Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2: A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases: A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)Calmodulin: A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 1: A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed in a broad variety of mammalian cell types. Its expression is regulated by the action of CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE. Several isoforms of this enzyme subtype are encoded by distinct genes.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Calcium Signaling: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Protein Kinase Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Benzylamines: Toluenes in which one hydrogen of the methyl group is substituted by an amino group. Permitted are any substituents on the benzene ring or the amino group.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Sporothrix: A mitosporic Ophiostomataceae fungal genus, whose species Sporothrix schenckii is a well-known animal pathogen. The conidia of this soil fungus may be inhaled causing a primary lung infection, or may infect independently via skin punctures.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Calmodulin-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind calmodulin. They are found in many tissues and have a variety of functions including F-actin cross-linking properties, inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and calcium and magnesium ATPases.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).Paramecium tetraurelia: A species of ciliate protozoa. It is used in biomedical research.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 4: A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that is primarily expressed in neuronal tissues; T-LYMPHOCYTES and TESTIS. The activity of this enzyme is regulated by its phosphorylation by CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.Sulfonamides: A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.Calcium-Binding Proteins: Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.1-(5-Isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-Methylpiperazine: A specific protein kinase C inhibitor, which inhibits superoxide release from human neutrophils (PMN) stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate or synthetic diacylglycerol.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Trifluoperazine: A phenothiazine with actions similar to CHLORPROMAZINE. It is used as an antipsychotic and an antiemetic.MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Myosin-Light-Chain Kinase: An enzyme that phosphorylates myosin light chains in the presence of ATP to yield myosin-light chain phosphate and ADP, and requires calcium and CALMODULIN. The 20-kDa light chain is phosphorylated more rapidly than any other acceptor, but light chains from other myosins and myosin itself can act as acceptors. The enzyme plays a central role in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.eIF-2 Kinase: A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Protein Kinase C-alpha: A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1: A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.Calcium Channels: Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.Death-Associated Protein Kinases: A family of calcium/calmodulin-dependent PROETIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES. They are ubiquitously expressed in adult and embryonic mammalian tissues, and their functions are tightly related to the early stages of eukaryotic programmed cell death.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Catalytic Subunits: Specific enzyme subunits that form the active sites of the type I and type II cyclic-AMP protein kinases. Each molecule of enzyme contains two catalytic subunits.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Cyclic GMP: Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Mycelium: The body of a fungus which is made up of HYPHAE.Phosphoprotein Phosphatases: A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases: A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3: A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II: A cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase subtype primarily found in particulate subcellular fractions. They are tetrameric proteins that contain two catalytic subunits and two type II-specific regulatory subunits.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Protein Kinase C-delta: A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.Isoquinolines: A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Peptide T: N-(N-(N(2)-(N-(N-(N-(N-D-Alanyl L-seryl)-L-threonyl)-L-threonyl) L-threonyl)-L-asparaginyl)-L-tyrosyl) L-threonine. Octapeptide sharing sequence homology with HIV envelope protein gp120. It is potentially useful as antiviral agent in AIDS therapy. The core pentapeptide sequence, TTNYT, consisting of amino acids 4-8 in peptide T, is the HIV envelope sequence required for attachment to the CD4 receptor.Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.PhosphoproteinsNucleotides, CyclicTransfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Egtazic Acid: A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.AMP-Activated Protein Kinases: Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type I: A cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed in SMOOTH MUSCLE tissues and plays a role in regulation of smooth muscle contraction. Two isoforms, PKGIalpha and PKGIbeta, of the type I protein kinase exist due to alternative splicing of its mRNA.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit: A type I cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit that plays a role in confering CYCLIC AMP activation of protein kinase activity. It has a lower affinity for cAMP than the CYCLIC-AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE RIBETA SUBUNIT.Protamine Kinase: An aspect of protein kinase (EC 2.7.1.37) in which serine residues in protamines and histones are phosphorylated in the presence of ATP.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Calcium, Dietary: Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.src-Family Kinases: A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Protein Kinase C-epsilon: A protein kinase C subtype that was originally characterized as a CALCIUM-independent, serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHORBOL ESTERS and DIACYLGLYCEROLS. It is targeted to specific cellular compartments in response to extracellular signals that activate G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS; TYROSINE KINASE RECEPTORS; and intracellular protein tyrosine kinase.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Protein Kinase C beta: PKC beta encodes two proteins (PKCB1 and PKCBII) generated by alternative splicing of C-terminal exons. It is widely distributed with wide-ranging roles in processes such as B-cell receptor regulation, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation, insulin signaling, and endothelial cell proliferation.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II: A cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed predominantly in INTESTINES, BRAIN, and KIDNEY. The protein is myristoylated on its N-terminus which may play a role its membrane localization.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Islets of Langerhans: Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Kinase: A regulatory calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase that specifically phosphorylates CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE TYPE 1; CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE TYPE 2; CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE TYPE 4; and PROTEIN KINASE B. It is a monomeric enzyme that is encoded by at least two different genes.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Insulin-Secreting Cells: A type of pancreatic cell representing about 50-80% of the islet cells. Beta cells secrete INSULIN.Aldosterone: A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Heart Rupture: Disease-related laceration or tearing of tissues of the heart, including the free-wall MYOCARDIUM; HEART SEPTUM; PAPILLARY MUSCLES; CHORDAE TENDINEAE; and any of the HEART VALVES. Pathological rupture usually results from myocardial infarction (HEART RUPTURE, POST-INFARCTION).

Nitric oxide stimulates the stress-activated protein kinase p38 in rat renal mesangial cells. (1/6323)

Nitric oxide (NO) has gained increased attention as a diffusible universal messenger that plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Recently, we reported that exogenous NO is able to activate the stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) cascade in mesangial cells. Here, we demonstrate that exposure of glomerular mesangial cells to compounds releasing NO, including spermine-NO and (Z)-1- (N-methyl-N-[6-(N-methylammoniohexyl)amino]diazen)-1-ium-1,2-diolate (MAHMA-NO), results in an activation of the stress-activated p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38-MAPK) cascade as measured by the phosphorylation of the activator of transcription factor-2 (ATF2) in an immunocomplex kinase assay. Activation of the p38-MAPK cascade by a short stimulation (10 min) with the NO donor MAHMA-NO causes a large increase in ATF2 phosphorylation that is several times greater than that observed after stimulation with interleukin-1beta, a well-known activator of the p38-MAPK pathway. Time course studies reveal that MAHMA-NO causes rapid and maximal activation of p38-MAPK after 10 min of stimulation and that activation declines to basal levels within 60 min. The longer-lived NO donor spermine-NO causes a comparable rapid activation of the p38-MAPK pathway; however, the increased activation state of p38-MAPK was maintained for several hours before control values were reattained after 24 h of stimulation. Furthermore, the NO donors also activated the classical extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) p44-MAPK cascade as shown by phosphorylation of the specific substrate cytosolic phospholipase A2 in an immunocomplex kinase reaction. Both MAHMA-NO and spermine-NO cause a rapid activation of p44-MAPK after 10 min of stimulation. Interestingly, there is a second delayed peak of p44-MAPK activation after 4-24 h of stimulation with NO donors. These results suggest that there is a differential activation pattern for stress-activated and mitogen-activated protein kinases by NO and that the integration of these signals may lead to specific cell responses.  (+info)

A Drosophila TNF-receptor-associated factor (TRAF) binds the ste20 kinase Misshapen and activates Jun kinase. (2/6323)

Two families of protein kinases that are closely related to Ste20 in their kinase domain have been identified - the p21-activated protein kinase (Pak) and SPS1 families [1-3]. In contrast to Pak family members, SPS1 family members do not bind and are not activated by GTP-bound p21Rac and Cdc42. We recently placed a member of the SPS1 family, called Misshapen (Msn), genetically upstream of the c-Jun amino-terminal (JNK) mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase module in Drosophila [4]. The failure to activate JNK in Drosophila leads to embryonic lethality due to the failure of these embryos to stimulate dorsal closure [5-8]. Msn probably functions as a MAP kinase kinase kinase kinase in Drosophila, activating the JNK pathway via an, as yet, undefined MAP kinase kinase kinase. We have identified a Drosophila TNF-receptor-associated factor, DTRAF1, by screening for Msn-interacting proteins using the yeast two-hybrid system. In contrast to the mammalian TRAFs that have been shown to activate JNK, DTRAF1 lacks an amino-terminal 'Ring-finger' domain, and overexpression of a truncated DTRAF1, consisting of only its TRAF domain, activates JNK. We also identified another DTRAF, DTRAF2, that contains an amino-terminal Ring-finger domain. Msn specifically binds the TRAF domain of DTRAF1 but not that of DTRAF2. In Drosophila, DTRAF1 is thus a good candidate for an upstream molecule that regulates the JNK pathway by interacting with, and activating, Msn. Consistent with this idea, expression of a dominant-negative Msn mutant protein blocks the activation of JNK by DTRAF1. Furthermore, coexpression of Msn with DTRAF1 leads to the synergistic activation of JNK. We have extended some of these observations to the mammalian homolog of Msn, Nck-interacting kinase (NIK), suggesting that TRAFs also play a critical role in regulating Ste20 kinases in mammals.  (+info)

Alzheimer's disease: clues from flies and worms. (3/6323)

Presenilin mutations give rise to familial Alzheimer's disease and result in elevated production of amyloid beta peptide. Recent evidence that presenilins act in developmental signalling pathways may be the key to understanding how senile plaques, neurofibrillary tangles and apoptosis are all biochemically linked.  (+info)

Activation of c-Abl tyrosine kinase requires caspase activation and is not involved in JNK/SAPK activation during apoptosis of human monocytic leukemia U937 cells. (4/6323)

Genotoxic stress triggers the activation of several sensor molecules, such as p53, JNK1/SAPK and c-Abl, and occasionally promotes the cells to apoptosis. We previously reported that JNK1/SAPK regulates genotoxic stress-induced apoptosis in p53-negative U937 cells by activating caspases. c-Abl is expected to act upstream of JNK1/SAPK activation upon treatment with genotoxic stressors, but its involvement in apoptosis development is still unclear. We herein investigated the kinase activities of c-Abl and JNK1/SAPK during apoptosis elicited by genotoxic anticancer drugs and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in U937 cells and their apoptosis-resistant variant UK711 cells. We found that the activation of JNK1/SAPK and c-Abl correlated well with apoptosis development in these cell lines. Unexpectedly, however, the JNK1/SAPK activation preceded the c-Abl activation. Moreover, the caspase inhibitor Z-Asp suppressed c-Abl activation and the onset of apoptosis but not the JNK1/SAPK activation. Interestingly, c-Abl tyrosine kinase inhibition by CGP 57148 reduced apoptosis without interfering with JNK1/SAPK activation. These results indicate that c-Abl acts not upstream of JNK1/ SAPK but downstream of caspases during the development of p53-independent apoptosis and is possibly involved in accelerating execution of the cell death pathway.  (+info)

Growth inhibition of breast cancer cells by Grb2 downregulation is correlated with inactivation of mitogen-activated protein kinase in EGFR, but not in ErbB2, cells. (5/6323)

Increased breast cancer growth has been associated with increased expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and ErbB2 receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). Upon activation, RTKs may transmit their oncogenic signals by binding to the growth factor receptor bound protein-2 (Grb2), which in turn binds to SOS and activates the Ras/Raf/MEK/mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway. Grb2 is important for the transformation of fibroblasts by EGFR and ErbB2; however, whether Grb2 is also important for the proliferation of breast cancer cells expressing these RTKs is unclear. We have used liposomes to deliver nuclease-resistant antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (oligos) specific for the GRB2 mRNA to breast cancer cells. Grb2 protein downregulation could inhibit breast cancer cell growth; the degree of growth inhibition was dependent upon the activation and/or endogenous levels of the RTKs. Grb2 inhibition led to MAP kinase inactivation in EGFR, but not in ErbB2, breast cancer cells, suggesting that different pathways might be used by EGFR and ErbB2 to regulate breast cancer growth.  (+info)

The MAP kinase ERK2 inhibits the cyclic AMP-specific phosphodiesterase HSPDE4D3 by phosphorylating it at Ser579. (6/6323)

The extracellular receptor stimulated kinase ERK2 (p42(MAPK))-phosphorylated human cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase PDE4D3 at Ser579 and profoundly reduced ( approximately 75%) its activity. These effects could be reversed by the action of protein phosphatase PP1. The inhibitory state of PDE4D3, engendered by ERK2 phosphorylation, was mimicked by the Ser579-->Asp mutant form of PDE4D3. In COS1 cells transfected to express PDE4D3, challenge with epidermal growth factor (EGF) caused the phosphorylation and inhibition of PDE4D3. This effect was blocked by the MEK inhibitor PD98059 and was not apparent using the Ser579-->Ala mutant form of PDE4D3. Challenge of HEK293 and F442A cells with EGF led to the PD98059-ablatable inhibition of endogenous PDE4D3 and PDE4D5 activities. EGF challenge of COS1 cells transfected to express PDE4D3 increased cAMP levels through a process ablated by PD98059. The activity of the Ser579-->Asp mutant form of PDE4D3 was increased by PKA phosphorylation. The transient form of the EGF-induced inhibition of PDE4D3 is thus suggested to be due to feedback regulation by PKA causing the ablation of the ERK2-induced inhibition of PDE4D3. We identify a novel means of cross-talk between the cAMP and ERK signalling pathways whereby cell stimuli that lead to ERK2 activation may modulate cAMP signalling.  (+info)

p50(cdc37) acting in concert with Hsp90 is required for Raf-1 function. (7/6323)

Genetic screens in Drosophila have identified p50(cdc37) to be an essential component of the sevenless receptor/mitogen-activated kinase protein (MAPK) signaling pathway, but neither the function nor the target of p50(cdc37) in this pathway has been defined. In this study, we examined the role of p50(cdc37) and its Hsp90 chaperone partner in Raf/Mek/MAPK signaling biochemically. We found that coexpression of wild-type p50(cdc37) with Raf-1 resulted in robust and dose-dependent activation of Raf-1 in Sf9 cells. In addition, p50(cdc37) greatly potentiated v-Src-mediated Raf-1 activation. Moreover, we found that p50(cdc37) is the primary determinant of Hsp90 recruitment to Raf-1. Overexpression of a p50(cdc37) mutant which is unable to recruit Hsp90 into the Raf-1 complex inhibited Raf-1 and MAPK activation by growth factors. Similarly, pretreatment with geldanamycin (GA), an Hsp90-specific inhibitor, prevented both the association of Raf-1 with the p50(cdc37)-Hsp90 heterodimer and Raf-1 kinase activation by serum. Activation of Raf-1 via baculovirus coexpression with oncogenic Src or Ras in Sf9 cells was also strongly inhibited by dominant negative p50(cdc37) or by GA. Thus, formation of a ternary Raf-1-p50(cdc37)-Hsp90 complex is crucial for Raf-1 activity and MAPK pathway signaling. These results provide the first biochemical evidence for the requirement of the p50(cdc37)-Hsp90 complex in protein kinase regulation and for Raf-1 function in particular.  (+info)

Activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 by UV irradiation is inhibited by wortmannin without affecting c-iun expression. (8/6323)

Activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs)/stress-activated protein kinases is an early response of cells upon exposure to DNA-damaging agents. JNK-mediated phosphorylation of c-Jun is currently understood to stimulate the transactivating potency of AP-1 (e.g., c-Jun/c-Fos; c-Jun/ATF-2), thereby increasing the expression of AP-1 target genes. Here we show that stimulation of JNK1 activity is not a general early response of cells exposed to genotoxic agents. Treatment of NIH 3T3 cells with UV light (UV-C) as well as with methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) caused activation of JNK1 and an increase in c-Jun protein and AP-1 binding activity, whereas antineoplastic drugs such as mafosfamide, mitomycin C, N-hydroxyethyl-N-chloroethylnitrosourea, and treosulfan did not elicit this response. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin specifically blocked the UV-stimulated activation of JNK1 but did not affect UV-driven activation of extracellular regulated kinase 2 (ERK2). To investigate the significance of JNK1 for transactivation of c-jun, we analyzed the effect of UV irradiation on c-jun expression under conditions of wortmannin-mediated inhibition of UV-induced stimulation of JNK1. Neither the UV-induced increase in c-jun mRNA, c-Jun protein, and AP-1 binding nor the activation of the collagenase and c-jun promoters was affected by wortmannin. In contrast, the mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase inhibitor PD98056, which blocked ERK2 but not JNK1 activation by UV irradiation, impaired UV-driven c-Jun protein induction and AP-1 binding. Based on the data, we suggest that JNK1 stimulation is not essential for transactivation of c-jun after UV exposure, whereas activation of ERK2 is required for UV-induced signaling leading to elevated c-jun expression.  (+info)

*Calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II inhibitor 1

... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CAMK2N1 gene. GRCh38: ... Calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II inhibitor 1". Retrieved 2017-09-09. Wang C, Li N, Liu X, Zheng Y, Cao X (2008 ... "A novel endogenous human CaMKII inhibitory protein suppresses tumor growth by inducing cell cycle arrest via p27 stabilization ... "CAMK2N1 inhibits prostate cancer progression through androgen receptor-dependent signaling". Oncotarget. 5 (21): 10293-306. doi ...

*CAMK1D

Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ID is a protein in humans that is encoded by the CAMK1D gene on chromosome 10 ( ... This gene encodes a member of the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 1 subfamily of serine/threonine kinases. The encoded ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ID". ... protein may be involved in the regulation of granulocyte ...

*Protein kinase

CaM kinases - containing the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases. CK1 - containing the casein kinase 1 group. CMGC - ... One very important group of protein kinases are the MAP kinases (acronym from: "mitogen-activated protein kinases"). Important ... Hanks SK, Hunter T (May 1995). "Protein kinases 6. The eukaryotic protein kinase superfamily: kinase (catalytic) domain ... A protein kinase is a kinase enzyme that modifies other proteins by chemically adding phosphate groups to them (phosphorylation ...

*Marina Picciotto

Picciotto, M. R.; Czernik, A. J.; Nairn, A. C. (15 December 1993). "Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I. cDNA cloning ... "Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I - cDNA cloning and identification of autophosphorylation site". J. Biol. Chem. ... work with Paul Greengard at Rockefeller University where she cloned the gene for calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 1 ... "Menthol disrupts nicotine's psychostimulant properties in an age and sex-dependent manner in C57BL/6J mice". Behav Brain Res. ...

*CAMK2D

... calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) II delta". Hook SS, Means AR (2001). "Ca2+/CaM-dependent ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II delta chain is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CAMK2D gene. The ... product of this gene belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase family and to the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ... "Rad and Rad-related GTPases interact with calmodulin and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (18): ...

*CASK

This gene is also known by several other names: CMG 2 (CAMGUK protein 2), calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase 3 ... "Entrez Gene: CASK Calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (MAGUK family)". Tarpey PS, Smith R, Pleasance E, Whibley ... Zhu ZQ, Wang D, Xiang D, Yuan YX, Wang Y (2014). "Calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase is involved in exendin-4- ... "Association of junctional adhesion molecule with calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (CASK/LIN-2) in human ...

*Ira Tabas

Activation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in obesity mediates suppression of hepatic insulin signaling". ... and a calcium-induced apoptosis pathway, which involves an ER calcium-release channel IP3R, a calcium-sensitive protein kinase ... Tabas discovered a calcium-IP3R-CaMKII pathway plays a key role in glucagon-mediated excessive hepatic glucose production, ... One notable finding showed a critical link between the PERK / CHOP branch of the stress Unfolded protein response (UPR) ...

*CAMK2B

... calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) II beta". Walikonis RS, Oguni A, Khorosheva EM, Jeng CJ, ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II beta chain is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CAMK2B gene. The ... Novak G, Seeman P, Tallerico T (2001). "Schizophrenia: elevated mRNA for calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIbeta in ... calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily. Calcium signaling is crucial for several aspects of plasticity at glutamatergic ...

*CAMK

... 1 calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I". Yamauchi, Takashi (2005). "Neuronal Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein ... domain structure and activation by phosphorylation at threonine-177 by calcium-calmodulin dependent protein kinase I kinase". ... "Human calcium-calmodulin dependent protein kinase I: cDNA cloning, ... CAMK, also written as CaMK, is an abbreviation for the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase class of enzymes. CAMKs are ...

*CAMK2A

Phosphorylation by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, protein kinase C, and calcium/calmodulin protein kinase; identification ... "Entrez Gene: CAMK2A calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) II alpha". Walikonis RS, Oguni A, Khorosheva EM, ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II alpha chain (CAMKIIα) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CAMK2A ... p39 interact with the alpha-subunit of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and alpha-actinin-1 in a calcium-dependent ...

*Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II

Calcium-Calmodulin Dependent Protein Kinases at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) To learn ... Ca2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaM kinase II or CaMKII) is a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase that is ... Calcium/ calmodulin dependent protein kinase II is also heavily implicated in long-term potentiation (LTP) - the molecular ... "A pivotal role for the multifunctional calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in T cells: from activation to ...

*NMDA receptor

Neuroscience portal Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases Laube B, Hirai H, Sturgess M, Betz H, Kuhse J (1997). " ... which contain residues that can be directly modified by a series of protein kinases and protein phosphatases, as well as ... "MHC class I immune proteins are critical for hippocampus-dependent memory and gate NMDAR-dependent hippocampal long-term ... Yu XM, Askalan R, Keil GJ, Salter MW (January 1997). "NMDA channel regulation by channel-associated protein tyrosine kinase Src ...

*Liprin-alpha-1

"Liprinalpha1 degradation by calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II regulates LAR receptor tyrosine phosphatase ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the LAR protein tyrosine phosphatase-interacting protein (liprin) family. ... Protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, f polypeptide (PTPRF), interacting protein (liprin), alpha 1 has been shown to ... "Entrez Gene: PPFIA1 protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, f polypeptide (PTPRF), interacting protein (liprin), alpha 1 ...

*D1-D2 dopamine receptor heteromer

Ng J, Rashid AJ, So CH, O'Dowd BF, George SR (Jan 2010). "Activation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIalpha in ... dual functional regulation by G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 285 (45): 35092-103. ... Hasbi A, Fan T, Alijaniaram M, Nguyen T, Perreault ML, O'Dowd BF, George SR (Dec 2009). "Calcium signaling cascade links ... Verma V, Hasbi A, O'Dowd BF, George SR (Nov 2010). "Dopamine D1-D2 receptor Heteromer-mediated calcium release is desensitized ...

*AMPA receptor

"Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II phosphorylation drives synapse-associated protein 97 into spines". J. Biol. Chem ... is the influx of calcium through the NMDA receptors and the resultant activation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ( ... element-binding protein through a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent stimulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase ... "Long-term potentiation is associated with an increased activity of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II". J. Biol. Chem ...

*Beta-catenin

This sudden increase in cytoplasmic calcium activates Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMKII). Activated CaMKII ... Ren J, Li Y, Kufe D (May 2002). "Protein kinase C delta regulates function of the DF3/MUC1 carcinoma antigen in beta-catenin ... There is one additional requirement: Similar to the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), substrates need to associate ... Thus it also requires a "priming kinase" for its activities. In the case of beta-catenin, the most important priming kinase is ...

*Active zone

The increase in presynaptic calcium concentration activates calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK). CaMK ... The protein ELKS binds to the cell adhesion protein, β-neurexin, and other proteins within the complex such as Piccolo and ... that cause a local influx of calcium. The increase in calcium is detected by proteins in the active zone and forces vesicles ... It is stabilized by proteins within the active zone and bound to the presynaptic membrane by SNARE proteins. These vesicles are ...

*CAMKK1

... calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily. This protein plays a role in the calcium/calmodulin-dependent (CaM) kinase ... calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I by calmodulin and by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase". J. Biol. Chem. 273 ... calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV by Ca(2+)-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase Ia kinase. Phosphorylation of threonine ... calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase alpha by cAMP-dependent protein kinase: I. Biochemical analysis". J. Biochem. 130 (4 ...

*CAMK1

Phosphorylation by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, protein kinase C, and calcium/calmodulin protein kinase; identification ... calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I by calmodulin and by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase". J. Biol. Chem. 273 ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I is expressed in many tissues and is a component of a calmodulin-dependent protein ... Calcium/calmodulin directly activates calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I by binding to the enzyme and indirectly ...

*CAMKK2

... and to the Ca++/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily. This protein plays a role in the calcium/calmodulin-dependent ( ... 2005). "Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-beta is an alternative upstream kinase for AMP-activated protein kinase". ... 2005). "Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-beta acts upstream of AMP-activated protein kinase in mammalian cells ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CAMKK2 gene. The product of ...

*CAMK4

Phosphorylation by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, protein kinase C, and calcium/calmodulin protein kinase; identification ... calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I by calmodulin and by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase". J. Biol. Chem. 273 ... and activation of Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV by Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase Ia kinase. ... 2001). "Human Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase beta gene encodes multiple isoforms that display distinct kinase ...

*MLC1

1999). "Death-associated protein kinase 2 is a new calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase that signals apoptosis through ... Membrane protein MLC1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MLC1 gene. MLC1 (also called WKL1) is the only human gene ... homology to other proteins suggests that it may be an integral membrane transport protein. Mutations in this gene have been ... The MLC1 protein contains six putative transmembrane domains (S1-S6) and a pore region (P) between S5 and S6. Furthermore, MLC1 ...

*PPM1F

... a protein kinase mediating biological effects downstream of Rho GTPases. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II gamma ( ... Harvey BP, Banga SS, Ozer HL (2004). "Regulation of the multifunctional Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II by the PP2C ... are Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase phosphatases that promote apoptosis". J Biol Chem. 276 (47): 44193-202. doi: ... Protein phosphatase 1F is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PPM1F gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member ...

*Silent synapse

Ca2+ quickly enters and binds to calmodulin. Calmodulin activates calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), ... and calcium ions. Calcium ion entry into the presynaptic terminal causes the presynaptic release of glutamate, which diffuses ... This gives the NMDAR the property of being voltage-dependent, in that it requires strong postsynaptic depolarization to allow ...

*CAMK2G

"Entrez Gene: CAMK2G calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) II gamma". Moyers JS, Bilan PJ, Zhu J, Kahn CR ( ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II gamma chain is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CAMK2G gene. The ... calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily. Calcium signaling is crucial for several aspects of plasticity at glutamatergic ... "Localization of the CAMKG gene encoding gamma isoforms of multifunctional calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM ...

*Olfactory receptor neuron

The influx of calcium begins a cascade of events within the cell. Calcium first binds to calmodulin to form CaM. CaM will then ... "Molecular cloning and characterization of a calmodulin-dependent phosphodiesterase enriched in olfactory sensory neurons". Proc ... The surface of these cilia is covered with olfactory receptors, a type of G protein-coupled receptor. Each olfactory receptor ... "Phosphorylation and inhibition of olfactory adenylyl cyclase by CaM kinase II in Neurons: a mechanism for attenuation of ...
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Rabbit polyclonal BCKDH kinase antibody validated for WB, IHC and tested in Human and Mouse. Referenced in 1 publication. Immunogen corresponding to…
Recombinant Calcium/calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase IV (CAMK4) Protein (His tag). Spezies: Human. Quelle: Escherichia coli (E. coli). Jetzt Produkt ABIN668012 bestellen.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mutational analysis of Ca2+-independent autophosphorylation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. AU - Mukherji, Sucheta. AU - Soderling, Thomas. PY - 1995/6/9. Y1 - 1995/6/9. N2 - Previous studies with synthetic peptides indicate that residues 290-309, corresponding to the calmodulin (CaM)-binding domain of Ca2+/CaM-dependent protein kinase II interact with the catalytic core of the enzyme as a pseudosubstrate (Colbran, R. J., Smith, M. K., Schworer, C. M., Fong, Y. L., and Soderling, T. R. (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264, 4800-4804). In the present study, we attempted to locate the pseudosubstrate motif by generation or removal of potential substrate recognition sequences (RXXS/T) at selected positions using site-directed mutagenesis. Based on previous results, Arg297, Thr305/306, and Ser314 were selected as key residues. Single mutations such as N294S, K300S, A302R, A309R, and R311A were expressed, purified, and characterized. Several of the mutants exhibited decreased ...
Results We show that culture of MRL/lpr Foxp3-GFP T cells in the presence of KN-93 promotes Treg differentiation in a dose dependent manner (Fig. F). Treatment of MRL/lpr Foxp3-GFP mice with KN-93 results in significant induction of Treg cells in the spleen, peripheral lymph nodes (Fig. B-E) and peripheral blood (Fig. A and B) and this is accompanied by decreased skin and kidney damage. Notably, KN-93 clearly diminishes the accumulation of inflammatory cells along with reciprocally increased Treg cells in target organ.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Amphetamine activate protein kinase C and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase via NMDA receptor in primary cultures of rat cortical neurons. AU - Wu, Hsueh-Hsia. AU - Lee, Horng-Mo. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. M3 - Article. VL - 1. SP - 12. EP - 19. JO - New Taipei Journal of Medicine. JF - New Taipei Journal of Medicine. SN - 1562-4242. ER - ...
Authors Affiliations: 1Dipartimento di Medicina Molecolare e Biotecnologie Mediche, Istituto di Endocrinologia e Oncologia Sperimentale del CNR Naples; 2Department of Neuroscience, Reproductive and Odontostomatological Sciences, University of Naples "Federico II", Naples; 3Department of Medicine-DIMED, Unit of Endocrinology, University of Padua, Padova; and 4Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Salerno, Salerno, ...
Complete information for CAMK4 gene (Protein Coding), Calcium/Calmodulin Dependent Protein Kinase IV, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
The concept of subcellular targeting by anchoring proteins is of major importance for understanding the specificity of signal transduction. The work presented here constitutes the first description of an anchoring protein for multifunctional CaM kinase II. αKAP exhibits three properties expected of anchoring proteins. (i) It is restricted to a specific cellular compartment, it is membrane bound and probably directly inserted into SR membranes by its N‐terminal hydrophobic domain (Figures 3 and 4). (ii) It binds CaM kinase II. This binding occurs within intact cells and not during extraction of transfected cells, since significant interaction was only detected after coexpression of αKAP and CaM kinase II, but not when individually expressed proteins were mixed (Figure 6). (iii) It is responsible for the targeting of the novel βM‐CaM kinase II to the SR, since it co‐immunoprecipitates with kinase extracted from SR membranes and the kinase does not have the physical properties of a ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
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calmodulin-dependent protein kinase V: widely distributed in various tissues, involved in calcium-regulated processes; from rat brain; may exist in 40 & 41 kDa isoforms; amino acid sequence has been determined
Nuclear factor-kappa beta (NF-kβ) pro-inflammatory signalling is important in modulating endothelial dysfunction and may be important in vascular dysfunction associated with the ageing process. Recent studies in the heart have highlighted Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) as a novel regulator of NF-kβ signalling. However nothing is known of the role this interaction could play in regulating dysfunction of the vasculature during ageing. Here we (i) characterise NF-kβ signalling in vascular endothelial cells and examine the potential for CaMKII modulation and (ii) determine whether CaMKIIδ expression is altered in ageing.. Using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) as an in vitro model system, initial experiments have established that pro-inflammatory NF-kB signalling is activated in response to both tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) stimulation. This was shown by a significant reduction in IkBα expression (1.18 ± 0.16 vs. 0.48 ...
CaMKII alpha antibody (calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alpha) for ICC/IF, IHC-Fr, WB. Anti-CaMKII alpha pAb (GTX127939) is tested in Mouse, Rat samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Camk1g - Camk1g (untagged ORF) - Rat calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IG (Camk1g), (10 ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Camk2d2 antibody (calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) II delta 2) for IHC-P, WB. Anti-Camk2d2 pAb (GTX124377) is tested in Zebrafish samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
FUNCTION: ACTIVATES TYROSINE AND TRYPTOPHAN HYDROXYLASES IN THE PRESENCE OF CA(2+)/CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE II, AND STRONGLY ACTIVATES PROTEIN KINASE C. IS PROBABLY A MULTIFUNCTIONAL REGULATOR OF THE CELL SIGNALING PROCESSES MEDIATED BY BOTH KINASES ...
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , FabGennix \ Calmdulin kinase gamma, Host species: Rabbit, Polyclonal antibody \ CaMK-321AP for more molecular products just contact us
Death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) is a pro-apoptotic serine/threonine kinase involved in apoptosis. Aberrant methylation of DAPK was reported in lung cancers by methylation-specific PCR. However, we were unable to relate methylation with gene silencing with the same methodology. Our goals were to develop a methodology that related methylation with gene silencing and use it to study the state of the gene in lung cancers.. Using a semiquantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR, DAPK expression was lower in lung cancers than in corresponding nonmalignant bronchial epithelial cells in five of six primary short-term cultures. In continuous cell lines, mRNA expression was down-regulated, as well as compared with nonmalignant bronchial epithelial cells, and its protein was not detected by Western blotting in 17 of 23 (74%) cell lines. We investigated methylation status of 5 flanking region of DAPK by combined bisulfite restriction analysis and bisulfited DNA sequencing. Aberrant methylation ...
Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is critical for inflammation and control of infection. The production of IL-1β depends on expression of pro-IL-1β and inflammasome component induced by inflammatory stimuli, followed by assembly of inflammasome to generate caspase-1 for cleavage of pro-IL-1β. Here we show that tumor suppressor death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) deficiency impaired IL-1β production in macrophages. Generation of tumor necrosis factor-α in macrophages, in contrast, was not affected by DAPK knockout. Two tiers of defects in IL-1β generation were found in DAPK-deficient macrophages: decreased pro-IL-1β induction by some stimuli and reduced caspase-1 activation by all inflammatory stimuli examined. With a normal NLRP3 induction in DAPK-deficient macrophages, the diminished caspase-1 generation is attributed to impaired inflammasome assembly. There is a direct binding of DAPK to NLRP3, suggesting an involvement of DAPK in inflammasome formation. We further illustrated that the formation of
Raval A, Tanner SM, Byrd JC, Angerman EB, Perko JD, Chen SS, Hackanson B, Grever MR, Lucas DM, Matkovic JJ, Lin TS, Kipps TJ, Murray F, Weisenburger D, Sanger W, Lynch J, Watson P, Jansen M, Yoshinaga Y, Rosenquist R, de Jong PJ, Coggill P, Beck S, Lynch H, de la Chapelle A, Plass C. Downregulation of death-associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1) in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Cell. 2007 Jun 01; 129(5):879-90 ...
Three genes encoding different Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases have been characterized in the wheat phytopathogenic fungus Stagonospora nodorum. The kinases were identified from the S. nodorum genome sequence on the basis of sequence homology to known Ca2+/calmodulin- dependent protein kinases. Expression analysis determined that each of the kinases was expressed during growth in vitro and also during infection. The onset of sporulation triggered increased transcript levels of each of the kinases, particularly CpkA where an 11-fold increase in expression was observed during sporulation in planta. The role of the kinases was further determined via a reverse genetics approach. The disruption of CpkA affected vegetative growth in vitro and also sporulation. The cpkA strains produced 20-fold less spores on complex media and were unable to sporulate on defined minimal media. Infection assays showed that CpkA was not required for lesion development but was essential for sporulation at the ...
Excessive activation of β-adrenergic, angiotensin II, and aldosterone signaling pathways promotes mortality after myocardial infarction (MI), while antagonist drugs targeting these pathways are core therapies for treating post-MI patients. The multifunctional calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is activated by catecholamines and angiotensin II, and CaMKII inhibition prevents isoproterenol- and angiotensin II-mediated cardiomyopathy. Here we ask the hypothesis if aldosterone and CaMKII participated in common responses to MI by developing a mouse MI model supplemented by aldosterone infusion (MI+Aldo) to approximate plasma aldosterone levels measured in MI patients. We find that aldosterone exerts direct toxic actions on myocardium by oxidative activation of CaMKII, causing cardiac rupture and increased mortality in mice after MI (65.5% for aldosterone versus 31.0% for vehicle, P=0.007, n≥19 mice per treatment). Aldosterone oxidizes CaMKII by recruiting NADPH oxidase, and ...
Looking for online definition of CaM kinase II delta subunit in the Medical Dictionary? CaM kinase II delta subunit explanation free. What is CaM kinase II delta subunit? Meaning of CaM kinase II delta subunit medical term. What does CaM kinase II delta subunit mean?
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Stress-activated protein kinases (SAPKs) are stimulated by cell damaging agents as well as by physiological receptor agonists. In this study we show that human platelets contain the isoforms SAPK2a, SAPK2b, SAPK3 and SAPK4 as determined by immunoblotting with specific antibodies. All four kinases were activated in thrombin-stimulated platelets whereas only SAPK2a and SAPK2b were significantly stimulated by collagen. All four isoforms were able to phosphorylate wild-type human cPLA2in vitro, although to different extents, but not cPLA2 mutants that had Ser505 replaced by alanine. Phosphorylation at Ser505 was confirmed by phosphopeptide mapping using microbore HPLC. SAPK2a and 42-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase incorporated similar levels of phosphate into cPLA2 relative to the ability of each kinase to stimulate phosphorylation of myelin basic protein. SAPK2b and SAPK4 incorporated less phosphate, and cPLA2 was a poor substrate for SAPK3. The inhibitor of SAPK2a and SAPK2b, SB 202190, ...
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InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
We investigated the effects of Wenxin Keli (WXKL) on the Calcium/Calmodulin dependent kinase II (CaMK II) signal transduction pathway with transverse aortic constriction (TAC) rats. Echocardiographic measurements were obtained 3 and 9 weeks after the surgery. Meanwhile, the action potentials (APDs) were recorded using the whole-cell patch clamp technique, and western blotting was used to assess components of the CaMK II signal transduction pathway. At both 3 and 9 weeks after treatment, the fractional shortening (FS%) increased in the WXKL group compared with the TAC group. The APD|sub|90|/sub| of the TAC group was longer than that of the Sham group and was markedly shortened by WXKL treatment. Western blotting results showed that the protein expressions of CaMK II, phospholamban (PLB), and ryanodine receptor 2 (RYR2) were not statistically significant among the different groups at both treatment time points. However, WXKL treatment decreased the protein level and phosphorylation of CaMK II (Thr
immune Uncategorized Dinaciclib (SCH 727965) manufacture, Rabbit polyclonal to NFKBIZ. Activation from the RNA-dependent proteins kinase (PKR) continues to be implicated in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative illnesses. not really mediated by PKR inhibition. Using kinase assays we looked into whether PKRi impacts any other proteins kinase. These analyses proven that PKRi does not Dinaciclib (SCH 727965) manufacture have any major inhibitory influence on pro-apoptotic kinases like the c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs), the p38 MAP kinases as well as the death-associated proteins kinases (DAPKs), or on additional kinases including c-Raf, MEK1, MKK7 and MKK6. PKRi does, nevertheless, inhibit the experience of particular cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) including CDK2 and CDK5 both and in LK-treated neurons. In keeping with its inhibitory actions on mitotic CDKs, the treating HT-22 and HEK293T cell lines with PKRi decreases the pace of cell cycle progression sharply. Taken alongside the ...
Anti-peptide antibodies specific for the neuronal calcium channel alpha 1E subunit (anti-CNE1 and anti-CNE2) were produced to study the biochemical properties and subcellular distribution of the alpha 1E polypeptide from rat brain. Immunoblotting identified a single size form of 245-255 kDa which was a substrate for phosphorylation by cAMP- dependent protein kinase, protein kinase C, cGMP-dependent protein kinase, and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. Ligand- binding studies of alpha 1E indicate that it is not a high affinity receptor for the dihydropyridine isradipine or the peptide toxins omega- conotoxin GVIA or omega-conotoxin MVIIC at concentrations which elicit high affinity binding to other channel types in the same membrane preparation. The alpha 1E subunit is widely distributed in the brain with the most prominent immunocytochemical staining in deep midline structures such as caudate-putamen, thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala, cerebellum, and a variety of nuclei in the ...
CAMK2A - CAMK2A (Myc-DDK-tagged)-Human calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alpha (CAMK2A), transcript variant 2 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Since its inception, the "synaptic tagging hypothesis" has inspired many to search for synaptic tags. However, very few molecules have been proposed as candidates (Frey and Frey, 2008). The nature and identity of PRPs and synaptic tags are under intensive investigations (Frey and Frey, 2008). Two pathway experiments showed that blockade of protein kinase A (PKA) or its interaction with A kinase-anchoring proteins (AKAPs) prevents synaptic capture, suggesting that PKA or its anchoring at active synapses may serve as a synaptic tag for L-LTP (Huang et al., 2006; Young et al., 2006). Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is also implicated as an L-LTP-specific tag (Sajikumar et al., 2007). Studies thus far have been based on the use of pharmacological inhibitors in two-pathway experiments. However, it is necessary to show that these tags are transiently and locally activated in a protein synthesis-independent manner by weak stimulation. In a recent study, NMDA-dependent, ...
Multiple calmodulin (CaM) isoforms are expressed in plants, but their biochemical characteristics are not well resolved. Here we show the differential regulation exhibited by two soya bean CaM isoforms (SCaM-1 and SCaM-4) for the activation of five CaM-dependent enzymes, and the Ca2+ dependence of their target enzyme activation. SCaM-1 activated myosin light-chain kinase as effectively as brain CaM (Kact 1.8 and 1.7nM respectively), but SCaM-4 produced no activation of this enzyme. Both CaM isoforms supported near maximal activation of CaM-dependent protein kinase II (CaM KII), but SCaM-4 exhibited approx.12-fold higher Kact than SCaM-1 for CaM KII phosphorylation of caldesmon. The SCaM isoforms showed differential activation of plant and animal Ca2+-ATPases. The plant Ca2+-ATPase was activated maximally by both isoforms, while the erythrocyte Ca2+-ATPase was activated only by SCaM-1. Plant glutamate decarboxylase was activated fully by SCaM-1, but SCaM-4 exhibited an approx. 4-fold increase ...
1MXE: Structure of the Complex of Calmodulin with the Target Sequence of Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase I: Studies of the Kinase Activation Mechanism
Some receptors for growth factors activate a protein kinase cascade, with the participation of multiple enzymes to effect a change in gene expression. Which of the following statements about a protein kinase cascade are true?. ...
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Small molecule inhibitors of the human sirtuins and calmodulin-dependent protein kinases have shown promising anti-cancer activity in cell-based screens and animal models. We have synthesized analogues of these compounds, identifying more selective sirtuin inhibitors and more potent calmodulin-dependent protein kinase inhibitors.The sirtuins are a family of NAD+-dependent deacetylases that regulate cellular aging and gene silencing in simple organisms and appear to play important regulatory roles in human cells that make them attractive anti-cancer targets. We have previously identified the compound cambinol, an inhibitor of the human sirtuins SIRT1 and SIRT2, which is selectively toxic to Burkitts lymphoma cells. In order to determine which sirtuin is the relevant target, we screened analogues of cambinol, identifying compounds that exhibited moderate selectivity for both SIRT1 and SIRT2. The compound JP136 is ten-fold more selective in vitro for SIRT1 over SIRT2, with respective IC50s of 13 ...
Our data show that LTP inducing stimulation produces a 6-fold increase in endogenous synapsin I phosphorylation at its CaM kinase II sites. The observed rise in synapsin I phosphorylation occurred rapidly after the stimulation and persisted for at least 30 min. Most importantly, this effect was not observed in the presence of the NMDA receptor antagonist APV, suggesting that the rise in synapsin I phosphorylation is due to the LTP-inducing nature of the stimulation. Since synapsin I is localized exclusively in the presynaptic terminal, our data provide strong evidence that LTP expression is accompanied by persistent biochemical changes in the presynaptic terminal. Because the observed LTP-associated presynaptic changes require NMDA receptor activation, these data support models of LTP in which a retrograde messenger (generated subsequent to postsynaptic NMDA receptor activation) may produce presynaptic changes underlying LTP (36-38).. The mechanism by which LTP induction might lead to this ...
Mouse eggs are ovulated following arrest at metaphase of the second meiotic division (metII). Fertilization breaks this arrest, with the egg extruding a second polar body (PB2) and forming pronuclei. Ca2+ spikes induced by phospholipase C zeta, which are introduced into the egg on gamete fusion, are responsible for causing the degradation of Erp1/Emi2 (Fbxo43 - Mouse Genome Informatics) (Ducibella and Fissore, 2008; Jones, 2005; Mehlmann, 2005; Swann et al., 2006). Erp1/Emi2 loss activates the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) and so drives exit from meiosis (Madgwick et al., 2006; Shoji et al., 2006).. In frog eggs, the Ca2+ fertilization signal switches on calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CamKII; Camk2), which phosphorylates Erp1/Emi2 and so promotes its degradation (Liu and Maller, 2005; Rauh et al., 2005; Schmidt et al., 2005). Consistent with this more recent development in the understanding of the molecular events of activation, it had been discovered several years previously, also ...
Looking for online definition of CaM-kinase II alpha chain in the Medical Dictionary? CaM-kinase II alpha chain explanation free. What is CaM-kinase II alpha chain? Meaning of CaM-kinase II alpha chain medical term. What does CaM-kinase II alpha chain mean?
MAPK8 [ENSP00000378974]. Stress-activated protein kinase JNK1; Serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in various processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, transformation and programmed cell death. Extracellular stimuli such as proinflammatory cytokines or physical stress stimulate the stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SAP/JNK) signaling pathway. In this cascade, two dual specificity kinases MAP2K4/MKK4 and MAP2K7/MKK7 phosphorylate and activate MAPK8/JNK1. In turn, MAPK8/JNK1 phosphorylates a number of transcription factors, primarily components of AP-1 such as JUN, JDP2 and ATF2 and thus regulates AP-1 transcriptional activity. Phosphorylates the replication licensing factor CDT1, inhibiting the interaction between CDT1 and the histone H4 acetylase HBO1 to replication origins. Loss of this interaction abrogates the acetylation required for replication initiation. Promotes stressed cell apoptosis by phosphorylating key regulatory factors including ...
Objectives:Sepsis is associated with cardiac contractile dysfunction attributed to alterations in Ca2+ handling. We examined the subcellular mechanisms involved in sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ loss that mediate altered Ca2+ handling and contractile dysfunction associated with sepsis.Design:Randomized
Greiser and colleagues (10) also report that, consistent with previous studies, the remaining RyR2 clusters were hyperphosphorylated at the protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation site (Ser2808), which may compensate for the reduction in RyR2 protein expression and help sustain subsarcolemmal Ca2+ release despite reduced L-type Ca2+ currents (Figure 1B). However, RAP myocytes exhibited reduced RyR2 phosphorylation at the calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) phosphorylation site (Ser2815) and no changes in CaMKII activity. This finding contrasts with previous studies that reported increased atrial CaMKII activity and CaMKII-dependent RyR2-Ser2815 phosphorylation in human AF (5). Moreover, other studies have shown that treatment with CaMKII inhibitors or selective disruption of the Ser2815 CaMKII phosphorylation site prevented AF in animal models through a reduction of SR Ca2+ leak (12). One explanation for this discrepancy could be the limited duration of pacing in the rabbit model used ...
MK08_HUMAN] Serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in various processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, transformation and programmed cell death. Extracellular stimuli such as proinflammatory cytokines or physical stress stimulate the stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SAP/JNK) signaling pathway. In this cascade, two dual specificity kinases MAP2K4/MKK4 and MAP2K7/MKK7 phosphorylate and activate MAPK8/JNK1. In turn, MAPK8/JNK1 phosphorylates a number of transcription factors, primarily components of AP-1 such as JUN, JDP2 and ATF2 and thus regulates AP-1 transcriptional activity. Phosphorylates the replication licensing factor CDT1, inhibiting the interaction between CDT1 and the histone H4 acetylase HBO1 to replication origins. Loss of this interaction abrogates the acetylation required for replication initiation. Promotes stressed cell apoptosis by phosphorylating key regulatory factors including p53/TP53 and Yes-associates protein YAP1. In ...
Objective: An increase in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) leads to augmentation of late sodium current (late INa) by activating Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK-II). The objective of this study was to confirm our hypothesis that both CaMK-II and protein kinase C (PKC) are the signaling molecules whose activation result in increased late INa in the presence of an increased [Ca2+]i.. Methods: Whole-cell and open-cell patch clamp techniques were used to record late INa in rabbit ventricular myocytes dialyzed with pipette solutions containing various concentrations (0.1, 0.3 and 0.6 μM) of [Ca2+]i in the absence and presence of CaMK-II (KN-93), PKC (bisindolylmaleimide, Bim) and MAPK (U0126) inhibitors in the bath solution.. Results: Increases in [Ca2+]i from 0.1 to 0.6 μM resulted in an augmentation of late INa from 0.30 ± 0.03 to 0.45 ± 0.03 pA/pF (n=8-10, p,0.01) in a concentration dependent manner, which was associated with an increase in mean Na+ channel open ...
Introduction: Glutamate excitotoxicity is an important mechanism of ischemic neuronal damage, however inhibition of glutamate receptors has proven an unsuccessful strategy. Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a major downstream target of glutamate signaling. The aim of this study is to examine the neuroprotective potential of inhibition of autonomous CaMKII activity using novel peptide inhibitors (tatCN21,19o) and transgenic mice.. Methods: C57BL/6 male wild-type (WT) and T286A mutant mice were subjected to 6 min of cardiac arrest and CPR. Mice were randomized to tatCN21 (1 mg/kg), tatCN19o (0.01,0.1,1 mg/kg) or control (tatSCR; 1 mg/kg), administered 30 min after CPR (iv). Separate experiments were performed to assess mild post-arrest hypothermia (rectal T = 34 ±0.2 °C for 1 hr after CPR). Hippocampal neuronal damage was analyzed 3 days after CA/CPR by H&E staining. Total CaMKII and Thr-286 phosphorylation levels were measured by western blot. Statistical analyses were ...
Death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) is really a calmodulin-regulated serine/threonine kinase and possesses apoptotic and tumor-suppressive functions. in regulating cell polarity during migration, which might work as well as its apoptotic function to suppress tumor development. Intro Cell migration is vital for many natural procedures, AZD4547 including embryonic advancement, wound curing, and immune monitoring. Migration is really a complicated and extremely coordinated process that will require a cell to polarize, expand protrusions in direction of motion, type adhesions at the best advantage, translocate the cell body, and, finally, detach through the substratum in the trailing advantage (Lauffenburger and Horwitz, 1996; Ridley et al., 2003). Directed cell migration is normally initiated in response to extracellular cues such as for example chemoattractants, development factors, as well as the extracellular matrix. The establishment and maintenance of polarity during directed migration are ...
p42 MAP Kinase (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase, MAPK), also known as Erk2 (Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2) is one of two isoforms of MAP kinase family. It is a serine/threonine protein kinase
Calcium and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) plays a fundamental role in the synaptic plasticity events that underlie learning and memory. Regulation of CaMKII kinase activity occurs through an autoinhibitory mechanism in which a regulatory domain of the kinase occupies the catalytic site and calcium/calmodulin activates the kinase by binding to and displacing this regulatory domain. A single putative ortholog of CaMKII, encoded by unc-43, is present in the Caenorhabditis elegans nervous system. Here we examined UNC-43 subcellular localization in the neurons of intact animals and show that UNC-43 is localized to clusters in ventral cord neurites, as well as to an unlocalized pool within these neurites. A mutation that mimics autophosphorylation within the regulatory domain results in an increase in the levels of UNC-43 in the unlocalized neurite pool. Multiple residues of CaMKII facilitate the interaction between the catalytic domain and the regulatory domain, thereby keeping the ...
Rabbit recombinant monoclonal Myosin light chain kinase antibody [EP1458Y] validated for WB, IHC, Flow Cyt, ICC/IF and tested in Human, Mouse and Rat…
Osteosarcoma is among the most frequently occurring primary bone tumors, primarily affecting adolescents and young adults. Despite improvements in osteosarcoma treatment, more specific molecular targets are needed as potential therapeutic options. One target of interest is α-Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (α-CaMKII), a ubiquitous mediator of Ca2+-linked signaling, which has been shown to regulate tumor cell proliferation and differentiation. Here, we investigate the role of α-CaMKII in the growth and tumorigenicity of human osteosarcoma. We show that α-CaMKII is highly expressed in primary osteosarcoma tissue derived from 114 patients, and is expressed in varying levels in different human osteosarcoma (OS) cell lines [MG-63, N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)/HOS, and 143B). To examine whether α-CaMKII regulates osteosarcoma tumorigenic properties, we genetically inhibited α-CaMKII in two osteosarcoma cell lines using two different α-CaMKII shRNAs delivered by ...
Shop Spermatozoon-associated protein kinase ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Spermatozoon-associated protein kinase Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
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12 P P PP P Glu PresynapticTermi nal Glu Ca ++ GLUR (Group- I ) iGLUR GLUR (Group- II,III ) GPCR ATP cAMP CamK- II CamK- IV CamK- II Calm PKC DAG IP3RIP3R PKC c-Raf MEKs Akt ERK1/2 p90RSK S133 CBP p300 Co-factor RNA Pol- II Gene Expression Gene Expression PKA GsGs GG GG GG GG GG GG GG GG GG Growth Factors Growth Factors Growth Factor Receptor Growth Factor Receptor TF II B CREB Pathway Neuron PLC TATA CRE SRE P Elk1 CREBCREB CREBCREB TBP Hormones/ Neurotransmitters IP3 PI3K GRB2 SOS Ac PI CaCn Ras 2009 ProteinLounge.com 2009 ProteinLounge.com C The molecular brain! ...
human CaM Kinase 4/CaMKIV gene cDNA, cloning vector & expression plasmid, mutiple tags. Optimized for high expression in mammalian cells. Save up to 60%.
DAXX(death-domain associated protein) also known as DAP6(Death-associated protein 6) or BING2, was first discovered through its cytoplasmic…
Monoklonale und polyklonale MAPKAP Kinase 2 Antikörper für viele Methoden. Ausgesuchte Qualitäts-Hersteller für MAPKAP Kinase 2 Antikörper. Hier bestellen.
Supplementary MaterialsText S1: Supplementary materials and strategies(0. DOC) pone.0006162.s009.doc (51K) GUID:?0E3CC820-5208-4049-BD38-17C589D75924 Desk S8: Assessment of CV between nERGs and tERGs in the dataset(0.04 MB DOC) Read More ...
高い抗原親和性、特異性と安定した品質を兼ね備えたアブカムのウサギ・モノクローナル抗体 RabMAb® ab32133 交差種: Ms,Rat,Hu 適用: WB,IP,IHC-P,Flow Cyt,ChIP
Lys-Lys-Lys-Leu-Arg-Arg-Gln-Glu-Ala-Phe-Asp-Ala-Tyr4374-v 0.5 mg | 90.00 EUR[Lys3, Phe10, Tyr13]-Autocamtide-2-Related Inhibitory Peptide ...
Plasmid pDONR223-DAPK2 from Dr. William Hahns lab contains the insert DAPK2 and is published in Nature. 2010 Nov 24. ():. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
The p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signal transduction pathway is activated by proinflammatory cytokines and environmental stress. The detection of p38 MAP kinase in the nucleus of activated cells suggests that p38 MAP kinase can mediate signaling to the nucleus. To test this hypothesis, we constructed expression vectors for activated MKK3 and MKK6, two MAP kinase kinases that phosphorylate and activate p38 MAP kinase. Expression of activated MKK3 and MKK6 in cultured cells caused a selective increase in p38 MAP kinase activity. Cotransfection experiments demonstrated that p38 MAP kinase activation causes increased reporter gene expression mediated by the transcription factors ATF2 and Elk-1. These data demonstrate that the nucleus is one target of the p38 MAP kinase signal transduction pathway. ...
Activation of a calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase associated with rabbit skeletal-muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) results in the phosphorylation of polypeptides of 450, 360, 165, 105, 89, 60, 34 and 20 kDa. Radioligand-binding studies indicated that a membrane-bound 60 kDa polypeptide contained both CaM- and ATP-binding domains. Under renaturing conditions on nitrocellulose blots, the 60 kDa polypeptide of the membrane exhibited CaM-dependent autophosphorylation activity, suggesting that it was the CaM-dependent protein kinase of SR. Ca2+/CaM-independent autophosphorylation of polypeptides of 62 and 45 kDa was found to occur in the light SR, whereas the Ca2+/CaM-dependent autophosphorylation activity was enriched in the heavy SR. Both these kinase activities were absent from transverse tubules, although these membranes were enriched in CaM-binding polypeptides of 160, 100 and 80 kDa. In the absence of Ca2+, CaM bound to a 33 kDa polypeptide of the membrane. The purified ryanodine ...
To elucidate mechanisms that control and execute activity-dependent synaptic plasticity, α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate receptors (AMPA-Rs) with an electrophysiological tag were expressed in rat hippocampal neurons. Long-term potentiation (LTP) or increased activity of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) induced delivery of tagged AMPA-Rs into synapses. This effect was not diminished by mutating the CaMKII phosphorylation site on the GluR1 AMPA-R subunit, but was blocked by mutating a predicted PDZ domain interaction site. These results show that LTP and CaMKII activity drive AMPA-Rs to synapses by a mechanism that requires the association between GluR1 and a PDZ domain protein. ...
Objective: Sucralose, a high-intensity sweetener, has been approved as a general-purpose sweetener in all food since the late 1990s. Due to its good taste and physiochemical profile, its use has increased and sucralose is considered a way of managing health and an option to improve the quality of life in the diabetic population. Recently high concentrations of sucralose have been found in the environment. Other environmental pollutants have been shown to induce neurotoxic effects when administered during a period of rapid brain growth and development. This period of rapid brain growth and development is postnatal in mice and rats, spanning the first 3-4 wk of life, reaching its peak around postnatal day 10, whereas in humans, brain growth and development is perinatal. The proteins calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, growth-associated protein-43, synaptophysin, and tau play important roles during brain growth and development.. Methods: In the present study, mice were orally exposed to ...
Rationale:: In the failing heart, persistent β-adrenergic receptor (βAR) activation is thought to induce myocyte death by protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent and PKA-independent activation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) β-Adrenergic signaling pathways are also capable of activating cardioprotective mechanisms. Objective: This study used a novel PKA inhibitor peptide (PKI) to inhibit PKA activity to test the hypothesis that βAR signaling causes cell death through PKA-dependent pathways and cardioprotection through PKA-independent pathways. Methods and Results: In PKI transgenic mice, chronic isoproterenol (ISO) failed to induce cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, myocyte apoptosis and depressed cardiac function. In cultured adult feline ventricular myocytes (AFVMs), PKA inhibition protected myocytes from death induced byβ1-AR agonists by preventing cytosolic and SR Ca2+ overload and CaMKII activation. PKA inhibition revealed a cardioprotective role of β-adrenergic signaling via ...
Although most cases of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL, one of the most common forms of adult leukemia) are sporadic, perhaps 10 to 20% are familial (see Debatin). Noting that aberrant DNA methylation--and thereby abnormal gene silencing--was emerging as a factor in CLL, Raval et al. performed quantitative high-throughput analysis to investigate DNA methylation in the CpG island of DAPK1 (death-associated protein kinase 1). DNA methylation of DAPK1 gene, which encodes a serine/threonine kinase implicated in promoting apoptosis in response to Fas, interferon-γ, and TNF-α, was increased in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and CD19+ B cells from people with CLL compared with that in cells from healthy volunteers. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated that DAPK1 expression was decreased in CD19+ CLL cells compared with that in B lymphocytes, and methylation reduced activity of a gene reporter containing a region of the DAPK1 promoter. Genome-wide linkage analysis ...
Purification and characterization of two isoenzymes of DL-glycerol-3-phosphatase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Identification of the corresponding GPP1 and GPP2 genes and evidence for osmotic regulation of Gpp2p expression by the osmosensing mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction pathway ...
Control of cardiomyocyte cytosolic Ca(2+) levels is crucial in determining inotropic status and ischemia/reperfusion stress response. Responsive to fluctuations in cellular Ca(2+), Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a serine/threonine kinase integral to the processes regulating cardiomyocyte Ca(2+) channels/transporters. CaMKII is primarily expressed either in the δB or δC splice variant forms, which may mediate differential influences on cardiomyocyte function and pathological response mechanisms. Increases in myocyte Ca(2+) levels promote the binding of a Ca(2+)/calmodulin complex to CaMKII, to activate the kinase. Activity is also maintained through a series of post-translational modifications within a critical region of the regulatory domain of the protein. Recent data indicate that the post-translational modification status of CaMKIIδB/δC variants may have an important influence on reperfusion outcomes. This study provided the first evidence that the specific type ...
All living cells require energy, usually provided in the form of ATP, to carry out fundamental processes like movement and growth. Therefore, cells have to balance energy supply with the demand. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has emerged as a central component of a signalling pathway involved in regulating intracellular energy homeostasis. When ADP and AMP levels increase, concomitant with a fall in ATP levels, AMPK is activated by phosphorylation on threonine-172 within the catalytic a subunit by upstream kinases including LKB1 and calcium/calmodulin protein kinase kinase (CaMKK) ß. Once activated, AMPK responds by phosphorylating downstream targets, the net effect of which is to switch off ATP-consuming processes and switch on ATP-producing processes. When the levels of nucleotides are restored to normal physiological concentrations, AMPK is inactivated by an unknown protein phosphatase(s). Major advances have been made over the last five years in understanding the molecular mechanism of how
The product of this gene belongs to the Serine/Threonine protein kinases family, and to the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases subfamily. Calcium signaling is crucial for several aspects of plasticity at glutamatergic synapses. This enzyme is composed of four different chains: alpha, beta, gamma, and delta. The alpha chain encoded by this gene is required for hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and spatial learning. In addition to its calcium-calmodulin (CaM)-dependent activity, this protein can undergo autophosphorylation, resulting in CaM-independent activity. Two transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the dual specificity protein kinase family, which acts as a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase kinase. MAP kinases, also known as extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals. This protein kinase lies upstream of MAP kinases and stimulates the enzymatic activity of MAP kinases upon wide variety of extra- and intracellular signals. As an essential component of MAP kinase signal transduction pathway, this kinase is involved in many cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, transcription regulation and development ...
Human granulocytes are characterized by a variety of specific effector functions involved in host defense. Several widely expressed protein kinases have been implicated in the regulation of these effector functions. A polymerase chain reaction- based strategy was used to identify novel granulocyte-specific kinases.Anovel protein kinase complementary DNA with an open reading frame of 357 amino acids was identified with homology ... read more to calciumcalmodulin- dependent kinase I (CaMKI). This has been termed CaMKI-like kinase (CKLiK). Analysis of CKLiK messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in hematopoietic cells demonstrated an almost exclusive expression in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN). Up-regulation of CKLiK mRNA occurs during neutrophilic differentiation of CD341 stem cells. CKLiK kinase activity was dependent on Ca11 and calmodulin as analyzed by in vitro phosphorylation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate responsive element modulator (CREM). Furthermore, CKLiKtransfected cells treated ...
Song, S. H., & Augustine, G. J. (2016). Synapsin isoforms regulating GABA release from hippocampal interneurons. The Journal of Neuroscience, 36(25), 6742-6757. PMID: 27335405. Wahba, G., Hebert, A. E., Grynspan, D., Staines, W., & Schock, S. (2016). A rapid and efficient method for dissociated cultures of mouse myenteric neurons. Journal of neuroscience methods, 261, 110-116. PMID: 26706461. Magupalli, V. G., Mochida, S., Yan, J., Jiang, X., Westenbroek, R. E., Nairn, A. C., Scheuer, T. & Catterall, W. A. (2013). Ca2+-independent activation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II bound to the C-terminal domain of CaV2. 1 calcium channels. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 288(7), 4637-4648. PMID: 23255606. Kurtis D. Davies, Susan M. Goebel-Goody, Steven J. Coultrap, and Michael D. Browning (2008) Long Term Synaptic Depression That Is Associated with GluR1 Dephosphorylation but Not-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic Acid (AMPA)Receptor Internalization J. Biol. Chem., 283: 33138 ...
Background: Hypertensive cardiomyopathy or pathophysiological changes in myocardial structure and function caused by hypertension is a growing clinical problem due to the ageing population and a lack of curative therapies. The onset of the disease is often clinically silent, progressing over time to therapy-resistant symptomatic forms. Existing therapeutic concepts are, therefore, symptom-oriented and tailored for advanced stages of cardiac remodeling. Understanding molecular processes driving early hypertension-induced changes may improve diagnosis and treatment options.. Recent evidence positions changes in Ca2+ cycling as an early promoter of cardiac remodeling via Ca2+-mediated regulation of transcription. The enzyme Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) has a central role in this process, as it can translate fine changes in Ca2+ fluxes into altered gene expression. However, the specific regulation of this so-called excitation-transcription coupling in hypertensive ...
Since the publication of Protein Kinases in 1994 many novel protein kinases have been discovered, but perhaps more importantly there have been dramatic advances in our understanding of the cellular functions of this remarkably diverse class of proteins. Protein Kinase Functions is not just an update of the previous edition but provides a new focus on the context and function of protein kinases, thus reflecting the recent advances in kinase biology.
First let me go back to my concerns about curcumin. Curcumin is a c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor. [1,2] This thing, a c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) is also known as a stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK). Even the abbreviation SAPK is a mouthful but anyway, SAPK activation is necessary for cell death in response to exposure to certain forms of stress (including various chemotherapeutic agents) and defects in SAPK signaling promote cell survival. In other words curcumin makes it harder for stress or injury to kill a cell. Generally this is a good thing except when the stress and trauma happen to be chemotherapy which you are giving on purpose to kill cells. The study which started this entire worry showed that in a test tube, breast cancer cells being treated with Adriamycin or Cytoxan were somewhat protected by curcumin.[3 ...
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Supplementary MaterialsSupplementary Information Supplementary Information srep09356-s1. wide variety of body liquids, specifically as steady protein-linked and microvesicle-linked miRNAs in bloodstream7,8,9. Although little happens to be Read More. ...
Z3330795 (talk) 16:14, 11 April 2013 (EST)FAK-Focal Adhesion Kinase Antibody --Z3376548 (talk) 16:15, 11 April 2013 (EST) Catenin beta Antibody (6F9) --Z3374087 (talk) 16:15, 11 April 2013 (EST)alpha-2-catenin --Z3331321 (talk) 16:16, 11 April 2013 (EST) Anti-α-E-Catenin Rabbit ...
Z3330795 (talk) 16:14, 11 April 2013 (EST)FAK-Focal Adhesion Kinase Antibody --Z3376548 (talk) 16:15, 11 April 2013 (EST) Catenin beta Antibody (6F9) --Z3374087 (talk) 16:15, 11 April 2013 (EST)alpha-2-catenin --Z3331321 (talk) 16:16, 11 April 2013 (EST) Anti-α-E-Catenin Rabbit ...
Background: CaMKK β is a major kinase activated by elevated levels of intracellular calcium. Our previous data has suggested that CaMKK β is neuroprotective after stroke in young mice as inhibition of this kinase aggravated stroke outcome. As aging is an important determinant of stroke outcomes, here we evaluated the functional role of CaMKK β in stroke in aged mice.. Methods: Aged wild type (WT) males received intracerebral injections of lentiviral vectors carrying either CaMKK β (LV-CaMKK β) or GFP (LV-GFP) 7 days before middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO, 90 minutes). Acute infarcts and neurological deficits scores were then analyzed at 72 hours post MCAO. In chronic survival studies, aged male CaMKK β knockout (KO) and WT mice were subjected to 60 minutes MCAO. Following stroke, long-term behavioral assessments were continuously performed for 3 weeks in KO and WT mice until the sacrifice for tissue loss assessments.. Results: Baseline levels of CaMKK β in aged brain were ...
Price for Single User $ 3080 USD :: MAP Kinase Interacting Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase 1 (MAP Kinase Signal Integrating Kinase 1 or MKNK1 or EC 2.7.11.1) - Pipeline Review, H2 2016SummaryGlobal Markets Directs, MAP Kinase Interacting Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase 1 (MAP Kinase
MAP kinases are key mediators of cellular differentiation and proliferation in all animals, and they function in receptor tyrosine kinase/Ras signaling pathways (reviewed in Marshall 1994). MAP kinase plays an important role in the Ras signaling pathway because it can activate downstream substrates that directly mediate the cellular response to growth factors, suggesting that MAP kinase acts near or at the end of this signaling pathway (reviewed in Treisman 1996).. MAP kinases are activated when they become phosphorylated by the protein kinase MEK (MAP or ERK kinase; Adams and Parker 1992; Crewset al. 1992b). The major known substrate for MEK is currently MAP kinase, suggesting that the predominant function of MEK may be to activate MAP kinase (Segeret al. 1992). Once activated, a significant fraction of MAP kinase molecules translocate to the nucleus, and many important MAP kinase substrates are localized in the nucleus (e.g., the mammalian transcription factors Elk-1 and Ets-1 (reviewed in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Persistent reversal of enhanced amphetamine intake by transient CaMKII inhibition. AU - Loweth, Jessica A.. AU - Li, Dongdong. AU - Cortright, James J.. AU - Wilke, Georgia. AU - Jeyifous, Okunola. AU - Neve, Rachael L.. AU - Bayer, K. Ulrich. AU - Vezina, Paul. PY - 2013/1/23. Y1 - 2013/1/23. N2 - Amphetamine exposure transiently increases Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) α expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) shell and this persistently increases local GluA1 S831 phosphorylation and enhances behavioral responding to the drug. Here we assessed whether transiently interfering with CaMKII signaling using a dominant-negative CaMKIIα mutant delivered to the NAcc shell with herpes simplex viral vectors could reverse these long-lasting biochemical and behavioral effects observed following exposure to amphetamine. As expected, transient expression of CaMKIIα K42M in the NAcc shell produced a corresponding transient increase in CaMKIIα and decrease in ...
Mitogen-activated protein kinase 13 (MAPK 13), also known as stress-activated protein kinase 4 (SAPK4), is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAPK13 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the MAP kinase family. MAP kinases act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals, and are involved in a wide variety of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, transcription regulation and development. This kinase is closely related to p38 MAP kinase, both of which can be activated by proinflammatory cytokines and cellular stress. MAP kinase kinases 3, and 6 can phosphorylate and activate this kinase. Transcription factor ATF2, and microtubule dynamics regulator stathmin have been shown to be the substrates of this kinase. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000156711 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000004864 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: mitogen-activated protein kinase 13". ...
Vol 8: DRP-1, ezrin and E-cadherin expression and the association with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.. This article is from Oncology Letters, volume 8.AbstractIt has been shown that death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) fa. Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Author Summary Memory is understood as strengthened synaptic connections among neurons. Paradoxically components of synaptic membranes are relatively short-lived and frequently re-cycled while memories can last a lifetime. This suggests synaptic information is encoded at a deeper, finer-grained scale of molecular information within post-synaptic neurons. Long-term memory requires genetic expression, protein synthesis, and delivery of new synaptic components. How are these changes guided on the molecular level? The calcium-calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) has been heavily implicated in the strengthening of active neural connections. CaMKII interacts with various substrates including microtubules (MTs). MTs maintain cellular structure, and facilitate cellular cargo transport, effectively controlling neural architecture. Memory formation requires reorientation of this network. Could CaMKII-MT interactions be the molecular level encoding required to orchestrate neural plasticity? Using
3VUM: Seven cysteine-deficient mutants depict the interplay between thermal and chemical stabilities of individual cysteine residues in mitogen-activated protein kinase c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1
Expression of integrin αvβ3 is increased on endothelial cells after exposure to bFGF in vitro (Cheng and Kramer, 1989; Senger et al., 1996; Boudreau et al., 1997) and angiogenic blood vessels in vivo (Brooks et al., 1994a,b, 1995). In addition, integrin αvβ3 expression on chick CAM angiogenic blood vessels has been linked to the ability of bFGF to promote expression of the Hox D3 homeobox gene in these tissues (Boudreau et al., 1997). While αvβ3 was detectable on preexisting blood vessels in 10-d-old chick CAMs, αvβ3 levels were not significantly increased above this baseline level for at least 12 h after bFGF treatment. This suggests that the preexisting levels of αvβ3 are sufficient to initiate this sustained phase of MAP kinase activity in these blood vessels and that the requirement of αvβ3 ligation for the sustained MAP kinase activity in blood vessels within 4 h was independent of an increase in the total expression of αvβ3 protein. To support the model that integrin-mediated ...
The Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a major mediator of long-term potentiation (LTP) and depression (LTD), two opposing forms of synaptic plasticity underlying learning, memory and cognition. The heterozygous CaMKIIα isoform KO (CaMKIIα+/-) mice have a schizophrenia-related phenotype, including impaired working memory. Here, we examined synaptic strength and plasticity in two brain areas implicated in working memory, hippocampus CA1 and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Young CaMKIIα+/- mice (postnatal days 12-16; corresponding to a developmental stage well before schizophrenia manifestation in humans) showed impaired hippocampal CA1 LTP. However, this LTP impairment normalized over development and was no longer detected in older CaMKIIα+/- mice (postnatal weeks 9-11; corresponding to young adults). By contrast, the CaMKIIα+/- mice failed to show the developmental increase of basal synaptic transmission in the CA1 seen in wild-type (WT) mice, resulting in impaired basal
Studies over the past decade have demonstrated that SR Ca2+ release is abnormal in patients with chronic AF.2 Whereas the amplitude of the L-type Ca2+ current is generally decreased in AF, Ca2+ leak through RyR2 is typically elevated despite similar or decreased SR Ca2+ contents.2,5 It has been proposed that triggered activity due to DADs is caused by an inward depolarizing INCX current, which occurs in response to the removal of excess Ca2+ release from the cytosol.9,10 We provide direct experimental evidence for this mechanism in the FKBP12.6−/− mouse model of AF. Our data revealed that FKBP12.6−/− mice exhibit atrial focal activity and AF caused by SR Ca2+ leak, NCX activation, and DADs generation. Because recent studies revealed that CaMKII phosphorylation of RyR2 at S2814 is elevated in patients with chronic AF,4,5 we investigated whether inhibition of S2814 phosphorylation of RyR2 affected susceptibility of FKBP12.6−/− to AF. Our results demonstrate that inhibition of S2814 but ...
SKF83959 is a high affinity dopamine D1 receptor agonist that has been reported to preferentially activate D1 receptors coupled to G(alpha)q. This pathway results in phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis, intracellular calcium mobilization, and potential activation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alpha (CaMKIIalpha), an important regulator of synaptic transmission. Although the exact mechanism remains unclear, one recent model suggested that SKF83959 activates a D1/D2 receptor heteromer complex coupled to G(alpha)q. Here, we have used genetic models to define the signaling specificity of SKF83959 using behavioral endpoints. Furthermore, we have extended the behavioral characterization of SKF83959 on motor output and additionally defined SKF83959-induced effects on anxiety and depressive-like behaviors. In wildtype mice, a peripheral injection of SKF83959 (1mg/kg) produced a modest but significant increase in horizontal locomotor activity and orofacial grooming. The SKF83959-induced ...
Cells continually make decisions about their fate: growth, death or differentiation. These decisions frequently are determined by signal transduction cascades of small GTP-binding proteins and protein kinases, which are activated in response to extracellular signals. Our laboratory utilizes tools of cell biology, protein chemistry and molecular biology to understand how signal transduction controls cell growth and apoptosis, how these controls are altered in cancer, and how this information can be used to improve cancer treatment. MAP kinases: regulation and function. MAP Kinase cascades are among the most thoroughly studied of signal transduction systems, and have been shown to participate in a diverse array of cellular programs including cell differentiation, cell movement, cell division and cell death. They typically are organized in a three-kinase architecture consisting of a MAP Kinase (MAPK), a MAP Kinase activator (MEK) and a MEK activator (MEKK). Transmission of signals is achieved by ...
Supplementary MaterialsAdditional file 1: Number S1. integrin 5 followed by WISP1 (10?g/ml) exposure at 4?h. Supernatants collected at 2-h intervals from 4 to 10?h (TIF 2044 kb) 13054_2018_2237_MOESM2_ESM.tif (1.9M) GUID:?605CBBCF-E3A9-4164-8E35-76B0BA1AC75A Additional file 3: Figure S3. MTV raises inflammatory signaling in lungs of mice after CLP. Western blot for triggered (phosphorylated) p-JNK (A), p-p38 (B) and p-Erk (C) MAP kinase manifestation in lung homogenates. Mice receiving the combination of CLP?+?MTV (two-hit model) were compared to mice subjected to CLP only for 18?h or sham operation followed by 6?h of MTV. Six hours of MTV only had no effect on MAP kinase activation but significantly advertised MAP kinase activation in mice previously subjected to PF-04554878 small molecule kinase inhibitor CLP, whereas TLR4 deletion prevented raises in MAPK activation in CLP-treated and CLP?+?MTV-treated mice and blocking WISP1 or integrin 5 also prevented increase in MAP kinase phosphorylation ...
C_horizon,C horizon]]:-> [[parent_rock,parent rock]]:母岩 ;[[C-value_paradox,C-value paradox]]: ;[[C3_pathway,C3 pathway (C,sub>3,/sub> pathway)]]:C3経路 ;[[C3_plant,C3 plant(s) [C,sub>3,/sub> plant(s)]]]:C3植物 ;[[C4_pathway,C4 pathway (C,sub>4,/sub> pathway)]]:C4経路 ;[[C4_photosynthesis,C4 photosynthesis (C,sub>4,/sub> photosynthesis)]] ;[[C4_plant,C4 plant(s) [C,sub>4,/sub> plant(s)]]]:C4植物 === Ca === ;[[Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent_protein_kinase , Ca,sup>2+,/sup>/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase]]:->[[CaM-kinase]] ;cactus:サボテン,サボテン類 ==== Cad ==== ;[[cadherin]]:カドヘリン ;[[caducous]]: ==== Cae ==== ;[[Caenorhabditis_elegans , Caenorhabditis elegans]]: ==== Cag ==== ;[[caged_molecule,caged molecule]]: ==== Cak ==== ;[[CAK]]:->[[Cdk-activating_kinase , Cdk-activating kinase]] ==== Cal ==== ;[[calcitonin]]: ;[[calcium_pump,calcium pump]]:->[[Ca2+_pump , Ca,sup>2+,/sup> pump]] ;[[calcrete,calcrete (caliche)]]: ;caliche:-> [[calcrete,calcrete]] ...
Our previous studies demonstrated that subcutaneous injection of bee venom (BV) into the Zusanli (ST36) acupuncture point, namely BV acupuncture, dose-dependently prevents conditioned place preference (CPP) induced by repeated injection of methamphetamine (METH) in mice. To expand on our observations, the present study was designed to determine the suppressive mechanisms of BV acupuncture in the development of METH-induced CPP by evaluating the changes in expression of ΔFosB, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (pERK), and phosphorylated calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II (pCaMKII) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) in mice. Pre-emptive treatment with BV at 30 min before repeated METH injection completely suppressed acquisition of CPP at the day 7 test session. METH-induced upregulation of ΔFosB and pERK in PFC and NAc was significantly reduced by BV pretreatment. Expression of pCaMKII was significantly elevated by METH in NAc and ...
Abstract: Myosin heavy chain kinase (MHCK) A phosphorylates mapped sites at the C-terminal tail of Dictyostelium myosin II heavy chain, driving disassembly of myosin filaments both in vitro and in vivo. MHCK A is organized into three functional domains that include an N-terminal coiled-coil region, a central kinase catalytic domain unrelated to conventional protein kinases, and a WD repeat domain at the C terminus. MHCK B is a homologue of MHCK A that possesses structurally related catalytic and WD repeat domains. In the current study, we explored the role of the WD repeat domains in defining the activities of both MHCK A and MHCK B using recombinant bacterially expressed truncations of these kinases either with or without their WD repeat domains. We demonstrate that substrate targeting is a conserved function of the WD repeat domains of both MHCK A and MHCK B and that this targeting is specific forDictyostelium myosin II filaments. We also show that the mechanism of targeting involves direct ...
Fertilization of metaphase II-arrested mouse eggs results in resumption of meiosis and a decrease in both cdc2/cyclin B kinase and MAP kinase activities; the decrease in cdc2/cyclin B kinase activity precedes the decrease in MAP kinase activity. Cycloheximide treatment of metaphase II-arrested mouse eggs also results in resumption of meiosis but bypasses the fertilization-induced Ca2+ transient. However, it is not known if cycloheximide treatment results in the same temporal changes in cdc2/cyclin B kinase and MAP kinase activities that are intimately associated with resumption of meiosis. We report that cycloheximide-treated mouse eggs manifest similar temporal changes in the decrease in both cdc2/cyclin B kinase and MAP kinase activities that occur following fertilization, although cortical granule exocytosis is not stimulated. The decrease in cdc2/cyclin B kinase activity, however, does not seem to be required for the decrease in MAP kinase activity, since the decrease in MAP kinase activity ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phosphorylation of smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. T2 - Comparative study of the phosphorylation sites. AU - Hashimoto, Yoshiaki. AU - Soderling, Thomas. PY - 1990. Y1 - 1990. N2 - Smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase (MLC-kinase) was rapidly phosphorylated in vitro by the autophosphorylated form of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaM-kinase II) to a molar stoichiometry of 2.77 ± 0.15 associated with a threefold increase in the concentration of calmodulin (CaM) required for half-maximal activation of MLC-kinase. Binding of CaM to MLC-kinase markedly reduced the phosphorylation stoichiometry to 0.21 ± 0.05 and almost completely inhibited phosphorylation of sites in two peptides (32P-peptides P1 and P2) with reduced phosphorylation of peptide P3. By analogy, cAMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylated MLC-kinase to a stoichiometry of 3.0 or greater in the absence of CaM with about a threefold decrease in the ...

PNCK - Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type 1B - Homo sapiens (Human) - PNCK gene & proteinPNCK - Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type 1B - Homo sapiens (Human) - PNCK gene & protein

Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase belonging to a proposed calcium-triggered signaling cascade. In vitro ... View protein in PROSITE. PS00107. PROTEIN_KINASE_ATP. 1 hit. PS50011. PROTEIN_KINASE_DOM. 1 hit. PS00108. PROTEIN_KINASE_ST. 1 ... View protein in PROSITE. PS00107. PROTEIN_KINASE_ATP. 1 hit. PS50011. PROTEIN_KINASE_DOM. 1 hit. PS00108. PROTEIN_KINASE_ST. 1 ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase belonging to a proposed calcium-triggered signaling cascade. In vitro ...
more infohttp://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q6P2M8

Human Calcium/calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase IV (CAMK4) Protein (His tag), Recombinant | ABIN668012Human Calcium/calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase IV (CAMK4) Protein (His tag), Recombinant | ABIN668012

Protein (His tag). Spezies: Human. Quelle: Escherichia coli (E. coli). Jetzt Produkt ABIN668012 bestellen. ... Recombinant Calcium/calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase IV (CAMK4) ... Calcium/calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Kinase 1, alpha Proteine * Calcium/calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Kinase 2, ... Calcium/calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase I Proteine * Calcium/calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase (CaM Kinase) II beta ...
more infohttp://www.antikoerper-online.de/protein/668012/Calcium/calmodulin-Dependent+Protein+Kinase+IV+CAMK4+AA+1-473+protein+His+tag/

THU0057 Kn-93, an Inhibitor of Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Iv, Promotes Generation and Function of Foxp3+...THU0057 Kn-93, an Inhibitor of Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Iv, Promotes Generation and Function of Foxp3+...

Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase IV Suppresses IL-2 Production and Regulatory T Cell Activity in Lupus. J Immunol. ... THU0057 Kn-93, an Inhibitor of Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Iv, Promotes Generation and Function of Foxp3+ ... THU0057 Kn-93, an Inhibitor of Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Iv, Promotes Generation and Function of Foxp3+ ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMK4) is expressed at increased levels in T cells from SLE patients (4) and ...
more infohttp://ard.bmj.com/content/73/Suppl_2/195.3

Abstract 29: Calcium/calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase Kinase β (CaMKK β) is Neuroprotective in Stroke in Aged Mice | StrokeAbstract 29: Calcium/calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase Kinase β (CaMKK β) is Neuroprotective in Stroke in Aged Mice | Stroke

Abstract 29: Calcium/calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase Kinase β (CaMKK β) is Neuroprotective in Stroke in Aged Mice. Lin Liu ... Abstract 29: Calcium/calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase Kinase β (CaMKK β) is Neuroprotective in Stroke in Aged Mice ... Abstract 29: Calcium/calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase Kinase β (CaMKK β) is Neuroprotective in Stroke in Aged Mice ... Abstract 29: Calcium/calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase Kinase β (CaMKK β) is Neuroprotective in Stroke in Aged Mice ...
more infohttp://stroke.ahajournals.org/content/46/Suppl_1/A29

Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases | Colorado PROFILESCalcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases | Colorado PROFILES

Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases*Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases. *Protein Kinases, Calcium-Calmodulin ... Multifunctional Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases*Multifunctional Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases ... Restricted Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases*Restricted Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases ... "Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases" by people in this website by year, and whether "Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent ...
more infohttps://profiles.ucdenver.edu/display/204113

Mutational analysis of Ca2+-independent autophosphorylation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II<...Mutational analysis of Ca2+-independent autophosphorylation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II<...

Mutational analysis of Ca2+-independent autophosphorylation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. In: Journal of ... Mutational analysis of Ca2+-independent autophosphorylation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. / Mukherji, ... title = "Mutational analysis of Ca2+-independent autophosphorylation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II", ... T1 - Mutational analysis of Ca2+-independent autophosphorylation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II ...
more infohttps://ohsu.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/mutational-analysis-of-ca2-independent-autophosphorylation-of-cal-2

Fluorescence analysis of calmodulin mutants containing tryptophan: Conformational changes induced by calmodulin-binding...Fluorescence analysis of calmodulin mutants containing tryptophan: Conformational changes induced by calmodulin-binding...

... or calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMPK-II), respectively. Both steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence data were ... Steady-state fluorescence intensity measurements indicated that, in the presence of an excess of calcium, both peptides bind to ... T2 - Conformational changes induced by calmodulin-binding peptides from myosin light chain kinase and protein kinase II ... or calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMPK-II), respectively. Both steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence data were ...
more infohttps://mayoclinic.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/fluorescence-analysis-of-calmodulin-mutants-containing-tryptophan

PKCA - Raf-1 inhibitor GW5074 Sustained Morphine Treatment AugmentsPKCA - Raf-1 inhibitor GW5074 Sustained Morphine Treatment Augments

Death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) is really a calmodulin-regulated serine/threonine kinase and August 2, 2018. by Felix ... Louis, MO, USA), and macrophage, neutrophil, and lymphocyte quantities were dependant on keeping track of 400 cells in ... Death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) is really a calmodulin-regulated serine/threonine kinase and possesses apoptotic and ... Death-associated proteins kinase (DAPK) is really a calmodulin-regulated and cytoskeleton-associated serine/threonine kinase ( ...
more infohttp://gw5074.com/tag/pkca/

Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2 - MeSH - NCBICalcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2 - MeSH - NCBI

Protein KinasesProtein-Serine-Threonine KinasesCalcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein KinasesCalcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein ... Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2 delta Subunit. *Calcium Calmodulin Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2 delta ... Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2 alpha Subunit. *Calcium Calmodulin Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2 alpha ... Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2 beta Subunit. *Calcium Calmodulin Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2 beta ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/mesh?Db=mesh&Cmd=DetailsSearch&Term=%22Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent+Protein+Kinase+Type+2%22%5BMeSH+Terms%5D

calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II subunit alpha isof - Protein - NCBIcalcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II subunit alpha isof - Protein - NCBI

calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II subunit alpha isoform 2 [Hom... calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ... calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II subunit alpha isoform 2 [Homo sapiens]. NCBI Reference Sequence: NP_ ... The product of this gene belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinases family, and to the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein ... Transcript/Protein Information [PANTHER Classification System] Transcript/Protein Information. PANTHER Classification System ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/NP_741960

Calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II inhibitor 1 - WikipediaCalcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II inhibitor 1 - Wikipedia

Calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II inhibitor 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CAMK2N1 gene. GRCh38: ... Calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II inhibitor 1". Retrieved 2017-09-09. Wang C, Li N, Liu X, Zheng Y, Cao X (2008 ... "A novel endogenous human CaMKII inhibitory protein suppresses tumor growth by inducing cell cycle arrest via p27 stabilization ... "CAMK2N1 inhibits prostate cancer progression through androgen receptor-dependent signaling". Oncotarget. 5 (21): 10293-306. doi ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calcium/calmodulin_dependent_protein_kinase_II_inhibitor_1

CAMKK2 (calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase kinase 2)CAMKK2 (calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase kinase 2)

... calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase kinase 2), Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. ... phosphorylation calmodulin-dependent protein kinase activity protein tyrosine kinase activity calcium ion binding calmodulin ... phosphorylation calmodulin-dependent protein kinase activity protein tyrosine kinase activity calcium ion binding calmodulin ... PROTEIN_KINASE_ATP (PS00107) PROTEIN_KINASE_DOM (PS50011) PROTEIN_KINASE_ST (PS00108) ...
more infohttp://atlasgeneticsoncology.org/Genes/GC_CAMKK2.html

Calcium/calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase ID (CAMK1D) AntikörperCalcium/calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase ID (CAMK1D) Antikörper

anti-Calcium/calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase I Antikörper * anti-Calcium/calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase (CaM Kinase) ... anti-Calcium/calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase IV Antikörper * anti-Calcium/calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Kinase 1, ... calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type 1D , caM kinase ID , calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 1D , camKI- ... like protein kinase , mCKLiK , calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ID , calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ...
more infohttps://www.antikoerper-online.de/abstract/Calcium-calmodulin-Dependent+Protein+Kinase+ID+

Hunting Increases Phosphorylation of Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase  Type II in Adult Barn OwlsHunting Increases Phosphorylation of Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II in Adult Barn Owls

Hunting Increases Phosphorylation of Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II in Adult Barn Owls. Grant S. Nichols ... Here we investigated phosphorylation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (pCaMKII) in both juveniles and adults. ... We previously demonstrated that phosphorylation of the cyclic-AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) provides a readout of ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/np/2015/819257/abs/

Hunting Increases Phosphorylation of Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase  Type II in Adult Barn OwlsHunting Increases Phosphorylation of Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II in Adult Barn Owls

Hunting Increases Phosphorylation of Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II in Adult Barn Owls. Grant S. Nichols ... A. Rodriguez-Contreras, X.-B. Liu, and W. M. DeBello, "Axodendritic contacts onto calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ... A. Hudmon and H. Schulman, "Neuronal CA2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II: the role of structure and autoregulation in ... "Deficient hippocampal long-term potentiation in alpha-calcium-calmodulin kinase II mutant mice," Science, vol. 257, no. 5067, ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/np/2015/819257/ref/

CAMK1G - Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type 1G - Homo sapiens (Human) - CAMK1G gene & proteinCAMK1G - Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type 1G - Homo sapiens (Human) - CAMK1G gene & protein

Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase belonging to a proposed calcium-triggered signaling cascade. In vitro ... View protein in PROSITE. PS00107 PROTEIN_KINASE_ATP, 1 hit. PS50011 PROTEIN_KINASE_DOM, 1 hit. PS00108 PROTEIN_KINASE_ST, 1 ... View protein in PROSITE. PS00107 PROTEIN_KINASE_ATP, 1 hit. PS50011 PROTEIN_KINASE_DOM, 1 hit. PS00108 PROTEIN_KINASE_ST, 1 ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase belonging to a proposed calcium-triggered signaling cascade. In vitro ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q96NX5

A Rice Calcium- and Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Restores Nodulation to a Legume MutantA Rice Calcium- and Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Restores Nodulation to a Legume Mutant

The Medicago truncatula DMI3 gene encodes a calcium- and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) that is necessary for the ... The Medicago truncatula DMI3 gene encodes a calcium- and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) that is necessary for the ... acting like a switch able both to discriminate between rhizobial and mycorrhizal calcium signatures and to trigger the ... indicating that CCaMKs from nonlegumes can interpret the calcium signature elicited by rhizobial Nod factors and activate the ...
more infohttps://www.apsnet.org/publications/mpmi/2006/May/Pages/19_5_495.aspx

CaMKII (calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II) AntibodyCaMKII (calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II) Antibody

CaMKII (Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II) is a ubiquitous serine/threonine protein kinase that is abundant in the ... CaMKII is a prominent kinase in the central nervous system that may function in long term potentiation and neurotransmitter ... brain as a major constituent of the postsynaptic density (PSD). The enzyme is an oligomeric protein composed of distinct but ... spatial learning and memory decline in C57BL/6 J mice by regulating hippocampal cyclic amp-response element binding protein ...
more infohttps://www.neuromics.com/RA18006

RCSB PDB - Protein Feature View 









 - Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II subunit beta - Q13554 (KCC2B...RCSB PDB - Protein Feature View - Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II subunit beta - Q13554 (KCC2B...

The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase that functions autonomously after Ca(2+)/calmodulin-binding and autophosphorylation ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II subunit beta - Q13554 (KCC2B_HUMAN) ... The CAMK2 protein kinases contain a unique C-terminal subunit association domain responsible for oligomerization. UniProt ...
more infohttp://www.rcsb.org/pdb/protein/Q9UGH9

Essential function of α-calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in neurotransmitter release at a glutamatergic central...Essential function of α-calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in neurotransmitter release at a glutamatergic central...

Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), a serine/threonine protein kinase, is well positioned to serve a role ... calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II;. PPF,. paired-pulse facilitation;. EPSC,. excitatory postsynaptic currents;. ES ... A significant fraction of the total calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) activity in neurons is associated ... Essential function of α-calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in neurotransmitter release at a glutamatergic central ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/100/7/4275?ijkey=339757d39f63df47aef53e511f53bf09382b34f1&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

NIOSHTIC-2  Publications Search - 20027079 - Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II activity and expression are altered...NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 20027079 - Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II activity and expression are altered...

... and CaMKII alpha and beta protein levels. In the hippocampus of Pb2+-exposed 50-day-old rats known to exhib ... we examined whether calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is affected by chronic developmental Pb2+ exposure ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II activity and expression are altered in the hippocampus of Pb2+- exposed rats.. ... In the present study, we examined whether calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is affected by chronic ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/niosh/nioshtic-2/20027079.html

The Role of Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Cascade in Glucose Upregulation of Insulin Gene Expression | DiabetesThe Role of Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Cascade in Glucose Upregulation of Insulin Gene Expression | Diabetes

Park IK, Soderling TR: Activation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM-kinase) IV by CaM-kinase kinase in Jurkat T ... Enslen H, Soderling TR: Roles of calmodulin-dependent protein kinases and phosphatase in calcium-dependent transcription of ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase types II and IV differentially regulate CREB-dependent gene expression. Mol Cell ... molecular cloning and expression of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase. J Biol Chem270 :19320 -19324,1995. ...
more infohttp://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/53/6/1475

Abstract 12091: Aldosterone Enhances Cardiac Rupture After Myocardial Infarction Through Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein...Abstract 12091: Aldosterone Enhances Cardiac Rupture After Myocardial Infarction Through Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein...

The multifunctional calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is activated by catecholamines and angiotensin II, ... Aldosterone Enhances Cardiac Rupture After Myocardial Infarction Through Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II. B. ... Aldosterone Enhances Cardiac Rupture After Myocardial Infarction Through Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II ... Aldosterone Enhances Cardiac Rupture After Myocardial Infarction Through Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II ...
more infohttp://circ.ahajournals.org/content/124/Suppl_21/A12091

camk2b, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II beta - Creative Biogenecamk2b, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II beta - Creative Biogene

... calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, delta; calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II beta; calcium/calmodulin ... CAMK2B; calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, beta; Camk2d; calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II ... proline rich calmodulin-dependent protein kinase; CAMKB; MGC29528; calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) II ... dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) II beta , CAMKB; calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase type II beta chain; CaM ...
more infohttps://www.creative-biogene.com/symbolsearch_camk2b.html

US9090701B2 - Methods of detecting oxidized calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II 
        - Google PatentsUS9090701B2 - Methods of detecting oxidized calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II - Google Patents

... and direct oxidation of CaMKII was observed to result in calcium independent activation of CaMKII. Antibodies that bind ... Calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) has been found to be directly oxidized, ... Patton et al., "Activation of Type II Calcium/Calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase by Ca2+/Calmodulin Is Inhibited by ... Activation of type II calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase by Ca2+/calmodulin is inhibited by autophosphorylation of ...
more infohttps://patents.google.com/patent/US9090701B2/en
  • None of the mutants exhibited enhanced Ca 2+ -independent kinase activity toward exogenous substrate, but the K300S and N294S mutants showed a significant enhancement in the rate and stoichiometry of 32 P incorporation during Ca 2+ -independent autophosphorylation. (elsevier.com)
  • This specific Ca 2+ -independent autophosphorylation of Ser 300 is consistent with the hypothesis that Arg 297 may occupy the P (-3) position in a pseudosubstrate autoinhibitory interaction with the catalytic core in the nonactivated state of the kinase. (elsevier.com)
  • Up regulation of cAMP response element-mediated gene expression during experience-dependent plasticity in adult neocortex," Journal of Neuroscience , vol. 20, no. 11, pp. 4206-4216, 2000. (hindawi.com)
  • This structural function is required for correct targeting of CaMK2A, which acts downstream of NMDAR to promote dendritic spine and synapse formation and maintain synaptic plasticity which enables long-term potentiation (LTP) and hippocampus-dependent learning. (rcsb.org)
  • Association of CamK2A genetic variants with transition time from occasional to regular heroin use in a sample of heroin-dependent individuals. (nih.gov)
  • See 5 reference sequence protein isoforms for the CAMK2A gene. (nih.gov)
  • CAMK2A (dilution: 0.1µg/ml) staining of Mouse Brain lysate (35µg protein in RIPA buffer). (neuromics.com)
  • Also, other proteins which involved in the same pathway with CAMK2A were listed below. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Our previous data has suggested that CaMKK β is neuroprotective after stroke in young mice as inhibition of this kinase aggravated stroke outcome. (ahajournals.org)
  • RT-PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemical staining analysis revealed that CaM-K kinase-α (CaM-KKα) and CaM-KIV were localized in rat pancreatic β-cells and their cell line, INS-1. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More. (uniprot.org)
  • Our results show that a CCaMK gene from rice can restore nodule formation, indicating that CCaMKs from nonlegumes can interpret the calcium signature elicited by rhizobial Nod factors and activate the appropriate downstream target. (apsnet.org)
  • As the elderly population has worse functional recovery after stroke, our data suggested that this protein may be a potential target for reducing long term disability of stroke patients. (ahajournals.org)
  • be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the 'correct annotation' for any given protein. (uniprot.org)
  • p>An evidence describes the source of an annotation, e.g. an experiment that has been published in the scientific literature, an orthologous protein, a record from another database, etc. (uniprot.org)
  • The Protein Feature View requires a browser that supports SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics). (rcsb.org)