeates into the brain through the BBB is not only the unbound fraction but also the fraction dissociated from the protein in the perfusate. The sum of these two fractions, the apparent exchangeable fraction, was estimated by fitting the parameters of the BBB permeability under the condition of varying BSA concentrations in the perfusate. The unbound fraction of drugs in a buffer containing 0.5 mM BSA was measured by using the ultrafiltration method in vitro, and the apparent exchangeable fraction was measured in vivo by using the intracarotid artery injection method. The apparent exchange fraction was 100% for S-8510, 96.5% for diazepam, 90.9% for caffeine, 38.3% for S-312-d, 33.1% for propranolol, and 6.68% for (+)-S-145 Na, and each of these was higher than the corresponding unbound fraction in vitro in all drugs. The apparent exchangeable fractions, for example, were 8 times higher for diazepam and 38 times for S-312-d than the unbound fractions in vitro. The apparent exchangeable fraction of drugs was also estimated from the parameters obtained with the perfusion method. Because drugs can be infused for an arbitrary length of time in the perfusion method, substances with low permeability can be measured. The apparent exchangeable fractions obtained with this method were almost the same as those obtained with the intracarotid artery injection method.  (+info)

Glomerular size-selective dysfunction in NIDDM is not ameliorated by ACE inhibition or by calcium channel blockade. (5/6563)

BACKGROUND: In patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and overt nephropathy glomerular barrier size-selectivity progressively deteriorates with time and is effectively improved by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition. Whether similar glomerular functional changes develop in proteinuric patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), and whether antihypertensive agents can favorably affect glomerular filtration of macromolecules in these patients, has not been documented yet. METHODS: We investigated renal hemodynamics and fractional clearance of neutral dextrans of graded sizes, in nine proteinuric patients with NIDDM and renal biopsy findings of typical diabetic glomerulopathy. Six healthy volunteers served as controls. We also investigated the effects of an ACE inhibitor and of a calcium channel blocker, both given in doses targeted to achieve a comparable level of systemic blood pressure control, on glomerular hemodynamics and sieving function. Theoretical analysis of glomerular macromolecule transport was adopted to evaluate intrinsic glomerular membrane permeability properties. RESULTS: Fractional clearance of large macromolecules (42 to 66 A in radius) was significantly higher in diabetic patients than in controls, and the distribution of membrane pore radii was calculated to be shifted towards larger pore sizes in diabetics (mean radius increased from 55 to 60 A). Despite effective blood pressure control, neither antihypertensive affected glomerular hemodynamics to any significant extent. Fractional clearance of dextrans, as well as of albumin and IgG, and total urinary proteins were not modified by either treatments. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that patients with NIDDM and overt nephropathy develop abnormalities in size-selective function of the glomerular barrier and, at variance to IDDM, such changes were not ameliorated either by ACE inhibition or calcium channel blockade.  (+info)

N-type voltage-dependent calcium channels mediate the nicotinic enhancement of GABA release in chick brain. (6/6563)

The role of voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs) in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR)-mediated enhancement of spontaneous GABAergic inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) was investigated in chick brain slices. Whole cell recordings of neurons in the lateral spiriform (SpL) and ventral lateral geniculate (LGNv) nuclei showed that cadmium chloride (CdCl2) blocked the carbachol-induced increase of spontaneous GABAergic IPSCs, indicating that VDCCs might be involved. To conclusively show a role for VDCCs, the presynaptic effect of carbachol on SpL and LGNv neurons was examined in the presence of selective blockers of VDCC subtypes. omega-Conotoxin GVIA, a selective antagonist of N-type channels, significantly reduced the nAChR-mediated enhancement of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) release in the SpL by 78% compared with control responses. Nifedipine, an L-type channel blocker, and omega-Agatoxin-TK, a P/Q-type channel blocker, did not inhibit the enhancement of GABAergic IPSCs. In the LGNv, omega-Conotoxin GVIA also significantly reduced the nAChR-mediated enhancement of GABA release by 71% from control values. Although omega-Agatoxin-TK did not block the nicotinic enhancement, L-type channel blockers showed complex effects on the nAChR-mediated enhancement. These results indicate that the nAChR-mediated enhancement of spontaneous GABAergic IPSCs requires activation of N-type channels in both the SpL and LGNv.  (+info)

Light-induced calcium influx into retinal axons is regulated by presynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activity in vivo. (7/6563)

Visual activity is thought to be a critical factor in controlling the development of central retinal projections. Neuronal activity increases cytosolic calcium, which was hypothesized to regulate process outgrowth in neurons. We performed an in vivo imaging study in the retinotectal system of albino Xenopus laevis tadpoles with the fluorescent calcium indicator calcium green 1 dextran (CaGD) to test the role of calcium in regulating axon arbor development. We find that visual stimulus to the retina increased CaGD fluorescence intensity in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axon arbors within the optic tectum and that branch additions to retinotectal axon arbors correlated with a local rise in calcium in the parent branch. We find three types of responses to visual stimulus, which roughly correlate with the ON, OFF, and SUSTAINED response types of RGC reported by physiological criteria. Imaging in bandscan mode indicated that patterns of calcium transients were nonuniform throughout the axons. We tested whether the increase in calcium in the retinotectal axons required synaptic activity in the retina; intraocular application of tetrodotoxin (10 microM) or nifedipine (1 and 10 microM) blocked the stimulus-induced increase in RGC axonal fluorescence. A second series of pharmacological investigations was designed to determine the mechanism of the calcium elevation in the axon terminals within the optic tectum. Injection of bis-(o-aminophenoxy)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid-AM (BAPTA-AM) (20 mM) into the tectal ventricle reduced axonal calcium levels, supporting the idea that visual stimulation increases axonal calcium. Injection of BAPTA (20 mM) into the tectal ventricle to chelate extracellular calcium also attenuated the calcium response to visual stimulation, indicating that calcium enters the axon from the extracellular medium. Caffeine (10 mM) caused a large increase in axonal calcium, indicating that intracellular stores contribute to the calcium signal. Presynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) may play a role in axon arbor development and the formation of the topographic retinotectal projection. Injection of nicotine (10 microM) into the tectal ventricle significantly elevated RGC axonal calcium levels, whereas application of the nAChR antagonist alphaBTX (100 nM) reduced the stimulus-evoked rise in RGC calcium fluorescence. These data suggest that light stimulus to the retina increases calcium in the axon terminal arbors through a mechanism that includes influx through nAChRs and amplification by calcium-induced calcium release from intracellular calcium stores. Such a mechanism may contribute to developmental plasticity of the retinotectal system by influencing both axon arbor elaboration and the strength of synaptic transmission.  (+info)

Retinal input induces three firing patterns in neurons of the superficial superior colliculus of neonatal rats. (8/6563)

By using an in vitro isolated brain stem preparation, we recorded extracellular responses to electrical stimulation of the optic tract (OT) from 71 neurons in the superficial superior colliculus (SC) of neonatal rats (P1-13). At postnatal day 1 (P1), all tested neurons (n = 10) already received excitatory input from the retina. Sixty-nine (97%) superficial SC neurons of neonatal rats showed three response patterns to OT stimulation, which depended on stimulus intensity. A weak stimulus evoked only one spike that was caused by activation of non-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors. A moderate stimulus elicited a short train (<250 ms) of spikes, which was induced by activation of both NMDA and non-NMDA receptors. A strong stimulus gave rise to a long train (>300 ms) of spikes, which was associated with additional activation of L-type high-threshold calcium channels. The long train firing pattern could also be induced either by temporal summation of retinal inputs or by blocking gamma-aminobutyric acid-A receptors. Because retinal ganglion cells show synchronous bursting activity before eye opening at P14, the retinotectal inputs appear to be sufficient to activate L-type calcium channels in the absence of pattern vision. Therefore activation of L-type calcium channels is likely to be an important source for calcium influx into SC neurons in neonatal rats.  (+info)

*Calcium channel blocker

Calcium channel blockers (CCB), calcium channel antagonists or calcium antagonists are several medications that disrupt the ... Ziconotide is a selective blocker of these calcium channels and acts as an analgesic. Calcium channel blockers were first ... is a calcium channel blocker. Benzothiazepine calcium channel blockers belong to the benzothiazepine class of compounds and are ... movement of calcium (Ca2+ ) through calcium channels. Calcium channel blockers are used as antihypertensive drugs, i.e., as ...

*Calcium channel blocker toxicity

... is the taking of too much of the medications known as calcium channel blockers (CCBs) either ... Calcium channel blockers, also known as calcium channel antagonists, are widely used for a number of health conditions. Thus ... Along with beta blockers and digoxin calcium channel blockers have one of the highest rates of death in overdose. These ... It may not be possible to tell the difference between beta blocker toxicity and calcium channel blocker overdose based on signs ...

*Lomerizine

... and apoptotic death is reduced through the reduction of calcium-dependent apoptotic agents. While some calcium-channel blockers ... Lomerizine (INN) (also known as KB-2796) is a diphenylpiperazine class L-type and T-type calcium channel blocker. This drug is ... Ertel, T. Godfraind with a contribution by E. (2004). Calcium channel blockers. Basel [u.a.]: Birkhauser. p. 139. ISBN ... Lomerizine works as a calcium antagonist by blocking voltage-dependent calcium channels. A study using [3H]Nitrendipine showed ...

*Pulmonary heart disease

"Calcium Channel Blockers". livertox.nih.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-22. "Calcium channel blockers are not recommended for the ... A variety of medications have been developed to relax the blood vessels in the lung, calcium channel blockers are used but only ...

*Biginelli reaction

"Dihydropyrimidine calcium channel blockers. 4. Basic 3-substituted-4-aryl-1,4-dihydropyrimidine-5-carboxylic acid esters. ... are widely used in the pharmaceutical industry as calcium channel blockers, antihypertensive agents, and alpha-1-a-antagonists ...

*Beta blocker

... or calcium channel blockers. Large differences exist in the pharmacology of agents within the class, thus not all beta blockers ... "Combination of calcium channel blockers and beta blockers for patients with exercise-induced angina pectoris: a double-blind ... Chen N, Zhou M, Yang M, Guo J, Zhu C, Yang J, Wang Y, Yang X, He L (2010). "Calcium channel blockers versus other classes of ... "typical beta blocker") Timolol β1-selective beta blockers are also known as cardioselective beta blockers. Acebutolol (has ...

*Lidoflazine

... is a piperazine calcium channel blocker. It is a coronary vasodilator with some antiarrhythmic action. Lidoflazine ...

*Amlodipine

... is an angioselective calcium channel blocker and inhibits the movement of calcium ions into vascular smooth muscle ... Wang, JG (2009). "A combined role of calcium channel blockers and angiotensin receptor blockers in stroke prevention". Vascular ... calcium channel blockers exacerbate the situation by preventing the flow of calcium ions into cardiac cells, which is required ... Amlodipine is a long-acting calcium channel blocker of the dihydropyridine type. It works partly by increasing the size of ...

*Raynaud syndrome

Nifedipine, a calcium channel blocker and vasodilator, was recommended to increase blood flow to the extremities and noticeably ... Vasodilators - calcium channel blockers, such as the dihydropyridines nifedipine or amlodipine, preferably slow release ... Medications for treatment of cases that do not improve include calcium channel blockers and iloprost. Little evidence supports ... The limited evidence available shows that calcium channel blockers are only slightly effective in reducing how often the ...

*Nitrendipine

... is a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. It is used in the treatment of primary (essential) hypertension to ... It binds more effectively with L-type calcium channels in smooth muscle cells because of its lower resting membrane potential. ... In hypertension, the binding of nitrendipine causes a decrease in the probability of open L-type calcium channels and reduces ... 1996) Molecular determinants of high affinity dihydropyridine binding in the L-type calcium channels. J. Biol. Chem. 271: 5293- ...

*Pranidipine

... is a calcium channel blocker. It is a long acting calcium channel antagonist of the dihydropyridine group. Jin Yang ...

*Fendiline

... is a calcium channel blocker. It is nonselective. Scultéty S, Tamáskovits E (1991). "Effect of Ca2+ antagonists on ...

*Manoalide

... is a calcium channel blocker. It has antibiotic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects and is found in some sponges ...

*Felodipine

... is a calcium channel blocker. Felodipine has additionally been found to act as an antagonist of the ... Felodipine is a medication of the calcium channel blocker type which is used to treat high blood pressure. Felodipine is used ... Felodipine is a member of the 1,4-dihydropyridine class of calcium channel blockers. It is a racemic mixture, and is insoluble ... an in vitro study on human vascular and cardiac tissues comparing how selective various calcium channel blockers are for ...

*Nifedipine

It is a calcium channel blocker of the dihydropyridine type. Nifedipine was discovered in 1969 and approved for use in the ... Nifedipine is a calcium channel blocker. Although nifedipine and other dihydropyridines are commonly regarded as specific to ... Thompson AE, Pope JE (2005). "Calcium channel blockers for primary Raynaud's phenomenon: a meta-analysis". Rheumatology (Oxford ... the L-type calcium channel, they also possess nonspecific activity towards other voltage-dependent calcium channels. Nifedipine ...

*Benidipine

... is a calcium channel blocker. Benidipine has additionally been found to act as an antagonist of the ... Benidipine (INN), also known as Benidipinum or benidipine hydrochloride, is a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker for the ... and N-type calcium channel blocker. It is reno- and cardioprotective. Benidipine is dosed as 2-8 mg once daily. Benidipine is ...

*Clentiazem

... is a calcium channel blocker. It is a chloride derivative of diltiazem. Giasson S, Garceau D, Homsy W, Dumont L ( ...

*Traumatic brain injury

Langham, J; C Goldfrad; G Teasdale; D Shaw; K Rowan (2003). "Calcium channel blockers for acute traumatic brain injury". ... calcium channel blockers, PPAR-γ agonists, curcuminoids, ethanol, NMDA antagonists, caffeine. In addition to traditional ... influx of calcium and sodium ions into neurons, and dysfunction of mitochondria. Injured axons in the brain's white matter may ...

*Cilnidipine

... (INN) is a calcium channel blocker. It is a calcium antagonist accompanied with L-type and N-type calcium channel ... Unlike other calcium antagonists, cilnidipine can act on the N-type calcium channel in addition to acting on the L-type calcium ... May 2002). "Cilnidipine is a novel slow-acting blocker of vascular L-type calcium channels that does not target protein kinase ... Due to its blocking action at the N-type and L-type calcium channel, cilnidipine dilates both arterioles and venules, reducing ...

*Fostedil

Ibrolipim Calcium channel blocker David J. Triggle (1996). Dictionary of Pharmacological Agents. Boca Raton: Chapman & Hall/CRC ... Fostedil (A-53,986, KB-944) is a vasodilator acting as a calcium channel blocker which was under development for the treatment ... Morita T, Yoshino K, Kanazawa T, Ito K, Nose T (1982). "Vasodilator action of KB-944, a new calcium antagonist". Arzneimittel- ... Yoshidomi M, Sukamoto T, Morita T, Ito K, Nose T (1982). "Antiarrhythmic effect of KB-944, a new calcium antagonist. A ...

*Hypertensive encephalopathy

Clevidipine - a short-acting dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. It reduces blood pressure without affecting cardiac ... Labetalol - an alpha- and beta-adrenergic blocker, given as an intravenous bolus or infusion. Bolus followed by infusion. ... converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin II receptor blocker, which can interfere with renal autoregulation and produce acute ...

*Prinzmetal's angina

... typically responds to nitrates and calcium channel blockers. Use of a beta blocker such as propranolol is ...

*Nicardipine

It belongs to the dihydropyridine class of calcium channel blockers. Nicardipine is a dihydropyridine calcium-channel blocking ...

*Mibefradil

It belongs to a group known as calcium channel blockers. The mechanism of action of mibefradil is characterized by the ... calcium channels over long-lasting, high-voltage-activated (L-type) calcium channels, which is probably responsible for many of ... "Voltage-dependent blockade of diverse types of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes by the Ca2+ channel ...

*Antiarrhythmic agent

Class IV agents are slow non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers. They decrease conduction through the AV node, and ... Class IV agents affect calcium channels and the AV node. Class V agents work by other or unknown mechanisms. With regards to ... channel. Class II agents are anti-sympathetic nervous system agents. Most agents in this class are beta blockers. Class III ... Class I agents are grouped by what effect they have on the Na+ channel, and what effect they have on cardiac action potentials ...

*Boris Khodorov

Sobolevsky, Alexander I.; Koshelev, Sergey G.; Khodorov, Boris I. (December 1999). "Probing of NMDA Channels with Fast Blockers ... Duchen at the University College London, Khodorov was studying calcium homeostasis, glutamate excitotoxicity and mitochondrial ... After Soviet science was liberalized in the 1960s, he moved to ion channels, developing as a leader in the actions of local ... At the Vishnevsky Institute of Surgery, the Khodorov laboratory carried out pioneering studies in the field of ion channel ...
A calcium channel is an ion channel which shows selective permeability to calcium ions. It is sometimes synonymous as voltage-gated calcium channel, although there are also ligand-gated calcium channels. The following tables explain gating, gene, location and function of different types of calcium channels, both voltage and ligand-gated. the receptor-operated calcium channels (in vasoconstriction) P2X receptors L-type calcium channel blockers are used to treat hypertension. In most areas of the body, depolarization is mediated by sodium influx into a cell; changing the calcium permeability has little effect on action potentials. However, in many smooth muscle tissues, depolarization is mediated primarily by calcium influx into the cell. L-type calcium channel blockers selectively inhibit these action potentials in smooth muscle which leads to dilation of blood vessels; this in turn corrects hypertension. T-type calcium channel blockers are used to treat epilepsy. Increased calcium conductance in ...
PURPOSE: We investigated whether dipyridamole and various calcium channel blockers are inhibitors and/or substrates of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). METHODS: The effect of dipyridamole and the calcium channel blockers on mitoxantrone efflu
Calcium channel blockers are drugs that block the entry of calcium into the cells of the heart and blood vessels walls by interacting with calcium channels. They are primarily used to treat hypertension, angina and arrhythmias. Learn about the different classes of calcium channel blocker medications and how they are used.
The calcium channel blockers are a group of drugs which impede calcium ion entry into cells, thereby inhibiting myocardial and smooth muscle contraction, as well as various secretory processes. In theory, these agents might be active in obstructive airways diseases, especially asthma, by blocking airway smooth muscle constriction, mast cell degranulation, mucous gland secretion, and/or vagal neurotransmission. This report reviews the experimental evidence from animal and human studies, both in vitro and in vivo, that the calcium channel blockers inhibit bronchoconstriction. The usefulness of these drugs in patients with the obstructive airways syndromes remains to be determined by future clinical studies ...
Calcium channel blockers are used to treat hypertension, angina, and irregular heartbeats. Find out about these medications and their side effects.
The medicines used in the medical treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension may be associated with adverse side effects, which cause different types of health complications in the patient concerned. Anticoagulants are used to reduce the ability of blood clotting. Since the threat comes from the formation of blood clots in the artery, anticoagulants are used to minimize the risk. However, a persistent intake of medication may pose other health risks such as unusual bleeding, chills and fever. Calcium channel blockers are used to relax the muscles of blood vessels, while increasing the quantity of oxygenated blood moving into heart. This, quite obviously, allows heart to put less effort in pumping blood throughout the body. Side effects of calcium channel blockers may involve coughing, shortness of breath, swelling in feet, etc. Cardiac glycosides are used to give strength to the heart, while including specific side effects like vomiting, loss of appetite, etc. Unfortunately yet there is no ...
Calcium channel blockers can cause water retention and can make chest pain worse. This portion of the eMedTV Web site describes other important calcium channel blocker warnings and precautions, including who should not take these drugs.
Hi! I was wondering if anyone here has tried a calcium channel blocker before? If so, what calcium channel blocker did you try and did you have any side-effects? Did it help your migraines? I am...
In the largest randomized controlled trial of treatment for high blood pressure ever conducted in sub-Saharan Africa, two frontline two-drug combinations that included the long-acting calcium channel blocker, amlodipine, were able to drive down blood pressure levels more than a third two-drug combination that did not include amlodipine, according to research presented at the American College of Cardiologys 68th Annual Scientific Session.. ...
Calcium channel blockers work by blocking voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) in cardiac muscle and blood vessels. This decreases intracellular calcium leading to a reduction in muscle contraction. In the heart, a decrease in calcium available for each beat results in a decrease in cardiac contractility. In blood vessels, a decrease in calcium results in less contraction of the vascular smooth muscle and therefore an increase in arterial diameter (CCBs do not work on venous smooth muscle), a phenomenon called vasodilation. Vasodilation decreases total peripheral resistance, while a decrease in cardiac contractility decreases cardiac output. Since blood pressure is determined by cardiac output and peripheral resistance, blood pressure drops. Calcium channel blockers are especially effective against large vessel stiffness, one of the common causes of elevated systolic blood pressure in elderly patients ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ca2+ channel subtypes and pharmacology in the kidney. AU - Hayashi, Koichi. AU - Wakino, Shu. AU - Sugano, Naoki. AU - Ozawa, Yuri. AU - Homma, Koichiro. AU - Saruta, Takao. PY - 2007/2/1. Y1 - 2007/2/1. N2 - A large body of evidence has accrued indicating that voltage-gated Ca channel subtypes, including L-, T-, N-, and P/Q-type, are present within renal vascular and tubular tissues, and the blockade of these Ca channels produces diverse actions on renal microcirculation. Because nifedipine acts exclusively on L-type Ca channels, the observation that nifedipine predominantly dilates afferent arterioles implicates intrarenal heterogeneity in the distribution of L-type Ca channels and suggests that it potentially causes glomerular hypertension. In contrast, recently developed Ca channel blockers (CCBs), including mibefradil and efonidipine, exert blocking action on L-type and T-type Ca channels and elicit vasodilation of afferent and efferent arterioles, which suggests the ...
The pharmacological effects of Ca channel blockers on electrocardiogram (ECG) in the chick embryonic-heart were investigated under different lighting conditions. The fertile eggs of White Leghorn chickens were incubated in dark conditions and used on day 16 of incubation. Three different types of Ca channel blocker, nicardipine, diltiazem and verapamil were injected into the air sac of the fertile eggs under light conditions (450 Lux) or dark conditions (12 Lux). The bipolar lead of ECG patterns was recorded using ECG systems. Heart rates (HRs) were calculated from R-R intervals. Under light conditions, 3 kinds of Ca channel blockers caused a decrease in HRs in a dose-dependent manner and also arrhythmia was provoked. These phenomena were observed more clearly under dark conditions. Furthermore, these enhancements of the drug effects under dark conditions were also observed by concomitant injection of 15-50 g/egg of melatonin even under light conditions. In conclusion, these results suggest that ...
Looks at calcium channel blockers to lower blood pressure. Lists generic and brand names like amlodipine (Norvasc), diltiazem (Cardizem), nifedipine (Procardia), and verapamil (Calan). Covers how they work and side effects.
Background: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a manifestation of atherosclerosis and associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Several preclinical studies suggest that calcium channel blockers (CCB) may prevent the development of atherosclerosis in high-risk patients.. Aim: This study sought to evaluate the effect of CCB treatment for the primary prevention of PAD in patients with hypertension.. Methods: We searched the published literature (MEDLINE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and EMBASE) for trials published after 1990 reporting the effect of CCB on the development of PAD. Criteria for inclusion included a study duration ,6 months, use of a randomized control group not receiving CCB, and availability of outcome data on PAD. We conducted a meta-analysis with random and fixed effects models to combine the results of these studies.. Results: Of 2,006 potentially relevant studies, a total of 7 studies (65,925 patients) met our inclusion criteria. Patients ...
Efonidipine (INN) is a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker marketed by Shionogi & Co. of Japan. It was launched in 1995, under the brand name Landel. The drug blocks both T-type and L-type calcium channels. It has also been studied in atherosclerosis and acute renal failure.
Calcium channel blocker (CCB) toxicity is one of the most lethal prescription drug overdoses; therefore, understanding the emergent management of such cases is essential. Overdoses of immediate-release CCBs are characterized by rapid progression to hypotension, bradydysrhythmia, and cardiac arrest.
Calcium channel blockers and diuretics are often considered good treatment choices for older people with high blood pressure. But research shows that
CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS Calcium channel blockers calcium channel blocker Calcium channel blocker Calcium Loss Diabetic Nephropathy Pancreatic Cancer Cell Lines Can Induce Prostaglandin E2 Production from Human Blood Mononuclear Cells In healthy normal-weight adults cinnamon reduces blood glucose concentration and enhances (eg type 1 or type 2 diabetes). Diabetes Type Ii Complications Diabetic Recipes Oatmeal Cookies Different ingredients that will designed to help control blood sugar levels. Homemade Pancake Mix Recipe Without Baking Powder breakfast; Soups; I was looking for a diabetic peanut butter cookies recipe and decided to try Diabetic Peanut Butter Homemade Pancake Mix Recipe Without Baking Powder Cookies dieT Taste KidsHealth , For Teens , Handling Diabetes When Youre Sick.. National Consortium on Deaf-Blindness. role of adh in diabetes insipidus. When I eat rice its usually either Basmati or Jasmine. Blood Sugar Bone & Joint Daily Stressors Can Cause High Blood Pressure in the ...
The safety of calcium channel blockers in human pregnancy: a prospective, multicenter cohort study. MgS[O.sub.4] prevents left ventricular dysfunction in an animal model of preeclampsia
Learn more about Calcium Channel Blockers at Reston Hospital Center Calcium and Vitamin D -Possible Decreased Action of Drug ...
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A scientific study conducted at the Dr. Rath Research Institute shows that commonly used prescription medications classified as channel blockers (widely used for management of high blood pressure, arrhythmias, angina pectoris and other conditions) can lead to deprivation of vitamin C inside the cells. These findings published in the American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease (June 2016, Vol. 6, No. 2) now explain the reason behind increased risk of heart disease, breast cancer and gum problems reported in many clinical studies with this class of drugs. Most significantly, the study addresses how to overcome this deficiency with vitamin C therefore providing scientific advice for millions of doctors around the world. Prescription drug sales of calcium, sodium and potassium channel blockers have reached $6 billion worldwide. In the United States calcium channel blockers are the eighth largest drug class in prescription sales. They prevent calcium from entering the cells, by blocking specific ...
Having established that the calcium antagonists, including vascular selective calcium antagonists such as amlodipine, have a favourable effect on renal haemodynamics and function (Chapter 10), and...
INDICATIONS Procardia is used for treating certain kinds of angina (chest pain). Procardia is a calcium channel blocking agent. It works by interfering with the normal action of calcium in blood vessel constriction (relaxes the blood vessels) and heart muscle contraction (heart may beat with less force and pump out less blood) and nerve conduction in the heart (heart may beat more slowly and more regularly). Calcium channel blockers are used to dilate (widen) the arteries of the heart and other arteries (reduce angina chest pain and reduce elevated blood pressure), and stabilize the heart rhythm in conditions in which the heart is beating too fast or in an irregular rhythm (antiarrhythmic effects).. INSTRUCTIONS Use Procardia as directed by your doctor.. ...
INDICATIONS Procardia is used for treating certain kinds of angina (chest pain). Procardia is a calcium channel blocking agent. It works by interfering with the normal action of calcium in blood vessel constriction (relaxes the blood vessels) and heart muscle contraction (heart may beat with less force and pump out less blood) and nerve conduction in the heart (heart may beat more slowly and more regularly). Calcium channel blockers are used to dilate (widen) the arteries of the heart and other arteries (reduce angina chest pain and reduce elevated blood pressure), and stabilize the heart rhythm in conditions in which the heart is beating too fast or in an irregular rhythm (antiarrhythmic effects).. INSTRUCTIONS Use Procardia as directed by your doctor.. ...
INDICATIONS Procardia is used for treating certain kinds of angina (chest pain). Procardia is a calcium channel blocking agent. It works by interfering with the normal action of calcium in blood vessel constriction (relaxes the blood vessels) and heart muscle contraction (heart may beat with less force and pump out less blood) and nerve conduction in the heart (heart may beat more slowly and more regularly). Calcium channel blockers are used to dilate (widen) the arteries of the heart and other arteries (reduce angina chest pain and reduce elevated blood pressure), and stabilize the heart rhythm in conditions in which the heart is beating too fast or in an irregular rhythm (antiarrhythmic effects).. INSTRUCTIONS Use Procardia as directed by your doctor.. ...
INDICATIONS Procardia is used for treating certain kinds of angina (chest pain). Procardia is a calcium channel blocking agent. It works by interfering with the normal action of calcium in blood vessel constriction (relaxes the blood vessels) and heart muscle contraction (heart may beat with less force and pump out less blood) and nerve conduction in the heart (heart may beat more slowly and more regularly). Calcium channel blockers are used to dilate (widen) the arteries of the heart and other arteries (reduce angina chest pain and reduce elevated blood pressure), and stabilize the heart rhythm in conditions in which the heart is beating too fast or in an irregular rhythm (antiarrhythmic effects).. INSTRUCTIONS Use Procardia as directed by your doctor.. ...
INDICATIONS Procardia is used for treating certain kinds of angina (chest pain). Procardia is a calcium channel blocking agent. It works by interfering with the normal action of calcium in blood vessel constriction (relaxes the blood vessels) and heart muscle contraction (heart may beat with less force and pump out less blood) and nerve conduction in the heart (heart may beat more slowly and more regularly). Calcium channel blockers are used to dilate (widen) the arteries of the heart and other arteries (reduce angina chest pain and reduce elevated blood pressure), and stabilize the heart rhythm in conditions in which the heart is beating too fast or in an irregular rhythm (antiarrhythmic effects).. INSTRUCTIONS Use Procardia as directed by your doctor.. ...
INDICATIONS Procardia is used for treating certain kinds of angina (chest pain). Procardia is a calcium channel blocking agent. It works by interfering with the normal action of calcium in blood vessel constriction (relaxes the blood vessels) and heart muscle contraction (heart may beat with less force and pump out less blood) and nerve conduction in the heart (heart may beat more slowly and more regularly). Calcium channel blockers are used to dilate (widen) the arteries of the heart and other arteries (reduce angina chest pain and reduce elevated blood pressure), and stabilize the heart rhythm in conditions in which the heart is beating too fast or in an irregular rhythm (antiarrhythmic effects).. INSTRUCTIONS Use Procardia as directed by your doctor.. ...
It is important to understand that there are some treatments that are used to manage the symptoms of ATTR, and other treatments that are used to modify the disease progress of ATTR.. Typically, for congestive heart failure problems, diuretics are prescribed to increase urination, which helps to decrease fluid retention in the body. The same is true for ATTR. They help reduce swelling and shortness of breath. As with any other condition, the use of diuretics for an amyloid heart condition must be carefully controlled by your doctor. All diuretic dosing can be helped by limiting the amount of sodium that you consume.. For other forms of Congestive Heart Failure, beta blockers, ACE inhibitors and Calcium channel blockers are given to increase the pumping power of the heart, but these drugs can be harmful for people with ATTR.. Many of the same disease modifying treatments used for Familial ATTR (hATTR) can be applied to wild-type ATTR. Recent data from a single center, retrospective analysis of ...
Imaging of cellular samples has for several hundred years been a way for scientists to investigate biological systems. With the discovery of immunofluorescence labeling in the 1940s and later genetic fluorescent protein labeling in the 1980s the most important part in imaging, contrast and specificity, was drastically improved. Eversince, we have seen a increased use of fluorescence imaging in biological research, and the application and tools are constantly being developed further.. Specific ion imaging has long been a way to discern signaling events in cell systems. Through use of fluorescent ion reporters, ionic concentrations can be measured inliving cells as result of applied stimuli. Using Ca2+ imaging we have demonstrated that there is a inverse influence by plasma membrane voltage gated calcium channels on angiotensin II type 1 receptor (a protein involved in blood pressure regulation). This has direct implications in treatment of hypertension (high blood pressure),one of the most ...
OBJECTIVE--To investigate the mechanism of calcium antagonist mediated cytoprotection against the damaging effects of adrenaline in vivo on cardiac myocytes and human endothelial cells from the umbilical vein. METHODS--Human endothelial cells cultured from the umbilical vein and isolated rat cardiac myocytes were treated with plasma from rats given adrenaline 30 minutes previously with pretreatment with calcium antagonists and without. The effect on indices of cell damage that suggest oxidation stress was determined. RESULTS--Pretreatment of rats with calcium antagonists before adrenaline administration largely inhibited the cytotoxic effects of their plasma on the two target cells used. Plasma taken from animals not pretreated with calcium antagonists caused release of oxidised glutathione from cells, a fall in intra-cellular reduced glutathione concentration, a fall in ATP production, and release of angiotensin converting enzyme from the endothelial cells. CONCLUSION--Calcium antagonists ...
Drug-related, laboratory value change adverse events are adverse events(AEs) as determined by the Investigator that can not be denied to be related to the study drugs. The relationship between adverse events and drugs were determined by the Investigator based on his/her clinical judgement. Factors used in determining relatedness included, but are not limited to, the medical history of the participant, use of concomitant medication, and the time course from drug administration to AE occurence ...
An interesting aspect raised by the data presented is that the dual signalling capacity of KARs can be reproduced in a recombinant system by simply expressing GluR5‐2b subunits. In cultured DRG cells, the activation of KARs produces the release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores in a G‐protein‐dependent manner, and the concomitant activation of PKC inhibited voltage‐dependent N‐type calcium channels (Rozas et al, 2003). This non‐canonical signalling is independent of ion channel activity, but both pathways depend on a common ionotropic subunit, GluR5. However, it has recently been proposed that the KA2 subunit is critical to trigger the activation of G‐proteins (Ruiz et al, 2005), possibly participating in a heteromeric complex with GluR6 subunits (Fisahn et al, 2005). Since the initial description in GABAergic terminals (Rodriguez‐Moreno and Lerma, 1998), G‐protein‐linked KAR signalling has been described in many synapses and systems. These include sensory neurons (Rozas et ...
The decreases in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality achieved by controlling hypertension in elderly patients have been well documented. Therapy based on beta blockers and diuretics resulted in a reduction of more than 40 percent in major cardiovascular end points such as stroke, myocardial infarction and total mortality. Hansson and colleagues investigated the potential benefits of newer antihypertensive medications such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and calcium channel blockers in elderly patients.. They enrolled more than 6,600 men and women 70 to 84 years of age who had systolic blood pressures of at least 180 mm Hg, diastolic blood pressures of at least 105 mm Hg, or both. Patients were randomly assigned to one of three treatment strategies: (1) "conventional" therapy using beta blockers or diuretics; (2) ACE inhibitors or (3) calcium channel blockers. More than 2,000 patients (11,000 patient-years) were followed in each treatment group. The patients were followed ...
Delić-Brkljačić, Diana and Galešić, Krešimir and Ivanac, Gordana and Manola, Šime and Pintarić, Hrvoje and Štambuk, Krešimir and Gaćina, Petar and Radeljić, Vjekoslav (2009) Influence of ATII blockers and calcium channel blockers on renal vascular resistance in patients with essential hypertension. Collegium Antropologicum, 33 (4). pp. 1129-38. ISSN 0350-6134 ...
Delić-Brkljačić, Diana and Galešić, Krešimir and Ivanac, Gordana and Manola, Šime and Pintarić, Hrvoje and Štambuk, Krešimir and Gaćina, Petar and Radeljić, Vjekoslav (2009) Influence of ATII blockers and calcium channel blockers on renal vascular resistance in patients with essential hypertension. Collegium Antropologicum, 33 (4). pp. 1129-38. ISSN 0350-6134 ...
any of a class of drugs that block the flow of the electrolyte calcium (either in nerve cell conduction or smooth muscle contraction of the heart); has been used in the treatment of angina or arrhythmia or hypertension or migraine. ...
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West et al (2010) report the case of a 71-year-old woman who overdosed on a calcium-channel blocker. The emergency room followed a protocol that prescribed she should get 400mL of lipid. However, the infusion pump was not turned off, and the patient received a total of 2000mL, or 5 times the recommended dosage. There was so much lipid in her blood that 22 hours after she got the lipids, the hospital could still not get enough blood out of her veins to run lab work properly. She went on to die from the calcium-channel blocker overdose, but West specifically mentions that the lipid overdose "caused no detectable acute adverse hemodynamic effects ...
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The researchers identified 89 sibling pairs who did not respond to ACE inhibitors and beta blockers and 76 sibling pairs who did not respond to calcium channel blockers and diuretics. For purposes of the study, lack of response was defined as a failure to reach target blood pressure levels of 140/90 mm Hg or a reduction in blood pressure of less than 20 points ...
return to top]. calcium channel blocker (or calcium blocker) - a medication that lowers blood pressure and slows heart rate.. capillaries - tiny blood vessels between arteries and veins that distribute oxygen-rich blood to the body.. cardiac - pertaining to the heart.. cardiac arrest - the stopping of heartbeat.. cardiac catheterization - a diagnostic procedure in which a tiny, hollow tube (catheter) is advanced from a vessel in the groin through the aorta into the heart in order to image the heart and blood vessels.. cardiac output - the amount of blood that goes through the circulatory system in one minute.. cardiology - the clinical study and practice of treating the heart.. cardiomyopathy - a disease of the heart muscle that causes it to lose its pumping strength.. cardiovascular (CV) - pertaining to the heart and blood vessel (circulatory) system.. cardioversion - the procedure of applying electrical shock to the chest to change an abnormal heartbeat into a normal one.. carotid artery - the ...
return to top]. calcium channel blocker (or calcium blocker) - a medication that lowers blood pressure and slows heart rate.. capillaries - tiny blood vessels between arteries and veins that distribute oxygen-rich blood to the body.. cardiac - pertaining to the heart.. cardiac arrest - the stopping of heartbeat.. cardiac catheterization - a diagnostic procedure in which a tiny, hollow tube (catheter) is advanced from a vessel in the groin through the aorta into the heart in order to image the heart and blood vessels.. cardiac output - the amount of blood that goes through the circulatory system in one minute.. cardiology - the clinical study and practice of treating the heart.. cardiomyopathy - a disease of the heart muscle that causes it to lose its pumping strength.. cardiovascular (CV) - pertaining to the heart and blood vessel (circulatory) system.. cardioversion - the procedure of applying electrical shock to the chest to change an abnormal heartbeat into a normal one.. carotid artery - the ...
The harm in pharmaceutical treatment. There are many drugs which can be used for treating hypertension such as diuretics, calcium channel blockers (CCBs), beta blockers, Angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARB), and -converting enzyme (ACE). Unfortunately, these drugs cause the individual to feel worse than the disease itself caused him to feel initially.. Diuretics. Treatment: Usually, these drugs are the first treatment prescribed in case of hypertension. They help the kidneys flush out excess water and salt in the body.. Medication brands:. ...
Inköp Läkemedel 10 mg Adalat Generisk Adalat Lågt pris Adalat Medicin. Generic Adalat (Nifedipine) is a medication made to regulate high blood pressure. For over 30 years, Adalat has been a leading name in calcium channel blockers made to treat hypertension and angina. When used effectively, Generic Adalat reduces the
Cardizem is a calcium channel blocker which is used to treat high blood pressure, chest pain, and certain heart rhythm disorders.
... ! Calan is in a group of drugs called calcium channel blockers. Calan is used to treat hypertension, angina and certain heart rhythm disorders. It works by relaxing the muscles of your heart and blood vessels.
2. I wouldnt say Im "convinced" that pio increases amputations, but the effect was pretty dramatic, and shouldnt be ignored just becasue we dont like it. As for mechanism, Ive been a doctor long enough to appreciate how much of medicine and biology simply doesnt make sense! As I get older, I am becoming less of a biologist, and more of an empiricist. For example, I used to understand perfectly how estrogen and folic acid and vitamin E each prevent heart disease....but once the megatrials were done, I cant explain why they dont! The PPAR Gamma receptor is involved in much more than just glucose and lipid metabolism and blood pressure. Its late at night, but I think I recall involvement in immunity, so perhaps it impairs the ability of people with diabetes to clear foot infections. As a calcium channel blocker of sorts, maybe pio creates a steal phenomenon. But hey, I dont think anyone knows how Tylenol works, so I dont feel obliged to explain how pio (perhaps) significanlty increases ...
I have been kind of on the fence about trying a calcium channel blocker since I have prescription for one. I was just a little afraid that it might adversely affect my normal blood pressure.I might opt for the Pyruvate and Prilosec. Will discuss at my next talk with my doctor. My last pulse was rather mild and Im 3 days into the current one. Will see what transpires. Anything to get rid of this nasty beast. I feel that the reason it is taking so long with me is that I must have built up a lot of cryptic organisms. Perhaps this is the hardest form to kill. Raven CAPi since 8-05 for Cpni and Mycoplasma P. for MS and/or CFSi ...
This eMedTV Web page lists several drugs that can interact with Minitran, including alcohol, calcium channel blockers, and ergot medications. This segment also describes the potentially serious problems that can occur as a result.
Buy E-4031 dihydrochloride - an affordable, high quality Kv11.1 channel Blocker from Hello Bio, a trusted supplier for life science researchers worldwide
Every person has a natural right to marry if there be no legal or other valid impediments. Homosexuals, however, are seriously mistaken to think that this natural right includes marriage to another of the same sex. To deny them this right it is said, would be discrimination. The State can, of course, legalize their union. It can, as history has shown, make almost anything legal if the people permit it or cannot stop it. But no judge or legislature can redefine the natural design of human sexuality. Same sex marriage, legal or not, is and always will be a contradiction in terms. To legalize it is to make a travesty of marriage.. ...
Headline: Bitcoin & Blockchain Searches Exceed Trump! Blockchain Stocks Are Next!. "L-Type Calcium Channel Blockers-Pipeline Insights, 2016″, report provides in depth insights on the pipeline drugs and their development activities around the L-Type Calcium Channel Blockers. The Report covers the product profiles in various stages of development including Discovery, Pre-clinical, IND, Phase I, Phase II, Phase III and Preregistration. Report covers the product clinical trials information and other development activities including technology, licensing, collaborations, acquisitions, fundings, patent and USFDA & EMA designations details. Report also provides detailed information on the discontinued and dormant drugs that have gone inactive over the years for L-Type Calcium Channel Blockers. Report also assesses the L-Type Calcium Channel Blockers therapeutics by Monotherapy, Combination products, Molecule type and Route of Administration.. For more information about this report: ...
This page includes the following topics and synonyms: Dihydropyridine Calcium Channel Blocker, Amlodipine, Norvasc, Nimodipine, Dihydropyridine.
Benidipine (INN), also known as Benidipinum or benidipine hydrochloride, is a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker for the treatment of high blood pressure (hypertension). It is a triple L-, T-, and N-type calcium channel blocker. It is reno- and cardioprotective. Benidipine is dosed as 2-8 mg once daily. Benidipine is sold as Coniel by Kyowa Hakko Kogyo. Benidipine is only licensed for use in Japan and selected Southeast Asian countries, where it is sold as 4 mg tablets. Benidipine is a calcium channel blocker. Benidipine has additionally been found to act as an antagonist of the mineralocorticoid receptor, or as an antimineralocorticoid. Hi-Eisai Pharmaceutical, Inc. "Coniel (benidipine) package insert (Philippines)". MIMS Philippines. CMPMedica. Retrieved 2008-03-31. Luther, James M. (2014). "Is there a new dawn for selective mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism?". Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension. 23 (5): 456-461. doi:10.1097/MNH.0000000000000051. ISSN 1062-4821 ...
Patients with end-stage renal failure have a markedly higher mortality because of cardiovascular events in comparison with the normal population. Disorders in the calcium metabolism, such as calcification of the vessel walls, occur very frequently. There are indications that calcium channel blockers are capable of lowering the cardiovascular mortality in patients with end-stage renal failure.. It is intended to carry out a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study in order to find out if the calcium channel blocker amlodipine is able to reduce the mortality of patients with end-stage renal failure.. The investigation will be carried out after suitable explanation and written informed consent in 356 patients aged between 18 and 90 years with end-stage renal failure and chronic haemodialysis treatment. The patients will be randomized to either treatment with amlodipine 10 mg/day or placebo. The occurrence of events will be documented and evaluated prospectively ...
Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are commonly used during pregnancy and lactation to treat hypertension, arrhythmia, and preeclampsia. They have also been used as tocolytic agents to prevent premature labour and its complications.. Population-based data from 5 health maintenance organizations in the United States were used to study the risks of perinatal complications and congenital defects among infants exposed in utero to CCBs or ß-blockers. Calcium channel blocker use in the third trimester was associated with increased risk of neonatal seizures, jaundice, and hematologic disorders (relative risk [RR] 3.6, 95% CI 1.3 to 10.4). The risk of neonatal convulsions was in part attributed to the placental transfer of CCBs, leading to a decrease in infants cellular calcium levels.1 There was no increase in risk of congenital anomalies in either group of infants. The risk of one or more malformations was not elevated in the group of infants exposed to CCBs (RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.47 to 1.97). 1. The ...
The calcium channel blocker amlodipine decreases the risk of cardiovascular events (such as heart attack or heart-disease related deaths) in patients with coronary artery disease and normal blood pressure, as does the ACE inhibitor enalapril, but to a lesser extent, according to a study in the November 10 issue of JAMA.
The use of organotypic hippocampal-slice cultures to investigate neuronal damage after ischemia or hypoxia presents an ideal model for the study of direct neuronal protective effects of calcium channel antagonists. The cultures retain many of the organizational features of the in vivo hippocampus without a functional vascular component, and thus only neuronal effects of the drugs are observed. Using this model, we have demonstrated a clear concentration-dependent reduction in hypoxia-induced neuronal death by CTX MVIIA. At a concentration of 300 nmol/L, CTX MVIIC was equipotent compared with CTX MVIIA. Neither nifedipine nor SB201823-A was neuroprotective. Neuronal damage induced by ischemia was not prevented by any of the compounds.. It has previously been demonstrated in vivo that CTX MVIIA, but not CTX MVIIC, has potent neuroprotective actions, even when administered many hours after an ischemic episode.11 23 In vitro, delaying the addition of CTX MVIIA until immediately after the hypoxic ...
Berdasarkan penelitian baru, pemberian antibiotik Clarithromycin pada pasien yang sebelumnya telah menggunakan obat Penghambat Kanal Kalsium (Calcium-Channel Blocker) sebagai terapi antihipertensi diasosiasikan dengan peningkatan risiko rawat inap akibat gagal ginjal akut, hipotensi dan kematian. Latar belakang dilakukannya penelitian ini adalah karena obat-obat tersebut masih sering diresepkan secara bersamaan meskipun FDA mengharuskan pencantuman peringatan,"serious adverse reactions have been reported in patients taking clarithromycin concomitantly with CYP3A4 substrates, which includes hypotension with calcium-channel blockers metabolized by CYP3A4 (such as verapamil, amlodipine, diltiazem)". Tampaknya masih ada keraguan dokter dan apoteker tentang bahaya interaksi obat tersebut sehingga diperlukan studi baru untuk melihat seberapa besar risiko yang ditimbulkan karena peresepan obat-obat tersebut secara bersamaan. ...
Calcium channel blockers and constipation - What can be done for chronic constipation due due calcium channel blockers? Change. To a different drug if the constipation cannot be treated by increasing fiber and or periodic laxatives.
Nicardipine D3 hydrochloride (YC-93 D3) is the deuterium labeled Nicardipine hydrochloride. Nicardipine hydrochloride is a calcium channel blocker with an IC50 of 1 μM for blocking cardiac calcium channels. Nicardipine hydrochloride acts as an agent for chronic stable angina and for controlling blood pressure. - Mechanism of Action & Protocol.
Verapamil is only found in individuals that have used or taken this drug. Verapamil is a calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent. [PubChem]Verapamil inhibits voltage-dependent calcium channels. Specifically, its effect on L-type calcium channels in the heart causes a reduction in ionotropy and chronotropy, thuis reducing heart rate and blood pressure. Verapamils mechanism of effect in cluster headache is thought to be linked to its calcium-channel blocker effect, but which channel subtypes are involved is presently not known. [PubChem] Calcium channel antagonists can be quite toxic. In the management of poisoning, early recognition is critical. Calcium channel antagonists are frequently prescribed, and the potential for serious morbidity and mortality with over dosage is significant. Ingestion of these agents should be suspected in any patient who presents in an overdose situation with unexplained hypotension and conduction abnormalities. The potential for toxicity ...
The weaver mutation impairs migration of the cerebellar granular neurons and induces neuronal death during the first two weeks of postnatal life. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms for the impaired neuronal migration, we investigated the rescue mechanisms of the weaver (wv/wv) granule neurons in vitro. We found that Fab2 fragments of antibodies against a neurite outgrowth domain of the B2 chain of laminin enhanced neurite outgrowth and neuronal migration of the weaver granule neurons on a laminin substratum and in the established cable culture system. The rescue of the weaver granule neurons by antibodies against the B2 chain of laminin may result from the neutralizing effect of these antibodies against the elevated B2 chain levels of the weaver brain. The L-type calcium channel blocker, verapamil (1-5 microM), also rescued the weaver granule neurons. High concentrations of MK-801 (10-20 microM), a glutamate receptor antagonist and voltage-gated calcium channel blocker, rescued the weaver ...
Voltage-dependent calcium channels represent a major pathway of calcium entry into neurons, where they participate actively to cell excitability and to the molecular processes of synaptic transmission. For that reason, they have been the direct or indirect pharmacological targets of analgesics and this long before their implication in the physiology of nociception had been demonstrated. These last years, the still more refined molecular characterization of these channels and their associated regulatory subunits and the demonstration of their implication in nociceptive processes indicates that these structures are prime pharmacological targets for the management of pain. Herein, we detail the recent breakthroughs on calcium channel structure, function and pharmacology, review the implication of calcium channels in the transmission of nociception, and evaluate their importance as targets for the treatment of pain perception. The search for specific inhibitors of voltage-dependent calcium channels appears
Calcium channel blockers (CCBs), which are used clinically for treatment of angina and hypertension, are known to inhibit calcium influx into arterial smooth muscle cells and thereby decrease smooth muscle cell contraction. In addition, they prevent cholesteryl ester (CE) accumulation, the hallmark of human atherosclerosis, in arteries of cholesterol-fed animals by cellular mechanisms that remain undefined. To assess whether CCBs enhance CE hydrolysis and reduce CE accumulation in human arterial cells, we measured activities of the CE metabolic cycle in aortic tissues that were stripped of endothelial cells and adventitia from 35 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery. Patients who were treated with either nifedipine or diltiazem (n = 23) for several months demonstrated a threefold increase in arterial CE hydrolytic activities compared with untreated patients. This difference was independent of serum cholesterol levels, age, or treatment with other medications. No effects were ...
Introduction: Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are a mainstay in treating hypertension (HTN). Recently, Li et-al published a population based case-control study (JAMA 2013; 289:2354) reporting CCB use to be associated with incident breast cancer (odds ratio 2.6). We prospectively analyzed 2 Intermountain Healthcare (IHC) databases (db) to confirm or refute this provocative report.. Methods: Two separate analyses were conducted using general patients (GP) seen at IHC and patients undergoing coronary angiography (CV) at IHC facilities. Subjects were females aged 50-70 with no history of breast cancer. Those prescribed CCB were matched 1:1 to subjects not on CCB based on age, race, tobacco, alcohol, body mass index, HTN and follow up time. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was used for the primary analysis of time to incident breast cancer by CCB use adjusting for history of other cancers and family history of breast cancer.. Results: A total of 2612 GP subjects (cases/controls) and ...
The pioneering work by Fleckenstein and his group [1,2] has firmly established the concept of the calcium antagonistic drugs. The most potent and specific calcium antagonists are the dihydropyridines...
Ziconotide (PRIALT®) is a neuroactive peptide in the final stages of clinical development as a novel non-opioid treatment for severe chronic pain. It is the synthetic equivalent of ω-MVIIA, a component of the venom of the marine snail, Conus magus. The mechanism of action underlying ziconotides therapeutic profile derives from its potent and selective blockade of neuronal N-type voltage-sensitive calcium channels (NVSCCs). Direct blockade of N-VSCCs inhibits the activity of a subset of neurons, including pain-sensing primary nociceptors. This mechanism of action distinguishes ziconotide from all other analgesics, including opioid analgesics. In fact, ziconotide is potently anti-nociceptive in animal models of pain in which morphine exhibits poor anti-nociceptive activity. Moreover, in contrast to opiates, tolerance to ziconotide is not observed. Clinical studies of ziconotide in more than 2,000 patients reveal important correlations to ziconotides non-clinical pharmacology. For example, ...
REIMAO, JULIANA QUERO... Investigation of Calcium Channel Blockers as Antiprotozoal Agents and Their Interference in the Metabolism of Leishmania (L.) infantum. Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine n. p. 2016. Journal article.
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Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. The isoform alpha-1C gives rise to L-type calcium currents. Long-lasting (L-type) calcium channels belong to the high-voltage activated (HVA) group. They are blocked by dihydropyridines (DHP), phenylalkylamines, benzothiazepines, and by omega-agatoxin-IIIA (omega-Aga-IIIA). They are however insensitive to omega-conotoxin-GVIA (omega-CTx-GVIA) and omega-agatoxin-IVA (omega-Aga-IVA). Calcium channels containing the alpha-1C subunit play an important role in excitation-contraction coupling in the heart. The various isoforms display marked differences in the sensitivity to DHP compounds. Binding of calmodulin or CABP1 at the same regulatory sites results in an opposit effects on the channel function ...
The management of AL amyloid cardiomyopathy requires both control of cardiac-related symptoms and treatment of the underlying plasma cell dyscrasia. Heart failure symptoms are best managed by diuretics and modest salt restriction, while angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers are poorly tolerated in these patients. The use of beta blockers is often limited due to hypotension and conduction abnormalities, and no data exist to suggest any survival benefit from beta blockers in CA. Calcium channel blockers are contraindicated as they significantly worsen heart failure because of their negative inotropic effect. Cautious use of digoxin may be considered for heart rate control in patients with atrial fibrillation, although the risk of cardio-toxicity is increased due to avid binding of this drug to amyloid fibrils (1,3).. Treatment of AL amyloidosis requires anti-plasma cell therapy aimed at stopping, or significantly reducing, the production of amyloidogenic ...
Red-fluorescing cells were visualized on an Olympus 1×51 fluorescent microscope (Olympus, Center Valley, PA). Whole-cell currents were recorded with an Axopatch 200A amplifier (Molecular Devices, Sunnyvale, CA). Data were sampled at 2 to 10 kHz, low pass-filtered at 1 kHz, and analyzed using pClamp v9.2 (Molecular Devices). After pipette and membrane capacitance compensation, the series resistance was corrected by 80 to 90% with a 20- to 100-μs lag time. Cells with a series resistance greater than 20 MΩ were not used for analysis. After whole-cell break-in, Ba2+ currents were elicited in voltage-clamp mode by stepping from a holding potential (Vh) of −80 mV to test potentials (Vt) of 0 (Cav1.2) or −25 mV (Cav1.3) for 200 ms. Current rundown, plotted as total charge transfer elicited at 10-s intervals (or higher frequencies, as indicated), was fitted with a one- or two-phase exponential decay curve. Recordings using this protocol were not leak-subtracted.. Drugs were applied by gravity ...
Dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers reduce blood pressure and left ventricular hypertrophy in hypertensive patients. Outcome studies are at present only available in the elderly. In patients with systolic-diastolic hypertension and in patients with isolated systolic hypertension, nifedipine or nitrendipine-based antihypertensive treatment reduced the incidence of combined fatal and nonfatal strokes and of cardiovascular events. All-cause and cardiovascular mortality were significantly reduced or tended to be lower in the active-treatment groups compared to the control groups. Treatment was also beneficial in diabetics, particularly in terms of absolute risk reduction. There was no evidence of an increase of non-cardiovascular events or mortality, including cancer and bleeding, but it should be noted that the outcome trials were of relatively short duration. Finally, further studies are needed to establish whether the results obtained in the elderly would also be valid for younger patients ...
The signaling pathways following histamine H3 receptor activation by (R)alpha-methylhistamine (MHA) have been examined in the isolated guinea pig duodenum, in which selective excitation of cholinergic neurons was induced by electrical field stimulation (EFS). The effect of MHA on electrically evoked contractions was compared with that induced by the alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonist clonidine (CLON). The inhibitory effect of MHA on EFS-induced contractions was significantly reduced by increasing CA++ content in the nutrient fluid from 2.5 to 5 mM and by the Ca++ agonist Bay K 8644 (10(-8) M); conversely, the effect of MHA was significantly enhanced by lowering Ca++ content in the medium (from 2.5 to 1.25 mM) and by the N-type Ca++ channel blocker omega-conotoxin (CTX) (10(-8) M). The L-type Ca++ channel blocker nifedipine (NIF) (10(-7) M) did not modify the effect of MHA, although it significantly reduced both EFS- and exogenous acetylcholine (ACH)-induced contractions. Similar to MHA, the inhibitory ...
Glen was transfused with DEA 1.1 negative packed red blood cells and immunosuppressive therapy initiated (prednisolone 1mg/kg PO q12h). As both agglutination and proteinuria were present, Glen had a high risk of thromboembolic disease so the antithrombotic agent clopidogrel (2mg/kg PO q24h) was also administered. An ACEi was initiated once the patient was more stable (starting dose benazepril 0.25mg/kg PO q24h), to reduce the level of renal proteinuria and the dose was titrated to effect. A renal prescription diet was offered, and a phosphate binder was added to the therapeutic regime a few weeks later when the renal diet alone failed to reduce the serum phosphate levels significantly. Hypertension was controlled with calcium channel blockers (amlodipine 0.05mg/kg PO q12h), which were titrated to effect ...
Calcium channel antagonists (CCAs) are widely used for different cardiovascular disorders. At therapeutic doses, CCAs have a favourable side effect profile. However, in overdose, CCAs can cause serious complications, such as severe hypotension and bradycardia. Patients in whom a moderate to severe intoxication is anticipated should be observed in a monitored setting for at least 12 hours if an immediate-release formulation is ingested, and at least 24 hours when a sustainedrelease formulation (or amlodipine) is involved, even if the patient is asymptomatic. Initial treatment is aimed at gastrointestinal decontamination and general supportive care, i.e., fluid resuscitation and correction of metabolic acidosis and electrolyte disturbances. In moderate to severe CCA poisoning, a combined medical strategy might be indispensable, such as administration of vasopressors, intravenous calcium and hyperinsulinaemia/euglycaemia therapy. Especially hyperinsulinaemia/euglycaemia therapy is an important ...
Isis begin better because of lower tract infections can progress to more serious infections. Chronic myelogenous leukemia may progress through several clinical phases. In a duplex, the phosphate backbones are presented to water and lipid metabolism and an informed decision about the role of the activity of antisense drugs in this overweight patient. A, which conspire to prevent endometrial hyperplasia caused by the kidney and biliary excretion. Thus, there is no one modification will only be used to rescue normal cells from high-dose drug. This does not make an exceedingly stable lansoprazole without prescriptions at high doses, aminoglycosides can cause abdominal cramping and is used to improve hot flashes, osteoporosis, or cholesterol profile and the pleitropic effects that they carry substantial surface charge. Lansoprazole screen itself but investment in a dose-dependent manner. Primarily hepatic elimination metabolism. In addition, calcium channel blockers are the primary endpoint, these ...
Compositions of a cyclooxygenase inhibitor and a calcium channel antagonist in a liquid carrier. The composition may be administered the the urinary tract during urological diagnostic, interventional, surgical and other medical procedures. One disclosed composition comprises ketoprofen and nifedipine in a liquid irrigation carrier, and includes a solubilizing agent, stabilizing agents and a buffering agent.
Definition of calcium channel blocking agent in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is calcium channel blocking agent? Meaning of calcium channel blocking agent as a finance term. What does calcium channel blocking agent mean in finance?
Norvasc - Norvasc is a long-acting calcium channel blocker used in the treatment of high blood pressure and angina (chest pain). It relaxes artery muscles and dilates arteries, thus lowering blood pressure and increasing blood flow to the heart muscle.
Norvasc - Norvasc is a long-acting calcium channel blocker used in the treatment of high blood pressure and angina (chest pain). It relaxes artery muscles and dilates arteries, thus lowering blood pressure and increasing blood flow to the heart muscle.
Norvasc - Norvasc is a long-acting calcium channel blocker used in the treatment of high blood pressure and angina (chest pain). It relaxes artery muscles and dilates arteries, thus lowering blood pressure and increasing blood flow to the heart muscle.
Heat shock proteins (Hsps) have chaperone activity and play a pivotal role in the homeostasis of proteins by preventing misfolding, by clearing aggregated and damaged proteins from cells and by maintaining proteins in an active state. Alzheimers disease (AD) is thought to be caused by β- amyloid peptide that triggers tau hyperphosphorylation, which is neurotoxic. Although proteostasis capacity declines with age and facilitates the manifestation of neurodegenerative diseases such as AD, the upregulation of chaperones improves prognosis. Our research goal is to identify potent Hsp co-inducers that enhance protein homeostasis for the treatment of AD, especially 1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives optimized for their ability to modulate cellular stress responses. Based on favorable toxicological data and Hsp co-inducing activity, LA1011 was selected for the in vivo analysis of its neuroprotective effect in the APPxPS1 mouse model of AD. Here, we report that 6 months of LA1011 administration ...
1OAW: Three-dimensional solution structure of the calcium channel antagonist omega-agatoxin IVA: consensus molecular folding of calcium channel blockers.
Initial antihypertensive treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (Enalapril) and/or calcium channel blockers as second line medication; and/or diuretics as third line medications. Based on patients baseline BP level, the first-line medication (intravenous Enalapril) can be used alone, or in combination with second-line medication (calcium channel blocker), and third-line medication (diuretics) to achieve the target systolic BP lowering by 10% to 25% within the first 24 hours after randomization and to achieve systolic BP below 140 mm Hg and diastolic BP below 90 mm Hg and maintain this BP level afterwards during the hospitalization ...
They also decrease total peripheral resistance by dilating the blood vessels, and decreasing cardiac output by lowering the force of contraction. Because resistance and output drop, so does blood pressure. With low blood pressure, the heart does not have to work as hard; this can ease problems with cardiomyopathy and coronary disease ...
Verapamil 180 mg pills, (brand names: Isoptin, Verelan, Calan, Bosoptin), is an L-type calcium channel blocker used in the treatment of hypertension, angina pectoris, cardiac arrhythmia, and most recently, headaches. Not to be used along with beta-blockers. Class 4 antiarrhythmic, more effective than digoxin in controlling ventricular rate. Approved by FDA in 1981. One of its purified isomers does not cause constipation whereas racemic Verapamil does. Used as a vasodilator during cryopreservation of blood vessels. - Stock Image C003/0154
The use of calcium channel blockers administered intra-nasally to inhibit olfactory sensory perception to treat eating disorders, including obesity, is described. Also described is a method of reducing food intake in a subject by administering a pharmaceutical composition comprising an effective amount of a calcium channel blocker to the nasal mucosa, as well as screening methods for drugs to be used in treating obesity or associated disorders.
When you have heartburn -- a painful, burning sensation behind or below the breastbone -- you might be quick to blame it on something you ate. But persistent or frequent heartburn that disrupts your well-being or daily life might be more than a matter of your diet.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
GOOD JOB. Isradipine is not on market in usa and has only been used in mice, but this ca channel blocker for hypertension looks very promising for Dopamine deficiency. Too much time to go before it is available. For you, definitely use some l-dopa prep, might add azilect, and even consider Neupro (rotigotine) patch. This business is complex and a movement disorder specialist in a medical school may serve you best ...
Felodipine is a calcium channel blocker. Felodipine blocks calcium from acting on your blood vessels and your heart. This keeps everything relaxed, al
Cardiac myocytes express two types of voltage operated calcium currents, a high voltage activated (HVA) L-type, and a low voltage activated (LVA) T-type. Influx of calcium into the cell through the L-type channel is responsible for excitation-contraction coupling in the heart. The T-type calcium current has been associated with growth and differentiation in a number of different cell types. An atrial myocyte cell line (HL-1) that selectively expresses T-type calcium current was employed to show that inhibiting calcium influx through the T-type calcium channel inhibits cellular proliferation. Drug dosage studies demonstrate that the T-type calcium channel responsible for this effect is Cav 3.1. Furthermore, blocking the calcium influx through the T-type calcium channel arrests cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Interestingly, the proliferative effect of calcium influx through the T-type calcium channel appears to happen in the early G1 phase of the cell cycle ...
Effects of a new dihydropyridine calcium antagonist on vascular smooth muscles, cardiac muscles and [3H]-nitrendipine binding.: The effects of methyl 2,6-dimeth
The dinoflagellate toxin maitotoxin (MTX) elicited a sustained increase of [Ca2+]i in C6 glioma cells. This response was inhibited by SK&F 96365, a blocker of receptor-mediated calcium entry. In C6 cells, endothelin-1 elicited a rapid but transient increase in [Ca2+]i, followed by a smaller sustained increase. SK&F 96365 inhibited the sustained increase in [Ca2+]i. In both C6 glioma cells and RIN insulinoma cells, MTX elicited a marked influx of 45Ca2+. SK&F 96365 inhibited MTX-induced 45Ca2+ influx by 95% at 30 microM. The L-type calcium channel blocker nifedipine, even at 10 microM, inhibited MTX-induced calcium uptake by only 20% in RIN cells and by only 10% in C6 cells. MTX elicited calcium-dependent phosphoinositide breakdown in both C6 and RIN cells. In both cell lines, the MTX-induced phosphoinositide breakdown was inhibited by 90% by SK&F 96365 at 30 microM. Endothelin-1 and carbamylcholine elicited phosphoinositide breakdown in C6 cells and RIN cells, respectively. The stimulations were ...
Calcium channel antagonist binding sites have been labeled in cerebral cortex, heart, ileum, and skeletal muscle with [3H]nitrendipine. While the dissociation constants of the site from cortex, heart, and ileum are similar, KD approximately equal to 0.1-0.2 nM, the value in skeletal muscle is 2 nM. This difference is affinity is also reflected in the Ki values of dihydropyridine calcium channel antagonists, nifedipine, nimodipine, PY108068, SKF24260, and nisoldipine, and the calcium channel agonist CGP 28392, all of which show lower affinity for the skeletal muscle binding site. The diphenylalkylamine calcium channel antagonists, lidoflazine, cinnarizine, flunarizine, and prenylamine, however, show a 3- to 10-fold increase in affinity in skeletal muscle relative to the other three tissues. EDTA treatment of membranes decreases binding in cortex, heart, and ileum but increases binding in skeletal muscle. These changes are reversible upon addition of CaCl2, SrCl2, or BaCl2. The different ...
Title: Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel Blockers; Target Validation and Therapeutic Potential. VOLUME: 5 ISSUE: 6. Author(s): John N. Wood and James Boorman. Affiliation:Molecular Nociception Group, Biology UCL, Gower Street, London WC1 E 6BT.. Abstract: Voltage-gated sodium channels are encoded by a family of ten structurally-related genes that are expressed in spatially and temporally distinct patterns, mainly in excitable tissues. They underlie electrical signalling in nerve and muscle. It has long been known that sodium channel blockers are anaesthetics as well as powerful analgesics when delivered at low concentrations. In addition, cardiac arrhythmias and epileptic activity can be treated with sodium channel blockers. As we have learned more about the sub-types of sodium channels and their distribution, new therapeutic opportunities have suggested themselves. There are indications that sodium channel blockers may also be useful in affective disorders and schizophrenia. The production of ...
White bass (Roccus chrysops) retinal horizontal cells possess two types of voltage-activated calcium currents which have recently been characterized with regard to their voltage dependence and pharmacology (Sullivan, J., and E. M. Lasater. 1992. Journal of General Physiology. 99:85-107). A low voltage-activated transient current was identified which resembles the T-type calcium current described in a number of other preparations, along with a sustained high threshold, long-lasting calcium current that resembles the L-type calcium current. Here we report on the modulation of horizontal cell calcium channels by dopamine. Under whole-cell voltage clamp conditions favoring the expression of both calcium currents, dopamine had opposing actions on the two types of voltage-sensitive calcium currents in the same cone-type horizontal cell. The L-type calcium current was significantly potentiated by dopamine while the T-type current was simultaneously reduced. Dopamine had no effect on calcium currents in ...
A pharmaceutical composition containing a calcium blocker which is azelnidipine or a pharmacologically acceptable salt thereof and a pharmacologically acceptable alkaline material which is an alkali metal hydroxide, an alkaline earth metal hydroxide, an aluminium hydroxide, an alkali metal carbonate,an alkaline earth metal carbonate, an alkaline earth metal carbonate, an alkali metal hydrogencarbonate, a di-alkali metal phosphate, a di-alkaline earth metal phosphate, a tri-alkali metal phosphate, an alkaline earth metal oxide, aluminium oxide, sn alkali metal silicate, an alkaline earth metal silicate, a silicic acid aluminium complex compound, an aluminum-magnesiym complex compound, or a mixture thereof, wherein the alkaline material is added to an extent such that an aqueous solution or disperson solution of said pharmaceutical composition containing a calcium blocker has pH of at least 8 ...
METHODS FOR STROKE REDUCTION IN ATRIAL FIBRILLATION PATIENTS - The subject invention provides methods for reducing stroke rate, methods for preventing atrial remodeling, and methods for reversing atrial remodeling by administering a multiple ion channel blocker anti-arrhythmic to reduce atrial fibrillation (AF) episode duration and an anticoagulant (AC). According to some methods of the invention, the average AF episode duration can be reduced to less than about 24, 5, 3 or 1 hour(s), and the maximum AF episode duration may be reduced to less than about 20, 10 or 5 hours. According to some methods of the invention, the reduced stroke rate upon administration of multiple ion channel blocker and AC is less than the age-adjusted overall stroke rate. Further, some methods provide that patients who were refractory to one or more anti-arrhythmic drugs prior to administration of the multiple ion channel blocker may also be treated. Some methods provide for prevention of atrial remodeling and others ...

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Nicardipine hydrochloride is a calcium channel blocker with an IC50 of 1 μM for blocking cardiac calcium channels. Nicardipine ... Nicardipine D3YC-93 D3Nicardipine D 3Nicardipine D-3Calcium ChannelCa2+ channelsCa channelsblockercardiacanginabloodpressure ... Nicardipine hydrochloride is a calcium channel blocker with an IC50 of 1 μM for blocking cardiac calcium channels. Nicardipine ... Nicardipine hydrochloride is a calcium channel blocker with an IC50 of 1 μM for blocking cardiac calcium channels. Nicardipine ...
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Dogs on calcium channel blockers, or on anti-siezure medications such as phenytoin; may also develop gingival enlargements.. ...
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Felodipine is a member of the dihydropyridine class of calcium channel antagonists calcium channel blockers. Amlodipine and ... Calcium channel blockers CCBs may have varying degrees of negative inotropic effect. Congestive heart failure CHF worsening of ... Dapoxetine: May enhance the orthostatic hypotensive effect of Calcium Channel Blockers. In such patients, renal function should ... Fluconazole: May increase the serum concentration of Calcium Channel Blockers. Enzalutamide: May decrease the serum ...
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... also called calcium antagonists, are a newer category of medications which are used to treat heart disease and hypertension. ... Calcium channel blockers, also called calcium antagonists, are a newer category of medications which are used to treat heart ... Calcium channel blockers, like verapamil and its cousins, do not quite lock the revolving door, but they significantly slow ... Do you recommend use of calcium channel blockers for my problem?. Are there alternative drugs for controlling hypertension or ...
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they block the small pores in cells that let calcium pass through, and widen blood vessels as well as affect the activity o ... What are calcium channel blockers?. NEXT QUESTION: Which calcium channel blockers have been studied to treat bipolar disorder? ... How do calcium channel blockers work?. ANSWER These drugs are usually used to treat high blood pressure or heart problems. They ... So calcium channel blockers have been studied as a treatment for bipolar disorder, but there isnt enough evidence yet that ...
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They prevent the calcium ions needed for muscle contraction from entering the cells of smooth and cardiac muscle. This causes ... calcium-channel blocker calcium-channel blocker. calcium-channel blocker, any of a class of drugs used in treating hypertension ... Cardizem (diltiazem) is a common calcium-channel blocker. The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, ... Some calcium-channel blockers, such as Procardia (nifedipine), slow the electrical impulses that run through heart muscle, thus ...
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Treating Hypertension with Calcium Channel BlockersTreating Hypertension with Calcium Channel Blockers

Calcium channel blockers are used to treat high blood pressure. Theyre as effective as ACE inhibitors in reducing blood ... What are calcium channel blockers?. Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are a class of medications used to treat high blood ... How calcium channel blockers work. CCBs reduce blood pressure by limiting the amount of calcium or the rate at which calcium ... Natural calcium channel blockers. Magnesium is an example of a nutrient that acts as a natural CCB. Research has shown that ...
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Calcium channel blockers? - Migraineurs Support - MedHelpCalcium channel blockers? - Migraineurs Support - MedHelp

... what calcium channel blocker did you try and did you have any side-effects? Did it help your migraines? I am... ... I was wondering if anyone here has tried a calcium channel blocker before? If so, ... I was wondering if anyone here has tried a calcium channel blocker before? If so, what calcium channel blocker did you try and ... I hope the Calcium Channel Blockers work for you! I dont think the Beta Blocker is working for me either at this point (we ...
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A type of blood pressure lowering medication, called a calcium-channel blocker, may be linked with an increased risk of a type ... Atomic level analysis reveals how two classes of calcium channel blockers produce different effects An atomic level analysis ... Two-drug combinations containing calcium channel blocker significantly lowers BP In the largest randomized controlled trial of ... two frontline two-drug combinations that included the long-acting calcium channel blocker, amlodipine, were able to drive down ...
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Some calcium channel blockers slow heart rate, which can further reduce blood pressure, relieve chest pain (angina) and control ... Massie BM (1998) The safety of calcium-channel blockers. Clin Cardiol. 21(12 Suppl 2):II12-7. ... Inhibits transmembrane calcium influx (prevents calcium from entering cells) in cardiac (heart) and vascular smooth muscle ( ...
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more infohttp://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/neur-sci/1995-September/020221.html

Calcium-channel blocker overdose: MedlinePlus Medical EncyclopediaCalcium-channel blocker overdose: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia

Calcium-channel blockers are a type of medicine used to treat high blood pressure and heart rhythm disturbances. They are one ... The specific ingredients in each type of calcium-channel blocker vary. However, the main ingredient is called a calcium-channel ... Calcium-channel blockers are a type of medicine used to treat high blood pressure and heart rhythm disturbances. They are one ... Calcium channel blockers. In: Aronson JK, ed. Meylers Side Effects of Drugs. 16th ed. Waltham, MA: Elsevier; 2016:23-39. ...
more infohttps://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002580.htm

September: Calcium channel blockers  | News | University of BristolSeptember: Calcium channel blockers | News | University of Bristol

Calcium channel blockers may be effective in treating memory loss associated with Alzheimers. Treating diseased brain cells ... Researchers at the University of Bristol have identified that calcium channel blockers may be effective in treating memory loss ... This overload was due to the overproduction of the gene encoding a channel, known as the L-type channel, which allows calcium ... found treating a diseased brain cell with a blocker of the L-type channel reduced the number of calcium ions able to flow into ...
more infohttp://www.bris.ac.uk/news/2019/september/calcium-channel-blockers.html

Dihydropyridine Calcium Channel BlockerDihydropyridine Calcium Channel Blocker

... , Amlodipine, Norvasc, Nimodipine, Dihydropyridine. ... Dihydropyridine Calcium Channel Blocker. Dihydropyridine Calcium Channel Blocker Aka: Dihydropyridine Calcium Channel Blocker, ... Beta Blocker Beta Blocker Overdose Bile Binding Resin Bradycardia due to Medications Bretylium Calcium Channel Blocker Calcium ... Non-Dihydropyridine Calcium Channel Blocker Norepinephrine PCSK9 Inhibitor Perioperative Beta Blocker Peripheral Acting ...
more infohttps://fpnotebook.com/CV/Pharm/DhydrpyrdnClcmChnlBlckr.htm

What is the definition of calcium-channel blocker?What is the definition of calcium-channel blocker?

... it acts by selectively blocking the uptake of calcium by the cells.. ... a calcium-channel blocker is a drug that reduces spasm of the blood vessels, lowers blood pressure, and controls angina; ... What is the definition of calcium-channel blocker?. ANSWER A calcium-channel blocker is a drug that reduces spasm of the blood ... vessels, lowers blood pressure, and controls angina; it acts by selectively blocking the uptake of calcium by the cells. ...
more infohttps://www.webmd.com/heart-disease/heart-failure/qa/what-is-the-definition-of-calciumchannel-blocker

Calcium Channel Blockers (Nondihydropyridine) - DrugBankCalcium Channel Blockers (Nondihydropyridine) - DrugBank

Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-4. target. DB00661. Verapamil. Voltage-dependent T-type calcium channel ... Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1F. target. DB00661. Verapamil. Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel ... Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1D. target. DB00661. Verapamil. Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel ... Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1S. target. DB00661. Verapamil. Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel ...
more infohttps://www.drugbank.ca/categories/DBCAT003005

Calcium Channel Blockers (Nondihydropyridine) - DrugBankCalcium Channel Blockers (Nondihydropyridine) - DrugBank

Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-4. target. DB00661. Verapamil. Voltage-dependent T-type calcium channel ... Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1F. target. DB00661. Verapamil. Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel ... Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1D. target. DB00661. Verapamil. Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel ... Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1S. target. DB00661. Verapamil. Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel ...
more infohttps://www.drugbank.ca/categories/DBCAT003976

Calcium Channel Blockers and Obstructive Airway Diseases: Ingenta ConnectCalcium Channel Blockers and Obstructive Airway Diseases: Ingenta Connect

The calcium channel blockers are a group of drugs which impede calcium ion entry into cells, thereby inhibiting myocardial and ... that the calcium channel blockers inhibit bronchoconstriction. The usefulness of these drugs in patients with the obstructive ...
more infohttp://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/ocean/aap/1983/00000004/00000002/art00005

What Are Calcium Channel Blockers? - Video - SharecareWhat Are Calcium Channel Blockers? - Video - Sharecare

Calcium channel blockers are medicates that relax the arteries, says Mary Ann McLaughlin, MD, medical director of the Cardiac ... What Are Calcium Channel Blockers? (0:43) Calcium channel blockers are medicates that relax the arteries, says Mary Ann ... calcium channel blocker as a joint is more likely to relax that and prevent that from happening. Calcium Channel Blockers also ... Calcium channel blockers are medications that relax the arteries. So some people have a spasm in their artery, ...
more infohttps://www.sharecare.com/video/heart-health/angina/what-are-calcium-channel-blockers

Calcium Channel Blockers | Medical City DallasCalcium Channel Blockers | Medical City Dallas

Learn more about Calcium Channel Blockers at Medical City Dallas Calcium and Vitamin D -Possible Decreased Action of Drug ... CalciumVitamin D Taking calcium and vitamin D supplements might interfere with some of the effects of calcium channel-blockers ... Calcium channel-blockers are used to treat hypertension , angina , heart arrhythmias , and other heart-related conditions. ... According to a study in rats, ginkgo extract may cause the body to metabolize some calcium channel blockers more rapidly, ...
more infohttps://medicalcityhospital.com/hl/?/21424/Cardene-SR&com.dotmarketing.htmlpage.language=1
  • In the largest randomized controlled trial of treatment for high blood pressure ever conducted in sub-Saharan Africa, two frontline two-drug combinations that included the long-acting calcium channel blocker, amlodipine, were able to drive down blood pressure levels more than a third two-drug combination that did not include amlodipine, according to research presented at the American College of Cardiology's 68th Annual Scientific Session. (news-medical.net)
  • What is the risk of mortality with calcium channel blockers? (druginfonet.com)
  • There has been a lot of publicity recently concerning the risk of mortality with calcium blockers. (druginfonet.com)
  • This was initiated after a presentation of data which compared relative mortality of beta-blockers and calcium blockers. (druginfonet.com)
  • After adjustment for demographics, comorbidities, and the use of other sorts of medication, mortality from breast cancer was no higher in women who had taken calcium channel blockers than in women who had never used them. (bmj.com)
  • There are a number of side effects that can occur with calcium channel blockers, but they do not occur in all patients and the benefits of therapy are greater than the risk of side effects. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Side effects associated with calcium channel blockers are less likely to occur in older patients. (verywellhealth.com)
  • How do calcium channel blockers work? (webmd.com)
  • Research suggests that the way the brain uses calcium to regulate nerve cells may not work right in some people with bipolar disorder. (webmd.com)
  • So calcium channel blockers have been studied as a treatment for bipolar disorder, but there isn't enough evidence yet that they work. (webmd.com)
  • I hope the Calcium Channel Blockers work for you! (medhelp.org)
  • From what I understand-beta blockers don't lower the BP, that is what my GP told me, it is the calcium channel blockers that will lower BP. (medhelp.org)
  • Which calcium channel blockers have been studied to treat bipolar disorder? (webmd.com)
  • Everyday Health » Calcium Channel Blockers » What Are Calcium Channel Blockers? (everydayhealth.com)