A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.
A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)
A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.
A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed in a broad variety of mammalian cell types. Its expression is regulated by the action of CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE. Several isoforms of this enzyme subtype are encoded by distinct genes.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Toluenes in which one hydrogen of the methyl group is substituted by an amino group. Permitted are any substituents on the benzene ring or the amino group.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A mitosporic Ophiostomataceae fungal genus, whose species Sporothrix schenckii is a well-known animal pathogen. The conidia of this soil fungus may be inhaled causing a primary lung infection, or may infect independently via skin punctures.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Proteins which bind calmodulin. They are found in many tissues and have a variety of functions including F-actin cross-linking properties, inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and calcium and magnesium ATPases.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
A species of ciliate protozoa. It is used in biomedical research.
A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that is primarily expressed in neuronal tissues; T-LYMPHOCYTES and TESTIS. The activity of this enzyme is regulated by its phosphorylation by CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.
A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
A specific protein kinase C inhibitor, which inhibits superoxide release from human neutrophils (PMN) stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate or synthetic diacylglycerol.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A phenothiazine with actions similar to CHLORPROMAZINE. It is used as an antipsychotic and an antiemetic.
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
An enzyme that phosphorylates myosin light chains in the presence of ATP to yield myosin-light chain phosphate and ADP, and requires calcium and CALMODULIN. The 20-kDa light chain is phosphorylated more rapidly than any other acceptor, but light chains from other myosins and myosin itself can act as acceptors. The enzyme plays a central role in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.
A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
A family of calcium/calmodulin-dependent PROETIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES. They are ubiquitously expressed in adult and embryonic mammalian tissues, and their functions are tightly related to the early stages of eukaryotic programmed cell death.
Specific enzyme subunits that form the active sites of the type I and type II cyclic-AMP protein kinases. Each molecule of enzyme contains two catalytic subunits.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The body of a fungus which is made up of HYPHAE.
A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.
A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.
A cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase subtype primarily found in particulate subcellular fractions. They are tetrameric proteins that contain two catalytic subunits and two type II-specific regulatory subunits.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.
A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
N-(N-(N(2)-(N-(N-(N-(N-D-Alanyl L-seryl)-L-threonyl)-L-threonyl) L-threonyl)-L-asparaginyl)-L-tyrosyl) L-threonine. Octapeptide sharing sequence homology with HIV envelope protein gp120. It is potentially useful as antiviral agent in AIDS therapy. The core pentapeptide sequence, TTNYT, consisting of amino acids 4-8 in peptide T, is the HIV envelope sequence required for attachment to the CD4 receptor.
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.
Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.
A cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed in SMOOTH MUSCLE tissues and plays a role in regulation of smooth muscle contraction. Two isoforms, PKGIalpha and PKGIbeta, of the type I protein kinase exist due to alternative splicing of its mRNA.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A type I cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit that plays a role in confering CYCLIC AMP activation of protein kinase activity. It has a lower affinity for cAMP than the CYCLIC-AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE RIBETA SUBUNIT.
An aspect of protein kinase (EC in which serine residues in protamines and histones are phosphorylated in the presence of ATP.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.
A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
A protein kinase C subtype that was originally characterized as a CALCIUM-independent, serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHORBOL ESTERS and DIACYLGLYCEROLS. It is targeted to specific cellular compartments in response to extracellular signals that activate G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS; TYROSINE KINASE RECEPTORS; and intracellular protein tyrosine kinase.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
PKC beta encodes two proteins (PKCB1 and PKCBII) generated by alternative splicing of C-terminal exons. It is widely distributed with wide-ranging roles in processes such as B-cell receptor regulation, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation, insulin signaling, and endothelial cell proliferation.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed predominantly in INTESTINES, BRAIN, and KIDNEY. The protein is myristoylated on its N-terminus which may play a role its membrane localization.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.

Nitric oxide stimulates the stress-activated protein kinase p38 in rat renal mesangial cells. (1/6323)

Nitric oxide (NO) has gained increased attention as a diffusible universal messenger that plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Recently, we reported that exogenous NO is able to activate the stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) cascade in mesangial cells. Here, we demonstrate that exposure of glomerular mesangial cells to compounds releasing NO, including spermine-NO and (Z)-1- (N-methyl-N-[6-(N-methylammoniohexyl)amino]diazen)-1-ium-1,2-diolate (MAHMA-NO), results in an activation of the stress-activated p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38-MAPK) cascade as measured by the phosphorylation of the activator of transcription factor-2 (ATF2) in an immunocomplex kinase assay. Activation of the p38-MAPK cascade by a short stimulation (10 min) with the NO donor MAHMA-NO causes a large increase in ATF2 phosphorylation that is several times greater than that observed after stimulation with interleukin-1beta, a well-known activator of the p38-MAPK pathway. Time course studies reveal that MAHMA-NO causes rapid and maximal activation of p38-MAPK after 10 min of stimulation and that activation declines to basal levels within 60 min. The longer-lived NO donor spermine-NO causes a comparable rapid activation of the p38-MAPK pathway; however, the increased activation state of p38-MAPK was maintained for several hours before control values were reattained after 24 h of stimulation. Furthermore, the NO donors also activated the classical extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) p44-MAPK cascade as shown by phosphorylation of the specific substrate cytosolic phospholipase A2 in an immunocomplex kinase reaction. Both MAHMA-NO and spermine-NO cause a rapid activation of p44-MAPK after 10 min of stimulation. Interestingly, there is a second delayed peak of p44-MAPK activation after 4-24 h of stimulation with NO donors. These results suggest that there is a differential activation pattern for stress-activated and mitogen-activated protein kinases by NO and that the integration of these signals may lead to specific cell responses.  (+info)

A Drosophila TNF-receptor-associated factor (TRAF) binds the ste20 kinase Misshapen and activates Jun kinase. (2/6323)

Two families of protein kinases that are closely related to Ste20 in their kinase domain have been identified - the p21-activated protein kinase (Pak) and SPS1 families [1-3]. In contrast to Pak family members, SPS1 family members do not bind and are not activated by GTP-bound p21Rac and Cdc42. We recently placed a member of the SPS1 family, called Misshapen (Msn), genetically upstream of the c-Jun amino-terminal (JNK) mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase module in Drosophila [4]. The failure to activate JNK in Drosophila leads to embryonic lethality due to the failure of these embryos to stimulate dorsal closure [5-8]. Msn probably functions as a MAP kinase kinase kinase kinase in Drosophila, activating the JNK pathway via an, as yet, undefined MAP kinase kinase kinase. We have identified a Drosophila TNF-receptor-associated factor, DTRAF1, by screening for Msn-interacting proteins using the yeast two-hybrid system. In contrast to the mammalian TRAFs that have been shown to activate JNK, DTRAF1 lacks an amino-terminal 'Ring-finger' domain, and overexpression of a truncated DTRAF1, consisting of only its TRAF domain, activates JNK. We also identified another DTRAF, DTRAF2, that contains an amino-terminal Ring-finger domain. Msn specifically binds the TRAF domain of DTRAF1 but not that of DTRAF2. In Drosophila, DTRAF1 is thus a good candidate for an upstream molecule that regulates the JNK pathway by interacting with, and activating, Msn. Consistent with this idea, expression of a dominant-negative Msn mutant protein blocks the activation of JNK by DTRAF1. Furthermore, coexpression of Msn with DTRAF1 leads to the synergistic activation of JNK. We have extended some of these observations to the mammalian homolog of Msn, Nck-interacting kinase (NIK), suggesting that TRAFs also play a critical role in regulating Ste20 kinases in mammals.  (+info)

Alzheimer's disease: clues from flies and worms. (3/6323)

Presenilin mutations give rise to familial Alzheimer's disease and result in elevated production of amyloid beta peptide. Recent evidence that presenilins act in developmental signalling pathways may be the key to understanding how senile plaques, neurofibrillary tangles and apoptosis are all biochemically linked.  (+info)

Activation of c-Abl tyrosine kinase requires caspase activation and is not involved in JNK/SAPK activation during apoptosis of human monocytic leukemia U937 cells. (4/6323)

Genotoxic stress triggers the activation of several sensor molecules, such as p53, JNK1/SAPK and c-Abl, and occasionally promotes the cells to apoptosis. We previously reported that JNK1/SAPK regulates genotoxic stress-induced apoptosis in p53-negative U937 cells by activating caspases. c-Abl is expected to act upstream of JNK1/SAPK activation upon treatment with genotoxic stressors, but its involvement in apoptosis development is still unclear. We herein investigated the kinase activities of c-Abl and JNK1/SAPK during apoptosis elicited by genotoxic anticancer drugs and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in U937 cells and their apoptosis-resistant variant UK711 cells. We found that the activation of JNK1/SAPK and c-Abl correlated well with apoptosis development in these cell lines. Unexpectedly, however, the JNK1/SAPK activation preceded the c-Abl activation. Moreover, the caspase inhibitor Z-Asp suppressed c-Abl activation and the onset of apoptosis but not the JNK1/SAPK activation. Interestingly, c-Abl tyrosine kinase inhibition by CGP 57148 reduced apoptosis without interfering with JNK1/SAPK activation. These results indicate that c-Abl acts not upstream of JNK1/ SAPK but downstream of caspases during the development of p53-independent apoptosis and is possibly involved in accelerating execution of the cell death pathway.  (+info)

Growth inhibition of breast cancer cells by Grb2 downregulation is correlated with inactivation of mitogen-activated protein kinase in EGFR, but not in ErbB2, cells. (5/6323)

Increased breast cancer growth has been associated with increased expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and ErbB2 receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). Upon activation, RTKs may transmit their oncogenic signals by binding to the growth factor receptor bound protein-2 (Grb2), which in turn binds to SOS and activates the Ras/Raf/MEK/mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway. Grb2 is important for the transformation of fibroblasts by EGFR and ErbB2; however, whether Grb2 is also important for the proliferation of breast cancer cells expressing these RTKs is unclear. We have used liposomes to deliver nuclease-resistant antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (oligos) specific for the GRB2 mRNA to breast cancer cells. Grb2 protein downregulation could inhibit breast cancer cell growth; the degree of growth inhibition was dependent upon the activation and/or endogenous levels of the RTKs. Grb2 inhibition led to MAP kinase inactivation in EGFR, but not in ErbB2, breast cancer cells, suggesting that different pathways might be used by EGFR and ErbB2 to regulate breast cancer growth.  (+info)

The MAP kinase ERK2 inhibits the cyclic AMP-specific phosphodiesterase HSPDE4D3 by phosphorylating it at Ser579. (6/6323)

The extracellular receptor stimulated kinase ERK2 (p42(MAPK))-phosphorylated human cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase PDE4D3 at Ser579 and profoundly reduced ( approximately 75%) its activity. These effects could be reversed by the action of protein phosphatase PP1. The inhibitory state of PDE4D3, engendered by ERK2 phosphorylation, was mimicked by the Ser579-->Asp mutant form of PDE4D3. In COS1 cells transfected to express PDE4D3, challenge with epidermal growth factor (EGF) caused the phosphorylation and inhibition of PDE4D3. This effect was blocked by the MEK inhibitor PD98059 and was not apparent using the Ser579-->Ala mutant form of PDE4D3. Challenge of HEK293 and F442A cells with EGF led to the PD98059-ablatable inhibition of endogenous PDE4D3 and PDE4D5 activities. EGF challenge of COS1 cells transfected to express PDE4D3 increased cAMP levels through a process ablated by PD98059. The activity of the Ser579-->Asp mutant form of PDE4D3 was increased by PKA phosphorylation. The transient form of the EGF-induced inhibition of PDE4D3 is thus suggested to be due to feedback regulation by PKA causing the ablation of the ERK2-induced inhibition of PDE4D3. We identify a novel means of cross-talk between the cAMP and ERK signalling pathways whereby cell stimuli that lead to ERK2 activation may modulate cAMP signalling.  (+info)

p50(cdc37) acting in concert with Hsp90 is required for Raf-1 function. (7/6323)

Genetic screens in Drosophila have identified p50(cdc37) to be an essential component of the sevenless receptor/mitogen-activated kinase protein (MAPK) signaling pathway, but neither the function nor the target of p50(cdc37) in this pathway has been defined. In this study, we examined the role of p50(cdc37) and its Hsp90 chaperone partner in Raf/Mek/MAPK signaling biochemically. We found that coexpression of wild-type p50(cdc37) with Raf-1 resulted in robust and dose-dependent activation of Raf-1 in Sf9 cells. In addition, p50(cdc37) greatly potentiated v-Src-mediated Raf-1 activation. Moreover, we found that p50(cdc37) is the primary determinant of Hsp90 recruitment to Raf-1. Overexpression of a p50(cdc37) mutant which is unable to recruit Hsp90 into the Raf-1 complex inhibited Raf-1 and MAPK activation by growth factors. Similarly, pretreatment with geldanamycin (GA), an Hsp90-specific inhibitor, prevented both the association of Raf-1 with the p50(cdc37)-Hsp90 heterodimer and Raf-1 kinase activation by serum. Activation of Raf-1 via baculovirus coexpression with oncogenic Src or Ras in Sf9 cells was also strongly inhibited by dominant negative p50(cdc37) or by GA. Thus, formation of a ternary Raf-1-p50(cdc37)-Hsp90 complex is crucial for Raf-1 activity and MAPK pathway signaling. These results provide the first biochemical evidence for the requirement of the p50(cdc37)-Hsp90 complex in protein kinase regulation and for Raf-1 function in particular.  (+info)

Activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 by UV irradiation is inhibited by wortmannin without affecting c-iun expression. (8/6323)

Activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs)/stress-activated protein kinases is an early response of cells upon exposure to DNA-damaging agents. JNK-mediated phosphorylation of c-Jun is currently understood to stimulate the transactivating potency of AP-1 (e.g., c-Jun/c-Fos; c-Jun/ATF-2), thereby increasing the expression of AP-1 target genes. Here we show that stimulation of JNK1 activity is not a general early response of cells exposed to genotoxic agents. Treatment of NIH 3T3 cells with UV light (UV-C) as well as with methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) caused activation of JNK1 and an increase in c-Jun protein and AP-1 binding activity, whereas antineoplastic drugs such as mafosfamide, mitomycin C, N-hydroxyethyl-N-chloroethylnitrosourea, and treosulfan did not elicit this response. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin specifically blocked the UV-stimulated activation of JNK1 but did not affect UV-driven activation of extracellular regulated kinase 2 (ERK2). To investigate the significance of JNK1 for transactivation of c-jun, we analyzed the effect of UV irradiation on c-jun expression under conditions of wortmannin-mediated inhibition of UV-induced stimulation of JNK1. Neither the UV-induced increase in c-jun mRNA, c-Jun protein, and AP-1 binding nor the activation of the collagenase and c-jun promoters was affected by wortmannin. In contrast, the mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase inhibitor PD98056, which blocked ERK2 but not JNK1 activation by UV irradiation, impaired UV-driven c-Jun protein induction and AP-1 binding. Based on the data, we suggest that JNK1 stimulation is not essential for transactivation of c-jun after UV exposure, whereas activation of ERK2 is required for UV-induced signaling leading to elevated c-jun expression.  (+info)

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Rabbit polyclonal BCKDH kinase antibody validated for WB, IHC and tested in Human and Mouse. Referenced in 1 publication. Immunogen corresponding to…
Recombinant full-length human CAMK4 was expressed by baculovirus in Sf9 insect cells using an N-terminal GST tag. CAMK4 is a multifunctional serine/threonine protein kinase and a member of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase family.
Our protein biology products such as Peptide Synthesis and Elisa Kits allow you to detect, measure, and explore a protein expressions identity and function
Recombinant Calcium/calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase IV (CAMK4) Protein (His tag). Spezies: Human. Quelle: Escherichia coli (E. coli). Jetzt Produkt ABIN668012 bestellen.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mutational analysis of Ca2+-independent autophosphorylation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. AU - Mukherji, Sucheta. AU - Soderling, Thomas. PY - 1995/6/9. Y1 - 1995/6/9. N2 - Previous studies with synthetic peptides indicate that residues 290-309, corresponding to the calmodulin (CaM)-binding domain of Ca2+/CaM-dependent protein kinase II interact with the catalytic core of the enzyme as a pseudosubstrate (Colbran, R. J., Smith, M. K., Schworer, C. M., Fong, Y. L., and Soderling, T. R. (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264, 4800-4804). In the present study, we attempted to locate the pseudosubstrate motif by generation or removal of potential substrate recognition sequences (RXXS/T) at selected positions using site-directed mutagenesis. Based on previous results, Arg297, Thr305/306, and Ser314 were selected as key residues. Single mutations such as N294S, K300S, A302R, A309R, and R311A were expressed, purified, and characterized. Several of the mutants exhibited decreased ...
Olomoucine is known as a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. We found that olomoucine blocked insulins ability to stimulate glucose transport. It did so without affecting the activity of known insulin signaling proteins. To identify the olomoucine-sensitive kinase(s), we prepared analogs that could be immobilized to an affinity resin to isolate binding proteins. One of the generated analogs inhibited insulin-stimulated glucose uptake with increased sensitivity compared with olomoucine. The IC50 for inhibition of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake occurred at analog concentrations as low as 0.1 μm. To identify proteins binding to the analog, [35S]-labeled cell lysates prepared from 3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated with analog chemically cross-linked to a resin support and binding proteins analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The major binding species was a doublet at 50-60 kDa, which was identified as calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) by N-terminal peptide analysis and confirmed by ...
Active calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) has been reported to take a critical role in the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP). Changes in CaMKII activity were detected in various ischemia models. It is tempting to know whether and how CaMKII takes a role in NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-mediated postischemic long-term potentiation (NMDA i-LTP). Here, we monitored changes in NMDAR-mediated field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (NMDA fEPSPs) at different time points following ischemia onset |i|in vitro|/i| oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) ischemia model. We found that 10 min OGD treatment induced significant i-LTP in NMDA fEPSPs, whereas shorter (3 min) or longer (25 min) OGD treatment failed to induce prominent NMDA i-LTP. CaMKII activity or CaMKII autophosphorylation displays a similar bifurcated trend at different time points following onset of ischemia both |i|in vitro|/i| OGD or |i|in vivo|/i| photothrombotic lesion (PT) models, suggesting a correlation
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II gamma subunit - CAMK2 family. Detailed annotation on the structure, function, physiology, pharmacology and clinical relevance of drug targets.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification of a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II regulatory phosphorylation site in non-N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptors. AU - Yakel, Jerrel L.. AU - Vissavajjhala, Prabhakar. AU - Derkach, Victor A.. AU - Brickey, Debra A.. AU - Soderling, Thomas R.. PY - 1995/2/28. Y1 - 1995/2/28. N2 - Glutamate receptor ion channels are colocalized in postsynaptic densities with Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaM-kinase II), which can phosphorylate and strongly enhance non-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor current. In this study, CaM-kinase II enhanced kainate currents of expressed glutamate receptor 6 in 293 cells and of wild-type glutamate receptor 1, but not the Ser-627 to Ala mutant, in Xenopus oocytes. A synthetic peptide corresponding to residues 620-638 in GluR1 was phosphorylated in vitro by CaM-kinase II but not by cAMP-dependent protein kinase or protein kinase C. The 32P-labeled peptide map of this synthetic peptide appears to be the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II regulates Tiam1 by reversible protein phosphorylation. AU - Fleming, I N. AU - Elliott, C M. AU - Buchanan, F G. AU - Downes, C P. AU - Exton, J H. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. N2 - A number of guanine nucleotide exchange factors have been identified that activate Rho family GTPases, by promoting the binding of GTP to these proteins. We have recently demonstrated that lysophosphatidic acid and several other agonists stimulate phosphorylation of the Rac1-specific exchange factor Tiam1 in Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts, and that protein kinase C is involved in Tiam1 phosphorylation (Fleming, I. N., Elliott, C. M., Collard, J. G., and Exton, J. H. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 33105-33110). We now show, through manipulation of intracellular [Ca2+] and the use of protein kinase inhibitors, that both protein kinase Calpha and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II are involved in the phosphorylation of Tiam1 in vivo. Furthermore, we show that ...
Results We show that culture of MRL/lpr Foxp3-GFP T cells in the presence of KN-93 promotes Treg differentiation in a dose dependent manner (Fig. F). Treatment of MRL/lpr Foxp3-GFP mice with KN-93 results in significant induction of Treg cells in the spleen, peripheral lymph nodes (Fig. B-E) and peripheral blood (Fig. A and B) and this is accompanied by decreased skin and kidney damage. Notably, KN-93 clearly diminishes the accumulation of inflammatory cells along with reciprocally increased Treg cells in target organ.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Amphetamine activate protein kinase C and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase via NMDA receptor in primary cultures of rat cortical neurons. AU - Wu, Hsueh-Hsia. AU - Lee, Horng-Mo. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. M3 - Article. VL - 1. SP - 12. EP - 19. JO - New Taipei Journal of Medicine. JF - New Taipei Journal of Medicine. SN - 1562-4242. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - CaM Kinase II-dependent pathophysiological signalling in endothelial cells. AU - Cai, Hua. AU - Liu, Depei. AU - Garcia, Joe G.N.. N1 - Funding Information: The authors work are supported by National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Grants HL-077440 (H.L.C.), HL-081571 (H.L.C.), HL057244 (Pin-Lan Li and H.L.C.), an American Heart Association Grant 0435189N (H.L.C.), an American Diabetes Association Award 7-04-RA-16 (H.L.C.), and NHLBI PPG HL 58064 (J.G.N.G.).. PY - 2008/1. Y1 - 2008/1. N2 - Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaM Kinase II) is a known modulator of cardiac pathophysiology. The present review uniquely focuses on novel CaM Kinase II-mediated endothelial cell signalling which, under pathophysiological conditions, may indirectly modulate cardiac functions via alterations in endothelial or endocardial responses. CaM Kinase II has four different isoforms and various splicing variants for each isoform. The endothelial cell CaM Kinase II isoforms are ...
Authors Affiliations: 1Dipartimento di Medicina Molecolare e Biotecnologie Mediche, Istituto di Endocrinologia e Oncologia Sperimentale del CNR Naples; 2Department of Neuroscience, Reproductive and Odontostomatological Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, Naples; 3Department of Medicine-DIMED, Unit of Endocrinology, University of Padua, Padova; and 4Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Salerno, Salerno, ...
There are comments on PubPeer for publication: Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II promotes cell cycle progression by directly activating MEK1 and subsequently modulating p27 phosphorylation (2009)
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Complete information for CAMK4 gene (Protein Coding), Calcium/Calmodulin Dependent Protein Kinase IV, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
The concept of subcellular targeting by anchoring proteins is of major importance for understanding the specificity of signal transduction. The work presented here constitutes the first description of an anchoring protein for multifunctional CaM kinase II. αKAP exhibits three properties expected of anchoring proteins. (i) It is restricted to a specific cellular compartment, it is membrane bound and probably directly inserted into SR membranes by its N‐terminal hydrophobic domain (Figures 3 and 4). (ii) It binds CaM kinase II. This binding occurs within intact cells and not during extraction of transfected cells, since significant interaction was only detected after coexpression of αKAP and CaM kinase II, but not when individually expressed proteins were mixed (Figure 6). (iii) It is responsible for the targeting of the novel βM‐CaM kinase II to the SR, since it co‐immunoprecipitates with kinase extracted from SR membranes and the kinase does not have the physical properties of a ...
Overview Protocols Specifications Resources Convenient, 1-Hour Kinase Activity Assays The SignaTECT® Protein Kinase Assay Systems provide a rapid, radioactivity-based method for detection of kinase activity. The method is based on capture of phosphorylated labeled substrates on the SAM2® Biotin Capture Membrane, which
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - β-Adrenergic induced SR Ca2 + leak is mediated by an Epac-NOS pathway. AU - Pereira, Laëtitia. AU - Bare, Dan J.. AU - Galice, Samuel. AU - Shannon, Thomas R.. AU - Bers, Donald M. PY - 2017/7/1. Y1 - 2017/7/1. N2 - Cardiac β-adrenergic receptors (β-AR) and Ca2 +-Calmodulin dependent protein kinase (CaMKII) regulate both physiological and pathophysiological Ca2 + signaling. Elevated diastolic Ca2 + leak from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) contributes to contractile dysfunction in heart failure and to arrhythmogenesis. β-AR activation is known to increase SR Ca2 + leak via CaMKII-dependent phosphorylation of the ryanodine receptor. Two independent and reportedly parallel pathways have been implicated in this β-AR-CaMKII cascade, one involving exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac2) and another involving nitric oxide synthase 1 (NOS1). Here we tested whether Epac and NOS function in a single series pathway to increase β-AR induced and CaMKII-dependent SR Ca2 + ...
Complete information for CAMKK2 gene (Protein Coding), Calcium/Calmodulin Dependent Protein Kinase Kinase 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
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The death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) family has been characterized as a group of pro-apoptotic serine/threonine kinases that share specific structural features in their catalytic kinase domain. Two of the DAPK family members, DAPK1 and DAPK2, are calmodulin-dependent protein kinases that are regulated by oligomerization, calmodulin binding, and autophosphorylation. In this study, we have determined the crystal and solution structures of murine DAPK2 in the presence of the autoinhibitory domain, with and without bound nucleotides in the active site. The crystal structure shows dimers of DAPK2 in a conformation that is not permissible for protein substrate binding. Two different conformations were seen in the active site upon the introduction of nucleotide ligands. The monomeric and dimeric forms of DAPK2 were further analyzed for solution structure, and the results indicate that the dimers of DAPK2 are indeed formed through the association of two apposed catalytic domains, as seen in the ...
calmodulin-dependent protein kinase V: widely distributed in various tissues, involved in calcium-regulated processes; from rat brain; may exist in 40 & 41 kDa isoforms; amino acid sequence has been determined
Nuclear factor-kappa beta (NF-kβ) pro-inflammatory signalling is important in modulating endothelial dysfunction and may be important in vascular dysfunction associated with the ageing process. Recent studies in the heart have highlighted Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) as a novel regulator of NF-kβ signalling. However nothing is known of the role this interaction could play in regulating dysfunction of the vasculature during ageing. Here we (i) characterise NF-kβ signalling in vascular endothelial cells and examine the potential for CaMKII modulation and (ii) determine whether CaMKIIδ expression is altered in ageing.. Using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) as an in vitro model system, initial experiments have established that pro-inflammatory NF-kB signalling is activated in response to both tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) stimulation. This was shown by a significant reduction in IkBα expression (1.18 ± 0.16 vs. 0.48 ...
p42/microtubule-associated protein kinase (p42mapk) is activated by tyrosine and threonine phosphorylation, and its regulatory phosphorylation is likely to be important in signalling pathways involved in growth control, secretion, and differentiation. Here we show that treatment of quiescent 3T3 cells with diverse agonists results in the appearance of an activity capable of causing the in vitro phosphorylation of p42mapk on the regulatory tyrosine and to a lesser extent on the regulatory threonine, resulting in enzymatic activation of the p42mapk. This p42mapk-activating activity is capable of phosphorylating a kinase-defective p42mapk mutant, thus confirming its activity as a kinase. ...
CaMKII alpha antibody (calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alpha) for ICC/IF, IHC-Fr, WB. Anti-CaMKII alpha pAb (GTX127939) is tested in Mouse, Rat samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
CaMK2 (calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 2), a multifunctional serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in diverse cellular processes, is vital for the transduction of the Ca2+ signaling cascade. Recently, research has highlighted the involvement of CaMK2 in cancer development. However, the specific effects of CaMK2 on cancer have not been fully elucidated. In this review, we summarize not only the altered expression of CaMK2 in a range of cancers, as evidenced by bioinformatics analysis, but also the significant role of CaMK2 in regulating cancer progression, such as proliferation and metastasis. In addition, we described the functional influence of CaMK2 on cancer stemness and resistance. Understanding the critical effects and mechanisms of CaMK2 in cancer would facilitate the development of a promising therapeutic strategy for cancer treatment.
Wet-lab validated real-time PCR primer assays for your biological pathway of interest. Select your gene target of interest using an interactive pathway map, and select your plate.
Camk1g - Camk1g (untagged ORF) - Rat calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IG (Camk1g), (10 ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Camk2d2 antibody (calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) II delta 2) for IHC-P, WB. Anti-Camk2d2 pAb (GTX124377) is tested in Zebrafish samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Full-length recombinant human CAMK2δ was expressed by baculovirus in Sf9 insect cells using an N-terminal GST tag. CAMK2δ is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is a member of the type II multifunctional Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase family.
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , FabGennix \ Calmdulin kinase gamma, Host species: Rabbit, Polyclonal antibody \ CaMK-321AP for more molecular products just contact us
This study investigates the roles of hippocampal N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors and CaMKII (calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II) in amphetamine-produced conditioned place preference (AMPH-CPP) in rats. An earlier report showed that AMPH-CPP resulted in the enhancement of …
Abstract. Serine/threonine kinases (STKs) represent the majority of discovered kinases to date even though a few Food and Drug Administration approved STKs inhibitors are reported. The third millennium came with the discovery of an important group of STKs that reshaped our understanding of several biological signaling pathways. This family was named death-associated protein kinase family (DAPK family). DAPKs comprise five members (DAPK1, DAPK2, DAPK3, DRAK1, and DRAK2) and belong to the calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinases domain. As time goes on, the list of biological functions of this family is constantly updated. The most extensively studied member is DAPK1 (based on the publications number and Protein Data Bank reported crystal structures) that plays fundamental biological roles depending on the cellular context. DAPK1 regulates apoptosis, autophagy, contributes to the pathogenesis of Alzheimers disease, acts as a tumor suppressor, inhibits metastasis, mediates the body responses to viral ...
Death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) is a pro-apoptotic serine/threonine kinase involved in apoptosis. Aberrant methylation of DAPK was reported in lung cancers by methylation-specific PCR. However, we were unable to relate methylation with gene silencing with the same methodology. Our goals were to develop a methodology that related methylation with gene silencing and use it to study the state of the gene in lung cancers.. Using a semiquantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR, DAPK expression was lower in lung cancers than in corresponding nonmalignant bronchial epithelial cells in five of six primary short-term cultures. In continuous cell lines, mRNA expression was down-regulated, as well as compared with nonmalignant bronchial epithelial cells, and its protein was not detected by Western blotting in 17 of 23 (74%) cell lines. We investigated methylation status of 5 flanking region of DAPK by combined bisulfite restriction analysis and bisulfited DNA sequencing. Aberrant methylation ...
Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is critical for inflammation and control of infection. The production of IL-1β depends on expression of pro-IL-1β and inflammasome component induced by inflammatory stimuli, followed by assembly of inflammasome to generate caspase-1 for cleavage of pro-IL-1β. Here we show that tumor suppressor death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) deficiency impaired IL-1β production in macrophages. Generation of tumor necrosis factor-α in macrophages, in contrast, was not affected by DAPK knockout. Two tiers of defects in IL-1β generation were found in DAPK-deficient macrophages: decreased pro-IL-1β induction by some stimuli and reduced caspase-1 activation by all inflammatory stimuli examined. With a normal NLRP3 induction in DAPK-deficient macrophages, the diminished caspase-1 generation is attributed to impaired inflammasome assembly. There is a direct binding of DAPK to NLRP3, suggesting an involvement of DAPK in inflammasome formation. We further illustrated that the formation of
Raval A, Tanner SM, Byrd JC, Angerman EB, Perko JD, Chen SS, Hackanson B, Grever MR, Lucas DM, Matkovic JJ, Lin TS, Kipps TJ, Murray F, Weisenburger D, Sanger W, Lynch J, Watson P, Jansen M, Yoshinaga Y, Rosenquist R, de Jong PJ, Coggill P, Beck S, Lynch H, de la Chapelle A, Plass C. Downregulation of death-associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1) in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Cell. 2007 Jun 01; 129(5):879-90 ...
Three genes encoding different Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases have been characterized in the wheat phytopathogenic fungus Stagonospora nodorum. The kinases were identified from the S. nodorum genome sequence on the basis of sequence homology to known Ca2+/calmodulin- dependent protein kinases. Expression analysis determined that each of the kinases was expressed during growth in vitro and also during infection. The onset of sporulation triggered increased transcript levels of each of the kinases, particularly CpkA where an 11-fold increase in expression was observed during sporulation in planta. The role of the kinases was further determined via a reverse genetics approach. The disruption of CpkA affected vegetative growth in vitro and also sporulation. The cpkA strains produced 20-fold less spores on complex media and were unable to sporulate on defined minimal media. Infection assays showed that CpkA was not required for lesion development but was essential for sporulation at the ...
Excessive activation of β-adrenergic, angiotensin II, and aldosterone signaling pathways promotes mortality after myocardial infarction (MI), while antagonist drugs targeting these pathways are core therapies for treating post-MI patients. The multifunctional calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is activated by catecholamines and angiotensin II, and CaMKII inhibition prevents isoproterenol- and angiotensin II-mediated cardiomyopathy. Here we ask the hypothesis if aldosterone and CaMKII participated in common responses to MI by developing a mouse MI model supplemented by aldosterone infusion (MI+Aldo) to approximate plasma aldosterone levels measured in MI patients. We find that aldosterone exerts direct toxic actions on myocardium by oxidative activation of CaMKII, causing cardiac rupture and increased mortality in mice after MI (65.5% for aldosterone versus 31.0% for vehicle, P=0.007, n≥19 mice per treatment). Aldosterone oxidizes CaMKII by recruiting NADPH oxidase, and ...
article{dd19855c-025e-4a5e-9215-43f4f9e9a4a1, abstract = {The NMDA receptor complex represents a key molecular element in the pathogenesis of long-term synaptic changes and motor abnormalities in Parkinsons disease (PD). Here we show that NMDA receptor 1 (NR1) subunit and postsynaptic density (PSD)-95 protein levels are selectively reduced in the PSD of dopamine (DA)-denervated striata. These effects are accompanied by an increase in striatal levels of alphaCa(2+)-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (alphaCaMKII) autophosphorylation, along with a higher recruitment of activated alphaCaMKII to the regulatory NMDA receptor NR2A-NR2B subunits. Acute treatment of striatal slices with R(+)-7-chloro-8-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzaz epine hydrochloride, but not with L-sulpiride, mimicked the effect of DA denervation on both alphaCaMKII autophosphorylation and corticostriatal synaptic plasticity. In addition to normalizing alphaCaMKII autophosphorylation levels as well as ...
Looking for online definition of CaM kinase II delta subunit in the Medical Dictionary? CaM kinase II delta subunit explanation free. What is CaM kinase II delta subunit? Meaning of CaM kinase II delta subunit medical term. What does CaM kinase II delta subunit mean?
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Stress-activated protein kinases (SAPKs) are stimulated by cell damaging agents as well as by physiological receptor agonists. In this study we show that human platelets contain the isoforms SAPK2a, SAPK2b, SAPK3 and SAPK4 as determined by immunoblotting with specific antibodies. All four kinases were activated in thrombin-stimulated platelets whereas only SAPK2a and SAPK2b were significantly stimulated by collagen. All four isoforms were able to phosphorylate wild-type human cPLA2in vitro, although to different extents, but not cPLA2 mutants that had Ser505 replaced by alanine. Phosphorylation at Ser505 was confirmed by phosphopeptide mapping using microbore HPLC. SAPK2a and 42-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase incorporated similar levels of phosphate into cPLA2 relative to the ability of each kinase to stimulate phosphorylation of myelin basic protein. SAPK2b and SAPK4 incorporated less phosphate, and cPLA2 was a poor substrate for SAPK3. The inhibitor of SAPK2a and SAPK2b, SB 202190, ...
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This serineethreonine kinase is primarily activated in response to an increase during the AMP ATP ratio within the cell and it is actually phosphorylated at Thr while in the catalytic subunit by upstream kinases such as Liver Kinase B or calmodulin dependent protein kinase kinase beta . Additionally, AMPK may also be activated by a variety of pharmacological agents, like metformin which is applied during the therapy of metabolic ailments such as style diabetes and obesity . AMPK activation reprograms cellular metabolism and enforces metabolic checkpoints by acting on mTOR complex , p and other molecules . Particularly, AMPK acts to restore cellular power balance by marketing ATP making processes, such as fatty acid beta oxidation, and simultaneously by inhibiting ATP consuming processes, such as fatty acid synthesis, gluconeogenesis and protein synthesis. That is initially attained by direct phosphorylation of some critical metabolic enzymes and subsequently by modulation of gene expression . ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
We investigated the effects of Wenxin Keli (WXKL) on the Calcium/Calmodulin dependent kinase II (CaMK II) signal transduction pathway with transverse aortic constriction (TAC) rats. Echocardiographic measurements were obtained 3 and 9 weeks after the surgery. Meanwhile, the action potentials (APDs) were recorded using the whole-cell patch clamp technique, and western blotting was used to assess components of the CaMK II signal transduction pathway. At both 3 and 9 weeks after treatment, the fractional shortening (FS%) increased in the WXKL group compared with the TAC group. The APD|sub|90|/sub| of the TAC group was longer than that of the Sham group and was markedly shortened by WXKL treatment. Western blotting results showed that the protein expressions of CaMK II, phospholamban (PLB), and ryanodine receptor 2 (RYR2) were not statistically significant among the different groups at both treatment time points. However, WXKL treatment decreased the protein level and phosphorylation of CaMK II (Thr
Background: Alzheimers Disease (AD) is a neuron related brain disorder leading to reasoning and memory loss. There is no specific cure identified for AD. JNK3 (c-Jun N-terminal kinase /stress-activated protein kinase) are highly revealed within the central nervous system, particularly neurons, playing vital role in functioning of brain. JNK3 hyper phosphorylation is a very common conclusion in neurodegenerative diseases. JNK3 in turn hyper phosphorylates Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) which leads to the formation of Amyloid β peptides (an inductive agent of Alzheimers disease). Methods: Protein JNK-3 (PDB ID: 3KVX) was retrieved from protein data bank and later we docked a library of compounds against it. These were further validated by ADMET studies. Results: Thus, docking inhibitors of JNK3 may provide a promising sanitive approach. Based on best docking score and glide score a potential lead is identified against JNK3. Conclusion: Inhibiting JNK-3 may lead to less production of amyloidβ ...
immune Uncategorized Dinaciclib (SCH 727965) manufacture, Rabbit polyclonal to NFKBIZ. Activation from the RNA-dependent proteins kinase (PKR) continues to be implicated in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative illnesses. not really mediated by PKR inhibition. Using kinase assays we looked into whether PKRi impacts any other proteins kinase. These analyses proven that PKRi does not Dinaciclib (SCH 727965) manufacture have any major inhibitory influence on pro-apoptotic kinases like the c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs), the p38 MAP kinases as well as the death-associated proteins kinases (DAPKs), or on additional kinases including c-Raf, MEK1, MKK7 and MKK6. PKRi does, nevertheless, inhibit the experience of particular cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) including CDK2 and CDK5 both and in LK-treated neurons. In keeping with its inhibitory actions on mitotic CDKs, the treating HT-22 and HEK293T cell lines with PKRi decreases the pace of cell cycle progression sharply. Taken alongside the ...
Anti-peptide antibodies specific for the neuronal calcium channel alpha 1E subunit (anti-CNE1 and anti-CNE2) were produced to study the biochemical properties and subcellular distribution of the alpha 1E polypeptide from rat brain. Immunoblotting identified a single size form of 245-255 kDa which was a substrate for phosphorylation by cAMP- dependent protein kinase, protein kinase C, cGMP-dependent protein kinase, and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. Ligand- binding studies of alpha 1E indicate that it is not a high affinity receptor for the dihydropyridine isradipine or the peptide toxins omega- conotoxin GVIA or omega-conotoxin MVIIC at concentrations which elicit high affinity binding to other channel types in the same membrane preparation. The alpha 1E subunit is widely distributed in the brain with the most prominent immunocytochemical staining in deep midline structures such as caudate-putamen, thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala, cerebellum, and a variety of nuclei in the ...
CAMK2A - CAMK2A (Myc-DDK-tagged)-Human calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alpha (CAMK2A), transcript variant 2 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Since its inception, the synaptic tagging hypothesis has inspired many to search for synaptic tags. However, very few molecules have been proposed as candidates (Frey and Frey, 2008). The nature and identity of PRPs and synaptic tags are under intensive investigations (Frey and Frey, 2008). Two pathway experiments showed that blockade of protein kinase A (PKA) or its interaction with A kinase-anchoring proteins (AKAPs) prevents synaptic capture, suggesting that PKA or its anchoring at active synapses may serve as a synaptic tag for L-LTP (Huang et al., 2006; Young et al., 2006). Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is also implicated as an L-LTP-specific tag (Sajikumar et al., 2007). Studies thus far have been based on the use of pharmacological inhibitors in two-pathway experiments. However, it is necessary to show that these tags are transiently and locally activated in a protein synthesis-independent manner by weak stimulation. In a recent study, NMDA-dependent, ...
Multiple calmodulin (CaM) isoforms are expressed in plants, but their biochemical characteristics are not well resolved. Here we show the differential regulation exhibited by two soya bean CaM isoforms (SCaM-1 and SCaM-4) for the activation of five CaM-dependent enzymes, and the Ca2+ dependence of their target enzyme activation. SCaM-1 activated myosin light-chain kinase as effectively as brain CaM (Kact 1.8 and 1.7nM respectively), but SCaM-4 produced no activation of this enzyme. Both CaM isoforms supported near maximal activation of CaM-dependent protein kinase II (CaM KII), but SCaM-4 exhibited approx.12-fold higher Kact than SCaM-1 for CaM KII phosphorylation of caldesmon. The SCaM isoforms showed differential activation of plant and animal Ca2+-ATPases. The plant Ca2+-ATPase was activated maximally by both isoforms, while the erythrocyte Ca2+-ATPase was activated only by SCaM-1. Plant glutamate decarboxylase was activated fully by SCaM-1, but SCaM-4 exhibited an approx. 4-fold increase ...
DAPK1 / DAP Kinase Protein LS-G97367 is a Recombinant Human DAPK1 / DAP Kinase produced in Baculovirus Met 1-Leu 363 with His-GST tag(s). It is low in endotoxin; Less than 1.0 EU/µg protein (determined by LAL method).
Supplementary MaterialsAdditional document 1: Body S1. for profiling little RNAs. Body S15. The saturation curves of miRNA. Body S16. RPM scatterplots of portrayed small RNAs. Body S17. Comparative expression heat maps of super-enhancer-regulated professional mRNAs and miRNAs. Body S18. Hematoxylin and Eosin (HE) staining from the HCC tissues. Figure S19. Comparative expression degrees of gene groupings between HCC Exp-subpopulations. Body S20. mRNA catch sequencing from the Holo-Seq total RNA collection. Body S21. mRNA and miRNA single transcriptome analyses of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) one cells. (DOCX 5908 kb) 13059_2018_1553_MOESM1_ESM.docx (5.7M) GUID:?8BF5D1B7-5F74-410D-8E95-CCE7DDE5D5D7 Extra file YM348 2: Desk S1. Not really1-site-containing transcripts in mouse. Desk S2. Not really1-site-containing transcripts in individual. Desk S3. Sequencing figures of RNA libraries. Desk S4. One cell collection price with different strategies. (XLSX 171 kb) 13059_2018_1553_MOESM2_ESM.xlsx ...
The Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is critically required for the synaptic recruitment of AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) during both development and plasticity. However, the underlying mechanism is unknown. Using single-particle tracking of AMPARs, we show that CaMKII …
1MXE: Structure of the Complex of Calmodulin with the Target Sequence of Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase I: Studies of the Kinase Activation Mechanism
KN-92 is an inactive derivative of KN-93. KN-93 is a selective inhibitor of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII), competitively blocking CaM binding to the kinase (Ki = 370 nM).
Heart failure stays a significant well being burden around the globe. Despite nice progress in delineation of molecular mechanisms underlying growth of illness, normal remedy has not superior on the similar tempo. The multifunctional signaling molecule Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) has acquired appreciable consideration over current years for its central function in maladaptive reworking and arrhythmias … Read more. ...
Some receptors for growth factors activate a protein kinase cascade, with the participation of multiple enzymes to effect a change in gene expression. Which of the following statements about a protein kinase cascade are true?. ...
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Calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase IG is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CAMK1G gene. This gene encodes a ... "Entrez Gene: Calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase IG". Retrieved 2018-08-28. Takemoto-Kimura S, Terai H, Takamoto M, ... protein similar to calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase, however, its exact function is not known. [provided by RefSeq, ... a novel membrane-anchored neuronal Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK)". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (20): 18597-605. doi: ...
This gene is also known by several other names: CMG 2 (CAMGUK protein 2), calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase 3 ... "Entrez Gene: CASK Calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (MAGUK family)". Tarpey PS, Smith R, Pleasance E, Whibley ... Zhu ZQ, Wang D, Xiang D, Yuan YX, Wang Y (January 2014). "Calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase is involved in ... July 2019). "Deficiency of calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase disrupts the excitatory-inhibitory balance of ...
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ID is a protein in humans that is encoded by the CAMK1D gene on chromosome 10 ( ... "Entrez Gene: Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ID". v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches ... Human Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type 1D (CAMK1D)) at the PDBe-KB. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000183049 ... This gene encodes a member of the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 1 subfamily of serine/threonine kinases. The encoded ...
Picciotto, M. R.; Czernik, A. J.; Nairn, A. C. (15 December 1993). "Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I. cDNA cloning ... "Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I - cDNA cloning and identification of autophosphorylation site". J. Biol. Chem. ... work with Paul Greengard at Rockefeller University where she cloned the gene for calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 1 ... "Menthol disrupts nicotine's psychostimulant properties in an age and sex-dependent manner in C57BL/6J mice". Behav. Brain Res. ...
... calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) II delta". Hook SS, Means AR (2001). "Ca2+/CaM-dependent ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II delta chain is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CAMK2D gene. The ... product of this gene belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase family and to the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ... "Rad and Rad-related GTPases interact with calmodulin and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (18): ...
... is phosphorylated by the calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase. MAPKAPK2 (mitogen-activated-protein kinase-activating ... that are phosphorylated by a variety of protein kinases. Ser40 is phosphorylated by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Ser19 ( ... "Molecular cloning of cDNA coding for brain-specific 14-3-3 protein, a protein kinase-dependent activator of tyrosine and ... Tyrosine hydroxylase is activated by phosphorylation dependent binding to 14-3-3 proteins. Since the 14-3-3 proteins also are ...
Activation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in obesity mediates suppression of hepatic insulin signaling". ... and a calcium-induced apoptosis pathway, which involves an ER calcium-release channel IP3R, a calcium-sensitive protein kinase ... Tabas discovered a calcium-IP3R-CaMKII pathway plays a key role in glucagon-mediated excessive hepatic glucose production, ... One notable finding showed a critical link between the PERK / CHOP branch of the stress Unfolded protein response (UPR) ...
This sudden increase in cytoplasmic calcium activates Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMKII). Activated CaMKII ... January 2011). "Protein tyrosine kinase 7 has a conserved role in Wnt/β-catenin canonical signalling". EMBO Reports. 12 (1): 43 ... Ren J, Li Y, Kufe D (May 2002). "Protein kinase C delta regulates function of the DF3/MUC1 carcinoma antigen in beta-catenin ... June 1997). "DAP-1, a novel protein that interacts with the guanylate kinase-like domains of hDLG and PSD-95". Genes to Cells. ...
"CAMK2A calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II alpha [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. ... β CAMKIIδ CAMKIIγ CAMKIII CAMKIV CAMKV CaM kinase like vesicle associated SCAMK Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase ... CAMK, also written as CaMK, is an abbreviation for the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase class of enzymes. CAMKs are ... Hudmon A, Schulman H (2002-06-01). "Neuronal CA2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II: the role of structure and ...
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases Laube B, Hirai H, Sturgess M, Betz H, Kuhse J (March 1997). "Molecular ... which contain residues that can be directly modified by a series of protein kinases and protein phosphatases, as well as ... "MHC class I immune proteins are critical for hippocampus-dependent memory and gate NMDAR-dependent hippocampal long-term ... July 2007). "Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 governs learning and synaptic plasticity via control of NMDAR degradation". Nature ...
"Liprinalpha1 degradation by calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II regulates LAR receptor tyrosine phosphatase ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the LAR protein tyrosine phosphatase-interacting protein (liprin) family. ... Protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, f polypeptide (PTPRF), interacting protein (liprin), alpha 1 has been shown to ... "Entrez Gene: PPFIA1 protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, f polypeptide (PTPRF), interacting protein (liprin), alpha 1 ...
"Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II phosphorylation drives synapse-associated protein 97 into spines". The Journal ... is the influx of calcium through the NMDA receptors and the resultant activation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ( ... element-binding protein through a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent stimulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase ... "Long-term potentiation is associated with an increased activity of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II". The Journal of ...
"Entrez Gene: CAMK2B calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) II beta". Walikonis RS, Oguni A, Khorosheva EM, ... The enzyme belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase family and to the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II beta chain is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CAMK2B gene. ... Sequence analyses of human brain calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II". Mol. Biol. Rep. 28 (1): 35-41. doi:10.1023/A: ...
Ng J, Rashid AJ, So CH, O'Dowd BF, George SR (January 2010). "Activation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIalpha ... dual functional regulation by G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 285 (45): 35092-103. ... Hasbi A, Fan T, Alijaniaram M, Nguyen T, Perreault ML, O'Dowd BF, George SR (December 2009). "Calcium signaling cascade links ... In comparison, signalling of the homologous D5-D2 receptor heteromer involves the influx of extracellular calcium. The D1-D2 ...
This gene provides instructions for making calcium/calmodulin dependent serine protein kinase (CASK), a protein that is ... "Deficiency of calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase disrupts the excitatory-inhibitory balance of synapses by down ... a novel dlg/PSD95 homolog with an N-terminal calmodulin-dependent protein kinase domain identified by interaction with ... a novel dlg/PSD95 homolog with an N-terminal calmodulin-dependent protein kinase domain identified by interaction with ...
Like neuroligins, neurexins possess a PDZ-domain that associates with CASK (Calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase). In ... Cadherins are calcium- dependent, homophilic cell adhesion molecules that form complexes with cytosolic partners known as ... This interaction, mediated by ephrin A3/EphA4 signaling, induces the recruitment and activation of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 ( ... Components of this complex bind to a number of different scaffolding proteins, phosphotases, kinases, and receptors. Classical ...
In an experiment using virus-induced gene silencing of two calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) in a wild tobacco ( ... are turned on by Ca2+ dependent protein kinases. In Arabidopsis, over expression of the IQD1 calmodulin-binding transcriptional ... This increase in cytosolic concentration activates target proteins such as Calmodulin and other binding proteins. Downstream ... When fatty acid amides are present in insect saliva, the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are activated. These genes ...
"Association of junctional adhesion molecule with calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (CASK/LIN-2) in human ... "Association of junctional adhesion molecule with calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (CASK/LIN-2) in human ... "Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human cDNAs". Genome ... KDR+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text from ...
1999). "Death-associated protein kinase 2 is a new calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase that signals apoptosis through ... Membrane protein MLC1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MLC1 gene. MLC1 (also called WKL1) is the only human gene ... homology to other proteins suggests that it may be an integral membrane transport protein. Mutations in this gene have been ... The MLC1 protein contains six putative transmembrane domains (S1-S6) and a pore region (P) between S5 and S6. Furthermore, MLC1 ...
... for nuclear calcium oscillations and a nuclear localized complex comprising a calcium-and-calmodulin dependent protein kinase ... and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase CCaMK. Moreover, the role of CYCLOPS, initially annotated as a protein with unknown ... Deregulation of a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase leads to spontaneous nodule development. Nature Volume: 441 Issue: 7097 ... The Parniske lab discovered that CYCLOPS is an interactor and phosphorylation substrate of the calcium- ...
... a protein kinase mediating biological effects downstream of Rho GTPases. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II gamma ( ... Harvey BP, Banga SS, Ozer HL (2004). "Regulation of the multifunctional Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II by the PP2C ... are Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase phosphatases that promote apoptosis". J Biol Chem. 276 (47): 44193-202. doi: ... Protein phosphatase 1F is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PPM1F gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member ...
These include calcium-dependent calmodulin, CaMKII (calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II), PKC (Protein Kinase C), PKA ( ... Calcium influx into the cell through NMDA receptors binds to calmodulin and activates the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein ... Protein Kinase A), Protein Phosphatase-1 (PP-1), and Fyn tyrosine kinase. Certain signallers, such as CaMKII, are upregulated ... The activation of the RhoA protein will activate ROCK, a RhoA kinase, which leads to the stimulation of LIM kinase, which in ...
Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-protein phosphatase 1 switch facilitates specificity in postsynaptic calcium ... calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), which leads to LTP. The difference in Ca2+ concentration required for a cell ... in the phosphorylation of isocitrate dehydrogenase and in the activation of the calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CAMKII ... called MAPK kinase, or MAPKK. Similarly, MAPKK is activated by MAPKK kinase, or MAPKKK. These kinases are sequentially ...
Ca2+ quickly enters and binds to calmodulin. Calmodulin activates calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), ... and calcium ions. Calcium ion entry into the presynaptic terminal causes the presynaptic release of glutamate, which diffuses ... This gives the NMDAR the property of being voltage-dependent, in that it requires strong postsynaptic depolarization to allow ...
Class IIa HDACs are phosphorylated by calcium/calmodulin dependent-kindase (CaMK) and protein kinase D (PKD) in response to ... This is most likely to allow for substrate recognition and protein-protein interactions that are necessary for class IIa HDAC ... This overexpression promoted lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-inducible expression of HDAC-dependent genes via a HIF-1alpha-dependent ... The protein encoded by this gene has sequence homology to members of the histone deacetylase family. This gene is orthologous ...
... calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CAMK) subfamily. This protein plays a role in the calcium/calmodulin-dependent (CaM) ... calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I by calmodulin and by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase". J. Biol. Chem. 273 ... calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV by Ca(2+)-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase Ia kinase. Phosphorylation of threonine ... calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase alpha by cAMP-dependent protein kinase: I. Biochemical analysis". J. Biochem. 130 (4 ...
Phosphorylation by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, protein kinase C, and calcium/calmodulin protein kinase; identification ... calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I by calmodulin and by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase". J. Biol. Chem. 273 ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I is expressed in many tissues and is a component of a calmodulin-dependent protein ... Calcium/calmodulin directly activates calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I by binding to the enzyme and indirectly ...
... calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2, beta". "CAMK1 - Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type 1 ... calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV by Ca(2+)-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase Ia kinase. Phosphorylation of threonine ... July 2005). "Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-beta is an alternative upstream kinase for AMP-activated protein kinase ... and to the Ca++/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily. This protein plays a role in the calcium/calmodulin-dependent ( ...
Phosphorylation by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, protein kinase C, and calcium/calmodulin protein kinase; identification ... calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I by calmodulin and by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase". J. Biol. Chem. 273 ... and activation of Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV by Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase Ia kinase. ... 2001). "Human Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase beta gene encodes multiple isoforms that display distinct kinase ...
... resulting in a calcium influx into the SCN. Calcium induces the activity of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases, ... and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases on the Serine 133 residue. When activated, CREB protein recruits other ... This protein kinase translocates to the cell nucleus, where it activates a CREB protein. The activated CREB protein then binds ... Abnormalities of a protein that interacts with the KID domain of CREB, the CREB-binding protein, (CBP) is associated with ...
Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) plays a crucial role in a type of synaptic plasticity known as long-term ... Other calcium-binding proteinsEdit. Calmodulin belongs to one of the two main groups of calcium-binding proteins, called EF ... On the left is calmodulin without calcium and on the right is calmodulin with calcium. Sites that bind target proteins are ... Many of the proteins that calmodulin binds are unable to bind calcium themselves, and use calmodulin as a calcium sensor and ...
Calmodulin may activate the Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinases, or may act directly on other effector proteins.[14] ... Calcium signaling is the use of calcium ions (Ca2+) to communicate and drive intracellular processes often as a step in signal ... Many of Ca2+ mediated events occur when the released Ca2+ binds to and activates the regulatory protein calmodulin. ... This type of release increases the activation of protein kinase, and is seen in cardiac muscle where it causes excitation- ...
see MAP kinase pathway. Calcium. *Intracellular calcium-sensing proteins. *Calcineurin. *Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein ... γ proteins.[17] Signaling[edit]. G protein can refer to two distinct families of proteins. Heterotrimeric G proteins, sometimes ... G proteins, also known as guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, are a family of proteins that act as molecular switches inside ... Whereas G proteins are activated by G protein-coupled receptors, they are inactivated by RGS proteins (for "Regulator of G ...
... it reduces the firing rate of the dopamine neuron via potassium channels and activates protein kinase A (PKA) and protein ... AMPH also increases intracellular calcium (Gnegy et al., 2004) that is associated with calmodulin/CamKII activation (Wei et al ... Half-life is 7 to 34 hours and is, in part, dependent on urine pH (half-life is longer with alkaline urine). ... Amphetamines ... Protein binding. 20% (as active amphetamine)[5]. Metabolism. Hydrolysis by enzymes in red blood cells initially, subsequent ...
The influx of calcium begins a cascade of events within the cell. Calcium first binds to calmodulin to form CaM. CaM will then ... "Molecular cloning and characterization of a calmodulin-dependent phosphodiesterase enriched in olfactory sensory neurons". Proc ... The surface of the cilia is covered with olfactory receptors, a type of G protein-coupled receptor. Each olfactory receptor ... "Phosphorylation and inhibition of olfactory adenylyl cyclase by CaM kinase II in Neurons: a mechanism for attenuation of ...
NADK is also reportedly stimulated by calcium/calmodulin binding in certain cell types, such as neutrophils. NAD kinases in ... Williams MB, Jones HP (Feb 1985). "Calmodulin-dependent NAD kinase of human neutrophils". Archives of Biochemistry and ... "A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome". Cell. 122 (6): 957-68. doi:10.1016/j.cell ... Epel D, Patton C, Wallace RW, Cheung WY (Feb 1981). "Calmodulin activates NAD kinase of sea urchin eggs: an early event of ...
... induced NF-kappa B activation by calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase occurs through Akt activation associated ... The MyD88 protein acts as an adapter, connecting proteins that receive signals from outside the cell to the proteins that relay ... After ligand binding, all TLRs apart from TLR3, interact with adaptor protein MyD88. Another adaptor protein, which is ... MyD88+Protein at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) (All articles with dead external links, ...
... calcium channel - calcium signaling - calcium-binding protein - calmodulin - calmodulin-binding protein - Calvin cycle - CAM ... cyclin-dependent kinase - cycloleucine - cyclosporin - cyclosporine - cystatin - cysteine - cystic fibrosis transmembrane ... protein subunit - protein synthesis - protein targeting - protein translocation - protein-tyrosine kinase - protein-tyrosine- ... protein - protein biosynthesis - Protein Data Bank - protein design - protein expression - protein folding - protein isoform - ...
Phosphorylation of calponin by a protein kinase, which is dependent upon calcium binding to calmodulin, releases the calponin's ... Calmodulin, when activated by calcium may bind weakly to the CH domain and inhibit calponin binding with α-actin. Calponin is ... Protein pages needing a picture, Genes on human chromosome 1, Proteins, All stub articles, Protein stubs). ... Calponin is a calcium binding protein. Calponin tonically inhibits the ATPase activity of myosin in smooth muscle. ...
Calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit (also known as Cav1.2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by ... When calcium ions bind to calmodulin, which in turn binds to a Cav1.2 channel, it allows the Cav1.2 channels within a cluster ... Perets T, Blumenstein Y, Shistik E, Lotan I, Dascal N (Apr 1996). "A potential site of functional modulation by protein kinase ... This gene encodes an alpha-1 subunit of a voltage-dependent calcium channel. Calcium channels mediate the influx of calcium ...
Deficient hippocampal long-term potentiation in alpha-calcium-calmodulin kinase II mutant mice. Science, 257(5067), 201-206. ... He was involved in early work demonstrating the importance of CaMKII- (1992) and the NMDA receptor-dependent synaptic ... one early idea to explain the adaptive immune system suggested that each gene produces one protein; however, there are under ... Tsien, Joe Z.; Huerta, Patricio T.; Tonegawa, Susumu (1996). "The Essential Role of Hippocampal CA1 NMDA Receptor-Dependent ...
... is a calcium and calmodulin dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase (also known as protein phosphatase 3, and calcium- ... "Association of protein kinase A and protein phosphatase 2B with a common anchoring protein". Science. 267 (5194): 108-11. ... Giri PR, Higuchi S, Kincaid RL (1991). "Chromosomal mapping of the human genes for the calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase ... "Molecular cloning of a full-length cDNA encoding the catalytic subunit of human calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase ( ...
... p39 interact with the alpha-subunit of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and alpha-actinin-1 in a calcium-dependent ... p39 interact with the alpha-subunit of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and alpha-actinin-1 in a calcium-dependent ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 activator 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDK5R2 gene. The protein encoded by this ... Agarwal-Mawal A, Paudel HK (June 2001). "Neuronal Cdc2-like protein kinase (Cdk5/p25) is associated with protein phosphatase 1 ...
This calcium then interacts with calcineurin and calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinases that in turn activate transcription ... "Coupling of stress in the ER to activation of JNK protein kinases by transmembrane protein kinase IRE1". Science. 287 (5453): ... PERK (protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase) activates itself by oligomerization and autophosphorylation of the ... An important example is that the proapoptotic protein CHOP (CCAAT/-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein), is upregulated ...
Hata Y, Butz S, Südhof TC (1996). "CASK: a novel dlg/PSD95 homolog with an N-terminal calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ... These alpha neurexins are involved in communication through coupling mechanisms of calcium channels and vesicle exocytosis, to ... Nakayama M, Kikuno R, Ohara O (2003). "Protein-protein interactions between large proteins: two-hybrid screening using a ... Neurexin-1-alpha is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NRXN1 gene. Neurexins are a family of proteins that function in ...
2005). "Multivalent interactions of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II with the postsynaptic density proteins NR2B ... 2001). "Densin-180 forms a ternary complex with the (alpha)-subunit of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and (alpha)- ... portray Densin-180 as a key interactor in the midst of receptor proteins, scaffolding proteins and structural proteins. [number ... 2007). "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Mol. Syst. Biol. 3 (1): 89. doi: ...
... a kind of protein kinase dependent to calcium and calmodulin) expression. And it has been suggested that deregulation of this ...
Shimomura A, Ogawa Y, Kitani T, Fujisawa H, Hagiwara M (Jul 1996). "Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II potentiates ... "Synergism between calcium and cyclic GMP in cyclic AMP response element-dependent transcriptional regulation requires ... The protein is phosphorylated by several protein kinases, and induces transcription of genes in response to hormonal ... This protein is a CREB transcription factor that is a member of the leucine zipper family of DNA-binding proteins. This protein ...
Protein kinase A (PKA) has been found to play an important role in learning and memory in Drosophila. When calcium enters a ... The intermediate term memory trace is dependent on expression of the amn gene located in dorsal paired medial neurons. An ... dual regulation of adenylate cyclase by Ca2+/calmodulin and transmitter". The Journal of Neuroscience. 11 (9): 2655-65. doi: ... which is sensitive to both calcium (which results from voltage-gated calcium channel opening by odors) and G protein ...
"Phosphorylation of myosin light chain kinase by the multifunctional calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in smooth muscle ... She later found that calcium dependent phosphorylation of MLCK in smooth muscle lead to decreased calcium sensitivity of ... Tansey also proposed a model to understand the regulation of myosin light chain kinase phosphorylation by limited calmodulin ... Family Ligand-Mediated Neuronal Survival via a Phosphatidylinositol-3 Kinase (PI-3K)-Dependent Pathway". The Journal of ...
... and calmodulin (CaM). Calmodulin has been shown to activate cyclic nucleotide PDE in a calcium-dependent manner and the ... of PDE1A1 and PDE1A2 by protein kinase A and of PDE1B1 by CaM Kinase II decreases their sensitivity to calmodulin activation. ... is a phosphodiesterase enzyme also known as calcium- and calmodulin-dependent phosphodiesterase. It is one of the 11 families ... Thevelein JM, de Winde JH (September 1999). "Novel sensing mechanisms and targets for the cAMP-protein kinase A pathway in the ...
... serine phosphorylation of the synaptic RAS-GTPase activating protein SynGAP by calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II ... by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 279 (17): 17980-8. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... Synaptic Ras GTPase-activating protein 1, also known as synaptic Ras-GAP 1 or SYNGAP1, is a protein that in humans is encoded ... "SynGAP-MUPP1-CaMKII synaptic complexes regulate p38 MAP kinase activity and NMDA receptor-dependent synaptic AMPA receptor ...
Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII), ribosomal s6 kinase (RSK),protein kinase D (PKD), and protein kinase C (PKC). ... "Novel control of cardiac myofilament response to calcium by S-glutathionylation at specific sites of myosin binding protein C ... of purified cardiac muscle C-protein by purified cAMP-dependent and endogenous Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinases". The ... identification of protein kinase A and protein kinase C phosphorylation sites". Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. 358 (2 ...
... proteins typically found at the triad are reduced, including CaMKII (Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II). Decreased ... A triad protein complex plays a role converting electrical excitation into calcium release, and it is composed of two calcium ... Calpain 3 is both a protease and a structural protein. As a protease, it cleaves proteins of the sarcomere and cytoskeleton, ... Serum creatine kinase, a nonspecific marker of muscle damage, can be elevated early in the disease. Facioscapulohumeral ...
Other blockers include the large organic cations calmidazolium (a calmodulin antagonist) and KN-62 (a CaM kinase II antagonist ... "P2X7 receptor-dependent blebbing and the activation of Rho-effector kinases, caspases, and IL-1 beta release". Journal of ... P2X purinoceptor 7 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the P2RX7 gene. The product of this gene belongs to the family of ... Glutathione has been proposed to act as a P2X7 receptor agonist when present at milimolar levels, inducing calcium transients ...
... polyadenylation element binding protein-dependent protein synthesis is regulated by calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ... Regulation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II docking to N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors by calcium/calmodulin ... Activity-Dependent Regulation of Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II Localization Message Subject (Your Name) has ... Activity-Dependent Regulation of Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II Localization. Howard Schulman ...
... mediated by calcium, and inhibited by KN-93, a specific inhibitor of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II). ... Using the [35S]CaM gel-overlay assay we showed that calmodulin-binding activity of the MCK1 is abolished by 50 microM KN-93, ... This light-regulated root gravitropism is phytochrome-dependent, ... of a calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase homolog from ... mediated by calcium, and inhibited by KN-93, a specific inhibitor of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II). ...
calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase kinase 1 - Meta subfamily. Detailed annotation on the structure, function, ... calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase kinase 1 Mouse. -. 505. 11 B4. Camkk1 calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ... CaM-kinase IV kinase , CAMKKA , calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase alpha , calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein ... Meta subfamily: calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase kinase 1. Last modified on 30/03/2016. Accessed on 30/11/2022. ...
Human calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II gamma gene (CAMK2G): cloning, genomic structure and detection of variants ... Human calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II gamma gene (CAMK2G): cloning, genomic structure and detection of variants ...
Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases*Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases. *Protein Kinases, Calcium-Calmodulin ... Multifunctional Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases*Multifunctional Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases ... Restricted Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases*Restricted Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases ... "Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases" by people in this website by year, and whether "Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent ...
Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases [D12.644.360.100]. *Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 4 [D12.644. ... Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases [D12.776.476.100]. *Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 4 [D12.776. ... Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases [D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.125]. *Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase ... Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 4*Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 4 ...
The CASK gene provides instructions for making a protein called calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (CASK). ... The CASK gene provides instructions for making a protein called calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (CASK). The ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase and mental retardation. Ann Neurol. 2009 Oct;66(4):438-43. doi: 10.1002/ana. ... Research suggests that the CASK protein may also interact with the protein produced from another gene, FRMD7, to promote ...
Rat CAMK2 (Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase-?) ELISA Kit. E-EL-R0138 Regular price $580.00. $499.00 You Pay ...
... for information about a given query protein. Data relevant to the protein like an alignment of homologues, linear motifs, post ... ProViz is an interactive protein exploration tool, which searches several databases ... relative to their position in the protein. ...
CaMKII-IV, calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and IV; c-Fos, cellular FBJ osteosarcoma protein; E-LTP, early long- ... phosphorylated calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and IV; pri-miR-1b, primary micro ribonucleic acid; PSD-95, ... mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase; MDA, melondialdehyde; miR-1b, micro ribonucleic acid 1b ... Neuroplasticity: hippocampal expression of BDNF mRNA and protein.. Exercise prevented mRNA and protein BDNF downregulation ...
... but immunodetection of postsynaptic proteins in brain sections proves difficult. We performed immunofluorescent double labeling ... Presynaptic proteins are readily identified by light microscopic immunocytochemistry, ... Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2 * Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases / metabolism ... Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2 * Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases ...
Calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase IG is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CAMK1G gene. This gene encodes a ... "Entrez Gene: Calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase IG". Retrieved 2018-08-28. Takemoto-Kimura S, Terai H, Takamoto M, ... protein similar to calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase, however, its exact function is not known. [provided by RefSeq, ... a novel membrane-anchored neuronal Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK)". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (20): 18597-605. doi: ...
Camk2a, phosphorylated (T286) (Calcium/Calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase Type II Subunit alpha, CAMKA, KIAA0968) (MaxLight ... Camk2a, phosphorylated (T286) (Calcium/Calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase Type II Subunit alpha, CAMKA, KIAA0968) (MaxLight ...
Structure of the Autoinhibited Kinase Domain of CaMKII and SAXS Analysis of the Holoenzyme by O. Rosenberg et al. ... A Peptide Model for Calmodulin Trapping by Calcium/Calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase II*. *J. Putkey, M. Waxham ... Structural Basis for the Autoinhibition of Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase I. *J. Goldberg, A. Nairn, J. Kuriyan ... Structural Examination of Autoregulation of Multifunctional Calcium/Calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase II*. *Eungyeong Yang, H ...
Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors * Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases / ... Erk MAP Kinase and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II Neuron. 2001 Jan;29(1):255-66. doi: 10.1016/s0896-6273(01)00195- ... Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases * Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2 * Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein ... Erk and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). Erk is maximally active during the subjective night, whereas ...
Calcium supplementation during sepsis exacerbates organ failure and mortality via calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ... Parenteral calcium for intensive care unit patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008;4:CD006163.DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Besides age and diagnostic PCR Ct value, renal dysfunction, low calcium levels, and low hemoglobin levels were independently ... Besides age and PCR cycle threshold value, renal dysfunction, low calcium levels, and low hemoglobin levels were independently ...
Name: calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV. Synonyms: Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type IV/Gr, CaMKIV/Gr ... Name: calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1D subunit. Synonyms: D-LTCC, Cchl1a, Cchl1a2, Cacnl1a2, 8430418G19Rik ... Name: phospholipase A2, group IVA (cytosolic, calcium-dependent). Synonyms: cPLA2, Type IV PLA2, cytosolic PLA2, cPLA2alpha, ...
calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II beta. ISO. ClinVar Annotator: match by term: Hyperventilation. ClinVar. PMID: ... Protein-Protein Interactions) PhenoMiner (Quatitative Phenotypes) Gene Annotator OLGA (Gene List Generator) RatMine GViewer ( ... F-box protein 11. ISO. ClinVar Annotator: match by term: Pitt-Hopkins-like syndrome 2. ClinVar. PMID:28492532. NCBI chr 6: ... protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 21. ISO. ClinVar Annotator: match by term: Pitt-Hopkins-like syndrome 2. ClinVar. ...
... calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ID. Synonyms: A630059D12Rik, CaMKIdelta, CKLiK, E030025C11Rik. Gene Family:. Kinase ...
SAP97 and 4.1N are proteins involved in GluA1 trafficking to and stabilization in synapses; SAP97-GluA1 interactions also ... Viral-mediated expression of a microRNA that reduces SAP97 protein expression (HSV miSAP97) in the medial accumbens shell ... These results indicate that the GluA1 subunit accessory protein SAP97 may represent a novel target for pharmacotherapeutic ... A growing body of evidence indicates that the transport of GluA1 subunit-containing calcium-permeable AMPA receptors (CP-AMPARs ...
Name: calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alpha. Synonyms: alpha-CaMKII. Type: Gene ... Name: ubiquitin protein ligase E3 component n-recognin 4. Synonyms: A930005E13Rik, LOC381562, D930005K06Rik, 1810009A16Rik, ... Name: ATP/GTP binding protein 1. Synonyms: Nna1, 2900054O13Rik, 4930445M19Rik, 5730402G09Rik, 1700020N17Rik, 2310001G17Rik, ... Synonyms: Ppiase-X, NG7, DIR1, WISp39, WAF-1/CIP1 stabilizing protein 39 ...
Active Recombinant human CAMK1G protein is a Baculovirus infected Sf9 Protein fragment 1 to 330 aa range and validated in FuncS ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase belonging to a proposed calcium-triggered signaling cascade. In vitro ... Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. CAMK Ser/Thr protein kinase family. CaMK subfamily.. Contains 1 protein kinase ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase Ig. *Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type 1G ...
... causing an increase of intracellular calcium (Ca2+) concentration. Co-receptors stabilize interactions between the TCR and its ... Calcium influx is critical for T cell effector function and fate. T cells are activated when T cell receptors (TCRs) engage ... adenosine monophosphates activated protein kinase) expression and CaMKK (calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase) activity [ ... Racioppi, L.; Means, A.R. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2: Roles in signaling and pathophysiology. J. Biol ...
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases. ... Kinase . Kinase Family and Groupa . Biochemical IC50 (μm)b . ... Family and group names as follows: RTK, receptor tyrosine kinase, TK, tyrosine kinase; STK, serine-threonine kinase, AGC ... c-Met kinase domain GST-fusion protein was used for the c-Met assay, whereas recombinant human full-length or GST-kinase domain ... Kinase . Kinase Family and Groupa . Biochemical IC50 (μm)b . Cellular IC50 (μm)c . ...
protein-coding. CALCR. calcitonin receptor. protein-coding. CAMK2D. calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II delta. ... cyclin dependent kinase 5 regulatory subunit 2. protein-coding. CMPK2. cytidine/uridine monophosphate kinase 2. protein-coding ... protein-coding. COL6A2. collagen type VI alpha 2 chain. ... protein-coding. CDK5. cyclin dependent kinase 5. protein-coding ... protein-coding. CCR6. C-C motif chemokine receptor 6. ... protein-coding. COBL. cordon-bleu WH2 repeat protein. protein- ...
Home > Protein > CAMK1B rat. human. mouse. New Protein Search:. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type 1B ... Protein Mutation Frequency in Cancer. The lollipop plot above illustrates recurrent (observed in 3 or more out of 4440 TCGA ...
... crystal structure of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase. PDB Compounds: (M:) calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein ... Protein Association domain of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II alpha subunit, CAMK2A [89852] (3 species). ... Association domain of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II alpha subunit, CAMK2A [89851] (2 proteins). ... d1hkxm_ d.17.4.7 (M:) Association domain of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II alpha subunit, CAMK2A {Mouse ( ...
... calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 1 S homeolog, calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase kinase 1, calcium/ ... calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 1, alpha a, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 1, calcium/calmodulin ... anti-Calcium/calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Kinase 1, alpha (CAMKK1) (C-Term) antibody CAMKK1 Reactivity: Human WB Host: ... anti-Calcium/calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Kinase 1, alpha (CAMKK1) (AA 1-505) antibody CAMKK1 Reactivity: Human WB Host ...
... calcium/calmodulin dependant protein kinase, CAMK2B, Fig. 2F, FDR , 0.01), synaptic terminus-level (SYN, Fig. 2G, FDR , 0.01), ... Proteins were filtered such that only those that appeared in at least 60% within a group were included. The raw values were ... Differentially enriched protein (DEP) analysis by volcano plot comparing (A) randomized groupings of tumor samples (n = 86, ... We identified 4,794 proteins across samples.. Bioinformatic analysis. Data used in this publication were generated by the ...
Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase; negative feedback controller of calcium/calcineurin signalling pathway, also has ... CalModulin dependent protein Kinase 1 2 Paralog. CMK1 4 Comparative Info. Sequence Details Sequence The S. cerevisiae Reference ... Cytoplasmic calmodulin-dependent protein kinase. View computational annotations. Molecular Function. Manually Curated. * ... protein information. Click "Protein Details" for further information about the protein such as half-life, abundance, domains, ...
  • Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a ubiquitous enzyme, present in essentially every tissue but most concentrated in brain. (jneurosci.org)
  • Intracellular distribution of CaMKII is dependent on the expressed isoforms(s) and represents a combination of stimulus-independent and -dependent localization. (jneurosci.org)
  • CaMKII isoforms are highly homologous, but the variable domain can contain peptide segments ("inserts"), e.g., by alternative splicing, that promote distinct intracellular targeting that can involve anchoring proteins. (jneurosci.org)
  • O-Uchi J, Komukai K, Kusakari Y, Obata T, Hongo K, Sasaki H, Kurihara S. alpha1-adrenoceptor stimulation potentiates L-type Ca2+ current through Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent PK II (CaMKII) activation in rat ventricular myocytes. (jefferson.edu)
  • Circadian modulation of ligand affinity is a posttranslational effect and is driven by rhythms in the activities of two protein kinases: Erk and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). (nih.gov)
  • The stability of CaMKIIα is investigated using a combination of differential scanning calorimetry, X‐ray crystallography, and mass photometry to conclude that within the context of the holoenzyme structure, the kinase domain is stabilized, whereas the hub domain is destabilized. (semanticscholar.org)
  • It is shown that activation of CaMKII by Ca2+-calmodulin is cooperative, with a Hill coefficient of ∼3.0, implying sequential kinase-domain activation beyond dimeric units, and points to the importance of kinetic dissection of the frequency-response mechanism in future experiments. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Structural Insights into the Regulation of Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II (CaMKII). (semanticscholar.org)
  • Further, experimental validation showed that the QX1 formula inhibited the activity of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), MAPK (P38, ERK1/2, and JNK), and TLR4/NF- κ B signaling pathways but promoted the activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway. (hindawi.com)
  • Background Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase that is regulated by the Ca2+/calmodulin complex. (qedbio.com)
  • Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is involved in the regulation of calcium and its hyperactivation can lead to cardiac issues, particularly with rhythm and contraction. (bioworld.com)
  • Structural analysis of CN17β by CD and NMR indicated an α-helix conformation in the Leu6-Arg11 segment well overlapping with the crystal structure of 21-residue segment of CaM-KNtide bound to the kinase domain of CaMKII. (elsevier.com)
  • We also found that pharmacological blockade of either L-type Ca 2+ channels or calcium-/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) disturbed GlyR clustering. (zfin.org)
  • Thus, the formation and maintenance of GlyR clusters in the M-cells in the developing animals are regulated in a synaptic transmission-dependent manner, and CaMKII activation at the postsynapse is essential for GlyR clustering. (zfin.org)
  • Calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase IIδ (CaMKIIδ) acts as a molecular switch regulating cardiovascular Ca2+ handling and contractility in health and disease. (strath.ac.uk)
  • Recombinant or purified CaMKIIδ and the individual inhibitory -κB kinase (IKK) proteins of the NF-κB signalling pathway were used in autoradiography and Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) to explore potential interactions between both components. (strath.ac.uk)
  • Importantly, and in agreement with the recombinant protein work, an interaction between CaMKII and IKKβ was evident following Proximity Ligation Assays in adult cardiac fibroblasts. (strath.ac.uk)
  • Calcium-calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a protein kinase, which detects Ca2+ signals and can phosphorylate many target proteins as well as itself. (eur.nl)
  • However, in chapter 3 we show that although CaMKII is required for normal presynaptic function, its ability to phosphorylate itself, or other proteins does not appear to be necessary for its presynaptic role. (eur.nl)
  • This suggests that CaMKII plays a structural (non-enzymatic) role and may explain why this kinase is so abundant. (eur.nl)
  • A model of the CaMKII protein shows multiple domains that allow it to bind actin filaments in the dendrites of neurons into bundles, giving the dendrites their shape. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Colleagues from Rice University, the University of Houston (UH) and The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth) combined theories, simulations and experiments to determine how a central binding protein -- calcium-calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) -- binds and unbinds from the cytoskeleton of a neuron. (technologynetworks.com)
  • The team's report in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences gives the first clear details of how the binding sites of CaMKII act to align actin filaments -- the structural protein -- into long, rigid bundles. (technologynetworks.com)
  • CaMKII is uniquely suited to interact with actin, the most abundant protein in eukaryotic cells and one that has special abilities in neurons, where it not only has to give thousands of dendrites (in each of billions of neurons) their resting forms but also must give them a level of plasticity to adapt to a constant barrage of signals. (technologynetworks.com)
  • The difference is, for CaMKII, the Thr-286 residue in the regulatory domain is auto- phosphorylated before kinase activation. (scientificarchives.com)
  • Our lab has also provided the first structural descriptions of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). (berkeley.edu)
  • Interest in CaMKII arises because of its ability to respond not just to the amplitude but also the frequency of calcium spikes, which makes it one of the critical molecular components underlying long term potentiation in neurons. (berkeley.edu)
  • Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is one of the most abundant members of this protein family. (kenstoreylab.com)
  • C-terminal deletion mutants of murine α-CaMKII were produced by PCR directional cloning and liposome-binding assays were performed on the purified proteins. (kenstoreylab.com)
  • Murine α-CaMKII like the β isoform from rat muscle may interact with membranes through a putative non-kinase translation product (a putative anchoring protein), which encompasses amino acids 230-270 at N-terminal of the regulatory domain rather than through direct binding with phospholipids. (kenstoreylab.com)
  • The binding of glutamate or NMDA to these receptors in the synaptic membrane allows calcium influx and subsequent activation of cation-dependent enzymes, such as calcium-calmodulin protein kinase II (CaMKII), PKC, phospholipase C gamma and some subtypes of PLA2. (fapesp.br)
  • For this purpose, WIN 55,212-2 was injected in pregnant wistar rats from gestation day 5 to 20 and a detailed analysis of the levels of the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as well as of the signaling molecules extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 and α-calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (α-CaMKII) was carried out in adult offspring. (elsevier.com)
  • The calcium/ calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) blocker, KN93, significantly reduced the average mIPSC amplitude in neurons from trained rats onlytothe average pretraininglevel.Asimilar effect was obtainedbythe CaMKII peptideinhibitor, tatCN21. (haifa.ac.il)
  • Alternative splicing modulates the frequency-dependent response of CaMKII to Ca(2+) oscillations. (greenspine.ca)
  • II (CaMKII) is a widely distributed protein kinase that regulates numerous physiological functions. (fortunebio-tech.com)
  • and the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase CaMKII. (fortunebio-tech.com)
  • Researchers at Vanderbilt have identified what may be a genetic "smoking gun" for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) - a mutation in the gene for the critical neuronal protein CaMKII. (vumc.org)
  • The calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a key player in synaptic plasticity, learning and memory. (vumc.org)
  • We show the mutation severely disrupts the biochemical functions of CaMKII in vitro, and induces synaptic abnormalities when the mutant protein is expressed in cultured neurons," Colbran said. (vumc.org)
  • We have shown that the long form is required for both activity-dependent accumulation of CaMKII protein and for enhancement of spontaneous release as the larval NMJ (Kuklin et al. (griffithlabbrandeis.com)
  • Using reporter transgenes, we have identified multiple cis elements in the 3'UTR of the the CaMKII gene that allow specific axonal accumulation of the CaMKII protein in adult mushroom body. (griffithlabbrandeis.com)
  • Using CRISPR to delete these elements, we find they facilitate local translation by recruiting RNA-binding proteins which allow concentration of CaMKII in the synaptic region. (griffithlabbrandeis.com)
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: The Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMKII) regulatory pathway was integrated into the model, which included a novel Ca2+-release formulation, Ca2+ subspace, dynamic chloride handling, and formulations for major ion currents based on canine ventricular data. (physiomeproject.org)
  • CaT amplitude increased as cycle length decreased from 8000 to 500 ms. This positive rate-dependent property depended on CaMKII activity. (physiomeproject.org)
  • RRAD may inhibit cardiac hypertrophy through the calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) pathway. (ithanet.eu)
  • Canonical" targets of calmodulin, such as myosin light-chain kinases and CaMKII , bind only to the Ca 2+ -bound protein, whereas some proteins, such as NaV channels and IQ-motif proteins, also bind to calmodulin in the absence of Ca 2+ . (wikipedia.org)
  • This review will discuss the role of kinase localization in optimizing fidelity of substrate phosphorylation. (jneurosci.org)
  • First, localization of kinase near some of its substrates achieves a concentration of the kinase that speeds onset of response to stimulus and increases the rate of phosphorylation. (jneurosci.org)
  • Nuclear targeting is subject to inhibitory control by phosphorylation at either of two sites, one catalyzed by other kinases and the other by autophosphorylation. (jneurosci.org)
  • A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. (jefferson.edu)
  • The activity of this enzyme is regulated by its phosphorylation by CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE. (jefferson.edu)
  • After the influx of calcium ions and the binding to calmodulin, pp60 SRC (a protein kinase)causes a conformational change in MYLK, activating it and resulting in an increase in phosphorylation of myosin light chain at serine residue 19. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reducing intracellular calcium concentration inactivates MLCK but does not stop smooth muscle contraction since the myosin light chain has been physically modified through phosphorylation(and not via ATPase activity). (wikipedia.org)
  • The rest of the article focuses on two proteins in particular that could get disrupted through glyphosate substitution, and I will explain how this disruption can lead to a runaway phosphorylation cascade resulting in cancer. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Using transgenic mice expressing a constitutively active form of H-ras (H- rasG12V), we studied the H-Ras/ERK/Syn I pathway and showed that in these mice ERK-dependent phosphorylation of synansin I is increased and causes several presynaptic changes. (eur.nl)
  • The calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II delta (CAMK2D), which normally influences RCHY1 stability by phosphorylation, also binds to SUD. (cipsm.de)
  • Sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pump in cardiac and slow twitch skeletal muscle but not fast twitch skeletal muscle undergoes phosphorylation by endogenous and exogenous Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase. (taconic.com)
  • Characterization of optimal conditions for calcium pump phosphorylation. (taconic.com)
  • CaMKs have a special phosphorylation-dependent mechanism for the regulation of kinase activity. (scientificarchives.com)
  • also known as c-Akt and Rac) and phosphorylation and sequestration to protein 14- 3-3 of the proapoptotic Bcl-2-family member BAD. (elsevier.com)
  • Here we report that Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaM-KK) activates PKB directly, resulting in phosphorylation of BAD on serine residue 136 and the interaction of BAD with protein 14-3-3. (elsevier.com)
  • Using patch-clamp technique, we studied the role of the Ca 2+ /calmodulin kinase II (CaMK II)-mediated phosphorylation process on the K + channel with an inward conductance of 90 pS in opossum kidney proximal tubule cells (OKPCs). (elsevier.com)
  • AA regulates the conductance of ion channels, the release of neurotransmitters, the phosphorylation of substrates by the action of kinases and the synthesis of transcriptional factors, with effects on neuronal polarity, synaptic plasticity and long-term potentiation (LTP). (fapesp.br)
  • Ligand binding to the four closely related members of this RTK family -epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, also known as ErbB-1 or HER1), ErbB-2 (HER2), ErbB-3 (HER3), and ErbB-4 (HER4)-induces the formation of receptor homo- and heterodimers and the activation of the intrinsic kinase domain, resulting in phosphorylation on specific tyrosine residues (pY) within the cytoplasmic tail. (uni-freiburg.de)
  • Inhibition of RYR1 suppressed proliferation, migration and enhanced apoptosis through Ca 2+ -dependent activation of AKT/CREB/PGC-1α and AKT/HK1/2 signaling pathways, which modulate mitochondrial bioenergetics properties, including oxidative phosphorylation, ATP production, mitochondrial membrane potential, ROS production and TCA metabolites, and glycolytic activities in USC cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It really is through the C-terminal SH2 area that Grb7 can connect to phosphorylated tyrosines of turned on upstream tyrosine kinase companions, leading to Grb7 phosphorylation on the GM area, and propagation of downstream occasions. (solventcentral.com)
  • Catalysis of the phosphorylation of an amino acid residue in a protein, usually according to the reaction: a protein + ATP = a phosphoprotein + ADP. (systemsbiology.net)
  • This reaction requires the binding of a regulatory cyclin subunit and full activity requires stimulatory phosphorylation by a CDK-activating kinase (CAK). (systemsbiology.net)
  • The RRAD protein exhibits N- and C-terminal extensions that create additional phosphorylation sites for binding proteins, such as calmodulin and 14-3-3 proteins. (ithanet.eu)
  • Synaptic transmission-dependent regulation of neurotransmitter receptor accumulation at postsynaptic sites underlies the formation, maintenance and maturation of synaptic function. (zfin.org)
  • This is the first demonstration of synaptic transmission-dependent modulation of synaptic GlyRs in vivo . (zfin.org)
  • Learning is thought to occur through activity-dependent synaptic modification in the neuronal network. (eur.nl)
  • Channelrhodopsin 2 (ChR2)-enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP)-expressing medial-ganglionic eminence (MGE)-derived GABAergic interneurons from embryonic day (E)13.5 mouse embryos were transplanted into the DG of the TLE mice and GCs with transplant-derived inhibitory post-synaptic currents (IPSCs) were identified by patch-clamp electrophysiology and optogenetic interrogation. (eneuro.org)
  • Moreover, we investigated the effects of two familial Alzheimer's disease mutations on synaptic proteins in hippocampal spheroids generated from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from patients and healthy gender matched controls. (lu.se)
  • We found that many of the changes between Alzheimer's disease hippocampal spheroids and normal samples were in synaptic proteins. (lu.se)
  • Betz A, Thakur P, Junge HJ, Ashery U, Rhee JS, Scheuss V, Rosenmund C, Rettig J, Brose N (2001) Functional interaction of the active zone proteins Munc13-1 and RIM1 in synaptic vesicle priming. (yale.edu)
  • Butz S, Okamoto M, Südhof TC (1998) A tripartite protein complex with the potential to couple synaptic vesicle exocytosis to cell adhesion in brain. (yale.edu)
  • Aβ produces synaptic deficits in wild-type mice that are not seen in Mapt −/− mice, suggesting that tau protein is required for these effects of Aβ. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Downregulated gene sets in the frontal cortex were related to protein synthesis, chromatin organization, transmembrane transport processes, while 'dendrite development', 'regulation of synaptic plasticity' and 'positive regulation of synapse assembly' gene sets were upregulated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A mechanism for Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II clustering at synaptic and nonsynaptic sites based on self-association. (greenspine.ca)
  • A Ca2+-sensitive protein complex is involved in the regulation of AMPA receptor synaptic plasticity. (fortunebio-tech.com)
  • A family of synaptic vesicle-associated proteins involved in the short-term regulation of NEUROTRANSMITTER release. (ouhsc.edu)
  • Synaptic protein expression by regenerating adult photoreceptors. (ouhsc.edu)
  • Neuromodulators may modify gene expression, produce plasticity of various synaptic channels, or modify properties of voltage dependent channels, depending on both the specific neuromodulator and the target neuron. (brains-minds-media.org)
  • Calcium is one of the activators of protein kinase C, which plays a role in synaptic plasticity. (brains-minds-media.org)
  • In a complex with calmodulin, calcium is an activator or regulator of several enzymes, including calcium-calmodulin dependent protein kinase, which plays a role in synaptic plasticity, and adenylate cyclase, which produces cAMP, another important second messenger. (brains-minds-media.org)
  • We have previously shown that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) stabilizes αSOs against dissociation without compromising their ability to colocalize with glutamatergic synapses of primary hippocampal neurons, suggesting that they bind to synaptic proteins. (au.dk)
  • Many cell surface receptors , including G protein-coupled receptors and receptor tyrosine kinases , activate the PLC enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, Lenvatinib, another tyrosine kinase inhibitor was approved by the FDA as a first-line agent in the management of HCC. (forgetmenotinitiative.org)
  • The ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) couples binding of extracellular growth factor ligands to intracellular signaling pathways regulating diverse biologic responses, including proliferation, differentiation, cell motility, and survival. (uni-freiburg.de)
  • Goutsouliak, V. and Rabkin, S.W. Angiotensin II-induced inositol phosphate generation is mediated through tyrosine kinase pathways in cardiomyocytes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • BCAR1 plays a vital role for tyrosine kinase-based signaling related to cell adhesion. (neuromics.com)
  • Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + a protein tyrosine = ADP + protein tyrosine phosphate. (systemsbiology.net)
  • Regulation of phospholipase D and secretion in mast cells by protein kinase A and other protein kinases. (jefferson.edu)
  • The pathological mechanisms of cardiac dysfunction in sepsis are multifactorial, including inflammatory mediator disorder, mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis, and calcium regulation disorder [ 5 , 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • She used structural biology, single-molecule microscopy, and native mass spectrometry along with computational techniques to study the molecular mechanism of regulation in a calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase that is critical for learning and memory. (yale.edu)
  • 1987. A mutant Paramecium with a defective calcium-dependent potassium conductance has an altered calmodulin: A nonlethal selective alteration in calmodulin regulation. (iup.edu)
  • MiRNAs are associated with the generation, development, and maintenance of atrial fibrillation through the regulation of the gene expression on targets of ion channels, transporters, calcium binding proteins, extracellular matrix proteins, and other factors. (heraldopenaccess.us)
  • Several proteins are involved in the regulation of neurotransmitter release. (kenstoreylab.com)
  • These discoveries established the pivotal role of calmodulin in Ca 2+ signaling, laying foundations for the research of cell signal transduction and regulation. (edu.hk)
  • Differential regulation of neuronal nicotinic ACh receptor subunit genes in cultured neonatal rat sympathetic neurons: specific induction of alpha 7 by membrane depolarization through a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase pathway. (greenspine.ca)
  • Cell cycle regulation of myosin-V by calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • Transient receptor potential cation channel protein 6 (TRPC6) plays an important role in renal function through its regulation of intracellular Ca 2+ influx and RhoA/ROCK pathways. (dovepress.com)
  • We use genetics, imaging and protein biochemistry to understand the complex regulation of this kinase and how it functions in plasticity. (griffithlabbrandeis.com)
  • A serine-threonine kinase which plays an important role in the regulation of electrolyte homeostasis, cell signaling, survival, and proliferation. (ucdenver.edu)
  • They are involved in the regulation of voltage-gated calcium channel activity, and can modulate cytoskeleton remodelling through the Rho pathway. (ithanet.eu)
  • Zhu J, Reynet C, Caldwell JS, Kahn CR, Characterization of Rad, a new member of Ras/GTPase superfamily, and its regulation by a unique GTPase-activating protein (GAP)-like activity. (ithanet.eu)
  • Yang T, Colecraft HM, Regulation of voltage-dependent calcium channels by RGK proteins. (ithanet.eu)
  • Regulation of protein kinase D activity in adult myocardium: novel counter-regulatory roles for protein kinase Cepsilon and protein kinase A Haworth, R.S. (eurekamag.com)
  • The integrating pathway analysis indicated the calcium, PI3K/AKT, MAPK, and Toll-like receptor signaling pathways may be involved in the protective effect of the QX1 formula on sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction. (hindawi.com)
  • The most common signaling pathway that increases cytoplasmic calcium concentration is the phospholipase C (PLC) pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • A modest increase in intracellular Ca 2+ concentration also promotes survival of some cultured neurons through a pathway that requires calmodulin but is independent of PI(3)K and the MAP kinases. (elsevier.com)
  • If, on the one hand, the inhibition of cPLA2 by lithium is consistent with its therapeutic action in mood disorders, this effect may hinder the formation and consolidation of memory, which are processes dependent on the integrity of this pathway and the release of AA. (fapesp.br)
  • Moreover, the Wnt pathway is activated by hepatitis C virus proteins including NS3 and NS5, which leads to alterations in micro RNA-155 expressions and increasing tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-) levels. (forgetmenotinitiative.org)
  • Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase pathway (RAS/MAPK) pathway activation was shown to be present in about 50% of HCC tumors. (forgetmenotinitiative.org)
  • The RhoA/ROCK pathway and podocyte-specific proteins (nephrin and synaptopodin) levels were quantified. (dovepress.com)
  • Both 100 μM valsartan and 10 μM tetrandrine for 48 h significantly inhibited intracellular Ca 2+ influx, apoptosis, and RhoA/ROCK pathway, and increased nephrin and synaptopodin proteins in podocytes stably expressing TRPC6. (dovepress.com)
  • Once bound to Ca 2+ , calmodulin acts as part of a calcium signal transduction pathway by modifying its interactions with various target proteins such as kinases or phosphatases . (wikipedia.org)
  • This light-regulated root gravitropism is phytochrome-dependent, mediated by calcium, and inhibited by KN-93, a specific inhibitor of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II). (nasa.gov)
  • A screen profiling 158 kinase inhibitors (Calbiochem Protein Kinase Inhibitor Library I and II, catalogue numbers 539744 and 539745) for their inhibitory activity at 1µM and 10µM against 234 human recombinant kinases using the EMD Millipore KinaseProfiler TM service. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • 1. Anastassiadis T, Deacon SW, Devarajan K, Ma H, Peterson JR. (2011) Comprehensive assay of kinase catalytic activity reveals features of kinase inhibitor selectivity. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • 3. Tokumitsu H, Inuzuka H, Ishikawa Y, Ikeda M, Saji I, Kobayashi R. (2002) STO-609, a specific inhibitor of the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • The protein kinase C inhibitor CGP41251 suppresses cytokine release and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 expression in cancer patients. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The CASK gene provides instructions for making a protein called calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (CASK). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Research suggests that the CASK protein may also interact with the protein produced from another gene, FRMD7 , to promote development of the nerves that control eye movement (the oculomotor neural network). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Affected individuals with nystagmus may have CASK gene mutations that disrupt the interaction between the CASK protein and the protein produced from the FRMD7 gene, leading to problems with the development of the oculomotor neural network and resulting in abnormal eye movements. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Gene expression of calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II δ and atrial natriuretic peptide, but not brain natriuretic peptide, in the left ventricle of the heart was significantly higher in antelope than in sheep. (avma.org)
  • Gene Ontology analysis showed that the genes associated with small molecule metabolic process, oxidation‑reduction processes, protein kinase activity, transport, and cell junction were commonly downregulated in cells whose proliferation was attenuated by the knockdown of RHOA . (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Gene expression and inheritance are not only a function of the DNA code, but also epigenetic mechanisms that regulate DNA accessibility, transcription, and translation of the genetic code into a functional protein. (intechopen.com)
  • The "presenilin hypothesis" posits a loss of essential presenilin protein functions as a consequence of gene mutation, which might be one factor influencing disease phenotype. (j-alz.com)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: MICrocephaly, disproportionate pontine and cerebellar hypoplasia syndrome: A clinico-radiologic phenotype linked to calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase gene mutation. (who.int)
  • It is caused by inactivating calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (CASK) gene mutations. (who.int)
  • The product of this gene belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase family and to the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily. (anticorps-enligne.fr)
  • Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II triggers cell membrane injury by inducing complement factor B gene expression in the mouse heart. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • A gene ontogeny (GO) analysis showed that most of the DEGs were involved in the binding of ADP and calcium ions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Acute inhibition of these signaling pathways causes phase-dependent changes in the affinity of the channels for cGMP. (nih.gov)
  • Our data suggested that QX1 may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for sepsis by suppressing the activity of calcium, MAPK, and TLR4/NF- κ B pathways, but promoting the activation of AKT, thus controlling cytokine storm and regulating immune balance. (hindawi.com)
  • High levels of glucose in diabetes induce multiple biochemical pathways in vascular cells, including increased oxidative stress, generation of advanced glycation end-products, excess synthesis of extracellular matrix, altered protein kinase C activity, increased vascular permeability, and endothelial cell apoptosis ( 2 , 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Small peptides, especially those derived from natural proteins as inhibitory peptide aptamers (iPAs), can produce highly effective and selective blockade of specific nociceptive molecular pathways to reduce pain with minimal off-target effects. (lww.com)
  • Ca 2+ can act in signal transduction resulting from activation of ion channels or as a second messenger caused by indirect signal transduction pathways such as G protein-coupled receptors . (wikipedia.org)
  • Homeostasis of articular cartilage and subchondral bone is essential for maintenance of joint function which is critically dependent on the balance between anabolic and catabolic signaling pathways [ 1 , 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Multi-kinase inhibitors (Regorafenib, cabozantinib, and ramucirumab) that target these pathways were recently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) for the management of HCC that are refractory to sorafenib. (forgetmenotinitiative.org)
  • These data provide in planta genetic evidence for the involvement of CDPK/calcium in ABA signaling at the whole-plant level and show that CPK4 and CPK11 are two important positive regulators in CDPK/calcium-mediated ABA signaling pathways. (bioseek.eu)
  • In this tutorial, I explain how to develop models of second messenger pathways and calcium dynamics. (brains-minds-media.org)
  • Early steps in this transition are complex, with at least 2 signaling pathways identified: 1 stops yeast growth and another, with a heat shock protein 70-type profile, initiates the assembly of proteins necessary for mycelial growth. (cdc.gov)
  • Yeast-form-specific genes identified in Histoplasma capsulatum function in calcium/calmodulin signaling pathways and sulphur metabolism. (cdc.gov)
  • Calcium-dependent signaling pathways and heat shock protein expression regulate dimorphism in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and have broad implications for other pathogens. (cdc.gov)
  • A growing body of evidence indicates that the transport of GluA1 subunit-containing calcium-permeable AMPA receptors (CP-AMPARs) to synapses in subregions of the nucleus accumbens promotes cocaine seeking. (nature.com)
  • T cells are activated when T cell receptors (TCRs) engage peptides presented by antigen-presenting cells (APC), causing an increase of intracellular calcium (Ca 2+ ) concentration. (mdpi.com)
  • Study of an animal model of Sydenham chorea revealed that immunization with group A streptococcal antigen led to behavioral changes which correlated with antibody deposition in the striatum as well as reactivity of serum IgG with dopamine receptors and the induction of CaM kinase II activity. (autismone.org)
  • Transient viral-mediated overexpression of α-calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in the nucleus accumbens shell leads to long-lasting functional upregulation of α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate receptors: dopamine type-1 receptor and protein kinase A dependence. (open.ac.uk)
  • Here we first observed that burst timing-dependent long-term potentiation (b-LTP) in hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses, which requires GluN2B subunit-containing NMDA receptors (NMDARs), was inhibited by human Aβ 1-42 (hAβ) in wild-type (WT) mice, but not in tau-knockout ( Mapt −/− ) mice. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Hormone receptors are membrane proteins which are specific for each hormone. (howmed.net)
  • A further chapter discusses how surface membrane G-protein receptors in C. albicans and other fungi transmit external stimuli through 2 major protein kinase cascades. (cdc.gov)
  • The chorea derived mAbs, acute Sydenham chorea sera and cerebrospinal fluid targeted human neuronal cells and signaled calcium-calmodulin dependent protein (CaM) kinase II activity and dopamine release in a neuronal cell line as well as in primary neuronal cells. (autismone.org)
  • Serum antibodies from related disorders such as PANDAS with obsessive compulsive behaviors, vocal tics or tic-like movements demonstrated that the level of the CaM kinase II activity was increased along with antibodies against lysoganglioside and a number of neuronal antigens. (autismone.org)
  • CLICK-III/CaMKIgamma is a novel membrane-anchored neuronal Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase. (prosci-inc.com)
  • Glycogen synthase kinase 3² (GSK3²) is another important neuronal enzyme whose activity is inhibited by lithium. (fapesp.br)
  • 2007. Manipulation of protein kinases reveals different mechanisms for upregulation of heat shock proteins in motor neurons and non-neuronal cells. . (greenspine.ca)
  • Another source of smooth muscle disorders like ischemia-reperfusion, hypertension, and coronary artery disease arise when mutations to protein kinase C (PKC) result in excessive inhibition of MYLP, which counteracts the activity of MYLK by dephosphorylating myosin light chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vitro incubation of CaMKIV with the exogenous RSS donors Na 2 S n (n = 2-4) resulted in dose-dependent inhibition of the CaMKK-induced phospho-Thr 196 and consequent inactivation of the enzyme activity. (elsevier.com)
  • Calmodulin kinase II inhibition protects against structural heart disease. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • Na+ /H+ exchanger 1 inhibition in the heart and lungs reduces sodium-induced calcium overload and pulmonary hypertension, respectively. (cfrjournal.com)
  • Calmodulin is a small, highly conserved protein that is 148 amino acids long (16.7 kDa). (wikipedia.org)
  • [6] These surfaces interact with complementary nonpolar segments on target proteins, typically consisting of groups of bulky hydrophobic amino acids separated by 10-16 polar and/or basic amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calcium signaling is the use of calcium ions (Ca 2+ ) to communicate and drive intracellular processes often as a step in signal transduction . (wikipedia.org)
  • Calcium and Cell Function, Volume 7 covers the signal transduction across the cell membrane. (sstis.org)
  • Two calcium-dependent protein kinases, CPK4 and CPK11, regulate abscisic acid signal transduction in Arabidopsis. (bioseek.eu)
  • Many biochemical approaches show functions of calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) in abscisic acid (ABA) signal transduction, but molecular genetic evidence linking defined CDPK genes with ABA-regulated biological functions at the whole-plant level has been lacking. (bioseek.eu)
  • Proteomic analysis in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi-inoculated plants revealed upregulated expression of signal transduction proteins, including Ca2+ transporter ATPase, calcium-dependent protein kinase, calmodulin, and energy-related proteins (NADH dehydrogenase, iron-sulfur protein NADH dehydrogenase, cytochrome C oxidase, and ATP synthase). (iita.org)
  • A screen of 72 inhibitors against 456 human kinases. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • A screen profiling the inhibitory activity of 178 commercially available kinase inhibitors at 0.5µM against a panel of 300 recombinant protein kinases using the Reaction Biology Corporation Kinase Hotspot SM platform. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • 2010) Activation state-dependent binding of small molecule kinase inhibitors: structural insights from biochemistry. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • The present structure provides a molecular basis for clarifying the known biochemical properties of CaMKKβ and for designing novel inhibitors targeting CaMkkβ and the related protein kinases. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Myosin light-chain kinase also known as MYLK or MLCK is a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase that phosphorylates a specific myosin light chain, namely, the regulatory light chain of myosin II. (wikipedia.org)
  • Binding of calcium ion to this domain increases the affinity of MYLK binding to myosin light chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rho kinase also modulates the activity of MYLK by downregulating the activity of MYLK's counterpart protein: Myosin Light Chain Phosphatase (MYLP). (wikipedia.org)
  • Because myosin light chain has no inherent phosphate cleaving property over active PKC prevents the dephosphorylation of myosin light protein leaving it in the activated conformation, causing an increase in smooth muscle contraction. (wikipedia.org)
  • calcium/calmodulin-dependent myosin light chain kinase. (expasy.org)
  • myosin light-chain kinase (phosphorylating). (expasy.org)
  • myosin light chain protein kinase. (expasy.org)
  • smooth-muscle-myosin-light-chain kinase. (expasy.org)
  • protein phosphatase calcineurin are involved in the modulation of both of these processes. (iup.edu)
  • His research contributions include the purification of calmodulin and the demonstration of calcium ion dependence of calmodulin action, the discovery and purification of calcineurin as the major calmodulin binding protein in central nervous tissue, and the demonstration and purification of isoforms of calmodulin-dependent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesteras. (edu.hk)
  • Death, cardiac dysfunction, and arrhythmias are increased by calmodulin kinase II in calcineurin cardiomyopathy. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • Second, translocation can increase the signal-to-noise ratio by keeping kinase away from its substrate under basal conditions. (jneurosci.org)
  • However, based on their substrate specificity, not all CaM-regulated kinases are Ca 2+ /CaMdependent protein kinases (CaMKs). (scientificarchives.com)
  • Breast Cancer Anti-Estrogen Resistance 1 (BCAR1) is a Src family kinase substrate which takes part in a range of cellular events such as migration, survival, transformation, and invasion. (neuromics.com)
  • Subsequent systems pharmacology analysis found that 63 bioactive compounds and the related 79 candidate target proteins were screened from the QX1 formula. (hindawi.com)
  • Sumoylation, the covalent attachment of the small ubiquitin-related modifier SUMO to target proteins, regulates different cellular processes,although its role in the control of development remains unclear. (biologists.com)
  • CaM undergoes a conformational change upon binding calcium, allowing newly uncovered hydrophobic residues to bind an array of cytosolic target proteins, including partners that are involved with regulating cell shape and migration [11,12]. (solventcentral.com)
  • In addition, likely binding sites on these ligands were identified by computational analysis, highlighting a diversity of possible interactions between αSOs and target proteins. (au.dk)
  • Calmodulin's ability to recognize a tremendous range of target proteins is due in large part to its structural flexibility. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sites that bind target proteins are indicated by red stars. (wikipedia.org)
  • Strong calcium entry activates mitochondrial superoxide generation, upregulating kinase signaling in hippocampal neurons. (jefferson.edu)
  • The CASK protein is primarily found in nerve cells (neurons) in the brain, where it helps control the activity (expression) of other genes that are involved in brain development. (medlineplus.gov)
  • We found that the sensitivity of nociceptor neurons is regulated by the controlled subcellular localization of Calcium/calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase-1 (CMK-1), (Schild et al. (unifr.ch)
  • Exposure of neurons in different brain regions to NMDA leads to activation of the cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2) by influx of calcium in micromolar concentrations. (fapesp.br)
  • Here, we develop a proteomic screen for putative αSO binding partners in rat primary neurons using DHA-stabilized human αSOs as a bait protein. (au.dk)
  • Expression of genes for atrial natriuretic peptide, brain natriuretic peptide, and calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II δ was measured via real-time PCR assay. (avma.org)
  • We and others have additionally shown that glucose-induced upregulation of p300 can regulate the expression of genes for extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and vasoactive factors in endothelial cells ( 11 , 12 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The QTL regions described in this study harbor genes with biological functions related to metabolic processes, lipid and protein metabolism, generation of energy and growth. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The genes in the Arabidopsis Rboh family encode for integral membrane proteins characterized by six membrane-spanning domains, two heme groups and a C-terminal domain with NADPH- and FAD- binding sites (Figure 5). (inquiriesjournal.com)
  • Four of these genes encode evolutionarily ancient proteins, while four others encode secreted proteins with little or no identity to known proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CaMKK2 kinase domain interacts with the autoinhibitory region through the N-terminal lobe including the RP insert. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The autoinhibitory domain overlaps with the calmodulin binding region and interacts in the inactive folded state with the catalytic domain as a pseudosubstrate. (abcam.com)
  • The α subunit dissociates and interacts with the membrane bound target protein (enzyme) to initiate intracellular signal. (howmed.net)
  • Calmodulin kinase II interacts with the dopamine transporter C terminus to regulate amphetamine-induced reverse transport. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • Similar to ROCK, Protein Kinase C regulates MYLK via the CPI-17 protein, which downregulates MYLP. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calcium (Ca 2+ ) is an intracellular universal second messenger that regulates a variety of cellular processes. (scientificarchives.com)
  • Lithium inhibits calcium-dependent PKC by reducing the expression of AP-2 (activating protein-2), which in turn regulates the transcription of cPLA2. (fapesp.br)
  • Protein kinase C (PKC) is a serine/threonine-specific kinase that regulates cell growth and differentiation. (ox.ac.uk)
  • PGC1α is a transcriptional co-factor that regulates the transcription of nuclearly encoded mitochondrial proteins by interacting with transcription factors such as Nrf1/2, ERRg and the PPAR family. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • [11] Other biochemical roles of calcium include regulating enzyme activity, permeability of ion channels , [12] activity of ion pumps , and components of the cytoskeleton . (wikipedia.org)
  • 1991. An intragenic suppressor of a calmodulin mutation in Paramecium: genetic and biochemical characterization. (iup.edu)
  • Dynamic changes of mice including body weight, liver weight, serological biochemical indexes, liver histopathological changes, and protein level of AMPK and SIRT1 were monitored. (biomedcentral.com)
  • DAG attaches to the plasma membrane and recruits protein kinase C (PKC). (wikipedia.org)
  • 1990. Calcium and membrane excitation in Paramecium. (iup.edu)
  • G-protein is the membrane bound protein which couples hormone receptor to the effector enzyme. (howmed.net)
  • 1. In or on the surface of cell membrane, e.g. protein or peptide hormones and catecholamines. (howmed.net)
  • Combining with a signal and transmitting the signal from one side of the membrane to the other to initiate a change in cell activity by catalysis of the reaction: ATP protein serine = ADP + protein serine phosphate, and ATP + protein threonine = ADP + protein threonine phosphate. (systemsbiology.net)
  • Structural representation of Arabidopsis Rboh family, which encodes for integral membrane proteins that characteristically have six membrane-spanning domains, two heme groups and a C-terminal domain with NADPH- and FAD- binding sites. (inquiriesjournal.com)
  • Ca 2+ is important for cellular signalling , for once it enters the cytosol of the cytoplasm it exerts allosteric regulatory effects on many enzymes and proteins . (wikipedia.org)
  • The proteins are synthesized which function as enzymes, transport proteins or structural proteins. (howmed.net)
  • Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I (CaMKI) constitutes a family of closely related isoforms (alpha, beta and gamma). (prosci-inc.com)
  • This calcium calmodulin-dependent protein kinase is composed of four different chains: alpha, beta, gamma, and delta. (anticorps-enligne.fr)
  • Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase belonging to a proposed calcium-triggered signaling cascade. (abcam.com)
  • A primary focus is on calcium signaling. (unr.edu)
  • These ion channels have been implicated in calcium signaling and are regulated by both cyclic nucleotides and calmodulin. (unr.edu)
  • The Bhattacharyya Lab studies molecular mechanism of kinase signaling, especially in the context of learning, memory and neuropathological conditions. (yale.edu)
  • Locomotor conditioning by amphetamine requires cyclin-dependent kinase 5 signaling in the nucleus accumbens. (open.ac.uk)
  • Herein, the CAMK2N1 was shown to contribute to the human prostate cancer cell growth and survival through AR-dependent signaling. (oncotarget.com)
  • Ca 2+ / calmodulin (CaM) signaling is important for a wide range of cellular functions. (scientificarchives.com)
  • The multifunctional Ca 2+ /CaM-dependent protein kinases (CaMKs) are critical intermediates of this signaling and play key roles in cancer development. (scientificarchives.com)
  • Ca 2+ signaling works by forming a complex with calmodulin (CaM), a 148-amino-acid protein that transduces signals in response to intracellular Ca 2+ elevation. (scientificarchives.com)
  • By studying the operation of cell signaling, Prof Wang has made contributions to the discovery of a number of key proteins and their mechanisms. (edu.hk)
  • Calcium signaling is crucial for several aspects of plasticity at glutamatergic synapses. (anticorps-enligne.fr)
  • Inactivation of intracellular protein signaling molecule. (howmed.net)
  • The CPK4 and CPK11 kinases both phosphorylated two ABA-responsive transcription factors, ABF1 and ABF4, in vitro, suggesting that the two kinases may regulate ABA signaling through these transcription factors. (bioseek.eu)
  • The molecular mechanism and signaling networks associated with the functional role of RYR1 in USC progression were determined by reverse phase protein arrays (RPPA), Western blot, and transcriptomic profiling analyses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Molecular mechanisms regulating NLRP3 inflammasome activation Eun-Kyeong Jo1,2, Jin Kyung Kim1,2, Dong-Min Shin1,2 and Chihiro Sasakawa3,4 Inflammasomes are multi-protein signaling complexes that trigger the activation of inflammatory caspases and the maturation of interleukin-1b. (docksci.com)
  • These results suggest that hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses with presynaptic axon originating in the left CA3 are selectively vulnerable to Aβ and that a genetic knock out of tau protein protects them from Aβ synaptotoxicity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For example, clear differences exist in the mouse hippocampus where selective recruitment of the left or right CA3 input to the CA1 using optogenetics revealed that the left CA3 input to CA1 synapses shows burst timing-dependent LTP (b-LTP), whilst the right CA3 input to CA1 synapses does not, irrespective of ipsilateral vs contralateral location of postsynaptic CA1 response recordings [ 10 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II is a major component of synapses in both vertebrates and invertebrates. (griffithlabbrandeis.com)
  • While CaMKI/ CaMKIV is phosphorylated by an upstream kinase, CaMKK at Thr-177 and Thr-196 residue, respectively, both located in the kinase domain. (scientificarchives.com)
  • CaMKIV is phosphorylated at Thr 196 by its upstream CaMK kinase (CaMKK), resulting in the induction of its full activity. (elsevier.com)
  • Kinase isoforms with distinct targeting sequences can coassemble into the same holoenzyme, and thus localization and translocation are dependent on the isoform composition. (jneurosci.org)
  • The structure shows a tight integration of all 12 kinase domains around the central hub and, combined with SAXS measurements, explains how access to calmodulin is controlled and how nature tunes the spike frequency threshold for the activation of different isoforms. (berkeley.edu)
  • Studies show that lithium inhibits the activity and expression of cPLA2, the latter effect observed in the transcriptional level (reduction in mRNA) and protein concentration. (fapesp.br)
  • However, these immortalized cells were anchorage-dependent and were unable to form tumors when implanted in nude mice ( 8 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Our results show that L2H21 and L50H46 normalize inflammatory mediators ( IL-6 and TNF- α), extracellular matrix proteins ( FN and COL4 α 1 ), vasoactive factors ( VEGF and ET-1 ) and a key transcriptional coactivator ( p300 ) in cultured human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRECs) and dermal-derived microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs) challenged with high levels of glucose. (frontiersin.org)
  • Using established prediction algorithms, we localized the IDRs in Ca V 3.2 protein and identified several Ca V 3.2iPA candidates that significantly reduced Ca V 3.2 current in HEK293 cells stably expressing human wide-type Ca V 3.2. (lww.com)
  • and the methods for the measurement of intracellular ionized calcium in mammalian cells. (sstis.org)
  • Therefore, we measured protein markers of oxidative stress-protein carbonyls (PCO) and 3-nitrotyrosine (3NT)-in CD90+ T-cells of a double-transgenic AD mouse model. (j-alz.com)
  • Interactions between three moving parts -- a binding protein, a structural protein and calcium -- are part of the process by which electrical signals enter neural cells and remodel the molecular structures thought to enable cognition and the storage of memories. (technologynetworks.com)
  • We reported that SPARC inhibited OvCa cell adhesion to different ECM protein enriched in the peritoneal tumour microenvironment (TME) and peritoneal mesothelial cells [5C7]. (biotuesday.ca)
  • Fig.1a)1a) by measuring A488 fluorescence of green fluorescent proteins (GFP)-labeled cells. (biotuesday.ca)
  • Several processes that may contribute mechanistically to age related degeneration have been identified, including oxidative damage, accumulation of toxic protein aggregates, autoinflammatory processes, loss of stem cell populations and an increasing load of malfunctional senescent cells. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • Calmodulin ( CaM ) (an abbreviation for cal cium- modul ated prote in ) is a multifunctional intermediate calcium-binding messenger protein expressed in all eukaryotic cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • Calcium influx is critical for T cell effector function and fate. (mdpi.com)
  • Calmodulin may activate the Ca 2+ -calmodulin-dependent protein kinases , or may act directly on other effector proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upregulation of the BH3-only member of Bcl-2 family proteins, Bim, has been shown to be essential for GC-evoked apoptosis of leukemic lymphoblasts. (jmolecularsignaling.com)
  • They are multifunctional serine/threonine protein kinases that regulate the development and activity of different kinds of cell types through a variety of substrates [ 6 - 8 ]. (scientificarchives.com)
  • Description: A sandwich ELISA kit for detection of Phosphodiesterase 1A, Calmodulin Dependent from Human in samples from blood, serum, plasma, cell culture fluid and other biological fluids. (unicoupi.com)
  • SCOPe: Structural Classification of Proteins - extended. (berkeley.edu)
  • Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II causes atrial structural remodeling associated with atrial fibrillation and heart failure. (umassmed.edu)
  • [9] Calmodulin also exhibits great structural variability, and undergoes considerable conformational fluctuations, when bound to targets. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using the [35S]CaM gel-overlay assay we showed that calmodulin-binding activity of the MCK1 is abolished by 50 microM KN-93, but binding is not affected by 5 microM KN-93, paralleling physiological findings that light-regulated root gravitropism is inhibited by 50 microM KN-93, but not by 5 microM KN-93. (nasa.gov)
  • On the other hand, Wang et al ( 2 ) indicated that these were loss-of-function mutations because the mutant RHOA protein showed reduced small GTPase activity and lost the ability to mediate anoikis. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Post-translational modifications modulate the activity of proteins and therefore have crucial roles in many cellular processes. (biologists.com)
  • Comparison of matched acute and convalescent PANDAS sera taken before and during the exacerbation demonstrated an elevation in CaM kinase II activity associated with disease. (autismone.org)
  • In addition to its calcium-calmodulin (CaM)-dependent activity, this protein can undergo autophosphorylation, resulting in CaM-independent activity. (anticorps-enligne.fr)
  • Requires calmodulin for activity. (expasy.org)
  • Calcium directly moderates electrical activity, on a relatively fast time scale, through its control of calcium dependent potassium channels. (brains-minds-media.org)
  • Augustine GJ (2001) How does calcium trigger neurotransmitter release? (yale.edu)
  • Biederer T, Sudhof TC (2001) CASK and protein 4.1 support F-actin nucleation on neurexins. (yale.edu)
  • These disease related mutations all point to a critical role of the peptide β-amyloid and the processing of its precursor protein, the amyloid precursor protein (APP). (lu.se)
  • In addition, kinase activation and/or autophosphorylation that expose interaction sites normally occluded by its autoinhibitory domain lead to stimulus-dependent translocation to other targets. (jneurosci.org)
  • SUD functions as an enhancer to strengthen interaction between RCHY1 and nonstructural protein 3, leading to a further increase in in p53 degradation. (cipsm.de)
  • In the absence of a WNT-Frizzled low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-5/6 co-receptor interaction (WNT-FZD-LRP5/6), β-catenin is caught in a molecular destruction complex, phosphorylated and degraded by the proteasome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 3 , 6 TRPC6 plays a role in renal functions and diseases by mediating calcium influx via its interaction with calmodulin. (dovepress.com)
  • Organization of transcriptional and protein-protein interaction networks at the genomic scale. (caltech.edu)
  • The course will also consider the organization of transcriptional and protein-protein interaction networks at the genomic scale. (caltech.edu)
  • Of the approximately 1500 proteins constituting mitochondria, only a small number are encoded in mitochondrial DNA and translated on mitochondrial ribosomes. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • Mitochondrial biogenesis requires a close co-ordination of the synthesis, import and localization of the nuclearly encoded cytoplasmically synthesized mitochondrial proteome with the mitochondrial endogenous protein synthesis system. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • Once there is an influx of calcium cations (Ca2+) into the muscle, either from the sarcoplasmic reticulum or from the extracellular space, contraction of smooth muscle fibres may begin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although Orai1 and STIM1 , have been linked by several studies, for a proposed model of store-operated calcium influx. (wikipedia.org)
  • Contractions of smooth muscle fiber are dependent on how a Ca 2+ influx occurs. (wikipedia.org)
  • MPC5 podocytes stably expressing TRPC6 had higher intracellular Ca 2+ influx, apoptotic percentages, and expression of RhoA/ROCK proteins, but lower expression of nephrin and synaptopodin proteins. (dovepress.com)
  • The next section is devoted to describing the evidence that glyphosate can get into proteins by mistake in place of the coding amino acid glycine, which I now believe is its main mechanism of insidious cumulative toxicity. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • The function and mechanism of these kinases in leukemia development are summarized in this study. (scientificarchives.com)
  • Ca Calmodulin Mechanism operates in response to the Ca++ entry into the cell. (howmed.net)
  • 100 nM for 10 min) also activated PKD by a PKC-dependent mechanism. (eurekamag.com)
  • and calmodulin can greatly impact activation amplitude and kinetics. (jneurosci.org)
  • This research included the study of the calcium-binding protein calmodulin and its role in both the activation of Ca2+-dep. (iup.edu)
  • Then the activation or inactivation of calmodulin dependent protein kinase occurs. (howmed.net)
  • [1] It is an intracellular target of the secondary messenger Ca 2+ , and the binding of Ca 2+ is required for the activation of calmodulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • [23] This influence of target binding on Ca 2+ affinity is believed to allow for Ca 2+ activation of proteins that are constitutively bound to calmodulin, such as small-conductance Ca 2+ -activated potassium (SK) channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1988. Paramecium calcium channels are blocked by a family of calmodulin antagonists. (iup.edu)
  • The G-protein might be excitatory of inhibitory. (howmed.net)
  • First, the calcium will bind to calmodulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Ca 2+ bind to PKC and other proteins and activate them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once depolarized the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) releases Ca 2+ into the myoplasm where it will bind to a number of calcium sensitive buffers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The PH area was reported to bind the tiny also, ubiquitously expressed proteins calmodulin (CaM) within a calcium dependent manner [8]. (solventcentral.com)
  • Presynaptic proteins are readily identified by light microscopic immunocytochemistry, but immunodetection of postsynaptic proteins in brain sections proves difficult. (nih.gov)
  • Staining for postsynaptic proteins was enhanced in weakly fixed material and in tissue treated with pepsin, as previously reported, but tissue quality was impaired. (nih.gov)
  • Punctate staining for all postsynaptic proteins, but not presynaptic markers, was substantially enhanced in material pretreated with antiproteolytic agents. (nih.gov)
  • For example, the once called CaMKIII is now termed eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) kinase, due to containing a small number of substrates [ 5 ]. (scientificarchives.com)
  • In: Calcium as a second messenger in eukaryotic microbes. (iup.edu)