Agents that increase calcium influx into calcium channels of excitable tissues. This causes vasoconstriction in VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE and/or CARDIAC MUSCLE cells as well as stimulation of insulin release from pancreatic islets. Therefore, tissue-selective calcium agonists have the potential to combat cardiac failure and endocrinological disorders. They have been used primarily in experimental studies in cell and tissue culture.
A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
A calcium channel blocker with marked vasodilator action. It is an effective antihypertensive agent and differs from other calcium channel blockers in that it does not reduce glomerular filtration rate and is mildly natriuretic, rather than sodium retentive.
A potent antagonist of CALCIUM CHANNELS that is highly selective for VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE. It is effective in the treatment of chronic stable angina pectoris, hypertension, and congestive cardiac failure.
Pyridine moieties which are partially saturated by the addition of two hydrogen atoms in any position.
Long-lasting voltage-gated CALCIUM CHANNELS found in both excitable and nonexcitable tissue. They are responsible for normal myocardial and vascular smooth muscle contractility. Five subunits (alpha-1, alpha-2, beta, gamma, and delta) make up the L-type channel. The alpha-1 subunit is the binding site for calcium-based antagonists. Dihydropyridine-based calcium antagonists are used as markers for these binding sites.
A potent vasodilator agent with calcium antagonistic action. It is a useful anti-anginal agent that also lowers blood pressure.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
A class of drugs that stimulate sodium influx through cell membrane channels.
CALCIUM CHANNELS that are concentrated in neural tissue. Omega toxins inhibit the actions of these channels by altering their voltage dependence.
A heterogenous group of transient or low voltage activated type CALCIUM CHANNELS. They are found in cardiac myocyte membranes, the sinoatrial node, Purkinje cells of the heart and the central nervous system.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
Compounds that either stimulate the opening or prevent closure of VOLTAGE-GATED SODIUM CHANNELS.
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of potassium efflux through cell membranes. Blockade of potassium channels prolongs the duration of ACTION POTENTIALS. They are used as ANTI-ARRHYTHMIA AGENTS and VASODILATOR AGENTS.
Heteromultimers of Kir6 channels (the pore portion) and sulfonylurea receptor (the regulatory portion) which affect function of the HEART; PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. KATP channel blockers include GLIBENCLAMIDE and mitiglinide whereas openers include CROMAKALIM and minoxidil sulfate.
A benzothiazepine derivative with vasodilating action due to its antagonism of the actions of CALCIUM ion on membrane functions.
Potassium channels where the flow of K+ ions into the cell is greater than the outward flow.
CALCIUM CHANNELS located within the PURKINJE CELLS of the cerebellum. They are involved in stimulation-secretion coupling of neurons.
CALCIUM CHANNELS located in the neurons of the brain.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
A calcium channel blockader with preferential cerebrovascular activity. It has marked cerebrovascular dilating effects and lowers blood pressure.
A calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
CALCIUM CHANNELS located in the neurons of the brain. They are inhibited by the marine snail toxin, omega conotoxin MVIIC.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that form channels to selectively pass chloride ions. Nonselective blockers include FENAMATES; ETHACRYNIC ACID; and TAMOXIFEN.
A guanidine that opens POTASSIUM CHANNELS producing direct peripheral vasodilatation of the ARTERIOLES. It reduces BLOOD PRESSURE and peripheral resistance and produces fluid retention. (Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
An element of the alkaline earth group of metals. It has an atomic symbol Ba, atomic number 56, and atomic weight 138. All of its acid-soluble salts are poisonous.
A neurotoxic peptide, which is a cleavage product (VIa) of the omega-Conotoxin precursor protein contained in venom from the marine snail, CONUS geographus. It is an antagonist of CALCIUM CHANNELS, N-TYPE.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Compounds that either stimulate the opening or prevent closure of EPITHELIAL SODIUM ION CHANNELS.
A family of structurally related neurotoxic peptides from mollusk venom that inhibit voltage-activated entry of calcium into the presynaptic membrane. They selectively inhibit N-, P-, and Q-type calcium channels.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Potassium channel whose permeability to ions is extremely sensitive to the transmembrane potential difference. The opening of these channels is induced by the membrane depolarization of the ACTION POTENTIAL.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Potassium channels whose activation is dependent on intracellular calcium concentrations.
An antidiabetic sulfonylurea derivative with actions similar to those of chlorpropamide.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
A derivative of the NIACINAMIDE that is structurally combined with an organic nitrate. It is a potassium-channel opener that causes vasodilatation of arterioles and large coronary arteries. Its nitrate-like properties produce venous vasodilation through stimulation of guanylate cyclase.
A potassium-channel opening vasodilator that has been investigated in the management of hypertension. It has also been tried in patients with asthma. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p352)
A benzimidazoyl-substituted tetraline that selectively binds and inhibits CALCIUM CHANNELS, T-TYPE.
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of sodium influx through cell membranes. Blockade of sodium channels slows the rate and amplitude of initial rapid depolarization, reduces cell excitability, and reduces conduction velocity.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
An autoimmune disease characterized by weakness and fatigability of proximal muscles, particularly of the pelvic girdle, lower extremities, trunk, and shoulder girdle. There is relative sparing of extraocular and bulbar muscles. CARCINOMA, SMALL CELL of the lung is a frequently associated condition, although other malignancies and autoimmune diseases may be associated. Muscular weakness results from impaired impulse transmission at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. Presynaptic calcium channel dysfunction leads to a reduced amount of acetylcholine being released in response to stimulation of the nerve. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 1471)
Azoles of one NITROGEN and two double bonds that have aromatic chemical properties.
A subgroup of TRP cation channels that contain 3-4 ANKYRIN REPEAT DOMAINS and a conserved C-terminal domain. Members are highly expressed in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Selectivity for calcium over sodium ranges from 0.5 to 10.
A neuropeptide toxin from the venom of the funnel web spider, Agelenopsis aperta. It inhibits CALCIUM CHANNELS, P-TYPE by altering the voltage-dependent gating so that very large depolarizations are needed for channel opening. It also inhibits CALCIUM CHANNELS, Q-TYPE.
A benzoate-cevane found in VERATRUM and Schoenocaulon. It activates SODIUM CHANNELS to stay open longer than normal.
Voltage-gated potassium channels whose primary subunits contain six transmembrane segments and form tetramers to create a pore with a voltage sensor. They are related to their founding member, shaker protein, Drosophila.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.
A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A major class of calcium activated potassium channels whose members are voltage-dependent. MaxiK channels are activated by either membrane depolarization or an increase in intracellular Ca(2+). They are key regulators of calcium and electrical signaling in a variety of tissues.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Compounds with a core of fused benzo-pyran rings.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after vanilloid receptor. They are very sensitive to TEMPERATURE and hot spicy food and CAPSAICIN. They have the TRP domain and ANKYRIN repeats. Selectivity for CALCIUM over SODIUM ranges from 3 to 100 fold.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
A subgroup of cyclic nucleotide-regulated ION CHANNELS within the superfamily of pore-loop cation channels. They are expressed in OLFACTORY NERVE cilia and in PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and some PLANTS.
A salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.
Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.
A potent calcium channel blockader with marked vasodilator action. It has antihypertensive properties and is effective in the treatment of angina and coronary spasms without showing cardiodepressant effects. It has also been used in the treatment of asthma and enhances the action of specific antineoplastic agents.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
A tetrameric calcium release channel in the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM membrane of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, acting oppositely to SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES. It is important in skeletal and cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and studied by using RYANODINE. Abnormalities are implicated in CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS and MUSCULAR DISEASES.
A methylpyrrole-carboxylate from RYANIA that disrupts the RYANODINE RECEPTOR CALCIUM RELEASE CHANNEL to modify CALCIUM release from SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM resulting in alteration of MUSCLE CONTRACTION. It was previously used in INSECTICIDES. It is used experimentally in conjunction with THAPSIGARGIN and other inhibitors of CALCIUM ATPASE uptake of calcium into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after melastatin protein. They have the TRP domain but lack ANKYRIN repeats. Enzyme domains in the C-terminus leads to them being called chanzymes.
Venoms of arthropods of the order Araneida of the ARACHNIDA. The venoms usually contain several protein fractions, including ENZYMES, hemolytic, neurolytic, and other TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
A family of proton-gated sodium channels that are primarily expressed in neuronal tissue. They are AMILORIDE-sensitive and are implicated in the signaling of a variety of neurological stimuli, most notably that of pain in response to acidic conditions.

Melatonin inhibits release of luteinizing hormone (LH) via decrease of [Ca2+]i and cyclic AMP. (1/640)

The role of [Ca2+]i and cAMP in transduction of the melatonin inhibitory effect on GnRH-induced LH release from neonatal rat gonadotrophs has been studied, because melatonin inhibits the increase of both intracellular messengers. Treatments increasing Ca2+ influx (S(-) Bay K8644 or KCI) or cAMP concentration (8-bromo-cAMP or 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine) potentiated the GnRH-induced LH release and partially diminished the inhibitory effect of melatonin. Combination of the treatments increasing cAMP and calcium concentrations blocked completely the melatonin inhibition of LH release. The combined treatment with 8-bromo-cAMP and S(-) Bay K8644 also blocked the melatonin inhibition of GnRH-induced [Ca2+]i increase in 89 % of the gonadotrophs, while any of the treatments alone blocked the melatonin effect in about 25 % of these cells. These observations suggest that a cAMP-dependent pathway is involved in regulation of Ca2+ influx by melatonin and melatonin inhibition of LH release may be mediated by the decrease of both messengers.  (+info)

Intracellular Ca2+ concentrations in cultured chicken photoreceptor cells: sustained elevation in depolarized cells and the role of dihydropyridine-sensitive Ca2+ channels. (2/640)

PURPOSE: Retinal photoreceptor cells are tonically depolarized in darkness. Ca2+ influx in darkness plays a critical role in the regulation of neurotransmitter release and melatonin synthesis in these sensory cells. The purpose of the present study was to examine the dynamic changes of intracellular Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]in ) in response to a tonic depolarizing stimulus and to determine the role of dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channels in the response. METHODS: Photoreceptor cells were prepared from embryonic chick retina and cultured for 6-12 days. Cells were depolarized by exposure to 35 mM extracellular K+. [Ca2+]in of individual photoreceptor cell bodies/synaptic terminals was determined by ratiometric fura-2 image analysis. RESULTS: Chemical depolarization with 35 mM [K+]out greatly increased [Ca2+]in of inner segment/synaptic terminal regions of photoreceptors. The increase usually reached a plateau after the first few minutes of stimulation and was sustained for prolonged periods (>2 h) in the presence of high K+. When the extracellular K+ concentration was reduced, the [Ca2+]in rapidly returned to the basal level. Substitution of 1 mM CoCl2 for CaCl2 in the superfusion medium rapidly and reversibly reduced the [Ca2+]in of depolarized photoreceptor cells. Antagonists of L-type Ca2+ channels, nitrendipine and nifedipine, inhibited the K+-evoked increase of [Ca2+]in. Bay K 8644, a dihydropyridine Ca2+ channel agonist, potentiated the increase of [Ca2+]in elicited by high K+. In some cells, Bay K 8644 alone increased [Ca2+]in under basal conditions. CONCLUSIONS: The increase of [Ca2+]in elicited by depolarization with 35 mM extracellular K+ is due to influx of calcium through the dihydropyridine-sensitive voltage-gated channels. Intracellular [Ca2+] remains elevated for extended periods of time during tonic depolarization. This sustained response requires continuous Ca2+ channel activity.  (+info)

Voltage inactivation of Ca2+ entry and secretion associated with N- and P/Q-type but not L-type Ca2+ channels of bovine chromaffin cells. (3/640)

1. In this study we pose the question of why the bovine adrenal medullary chromaffin cell needs various subtypes (L, N, P, Q) of the neuronal high-voltage activated Ca2+ channels to control a given physiological function, i.e. the exocytotic release of catecholamines. One plausible hypothesis is that Ca2+ channel subtypes undergo different patterns of inactivation during cell depolarization. 2. The net Ca2+ uptake (measured using 45Ca2+) into hyperpolarized cells (bathed in a nominally Ca2+-free solution containing 1.2 mM K+) after application of a Ca2+ pulse (5 s exposure to 100 mM K+ and 2 mM Ca2+), amounted to 0.65 +/- 0.02 fmol cell-1; in depolarized cells (bathed in nominally Ca2+-free solution containing 100 mM K+) the net Ca2+ uptake was 0.16 +/- 0.01 fmol cell-1. 3. This was paralleled by a dramatic reduction of the increase in the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, [Ca2+]i, caused by Ca2+ pulses applied to fura-2-loaded single cells, from 1181 +/- 104 nM in hyperpolarized cells to 115 +/- 9 nM in depolarized cells. 4. A similar decrease was observed when studying catecholamine release. Secretion was decreased when K+ concentration was increased from 1.2 to 100 mM; the Ca2+ pulse caused, when comparing the extreme conditions, the secretion of 807 +/- 35 nA of catecholamines in hyperpolarized cells and 220 +/- 19 nA in depolarized cells. 5. The inactivation by depolarization of Ca2+ entry and secretion occluded the blocking effects of combined omega-conotoxin GVIA (1 microM) and omega-agatoxin IVA (2 microM), thus suggesting that depolarization caused a selective inactivation of the N- and P/Q-type Ca2+ channels. 6. This was strengthened by two additional findings: (i) nifedipine (3 microM), an L-type Ca2+ channel blocker, suppressed the fraction of Ca2+ entry (24 %) and secretion (27 %) left unblocked by depolarization; (ii) FPL64176 (3 microM), an L-type Ca2+ channel 'activator', dramatically enhanced the entry of Ca2+ and the secretory response in depolarized cells. 7. In voltage-clamped cells, switching the holding potential from -80 to -40 mV promoted the loss of 80 % of the whole-cell inward Ca2+ channel current carried by 10 mM Ba2+ (IBa). The residual current was blocked by 80 % upon addition of 3 microM nifedipine and dramatically enhanced by 3 microM FPL64176. 8. Thus, it seems that the N- and P/Q-subtypes of calcium channels are more prone to inactivation at depolarizing voltages than the L-subtype. We propose that this different inactivation might occur physiologically during different patterns of action potential firing, triggered by endogenously released acetylcholine under various stressful conditions.  (+info)

A new scorpion toxin (BmK-PL) stimulates Ca2+-release channel activity of the skeletal-muscle ryanodine receptor by an indirect mechanism. (4/640)

A peptide toxin isolated from the Chinese scorpion Buthus martensi Karsch (BmK-PL) stimulated Ca2+-release channel activity in both triad membranes and reconstituted ryanodine receptors partially purified from rabbit skeletal muscle. In [3H]ryanodine binding experiments, the toxin increased the affinity of ryanodine for the receptor, from a Kd of 24.3 nM to 2.9 nM, which is an enhancement similar to that seen with known receptor activators, such as ATP and high concentrations of KCl. In contrast, toxin enhancement was not observed with purified receptors, although intrinsic binding activity and stimulation by the conventional receptor activators were retained. In single channel recordings of Ca2+-release activity, the toxin increased the open channel probability (Po) from 0.019 to 0.043 (226% of control) in triad preparations. Further toxin enhancement of Po from 0.07 to 0.37 (529% of control) was observed using partially-purified receptors in the presence of ATP. When purified receptors were assayed in the presence of ATP, however, they showed a high value of Po (0.33) and no further increase was observed following application of the toxin. Results derived from two different experimental methods consistently suggest that a molecule(s) required for toxin-induced enhancement is absent from the purified receptor preparation. Western blot analysis of receptors prepared using three different protocols showed that triadin was missing from the purified receptor preparation. The scorpion toxin minimally enhanced Ca2+-release channel activity of cardiac preparations. From these results, we conclude that the toxin preferentially increases the activity of skeletal-muscle ryanodine receptors by an indirect mechanism, possibly binding to associated protein molecule(s). Triadin is a strong candidate for such a molecule.  (+info)

BAY K 8644 modifies Ca2+ cross signaling between DHP and ryanodine receptors in rat ventricular myocytes. (5/640)

The amplification factor of dihydropyridine (DHP)/ryanodine receptors was defined as the amount of Ca2+ released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) relative to the influx of Ca2+ through L-type Ca2+ channels in rat ventricular myocytes. The amplification factor showed steep voltage dependence at potentials negative to -10 mV but was less dependent on voltage at potentials positive to this value. In cells dialyzed with 0.2 mM cAMP in addition to 2 mM fura 2, the Ca2+-channel agonist (-)-BAY K 8644 enhanced Ca2+-channel current (ICa), shifted the activation curve by -10 mV, and significantly delayed its inactivation. Surprisingly, BAY K 8644 reduced the amplification factor by 50% at all potentials, even though the caffeine-releasable Ca2+ stores were mostly intact at holding potentials of -90 mV. In contrast, brief elevation of extracellular Ca2+ activity from 2 to 10 mM enhanced both ICa and intracellular Ca2+ transients in the absence or presence of BAY K 8644 but had no significant effect on the amplification factor. BAY K 8644 abolished the direct dependence of the rate of inactivation of ICa on the release of Ca2+ from the SR. These findings suggest that the gain of the Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release in cardiac myocytes is regulated by the gating kinetics of cardiac L-type Ca2+ channels via local exchange of Ca2+ signals between DHP and ryanodine receptors and that BAY K 8644 suppresses the amplification factor through attenuation of the Ca2+-dependent inactivation of Ca2+ channels.  (+info)

Inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate enhances long-term potentiation by regulating Ca2+ entry in rat hippocampus. (6/640)

1. The effect of inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate (InsP4) on long-term potentiation (LTP) was investigated in the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices. Intracellular application of InsP4 and EPSP recordings were carried out using the whole-cell configuration. 2. Induction of LTP in the presence of InsP4 (100 microM) resulted in a substantial enhancement of the LTP magnitude compared with control potentiation. Using an intrapipette perfusion system, it was established that application of InsP4 was required during induction of potentiation for this enhancement to occur. An enhancement of LTP was not observed if a non-metabolizable inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) analogue (2,3-dideoxy-1,4,5-trisphosphate, 100 microM) was applied intracellularly. 3. Current-voltage relations of NMDA receptor-mediated EPSCs were not altered by InsP4 application. The presence of InsP4 was slightly effective in relieving a D-(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (D-APV)-induced block of LTP. 4. The peak current amplitude of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) was increased by InsP4. omega-Conotoxin GVIA inhibited the InsP4-induced LTP facilitation. 5. These data indicate that InsP4 can modify the extracellular Ca2+ entry through upregulation of VGCCs, which may in turn contribute to the observed enhancement of LTP induced by InsP4. 6. To investigate the possible involvement of intracellular Ca2+ release in the facilitatory effect of InsP4 on LTP, different inhibitors of the endoplasmic reticulum-dependent Ca2+ release were applied (heparin, ryanodine, cyclopiazonic acid). The results suggest that InsP4 activates postsynaptic InsP3-dependent Ca2+ release which normally does not contribute to the calcium-induced calcium release-dependent LTP.  (+info)

Differentially expressed genes in C6.9 glioma cells during vitamin D-induced cell death program. (7/640)

C6.9 rat glioma cells undergo a cell death program when exposed to 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-D3). As a global analytical approach, we have investigated gene expression in C6.9 engaged in this cell death program using differential screening of a rat brain cDNA library with probes derived from control and 1,25-D3-treated cells. Using this methodology we report the isolation of 61 differentially expressed cDNAs. Forty-seven cDNAs correspond to genes already characterized in rat cells or tissues. Seven cDNAs are homologous to yeast, mouse or human genes and seven are not related to known genes. Some of the characterized genes have been reported to be differentially expressed following induction of programmed cell death. These include PMP22/gas3, MGP and beta-tubulin. For the first time, we also show a cell death program induced up-regulation of the c-myc associated primary response gene CRP, and of the proteasome RN3 subunit and TCTP/mortalin genes. Another interesting feature of this 1,25-D3 induced-cell death program is the down-regulated expression of transcripts for the microtubule motor dynein heavy chain/MAP 1C and of the calcium-binding S100beta protein. Finally 15 upregulated cDNAs encode ribosomal proteins suggesting a possible involvement of the translational apparatus in this cell program. Alternatively, these ribosomal protein genes could be up-regulated in response to altered rates of cellular metabolism, as has been demonstrated for most of the other isolated genes which encode proteins involved in metabolic pathways. Thus, this study presents to our knowledge the first characterization of genes which are differentially expressed during a cell death program induced by 1, 25-D3. Therefore, this data provides new information on the fundamental mechanisms which participate in the antineoplastic effects of 1,25-D3 and on the machinery of a cell death program in a glioma cell line.  (+info)

Bicarbonate and chloride secretion in Calu-3 human airway epithelial cells. (8/640)

Serous cells are the predominant site of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator expression in the airways, and they make a significant contribution to the volume, composition, and consistency of the submucosal gland secretions. We have employed the human airway serous cell line Calu-3 as a model system to investigate the mechanisms of serous cell anion secretion. Forskolin-stimulated Calu-3 cells secrete HCO-3 by a Cl-offdependent, serosal Na+-dependent, serosal bumetanide-insensitive, and serosal 4,4'-dinitrostilben-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DNDS)-sensitive, electrogenic mechanism as judged by transepithelial currents, isotopic fluxes, and the results of ion substitution, pharmacology, and pH studies. Similar studies revealed that stimulation of Calu-3 cells with 1-ethyl-2-benzimidazolinone (1-EBIO), an activator of basolateral membrane Ca2+-activated K+ channels, reduced HCO-3 secretion and caused the secretion of Cl- by a bumetanide-sensitive, electrogenic mechanism. Nystatin permeabilization of Calu-3 monolayers demonstrated 1-EBIO activated a charybdotoxin- and clotrimazole- inhibited basolateral membrane K+ current. Patch-clamp studies confirmed the presence of an intermediate conductance inwardly rectified K+ channel with this pharmacological profile. We propose that hyperpolarization of the basolateral membrane voltage elicits a switch from HCO-3 secretion to Cl- secretion because the uptake of HCO-3 across the basolateral membrane is mediated by a 4,4 '-dinitrostilben-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DNDS)-sensitive Na+:HCO-3 cotransporter. Since the stoichiometry reported for Na+:HCO-3 cotransport is 1:2 or 1:3, hyperpolarization of the basolateral membrane potential by 1-EBIO would inhibit HCO-3 entry and favor the secretion of Cl-. Therefore, differential regulation of the basolateral membrane K+ conductance by secretory agonists could provide a means of stimulating HCO-3 and Cl- secretion. In this context, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator could serve as both a HCO-3 and a Cl- channel, mediating the apical membrane exit of either anion depending on basolateral membrane anion entry mechanisms and the driving forces that prevail. If these results with Calu-3 cells accurately reflect the transport properties of native submucosal gland serous cells, then HCO-3 secretion in the human airways warrants greater attention.  (+info)

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In addition to the shift in the I-V relationship for L-type currents of R163C Het and Hom myotubes, we found that this MH mutation caused an increased responsiveness to the dihydropyridine agonist ±Bay K 8644. In particular, L-type currents of MHS R163C myotubes were potentiated to a greater degree (Hom , Het) than WT myotubes (Fig. 4). This observation suggests that one of the retrograde effects of R163C mutation on the L-type channel activity of the DHPR is to facilitate entry of the channel into the long-open gating state (i.e., mode 2; Nowycky et al., 1985), which might explain the enhanced potentiation by ±Bay K 8644. Interestingly, Bay K 8644 enhances pharmacologically (halothane or isofluorane) induced contractures in both swine and human MHS muscle (Williams et al., 1991; Adnet et al., 1992), consistent with the idea that altered L-type current may contribute to the pathogenesis of this disease.. Compared with previous reports on the inactivation of L-type current in normal human ...
The synthesis of a series of adenophostin A analogues modified at C-6 and C-2 of adenine is described. The target compounds were synthesized by a convergent route involving a modified Vorbrüggen condensation of either 6-chloropurine or 2,6-dichloropurine with a protected disaccharide, yielding two versatile intermediates capable of undergoing substitution with a range of nucleophiles. The new analogues showed a range of abilities to mobilize Ca(2+) from the intracellular stores of permeabilized hepatocytes and are among the first totally synthetic compounds to approach the activity of adenophostin A. In agreement with the biological results, docking studies of adenophostin A using the recently reported X-ray crystal structure of the type 1 Ins(1,4,5)P(3) receptor binding core suggested that, in likely binding modes of adenophostin A, the area around N(6) may be relatively open, identifying this region of the adenophostin A molecule as a promising target for further elaboration. The docking results also
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. adenophostin A ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
Page 1 of 7 - Comparing FPL-53 and CaF2 - posted in Refractors : Many discussions on Cloudy Nights focus on Which is better?. An occasional topic is how fluor-crown glass, FPL53, compares to synthetic crystal fluorite, CaF2. Fortunately, Vladimir Sacek offers examples at http://www.telescope...po_examples.htm - nicely answering the question. Design #15 is for a FPL53 doublet (ZKN7 and FPL53) and design #16 is for a CaF2 doublet (K5 and CaF2), allowing for an easy comparison. Both a...
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With PDEs inactivated by IBMX, we assume that there are two pathways for inhibition of ICa(L) by cGMP/PKG, namely, phosphorylation of the α1c subunit that antagonizes the stimulant effect of cAMP/PKA and/or activation of PP that dephosphorylates the α1c subunit. Can 8-Br-cGMP or CCh suppress Ca2+ current through L-type channels in the presence of ATPγS, which allows kinases to thiophosphorylate substrates that resist phosphatase action? Irreversible suppression by 8-Br-cGMP would indicate that thiophosphorylation of the channel had occurred at a site different from that acted upon by cAMP/PKA (Méry et al., 1991; Sumii and Sperelakis, 1995). Alternatively, failure of 8-Br-cGMP to suppress ICa(L) in ATPγS would indicate that the thiophosphorylated channel was resistant to phosphatase. Our results are consistent with the PP hypothesis for inhibition by cGMP of current through L-type channels in guinea pig ventricular myocytes.. Neurotransmitter regulation of ICa(L) by reversible ...
Calcitriol ,Calcitriol manufacturer,Calcitriol CAS No 32222-06-3,Calcitriol Molecular Formula C27H44O3,Calcitriol Synonyms (1R,3S)-5-[2-[(1R,3aR,7aS)-1-[(2R)-6-hydroxy-6-methyl-heptan-2-yl]-7a-methyl-2,3,3a,5,6,7-hexahydro-1H- inden-4-ylidene]ethylidene]-4-methylidene-cyclohexane-1,3-diol,Calcitriol Molecular weight 416.64 g/mol,Calcitriol manufacturing by A.S.Joshi & Company
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The glyconucleotides adenophostin A and B are the most potent known agonists at type 1 inositol trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P3] receptors, although their stuctures differ markedly from that of Ins(1,4,5)P3. Equilibrium competition binding with [3H]Ins(1,4,5)P3 and unidirectional 45Ca2+ flux measurements were used to examine the effects of adenophostin A in hepatocytes, which express predominantly type 2 Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptors. Both Ins(1,4,5)P3 (Kd = 8.65 +/- 0.98 nM) and adenophostin A (Kd = 0.87 +/- 0.20 nM) bound to a single class of [3H]Ins(1,4,5)P3-binding site and each fully mobilized the same intracellular Ca2+ pool; although, adenophostin A (EC50 = 10.9 +/- 0.7 nM) was more potent than Ins(1,4,5)P3 (EC50 = 153 +/- 11 nM). Working on the assumption that it is the phosphorylated glucose component of the adenophostins that mimics the critical features of Ins(1,4,5)P3, we synthesized various phosphorylated disaccharide analogs containing this structure. The novel disaccharide-based analogs, sucrose 3,4
1,4-Dihydropyridines (DHP), the most commonly used antihypertensives, function by inhibiting the L-type voltage-gated Ca 2+ (Ca v ) channels. DHP compounds exhibit chirality-specific antagonistic or agonistic effects. The structure of rabbit Ca v 1.1 bound to an achiral drug nifedipine reveals the general binding mode for DHP drugs, but the molecular basis for chiral specificity remains elusive. Here, we report five cryo-EM structures of nanodisc-embedded Ca v 1.1 in the presence of the bestselling drug amlodipine, a DHP antagonist ( R )-(+)-Bay K8644, and a titration of its agonistic enantiomer ( S )-(-)-Bay K8644 at resolutions of 2.9-3.4 Å. The amlodipine-bound structure reveals the molecular basis for the high efficacy of the drug. All structures with the addition of the Bay K8644 enantiomers exhibit similar inactivated conformations, suggesting that ( S )-(-)-Bay K8644, when acting as an agonist, is insufficient to lock the activated state of the channel for a prolonged duration ...
Adenophostin A is a glyconucleotide natural product with the highest known potency for the D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor. Using synthetic adenophostin A we have investigated the macroscopic and microscopic protonation process of this compound by performing (31)P NMR, (1)H NMR, and potentiometric titration experiments. The logarithms of the first to the fourth stepwise protonation constants are, respectively, log K(1) = 8.48, log K(2) = 6.20, log K(3) = 4.96, and log K(4) = 3.80. The latter constant refers to the protonation equilibrium involving the N1 adenine nitrogen. From the microconstants the protonation fractions of each individual phosphate group can be calculated. Remarkably, the ionization state of the phosphates of adenophostin A at near physiological pH is very similar to those of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, indicating that differences in phosphate charge cannot account for the high potency of this molecule. The analysis of the (1)H chemical shifts vs pH provided complementary
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More than 40 years after their introduction in therapy, 1,4-dihydropyridines (DHPs) are still amongst the most prescribed drugs in the world. Though they all share a similar mechanism of action blocking L-type voltage-gated ...
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This is because adrenergic stimulation by agonists results in normal calcium channel regulation. If these adrenergic receptors ... Kerns, William (2007). "Management of β-Adrenergic Blocker and Calcium Channel Antagonist Toxicity". Emergency Medicine Clinics ... there will be an excess in calcium channel inhibition, which causes most of these problems. Adrenergic receptor Alpha blocker ... A receptor's agonist does not bind to its allosteric binding site. The binding of a non-competitive antagonist is irreversible ...
The most widely used tocolytics include beta agonists, calcium channel blockers, and magnesium sulfate. The goal of ... three channels to pass through it: the urethra, the vagina and the rectum. The infant's head and shoulders must go through a ...
Current evidence suggests that first line treatment with β2 agonists, calcium channel blockers, or NSAIDs to prolong pregnancy ... calcium channel blockers, oxytocin receptor antagonists and combinations of tocolytics. Calcium-channel blockers (such as ... Commonly used tocolytic medications include β2 agonists, calcium channel blockers, NSAIDs, and magnesium sulfate. These can ... Davis, W. B.; Wells, S. R.; Kuller, J. A.; Thorp, J. M. (March 1997). "Analysis of the risks associated with calcium channel ...
... is a chemical compound that functions as an L-type calcium channel agonist. Bay K8644 is used primarily as a ... Bay K8644 targets L-type voltage-gated calcium channels. It is the first positive inotropic agent shown to act specifically and ... Calcium channel openers, Nitro compounds, All stub articles, Cardiovascular system drug stubs). ... directly on calcium channels. (±)-Bay K8644 at Sigma-Aldrich CID 2303 from PubChem Thomas, G; Chung, M; Cohen, CJ (January 1985 ...
Bhugra P, Gulati OD (1996). "Interaction of calcium channel blockers with different agonists in aorta from normal and diseased ... Bhugra P, Gulati OD (2001). "Influence of chronic treatment of rats with isoprenaline and calcium channel blockers on response ...
Monoterpenoids also induce agonist-specific desensitization of TRPV3 channels in a calcium-independent manner. Resolvin E1 ( ... 2009). "Monoterpenoids Induce Agonist-Specific Desensitization of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid-3 (TRPV3) ion Channels ... Farnesyl pyrophosphate is an endogenous agonist of TRPV3, while incensole acetate from frankincense also acts as an agonist at ... The protective effects of the natural product, incensole acetate were partially mediated by TRPV3 channels. The TRPV3 channel ...
1988). "Some Chemical Properties of Maitotoxin, a Putative Calcium Channel Agonist Isolated from a Marine Dinoflagellate". J. ... Non-protein ion channel toxins, Calcium channel openers, Conjugated dienes, Sulfate esters, Heterocyclic compounds with 7 or ... Maitotoxin activates extracellular calcium channels, leading to an increase in levels of cytosolic Ca2+ ions. The exact ... and turns it into an ion channel, similar to how palytoxin turns the Na+/K+-ATPase into an ion channel. Ultimately, a ...
In the visual system, cannabinoids agonist induce a dose dependent modulation of calcium, chloride and potassium channels. This ... Negatively to D-type outward potassium channels Negatively to N-type and P/Q-type calcium channels. The CB1 receptor is encoded ... including the positively influenced inwardly rectifying potassium channels (=Kir or IRK), and calcium channels, which are ... The inverse agonist MK-9470 makes it possible to produce in vivo images of the distribution of CB1 receptors in the human brain ...
Different modes of calcium channel gating behavior favored by dihydropyridine agonists and antagonists. Nature 311:538-544. ( ... Calcium channel selectivity for divalent and monovalent cations. Voltage and concentration dependence of single channel current ... Lansman is known for his fundamental research on calcium channels in nerve and muscle and their role in normal physiology and ... He subsequently identified ion channels that transduce mechanical forces into the entry of calcium into blood vessels and in ...
... calcium-channel blockers and beta-adrenergic agonists, may increase the risk. Anesthesia: General anesthetics during surgery ... Urologic Emergencies Archived 2010-03-10 at the Wayback Machine Urology Channel portal. 2010-02-10 Özveren, B; Keskin, S (2016 ... Medications: Anticholinergics and medications with anticholinergic properties, alpha-adrenergic agonists, opiates, nonsteroidal ...
... calcium channel blockers, PPAR-γ agonists, curcuminoids, ethanol, NMDA antagonists, caffeine. In addition to traditional ... Langham J, Goldfrad C, Teasdale G, Shaw D, Rowan K (2003). "Calcium channel blockers for acute traumatic brain injury". The ... Yi JH, Park SW, Brooks N, Lang BT, Vemuganti R (December 2008). "PPARgamma agonist rosiglitazone is neuroprotective after ... Forsyth RJ, Jayamoni B, Paine TC (October 2006). "Monoaminergic agonists for acute traumatic brain injury". The Cochrane ...
... calcium channel agonists MeSH D27.505.519.562.249 - calcium channel blockers MeSH D27.505.519.562.374 - ionophores MeSH D27.505 ... calcium channel agonists MeSH D27.505.954.411.793.610 - nasal decongestants MeSH D27.505.954.411.918 - vasodilator agents MeSH ... calcium channel blockers MeSH D27.505.954.411.207 - cardioplegic solutions MeSH D27.505.954.411.222 - cardiotonic agents MeSH ... 500 - potassium channel blockers MeSH D27.505.519.562.750 - sodium channel blockers MeSH D27.505.519.562.812 - sodium chloride ...
Alpha/Beta Adrenergic Agonists, Calcium Channel Blockers, Anticoagulants, Cardiovascular, Opioid Analgesics". emedicine. ... "Dopamine agonists and the risk of cardiac-valve regurgitation". N. Engl. J. Med. 356 (1): 29-38. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa062222. PMID ... calcium blockers and avoiding very strenuous activity. As of 2007, the American Heart Association no longer recommends ... "Valvular heart disease and the use of dopamine agonists for Parkinson's disease". N. Engl. J. Med. 356 (1): 39-46. doi:10.1056/ ...
... dopamine agonists, TNF inhibitors, calcium channel blockers (especially verapamil and diltiazem), salbutamol, and tamsulosin. ... Certain calcium channel blockers, such as diltiazem and verapamil, are known to decrease the force with which the heart ejects ... Tetrandrine can lead to low blood pressure through inhibition of L-type calcium channels. Yohimbine can exacerbate heart ... alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonists, minoxidil, itraconazole, cilostazol, anagrelide, stimulants (e.g., methylphenidate), ...
Mu-opioid receptor agonists, Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, Sigma agonists, Calcium channel blockers, All stub ...
... calcium channel blockers, diuretics, sedatives, alpha-adrenergic agonist, alpha 1 antagonists). Urinary symptoms may include ... For urinary retention, cholinergics (muscarinic agonists) like bethanechol can improve the squeezing ability of the bladder. ...
... is a chemical compound which acts as an "agonist" (i.e. channel opener) of the TRPML family of calcium channels. It has ... February 2018). "Robust lysosomal calcium signaling through channel TRPML1 is impaired by lysosomal lipid accumulation". FASEB ... Feng X, Xiong J, Lu Y, Xia X, Zhu MX (December 2014). "Differential mechanisms of action of the mucolipin synthetic agonist, ML ... on insect TRPML and mammalian TRPML1". Cell Calcium. 56 (6): 446-56. doi:10.1016/j.ceca.2014.09.004. PMC 4252876. PMID 25266962 ...
In addition, β2 agonists open large conductance calcium-activated potassium channels and thereby tend to hyperpolarize airway ... Discovery and development of β2 agonists β3-adrenergic agonist Eric, Hsu; Tushar, Bajaj. "Beta 2 Agonists". NCBI. Retrieved 5 ... Beta2-adrenergic agonists, also known as adrenergic β2 receptor agonists, are a class of drugs that act on the β2 adrenergic ... Like other β adrenergic agonists, they cause smooth muscle relaxation. β2 adrenergic agonists' effects on smooth muscle cause ...
β1 agonists stimulate adenylyl cyclase activity and opening of calcium channel (cardiac stimulants; used to treat cardiogenic ... Prenalterol Xamoterol β2 agonists stimulate adenylyl cyclase activity and closing of calcium channel (smooth muscle relaxants; ... Beta adrenergic agonists or beta agonists are medications that relax muscles of the airways, causing widening of the airways ... In general, pure beta-adrenergic agonists have the opposite function of beta blockers: beta-adrenoreceptor agonist ligands ...
... and other β2 receptor agonists also increase the conductance of channels sensitive to calcium and potassium ions, ... While preferred over agents such as atosiban and ritodrine, its role has largely been replaced by the calcium channel blocker ... It is a short-acting β2 adrenergic receptor agonist which works by causing relaxation of airway smooth muscle. It is used to ... The 1972 Munich Olympics were the first Olympics where anti-doping measures were deployed, and at that time β2 agonists were ...
Also, roscovitine can either act as an agonist or antagonist for the P-type calcium channels in the presynaptic membrane. ... The P-type calcium channel is a type of voltage-dependent calcium channel. Similar to many other high-voltage-gated calcium ... type calcium channels are voltage-dependent calcium channels that are classified under the high voltage activated class channel ... P-type calcium channel blockers act to impede the flow of calcium. The blocking of calcium currents may cause the organism to ...
... which is responsible for turning on calcium inflow channels. A decrease in activation of calcium channels will therefore result ... beta2-adrenergic agonists, and clonidine. Some evidence suggests that sotalol should be avoided in the setting of heart failure ... As with other beta blockers, it may interact with calcium channel blockers, catecholamine-depleting drugs, insulin or ... In consideration of these important properties of calcium, two conclusions can be drawn. First, with less calcium in the cell, ...
... calcium channels. Depolarization may be brought about by stretching of the cell, agonist-binding its G protein-coupled receptor ... opening of the L-type calcium channel permits influx of calcium into the cell. The calcium binds to the calcium release ... High-voltage-gated calcium channels include the neural N-type channel blocked by ω-conotoxin GVIA, the R-type channel (R stands ... Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs), also known as voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs), are a group of voltage-gated ...
Calcium channel blockers, Chloroarenes, GABA analogues, GABAB receptor agonists, Prodrugs, All stub articles, Gastrointestinal ...
... and a neuronal calcium channel blocker. Capsaicin is able to excite and desensitize C-fibers. As such, it is not only able to ... It is suggested that this compound, similarly to its trans isomer, is an agonist of the vanilloid receptor VR1 (TRPV1) ... activation of calcium-dependent protein kinase C isoforms and subsequent channel phosphorylation. Desensitization involves both ... St Pierre M, Reeh PW, Zimmermann K (June 2009). "Differential effects of TRPV channel block on polymodal activation of rat ...
Calcium can also act as a co-agonist at the IP3 receptor. A selective agonist is selective for a specific type of receptor. E.g ... Colquhoun D (January 2006). "Agonist-activated ion channels". British Journal of Pharmacology. 147 (S1): S17-S26. doi:10.1038/ ... Inverse agonists exert the opposite pharmacological effect of a receptor agonist, not merely an absence of the agonist effect ... It might be argued that the endogenous agonist is simply a partial agonist in that tissue. An irreversible agonist is a type of ...
They found that charged sodium-channel blockers can be targeted into nociceptors by the application of TRPV1 agonists to ... Voltage sensing in thermo-TRP channels has been reviewed by Brauchi et al. TRP channels have six TMS helices. These channels ... 2F37​ Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily A member 1: PDB: 3J9P​ Voltage-gated ion channel Ion channel ... The transient receptor potential Ca2+ channel (TRP-CC) family (TC# 1.A.4) is a member of the voltage-gated ion channel (VIC) ...
The drug also dose-dependently blocks voltage-gated calcium channels. It is not a benzodiazepine; instead, it is an imidazolone ... a full agonist of this site). It is the first partial agonist to be approved for the treatment of epilepsy. ... Calcium channel blockers, Chloroarenes, GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulators, Morpholines, Veterinary drugs, All stub ... partial agonist of the benzodiazepine site of the GABAA receptor (up to 12-21% of the maximal potentiation of diazepam, ...
They are ligand-gated ion channels with binding sites for acetylcholine as well as other agonists. When agonists bind to a ... calcium and sodium ions. The nAChRs are made up by different subunits which determine the quaternary structure of the receptor ... Drugs that influence nAChRs can be agonists, partial agonists or antagonists. Agonists, e.g. nicotine, can however act as ... When ACh or other agonists bind to the receptors it stabilizes the open state of the ion channel allowing influx of cations ...
... which are agonists of the transient receptor potential (TRP) family of calcium channels. FAAH knockout mice display highly ... Deutsch DG, Chin SA (September 1993). "Enzymatic synthesis and degradation of anandamide, a cannabinoid receptor agonist". ... agonist. Due to the ability of FAAH to regulate nociception, it is currently viewed as an attractive drug target for the ... "A FAAH-regulated class of N-acyl taurines that activates TRP ion channels". Biochemistry. 45 (30): 9007-15. doi:10.1021/ ...
... is a family of transient receptor potential cation channels (TRP channels) in animals. All TRPVs are highly calcium ... Agonists, antagonists, or modulators of these channels may find application for the prevention and treatment of pain.[15] A ... calcium-selective TRP channel intestine, kidney, placenta 100:1 TRPV6 annexin II / S100A10, calmodulin ... calcium-selective TRP channel kidney, intestine 130:1 TRPV5 annexin II / S100A10, calmodulin ...
α2δ subunit-containing voltage-dependent calcium channels blockers (gabapentinoids) (e.g., gabapentin, pregabalin, phenibut) ... Examples of dopamine agonists include: Partial agonist[edit]. *Aripiprazole (Partial agonist of the D2 family receptors - Trade ... Related class of drugs: Indirect agonists[edit]. There are two classes of drugs that act as indirect agonists of dopamine ... Types of ergoline agonists are cabergoline and bromocriptine and examples of non-ergoline agonists are pramipexole, ropinirole ...
"Neuronal Calcium Channel Antagonists. Discrimination between Calcium Channel Subtypes Using .omega.-conotoxin from Conus Magus ... Caramboxin is an agonist of both NMDA and AMPA glutamatergic ionotropic receptors with potent excitatory, convulsant, and ... and are capable of inhibiting the activity of a number of ion channels such as calcium, sodium, or potassium channels.[63][64] ... Calcium channelEdit. ConotoxinEdit. Conotoxins represent a category of poisons produced by the marine cone snail, ...
Agonists: 2-(1-Hexynyl)-N-methyladenosine. *2-Cl-IB-MECA. *2'-MeCCPA ... Glutamate-gated chloride channel, GABA receptor. *avermectins *Abamectin. *Doramectin. *Emamectin. *Eprinomectin. *Ivermectin# ...
The extent of block (IC50, 0.56 μM) was similar at all agonist concentrations, demonstrating a noncompetitive blocking action. ... Channel. modulators. Sodium blockers. *Hydantoins: Ethotoin. *Fosphenytoin. *Mephenytoin. *Phenytoin#; Ureides: ... Calcium blockers. *Oxazolidinediones: Ethadione. *Paramethadione. *Trimethadione; Succinimides: Ethosuximide#. *Mesuximide. * ...
... mechanoreception systems that use calcium inflow to physically affect certain proteins and move them to close or open channels ... Other theories for increases in strength relating to neural adaptation include: agonist-antagonist muscle decreased co- ... Mechanoelectric transduction (MET) channels, located at the tops of stereocilia, are poised to detect tension induced by hair ... Some key players in several neural systems include Ca2+ions (see Calcium in biology) that send negative feedback in second ...
When the NMDA receptor is activated by the binding of two co-agonists, the cation channel opens, allowing Na+ and Ca2+ to flow ... Calcium-activated potassium channel. *Cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel. *Voltage-dependent calcium channel ... "Gene Family: Ligand gated ion channels". HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee.. *^ "ligand-gated channel" at Dorland's Medical ... Because neither of these agonists alone can open this ion channel, glutamate and glycine are referred to as coagonists of the ...
The optical isomers of amphetamine, i.e., dextroamphetamine and levoamphetamine, are TAAR1 agonists and vesicular monoamine ... AMPH also increases intracellular calcium (Gnegy et al., 2004) that is associated with calmodulin/CamKII activation (Wei et al ... tonically activates inwardly rectifying K(+) channels, which reduces the basal firing frequency of dopamine (DA) neurons of the ... Westfall DP, Westfall TC (2010). "Miscellaneous Sympathomimetic Agonists". In Brunton LL, Chabner BA, Knollmann BC (eds.). ...
Other research has also suggested that calcium flow through N-type calcium channels is essential for normal breathing, and is ... Several synthetic compounds have been shown to act on neurons specific to the preBötC, most being selective agonists or ... Other potassium channels like large conductance calcium-dependent potassium channels and sodium chloride dependent potassium ... voltage gated calcium channels become activated and calcium is able to flow into the cell which usually leads to the release of ...
... the β and γ subunits interact with N-type voltage gated calcium channels, to reduce action potential mediated influx of calcium ... partial agonist effects on cAMP inhibition and MAPK activity, antagonist on histamine release, and inverse agonist on ... Some examples are: (R)-α-methylhistamine Cipralisant (initially assessed as H3 antagonist, later found to be an agonist, shows ... Silver RB, Poonwasi KS, Seyedi N, Wilson SJ, Lovenberg TW, Levi R (Jan 2002). "Decreased intracellular calcium mediates the ...
The σ1 receptor has been shown to appear in a complex with voltage gated K+ channels (Kv1.4 and Kv1.5), leading to the idea ... This along with the observed beneficial effects of sigma-1 receptor agonist and SSRI fluvoxamine in patients with SARS-COV-2 ... that modulates calcium signaling through the IP3 receptor. In humans, the σ1 receptor is encoded by the SIGMAR1 gene. The σ1 ... Pharmacological studies with σ1 agonists often follow a bell-shaped dose-response curve. Thus care should be taken when ...
... closing calcium channels, and opening potassium channels. Opioids like oxycodone are thought to produce their analgesic effects ... A few of the metabolites of oxycodone have also been found to be active as MOR agonists, some of which notably have much higher ... Oxycodone has low affinity for the δ-opioid receptor (DOR) and the κ-opioid receptor (KOR), where it is an agonist similarly. ... Oxycodone, a semi-synthetic opioid, is a highly selective full agonist of the μ-opioid receptor (MOR). This is the main ...
... the opening of calcium channels increasing in this way the cytosolic calcium concentrations. The lipophilic diacylglycerol ... has been found to cause more damage to neurons in the presence of group I mGluR agonists. On the other hand, agonists of group ... They can also inhibit glutamate release and can modulate voltage-dependent calcium channels. Group I mGluRs, but not other ... There is also growing evidence that group II metabotropic glutamate receptor agonists may play a role in the treatment of ...
It may have a role when thiazides, beta-blockers, ACE inhibitors, and calcium channel blockers are not appropriate or have ... Moxonidine is a selective agonist at the imidazoline receptor subtype 1 (I1). This receptor subtype is found in both the ... Moxonidine (INN) is a new-generation alpha-2/imidazoline receptor agonist antihypertensive drug licensed for the treatment of ... a selective alpha2-adrenergic and imidazoline receptor agonist, produces spinal antinociception in mice". The Journal of ...
... calcium channel - calcium signaling - calcium-binding protein - calmodulin - calmodulin-binding protein - Calvin cycle - CAM ... Inverse agonist - invertebrate peptide receptor - invertebrate photoreceptor - Ion channel - ion channel gating - Ionic bond - ... vitamin D-dependent calcium-binding protein - vitellogenin - vitronectin - von Willebrand factor water Y chromosome - yeast ... potassium channel - potential energy - pregnancy proteins - primary nutritional groups - primary structure - primer - prion - ...
These two dopamine receptors can also regulate calcium channels through a direct protein-protein interaction in vivo ( ... Transrepression Selective glucocorticoid receptor agonist "receptor transactivation". EMBL. GO Consortium. Retrieved 6 April ...
It acts on the voltage-dependent calcium channel to decrease the release of neurotransmitters such as glutamate, norepinephrine ... MT1/2 receptor agonist, 5HT2c antagoinst) Clonidine (noted to cause decreased blood pressure and other AEs) Guanfacine (a2A ... receptor agonist, studied in pediatric patients with GAD) Mirtazapine (atypical antidepressant having 5HT2A and 5HT2c receptor ...
... and a lipid-soluble molecule that transports calcium ions (Ca2+) across the bilayer, also known as calcium ionophore. C1P was ... First, the agonist activates a membrane-bound receptor. Second, the activated G-protein produces a primary effector. Third, the ... PIP2 was shown to directly agonizes Inward rectifying potassium channels(Kir). In this regard intact PIP2 signals as a bona ... Inside the cell, S1P can induce calcium release independent of the S1PRs-the mechanism of which remains unknown. To date, the ...
... closing of influx membrane calcium channels, and opening of membrane potassium channels. This leads to hyperpolarization of the ... Butorphanol exhibits partial agonist and antagonist activity at the μ-opioid receptor, as well as partial agonist activity at ... Butorphanol is also quite effective at reducing post-operative shivering (owing to its Kappa agonist activity). Butorphanol is ... Butorphanol is a morphinan-type synthetic agonist-antagonist opioid analgesic developed by Bristol-Myers. Butorphanol is most ...
Calcium imaging relies on dyes or genetically encoded proteins that fluoresce upon binding to the calcium that is transiently ... A chemical receptor agonist facilitates neural activity by enhancing or replacing endogenous neurotransmitters. Agonists can be ... Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2), a light activated cation channel, was the first bacterial opsin shown to excite neurons in response ... Heim, Nicola; Griesbeck, Oliver (2004). "Genetically Encoded Indicators of Cellular Calcium Dynamics Based on Troponin C and ...
... and T-type triple calcium channel blocker benidipine acts as an antagonist of mineralocorticoid receptor, a member of nuclear ... 7 position is also important for activity as substituents there sterically hinder the interaction of C-7-unsubstituted agonists ... Na+/K+ ATPase pump at the basolateral membrane and Na+ channel called ENaC, located at the apical membrane of the renal tubule ...
Alpha-adrenergic agonists may cause urinary retention by stimulating the contraction of the urethral sphincter. Calcium channel ...
In the previous example it was electrical bias, but other channels can be activated by binding a molecular agonist or through a ... One of the critical roles of calcium in the body is regulating membrane fusion. Third, a destabilization must form at one point ... ion channels and ion pumps. Both pumps and channels are integral membrane proteins that pass through the bilayer, but their ... The sensitivity of this system is such that even the activity of single ion channels can be resolved. A lipid bilayer cannot be ...
They have been directly linked to Calcium homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum, which is critical in cell differentiation ... Choi WY, Giraldez AJ, Schier AF (October 2007). "Target protectors reveal dampening and balancing of Nodal agonist and ... "MicroRNA miR-133 represses HERG K+ channel expression contributing to QT prolongation in diabetic hearts". The Journal of ... and complementary sequences on genes and even pseudogenes that share sequence homology are thought to be a back channel of ...
Neuropeptide Y (endogenous agonist, non subtype selective) Neuropeptide Y fragment 13-36 (NPY2 selective agonist) Peptide YY ... Lynch JW, Lemos VS, Bucher B, Stoclet JC, Takeda K (Mar 1994). "A pertussis toxin-insensitive calcium influx mediated by ... "Neuropeptide Y Receptors: Y2". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ... Cox HM, Tough IR (Mar 2002). "Neuropeptide Y, Y1, Y2 and Y4 receptors mediate Y agonist responses in isolated human colon ...
... and was shown to increase intracellular calcium concentration through stimulation of voltage dependent calcium channels. ... McHugh D, Page J, Dunn E, Bradshaw HB (April 2012). "Δ(9) -Tetrahydrocannabinol and N-arachidonyl glycine are full agonists at ... In the dorsal root ganglia (DRG), where GPR92 was found to be localized NaGly increased intracellular calcium levels in DRG ... Additionally, tetrahydrocannabinol and NaGly are full agonists at the GPR18 receptors and induce migration in human endometrial ...
... and in addition interact with the nAChR and voltage-gated calcium channels. As a result, somebody who is tolerant to ... "Caffeine Induces Differential Cross Tolerance to the Amphetamine-like Discriminative Stimulus Effects of Dopaminergic Agonists ...
Likewise, SP is known to bind to N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors by eliciting excitation with calcium ion influx, which ... Fong TM, Huang RR, Strader CD (December 1992). "Localization of agonist and antagonist binding domains of the human neurokinin- ... "Tachykinin Receptors: NK1". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ... GR-73632 - potent and selective agonist, EC50 2nM, 5-amino acid polypeptide chain. CAS# 133156-06-6 Aprepitant Casopitant ...
Alpha2 Agonists, Central-Acting. Class Summary. These agents decrease central adrenergic output. ... Calcium Channel Blockers. Class Summary. These agents block calcium channels in vascular smooth muscle, which leads to ... Isradipine is a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. It binds to calcium channels with high affinity and specificity and ... inhibits calcium flux into cardiac and smooth muscle. The resultant effect is arteriole dilation, which reduces systemic ...
Calcium Channel Blockers. Class Summary. Calcium channel blockers act by inhibiting calcium ions from entering slow channels or ... Calcium channel blockers. Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) have been evaluated primarily in patients with idiopathic pulmonary ... The effect of high doses of calcium-channel blockers on survival in primary pulmonary hypertension. N Engl J Med. 1992 Jul 9. ... PAH, Prostacyclin Agonists. Class Summary. Selexipag is the first prostacyclin agonist approved in the United States. ...
Alpha2 Agonists, Central-Acting. Class Summary. These agents decrease central adrenergic output. ... Calcium Channel Blockers. Class Summary. These agents block calcium channels in vascular smooth muscle, which leads to ... Isradipine is a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. It binds to calcium channels with high affinity and specificity and ... inhibits calcium flux into cardiac and smooth muscle. The resultant effect is arteriole dilation, which reduces systemic ...
Calcium channel blocker (CCB) toxicity is one of the most lethal prescription drug overdoses; therefore, understanding the ... encoded search term (Calcium Channel Blocker Toxicity) and Calcium Channel Blocker Toxicity What to Read Next on Medscape ... Calcium Salts. Class Summary. These agents theoretically increase calciums concentration gradient, overcoming the channel ... Varpula T, Rapola J, Sallisalmi M, Kurola J. Treatment of serious calcium channel blocker overdose with levosimendan, a calcium ...
This is because adrenergic stimulation by agonists results in normal calcium channel regulation. If these adrenergic receptors ... Kerns, William (2007). "Management of β-Adrenergic Blocker and Calcium Channel Antagonist Toxicity". Emergency Medicine Clinics ... there will be an excess in calcium channel inhibition, which causes most of these problems. Adrenergic receptor Alpha blocker ... A receptors agonist does not bind to its allosteric binding site. The binding of a non-competitive antagonist is irreversible ...
The cannabinoid agonist DALN positively modulates L-type voltage-dependent calcium-channels in N18TG2 neuroblastoma cells.. *V ... Cannabinoid Agonists Stimulate [3H]GABA Release in the Globus Pallidus of the Rat When Gi Protein-Receptor Coupling Is ... It is proposed that the in vivo observed biphasic effects ofCB1R agonists on hippocampal ACh release result from a differential ...
1987) Noradrenaline and beta-adrenoceptor agonists increase activity of voltage-dependent calcium channels in hippocampal ... 1987) Single-channel recordings of three types of calcium channels in chick sensory neurones. J Physiol 394:173-200. ... 2007) The tumor suppressor eIF3e mediates calcium-dependent internalization of the L-type calcium channel CaV1.2. Neuron 55:615 ... 1997) Increased expression of the cardiac L-type calcium channel in estrogen receptor-deficient mice. J Gen Physiol 110:135-140 ...
Calcium Channel Blockers. Class Summary. Migraine prophylaxis has been reported with various calcium channel blockers, ... The calcium channel blocker with the highest evidence of efficacy is flunarizine, which is not available in the United States. ... These medications are migraine preventatives; they include flunarizine, a calcium channel blocker; gabapentin; riboflavin; and ... Therapeutic activity of the serotonin 5-HT1 receptor agonists (ie, triptans) in migraine is most likely attributed to agonist ...
The IRLSSG Task Force recommends either a dopamine-receptor agonist or an alpha2-delta calcium-channel ligand as first-line ...
... alpha-adrenergic agonists, beta-adrenergic agonists, and calcium channel blockers. ...
Chronic persistent RLS/WED should be treated with either a nonergot dopamine agonist or a calcium channel α-2-δ ligand. We ... Experience with calcium channel α-2-δ ligands, including gabapentin and pregabalin, has increased. Several long-acting drugs ... Nonergot dopamine agonists (Table 2) should be used because ergot agonists, such as cabergoline, are associated with cardiac ... An α-2-δ calcium channel ligand (gabapentin, pregabalin, or gabapentin enacarbil) (see subsequent comment 8) ...
The effects of the dihydropyridine calcium channel agonist Bay K 8644 on indo-1-loaded Jurkat human leukemia T lymphocytes was ... calcium-permeable channel involved in T cell activation. The predominant effect of Bay K 8644 on these channels was to increase ... plasma membrane calcium-permeable channels were characterized in T-lymphocytes by means of whole cell or single channel patch- ... DIHYDROPYRIDINE BAY K-8644 ACTIVATES LYMPHOCYTE-T CALCIUM-PERMEABLE CHANNELS MOLECULAR PHARMACOLOGY Young, W., Chen, J., Jung, ...
... transmembrane calcium channel) K+ channel agonists, activators of the nuclear transcription factor PPAR-γ (peroxisome- ... New metabolically stabilized analogues of lysophosphatidic acid: agonists, antagonists and enzyme inhibitors G.D. Prestwich; G. ... Phosphorothioate analogues with O-acyl and O-alkyl chains are potent, long-lived agonists for LPA1 and LPA3 receptors. Most ... We describe herein a variety of long-lived receptor-specific agonists and antagonists for LPA receptors. Several LPA and PA ( ...
Calcium Channel Blockers 0511 Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors 0512 Beta Blockers 0513 Alpha Agonist/Alpha Blockers 0514 Ace ... CALCIUM 05418 CALCIUM CHLORIDE 05430 CALCIUM GLUCONATE 05435 CALCIUM GLUCONATE W/VITAMIN D 05445 CALCIUM LACTATE 05465 CALCIUM- ... CALCIUM ACETATE 50776 CALCIUM 50780 CALCIUM BROMIDE 50785 CALCIUM CARBONATE 50800 CALCIUM HYDROXIDE 50802 CALCIUM IODIDE 50803 ... CALCIUM POLYSULFIDE 50804 CALCIUM PROPIONATE 50805 CALCIUM SILICATE 50806 CALCIUM ION 50810 CALCIUM SUCCINATE 50811 CALCIUM ...
Calcium Channel Agonists (‎1)‎. Calcium Channel Blockers (‎5)‎. Calcium Metabolism Disorders (‎1)‎. ...
... α-adrenergic agonists, calcium channel blockers, ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers) were also excluded. ... 14-17 They activate the large conductance calcium-activated potassium channel, or BKCa ion channel, involved in reducing TM ... NO-induced regulation of human trabecular meshwork cell volume and aqueous humor outflow facility involve the BKCa ion channel ... Activation of the BK(Ca) channel increases outflow facility and decreases trabecular meshwork cell volume. J Ocul Pharmacol ...
Their mechanism of action involves selective binding to and blockade of the α2δ1 subunit of voltage-gated calcium channel in ... Agonists include delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC), cannabinol, and cannabidiol, all of which are found in the cannabis ... The binding affinity of pregabalin for the calcium channel α2δ1 subunit is six times greater than gabapentin, which is ... It is characterized by a complex mechanism of action involving suppression of action potentials with sodium-channel and calcium ...
Calcium and contractile responses to phorbol esters and the calcium channel agonist, bay k 8644, in arteries from hypertensive ... Calcium channel blocker induced gingival overgrowth. Prisant, L. M. & Herman, W., 2002, In: Journal of Clinical Hypertension. 4 ... Calcium channel activation in arterioles from genetically hypertensive rats. Storm, D. S., Stuenkel, E. L. & Webb, R. C., Sep ... Calcium channel activity increased by plasma from ischemic hindlimbs of rats: Role of an endogenous no synthase inhibitor. Jin ...
The main alternatives to dopamine agonists are α2δ ligands of the calcium channels, such as gabapentin or pregabalin. None of ... Dopamine agonists are a safe and effective treatment for RLS in OSA. However, their main complication is long-term augmentation ... Two classes of drugs are frequently used for the treatment of RLS: dopamine agonists and α2δ ligands [36]. The first group ... ICDs have been reported to develop in up to 17% of patients with RLS undergoing treatment with dopamine agonists [42]. ICDs are ...
Calcium Channel Agonists (‎1)‎. Calcium Channel Blockers (‎5)‎. Calcium Metabolism Disorders (‎1)‎. ...
Calcium Channel Agonists Calcium-Regulating Hormones serum calcium Channel Calcium Channel Calcium Channel Agonists ...
... sodium channel blockers, calcium antagonists, glutamate receptor antagonists, adrenergic agonists and antagonists, ... A good discussion of basic and clinical pharmacology of receptor α2agonists concentrates mainly on systemic rather than spinal ...
The voltage-dependent calcium channel plays a significant role in a number of cellular and physiological processes, including ... "calcium agonists"""""""" which activate the voltage-dependent calcium channel. These calcium antagonists are used extensively ... The calcium antagonists block voltage-dependent calcium channels and include three structurally distinct families of agents: ... Molecular Mechanisms of Calcium Antagonists and Agonists Weiland, Gregory A. Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, United States ...
... dopamine agonists, an alpha-2-delta calcium channel ligand, and iron. This indicates the complexity of the underlying ...
Asp residues within the luminal pore may control calcium/pH regulation. A synthetic agonist, ML-SA1, can bind to the pore ... 2] "Mucolipidosis type IV is caused by mutations in a gene encoding a novel transient receptor potential channel." Sun M.et.al. ... The lysosomal monovalent cation/Ca2+ channel, TRP-ML1 (Mucolipin-1) (associated with the human lipid storage disorder, ... 8] "Molecular pathophysiology of mucolipidosis type IV: pH dysregulation of the mucolipin-1 cation channel." Raychowdhury M.K. ...
Calcium Channel Agonists/pharmacology; Calcium Channel Blockers/pharmacology; Calcium Channels, L-Type/drug effects; Calcium ... Channels, L-Type/physiology; Chloride Channels/antagonists & inhibitors; Chloride Channels/physiology; Electric Conductivity; ... The Cl(-) channel blocker anthracene-9-carboxylic acid (9-AC) reduced only the slowly developing inward and tail currents. ...
The cannabinoid agonist Win55,212-2 inhibits calcium channels by receptor-mediated and direct pathways in cultured rat ... Opioid-induced inhibition of voltage-gated calcium channels parallels expression of ω-conotoxin-sensitive channel subtype ... The Effect of Calcium Channel Antagonists on Peripheral Neurones. MILLER, RICHARD. J., EWALD, DOUGLAS. A., FOX, AARON. P., ... Lipophilic amino alcohols with calcium channel blocking activity. Sipahimalani, A. S., Werth, J. L., Michelson, R. H., Dutta, A ...
  • Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) have been evaluated primarily in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). (medscape.com)
  • thus, diag- -agonists, calcium channel blockers, mal heart rate response in some nosis relies heavily on results of labo- or xanthine derivatives. (cdc.gov)
  • The classes of blood pressure medications include: Diuretics Beta-blockers ACE inhibitors Angiotensin II receptor blockers Calcium channel blockers Alpha blockers Alpha-2 Receptor Agonists Combined alpha and beta-blockers Central agonists Peripheral adrenergic inhibitors Vasodilators Diuretics. (bnw-akademie.de)
  • Other channel blockers include: charybdotoxin, iberiotoxin and tetraethylammonium. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • The most commonly prescribed drugs to treat these and other conditions are the so-called " channel-blockers " or " agonists ", which include calcium, sodium and potassium channel blockers. (molcy.life)
  • In the US, calcium channel blockers are the eighth largest drug class by prescription sales. (molcy.life)
  • The study conducted at the Dr. Rath Research Institute shows that among the studied channel blockers, nifedipine causes a significant decrease of collagen production. (molcy.life)
  • The study indicates that among the studied channel blockers, nifedipine (i.e. (molcy.life)
  • The fact that calcium channel blockers - taken by tens of millions of heart patients worldwide in the belief that they can help prevent heart attacks - are actually increasing the risk for heart attacks due to weakening of the heart muscle and blood vessel walls, has been a major impediment in cardiology. (molcy.life)
  • The report splits the product spectrum of Scleroderma Diagnosis and Therapeutics market into Corticosteroids, Immunosuppressive Agents, Endothelin Receptor Agonists, Calcium Channel Blockers, PDE-5 Inhibitors, Chelating Agents, Chelating Agents prostacyclin, others (H2 inhibitors, proton pump inhibitors and ACE inhibitors, etc. (daleharvey.org)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Potentiation of analgesia and reversal of tolerance to morphine by calcium channel blockers. (who.int)
  • Effect of four calcium channel blockers (CCBs) belonging to different chemical classes, alone and in combination with morphine was investigated on two models of pain sensitivity, i.e. formalin and tail flick tests in mice. (who.int)
  • Calcium calcium channel blockers such as aphasia or apraxia. (wisc.edu)
  • This efflux was significantly inhibited by apamin (100 nmol/l), charybdotoxin (300 nmol/l) and alpha-dendrotoxin (100-200 nmol/l), blockers of SKCa channels, KCh channels and Kv channels respectively. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Many antihypertensive agents are used for treatment of hypertension like Thiazide, loop, and potassium - sparing diuretics, calcium channel blockers, Angiotensin - converting enzyme inhibitors, Central a 2 - adrenergic agonists, ß - adrenergic and a 1/ß - adrenergic antagonists, Peripheral a 1- adrenergic antagonists, and Direct - acting vasodilators etc. (rjppd.org)
  • Calcium channel blockers relax and dilate (widen) blood vessels, decreasing pressure in the vessels. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Treatment of patients with TRH focuses on maximizing the doses of antihypertensive drugs and adding drugs with complementary mechanisms of action, including a combination of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin-receptor blockers, calcium channel blockers, and thiazide-like diuretics. (elsevier.com)
  • Other pharmacologic considerations include adding α-blockers, combined α-β-blockers, centrally acting α-agonists, or direct vasodilators. (elsevier.com)
  • 1- Calcium Channel Blockers (Anti-Hypertension and for heart diseases). (oh-mygut.com)
  • Calcium channel blockers are one of the most commonly prescribed medications. (oh-mygut.com)
  • Calcium channel Blockers such as Amlodipine, Diltiazem, and others may delay gastric emptying . (oh-mygut.com)
  • Common examples of calcium channel blockers (CCBs) that may delay gastric emptying. (oh-mygut.com)
  • These include meds for blood pressure control, the use of ACE inhibitors, calcium inhibitors, cardio-selective B-blockers, and metabolic drugs. (mypharmacypro.com)
  • Diuretics most effectively reduce pressure in combination with ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, as well as with calcium channel blockers. (mypharmacypro.com)
  • What are calcium channel blockers for bipolar disorder? (edu.au)
  • These reports prompted investigations of calcium channel blockers (primarily verapamil) as potential treatments for bipolar disorder. (edu.au)
  • What is the evidence for calcium channel blockers? (edu.au)
  • Allergy to other related calcium channel blockers (dihydropyridines), eg nifedipine, amlodipine. (lynchspharmacy.com)
  • Using a different nerve path than Alpha and Beta blockers, Central agonists help relax blood vessels, which lowers blood pressure. (mymedicalscore.com)
  • Selective blockers of voltage-gated K+ channels depolarize human T lymphocytes: mechanism of the antiproliferative effect of charybdotoxin. (google.ru)
  • Generic for Catapres* can interact with antidepressants, calcium channel blockers, and beta-blockers. (internationaldrugmart.com)
  • See also C03 - Diuretics, C07 - Beta blocking agents, C08 - Calcium channel blockers and C09 - Agents acting on the renin-angiotensin system. (whocc.no)
  • The scientific literature shows robust evidence of a positive effect of α1 blockers on PTSD symptoms, nightmares and sleep quality, α2 agonists on core symptoms, executive function and quality of life in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, PTSD, Tourette's syndrome, and β blockers on anxiety, aggression, working memory, and social communication. (cardiologicomonzino.it)
  • There is no evidence of clear benefits of calcium channel blockers in mood disorders in the scientific literature. (cardiologicomonzino.it)
  • Antagonists reduce or block the signals of agonists. (wikipedia.org)
  • While competitive antagonists bind to the agonist or ligand binding site of the receptor reversibly, non-competitive antagonists can either bind to the ligand site or other site called the allosteric site. (wikipedia.org)
  • We describe herein a variety of long-lived receptor-specific agonists and antagonists for LPA receptors. (portlandpress.com)
  • Initially, as outlined in this proposal, the mechanism of action of a structurally diverse group of agents known as calcium antagonists will be investigated. (grantome.com)
  • The calcium antagonists block voltage-dependent calcium channels and include three structurally distinct families of agents: the dihydropyridines (e.g. nifedipine), the phenylalkylamines (e.g. verapamil), and the benzothiazepines (e.g. diltiazem). (grantome.com)
  • These calcium antagonists are used extensively in the treatment of a number of cardiovascular disorders including cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, and systemic hypertension. (grantome.com)
  • Partial agonism was assessed using 5-HT 4 receptor agonists as antagonists against 5-HT. (eur.nl)
  • Although the calcium channel antagonists Zn2+ (100 microM), nifedipine (10 microM), or ruthenium red (10 microM), or the cytosolic calcium chelator BAPTA-AM (50 microM) each strongly impaired PACAP-induced secretion, transcriptional activation of chromogranin A remained unaltered. (jci.org)
  • The current observation that TRPA1 agonists, cinnamaldehyde, acrolein, and CSE [7,14,20], created calcium responses in airway fibroblasts, epithelial and easy muscle mass cells, and selective channel antagonists abated these responses, shown that the TRPA1 channel in these cells is purposeful. (dot1linhibitor.com)
  • Over recent years, alternative approaches for treating TRH have emerged, including agonists of natriuretic peptides, endothelin-receptor antagonists, and additional vasoactive drugs. (elsevier.com)
  • Through collaborative studies, we have collected data for these stabilized analogues as selective LPA receptor (ant)agonists, LPP inhibitors, TREK (transmembrane calcium channel) K + channel agonists, activators of the nuclear transcription factor PPAR-γ (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-γ), promoters of cell motility and survival, and radioprotectants for human B-cells. (portlandpress.com)
  • Effects of calcium channel inhibitors on the hypothermic response to oxotremorine in normo and hypercholinergic rats. (duke.edu)
  • We compared the effects of three chemically different calcium channel inhibitors (diltiazem, nicardipine and verapamil) on the hypothermia induced in FRL and FSL rats by oxotremorine (0.2 mg kg-1 s.c. (duke.edu)
  • There were no significant changes in temperature in separate groups of FRL and FSL rats treated with calcium channel inhibitors alone. (duke.edu)
  • Such a beneficial effect is blunted by antihypertensive treatment with dihydropyridine calcium channel inhibitors. (elsevier.com)
  • First, treatment with ethanol raises intracellular calcium, and this pathway is sensitive to inhibitors of IP3 channels. (ebat2018.org)
  • Like other noncompetitive inhibitors, bupivacaine exerts its depressing action on acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) by reducing the amount of time that an ion channel is open without changing maximal agonist binding, and it precludes NM conduction [ 2 ]. (ekja.org)
  • Phosphorothioate analogues with O -acyl and O -alkyl chains are potent, long-lived agonists for LPA 1 and LPA 3 receptors. (portlandpress.com)
  • Levetiracetam (UCB-L059, SIB-S1) is an agonist of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR) . (selleckchem.com)
  • Propoxyphene acts as a weak agonist at OP1, OP2, and OP3 opiate receptors within the central nervous system (CNS). (rpsi.ir)
  • A cation-π interaction between the ammonium group of an agonist and a conserved tryptophan termed TrpB is a near universal feature of agonist binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). (eneuro.org)
  • In these cultures, we find that dopamine- or forskolin-mediated IEG induction requires Ca 2+ entry via NMDA receptors but not via L-type Ca 2+ channels. (jneurosci.org)
  • In dorsal raphe neurons, the release of serotonin from vesicles in the soma, dendrites, and/or axonal varicosities is independent of classical synapses and can be induced by neuron depolarization, by the stimulation of L-type calcium channels, by activation of glutamatergic receptors, and/or by activation of 5-HT 2 receptors. (frontiersin.org)
  • Agonist stimulation of 5-HT 2B receptors mimicked behavioral and neurogenic SSRI actions, and increased extracellular serotonin in dorsal raphe. (frontiersin.org)
  • A dopamine agonist (DA) is a compound that activates dopamine receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dopamine agonists act directly on the dopamine receptors and mimic dopamine's effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • RLS symptoms decrease with the use of drugs that stimulate dopamine receptors and increase dopamine levels, such as dopamine agonists. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ergoline derived agonists are said to be "dirtier" drugs because of their interaction with other receptors than dopamine receptors, therefore they cause more side effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Screen Quest™ Fluo-8 NW Calcium Assay Kits provide an optimized assay method for monitoring G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and calcium channels. (technologynetworks.com)
  • We will discuss results from assays using agonists to both the Angiotensin and Vasopressin Receptors to illustrate the precision with which agonists that are known to be arrestin biased can be distinguished from unbiased or partially biased agonists in a single experiment. (bmglabtech.com)
  • Possible roles of the μ-opioid receptors and L-type calcium channels in mediating the effects of naloxone in this regard were also investigated. (elsevier.com)
  • Materials and Methods: RAW264.7 cells were treated with phosphate buffered saline, naloxone, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), LPS plus naloxone, LPS plus naloxone plus morphine (i.e., the nonselective opioid receptors agonist), LPS plus naloxone plus fentanyl (i.e., the μ-opioid receptors agonist), or LPS plus naloxone plus BAY-K8644 (i.e., the L-type calcium channel activator). (elsevier.com)
  • The mechanisms may involve antagonizing the L-type calcium channels and, to a lesser extent, the μ-opioid receptors. (elsevier.com)
  • Within the canonical STAT3 signaling pathway, binding of agonist to receptors activates Janus kinases that phosphorylate cytoplasmic STAT3 at tyrosine 705 (Y705). (cp-724714.com)
  • transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 channel (TRPV1), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ.9 The CB1 receptors are found throughout the central nervous system and concentrate in the cortex, basal ganglia, hippocampus, and cerebellum on axon terminals and preterminal axon segments. (secret-seeds.com)
  • Baclofen is a centrally acting antispasmodic agent that binds to the presynaptic and postsynaptic γ-aminobutyric acid B (GABA B ) receptors as a GABA agonist. (mhmedical.com)
  • TRP channels are non-selective cation channels, and their activation normally outcomes in enhance in intracellular calcium [9]. (dot1linhibitor.com)
  • Sex differences in extracellular and intracellular calcium-mediated vascular reactivity to vasopressin in rat aorta. (omeka.net)
  • We propose that these channels, by allowing the entry of external calcium, may account for a large fraction of the rise in intracellular calcium observed upon triggering of the Ti-T3 receptor. (pasteur.fr)
  • In addition, intracellular calcium fluctuations play central roles in neuronal motility. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Pre-incubation with the intracellular calcium chelator BAPTA-AM reduced both NRG1- and NRG1/NMDA-stimulated migration, suggesting the involvement of Ca 2+ in these processes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Short-time co-incubation of NMDA and NRG1 did not substantially modify the NRG1-induced intracellular calcium signals. (biomedcentral.com)
  • STDP, like many forms of long-term synaptic plasticity, strongly depends on intracellular calcium influx for its induction. (frontiersin.org)
  • In addition to the normal intracellular calcium storage swimming pools in the ER and mitochondria, protozoa also contain a unique intracellular organelle for calcium storage called the acidocalcisome [24,25]. (ebat2018.org)
  • Previous studies have shown that intracellular calcium in is responsible for controlling secretion, motility and cell invasion [26]. (ebat2018.org)
  • However, the molecular focuses on of caffeine or ryanodine remain unfamiliar in protozoa and, despite pharmacological evidence for their living, intracellular calcium channels of the IP3R/RyR family members have not been recognized in the gene or protein level. (ebat2018.org)
  • Combinations with diuretics, see C02LC - Imidazoline receptor agonists in combination with diuretics. (whocc.no)
  • A competitive antagonist will attach itself to the same binding site of the receptor that the agonist will bind to. (wikipedia.org)
  • This type of binding is reversible as increasing the concentration of agonist will outcompete the concentration of antagonist, resulting in receptor activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the non-competitive antagonist binds to the allosteric site and an agonist binds to the ligand site, the receptor will remain unactivated. (wikipedia.org)
  • This means only after the agonist binds to the receptor can the antagonist block the receptor's function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Significance: We conclude that (i) inotropic responses to 5-HT and 5-MeOT seem to depend on L-type calcium channels, (ii) tegaserod and cisapride behave as partial 5-HT 4 receptor agonists, while prucalopride, norcisapride and MKC-733 cause no significant effects on human atrial trabeculae, (iii) R199715 seems to behave as a 5-HT 4 receptor antagonist. (eur.nl)
  • Pregabalin, a non-gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor agonist or antagonist, is a novel calcium channel regulator that can block voltage-dependent calcium channels and reduce the release of neurotransmitters. (delala.com)
  • The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of urapidil, an antihypertensive agent acting as an α 1 adrenergic antagonist and a partial 5-HT 1A agonist, on HPV in porcine proximal and distal pulmonary artery rings, and to characterize underlying mechanisms. (elsevier.com)
  • The presence of the antagonist shifts the agonist doseresponse curve to the right as seen in. (firebaseapp.com)
  • The aim of the current study was to evaluate the antihypertensive effect of S. edule root extract and fractions on two different murine models, in which the participation of the extracts as a calcium antagonist is proposed, as well as the possible modulation of AG II, together with the chemical identification of the active compounds implicated in the pharmacological activity. (hindawi.com)
  • These results indicate a distinction in binding modes between agonists with subtly different structures that may provide guidance for the development of subtype-selective agonists of nAChRs. (eneuro.org)
  • After selective blockade of N-type Ca 2+ channels by ω-conotoxin GVIA, the addition of NA showed no further inhibition on the remaining L-type Ca 2+ channel currents. (uthscsa.edu)
  • 7-Spiroindanyloxymorphone - odd OM analogue, selective d agonist A substance that initiates a physiological response when combined with a receptor. (tripsit.me)
  • In renal cell carcinoma cell lines VDR suppresses proliferation and metastasis via affecting the expression of the TRPV5 gene encoding for a calcium-selective channel [5]. (vitamindwiki.com)
  • All TRPVs are highly calcium selective. (wikipedia.org)
  • Would have the desired, tissue selective, estrogen-agonist poses a theoretical risk of encephalitis to those with severe than what they could have done naturally. (lotusseedsdesign.com)
  • Isradipine is a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. (medscape.com)
  • Initial management for a symptomatic calcium channel blocker overdose includes cardiovascular support with intravenous (IV) fluids and, if necessary, vasopressors. (medscape.com)
  • Additionally, high-dose insulin has been established as an effective therapy for calcium channel blocker overdose with cardiogenic shock. (medscape.com)
  • The Cl(-) channel blocker anthracene-9-carboxylic acid (9-AC) reduced only the slowly developing inward and tail currents. (dkit.ie)
  • Verapamil HCl (CP-16533-1,(±)-Verapamil hydrochloride) is an L-type calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent. (selleckchem.com)
  • Tetrandrine (NSC-77037, Fanchinine, d-Tetrandrine), a bis-benzylisoquinoline alkaloid derived from Stephania tetrandra, is a calcium channel blocker. (selleckchem.com)
  • Amlodipine Besylate is a long-acting calcium channel blocker, used to lower blood pressure and prevent chest pain. (selleckchem.com)
  • Nifedipine (BAY-a-1040) is a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker, used to lower hypertension and to treat angina. (selleckchem.com)
  • Lacidipine (GX-1048, GR-43659X, SN-305) is a L-type calcium channel blocker, used for treating high blood pressure. (selleckchem.com)
  • The L-type calcium channel blocker verapamil attenuated inotropic responses to 5-HT and 5-MeOT. (eur.nl)
  • In this aspect, the study shows that calcium-blocker-induced inhibition of collagen production by the cells can be compensated for by providing vitamin C. In particular, supplying fat-soluble vitamin C (ascorbyl palmitate), rather than simple vitamin C, resulted in significantly higher vitamin C concentration within the cells, further supporting collagen production. (molcy.life)
  • To confirm that reactivation followed by extinction reflects a behavioural analogue of memory reconsolidation, we show that prevention of contextual fear memory reactivation by the L-type voltage-gated calcium channel blocker nimodipine interferes with the amnestic outcome. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • Cardiac Na + channel blocker. (tocris.com)
  • Low quality evidence is unable to determine side effects of any particular calcium channel blocker medications used by people with bipolar disorder. (edu.au)
  • Zanidip tablets contain the active ingredient lercanidipine hydrochloride, which is a type of medicine called a calcium channel blocker. (lynchspharmacy.com)
  • Hypertension calcium channel blocker overdose. (albionfoundation.org)
  • Gentamicin acts like a calcium channel blocker, decreasing ACh release from the motor nerve terminal and depressing muscle contraction [ 6 ]. (ekja.org)
  • CM 4620 is an inhibitor of calcium-release activated calcium-channel (CRAC channel) . (selleckchem.com)
  • Ranolazine 2HCl (RS-43285) is a calcium uptake inhibitor via the sodium/calcium channal , used to treat chronic angina. (selleckchem.com)
  • Iberiotoxin (300 nmol/l), a specific inhibitor of BKCa channels, had no effect on the thrombin-stimulated 86Rb+ efflux. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Although glibenclamide, an inhibitor of KATP channels, inhibited the thrombin-stimulated efflux, it did so only in a high concentration (20 mumol/l). 4. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Aims: Besides acting as gastrointestinal prokinetic agents, 5-hydroxytryptamine 4 (5-HT 4) receptor agonists can induce positive inotropism in human isolated atrium, but not in ventricles. (eur.nl)
  • We pharmacologically evaluated the gastroprokinetic 5-HT 4 receptor agonists tegaserod, prucalopride, R199715, cisapride, the cisapride metabolite norcisapride, and the 5-HT 3 receptor agonist MKC773 on human isolated myocardial trabeculae, and compared their effects with those induced by 5-HT and 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MeOT). (eur.nl)
  • Furthermore, activation of TRPM7 by phospholipase C (PLC)-coupled receptor agonists caused a further increase in intracellular Ca(2+) levels and augmented cell adhesion and spreading in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner (1). (prinsesmaximacentrum.nl)
  • Here we have examined the regulation of TRPM7 by PLC-coupled receptor agonists such as bradykinin, lysophosphatidic acid, and thrombin. (prinsesmaximacentrum.nl)
  • Under non-invasive "perforated patch clamp" conditions, we have found similar activation of TRPM7 by PLC-coupled receptor agonists. (prinsesmaximacentrum.nl)
  • Thus, under physiological ionic conditions, TRPM7 currents were activated rather than inhibited by PLC-activating receptor agonists. (prinsesmaximacentrum.nl)
  • Alpha-2 receptor agonists lower the activity of the sympathetic nervous system. (verywellhealth.com)
  • A number of P2Y(2) receptor agonists have been investigated that operate by increasing Ca(2+)(i) which in turn activates CaCC. (cysticfibrosis.online)
  • Opioids open calcium-dependent inwardly rectifying potassium channels (OP1 receptor agonist). (t3db.ca)
  • Opioids close N-type voltage-operated calcium channels (OP2-receptor agonist) and open calcium-dependent inwardly rectifying potassium channels (OP3 and OP1 receptor agonist). (rpsi.ir)
  • Calcium directly moderates electrical activity, on a relatively fast time scale, through its control of calcium dependent potassium channels. (brains-minds-media.org)
  • Pharmacological evidence of calcium-activated and voltage-gated potassium channels in human platelets. (ox.ac.uk)
  • 2. We have studied potassium channels in human platelets by measuring the efflux of 86Rb+ (a marker for K+) from 86Rb(+)-loaded cells, and have defined their responses to stimulation by the platelet agonist thrombin and the calcium ionophore ionomycin. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Role of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in modulating nociception in rat model of bone cancer pain. (viictr.org)
  • Purification, characterization, and biosynthesis of margatoxin, a component of Centruroides margaritatus venom that selectively inhibits voltage-dependent potassium channels. (google.ru)
  • Expression of Drosophila Shaker potassium channels in mammalian cells infected with recombinant vaccinia virus. (google.ru)
  • 3 potassium channels resets the resting membrane potential of cultured mammalian cells. (google.ru)
  • However, systemic administration of the NMDA receptor partial agonist D-cycloserine, under the same behavioural conditions, did not potentiate appetitive memory extinction, suggesting that reactivation does not enhance subsequent extinction learning. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • Semorphone - 2x potency of M. Partial u agonist A substance that initiates a physiological response when combined with a receptor. (tripsit.me)
  • the intrinsic activity of the agonist (i.e. partial agonists cause much less receptor desensitization. (studystack.com)
  • EOLa and citral dose-dependently relaxed contractions induced by BAY-K 8644, a calcium channel agonist, and by Phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate an activator of protein kinase C. EOLa and citral produced a vasorelaxant effect in isolated aorta which was potentiated by the presence of endothelium. (aromaticscience.com)
  • In a complex with calmodulin, calcium is an activator or regulator of several enzymes, including calcium-calmodulin dependent protein kinase, which plays a role in synaptic plasticity, and adenylate cyclase, which produces cAMP, another important second messenger. (brains-minds-media.org)
  • Epinephrine has alpha-agonist effects, which include increased peripheral vascular resistance, reversed peripheral vasodilatation, systemic hypotension, and vascular permeability. (medscape.com)
  • Methylatropine (2 mg kg-1 s.c.) was administered 15 min before oxotremorine to block the peripheral effects of the agonist. (duke.edu)
  • Gabapentin is a structurally similar to gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), though it is not a GABA receptor agonist. (veterinarypracticenews.ca)
  • About pregabalina gaba agonist, anticonvulsant.mechanism of action of pregabalinpregabalin is a gaba neurotransmitter analog. (dalilaldwaa.com)
  • These drugs prevent calcium (and other valuable minerals) from entering the inside of the cells by blocking specific channels located in the walls of the smooth muscle cells lining the blood vessels, the cardiac muscle cells (myocytes), and other tissues. (molcy.life)
  • These drugs prevent calcium from entering the cells of the blood vessels and heart, an effect that relaxes narrowed blood vessels. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Central agonists make it harder for blood vessels to contract (narrow). (verywellhealth.com)
  • Your blood pressure measures how much blood goes through your blood vessels and the amount of resistance the blood has to overcome to pass through these channels. (nygal.com)
  • These drugs help blood vessels relax by blocking calcium from entering blood vessel cells and the heart muscle. (l-arginine.com)
  • Lercanidipine works by slowing the movement of calcium through the muscle cells that are found in the walls of blood vessels. (lynchspharmacy.com)
  • Helps lower blood pressure by preventing calcium from entering smooth muscle cells, which can cause stronger heart contraction and narrow blood vessels. (mymedicalscore.com)
  • The IRLSSG Task Force recommends either a dopamine-receptor agonist or an alpha2-delta calcium-channel ligand as first-line treatment therapy for RLS in most patients, with the choice of medication depending on symptom severity, cognitive status, history, and comorbid conditions. (medscape.com)
  • Chronic persistent RLS/WED should be treated with either a nonergot dopamine agonist or a calcium channel α-2-δ ligand. (mayoclinicproceedings.org)
  • Here we show, using micropipette-supported bilayers formed from membranes of the human T-cell line REX, that Ti- or T3-specific antibodies cause opening of ligand gated ion channels. (pasteur.fr)
  • Because LTCCs have a broad role in neuronal function and are altered with aging, we examined the effects of E2 on these channels. (jneurosci.org)
  • Remodeling of the cardiac pacemaker L-type calcium current and its beta-adrenergic responsiveness in hypertension after neuronal NO synthase gene transfer. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Channel modulation shapes electrophysiological integration of neuronal inputs, spatio-temporal firing dynamics of neuronal networks, and, ultimately, systems behavior. (brains-minds-media.org)
  • Male mice administered with the GPR30 agonist G1 exhibited significantly reduced neuronal injury in the hippocampal CA1 region and striatum. (elsevier.com)
  • Neuronal L-Type Calcium Channel Signaling to the Nucleus Requires a Novel CaMKIIα-Shank3 Interaction. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • Calcium is one of the activators of protein kinase C, which plays a role in synaptic plasticity. (brains-minds-media.org)
  • The activation induces calcium inflow from the endoplasmic reticulum, which initiates muscle cell contraction. (medscape.com)
  • Cyclic AMP- (cAMP) and calcium-dependent agonists stimulate chloride secretion through the coordinated activation of distinct apical and basolateral membrane channels and ion transporters in mucosal epithelial cells. (harvard.edu)
  • Novel dihydropyridines with positive inotropic action through activation of Ca2+ channels. (wikidata.org)
  • They are mainly distributed in C sensory nerve fibers as well as Aẟ fibers to transmit sensory information involving inflammatory and neuropathic pain, and activation of these channels releasesomatostatin, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and other neuropeptides (neurokinin A, kassinin), leading to neurogenic inflammation 1 . (drugbank.com)
  • Activation of TRPV1 results in calcium influx and sodium, which leads to cell depolarization. (drugbank.com)
  • A transient increase in cytosolic free calcium occurs as an early event in the T-cell activation process and is necessary for induction of the endogenous IL-2 and certain other genes. (pasteur.fr)
  • Activation of TRPV4 with specific agonist altered the organization of endothelial cells, affected tight junctions in the hCMEC/D3 BBB cell line in vitro , and increases the scarring in rat spinal cord as well as induced endothelial damage. (jneurosci.org)
  • Activation of K+ channels causes ___________ and stops what from being released? (studystack.com)
  • Alpha2-agonists are used to treat hypertension, opiate withdrawal, and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). (oh-mygut.com)
  • It binds to calcium channels with high affinity and specificity and inhibits calcium flux into cardiac and smooth muscle. (medscape.com)
  • It binds to intracellular sites and initially stimulates the channels, causing burning sensation. (drugbank.com)
  • Margatoxin Binds to a Homomultimer of K V 1.3 Channels in Jurkat Cells. (google.ru)
  • Activated CaMKII Binds to the mGlu Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor and Modulates Calcium Mobilization. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • Treatment with PPAR-alpha agonist fenofibrate decreased body weight and fat pad weight and ameliorated liver steatosis in LD-fed mice with concomitant reduction in blood glucose, free fatty acid, triglyceride, serum insulin levels, and homeostasis model assessment index values. (shengsci.com)
  • It belongs to a class of drugs called alpha agonist analgesic. (internationaldrugmart.com)
  • Cevimeline is in a class of medications called cholinergic agonists. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It is the most potent of the opiate agonists and is useful for the acute management of headache due to migraine. (medscape.com)
  • The agonist VIP was approximately 100- to 1,000-fold less potent than PACAP in stimulating either secretion or transcription. (jci.org)
  • A large pharmacore docking screen identified a novel non-steroidal VDR agonist showing potent cardioprotective effects while being devoid of hypercalcemia [8]. (vitamindwiki.com)
  • The N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptor (NMDAR) is a calcium permeable channel whose functions have been mainly characterized in excitatory synapses of mature neurons. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A good discussion of basic and clinical pharmacology of receptor α 2 agonists concentrates mainly on systemic rather than spinal administration. (asahq.org)
  • However, the pharmacology of these channels has not been defined. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The voltage-dependent calcium channel plays a significant role in a number of cellular and physiological processes, including contraction of heart and smooth muscle and in the functioning of neurons and secretory systems. (grantome.com)
  • Zucapsaicin excites and desensitizes C-fibers via agonist at TRPV1 on nociceptive neurons. (drugbank.com)
  • 10 Its mechanisms of action are not well understood, but it appears to operate by affecting presynaptic calcium channels in neurons. (veterinarypracticenews.ca)
  • ANKTM1, a TRP-like channel expressed in nociceptive neurons, is activated by cold temperatures. (nature.com)
  • Morphine, a mu-receptor agonist exerted a significant analgesic effect in formalin as well in tail flick tests. (who.int)
  • To test the contribution of L-type calcium channels, the inotropic responses to 5-HT and 5-MeOT were studied in the absence or presence of verapamil. (eur.nl)
  • Second-line interventions (eg, alpha-agonists, anticholinergics) were associated with adverse effects, such as dry mouth. (medscape.com)
  • Typically, these rats react with twice as great a hypothermic effect to muscarinic agonists such as oxotremorine, as do similarly bred Flinders Resistant Line rats (FRL). (duke.edu)
  • Sodium transport channels are also used by Vitamin C to enter the cells. (molcy.life)
  • Sodium and calcium channels in bovine chromaffin cells. (wikidata.org)
  • In CF the position is further confounded since epithelial sodium channels (ENaC) are no longer regulated and transport salt and water out of the airways to exacerbate the lack of ASL. (cysticfibrosis.online)
  • Zucapsaicin mediates an antinociceptive action via acting as an agonist at TRPV1. (drugbank.com)
  • Zucapsaicin activates calcineurin and calcium-dependent protein kinase C isoforms which results in phosphorylation of TRPV1. (drugbank.com)
  • In distinction, the failure of the strong TRPV1 agonist, capsaicin, to elicit any calcium response in any cell kind policies out the probability that cultured cells categorical practical TRPV1 channels. (dot1linhibitor.com)
  • Homology model of the TRPV1 ion channel tetramer (where the monomers are individually colored cyan, green, blue, and magenta respective) imbedded in a cartoon representation of a lipid bilayer . (wikipedia.org)
  • [13] For instance, the use of TRPV1 agonists would potentially inhibit nociception at TRPV1, particularly in pancreatic tissue where TRPV1 is highly expressed. (wikipedia.org)
  • [14] The TRPV1 agonist capsaicin, found in chili peppers, has been indicated to relieve neuropathic pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yet a further way in which a pharmacological approach to CF can be considered is to recruit alternative chloride channels, such as calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC), to act as surrogates for CFTR. (cysticfibrosis.online)
  • This medication is used in people with kidney disease unable to make enough of the active form of Vitamin D. It prevents and treats certain types of calcium/phosphorus/parathyroid problems. (thetopmedstore.com)
  • Instead of conventional antidepressant medication in treating depression, treatment with dopamine agonists has been suggested. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dihydropyridines, in fact, now include two """"""""calcium agonists"""""""" which activate the voltage-dependent calcium channel. (grantome.com)
  • To study the molecular basis of these agents' actions on the voltage-dependent calcium channel, an integrated multilevel approach will be used. (grantome.com)
  • By studying the action of these agents in parallel on a number of levels in the same tissue preparation, a complete picture of the molecular mechanism of their effects on the voltage-dependent calcium channel will emerge. (grantome.com)
  • Levetiracetam modulates the presynaptic P/Q-type voltage-dependent calcium (Ca2+) channel . (selleckchem.com)
  • Evidence came first from imaging studies of granule cell migration in acute mouse cerebellar slices, in which blockade or enhancement of Ca 2+ influx through N-type Voltage Dependent Calcium Channels (VDCCs) or the NMDAR reduced or promoted the rate of granule cell movement, respectively [ 10 , 15 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • By blocking these channels, the drugs cause relaxation of the cells and other pharmacological effects. (molcy.life)
  • A new study conducted at the Dr. Rath Research Institute and published in the American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease¹ shows that, in addition to blocking the entry of calcium, these drugs obstruct the uptake of vitamin C by the cells. (molcy.life)
  • Such observations could be helpful in following cancer progression and could lead to the development of drugs over activating ion channels, leading to apoptosis and necrosis . (wikipedia.org)
  • A class of drugs that stimulate chloride ion influx through cell membrane channels. (nih.gov)
  • Calcium is given to reverse hypotension and improve cardiac conduction defects. (medscape.com)
  • Calcium gluconate moderates nerve and muscle performance and facilitates normal cardiac function. (medscape.com)
  • The drug's beta-agonist effects include bronchodilatation, chronotropic cardiac activity, and positive inotropic effects. (medscape.com)
  • Decreased calcium current after cardiac nNOS gene transfer contributes to the normalization of beta-adrenergic hyperresponsiveness in the SAN from hypertensive rats by modulating cyclic nucleotide signaling. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Photoalteration of calcium channel blockade in the cardiac Purkinje fiber. (wikidata.org)
  • 2] "Mucolipidosis type IV is caused by mutations in a gene encoding a novel transient receptor potential channel. (tcdb.org)
  • It is a modulator of transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV-1), also known as the vanilloid or capsaicin receptor 1, that reduces pain and improves articular functions. (drugbank.com)
  • Monoclonal antibodies specific to epitopes of either the Ti or the T3 components were shown to be effective agonists, also leading to such transient rises in cytosolic free calcium and activating the lymphocytes. (pasteur.fr)
  • We recently demonstrated that thapsigargin-induced passive store depletion activates Ca 2+ entry in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) through stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1)/Orai1, independently of transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels. (elsevier.com)
  • TRPV is a family of transient receptor potential cation channels (TRP channels) in animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • [2] TRP channels were initially discovered in the trp mutant strain of the fruit fly Drosophila [3] that displayed transient elevation of potential in response to light stimuli, and were therefore named "transient receptor potential" channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Currently, the role of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 4 (TRPV4), a nonselective cation channel in the pathology of spinal cord injury (SCI), is not recognized. (jneurosci.org)
  • These mechanisms include the ability of lead to inhibit or mimic the action of calcium and to interact with proteins. (cdc.gov)
  • Another non-steroidal VDR agonist showed to significantly inhibit chronic pancreatitis in vivo without increasing serum calcium levels [9]. (vitamindwiki.com)
  • Dopamine agonists are medications that mimic the actions of dopamine. (oh-mygut.com)
  • Ammälä, C., Ashcroft, F.M. & Rorsman, P. Calcium-independent potentiation of insulin release by cyclic AMP in single beta-cells. (nature.com)
  • Fluorescent biosensors measuring GPCR second messengers (e.g. calcium ions - Ca 2+ , inositol triphosphate - IP3, diacylglycerol - DAG or cyclic AMP - cAMP) can be combined with spectrally resolved fluorescent biosensors for β-arrestin. (bmglabtech.com)
  • Increased cyclic AMP levels and increased calcium do what to the heart? (studystack.com)
  • In Hebbian STDP, the correlation between an EPSP and the backpropagated action potential (bAP) corresponding to a pre-before-post pairing that leads to t-LTP, induces large calcium entry ( Koester and Sakmann, 1998 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • In contrast, post-before-pre pairing that induces t-LTD, comparatively produces a weaker calcium entry ( Koester and Sakmann, 1998 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Biochemical studies of the mechanism of action of these agents will utilize radioligand binding techniques to study the interactions of these agents with the calcium channel. (grantome.com)
  • These intracellular Ca 2+ signals could be ascribed to both release from intracellular stores and influx from the extracellular medium trough a mechanism of store-operated calcium entry (SOCE). (biomedcentral.com)
  • A novel mechanism for Ca/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II targeting to L-type Ca channels that initiates long-range signaling to the nucleus. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • It is a u opioid agonist A substance that initiates a physiological response when combined with a receptor. (tripsit.me)
  • Coadministration of calcium with lead decreases lead absorption in adults, and in animal studies. (cdc.gov)
  • Clindamycin produces an open ion channel block on AChRs in the end-plate [ 3 ] and decreases ACh release at the motor nerve terminal [ 4 ]. (ekja.org)
  • A novel approach allows measurement of agonist bias towards either G-protein or β-arrestin using the same cell population, same assay modality and conditions as well as the same detection instrumentation. (bmglabtech.com)