A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.
A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)
A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.
A cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed in SMOOTH MUSCLE tissues and plays a role in regulation of smooth muscle contraction. Two isoforms, PKGIalpha and PKGIbeta, of the type I protein kinase exist due to alternative splicing of its mRNA.
A cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed predominantly in INTESTINES, BRAIN, and KIDNEY. The protein is myristoylated on its N-terminus which may play a role its membrane localization.
A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that is primarily expressed in neuronal tissues; T-LYMPHOCYTES and TESTIS. The activity of this enzyme is regulated by its phosphorylation by CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase subtype primarily found in particulate subcellular fractions. They are tetrameric proteins that contain two catalytic subunits and two type II-specific regulatory subunits.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.
A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed in a broad variety of mammalian cell types. Its expression is regulated by the action of CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE. Several isoforms of this enzyme subtype are encoded by distinct genes.
Toluenes in which one hydrogen of the methyl group is substituted by an amino group. Permitted are any substituents on the benzene ring or the amino group.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A type I cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit that plays a role in confering CYCLIC AMP activation of protein kinase activity. It has a lower affinity for cAMP than the CYCLIC-AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE RIBETA SUBUNIT.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.
A cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase subtype primarily found in the CYTOPLASM. They are tetrameric proteins that contain two catalytic subunits and two type I-specific regulatory subunits.
Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A mitosporic Ophiostomataceae fungal genus, whose species Sporothrix schenckii is a well-known animal pathogen. The conidia of this soil fungus may be inhaled causing a primary lung infection, or may infect independently via skin punctures.
Proteins which bind calmodulin. They are found in many tissues and have a variety of functions including F-actin cross-linking properties, inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and calcium and magnesium ATPases.
A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
A species of ciliate protozoa. It is used in biomedical research.
A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
A specific protein kinase C inhibitor, which inhibits superoxide release from human neutrophils (PMN) stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate or synthetic diacylglycerol.
A phenothiazine with actions similar to CHLORPROMAZINE. It is used as an antipsychotic and an antiemetic.
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
An enzyme that phosphorylates myosin light chains in the presence of ATP to yield myosin-light chain phosphate and ADP, and requires calcium and CALMODULIN. The 20-kDa light chain is phosphorylated more rapidly than any other acceptor, but light chains from other myosins and myosin itself can act as acceptors. The enzyme plays a central role in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC 2.7.1.40.
A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
A family of calcium/calmodulin-dependent PROETIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES. They are ubiquitously expressed in adult and embryonic mammalian tissues, and their functions are tightly related to the early stages of eukaryotic programmed cell death.
Specific enzyme subunits that form the active sites of the type I and type II cyclic-AMP protein kinases. Each molecule of enzyme contains two catalytic subunits.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The body of a fungus which is made up of HYPHAE.
A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.
A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.
A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
N-(N-(N(2)-(N-(N-(N-(N-D-Alanyl L-seryl)-L-threonyl)-L-threonyl) L-threonyl)-L-asparaginyl)-L-tyrosyl) L-threonine. Octapeptide sharing sequence homology with HIV envelope protein gp120. It is potentially useful as antiviral agent in AIDS therapy. The core pentapeptide sequence, TTNYT, consisting of amino acids 4-8 in peptide T, is the HIV envelope sequence required for attachment to the CD4 receptor.
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
An aspect of protein kinase (EC 2.7.1.37) in which serine residues in protamines and histones are phosphorylated in the presence of ATP.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.
A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
A protein kinase C subtype that was originally characterized as a CALCIUM-independent, serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHORBOL ESTERS and DIACYLGLYCEROLS. It is targeted to specific cellular compartments in response to extracellular signals that activate G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS; TYROSINE KINASE RECEPTORS; and intracellular protein tyrosine kinase.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
PKC beta encodes two proteins (PKCB1 and PKCBII) generated by alternative splicing of C-terminal exons. It is widely distributed with wide-ranging roles in processes such as B-cell receptor regulation, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation, insulin signaling, and endothelial cell proliferation.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidylinositol (PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS) to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, the first committed step in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.

Differential effects of a calcineurin inhibitor on glutamate-induced phosphorylation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. (1/181)

Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CaM kinases) are major multifunctional enzymes that play important roles in calcium-mediated signal transduction. To characterize their regulatory mechanisms in neurons, we compared glutamate-induced phosphorylation of CaM kinase IV and CaM kinase II in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. We observed that dephosphorylation of these kinases followed different time courses, suggesting different regulatory mechanisms for each kinase. Okadaic acid, an inhibitor of protein phosphatase (PP) 1 and PP2A, increased the phosphorylation of both kinases. In contrast, cyclosporin A, an inhibitor of calcineurin, showed different effects: the phosphorylation and activity of CaM kinase IV were significantly increased with this inhibitor, but those of CaM kinase II were not significantly increased. Cyclosporin A treatment of neurons increased phosphorylation of Thr196 of CaM kinase IV, the activated form with CaM kinase kinase, which was recognized with an anti-phospho-Thr196 antibody. Moreover, recombinant CaM kinase IV was dephosphorylated and inactivated with calcineurin as well as with PP1, PP2A, and PP2C in vitro. These results suggest that CaM kinase IV, but not CaM kinase II, is directly regulated with calcineurin.  (+info)

Inhibition of the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I cascade by cAMP-dependent protein kinase. (2/181)

Several recent studies have shown that Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I (CaMKI) is phosphorylated and activated by a protein kinase (CaMKK) that is itself subject to regulation by Ca2+/calmodulin. In the present study, we demonstrate that this enzyme cascade is regulated by cAMP-mediated activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). In vitro, CaMKK is phosphorylated by PKA and this is associated with inhibition of enzyme activity. The major site of phosphorylation is threonine 108, although additional sites are phosphorylated with lower efficiency. In vitro, CaMKK is also phosphorylated by CaMKI at the same sites as PKA, suggesting that this regulatory phosphorylation might play a role as a negative-feedback mechanism. In intact PC12 cells, activation of PKA with forskolin resulted in a rapid inhibition of both CaMKK and CaMKI activity. In hippocampal slices CaMKK was phosphorylated under basal conditions, and activation of PKA led to an increase in phosphorylation. Two-dimensional phosphopeptide mapping indicated that activation of PKA led to increased phosphorylation of multiple sites including threonine 108. These results indicate that in vitro and in intact cells the CaMKK/CaMKI cascade is subject to inhibition by PKA-mediated phosphorylation of CaMKK. The phosphorylation and inhibition of CaMKK by PKA is likely to be involved in modulating the balance between cAMP- and Ca2+-dependent signal transduction pathways.  (+info)

Substrate recognition by Ca2+/Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase. Role of the arg-pro-rich insert domain. (3/181)

Mammalian Ca2+/CaM-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaM-KK) has been identified and cloned as an activator for two kinases, CaM kinase I (CaM-KI) and CaM kinase IV (CaM-KIV), and a recent report (Yano, S., Tokumitsu, H., and Soderling, T. R. (1998) Nature 396, 584-587) demonstrates that CaM-KK can also activate and phosphorylate protein kinase B (PKB). In this study, we identify a CaM-KK from Caenorhabditis elegans, and comparison of its sequence with the mammalian CaM-KK alpha and beta shows a unique Arg-Pro (RP)-rich insert in their catalytic domains relative to other protein kinases. Deletion of the RP-domain resulted in complete loss of CaM-KIV activation activity and physical interaction of CaM-KK with glutathione S-transferase-CaM-KIV (T196A). However, CaM-KK autophosphorylation and phosphorylation of a synthetic peptide substrate were normal in the RP-domain mutant. Site-directed mutagenesis of three conserved Arg in the RP- domain of CaM-KK confirmed that these positive charges are important for CaM-KIV activation. The RP- domain deletion mutant also failed to fully activate and phosphorylate CaM-KI, but this mutant was indistinguishable from wild-type CaM-KK for the phosphorylation and activation of PKB. These results indicate that the RP-domain in CaM-KK is critical for recognition of downstream CaM-kinases but not for its catalytic activity (i.e. autophosphorylation) and PKB activation.  (+info)

The retinoblastoma susceptibility gene product/Sp1 signalling pathway is modulated by Ca2+/calmodulin kinases II and IV activity. (4/181)

To investigate the possible link between Ca2+ signalling and cell cycle control we analysed Ca2+/calmodulin kinases (CamK) interaction with the retinoblastoma susceptibility gene product/SP1 pathway. CamK II and IV activate c-fos transcription through a short promoter region (-99 to -53) containing the retinoblastoma control element (RCE) and a cAMP response element (CRE) related sequences. Deletion analysis revealed that the RCE is a major CamK responsive element and is sufficient to confer CamK and Ca2+ regulation to a minimal promoter. Direct interactions between SP1 and RCE were confirmed by gel shift experiments. Using transient transfection experiments, we show that CamK-dependent transcription is regulated by the retinoblastoma (Rb) susceptibility gene product and the p107 Rb related protein. However, the stimulatory effects of CamKs and Rb on c-fos are blocked by overexpression of both proteins. These effects appear to be directly mediated by SP1 as shown by the use of a Gal4/SP1 fusion proteins. In conclusion, CamK II and IV, two major Ca2+-dependent intracellular effectors, may represent a molecular link between this second messenger transduction pathway and effectors that control cell cycle progression through Rb/SP1 signalling pathway.  (+info)

A late phase of cerebellar long-term depression requires activation of CaMKIV and CREB. (5/181)

Recently, it has been shown that cerebellar LTD has a late phase that may be blocked by protein synthesis inhibitors. To understand the mechanisms underlying the late phase, we interfered with the activation of transcription factors that might couple synaptic activation to protein synthesis. Particle-mediated transfection of cultured Purkinje neurons with an expression vector encoding a dominant inhibitory form of CREB resulted in a nearly complete blockade of the late phase. Kinases that activate CREB were inhibited, and LTD was assessed. Inhibition of PKA or the MAPK/RSK cascades were without effect on the late phase, while constructs designed to interfere with CaMKIV function attenuated the late phase. These results indicate that the activation of CaMKIV and CREB are necessary to establish a late phase of cerebellar LTD.  (+info)

Ca(2+)-dependent gene expression mediated by MEF2 transcription factors. (6/181)

Ca(2+) induction of a subset of cellular and viral immediate-early activation genes in lymphocytes has been previously mapped to response elements recognized by the MEF2 family of transcription factors. Here, we demonstrate that Ca(2+) activation of MEF2 response elements in T lymphocytes is mediated in synergy by two Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent enzymes, the phosphatase calcineurin, and the kinase type IV/Gr (CaMKIV/Gr), which promote transcription by the MEF2 family members MEF2A and MEF2D. Calcineurin up-regulates the activity of both factors by an NFAT-dependent mechanism, while CaMKIV/Gr selectively and independently activates MEF2D. These results identify MEF2 proteins as effectors of a pathway of gene induction in T lymphocytes which integrates diverse Ca(2+) activation signals and may be broadly operative in several tissues.  (+info)

Activation of orphan receptor-mediated transcription by Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV. (7/181)

Retinoid-related receptor alpha (RORalpha) is an orphan nuclear receptor that constitutively activates transcription from its cognate response element. We show that RORalpha is Ca(2+ )responsive, and a Ca(2+)/calmodulin-independent form of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV) potentiates RORalpha-dependent transcription 20- to 30-fold. Other orphan receptors including RORalpha2, RORgamma and COUP-TFI are also potentiated by CaMKIV. Transcriptional activation by CaMKIV is orphan receptor selective and does not occur with either the thyroid hormone or estrogen receptor. CaMKIV does not phosphorylate RORalpha or its ligand-binding domain (LBD) in vitro, although the LBD is essential for transactivation. Therefore, the RORalpha LBD was used in the mammalian two-hybrid assay to identify a single class of small peptide molecules containing LXXLL motifs that interacted with greater affinity in the presence of CaMKIV. This class of peptides antagonized activation of orphan receptor-mediated transcription by CaMKIV. These studies demonstrate a pivotal role for CaMKIV in the regulation of orphan receptor-mediated transcription.  (+info)

Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV is expressed in spermatids and targeted to chromatin and the nuclear matrix. (8/181)

Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV and calspermin are two proteins encoded by the Camk4 gene. Both are highly expressed in the testis, where in situ hybridization studies in rat testes have demonstrated that CaMKIV mRNA is localized to pachytene spermatocytes, while calspermin mRNA is restricted to spermatids. We have examined the expression patterns of both CaMKIV and calspermin in mouse testis and unexpectedly find that CaMKIV is expressed in spermatogonia and spermatids but excluded from spermatocytes, while calspermin is found only in spermatids. CaMKIV and calspermin expression in the testis are stage-dependent and appear to be coordinately regulated. In germ cells, we find that CaMKIV is associated with the chromatin. We further demonstrate that a fraction of CaMKIV in spermatids is hyperphosphorylated and specifically localized to the nuclear matrix. These novel findings may implicate CaMKIV in chromatin remodeling during nuclear condensation of spermatids.  (+info)

Recombinant Calcium/calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase IV (CAMK4) Protein (His tag). Spezies: Human. Quelle: Escherichia coli (E. coli). Jetzt Produkt ABIN668012 bestellen.
Results We show that culture of MRL/lpr Foxp3-GFP T cells in the presence of KN-93 promotes Treg differentiation in a dose dependent manner (Fig. F). Treatment of MRL/lpr Foxp3-GFP mice with KN-93 results in significant induction of Treg cells in the spleen, peripheral lymph nodes (Fig. B-E) and peripheral blood (Fig. A and B) and this is accompanied by decreased skin and kidney damage. Notably, KN-93 clearly diminishes the accumulation of inflammatory cells along with reciprocally increased Treg cells in target organ.. ...
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase belonging to a proposed calcium-triggered signaling cascade. In vitro phosphorylates CREB1 and SYN1/synapsin I. Phosphorylates and activates CAMK1 (By similarity).
CaM-kinase II (CAMK2) is a prominent kinase in the central nervous system that may function in long-term potentiation and neurotransmitter release. Member of the NMDAR signaling complex in excitatory synapses it may regulate NMDAR-dependent potentiation of the AMPAR and synaptic plasticity. Phosphorylates transcription factor FOXO3 on Ser-298 (By similarity). Activates FOXO3 transcriptional activity (PubMed:23805378).
We show that parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) can be used for exact quantification of phosphorylation ratios of proteins using stable-isotope-labeled peptides. We have compared two different PRM approaches on a digest of a U87 cell culture, namely, direct-PRM (tryptic digest measured by PRM without any further sample preparation) and TiO2-PRM (tryptic digest enriched with TiO2 cartridges, followed by PRM measurement); these approaches are compared for the following phosphorylation sites: neuroblast differentiation-associated protein (AHNAK S5480-p), calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II subunit delta (CAMK2D T337-p), and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR S1166-p). A reproducible percentage of phosphorylation could be determined (CV 6-13%) using direct-PRM or TiO2-PRM. In addition, we tested the approaches in a cell culture experiment in which U87 cells were deprived of serum. As a gold standard we included immune precipitation of EGFR followed by PRM (IP-PRM). For EGFR ...
Our previous studies demonstrated that subcutaneous injection of bee venom (BV) into the Zusanli (ST36) acupuncture point, namely BV acupuncture, dose-dependently prevents conditioned place preference (CPP) induced by repeated injection of methamphetamine (METH) in mice. To expand on our observations, the present study was designed to determine the suppressive mechanisms of BV acupuncture in the development of METH-induced CPP by evaluating the changes in expression of ΔFosB, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (pERK), and phosphorylated calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II (pCaMKII) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) in mice. Pre-emptive treatment with BV at 30 min before repeated METH injection completely suppressed acquisition of CPP at the day 7 test session. METH-induced upregulation of ΔFosB and pERK in PFC and NAc was significantly reduced by BV pretreatment. Expression of pCaMKII was significantly elevated by METH in NAc and ...
human CaM Kinase 4/CaMKIV gene cDNA, cloning vector & expression plasmid, mutiple tags. Optimized for high expression in mammalian cells. Save up to 60%.
We have professional and advanced research and production capacity for CAMKIV reagents production, including Proteins, Antibodies, cDNA Clones,etc. All CAMK4 products are produced in house and quality controlled.
Buy our Recombinant Human CAMKIV protein. Ab60756 is a full length protein produced in Baculovirus infected Sf9 cells and has been validated in FuncS…
Looking for online definition of CaM-kinase kinase 1 in the Medical Dictionary? CaM-kinase kinase 1 explanation free. What is CaM-kinase kinase 1? Meaning of CaM-kinase kinase 1 medical term. What does CaM-kinase kinase 1 mean?
Complete information for CAMK4 gene (Protein Coding), Calcium/Calmodulin Dependent Protein Kinase IV, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
calmodulin-dependent protein kinase V: widely distributed in various tissues, involved in calcium-regulated processes; from rat brain; may exist in 40 & 41 kDa isoforms; amino acid sequence has been determined
In the present study, we have examined the role of the CaM-KK/CaM-KIV cascade on insulin gene expression in response to glucose. CaM-Ks are implicated in the regulation of a wide variety of biological events requiring the participation of intracellular Ca2+, such as muscle contraction, neurotransmitter release, and gene expression (11,26). Recent studies (19,26) have indicated that so-called multifunctional CaM-Ks, including CaM-KI, -II, and -IV, are regulated by phosphorylation either by itself or an upstream protein kinase, CaM-KK.. Previous reports (12) showed that CaM-KIV was expressed in pancreatic islet and other insulin-secreting cells, including MIN6 and HIT cells. In the first set of studies, we established that the respective mRNAs encoding CaM-KIV and its upstream protein kinase, CaM-KK, were present in rat pancreatic islet and the insulin-secreting cell line, INS-1. Furthermore, the mRNA was expressed because both Western blot and immunohistochemistry of the cells showed the presence ...
Wet-lab validated real-time PCR primer assays for your biological pathway of interest. Select your gene target of interest using an interactive pathway map, and select your plate.
Camk1g - Camk1g (untagged ORF) - Rat calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IG (Camk1g), (10 ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Camk2d2 antibody (calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) II delta 2) for IHC-P, WB. Anti-Camk2d2 pAb (GTX124377) is tested in Zebrafish samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Plasmid pDONR223-CAMK1G from Dr. William Hahns lab contains the insert CAMK1G and is published in Nature. 2010 Nov 24. ():. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
Plasmid pWZL Neo Myr Flag CAMK4 from Dr. Jean Zhaos lab contains the insert CAMK4 and is published in Cell. 2007 Jun 15. 129(6):1065-1079. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Amphetamine activate protein kinase C and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase via NMDA receptor in primary cultures of rat cortical neurons. AU - Wu, Hsueh-Hsia. AU - Lee, Horng-Mo. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. M3 - Article. VL - 1. SP - 12. EP - 19. JO - New Taipei Journal of Medicine. JF - New Taipei Journal of Medicine. SN - 1562-4242. ER - ...
Overview Protocols Specifications Resources Convenient, 1-Hour Kinase Activity Assays The SignaTECT® Protein Kinase Assay Systems provide a rapid, radioactivity-based method for detection of kinase activity. The method is based on capture of phosphorylated labeled substrates on the SAM2® Biotin Capture Membrane, which
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1MXE: Structure of the Complex of Calmodulin with the Target Sequence of Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase I: Studies of the Kinase Activation Mechanism
Affiliation:Kagawa University,Medicine,Professor,医学部,教授, Research Field:Metabolomics,Orthopaedic surgery,Functional biochemistry,General physiology,Medical systems, Keywords:PREB,insulin,糖尿病,glucose,グルコース,インスリン,CaM-KK,膵β細胞,Gas6,CaMKIV, # of Research Projects:9, # of Research Products:68
View Tg(Camk2a-tTA)1Mmay/0 Tg(tetO-APPSwInd)102Dbo/0 involves: C3H/HeJ * C57BL/6 * CBA: phenotypes, images, diseases, and references.
Olomoucine is known as a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. We found that olomoucine blocked insulins ability to stimulate glucose transport. It did so without affecting the activity of known insulin signaling proteins. To identify the olomoucine-sensitive kinase(s), we prepared analogs that could be immobilized to an affinity resin to isolate binding proteins. One of the generated analogs inhibited insulin-stimulated glucose uptake with increased sensitivity compared with olomoucine. The IC50 for inhibition of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake occurred at analog concentrations as low as 0.1 μm. To identify proteins binding to the analog, [35S]-labeled cell lysates prepared from 3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated with analog chemically cross-linked to a resin support and binding proteins analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The major binding species was a doublet at 50-60 kDa, which was identified as calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) by N-terminal peptide analysis and confirmed by ...
This study investigates the roles of hippocampal N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors and CaMKII (calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II) in amphetamine-produced conditioned place preference (AMPH-CPP) in rats. An earlier report showed that AMPH-CPP resulted in the enhancement of …
Three genes encoding different Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases have been characterized in the wheat phytopathogenic fungus Stagonospora nodorum. The kinases were identified from the S. nodorum genome sequence on the basis of sequence homology to known Ca2+/calmodulin- dependent protein kinases. Expression analysis determined that each of the kinases was expressed during growth in vitro and also during infection. The onset of sporulation triggered increased transcript levels of each of the kinases, particularly CpkA where an 11-fold increase in expression was observed during sporulation in planta. The role of the kinases was further determined via a reverse genetics approach. The disruption of CpkA affected vegetative growth in vitro and also sporulation. The cpkA strains produced 20-fold less spores on complex media and were unable to sporulate on defined minimal media. Infection assays showed that CpkA was not required for lesion development but was essential for sporulation at the ...
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CaMKII alpha antibody (calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alpha) for ICC/IF, IHC-Fr, WB. Anti-CaMKII alpha pAb (GTX127939) is tested in Mouse, Rat samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Supplementary MaterialsAdditional document 1: Body S1. for profiling little RNAs. Body S15. The saturation curves of miRNA. Body S16. RPM scatterplots of portrayed small RNAs. Body S17. Comparative expression heat maps of super-enhancer-regulated professional mRNAs and miRNAs. Body S18. Hematoxylin and Eosin (HE) staining from the HCC tissues. Figure S19. Comparative expression degrees of gene groupings between HCC Exp-subpopulations. Body S20. mRNA catch sequencing from the Holo-Seq total RNA collection. Body S21. mRNA and miRNA single transcriptome analyses of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) one cells. (DOCX 5908 kb) 13059_2018_1553_MOESM1_ESM.docx (5.7M) GUID:?8BF5D1B7-5F74-410D-8E95-CCE7DDE5D5D7 Extra file YM348 2: Desk S1. Not really1-site-containing transcripts in mouse. Desk S2. Not really1-site-containing transcripts in individual. Desk S3. Sequencing figures of RNA libraries. Desk S4. One cell collection price with different strategies. (XLSX 171 kb) 13059_2018_1553_MOESM2_ESM.xlsx ...
克拉玛尔专业提供CaMKII Phospho (pT286) (CAMK2A)高品质试剂,可查询CaMKII Phospho (pT286) (CAMK2A)价格,提供CaMKII Phospho (pT286) (CAMK2A)技术资料,CaMKII Phospho (pT286) (CAMK2A)定制合成和大包装,是专业生产各种高端试剂的制造商和供应商.联系电话4001650900
________ By STEVEN REIVE www.wheelbasemedia.com Illustration By GREG PERRY, www.wheelbasemedia.com ________ You can sell a young mans car to an old man, he once said, in the springtime of a colorfu
We demonstrate for the first time that 4H-1,2,6-thiadiazin-4-one (TDZ) can function as a chemotype for the design of ATP-competitive kinase inhibitors. Using insights from a co-crystal structure of a 3,5-bis(arylamino)-4H-1,2,6-thiadiazin-4-one bound to calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2 (CaMKK2), several analogues were identified with micromolar activity through targeted displacement of bound water molecules in the active site. Since the TDZ analogues showed reduced promiscuity compared to their 2,4-dianilinopyrimidine counter parts, they represent starting points for development of highly selective kinase inhibitors.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mutational analysis of Ca2+-independent autophosphorylation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. AU - Mukherji, Sucheta. AU - Soderling, Thomas. PY - 1995/6/9. Y1 - 1995/6/9. N2 - Previous studies with synthetic peptides indicate that residues 290-309, corresponding to the calmodulin (CaM)-binding domain of Ca2+/CaM-dependent protein kinase II interact with the catalytic core of the enzyme as a pseudosubstrate (Colbran, R. J., Smith, M. K., Schworer, C. M., Fong, Y. L., and Soderling, T. R. (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264, 4800-4804). In the present study, we attempted to locate the pseudosubstrate motif by generation or removal of potential substrate recognition sequences (RXXS/T) at selected positions using site-directed mutagenesis. Based on previous results, Arg297, Thr305/306, and Ser314 were selected as key residues. Single mutations such as N294S, K300S, A302R, A309R, and R311A were expressed, purified, and characterized. Several of the mutants exhibited decreased ...
Active calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) has been reported to take a critical role in the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP). Changes in CaMKII activity were detected in various ischemia models. It is tempting to know whether and how CaMKII takes a role in NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-mediated postischemic long-term potentiation (NMDA i-LTP). Here, we monitored changes in NMDAR-mediated field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (NMDA fEPSPs) at different time points following ischemia onset |i|in vitro|/i| oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) ischemia model. We found that 10 min OGD treatment induced significant i-LTP in NMDA fEPSPs, whereas shorter (3 min) or longer (25 min) OGD treatment failed to induce prominent NMDA i-LTP. CaMKII activity or CaMKII autophosphorylation displays a similar bifurcated trend at different time points following onset of ischemia both |i|in vitro|/i| OGD or |i|in vivo|/i| photothrombotic lesion (PT) models, suggesting a correlation
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIα (CamKIIα) may modulate the function of mu-opioid receptors by phosphorylation and therefore, be involved in development of morphine-induced analgesic tolerance.The current study aimed to examine changes in gene expression of CamKIIα in the lumbosacral cord and midbrain during induction of morphine analgesic tolerance.Male Wistar rats weighing 250 - 300 g were used. Two groups of rats (n = 6 per group) received saline (1 mL/kg) or morphine (10 mg/mL/kg) twice-daily for eight days, and induction of morphine analgesic tolerance was assessed using a hotplate test on days one, four and eight of the injections. The lumbosacral spinal cord and midbrain were also dissected in six independent groups (n = 4 per group) on days one, four and eight of saline or morphine injections to examine changes in gene expression of CamKIIα with a semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method.The result of the hotplate test showed that the
Small molecule inhibitors of the human sirtuins and calmodulin-dependent protein kinases have shown promising anti-cancer activity in cell-based screens and animal models. We have synthesized analogues of these compounds, identifying more selective sirtuin inhibitors and more potent calmodulin-dependent protein kinase inhibitors.The sirtuins are a family of NAD+-dependent deacetylases that regulate cellular aging and gene silencing in simple organisms and appear to play important regulatory roles in human cells that make them attractive anti-cancer targets. We have previously identified the compound cambinol, an inhibitor of the human sirtuins SIRT1 and SIRT2, which is selectively toxic to Burkitts lymphoma cells. In order to determine which sirtuin is the relevant target, we screened analogues of cambinol, identifying compounds that exhibited moderate selectivity for both SIRT1 and SIRT2. The compound JP136 is ten-fold more selective in vitro for SIRT1 over SIRT2, with respective IC50s of 13 ...
Looking for online definition of CaM-kinase II alpha chain in the Medical Dictionary? CaM-kinase II alpha chain explanation free. What is CaM-kinase II alpha chain? Meaning of CaM-kinase II alpha chain medical term. What does CaM-kinase II alpha chain mean?
Authors Affiliations: 1Dipartimento di Medicina Molecolare e Biotecnologie Mediche, Istituto di Endocrinologia e Oncologia Sperimentale del CNR Naples; 2Department of Neuroscience, Reproductive and Odontostomatological Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, Naples; 3Department of Medicine-DIMED, Unit of Endocrinology, University of Padua, Padova; and 4Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Salerno, Salerno, ...
CAMK2A - CAMK2A (Myc-DDK-tagged)-Human calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alpha (CAMK2A), transcript variant 2 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Full-length recombinant human CAMK2δ was expressed by baculovirus in Sf9 insect cells using an N-terminal GST tag. CAMK2δ is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is a member of the type II multifunctional Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase family.
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Tudjon meg többet a következőkről potassium-stannate-trihydrate. Támogatjuk a tudományt termékkínálatunkkal, szolgáltatásainkkal, kiváló folyamatainkkal és az ezeket megvalósító munkatársainkkal.
Statement of the Problem: Ever married women who reside in informal settlements like slums experience numerous stressors in life, including intimate partner vi...
Background: CaMKK β is a major kinase activated by elevated levels of intracellular calcium. Our previous data has suggested that CaMKK β is neuroprotective after stroke in young mice as inhibition of this kinase aggravated stroke outcome. As aging is an important determinant of stroke outcomes, here we evaluated the functional role of CaMKK β in stroke in aged mice.. Methods: Aged wild type (WT) males received intracerebral injections of lentiviral vectors carrying either CaMKK β (LV-CaMKK β) or GFP (LV-GFP) 7 days before middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO, 90 minutes). Acute infarcts and neurological deficits scores were then analyzed at 72 hours post MCAO. In chronic survival studies, aged male CaMKK β knockout (KO) and WT mice were subjected to 60 minutes MCAO. Following stroke, long-term behavioral assessments were continuously performed for 3 weeks in KO and WT mice until the sacrifice for tissue loss assessments.. Results: Baseline levels of CaMKK β in aged brain were ...
Mouse eggs are ovulated following arrest at metaphase of the second meiotic division (metII). Fertilization breaks this arrest, with the egg extruding a second polar body (PB2) and forming pronuclei. Ca2+ spikes induced by phospholipase C zeta, which are introduced into the egg on gamete fusion, are responsible for causing the degradation of Erp1/Emi2 (Fbxo43 - Mouse Genome Informatics) (Ducibella and Fissore, 2008; Jones, 2005; Mehlmann, 2005; Swann et al., 2006). Erp1/Emi2 loss activates the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) and so drives exit from meiosis (Madgwick et al., 2006; Shoji et al., 2006).. In frog eggs, the Ca2+ fertilization signal switches on calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CamKII; Camk2), which phosphorylates Erp1/Emi2 and so promotes its degradation (Liu and Maller, 2005; Rauh et al., 2005; Schmidt et al., 2005). Consistent with this more recent development in the understanding of the molecular events of activation, it had been discovered several years previously, also ...
The abundantly expressed calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CAMK2), alpha (CAMK2A), and beta (CAMK2B) isoforms are essential for learning and memory formation. Recently, a de novo candidate mutation (p.Arg292Pro) in the gamma isoform of CAMK2 (CAMK2G) was identified in a patient with severe intellectual disability (ID), but the mechanism(s) by which this mutation causes ID is unknown. Here, we identified a second, unrelated individual, with a de novo CAMK2G p.Arg292Pro mutation, and used in vivo and in vitro assays to assess the impact of this mutation on CAMK2G and neuronal function. We found that knockdown of CAMK2G results in inappropriate precocious neuronal maturation. We further found that the CAMK2G p.Arg292Pro mutation acts as a highly pathogenic gain-of-function mutation, leading to increased phosphotransferase activity and impaired neuronal maturation as well as impaired targeting of the nuclear CAMK2G isoform. Silencing the catalytic site of the CAMK2G p.Arg292Pro protein ...
Neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) is a major cause of death and disability in neonates. HI leads to a dramatic rise in intracellular calcium levels, which was originally thought to be detrimental to the brain. However, it has been increasingly recognized that this calcium signaling may also play an important protective role after injury by triggering endogenous neuroprotective pathways. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase ß (CaMKK ß) is a major kinase activated by elevated levels of intracellular calcium. Here we evaluated the functional role of CaMKK ß in neonatal mice after HI in both acute and chronic survival experiments. Postnatal day ten wild-type (WT) and CaMKK ß knockout (KO) mouse male pups were subjected to unilateral carotid artery ligation, followed by 40 min of hypoxia (10% O2 in N2). STO-609, a CaMKK inhibitor, was administered intraperitoneally to WT mice at 5 minutes after HI. TTC (2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride monohydrate) staining was used to assess ...
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Since its inception, the synaptic tagging hypothesis has inspired many to search for synaptic tags. However, very few molecules have been proposed as candidates (Frey and Frey, 2008). The nature and identity of PRPs and synaptic tags are under intensive investigations (Frey and Frey, 2008). Two pathway experiments showed that blockade of protein kinase A (PKA) or its interaction with A kinase-anchoring proteins (AKAPs) prevents synaptic capture, suggesting that PKA or its anchoring at active synapses may serve as a synaptic tag for L-LTP (Huang et al., 2006; Young et al., 2006). Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is also implicated as an L-LTP-specific tag (Sajikumar et al., 2007). Studies thus far have been based on the use of pharmacological inhibitors in two-pathway experiments. However, it is necessary to show that these tags are transiently and locally activated in a protein synthesis-independent manner by weak stimulation. In a recent study, NMDA-dependent, ...
Tighilet B, Huntsman MM, Hashikawa T, Murray KD, Isackson PJ, Jones EG. Cell-specific expression of type II calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase isoforms and glutamate receptors in normal and visually deprived lateral geniculate nucleus of monkeys. J Comp Neurol. 1998 Jan 12; 390(2):278-96 ...
Expression of CAMK4 (CaMK-GR) in duodenum tissue. Antibody staining with HPA011753, HPA017206 and CAB004347 in immunohistochemistry.
Contact Us. Tel:732-484-9848. Fax:888-484-5008. Email:[email protected]. Add:1 Deer Park Dr, Suite Q,. Monmouth Junction, NJ 08852, USA. ...
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type IV is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CAMK4 gene. The product of ... calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I by calmodulin and by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase". J. Biol. Chem. 273 ... Phosphorylation by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, protein kinase C, and calcium/calmodulin protein kinase; identification ... and activation of Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV by Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase Ia kinase. ...
This gene is also known by several other names: CMG 2 (CAMGUK protein 2), calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase 3 ... Hsueh YP, Roberts AM, Volta M, Sheng M, Roberts RG (June 2001). "Bipartite interaction between neurofibromatosis type I protein ... "Entrez Gene: CASK Calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (MAGUK family)". Tarpey PS, Smith R, Pleasance E, Whibley ... Zhu ZQ, Wang D, Xiang D, Yuan YX, Wang Y (2014). "Calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase is involved in exendin-4- ...
... a calcium pump EC 7.2.2.10. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of P-type primary ion transport ATPases ... Wang KK, Wright LC, Machan CL, Allen BG, Conigrave AD, Roufogalis BD (May 1991). "Protein kinase C phosphorylates the carboxyl ... "Primary structure of the cAMP-dependent phosphorylation site of the plasma membrane calcium pump". Biochemistry. 28 (10): 4253- ... Kessler F, Falchetto R, Heim R, Meili R, Vorherr T, Strehler EE, Carafoli E (December 1992). "Study of calmodulin binding to ...
Harris AS, Croall DE, Morrow JS (1988). "The calmodulin-binding site in alpha-fodrin is near the calcium-dependent protease-I ... "Primary structure of a gamma subunit of G protein, gamma 12, and its phosphorylation by protein kinase C". J. Biol. Chem. 270 ( ... The European Consortium on Men1, (GENEM 1; Groupe d'Etude des Néoplasies Endocriniennes Multiples de type 1)". Genomics. 37 (3 ... Sorimachi H, Ohmi S, Emori Y, Kawasaki H, Saido TC, Ohno S, Minami Y, Suzuki K (1990). "A novel member of the calcium-dependent ...
... by protein kinase C and calcium/calmodulin kinase II in vitro". J. Neurochem. 71 (3): 1307-14. doi:10.1046/j.1471-4159.1998. ... Kubes M, Cordier J, Glowinski J, Girault JA, Chneiweiss H (1998). "Endothelin induces a calcium-dependent phosphorylation of ... "Molecular characterization of the human PEA15 gene on 1q21-q22 and association with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Pima Indians". ... "Protein kinase B/Akt binds and phosphorylates PED/PEA-15, stabilizing its antiapoptotic action". Mol. Cell. Biol. 23 (13): 4511 ...
PIK1 It binds to many proteins, some in calcium dependent and some in calcium independent ways, and switches many of the ... G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2) D2 dopamine receptor IL1RAPL1 (interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein-like 1 protein) ... calcium-binding protein. Frq can substitute for calmodulin in some situations. It is thought to be associated with neuronal ... The designation 'NCS-1' came from the assumption that the protein was expressed only in neuronal cell types, which is not the ...
"Structure and expression of a calcium-binding protein gene contained within a calmodulin-regulated protein kinase gene". ... encodes myosin light chain kinase which is a calcium/calmodulin dependent enzyme. Four transcript variants that produce four ... Reaction type: phospho group transfer) It requires Ca2+ and calmodulin for activity. The 20-kDa light chain from smooth muscle ... "Kinase-related protein (telokin) is phosphorylated by smooth-muscle myosin light-chain kinase and modulates the kinase activity ...
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II beta chain is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CAMK2B gene. The ... "Entrez Gene: CAMK2B calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) II beta". Walikonis RS, Oguni A, Khorosheva EM, ... Sequence analyses of human brain calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II". Mol. Biol. Rep. 28 (1): 35-41. doi:10.1023/A: ... Novak G, Seeman P, Tallerico T (2001). "Schizophrenia: elevated mRNA for calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIbeta in ...
... p39 interact with the alpha-subunit of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and alpha-actinin-1 in a calcium-dependent ... 2004). "Regulation of type 1 protein phosphatase/inhibitor-2 complex by glycogen synthase kinase-3beta in intact cells". J. ... p39 interact with the alpha-subunit of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and alpha-actinin-1 in a calcium-dependent ... positive regulation of protein kinase activity. • regulation of cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • ...
... a novel two EF-hand calcium-binding protein that suppresses Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II activity in the brain ... Expression of CaBP1 helps to block Ca2+-dependent facilitation of P/Q-type Ca2+ current which is markedly reduced facilitation ... Calcium binding protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CABP1 gene. Calcium-binding protein 1 is a calcium- ... Calcium-binding protein 1 which is a neuron -specific member of the calmodulin (CaM) superfamily which modulates Ca2+-dependent ...
Zhang S, Ehlers MD, Bernhardt JP, Su CT, Huganir RL (August 1998). "Calmodulin mediates calcium-dependent inactivation of N- ... a striated muscle-restricted PDZ and LIM domain-containing protein, binds to alpha-actinin-2 and protein kinase C". The Journal ... Young P, Ferguson C, Bañuelos S, Gautel M (March 1998). "Molecular structure of the sarcomeric Z-disk: two types of titin ... ". "Protein Information - Basic Information: Protein COPaKB ID: P35609". Cardiac Organellar Protein Atlas Knowledgebase. ...
... the microtubule-associated tau proteins and S100b regulate tau phosphorylation by the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ... "The calcium-modulated proteins, S100A1 and S100B, as potential regulators of the dynamics of type III intermediate filaments". ... S100 calcium-binding protein B (S100B) is a protein of the S-100 protein family. S100 proteins are localized in the cytoplasm ... the microtubule-associated tau proteins and S100b regulate tau phosphorylation by the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ...
... suggesting that inhibition of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II may also be a potential treatment strategy. These ... which can be explained by decreased voltage-dependent calcium channel expression, specifically Ca(v)1.3, which is responsible ... Initially, a Glu1425Gly mutation in ANK2 was found to cause dominantly-inherited long QT syndrome, type 4, cardiac arrhythmia. ... Effects on ryanodine receptors specifically were also rescued by a potent Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibitor ...
... independent pathway involving calcium-binding protein 39 (Cab39) and serine threonine kinase with no lysine member 4 (WNK4) in ... WNK4 enhances TRPV5 by increasing its forward trafficking to the plasma membrane in a kinase-dependent manner. The inhibitory ... However, when Ca2+ levels are elevated, Ca2+/calmodulin complex binds to the C-terminal region, derepressing WNK4 kinase ... calcium channels), Na-K-2Cl cotransporter 1 and 2 (NKCC1/2), K+-Cl− cotransporter type 2 (KCC2), and other channels/ ...
... and a calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase (CAMK-1), and additional kinases, reaching its peak around mid-subjective day. Kinase ... with just one of the proteins present. The choice of which protein is made is the result of temperature-dependent splicing of ... Because sFRQ favors a longer period than lFRQ, free running rhythms in wild type Neurospora are somewhat decreased with ... A similar palette of kinases modifies the clock proteins in all cases. Negative feedback White Collar-1 Baker CL, Loros JJ, ...
"Calmodulin is involved in the Ca2+-dependent activation of ceramide kinase as a calcium sensor". J. Biol. Chem. 280 (49): 40436 ... CERK shares sequence homology with sphingosine kinase type I, including an N-terminal pleckstrin homology (PH) domain and a ... It was demonstrated that C-1-P perpetuates the phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 β and retinoblastoma protein, ... CERK was later confirmed to bind calmodulin in the presence of calcium, indicating the calmodulin first binds calcium and then ...
... s are also modulated by G protein-coupled receptors and the adrenergic nervous system. Protein Kinase A ( ... "Switching off calcium-dependent inactivation in L-type calcium channels by an autoinhibitory domain". Proceedings of the ... As the pore opens and causes an influx of Calcium, calcium binds to calmodulin and then interacts with the loop that connects ... which led to further categorization of the HVA channels into L-type, P-type, and N-type. L-type calcium channels were peptide ...
... (phosphodiesterase type 1) is a phosphodiesterase enzyme also known as calcium- and calmodulin-dependent phosphodiesterase ... of PDE1A1 and PDE1A2 by protein kinase A and of PDE1B1 by CaM Kinase II decreases their sensitivity to calmodulin activation. ... and calmodulin (CaM). Calmodulin has been shown to activate cyclic nucleotide PDE in a calcium-dependent manner and the ... basal and calmodulin stimulated purified PDE1. Since nimodipine at lower concentrations blocks the L-type calcium channel, it ...
Like neuroligins, neurexins possess a PDZ-domain that associates with CASK (Calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase). In ... Multiple nectins on one cell membrane will bind together at the V-type loop to form a cluster of nectin proteins, a process ... Cadherins are calcium- dependent, homophilic cell adhesion molecules that form complexes with cytosolic partners known as ... This interaction, mediated by ephrin A3/EphA4 signaling, induces the recruitment and activation of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 ( ...
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II gamma chain is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CAMK2G gene. The ... "Entrez Gene: CAMK2G calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) II gamma". Moyers JS, Bilan PJ, Zhu J, Kahn CR ( ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II subunit gamma) at the PDBe-KB. Biology portal This article incorporates ... calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily. Calcium signaling is crucial for several aspects of plasticity at glutamatergic ...
Opening of the L-type calcium channel causes influx of extracellular Ca2+, which then binds calmodulin. The activated ... The intracellular β subunit (55 kDa) is an intracellular MAGUK-like protein (Membrane-Associated Guanylate Kinase) containing a ... Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs), also known as voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs), are a group of voltage-gated ... opening of the L-type calcium channel permits influx of calcium into the cell. The calcium binds to the calcium release ...
Calmodulin-dependent kinase II and Rho-kinase are also found to phosphorylate calponin at Ser175 and Thr184 in vitro. Of these ... Dephosphorylation of calponin is catalyzed by type 2B protein phosphatase Unphosphorylated calponin binds to actin and inhibits ... Calcium-dependent mechanisms of regulation of smooth muscle contraction". Biochemistry and Cell Biology. 69 (12): 771-800. doi: ... the main site of regulatory phosphorylation by calmodulin-dependent kinase II and Rho-kinase is Ser175. ...
"Feasibility of long-term storage of graded information by the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase molecules of the ... Silva decided to study hippocampal-dependent memory formation. The compelling properties of calcium calmodulin kinase II, one ... Gutmann, DH; Parada, LF; Silva, AJ; Ratner, N (2012). "Neurofibromatosis type 1: modeling CNS dysfunction". J Neurosci. 32 (41 ... Silva, A.J.; Paylor, R.; Wehner, J.M.; Tonegawa, S. (1992). "Impaired spatial learning in alpha-calcium-calmodulin kinase II ...
"Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II phosphorylation drives synapse-associated protein 97 into spines". The Journal ... AMPARs are composed of four types of subunits encoded by different genes, designated as GRIA1 (also named GluA1 or GluR1), ... is the influx of calcium through the NMDA receptors and the resultant activation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ( ... element-binding protein through a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent stimulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase ...
... but phosphorylation of both these subunits by protein kinase A (PKA, or cAMP-dependent protein kinase) reduces their respective ... Defects in phosphorylase kinase genes are the cause of glycogen storage disease type IX (GSD type IX) and GSD type VI (formerly ... activated when the β and α subunits are phosphorylated by protein kinase A and the delta subunit has bound to calcium ions. In ... The δ subunit is the ubiquitous eukaryotic protein calmodulin which itself has 4 calcium ion binding sites. When cytosolic Ca2+ ...
... including elongation factor 1A and the calcium sensing protein calmodulin. Many eukaryotic proteins are post-translationally ... The arginine methylation of proteins can either inhibit or promote protein-protein interactions depending on the type of ... GTP-binding proteins, nuclear lamins and certain protein kinases. Many of these proteins participate in cell signaling, and ... A well-characterized example of a methylation dependent protein-protein interaction is related to the selective methylation of ...
... which in turn go on to bind and allosterically activate enzymes such as Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinases (CAMKs). The ... and all are directly stimulated by G-proteins of the Gαs class. Interaction with Gα subunits of the Gαi/o type, on the contrary ... Biology portal Receptor (biochemistry) Action potential Voltage-dependent calcium channel Calcium-activated potassium channel ... Once bound to GTP, Rho can then go on to activate various proteins responsible for cytoskeleton regulation such as Rho-kinase ( ...
The increase in presynaptic calcium concentration activates calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK). CaMK ... The protein dense projections vary in size and shape depending on the type of synapse examined. One striking example of the ... The protein ELKS binds to the cell adhesion protein, β-neurexin, and other proteins within the complex such as Piccolo and ... that cause a local influx of calcium. The increase in calcium is detected by proteins in the active zone and forces vesicles ...
Bouvard D, Block MR (1998). "Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II controls integrin alpha5beta1-mediated cell ... kinase is upstream of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt in regulating fibroblast survival in response to contraction of type I ... 2007). "MAP kinase-dependent, NF-kappaB-independent regulation of inhibitor of apoptosis protein genes by TNF-alpha". J. Cell. ... 2006). "Integrin cytoplasmic domain-associated protein-1 (ICAP-1) interacts with the ROCK-I kinase at the plasma membrane". J. ...
Calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit (also known as Cav1.2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by ... When depolarization occurs, calcium ions flow through the channel and some bind to Calmodulin. The Calcium/Calmodulin binding ... Perets T, Blumenstein Y, Shistik E, Lotan I, Dascal N (Apr 1996). "A potential site of functional modulation by protein kinase ... This gene encodes an alpha-1 subunit of a voltage-dependent calcium channel. Calcium channels mediate the influx of calcium ...
positive regulation of non-membrane spanning protein tyrosine kinase activity. • transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase ... TrkB autophosphorylation is dependent upon its ligand-specific association with BDNF, a widely expressed activity-dependent ... triggering a calcium influx. Through a protein signaling cascade requiring Erk, CaM KII/IV, PI3K, and PLC, NMDA receptor ... Blockading BDNF signaling with a tyrosine kinase inhibitor or a PKC inhibitor in wild type mice produced significant reductions ...
S6 kinase, protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase C, Cdc2, and/or a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase; b) moves to bind ... Aberrant expression of LOX5 is seen in various types of human cancer tumors in vivo as well as in various types of human cancer ... Hammarberg T, Reddy KV, Persson B, Rådmark O (2002). "Calcium binding to 5-lipoxygenase". Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. Advances in ... ALOX5 binds with the F actin-binding protein, coactin-like protein. Based on in vitro studies, this protein binding serves to ...
"Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II phosphorylation drives synapse-associated protein 97 into spines". J. Biol. Chem ... AMPARs are composed of four types of subunits, designated as GluA1 (GRIA1), GluA2 (GRIA2), GluA3 (GRIA3), and GluA4, ... is the influx of calcium through the NMDA receptors and the resultant activation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ( ... "Long-term potentiation is associated with an increased activity of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II". J. Biol. Chem ...
The encoded protein is a calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion glycoprotein composed of five extracellular cadherin repeats, a ... "The tyrosine kinase substrate p120cas binds directly to E-cadherin but not to the adenomatous polyposis coli protein or alpha- ... "Entrez Gene: CDH1 cadherin 1, type 1, E-cadherin (epithelial)".. *^ Fleming TP, Papenbrock T, Fesenko I, Hausen P, Sheth B ( ... Li Z, Kim SH, Higgins JM, Brenner MB, Sacks DB (December 1999). "IQGAP1 and calmodulin modulate E-cadherin function". The ...
... which leads to hyperpolarization and relaxation Stimulates a cGMP-dependent protein kinase that activates myosin light chain ... Nitric oxide is mediated in mammals by the calcium-calmodulin controlled isoenzymes eNOS (endothelial NOS) and nNOS (neuronal ... It is synthesized by many cell types in response to cytokines and is an important factor in the response of the body to attack ... NOSs can be dimeric, calmodulin-dependent or calmodulin-containing cytochrome p450-like hemoprotein that combines reductase and ...
see MAP kinase pathway. Calcium. *Intracellular calcium-sensing proteins. *Calcineurin. *Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein ... type 1 angiotensin receptor binding. • protein complex binding. • signal transducer activity. • protein binding. • GTPase ... protein heterotrimerization. • Wnt signaling pathway, calcium modulating pathway. • protein folding. • G-protein coupled ... phospholipase C-activating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • retina development in camera-type eye. • Ras protein ...
... is phosphorylated by the calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase.[27] MAPKAPK2 (mitogen-activated-protein kinase-activating ... embryonic camera-type eye morphogenesis. • social organism behavior. • cellular response to manganese ion. • response to ether ... that are phosphorylated by a variety of protein kinases.[12][25] Ser40 is phosphorylated by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase.[ ... "Molecular cloning of cDNA coding for brain-specific 14-3-3 protein, a protein kinase-dependent activator of tyrosine and ...
see MAP kinase pathway. Calcium. *Intracellular calcium-sensing proteins. *Calcineurin. *Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein ... Types of G protein signaling[edit]. G protein can refer to two distinct families of proteins. Heterotrimeric G proteins, ... Heterotrimeric G proteins[edit]. Main article: Heterotrimeric G proteins. Different types of heterotrimeric G proteins share a ... 3 Types of G protein signaling *3.1 Heterotrimeric G proteins *3.1.1 Common mechanism *3.1.1.1 Activation ...
... but most prominently by Rho-dependent kinase and/or by the calcium-calmodulin-dependent myosin light chain kinase, not only ... "Cleavage of human and mouse cytoskeletal and sarcomeric proteins by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease. Actin, desmin ... protein binding. • ADP binding. • protein membrane anchor. • actin-dependent ATPase activity. • calmodulin binding. • ATPase ... Other proteins that are known to interact with NM IIA include the actin binding protein tropomyosin 4.2 [26] and a novel actin ...
It was regulated by Ca2+ via a calmodulin kinase II-dependent mechanism. Distant homologues may be present in plants, ciliates ... demonstrated that CLIC proteins have glutaredoxin-like glutathione-dependent oxidoreductase enzymatic activity. CLICs 1, 2 and ... Agnel, M.; Vermat, T.; Culouscou, J. M. (1999-07-23). "Identification of three novel members of the calcium-dependent chloride ... In terms of primary structure, they are unrelated to known cation channels or other types of anion channels. Three CLC ...
Calcium binds to proteins such as calmodulin (CaM) and an eye-specific protein kinase C (PKC) known as InaC. These proteins ... y-type) and other mutants that show a mosaic pigment pattern with some regions of the cuticle (wild type, y2-type).[69] The ... Sepia colored eyes are not dependent on the sex of the fly. The Sepia eye color decreases sexual activity in males and ... In addition, proteins called arrestins bind metarhodopsin and prevent it from activating more Gq. A sodium-calcium exchanger ...
... in which calcium-modulated protein calmodulin (CaM) binds Ca2+, undergoes a change in conformation, and activates CaM kinase II ... "G(i)-dependent localization of beta(2)-adrenergic receptor signaling to L-type Ca(2+) channels". Biophysical Journal. 79 (5): ... Phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent protein kinasesEdit. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases (protein kinase A) are activated by ... The G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) are protein kinases that phosphorylate only active GPCRs.[53] G-protein-coupled ...
see MAP kinase pathway. Calcium. *Intracellular calcium-sensing proteins. *Calcineurin. *Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein ... Types[edit]. There are membrane-bound (type 1, guanylate cyclase-coupled receptor) and soluble (type 2, soluble guanylate ... Depending on cell type, it can drive adaptive/developmental changes requiring protein synthesis. In smooth muscle, cGMP is the ... Low concentrations of calcium cause the dimerization of RETGC-1 proteins through stimulation from guanylate cyclase-activating ...
... protein kinase Cs, calmodulin-modulated myosin light chain kinase, RAF/MEK/Mitogen-activated protein kinases, PKC/Ca2+/ ... IP stimulates one or more of three types of G protein complexes, depending on cell type: a) Gs alpha subunit-Gβγ complexes ... G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • inflammatory response. • positive regulation of cytosolic calcium ion ... stimulates adenyl cyclase to raise intracellular levels of cAMP and thereby activate cAMP-regulated protein kinases A-dependent ...
"The tyrosine kinase substrate p120cas binds directly to E-cadherin but not to the adenomatous polyposis coli protein or alpha- ... "Entrez Gene: CDH1 cadherin 1, type 1, E-cadherin (epithelial)".. *↑ Fleming TP, Papenbrock T, Fesenko I, Hausen P, Sheth B ( ... Li Z, Kim SH, Higgins JM, Brenner MB, Sacks DB (December 1999). "IQGAP1 and calmodulin modulate E-cadherin function". J. Biol. ... Jiang MC, Liao CF, Tai CC (June 2002). "CAS/CSE 1 stimulates E-cadhrin-dependent cell polarity in HT-29 human colon epithelial ...
... activation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II can be cAMP dependent or independent.[15] ... Type of reinforcer Sources Opiates Psychostimulants High fat or sugar food Sexual intercourse Physical exercise. (aerobic) ... increasing intracellular calcium among other cAMP mediated processes. The D2 class of receptors produce the opposite effect, as ... cAMP mediated protein kinase A activity also results in the phosphorylation of DARPP-32, an inhibitor of protein phosphatase 1 ...
see MAP kinase pathway. Calcium. *Intracellular calcium-sensing proteins. *Calcineurin. *Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein ... which vary based on the type of cell. ... cAMP-dependent protein kinase), one of the first few kinases ... Main article: function of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. In humans, cAMP works by activating protein kinase A (PKA, ... an enzyme called protein kinase A (PKA).[12]. The PKA enzyme is also known as cAMP-dependent enzyme because it gets activated ...
A calcium-calmodulin complex also acts to inhibit the binding of cAMP to the cAMP-dependent channel, thus contributing to ... in that cAMP works by directly binding to the ion channel rather than through activation of protein kinase A. It is similar to ... Because several receptor types are activated due to the different chemical features of the odorant, several glomeruli are ... In mammals, the odorants stimulate adenylate cyclase to synthesize cAMP via a G protein called Golf. cAMP, which is the second ...
see MAP kinase pathway. Calcium. *Intracellular calcium-sensing proteins. *Calcineurin. *Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein ... Types[edit]. There are several different cyclins that are active in different parts of the cell cycle and that cause the Cdk to ... Cyclins, when bound with the dependent kinases, such as the p34/cdc2/cdk1 protein, form the maturation-promoting factor. MPFs ... is a family of proteins that control the progression of cells through the cell cycle by activating cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK ...
... calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV, and the peroxisome proliferator γ coactivator 1 (PGC-1). The Ras/MAPK signaling ... Calcineurin, a Ca2+/calmodulin-activated phosphatase implicated in nerve activity-dependent fiber-type specification in ... proteins and other regulatory proteins. Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase activity is also upregulated by slow motor ... calcineurin and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV to activate transcription factors that regulate gene expression ...
It is a calcium-independent and phospholipid-dependent protein kinase. This kinase is important for T-cell activation. It is ... Holmes AM (1996). "In vitro phosphorylation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat protein by protein kinase C: evidence ... kinase activity. • protein binding. • ATP binding. • protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • protein kinase activity. ... Protein kinase C (PKC) is a family of serine- and threonine-specific protein kinases that can be activated by the second ...
Opening of the L-type calcium channel causes influx of extracellular Ca2+, which then binds calmodulin. The activated ... The intracellular β subunit (55 kDa) is an intracellular MAGUK-like protein (Membrane-Associated Guanylate Kinase) containing a ... Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs), also known as voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs), are a group of voltage-gated ... P-type calcium channel ("Purkinje") /Q-type calcium channel. HVA (high voltage activated). Cav2.1 (CACNA1A). α2δ, β, possibly γ ...
... through a protein kinase C-dependent mechanism". Biochem J. 466 (2): 379-390. doi:10.1042/bj20140881. PMID 25422863.. ... The effects of calcium on human cells are specific, meaning that different types of cells respond in different ways. However, ... and calmodulin, proteins that are necessary for promoting contraction in muscle. ... Activation of protein kinase C. Further reading: Function of protein kinase C. ...
... protein phosphatases, and adenylate kinase, but calcium activates these enzymes in allosteric regulation, often binding to ... and FAD-dependent proteins". Proteins. 44 (3): 282-91. doi:10.1002/prot.1093. PMID 11455601.. ... these enzymes in a complex with calmodulin.[15] Calcium is, therefore, a cell signaling molecule, and not usually considered a ... Here, hundreds of separate types of enzymes remove electrons from their substrates and reduce NAD+ to NADH. This reduced ...
Calcium-dependent dendritic growth is suppressed by CaM kinase inhibitors, a constitutively active form of CaM kinase IV ... We report that CaM kinase IV and CREB play a critical role in mediating calcium-induced dendritic growth in cortical neurons. ... Calcium / physiology* * Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 4 * Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases / ... Calcium-dependent dendritic growth is suppressed by CaM kinase inhibitors, a constitutively active form of CaM kinase IV ...
Member of the NMDAR signaling complex in excitatory synapses it may regulate NMDAR-dependent potentiation of the AMPAR and ... is a prominent kinase in the central nervous system that may function in long-term potentiation and neurotransmitter release. ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II subunit alpha (EC:2.7.11.17By similarity. ,p>Manually curated information ... View protein in PROSITE. PS00107. PROTEIN_KINASE_ATP. 1 hit. PS50011. PROTEIN_KINASE_DOM. 1 hit. PS00108. PROTEIN_KINASE_ST. 1 ...
Ab60756 is a full length protein produced in Baculovirus infected Sf9 cells and has been validated in FuncS… ... Calcium / calmodulin dependent protein kinase type 4 catalytic chain. *Calcium / calmodulin dependent protein kinase type IV ... Calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase type IV. *Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type IV ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase belonging to a proposed calcium-triggered signaling cascade. May be involved in ...
Interleukin-4 is a multifunctional cytokine that plays a critical role in the regulation of immune responses. Its effects ... Publication types * Review MeSH terms * Amino Acid Sequence * Animals * Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases / ... Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases * JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases * Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases ... resulting in a series of phosphorylation events mediated by receptor-associated kinases. In turn, these cause the recruitment ...
calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II subunit alpha isoform 2 [Hom... calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ... calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II subunit alpha isoform 2 [Homo sapiens]. NCBI Reference Sequence: NP_ ... The product of this gene belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinases family, and to the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein ... Transcript/Protein Information [PANTHER Classification System] Transcript/Protein Information. PANTHER Classification System ...
Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 4 5. Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex (Proteasome) ... CREM Protein, alpha Isoform; CREM Protein, epsilon Isoform; CREM Protein, gamma Isoform; CREM Protein, tau Isoform; ICERIIgamma ... Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins*Proteins: 90489*Transcription Factors: 20597*Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors: 21 ... DNA-Binding Proteins: 1111*Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors: 21*Cyclic AMP Response Element Modulator: 16*human CREM ...
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase belonging to a proposed calcium-triggered signaling cascade. In vitro ... View protein in PROSITE. PS00107 PROTEIN_KINASE_ATP, 1 hit. PS50011 PROTEIN_KINASE_DOM, 1 hit. PS00108 PROTEIN_KINASE_ST, 1 ... View protein in PROSITE. PS00107 PROTEIN_KINASE_ATP, 1 hit. PS50011 PROTEIN_KINASE_DOM, 1 hit. PS00108 PROTEIN_KINASE_ST, 1 ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type 1G (EC:2.7.11.17). Alternative name(s): ...
2004) Protein phosphatases and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-dependent synaptic plasticity. J Neurosci 24:8404 ... dopamine type-1 receptor and protein kinase A dependence. Eur J Neurosci 31:1243-1251. ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a highly expressed serine/threonine kinase whose α and β isoforms ... 2003) Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II contributes to activity-dependent filopodia growth and spine formation. J ...
... interaction and modulation by calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. J. Biol. Chem. 280, 15912-15920. ... Signaling to the nucleus by an L-type calcium channel-calmodulin complex through the MAP kinase pathway. Science 294, 333-339. ... Proteins in excess of ∼50 kDa require energy-dependent movement across the NPC. Such large proteins are often designated for ... Calmodulin does not contain an obvious motif for nuclear localisation, and might therefore `piggy-back on other proteins that ...
2010) Transient viral-mediated overexpression of alpha-calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in the nucleus accumbens ... dopamine type-1 receptor and protein kinase A dependence. Eur J Neurosci 31:1243-1251, doi:10.1111/j.1460-9568.2010.07155.x, ... responses to chronic cocaine require a feedforward loop involving DeltaFosB and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ii ... 2010) Transient overexpression of alpha-Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in the nucleus accumbens shell enhances ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II subunit beta - Q13554 (KCC2B_HUMAN) ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase that functions autonomously after Ca(2+)/calmodulin-binding and autophosphorylation ... The CAMK2 protein kinases contain a unique C-terminal subunit association domain responsible for oligomerization. UniProt ...
... interaction and modulation by calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. J Biol Chem 280:15912-15920CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Signaling to the nucleus by an L-type calcium channel-calmodulin complex through the MAP kinase pathway. Science 294:333-339 ... Klee CB, Ren H, Wang X (1998) Regulation of the calmodulin-stimulated protein phosphatase, calcineurin. J Biol Chem 273:13367- ... Perrino BA, Ng LY, Soderling TR (1995) Calcium regulation of calcineurin phosphatase activity by its B subunit and calmodulin. ...
Calcium Channel, Voltage-Dependent, L Type, alpha 1D Subunit ELISA Kits * Calcium/calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase IV ELISA ... Calcium/calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Kinase 2, beta ELISA Kits * Calcium/calmodulin-Dependent serine Protein Kinase ( ... Target Calcium/calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II Inhibitor 2 (CAMK2N2) * Calcium/calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II ... Calcium/calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II gamma ELISA Kits * Calcium/calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II delta ELISA ...
Dystrophia Myotonica Protein Kinase)1 and CaMK1 (Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type 1). ... Ang: angiopoietin; bFGF: basic ibroblast growth factor; CaMK1: Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type 1; DAPI: 4,6- ... Other calcium-dependent kinases may be involved. We suspect a possible involvement of the conventional calcium-dependent ... Serine/threonine kinases of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) such as p38-MAPK, extracellular response kinases (ERK ...
These data are compatible with a model where Ca2+ influx via L-type Ca2+ channels prevents caspase-dependent cleavage of CaMKIV ... We present evidence that blockade of L-type Ca2+ channels (nifedipine sensitive) but not N/P/Q-type Ca2+ channels (omega- ... The entry into apoptosis was associated with a progressive caspase-3-dependent cleavage of CaMKIV, but not of CaMKII. CaMKIV ... and promotes neuronal survival by maintaining a constitutive level of CaMKIV/CREB-dependent gene expression. ...
... interaction and modulation by calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. J Biol Chem. 2005; 280: 15912-15920. ... In some cell types (nonmuscle cells), it is generally accepted that the outer nuclear membrane and ER have similar ... Ca2+ binding effects on protein conformation and protein interactions of canine cardiac calsequestrin. J Biol Chem. 1988; 263: ... Subramanian K, Meyer T. Calcium-induced restructuring of nuclear envelope and endoplasmic reticulum calcium stores. Cell. 1997 ...
Protein Coding), Calcium/Calmodulin Dependent Protein Kinase IV, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs ... Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type IV Catalytic Chain 2 3 * Brain Ca++-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type ... Protein Symbol:. Q16566-KCC4_HUMAN. Recommended name:. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type IV Protein Accession:. ... protein kinase,type IV,calcium/calmodulin dependent,brain *CAMK4. UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity: ATP + a protein = ADP ...
Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 4 Chemical Compounds * T-cells Chemical Compounds ... Activation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM-kinase) IV by CaM-kinase kinase in Jurkat T lymphocytes. Journal of ... Activation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM-kinase) IV by CaM-kinase kinase in Jurkat T lymphocytes. / Park, In ... Park, IK & Soderling, TR 1995, Activation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM-kinase) IV by CaM-kinase kinase in ...
Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 4 * Transcriptional Activation * Phosphorylation * N-Methylaspartate ... The cAMP-regulated enhancer-binding protein ATF-1 activates transcription in response to cAMP-dependent protein kinase A. ... The catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase induces expression of genes containing cAMP-responsive enhancer elements ... Protein kinase a directly regulates the activity and proteolysis of cubitus interruptus. Chen, Y., Gallaher, N., Goodman, R. H. ...
Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2 (MeSH) * Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases (MeSH) ... Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II Inhibitor 59, Reveals a Role for Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II ... The major binding species was a doublet at 50-60 kDa, which was identified as calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II ( ... GFP-HA-CaMKII K42M cells had less kinase activity than cells expressing wild-type GFP-HA-CaMKII. Insulin-stimulated glucose ...
CAMK2D; CAMKD; Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II subunit delta; CaM kinase II subunit delta; CaMK-II subunit ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase involved in the regulation of Ca2+ homeostatis and excitation-contraction coupling ... The product of this gene belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase family and to the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein ... NCBI Protein Information. calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II subunit delta ...
BicC family RNA binding protein 1; BSA: bovine serum albumin; CAMKK2 kinase: calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase kinase ... deiodinase iodothyronine type III (Dio3) locus are upregulated in an mTORC1-dependent manner. Sustained mTORC1 signaling during ... AMP-activated protein kinase; ARMC8: armadillo repeat containing 8; ATP: adenosine triphosphate; BafA1: bafilomycin A1; BCAA: ... Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Non-coding RNA profiling by high throughput sequencing Mus musculus Source Type: research ...
... acid mediates calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase activation in vascular ... 20-HETE has been implicated as playing a role in promoting the growth of several cell types (Roman et al., 2002). Blockade of ... which is generated after activation of phospholipase A2 by calcium/calmodulin protein kinase II. This suggests that 20-HETE ... with a fall in p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase and stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase ...
RAS p21 protein activator 2; CAMK2B - calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II beta; DAB2IP - disabled 2 (DAB2) ... interacting protein; NF1 - neurofibromin 1; PI3KC3 - phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase catalytic subunit type 3; PI3KCA - ... Novel role of pleckstrin homology domain of the Bcr-Abl protein: analysis of protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions. ... PLC proteins can be activated by the receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) or G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) in response to the ...
... generated through deregulated RNA processing pathways along with RNA binding proteins (RBPs) of RNA helicase (RNA sensors) ... There is growing evidence that CSRPs can have context-dependent homeostatic or pathologic functions that may result in tissue ... calcium voltage gated channel subunit α1 C (CACNA1C), calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II delta and gamma (CAMK2D ... muscular-enriched A type laminin-interacting protein (MLIP), PDZ and LIM domain 3 (PDLIM3), reticulon 4 (RTN4), ryanodine ...
Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 4 Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel ... Recent studies have demonstrated that transgenic (TG) expression of either Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV ... keywords = "Ca/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase, Dilated cardiomyopathy, Heart failure, Transgenic mice", ... N2 - Recent studies have demonstrated that transgenic (TG) expression of either Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV ( ...
Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 4. *Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases* ... Multifunctional Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent (CaM) kinase, CaM kinase Ia, CaM kinase Ib and CaM kinase IV are four of the kinases ... The multifunctional Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases.. Schulman H1.. Author information. 1. Department of Pharmacology ... Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 4. *Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases ...
... of the TAC group was prolonged compared with the control group and was markedly shortened by WXKL treatment in a dose-dependent ... and the L-type calcium current (,svg style=vertical-align:-3.25792pt;width:31.950001px; id=M1 height=15.4375 version=1.1 ... 4 -78.5 -17.5t-27.5 -71.5l-77 -416q-11 -58 0.5 -71.5t77.5 -17.5l-5 -28h-275l8 28q63 4 79.5 18.5t27.5 70.5l80 416q11 57 -2 71t- ... Y. W. Xing, Y. H. Gao, J. X. Chen et al., "Wenxin-keli regulates the calcium/calmodulin-dependent Protein kinase II Signal ...
protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 14. 0.207. Camkk2. calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2, beta. ... catenin (cadherin-associated protein), delta 2 (neural plakophilin-related arm-repeat protein). 0.319. ... fms-related tyrosine kinase 1 (vascular endothelial growth factor/vascular permeability factor receptor). 0.952. ... ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (rho family, small GTP binding protein Rac1). 0.793. ...
Document Type. Article. Medical Subject Headings. Actins; Animals; Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases; Cells, ... Myosin Type II; Protein Transport; Protozoan Proteins; Quinolinium Compounds; Rats ... Cultured; Cytokinesis; Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching; Heterocyclic Compounds with 4 or More Rings; ...
  • CAMKII regulates numerous physiological functions, including neuronal synaptic plasticity through the phosphorylation of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid-type glutamate (AMPA) receptors. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Studies of the similar protein in rat suggest that this protein may function as a negative regulator of CaM-KII and may act to inhibit the phosphorylation of AMPA receptors. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Targeting the ligand, VEGF, with humanized neutralizing monoclonal antibody, or the receptors with receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors, are promising cancer therapy approaches [ 5 - 8 ]. (oncotarget.com)
  • PLC proteins can be activated by the receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) or G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) in response to the different extracellular stimuli including hormones and growth factors. (jcancer.org)
  • These adrenergic receptors activate different Guanine nucleotide binding proteins (G-proteins). (bio-rad.com)
  • Modulation of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic Acid (AMPA) receptors in the brain by protein phosphorylation may play a crucial role in the regulation of synaptic plasticity. (elsevier.com)
  • Previous studies have demonstrated that calmodulin (CAM) kinase II can phosphorylate and modulate AMPA receptors. (elsevier.com)
  • Molecular Mechanisms Contributing to TARP Regulation of Channel Conductance and Polyamine Block of Calcium-Permeable AMPA Receptors. (abcam.com)
  • Bidirectional plasticity of calcium-permeable AMPA receptors in oligodendrocyte lineage cells. (abcam.com)
  • Brooks IM & Tavalin SJ Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibitors disrupt AKAP79-dependent PKC signaling to GluA1 AMPA receptors. (abcam.com)
  • Inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) is an important calcium channel which regulates cellular calcium homeostasis. (elsevier.com)
  • Interpretation of the presynaptic message takes place at the postsynaptic membrane through transmembrane proteins called receptors. (els.net)
  • The postsynaptic density is composed of receptors, scaffolding and adhesion proteins, kinases and phosphatases, as well as cytoskeletal elements, which are linked together to form macromolecular complexes. (els.net)
  • Accumulating evidence suggest the existence of physical and functional interactions between CFTR and a growing number of other proteins, including transporters, ion channels, receptors, kinases, phosphatases, signaling molecules, and cytoskeletal elements, and these interactions between CFTR and its binding proteins have been shown to be critically involved in regulating CFTR-mediated transepithelial ion transport in vitro and also in vivo 8-19 . (jove.com)
  • On recognition of pathogenic components, Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are activated, leading to a variety of signaling events that initiate innate immunity and activate immune cells to produce proinflammatory cytokines and type I interferon (IFN). (ashpublications.org)
  • Neonatal isolation prevented long-term potentiation and experience-dependent synaptic trafficking of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptors normally occurring during circuit formation in the rodent barrel cortex. (jci.org)
  • There are ≥2 transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) known to mediate Ang II function, namely, the type 1 and type 2 (AT 1 and AT 2 ) receptors. (ahajournals.org)
  • Differential cellular expression of isoforms of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptors in neurons and glia in brain. (wikipathways.org)
  • Phosphorylation-dependent activation of the Ras-GRF/CDC25Mm exchange factor by muscarinic receptors and G-protein beta gamma subunits. (wikipathways.org)
  • Concerning degree of phosphorylation, we observed more extensive phosphorylation sites on N -methyl- d -aspartate (NMDA) receptors than α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors, consistent with the central role of N -methyl- d -aspartate receptors in processing synaptic transmission patterns. (mcponline.org)
  • These neurotransmitter receptors exist as part of a highly organized protein complex known as the postsynaptic density (PSD). (mcponline.org)
  • 1 In addition to neurotransmitter receptors, the PSD is composed of proteins of diverse function ( 1 , 2 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Regulatory phosphorylation of AMPA-type glutamate receptors by CaM-KII during long-term potentiation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We have broadened our study to other stimuli that activate extracellular signal-regulated kinases through tyrosine kinase receptors, and we have observed that calmodulin also modulates the activation of such kinases after epidermal growth factor receptor stimulation in PC12 cells and after TrkB stimulation in cultured chicken embryo motoneurons. (asm.org)
  • NTs bind to two types of receptors, p75 LNTR and the Trk family of tyrosine kinases. (asm.org)
  • Second, some Frizzled receptors act through heterotrimeric G proteins to activate phospholipase C and phosphodiesterase. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A series of stimuli that act on cell surface receptors triggers the activation of PLC that catalyses the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate to IP3 and DAG. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Calcium-dependent dendritic growth is suppressed by CaM kinase inhibitors, a constitutively active form of CaM kinase IV induces dendritic growth in the absence of extracellular stimulation, and a kinase-dead form of CaM kinase IV suppresses dendritic growth induced by calcium influx. (nih.gov)
  • In cortical slice cultures, dendritic growth is attenuated by inhibitors of voltage-sensitive calcium channels and by dominant negative CREB. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, inhibition of JNK and the calcium signaling including the calmodulin-dependent protein kinase-II by either pharmacological inhibitors or their specific small interfering RNAs reversed CpG-induced protection against Vpr(52-96)-mediated apoptosis. (jimmunol.org)
  • CNG channels are also moderately sensitive to block by some other inhibitors of the L-type calcium channel (e.g., nifedipine), the local anesthetic tetracaine, and calmodulin antagonists ( Kaupp and Seifert, 2002 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • The Ca++/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibitors KN62 and KN93, and their inactive analogues KN04 and KN92, inhibit nicotinic activation of tyrosine hydroxylase in bovine chromaffin cells. (hellobio.com)
  • CAMK2N2 encodes a protein that is highly similar to the rat CaM-KII inhibitory protein, an inhibitor of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CAMKII). (antibodies-online.com)
  • Herein we aimed to evaluate the antitumor and antiangiogenic potential of a novel pyrazolyl-urea kinase inhibitor, GeGe3, and to identify its kinase targets. (oncotarget.com)
  • Olomoucine is known as a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. (edu.au)
  • The present study examined the effects of N- hydroxy- N ′-(4-butyl-2 methylphenyl) formamidine (HET0016), a selective inhibitor of the formation of 20-hydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (20-HETE) on the growth of 9L rat gliosarcoma cells in vitro and in vivo. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Isoeugenol-induced increase in intracellular calcium concentration and glucose uptake was inhibited by STO-609, an inhibitor of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK). (bioscientifica.com)
  • Further identifying the signaling pathway involved in the regulation, we found Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) inhibitor KN-62 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor SP600125 reduced the expression of IP3R1 suggesting the role of CaMKII and JNK in the regulation of IP3R1 expression. (elsevier.com)
  • Biochemical characterization reveals that SBI-0206965 is a mixed-type inhibitor. (edu.au)
  • A co-crystal structure of the AMPK kinase domain/SBI-0206965 complex shows that the drug occupies a pocket that partially overlaps the ATP active site in a type IIb inhibitor manner. (edu.au)
  • This was abolished by the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibitor KN93, suggesting that Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIδ, a target of miR-145 and up-regulated in Dicer KO, plays a role in the regulation of L-type channel expression. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Chronic treatment with an L-type calcium channel blocker (nifedipine) or CaM kinase inhibitor (KN93) decreased dopamine transporter-mediated uptake and occluded the effects of tetrodotoxin and 4-aminopyridine. (elsevier.com)
  • Described in detail herein is a method for generating viable merozoites using the E64 protease inhibitor, and an assay of merozoite opsonin-dependent phagocytosis using the pro-monocytic cell line THP-1. (jove.com)
  • U0126, an inhibitor of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), attenuated the CsA-induced transcriptional repressor SNAI2 (also called Slug) expression and restored E-cadherin expression inhibited by CsA in JEG-3 cells. (bioone.org)
  • We further demonstrated that CsA amplified epidermal growth factor (EGF)-stimulated EGF receptor (EGFR) tyrosine phosphorylation in JEG-3 cells, and inhibition of EGFR tyrosine phosphorylation by AG1478, an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, abolished the down-regulation of E-cadherin by CsA through ERK signaling pathway. (bioone.org)
  • Moreover, CpG selectively induced the antiapoptotic cellular inhibitor of apoptosis (c-IAP)-2 protein and inhibition of the c-IAP-2 gene by either specific small interfering RNA or synthetic second mitochondrial activator of caspases mimetic reversed CpG-induced resistance against Vpr(52-96)-mediated apoptosis. (jimmunol.org)
  • An exclusive from Hello Bio, Cmpd101 is a novel, potent, selective G-protein coupled receptor kinase 2 and 3 inhibitor. (hellobio.com)
  • PD 098059 is a specific inhibitor of the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase in vitro and in vivo. (wikipathways.org)
  • Dephosphorylated by serine/threonine protein phosphatase 2A, probably on Thr-200. (abcam.com)
  • The product of this gene belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase family, and to the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily. (genecards.org)
  • This enzyme is a multifunctional serine/threonine protein kinase with limited tissue distribution, that has been implicated in transcriptional regulation in lymphocytes, neurons and male germ cells. (genecards.org)
  • We have used these antibodies to demonstrate that serine 831 is specifically phosphorylated by CaM kinase II in transfected cells expressing GluR1 as well as in hippocampal slice preparations. (elsevier.com)
  • In addition, treatment of hippocampal slice preparations with phorbol esters and forskolin increase the phosphorylation of serine 831 and 845, respectively, indicating that protein kinase C and protein kinase A phosphorylate these residues in hippocampal slices. (elsevier.com)
  • This gene is also known by several other names: CMG 2 (CAMGUK protein 2), calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase 3 and membrane-associated guanylate kinase 2. (wikipedia.org)
  • CASK (calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein serine kinase) is an X-linked gene that codes a MAGUK (membrane-associated guanylate kinase) family protein. (springer.com)
  • We show that GAP45 is phosphorylated by calcium dependent protein kinase 1 (CDPK1), and identify the modified serine residues. (jove.com)
  • Replacing these serine residues with alanine or aspartate has no apparent effect on GAP45 assembly into the motor protein complex or its subcellular location in the parasite. (jove.com)
  • It also activates various intracellular tyrosine and serine/threonine kinases. (ahajournals.org)
  • The transcription factor ΔFosB and the brain-enriched calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKIIα) are induced in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) by chronic exposure to cocaine or other psychostimulant drugs of abuse, in which the two proteins mediate sensitized drug responses. (jneurosci.org)
  • Here, we demonstrate that ΔFosB is phosphorylated by CaMKIIα at the protein-stabilizing Ser27 and that CaMKII is required for the cocaine-mediated accumulation of ΔFosB in rat NAc. (jneurosci.org)
  • Conversely, we show that ΔFosB is both necessary and sufficient for cocaine induction of CaMKIIα gene expression in vivo , an effect selective for D 1 -type MSNs in the NAc shell subregion. (jneurosci.org)
  • Furthermore, induction of dendritic spines on NAc MSNs and increased behavioral responsiveness to cocaine after NAc overexpression of ΔFosB are both CaMKII dependent. (jneurosci.org)
  • These data establish that ΔFosB and CaMKII engage in a cell-type- and brain-region-specific positive feedforward loop as a key mechanism for regulating the reward circuitry of the brain in response to chronic cocaine. (jneurosci.org)
  • Phosphorylation at Ser 27 contributes to ΔFosB's stability and accumulation following repeated exposure to drugs, and our recent work demonstrates that the protein kinase CaMKIIα phosphorylates ΔFosB at Ser 27 and regulates its stability in vivo . (jneurosci.org)
  • 5 Notably, this pathway could only be activated by Ca 2+ from local InsP 3 R (not global Ca 2+ transients), presumably because calmodulin and CaMKII physically associate with the InsP 3 R at the NucEn. (ahajournals.org)
  • The major binding species was a doublet at 50-60 kDa, which was identified as calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) by N-terminal peptide analysis and confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry as the δ- and β-like isoforms. (edu.au)
  • To investigate CaMKII involvement in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, 3T3-L1 adipocytes were infected with retrovirus encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP)-hemagluttinin tag (HA)-tagged CaMKII wild-type or the ATP binding mutant, K42M. (edu.au)
  • GFP-HA-CaMKII K42M cells had less kinase activity than cells expressing wild-type GFP-HA-CaMKII. (edu.au)
  • Recent studies have demonstrated that transgenic (TG) expression of either Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV) or CaMKIIδ B , both of which localize to the nucleus, induces cardiac hypertrophy. (elsevier.com)
  • To determine whether enhanced activity of this cytoplasmic δ C isoform of CaMKII can lead to phosphorylation of Ca 2+ regulatory proteins and induce hypertrophy, we generated TG mice that expressed the δ C isoform of CaMKII. (elsevier.com)
  • These findings are the first to demonstrate that CaMKIIδ C can mediate phosphorylation of Ca 2+ regulatory proteins in vivo and provide evidence for the involvement of CaMKIIδ C activation in the pathogenesis of dilated cardiomyopathy and heart failure. (elsevier.com)
  • Calcium and its major downstream effector, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), are found to be important for the functions of immune cells. (ashpublications.org)
  • Here we demonstrate that TLR 4, 9, and 3 ligands markedly induce intracellular calcium fluxes and activate CaMKII-α in macrophages. (ashpublications.org)
  • Therefore, CaMKII can be activated by TLR ligands, and in turn promotes both myeloid differentiating factor 88 and Toll/IL-1 receptor domain-containing adaptor protein-inducing IFN-β-dependent inflammatory responses by directly activating TAK1 and IRF3. (ashpublications.org)
  • The cross-talk with the calcium/CaMKII pathway is needed for full activation of TLR signaling in macrophages. (ashpublications.org)
  • This inhibition of AMPA receptor trafficking was mediated by an increase of the stress glucocorticoid hormone and was associated with reduced calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II (CaMKII) signaling, resulting in attenuated whisker sensitivity at the cortex. (jci.org)
  • CaMKII-independent effects of KN93 and its inactive analog KN92: reversible inhibition of L-type calcium channels. (hellobio.com)
  • To establish the functional link between H3 phosphorylation, 14-3-3 recruitment and the transcriptional reprogramming of fetal cardiac genes, we assessed 14-3-3 binding at fetal cardiac genes in CaMKIIδ wild-type and KO mice subjected to sham operation or TAC. (nih.gov)
  • 14-3-3 binding increased significantly at the ANP and β-MHC promoters and exonic region after stress in wild-type mice, but this effect was significantly reduced in CaMKIIδ-KO mice (Figure 6A). (nih.gov)
  • Inhibition of the metabolic regulator AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is increasingly being investigated for its therapeutic potential in diseases where AMPK hyperactivity results in poor prognoses, as in established cancers and neurodegeneration. (edu.au)
  • Inhibition of calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II restores contraction and relaxation in isolated cardiac muscle from type 2 diabetic rats. (otago.ac.nz)
  • S -nitrosylation induces both autonomous activation and inhibition of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II δ. (otago.ac.nz)
  • Basal and stretch-induced L-type calcium channel expressions were both decreased in Dicer KO portal veins, and inhibition of L-type channels in control vessels mimicked the effects of Dicer deletion. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Furthermore, inhibition of miR-145, a highly expressed microRNA in smooth muscle, resulted in a similar reduction of L-type calcium channel expression. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • CK2 is also upregulated in the most prevalent and aggressive cancer of brain tissue, glioblastoma multiforme, and in preclinical models, pharmacological inhibition of the kinase has proven successful in reducing tumor size and animal mortality. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Pharmacological activation of the cellular energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway caused an increase in NNMT levels that was similar to the effect of glucose deprivation. (bvsalud.org)
  • Inhibition of calcium signaling attenuates cisplatin-induced oxidative stress and intracellular Ca 2+ overload in cisplatin-sensitive SKOV3 cells. (aginganddisease.org)
  • CAMK Ser/Thr protein kinase family. (abcam.com)
  • The neuroprotective mechanisms of the Ca2+/calmodulin kinase (CaMK) signaling pathway were studied in primary cerebellar neurons in vitro. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Elevated Ca('2+) level activates Calmodulin / Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II ( CaMK II ) / PTK2B protein tyrosine kinase 2 beta ( Pyk2(FAK2) ) / v-src sarcoma viral oncogene homolog ( c-Src ) [ 7 ]. (bio-rad.com)
  • Interleukin-4 is a multifunctional cytokine that plays a critical role in the regulation of immune responses. (nih.gov)
  • The multifunctional Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases. (nih.gov)
  • Multifunctional Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent (CaM) kinase, CaM kinase Ia, CaM kinase Ib and CaM kinase IV are four of the kinases that mediate Ca(2+)-signaling pathways. (nih.gov)
  • Based on the minimal substrate consensus sequence that requires an acidic residue at position n + 3 [ 11 , 12 ], it is not too surprising that, to date, 356 proteins have been identified that are phosphorylated in vitro and in vivo by CK2 [ 13 ] and, thus, represent a large pool of bona fide substrates, attesting to the important role of CK2 as a multifunctional kinase. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The multifunctional calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases I and IV (CaMKI and CaMKIV) are closely related by primary sequence and predicted to have similar substrate specificities based on peptide studies. (duke.edu)
  • Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase that functions autonomously after Ca(2+)/calmodulin-binding and autophosphorylation, and is involved in dendritic spine and synapse formation, neuronal plasticity and regulation of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) transport in skeletal muscle. (rcsb.org)
  • Klee CB, Ren H, Wang X (1998) Regulation of the calmodulin-stimulated protein phosphatase, calcineurin. (springer.com)
  • Biochemical analysis of these kinases showed DMPK1 regulation upon VEGF challenge. (oncotarget.com)
  • Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaM-kinase IV), a member of the CaM-kinase family involved in transcriptional regulation, is stimulated by Ca 2+ /CaM but also requires phosphorylation by a CaM-kinase kinase for full activation. (elsevier.com)
  • Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase involved in the regulation of Ca2+ homeostatis and excitation-contraction coupling (ECC) in heart by targeting ion channels, transporters and accessory proteins involved in Ca2+ influx into the myocyte, Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), SR Ca2+ uptake and Na+ and K+ channel transport. (mybiosource.com)
  • These results indicated that genistein has obviously neuroprotective effect on the AD cell model induced by Aβ₂₅₋₃₅, and the mechanism may be related to the down-regulation of CaM-CaMKIV signaling pathway and Tau protein expression. (bvsalud.org)
  • In the present review, we summarize evidence showing that CDP affects intracellular calcium regulation, and argue that CDP-induced impairment of normal calcium control may be a critical cellular event through which CDP exposure contributes to development or exacerbation of cardiovascular disease. (springer.com)
  • Tavalin SJ AKAP79 selectively enhances protein kinase C regulation of GluR1 at a Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II/protein kinase C site. (abcam.com)
  • Ca 2+ sensors activate transcription factors (TF) and other proteins either by direct binding or through phosphorylation (P). TFs bind DNA and cause up‐ or down‐regulation of gene expression. (els.net)
  • These results show that microRNAs play a crucial role in stretch-induced contractile differentiation in the vascular wall in part via miR-145-dependent regulation of L-type calcium channels. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Padmanabhan, S , Lambert, NA & Prasad, BM 2008, ' Activity-dependent regulation of the dopamine transporter is mediated by Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase signaling ', European Journal of Neuroscience , vol. 28, no. 10, pp. 2017-2027. (elsevier.com)
  • In addition to characterizing the performance of ligation-free ribosome profiling, we applied our technique to assess cell type-specific translational regulation in the murine brain. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Collectively, our data indicate that failure of calcium up-regulation mediates cisplatin resistance by alleviating oxidative stress in ovarian cancer cells. (aginganddisease.org)
  • At the molecular level, this regulation can be achieved by alterations in protein localization ( 3 - 5 ), reversible post-translational modifications ( e.g. phosphorylation ( 6 , 7 ) and O -GlcNAc glycosylation ( 8 )), and changes in protein levels via local synthesis and degradation ( 9 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Craig, T.A., Watterson, D.M., and Hinrichsen, R.D., 1987a, Analysis of a mutant Paramecium with a non-lethal selective alteration in calmodulin regulation and a defective calcium-dependent potassium conductance. (springer.com)
  • The CAMK2 protein kinases contain a unique C-terminal subunit association domain responsible for oligomerization. (rcsb.org)
  • These results identify the site of CaM kinase phosphorylation of the GluR1 subunit and demonstrate that GluR1 is multiply phosphorylated by protein kinase A, protein kinase C, and CaM kinase II in situ. (elsevier.com)
  • At inhibitory synapses, postsynaptic LPA signaling resulted in dephosphorylation, and internalization from the GABAA2 subunit through the LPA1/G12/13-proteins/RhoA/Rho kinase/calcineurin pathway. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • CNB domains were first identified in the regulatory subunit of mammalian cAMP-dependent protein kinase (RI and RII). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Calcium (Ca 2+ ) is a key player in signal transduction. (biologists.org)
  • 5-8 Importantly, recent accumulating evidence highlighted the significance of these small G proteins as essential molecular switches that trigger many of the signal transduction and functions of Ang II. (ahajournals.org)
  • In this review, we describe detailed mechanisms of signal transduction pathways of Ang II involving small G proteins in VSMCs together with their functional significances in mediating vascular remodeling. (ahajournals.org)
  • See 5 reference sequence protein isoforms for the CAMK2A gene. (nih.gov)
  • CAMK4 (Calcium/Calmodulin Dependent Protein Kinase IV) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • GO annotations related to this gene include transferase activity, transferring phosphorus-containing groups and protein tyrosine kinase activity . (genecards.org)
  • Disruption of the MKK4 gene blocked JNK activation caused by: (i) the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase MEKK1, and (ii) treatment with anisomycin or heat shock. (umassmed.edu)
  • Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type IV is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CAMK4 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Information is therefore hypothesised to be encoded in these signals, which are decoded and relayed to downstream gene expression regulators and protein kinases via an array of Ca 2+ ‐binding sensor proteins. (els.net)
  • Ca 2+ binding to calmodulin (CaM) and calcium‐dependent protein kinases (CDPK) indirectly activates the hypersensitive response (HR), defence‐related gene expression and increased salicylic acid (SA) production. (els.net)
  • Because both genotype and environment converge to influence cellular function via gene and protein expression, we hypothesize that alterations in expression define a phenotype that parallels the metabolic evolution of DM and provides potential clues to pathogenesis. (pnas.org)
  • Peripheral plasma membrane protein CASK is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CASK gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, instead of generating further isoforms of CASK, this event may have led to origin of MPP1 (membrane palmitoylated protein 1) gene. (springer.com)
  • Both fly and worm CASK gene orthologs have alternate transcriptional start sites producing novel variants of the protein with unique N-terminal end (CASK-α) (Slawson et al. (springer.com)
  • The gene expression profiles of the large- and small-type Kenyon cells are distinct, suggesting that each exhibits distinct cellular characteristics. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We recently identified a novel gene, mKast ( middle-type Kenyon cell-preferential arrestin-related gene-1 ), which has a distinctive expression pattern in the Kenyon cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Neural activity mapping using an immediate early gene, kakusei , suggests that the small-type and some middle-type Kenyon cells are prominently active in the forager brain, suggesting a potential role in processing information during foraging flight. (biomedcentral.com)
  • DBL-1 binds the heterodimeric DAF-4 / SMA-6 receptor and acts via the SMA-2 / SMA-3 / SMA-4 SMAD complex to control gene expression ( Figure 1 ). (wormbook.org)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 activator 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDK5R2 gene . (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a neuron-specific activator of CDK5 kinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here we describe our current understanding of the organization of the IL-4 receptor, of the signaling pathways that are induced as a result of receptor occupancy, and of the various mechanisms through which receptor function is modulated. (nih.gov)
  • The term "oncotarget" encompasses all molecules, pathways, cellular functions, cell types, and even tissues that can be viewed as targets relevant to cancer as well as other diseases. (oncotarget.com)
  • Among its related pathways are Calcium signaling pathway and DAG and IP3 signaling . (genecards.org)
  • As a largest known PLC protein, PLCε is involved in a variety of signaling pathways and controls different cellular properties. (jcancer.org)
  • Immunostimulatory RNAs (like double stranded RNAs) generated through deregulated RNA processing pathways along with RNA binding proteins (RBPs) of RNA helicase (RNA sensors) family are emerging as important components of immune response pathways during sterile inflammation. (intechopen.com)
  • Goutsouliak, V. and Rabkin, S.W. Angiotensin II-induced inositol phosphate generation is mediated through tyrosine kinase pathways in cardiomyocytes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Putative pathways for pathogen‐mediated, Ca 2+ ‐dependent activation of plant defence responses. (els.net)
  • Protein kinase CK2 has received a surge of attention in recent years due to the evidence of its overexpression in a variety of solid tumors and multiple myelomas as well as its participation in cell survival pathways. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Taken together, our results suggest that CpG-induced protection may be mediated by c-IAP-2 through the calcium-activated JNK pathway via what appeared to be TLR9-independent signaling pathways. (jimmunol.org)
  • A recurrent theme will be that the signaling pathways involved in innate defenses involve protein cassettes that play essential roles in other, seemingly unrelated developmental or physiological processes. (wormbook.org)
  • At least 4 pathways have been shown to be involved in innate immunity in C. elegans and an overlap has been found between the genes involved in pathogen defense and longevity. (wormbook.org)
  • The brain harbors a broad diversity of cell types, including astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia, glial progenitors, endothelial cells, and many different types of neurons that likely control translation through different signaling pathways. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These functional groups include scaffolding molecules, kinases and phosphatases, G proteins and their effectors, and adhesion proteins. (mcponline.org)
  • CaM kinase IV activates the transcription factor CREB, and expression of a dominant negative form of CREB blocks calcium- and CaM kinase IV-induced dendritic growth. (nih.gov)
  • Presumably, then PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 then activates Shc / SOS / H-Ras . (bio-rad.com)
  • H-Ras then activates v-raf-1 murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 ( c-Raf-1 ) / Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases 1 and 2 ( MEK1(MAP2K1) and MEK2(MAP2K2) )/ Mitogen activated protein kinase 1 ( ERK2(MAPK1) ) [ 1 ], [ 10 ]. (bio-rad.com)
  • ERK2(MAPK1) activates Tuberous sclerosis 2 ( Tuberin ) [ 12 ]/ Ras homolog enriched in brain ( RHEB2 )/ FK506 binding protein 12-rapamycin associated protein 1 ( mTOR ) / Ribosomal protein S6 kinase 70kDa polypeptide 1 and 2 ( p70 S6 kinase1 and p70 S6 kinase2 )/ Eukaryotic elongation factor-2 kinase ( eEF2K )/ Eukaryotic translation elongation factor 2 ( eEF2 ). (bio-rad.com)
  • 2 , 3 Toll/IL-1 receptor-domain-containing adaptor protein inducing IFN-β (TRIF) has been found to induce the expression of type I IFN in response to TLR4 and TLR3 ligands, which associates with TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) and activates downstream IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3). (ashpublications.org)
  • Arachidonic acid activates mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase-activated protein kinase 2 and mediates adhesion of a human breast carcinoma cell line to collagen type IV through a p38 MAP kinase-dependent pathway. (wikipathways.org)
  • Shc protein allows the interaction of TrkA with the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain of Grb2, which subsequently activates Ras through the Ras GTP exchange factor (GEF) Sos ( 25 , 61 , 62 , 77 , 90 , 93 ). (asm.org)
  • Lastly, the planar cell polarity pathway in Drosphila is mediated by Frizzled, which activates Rac, Rho, c-Jun NH 2 -terminal kinase (JNK), and Rho-associated kinase. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We demonstrate that nuclear calcineurin was able to act as a nuclear Ca 2+ sensor detecting local Ca 2+ release from the nuclear envelope via IP 3 R. Nuclear calcineurin mutants defective for Ca 2+ binding failed to activate NFAT-dependent transcription. (springer.com)
  • Nuclei, isolated from ventricular myocytes of mice after chronic Ang II treatment, showed an elevation of IP 3 R2 expression which was dependent on calcineurin/NFAT signaling and persisted for 3 weeks after removal of the Ang II stimulus. (springer.com)
  • IP 3 R2 expression is directly dependent on calcineurin/NFAT. (springer.com)
  • Zhu J, McKeon F (1999) NF-AT activation requires suppression of Crm1-dependent export by calcineurin. (springer.com)
  • To date, three classes of calcium sensors have been characterized in plants: calmodulin (CaM) and CaM-like protein (CaML), calcineurin B-like protein (CBL), and calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs). (frontiersin.org)
  • They observed that targeting the Ca 2+ -binding protein parvalbumin to the nucleus significantly reduced cell proliferation and altered the proportions of cells that were in the S and G 2 -M phases of the cell cycle. (biologists.org)
  • In some cell types (nonmuscle cells), it is generally accepted that the outer nuclear membrane and ER have similar characteristics and outer nuclear membrane is continuous with ER membrane including SERCA, whereas the inner nuclear membrane is quite different from the outer nuclear membrane. (ahajournals.org)
  • This CD3-mediated activation involved phosphorylation since the immunoprecipitated CaM-kinase IV from stimulated Jurkat cells could be subsequently inactivated in vitro by protein phosphatase 2A. (elsevier.com)
  • CaM-kinase IV immunoprecipitated from unstimulated Jurkat cells or CD3-negative mutant Jurkat cells could be activated in vitro 10-40-fold by CaM-kinase kinase purified from rat brain or thymus, whereas CaM-kinase IV from CDS-stimulated wild-type Jurkat cells was only activated to 2-3-fold by exogenous CaM-kinase kinase. (elsevier.com)
  • These data are consistent with a CaM-kinase cascade in which CaM-kinase IV is activated by a CaM-kinase kinase cascade triggered by elevated intracellular calcium in Jurkat cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Here, we demonstrated that exogenously expressed wild-type human tau40 was detectable in the phosphorylated form at multiple AD-associated sites in cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions from HEK293 cells. (bvsalud.org)
  • Six pituitary-specific cell types were identified based on known marker genes and characterized: folliculostellate cells and hormone-producing corticotrophs, gonadotrophs, thyrotrophs, somatotrophs, and lactotrophs. (frontiersin.org)
  • This survey highlights many novel genetic markers contributing to pituitary cell type identity, sexual dimorphism, and function, and points to relationships between hormone-producing and folliculostellate cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Furthermore, Rathke's pouch is mainly composed of progenitor cells expressing Sox2 and Sox3 , which are essential for progenitor proliferation and development of all major anterior pituitary cell types downstream of Lhx3 / Lhx4 ( 5 - 7 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The expression of Tbx19 in a fraction of these cells leads to generation of two cell types producing proopiomelanocortin (POMC): corticotrophs (C)-secreting adrenocorticotropin, and melanotrophs-secreting melanocyte-stimulating hormone ( 9 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Finally, from a fraction of cells expressing Pou1f1 are derived three cell types: thyrotrophs (T)-secreting thyroid-stimulating hormone, somatotrophs (S)-secreting growth hormone, and lactotrophs (L)-secreting prolactin ( 11 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • These cell types, known as endocrine, secretory, or hormone-producing cells (HPC), release hormones predominantly through regulated exocytosis. (frontiersin.org)
  • The type II cGMP dependent protein kinase regulates GluA1 levels at the plasma membrane of developing cerebellar granule cells. (abcam.com)
  • Culturing the expressing cells at reduced temperatures or in the presence of chemical agents directed at ameliorating protein misfolding resulted in partial rescue of trafficking defects observed for M105T and C204Y mutants. (arvojournals.org)
  • In class-I large-type Kenyon cells and class-I small-type Kenyon cells, the somata are localized at the edges and in the inner core of the mushroom body calyces, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Detailed expression analyses of mKast led to the discovery of novel 'middle-type' Kenyon cells characterized by their preferential mKast -expression in the mushroom bodies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The somata of the middle-type Kenyon cells are localized between the large- and small-type Kenyon cells, and the size of the middle-type Kenyon cell somata is intermediate between that of large- and small-type Kenyon cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Middle-type Kenyon cells appear to differentiate from the large- and/or small-type Kenyon cell lineage(s). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our findings indicate that honeybee mushroom bodies in fact comprise four types of Kenyon cells with different molecular and cellular characteristics: the previously known class-I large- and small-type Kenyon cells, class-II Kenyon cells, and the newly identified middle-type Kenyon cells described in this review. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As the cellular characteristics of the middle-type Kenyon cells are distinct from those of the large- and small-type Kenyon cells, their careful discrimination will be required in future studies of honeybee Kenyon cell subtypes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • lKC and sKC, large- and small-type Kenyon cells, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Using HIV-viral protein R (Vpr)(52-96) peptide as a model apoptosis-inducing agent, we demonstrated that unlike monocyte-derived macrophages, undifferentiated primary human monocytes and promonocytic THP-1 cells are highly susceptible to Vpr(52-96)-induced apoptosis. (jimmunol.org)
  • However, we and others have shown that monocytic cells from HIV-infected patients and HIV-negative individuals when infected in vitro can undergo apoptosis ( 4 , 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Cis-eQTLs are largely specific to cell type or stimulation, and 31% and 52% of genes with cis-eQTLs have response eQTLs (reQTLs) in myeloid cells and T cells, respectively. (bvsalud.org)
  • Multiple Trp isoforms implicated in capacitative calcium entry are expressed in human pregnant myometrium and myometrial cells. (wikipathways.org)
  • Schroder,M, Friedl,P: Overexpression of recombinant human antithrombin III in Chinese hamster ovary cells results in malformation and decreased secretion of recombinant protein. (amazonaws.com)
  • receptor associated with a calcium conductance channel in the sarcoplasmic or endoplasmic reticulum of cells, which when bound to ryanodine, causes the channel to remain in a subconductive state, allowing slow continuing release of calcium ions from the sarcoplasmic reticulum into the cytoplasm. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • B) After cells treated with 6 μg/mL cisplatin for 0 h, 8 h and 16 h, cytosolic Ca 2+ levels was detected by Fluo-4/AM (bar, 20 μm). (aginganddisease.org)
  • In this report, we analyzed the relationship of calcium to the activation of the Ras/extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway in PC12 cells. (asm.org)
  • We previously reported that HDL and its major apolipoprotein, apolipoprotein AI (apoAI), activate the key metabolic regulatory enzyme AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in endothelial cells and are critical for the nitric oxide-mediated vasodilatory effects of HDL. (ahajournals.org)
  • Calcium is one of several intracellular signal transducers utilized by eukaryotic cells as part of their integrated responses to external stimuli. (springer.com)
  • 1982). One of these calcium modulated proteins that has been found in all eukaryotic cells examined is calmodulin. (springer.com)
  • It is thought that the Wnt proteins showing the high transforming activity in C57MG cells activate the β-catenin pathway. (aacrjournals.org)
  • p-RNAPII S2 was relatively low at the promoters of ANP, β-MHC and GATA-4 in both siCtr- and si14-3-3-transfected cells (Figure 6C). (nih.gov)
  • p-RNAPII S2 increased at ANP, β-MHC and GATA-4 exonic regions in cells with normal expression of 14-3-3, but not in cells with reduced 14-3-3 levels (Figure 6C). (nih.gov)
  • The encoded protein has 926 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 105,123 Daltons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Small GTP-binding proteins (G proteins) are monomeric G proteins with a low molecular weight of 20 to 40 kDa. (ahajournals.org)
  • A small G protein acts as a molecular switch that cycles between inactive GDP-bound and active GTP-bound forms. (ahajournals.org)
  • Bidasee, "Malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal adducts are not formed on cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) and sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum [Ca.sup.2+]-ATPase (SERCA2) in diabetes," Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This paper provides a molecular framework for the discussion of cyclic nucleotide function in plants, and resolves a longstanding debate about the presence of a cyclic nucleotide dependent kinase in plants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this review, we attempt to give a condensed overview of the molecular aspects of intracellular calcium homeostasis, with special emphasis on the structural and molecular aspects of the ER (main intracellular Ca 2+ stores), mitochondria (possessors of a series of complex systems for the influx/efflux of Ca 2+ ) and MAMs (covering important roles in various cellular 'housekeeping' functions, including Ca 2+ signalling) (Figure 1 ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The extracellular receptor stimulated kinase ERK2 (p42(MAPK))-phosphorylated human cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase PDE4D3 at Ser579 and profoundly reduced ( approximately 75%) its activity. (hw.ac.uk)
  • The majority of the elevated proteins were muscle centric followed by cell adhesion, extracellular matrix proteins and a few pro-inflammatory proteins. (nature.com)
  • GC mostly decreased the concentrations of several circulating pro-inflammatory and immune associated proteins as well as a large number of cell adhesion proteins, extracellular remodeling proteins and proteins associated with metabolism, but did not correct the concentrations of muscle injury biomarkers. (nature.com)
  • Ras mediates its effect on cell proliferation mainly by activation of its effector Raf to initiate the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK/extracellular signal regulated kinase [ERK]) cascade. (ahajournals.org)
  • We observed that calcium and calmodulin are both necessary for the acute activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases after TrkA stimulation. (asm.org)
  • Among these proteins, the adapter protein Shc and phospholipase Cγ have been involved in the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) ( 96 ). (asm.org)
  • Elevation in intracellular Ca 2+ concentration is dependent either on Ca 2+ influx from the extracellular space through the plasma membrane, or on Ca 2+ release from intracellular Ca 2+ stores, such as the endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum (ER/SR). Mitochondria are also major components of calcium signalling, capable of modulating both the amplitude and the spatio-temporal patterns of Ca 2+ signals. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We analyzed the elements of the pathway that lead to this activation, and we observed that calmodulin antagonists completely block the initial Raf-1 activation without affecting the function of upstream elements, such as Ras, Grb2, Shc, and Trk. (asm.org)
  • In the nucleus, phosphorylates the MEF2 repressor HDAC4, promoting its nuclear export and binding to 14-3-3 protein, and expression of MEF2 and genes involved in the hypertrophic program. (mybiosource.com)
  • The embryonic development of anterior and intermediate lobes is initiated by formation of a rudimentary Rathke's pouch, followed by development of a definitive pouch, which is critically dependent on expression of LIM homeobox genes Lhx3 and Lhx4 ( 1 , 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • According to blast screening and functional annotation, 20.2% and 20.9% of genes were related to metabolism proteins, 9% and 3.6% to transporters and channels, 16% and 6.3% to transcription factors, 19% and 17.2% to hypothetical proteins, and finally 24.1 and 17.2% to unknown genes, from the down- and up-regulated libraries, respectively. (mdpi.com)
  • We demonstrate that insulin resistance and DM associate with reduced expression of multiple nuclear respiratory factor-1 ( NRF-1 )-dependent genes encoding key enzymes in oxidative metabolism and mitochondrial function. (pnas.org)
  • Decreased PGC1 expression may be responsible for decreased expression of NRF-dependent genes, leading to the metabolic disturbances characteristic of insulin resistance and DM. (pnas.org)
  • We used high-density oligonucleotide arrays to identify genes differentially expressed in skeletal muscle from nondiabetic and type 2 diabetic subjects. (pnas.org)
  • We demonstrate that prediabetic and diabetic muscle is characterized by decreased expression of oxidative phosphorylation genes, many of which are regulated by nuclear respiratory factor (NRF)-dependent transcription. (pnas.org)
  • Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy is genetically heterogeneous and can be inherited in a dominant manner via frizzled family receptor 4 ( FZD4 ), low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 ( LRP5 ), or tetraspanin 12 ( TSPAN12 ) genes. (arvojournals.org)
  • a ) Domain arrangement of classical CASK and alternative CASK proteins produced by Drosophila and Caenorhabditis CASK genes. (springer.com)
  • In the case of bacterial pathogens that colonize the gut, the induced genes include those encoding antimicrobial peptides and proteins, (e.g., certain caenacins and lysozymes, respectively). (wormbook.org)
  • However, assigning causal genes and mechanisms has been more challenging because disease-associated variants are often found in distal regulatory regions with cell-type specific behaviours. (bvsalud.org)
  • Machine learning algorithms were trained on transcriptomic data and recursive feature elimination was used to determine which genes were most useful for classifying muscle biopsies into each type and MSA-defined subtype of myositis. (bvsalud.org)
  • Recursive feature elimination identified genes that are most useful to the machine learning algorithm and that are only overexpressed in one type of myositis. (bvsalud.org)
  • 14-3-3 recruitment to chromatin is important for transcriptional elongation of GATA-4 and of fetal cardiac genes. (nih.gov)
  • Therefore, we assessed p-RNAPII S2 at the promoter and exonic region of fetal cardiac genes and of GATA-4 in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes transfected with control siRNA (siCT) or siRNA against 14-3-3 (si14-3-3) after stimulation with the hypertrophic agonist phenylephrine (Figure 6B). (nih.gov)
  • 1998 ) reported that activation of the Ras/MAPK by norepinephrine, angiotensin II, and EGF is dependent on the formation of 20-HETE, which is generated after activation of phospholipase A 2 by calcium/calmodulin protein kinase II. (aspetjournals.org)
  • PLCε homologue in C. elegans , PLC210 protein was first discovered in 1998 by Kataoka and coworkers by using a yeast two-hybrid system with Ras homologous protein LET-60 as the bait [ 3 ]. (jcancer.org)
  • 1998). "Components of a calmodulin-dependent protein kinase cascade. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inactivated by protein phosphatase 2A (PPP2CA/PPP2CB) which dephosphorylates Thr-200, thereby terminating autonomous activity and helping to maintain the enzyme in its autoinhibited state. (antibodyplus.com)
  • Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase belonging to a proposed calcium-triggered signaling cascade. (abcam.com)
  • Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase that operates in the calcium-triggered CaMKK-CaMK4 signaling cascade and regulates, mainly by phosphorylation, the activity of several transcription activators, such as CREB1, MEF2D, JUN and RORA, which play pivotal roles in immune response, inflammation, and memory consolidation. (genecards.org)
  • The best-characterized effector of Ras is Raf, a MAPK kinase kinase, in the MAPK/ERK cascade. (ahajournals.org)
  • Measurements of nuclear and cytosolic Ca 2+ transients in IP 3 sponge mice showed no increase of Ca 2+ levels during diastole as we detected in wild-type mice. (springer.com)
  • To investigate the renoprotective effects of DBM in type 2 diabetes, we administered DBM (100 mg/kg) orally for 12 weeks to high-fat diet-induced diabetic model mice. (bioscientifica.com)
  • Characterization of the CASK knockout mice, discovery of CASK as a specialized protein kinase, and its association with secondary microcephaly and pontocerebellar hypoplasia have revitalized interest in this enigmatic signaling molecule. (springer.com)
  • Shibata, "Mutant mice lacking ryanodine receptor type 3 exhibit deficits of contextual fear conditioning and activation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in the hippocampus," Brain Research. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • CK2 (formerly Casein Kinase 2) is a heterotetrameric kinase consisting of two catalytic (α or α′) and two regulatory β subunits. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We hypothesized that HDL modulates glucose metabolism via elevation of plasma insulin and through activation of the key metabolic regulatory enzyme, AMP-activated protein kinase, in skeletal muscle. (ahajournals.org)
  • These experiments indicate that calcium-induced dendritic growth is regulated by activation of a transcriptional program that involves CaM kinase IV and CREB-mediated signaling to the nucleus. (nih.gov)
  • We show that phosphomimetic mutation of Thr 149 (T149D) dramatically increases AP-1 transcriptional activity while alanine mutation does not affect transcriptional activity when compared with wild-type (WT) ΔFosB. (jneurosci.org)
  • We report that CaM kinase IV and CREB play a critical role in mediating calcium-induced dendritic growth in cortical neurons. (nih.gov)
  • In neurons, plays an essential structural role in the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton during plasticity by binding and bundling actin filaments in a kinase-independent manner. (rcsb.org)
  • Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type IV (CaMKIV) inhibits apoptosis induced by potassium deprivation in cerebellar granule neurons. (semanticscholar.org)
  • a) Schematic diagram of two pyramidal‐like neurons forming a type 1 glutamatergic synapse. (els.net)
  • Axons typically form synapses en passant (in passage) with dendritic segments from many neurons. (els.net)
  • Calcium-evoked dendritic exocytosis in cultured hippocampal neurons. (cshl.edu)
  • The altered neuronal activity caused by these two drugs is accompanied by changes in intracellular calcium concentrations and Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein (CaM) kinase II activity in dopamine neurons. (elsevier.com)
  • Once activated, TrkA also allows for a rapid and moderate increase in intracellular calcium levels, which would contribute to the effects triggered by nerve growth factor in neurons. (asm.org)
  • Objective: Calcium overloading is responsible for initiating the cell death in neuronal tissue after hypoxic injury. (elsevier.com)
  • Through diverse cAMP- and Ca2+-dependent and - independent mechanisms, DA influences neuronal activity, synaptic plasticity, and behavior. (genome.jp)
  • Sustained changes in neuronal activity caused by tetrodotoxin and 4-aminopyridine altered the dopamine uptake and abundance of dopamine transporter and its mRNA in rat mesencephalic cultures. (elsevier.com)
  • These data suggest that neuronal activity can regulate dopamine transporter function and abundance via calcium/CaM kinase II signaling. (elsevier.com)
  • Aβ promotes the modification and aggregation of the microtubule-associated protein tau, which is associated with neuronal toxicity and impaired cognition in various neurodegenerative disorders. (sciencemag.org)
  • Although importance of PLC enzymes for key cellular functions is well established, the PLC proteins belonging to the ε, ζ and η subfamilies were identified and characterized only during the last decade. (jcancer.org)
  • Brain plasticity and remodeling of AMPA receptor properties by calcium-dependent enzymes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Once phosphorylated, TrkA becomes a scaffolding structure that recruits several adapter proteins and enzymes that ultimately propagate the NGF signal. (asm.org)
  • Some transsynaptic molecules, such as neuroligin and neurexin, are crucial in bidirectional signaling and the recruitment of both pre- and postsynaptic proteins to new synapses [ 15 , 16 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The postsynaptic density (PSD) signaling machinery contains proteins with diverse functions. (mcponline.org)
  • We have developed mass spectrometry-based methods to comprehensively compare both relative protein expression and phosphorylation status from proteins present in biochemical preparations of postsynaptic density. (mcponline.org)
  • The PDZ motif within CFTR that is recognized by PDZ scaffold proteins is the last four amino acids at the C terminus ( i.e. , 1477-DTRL-1480 in human CFTR) 20 . (jove.com)
  • Isoeugenol also increased the phosphorylation of protein kinase C-α (PKCα). (bioscientifica.com)
  • CD45 negatively regulates monocytic cell differentiation by inhibiting phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-dependent activation and tyrosine phosphorylation of protein kinase Cdelta. (wikipathways.org)
  • A unique phosphorylation-dependent mechanism for the activation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type IV/GR". J. Biol. (wikipedia.org)
  • MKK4 is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase group of dual specificity protein kinases that functions as an activator of the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) in vitro. (umassmed.edu)
  • L-type Ca2+-channel activator with positive inotropic, vasoconstrictive and behavioral effects in vivo. (axonmedchem.com)
  • Furthermore, expression of peroxisomal proliferator activator receptor γ coactivator ( PGC1 )α and -β ( PPARGC1 and PERC ), coactivators of both PPARG and NRF-dependent transcription, is significantly reduced in both prediabetic and diabetic subjects. (pnas.org)
  • Several other modulators of the AKT pathway are also substrates of CK2, making this kinase, clearly, an influential activator of the survival pathway. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This protein and neuron-specific CDK5 activator CDK5R1/p39NCK5A both share limited similarity to cyclins, and thus may define a distinct family of cyclin-dependent kinase activating proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • [email protected]#To evaluate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms of calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase 4 (CAMK4) and the therapeutic effect of amlodipine in essential hypertensive patients in Chinese Han nationality. (bvsalud.org)
  • Binding of calmodulin is thought to result in a conformational change and leads to activation through phosphorylation by CAMKK1 (By similarity). (uniprot.org)
  • The limitation of targeting VEGF/VEGFR2 signalling to stop angiogenesis in cancer therapy has been blamed on re-activation of alternative receptor tyrosine kinases by compensatory angiogenic factors. (oncotarget.com)
  • CaM-kinase IV activation was triggered by Ca 2+ acting through calmodulin since activation could also be elicited by ionomycin treatment, and CD3-mediated activation was blocked by the calmodulin antagonist calmidazolium. (elsevier.com)
  • Park, IK & Soderling, TR 1995, ' Activation of Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM-kinase) IV by CaM-kinase kinase in Jurkat T lymphocytes ', Journal of Biological Chemistry , vol. 270, no. 51, pp. 30464-30469. (elsevier.com)
  • This leads to the activation of protein kinase C and D and subsequent downstream signaling: PKC induces phosphorylation of multiple transcription factors and along with DAG takes part in Ca2+ signaling (Figure 1 ). (jcancer.org)
  • A Protein Scaffold Coordinates SRC-Mediated JNK Activation in Response to Metabolic Stress. (harvard.edu)
  • 1995). "Phosphorylation and activation of Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV by Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase Ia kinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stretch of the vascular wall is an important stimulus to maintain smooth muscle contractile differentiation that is known to depend on L-type calcium influx, Rho-activation, and actin polymerization. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • CK2 also phosphorylates and inactivates the lipid phosphatase PTEN which, by dephosphorylating phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3), reverses the activation of the AKT pathway [ 8 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We also show that CpG induced JNK phosphorylation through activation of the calcium signaling pathway. (jimmunol.org)
  • Prototypically, the growth factor receptor on activation recruits a Ras guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), Sos, via adaptor proteins Shc and Grb2. (ahajournals.org)
  • Binding of calmodulin results in conformational change that relieves intrasteric autoinhibition and allows phosphorylation of Thr-200 within the activation loop by CaMKK1 or CaMKK2. (antibodyplus.com)
  • Calmodulin seems to regulate the full activation of Raf-1 after Ras activation, since functional Ras is necessary for Raf-1 activation after nerve growth factor stimulation and calmodulin-Sepharose is able to precipitate Raf-1 in a calcium-dependent manner. (asm.org)
  • Acetyl-CoA carboxylase β phosphorylation in skeletal muscle biopsies was increased by 1.7±0.3-fold after rHDL, indicating activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase pathway. (ahajournals.org)
  • The mechanism is demonstrated to include stimulation of the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 with subsequent activation of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase and the AMP-activated protein kinase pathway. (ahajournals.org)
  • Although abnormal activation of β-catenin-dependent pathway is often observed in human cancer, the relationship between β-catenin-independent pathway and tumorigenesis is not clear. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Ferric Chelate Reductase 1 Like Protein (FRRS1L) Associates with Dynein Vesicles and Regulates Glutamatergic Synaptic Transmission. (abcam.com)
  • CONCLUSION: Glucose availability regulates NNMT expression via an mTOR-dependent mechanism. (bvsalud.org)
  • In this protocol, we focus only on the methods that aid in the study of the interactions between CFTR carboxyl terminal tail, which possesses a protein-binding motif [referred to as PSD95/Dlg1/ZO-1 (PDZ) motif], and a group of scaffold proteins, which contain a specific binding module referred to as PDZ domains. (jove.com)
  • So far, several different PDZ scaffold proteins have been reported to bind to the carboxyl terminal tail of CFTR with various affinities, such as NHERF1, NHERF2, PDZK1, PDZK2, CAL (CFTR-associated ligand), Shank2, and GRASP 20-27 . (jove.com)
  • 1 Electrical depolarization of the cell membrane opens L-type Ca 2+ channels, causing Ca 2+ influx. (ahajournals.org)
  • The presynaptic bouton is responsible for packaging neurotransmitters into synaptic vesicles, then releasing their contents into the synaptic cleft in response to calcium influx. (els.net)
  • Calcium signals are generated through the coordinated action of calcium influx channels and calcium efflux transporters. (els.net)
  • On the other hand, acute stretch-sensitive growth signaling, which is independent of influx through L-type calcium channels, was not affected by Dicer KO. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Gao L et al (2006) Biochem Biophys Res Commun 345(4) : 1606-10. (hellobio.com)
  • 0.05 for both) in primary human skeletal muscle cell cultures established from patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (n=5). (ahajournals.org)
  • Conclusions- rHDL reduced plasma glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus by increasing plasma insulin and activating AMP-activated protein kinase in skeletal muscle. (ahajournals.org)
  • Protein arginine N-methyltransferase 3 (PRMT3) is a cytoplasmic enzyme that utilizes S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet) to methylate specific proteins, most of which contain GAR (glycine-arginine rich) motifs. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. (harvard.edu)
  • This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. (harvard.edu)
  • This structural function is required for correct targeting of CaMK2A, which acts downstream of NMDAR to promote dendritic spine and synapse formation and maintain synaptic plasticity which enables long-term potentiation (LTP) and hippocampus-dependent learning. (rcsb.org)
  • A large network of calcium‐binding proteins act as calcium sensors and relay calcium signals to downstream effector proteins. (els.net)
  • Multiple downstream effectors of small G proteins, some of them being protein kinases, have been identified. (ahajournals.org)
  • Wnt-5a activated focal adhesion kinase and small GTP-binding protein Rac, both of which are known to play a role in cell migration. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The majority of decreased proteins were of cell adhesion, however, some had to do with cell differentiation and growth factors. (nature.com)
  • In this study, we examined the effects of liraglutide versus metformin on non-esterified free fatty acids, beta-cell insulin secretion, and adhesion molecule levels in patients with recent-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ca 2+ enters the cell via the L-type Ca 2+ current, and the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) releases Ca 2+ via the ryanodine receptor (RyR) to increase the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca 2+ ]i) and thus activate cardiac contraction. (hindawi.com)
  • Further studies using site-specific mutagenesis and pharmacological treatment demonstrated that phosphorylation of tau at Thr205 increased nuclear Ca concentration with a simultaneous increase in the phosphorylation of Ca/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV) at Ser196. (bvsalud.org)
  • It blocks CNG channels in a voltage-dependent manner at micromolar concentration ( Haynes, 1992 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • For example, the occupancy of a cell surface receptor by a drug, hormone or a growth/differentiation factor often results, directly or indirectly, in a rise in the intracellular concentration of ionized calcium. (springer.com)
  • The Ser/Thr kinase domain is the catalytic domain with ATP binding site, which plays a central role for the function of CDPK. (frontiersin.org)
  • Proteomic analysis of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I and IV in vitro substrates reveals distinct catalytic preferences. (duke.edu)
  • MicroRNAs are essential for stretch-induced vascular smooth muscle contractile differentiation via microRNA (miR)-145-dependent expression of L-type calcium channels. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The d - cis -enantiomer of diltiazem that is used therapeutically as a blocker of the L-type calcium channel is much less effective than the l - cis -enantiomer in blocking CNG channels. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The channels are normally sensitive to calcium ions and not sensitive to inositol triphosphate. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Our analysis found that several ion channels and a class of thioesterases constitute the possible cyclic nucleotide binding proteins in plants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • G-proteins also activate Phospholipase C beta 1 ( PLC-beta1 ) [ 6 ]. (bio-rad.com)
  • synapses, LPA-induced melancholy depended on LPA1/Gi/o-protein/phospholipase C/myosin light string kinase cascade on the presynaptic site. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • PLCε protein has the biggest size among all PLC family members - 230 kDa and consists of several functional domains including core domain (consisting of EF, X and Y subdomains) which possesses an ability to hydrolyze PIP2, pleckstrin-homology PH and C2 domains, GTP-exchanging (CDC25-like) domain at the C-terminus and two Ras-associating domains at N-terminus [ 4 - 6 ]. (jcancer.org)
  • The approach is to search TIF1 in LISTA, go to the Homology database of LISTA on Protein level, and look up the resulting entries in EMBL after having filtered out all yeast entries. (bio.net)
  • These differences in substrate specificities emphasize the need to consider these protein kinases independently despite their close homology. (duke.edu)
  • This recombinant protein was biotinylated in vivo by AviTag-BirA technology, which method is BriA catalyzes amide linkage between the biotin and the specific lysine of the AviTag. (cusabio.com)
  • To validate this approach, one of the proteins labeled in this assay was identified by microsequencing as HSP25, purified as a recombinant protein, and examined as a substrate for both CaMKI and CaMKIV. (duke.edu)
  • Recent studies have demonstrated that infusions of recombinant and reconstituted HDL (rHDL) have modest effects on coronary plaque morphology and volume 10,11 and improve endothelial function in type 2 diabetes mellitus. (ahajournals.org)
  • 2000) Alteration of stimulus‐specific guard cell calcium oscillations and stomatal closing in Arabidopsis det3 mutant. (els.net)
  • Over the past 15 years or so, numerous studies have sought to characterise how nuclear calcium (Ca 2+ ) signals are generated and reversed, and to understand how events that occur in the nucleoplasm influence cellular Ca 2+ activity, and vice versa. (biologists.org)
  • IP3 stimulates Ca 2+ signaling and DAG acts through protein kinase C (PKC) leading to different cellular events, such as proliferation, growth and migration. (jcancer.org)
  • SBI-0206965 inhibits AMPK with 40-fold greater potency and markedly lower kinase promiscuity than compound C and inhibits cellular AMPK signaling. (edu.au)
  • Martinez,IM, Chrispeels,MJ: Genomic analysis of the unfolded protein response in Arabidopsis shows its connection to important cellular processes. (amazonaws.com)
  • This transient, localized rise in calcium sets off a discrete set of cellular responses. (springer.com)
  • Clarifying a possible role of calcium signaling and mechanisms involved may increase our understanding of how air pollution contributes to CVD. (springer.com)
  • 4 Although the mechanisms linking low HDL to atherosclerosis are well characterized, the links between low HDL and disordered energy metabolism remain relatively unexplored. (ahajournals.org)
  • Recent cell-based studies suggest that HDL may modulate plasma glucose through both insulin-dependent 5,6 and -independent mechanisms. (ahajournals.org)
  • In this regard, Ras and Rho G proteins are the most investigated molecules in the cardiovascular system. (ahajournals.org)
  • With an understanding of the protein domains which can bind cyclic nucleotides (CNB and GAF domains) we scanned the completed genomes of the higher plants Arabidopsis thaliana (mustard weed) and Oryza sativa (rice) for the effectors of these signalling molecules. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Wnt proteins are a large family of cysteine-rich secreted molecules ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Expressions of mRNA and protein levels of CaM, CaMKK, CaMKIV and tau were detected by qRT-PCR and Western blot assay, respectively. (bvsalud.org)
  • and the expressions of mRNA and protein levels of CaM, CaMKK, CaMKIV and tau were increased in AD model group. (bvsalud.org)
  • Genistein could significantly improve the cell survival rate, reduce the cell damage and apoptosis of AD cell model, and significantly down-regulate the expressions of mRNA and protein levels of CaM, CaMKK, CaMKIV and tau of AD cell model. (bvsalud.org)
  • Phospho-CaMKIV (T200) Polyclonal Antibody detects endogenous levels of CaMKIV protein only when phosphorylated at T200. (antibodyplus.com)
  • We identified a fragment of p300-(1-117) that is a substrate of both kinases, and through both mutagenesis and Edman phosphate ((32)P) release sequencing, established that CaMKI and CaMKIV phosphorylate completely different sites. (duke.edu)
  • CaM-kinase II (CAMK2) is a prominent kinase in the central nervous system that may function in long-term potentiation and neurotransmitter release. (uniprot.org)
  • Member of the NMDAR signaling complex in excitatory synapses it may regulate NMDAR-dependent potentiation of the AMPAR and synaptic plasticity. (uniprot.org)
  • Here we show that dopamine, a positive reinforcement signal, can retroactively convert hippocampal timing-dependent synaptic depression into potentiation. (elifesciences.org)
  • After 48 h of incubation, HET0016 reduced the proliferation of 9L in vitro by 55%, and this was associated with a fall in p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase and stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun NH 2 -terminal kinase phosphorylation and increased apoptosis. (aspetjournals.org)
  • To compare kinase substrate preferences more generally, we employed a proteomic display technique that allowed comparison of complex cell extracts phosphorylated by each kinase in a rapid in vitro assay, thereby demonstrating substrate preferences that overlapped but were clearly distinct. (duke.edu)