A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.
A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)
A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.
A cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed in SMOOTH MUSCLE tissues and plays a role in regulation of smooth muscle contraction. Two isoforms, PKGIalpha and PKGIbeta, of the type I protein kinase exist due to alternative splicing of its mRNA.
A cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed predominantly in INTESTINES, BRAIN, and KIDNEY. The protein is myristoylated on its N-terminus which may play a role its membrane localization.
A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that is primarily expressed in neuronal tissues; T-LYMPHOCYTES and TESTIS. The activity of this enzyme is regulated by its phosphorylation by CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase subtype primarily found in particulate subcellular fractions. They are tetrameric proteins that contain two catalytic subunits and two type II-specific regulatory subunits.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.
A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed in a broad variety of mammalian cell types. Its expression is regulated by the action of CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE. Several isoforms of this enzyme subtype are encoded by distinct genes.
Toluenes in which one hydrogen of the methyl group is substituted by an amino group. Permitted are any substituents on the benzene ring or the amino group.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A type I cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit that plays a role in confering CYCLIC AMP activation of protein kinase activity. It has a lower affinity for cAMP than the CYCLIC-AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE RIBETA SUBUNIT.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.
A cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase subtype primarily found in the CYTOPLASM. They are tetrameric proteins that contain two catalytic subunits and two type I-specific regulatory subunits.
Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A mitosporic Ophiostomataceae fungal genus, whose species Sporothrix schenckii is a well-known animal pathogen. The conidia of this soil fungus may be inhaled causing a primary lung infection, or may infect independently via skin punctures.
Proteins which bind calmodulin. They are found in many tissues and have a variety of functions including F-actin cross-linking properties, inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and calcium and magnesium ATPases.
A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
A species of ciliate protozoa. It is used in biomedical research.
A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
A specific protein kinase C inhibitor, which inhibits superoxide release from human neutrophils (PMN) stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate or synthetic diacylglycerol.
A phenothiazine with actions similar to CHLORPROMAZINE. It is used as an antipsychotic and an antiemetic.
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
An enzyme that phosphorylates myosin light chains in the presence of ATP to yield myosin-light chain phosphate and ADP, and requires calcium and CALMODULIN. The 20-kDa light chain is phosphorylated more rapidly than any other acceptor, but light chains from other myosins and myosin itself can act as acceptors. The enzyme plays a central role in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC
A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
A family of calcium/calmodulin-dependent PROETIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES. They are ubiquitously expressed in adult and embryonic mammalian tissues, and their functions are tightly related to the early stages of eukaryotic programmed cell death.
Specific enzyme subunits that form the active sites of the type I and type II cyclic-AMP protein kinases. Each molecule of enzyme contains two catalytic subunits.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The body of a fungus which is made up of HYPHAE.
A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.
A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.
A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
N-(N-(N(2)-(N-(N-(N-(N-D-Alanyl L-seryl)-L-threonyl)-L-threonyl) L-threonyl)-L-asparaginyl)-L-tyrosyl) L-threonine. Octapeptide sharing sequence homology with HIV envelope protein gp120. It is potentially useful as antiviral agent in AIDS therapy. The core pentapeptide sequence, TTNYT, consisting of amino acids 4-8 in peptide T, is the HIV envelope sequence required for attachment to the CD4 receptor.
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
An aspect of protein kinase (EC in which serine residues in protamines and histones are phosphorylated in the presence of ATP.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.
A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
A protein kinase C subtype that was originally characterized as a CALCIUM-independent, serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHORBOL ESTERS and DIACYLGLYCEROLS. It is targeted to specific cellular compartments in response to extracellular signals that activate G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS; TYROSINE KINASE RECEPTORS; and intracellular protein tyrosine kinase.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
PKC beta encodes two proteins (PKCB1 and PKCBII) generated by alternative splicing of C-terminal exons. It is widely distributed with wide-ranging roles in processes such as B-cell receptor regulation, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation, insulin signaling, and endothelial cell proliferation.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidylinositol (PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS) to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, the first committed step in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.

Modulation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II activity by acute and chronic morphine administration in rat hippocampus: differential regulation of alpha and beta isoforms. (1/1822)

Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II) has been shown to be involved in the regulation of opioid receptor signaling. The present study showed that acute morphine treatment significantly increased both Ca2+/calmodulin-independent and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent activities of CaMK II in the rat hippocampus, with little alteration in the protein level of either alpha or beta isoform of CaMK II. However, chronic morphine treatment, by which rats were observed to develop apparent tolerance to morphine, significantly down-regulated both Ca2+/calmodulin-independent and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent activities of CaMK II and differentially regulated the expression of alpha and beta isoforms of CaMK II at protein and mRNA levels. Application of naloxone or discontinuation of morphine treatment after chronic morphine administration, which induced the withdrawal syndrome of morphine, resulted in the overshoot of CaMK II (at both protein and mRNA levels) and its kinase activity. The phenomena of overshoot were mainly observed in the beta isoform of CaMK II but not in the alpha isoform. The effects of both acute and chronic morphine treatments on CaMK II could be completely abolished by the concomitant application of naloxone, indicating that the effects of morphine were achieved through activation of opioid receptors. Our data demonstrated that both acute and chronic morphine treatments could effectively modulate the activity and the expression of CaMK II in the hippocampus.  (+info)

Muscarinic stimulation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in isolated rat pancreatic acini. (2/1822)

AIM: To study whether M3 receptor occupation would lead to activation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaM kinase II). METHODS: In this study, we isolated rat pancreatic acini by collagenase digestion; measured the Ca2+/calmodulin-independent activity of autophosphorylated form of the CaM kinase II both before and after stimulation of the acini with muscarinic secretagogue bethanechol (Bet). RESULTS: Bet stimulated the activation of, or generation of Ca(2+)-independent activity of, this kinase, in a concentration (0.0001-1 mmol.L-1) and time (5-300 s)-dependent manner; with Bet of 100 mumol.L-1, Ca(2+)-independent activity increased from an unstimulated level of 4.5 +/- 0.3 (n = 4) to 8.9 +/- 1.3 (n = 4, P < 0.05) at 5 s. Another Ca2+ mobilizing secretagogue cholecystokinin (CCK) also activated the kinase; at 1 mumol.L-1, CCK increased Ca(2+)-independent kinase activity to 12.9 +/- 0.5 (n = 6, P < 0.05). Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) at 1 mumol.L-1 did not produce significant Ca(2+)-independent kinase activity (from control 3.90 +/- 0.28 to 4.53 +/- 0.47, n = 6, P > 0.05). Atropine completely blocked Bet activation of the kinase. CONCLUSION: CaM kinase II plays a pivotal role in digestive enzyme secretion, especially during the initial phase of amylase secretion.  (+info)

Calcium/calmodulin-dependent phosphorylation and activation of human Cdc25-C at the G2/M phase transition in HeLa cells. (3/1822)

The human tyrosine phosphatase (p54(cdc25-c)) is activated by phosphorylation at mitosis entry. The phosphorylated p54(cdc25-c) in turn activates the p34-cyclin B protein kinase and triggers mitosis. Although the active p34-cyclin B protein kinase can itself phosphorylate and activate p54(cdc25-c), we have investigated the possibility that other kinases may initially trigger the phosphorylation and activation of p54(cdc25-c). We have examined the effects of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase II) on p54(cdc25-c). Our in vitro experiments show that CaM kinase II can phosphorylate p54(cdc25-c) and increase its phosphatase activity by 2.5-3-fold. Treatment of a synchronous population of HeLa cells with KN-93 (a water-soluble inhibitor of CaM kinase II) or the microinjection of AC3-I (a specific peptide inhibitor of CaM kinase II) results in a cell cycle block in G2 phase. In the KN-93-arrested cells, p54(cdc25-c) is not phosphorylated, p34(cdc2) remains tyrosine phosphorylated, and there is no increase in histone H1 kinase activity. Our data suggest that a calcium-calmodulin-dependent step may be involved in the initial activation of p54(cdc25-c).  (+info)

Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II is associated with the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor. (4/1822)

The molecular basis of long-term potentiation (LTP), a long-lasting change in synaptic transmission, is of fundamental interest because of its implication in learning. Usually LTP depends on Ca2+ influx through postsynaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptors and subsequent activation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). For a molecular understanding of LTP it is crucial to know how CaMKII is localized to its postsynaptic targets because protein kinases often are targeted to their substrates by adapter proteins. Here we show that CaMKII directly binds to the NMDA receptor subunits NR1 and NR2B. Moreover, activation of CaMKIIalpha by stimulation of NMDA receptors in forebrain slices increase this association. This interaction places CaMKII not only proximal to a major source of Ca2+ influx but also close to alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA)-type glutamate receptors, which become phosphorylated upon stimulation of NMDA receptors in these forebrain slices. Identification of the postsynaptic adapter for CaMKII fills a critical gap in the understanding of LTP because CaMKII-mediated phosphorylation of AMPA receptors is an important step during LTP.  (+info)

Ca2+/calmodulin-kinase II enhances channel conductance of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate type glutamate receptors. (5/1822)

The ability of central glutamatergic synapses to change their strength in response to the intensity of synaptic input, which occurs, for example, in long-term potentiation (LTP), is thought to provide a cellular basis for memory formation and learning. LTP in the CA1 field of the hippocampus requires activation of Ca2+/calmodulin-kinase II (CaM-KII), which phosphorylates Ser-831 in the GluR1 subunit of the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate glutamate receptor (AMPA-R), and this activation/phosphorylation is thought to be a postsynaptic mechanism in LTP. In this study, we have identified a molecular mechanism by which CaM-KII potentiates AMPA-Rs. Coexpression in HEK-293 cells of activated CaM-KII with GluR1 did not affect the glutamate affinity of the receptor, the kinetics of desensitization and recovery, channel rectification, open probability, or gating. Single-channel recordings identified multiple conductance states for GluR1, and coexpression with CaM-KII or a mutation of Ser-831 to Asp increased the contribution of the higher conductance states. These results indicate that CaM-KII can mediate plasticity at glutamatergic synapses by increasing single-channel conductance of existing functional AMPA-Rs or by recruiting new high-conductance-state AMPA-Rs.  (+info)

Site-specific phosphorylation of synapsin I by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in pancreatic betaTC3 cells: synapsin I is not associated with insulin secretory granules. (6/1822)

Increasing evidence supports a physiological role of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaM kinase II) in the secretion of insulin from the pancreatic beta-cell, but the precise sites of action are not known. A role of this enzyme in neuroexocytosis is implicated by its phosphorylation of a vesicle-associated protein, synapsin I. Because of emerging similarities to the neuron with respect to exocytotic mechanisms, the expression and phosphorylation of synapsin I in the beta-cell have been studied. Synapsin I expression in clonal mouse beta-cells (betaTC3) and primary rat islet beta-cells was initially confirmed by immunoblot analysis. By immunoprecipitation, in situ phosphorylation of synapsin I was induced in permeabilized betaTC3 cells within a Ca2+ concentration range shown to activate endogenous CaM kinase II under identical conditions. Proteolytic digests of these immunoprecipitates revealed that calcium primarily induced the increased phosphorylation of sites identified as CaM kinase II-specific and distinct from protein kinase A-specific sites. Immunofluorescence and immunogold electron microscopy verified synapsin I expression in betaTC3 cells and pancreatic slices but demonstrated little if any colocalization of synapsin I with insulin-containing dense core granules. Thus, although this study establishes that synapsin I is a substrate for CaM kinase II in the pancreatic beta-cell, this event appears not to be important for the mobilization of insulin granules.  (+info)

Current studies on a working model of CaM kinase II in hippocampal long-term potentiation and memory. (7/1822)

There have been recent advances in understanding the molecular basis of the long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic transmission in the hippocampus. This review documents current views on mechanisms underlying LTP induction, from activation of the NMDA receptor to stimulation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaM kinase II). We will focus in particular on recent findings of how CaM kinase II encodes the frequency of synaptic usage and serves as a molecular memory switch at the synapse. Furthermore, a role for CaM kinase II in spatial learning and memory is demonstrated by recent studies using transgenic mice.  (+info)

Differential effects of a calcineurin inhibitor on glutamate-induced phosphorylation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. (8/1822)

Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CaM kinases) are major multifunctional enzymes that play important roles in calcium-mediated signal transduction. To characterize their regulatory mechanisms in neurons, we compared glutamate-induced phosphorylation of CaM kinase IV and CaM kinase II in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. We observed that dephosphorylation of these kinases followed different time courses, suggesting different regulatory mechanisms for each kinase. Okadaic acid, an inhibitor of protein phosphatase (PP) 1 and PP2A, increased the phosphorylation of both kinases. In contrast, cyclosporin A, an inhibitor of calcineurin, showed different effects: the phosphorylation and activity of CaM kinase IV were significantly increased with this inhibitor, but those of CaM kinase II were not significantly increased. Cyclosporin A treatment of neurons increased phosphorylation of Thr196 of CaM kinase IV, the activated form with CaM kinase kinase, which was recognized with an anti-phospho-Thr196 antibody. Moreover, recombinant CaM kinase IV was dephosphorylated and inactivated with calcineurin as well as with PP1, PP2A, and PP2C in vitro. These results suggest that CaM kinase IV, but not CaM kinase II, is directly regulated with calcineurin.  (+info)

Olomoucine is known as a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. We found that olomoucine blocked insulins ability to stimulate glucose transport. It did so without affecting the activity of known insulin signaling proteins. To identify the olomoucine-sensitive kinase(s), we prepared analogs that could be immobilized to an affinity resin to isolate binding proteins. One of the generated analogs inhibited insulin-stimulated glucose uptake with increased sensitivity compared with olomoucine. The IC50 for inhibition of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake occurred at analog concentrations as low as 0.1 μm. To identify proteins binding to the analog, [35S]-labeled cell lysates prepared from 3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated with analog chemically cross-linked to a resin support and binding proteins analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The major binding species was a doublet at 50-60 kDa, which was identified as calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) by N-terminal peptide analysis and confirmed by ...
Active calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) has been reported to take a critical role in the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP). Changes in CaMKII activity were detected in various ischemia models. It is tempting to know whether and how CaMKII takes a role in NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-mediated postischemic long-term potentiation (NMDA i-LTP). Here, we monitored changes in NMDAR-mediated field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (NMDA fEPSPs) at different time points following ischemia onset |i|in vitro|/i| oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) ischemia model. We found that 10 min OGD treatment induced significant i-LTP in NMDA fEPSPs, whereas shorter (3 min) or longer (25 min) OGD treatment failed to induce prominent NMDA i-LTP. CaMKII activity or CaMKII autophosphorylation displays a similar bifurcated trend at different time points following onset of ischemia both |i|in vitro|/i| OGD or |i|in vivo|/i| photothrombotic lesion (PT) models, suggesting a correlation
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mutational analysis of Ca2+-independent autophosphorylation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. AU - Mukherji, Sucheta. AU - Soderling, Thomas. PY - 1995/6/9. Y1 - 1995/6/9. N2 - Previous studies with synthetic peptides indicate that residues 290-309, corresponding to the calmodulin (CaM)-binding domain of Ca2+/CaM-dependent protein kinase II interact with the catalytic core of the enzyme as a pseudosubstrate (Colbran, R. J., Smith, M. K., Schworer, C. M., Fong, Y. L., and Soderling, T. R. (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264, 4800-4804). In the present study, we attempted to locate the pseudosubstrate motif by generation or removal of potential substrate recognition sequences (RXXS/T) at selected positions using site-directed mutagenesis. Based on previous results, Arg297, Thr305/306, and Ser314 were selected as key residues. Single mutations such as N294S, K300S, A302R, A309R, and R311A were expressed, purified, and characterized. Several of the mutants exhibited decreased ...
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIα (CamKIIα) may modulate the function of mu-opioid receptors by phosphorylation and therefore, be involved in development of morphine-induced analgesic tolerance.The current study aimed to examine changes in gene expression of CamKIIα in the lumbosacral cord and midbrain during induction of morphine analgesic tolerance.Male Wistar rats weighing 250 - 300 g were used. Two groups of rats (n = 6 per group) received saline (1 mL/kg) or morphine (10 mg/mL/kg) twice-daily for eight days, and induction of morphine analgesic tolerance was assessed using a hotplate test on days one, four and eight of the injections. The lumbosacral spinal cord and midbrain were also dissected in six independent groups (n = 4 per group) on days one, four and eight of saline or morphine injections to examine changes in gene expression of CamKIIα with a semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method.The result of the hotplate test showed that the
This study investigates the roles of hippocampal N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors and CaMKII (calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II) in amphetamine-produced conditioned place preference (AMPH-CPP) in rats. An earlier report showed that AMPH-CPP resulted in the enhancement of …
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II gamma subunit - CAMK2 family. Detailed annotation on the structure, function, physiology, pharmacology and clinical relevance of drug targets.
TY - JOUR. T1 - CaM Kinase II-dependent pathophysiological signalling in endothelial cells. AU - Cai, Hua. AU - Liu, Depei. AU - Garcia, Joe G.N.. N1 - Funding Information: The authors work are supported by National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Grants HL-077440 (H.L.C.), HL-081571 (H.L.C.), HL057244 (Pin-Lan Li and H.L.C.), an American Heart Association Grant 0435189N (H.L.C.), an American Diabetes Association Award 7-04-RA-16 (H.L.C.), and NHLBI PPG HL 58064 (J.G.N.G.).. PY - 2008/1. Y1 - 2008/1. N2 - Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaM Kinase II) is a known modulator of cardiac pathophysiology. The present review uniquely focuses on novel CaM Kinase II-mediated endothelial cell signalling which, under pathophysiological conditions, may indirectly modulate cardiac functions via alterations in endothelial or endocardial responses. CaM Kinase II has four different isoforms and various splicing variants for each isoform. The endothelial cell CaM Kinase II isoforms are ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification of a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II regulatory phosphorylation site in non-N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptors. AU - Yakel, Jerrel L.. AU - Vissavajjhala, Prabhakar. AU - Derkach, Victor A.. AU - Brickey, Debra A.. AU - Soderling, Thomas R.. PY - 1995/2/28. Y1 - 1995/2/28. N2 - Glutamate receptor ion channels are colocalized in postsynaptic densities with Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaM-kinase II), which can phosphorylate and strongly enhance non-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor current. In this study, CaM-kinase II enhanced kainate currents of expressed glutamate receptor 6 in 293 cells and of wild-type glutamate receptor 1, but not the Ser-627 to Ala mutant, in Xenopus oocytes. A synthetic peptide corresponding to residues 620-638 in GluR1 was phosphorylated in vitro by CaM-kinase II but not by cAMP-dependent protein kinase or protein kinase C. The 32P-labeled peptide map of this synthetic peptide appears to be the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II regulates Tiam1 by reversible protein phosphorylation. AU - Fleming, I N. AU - Elliott, C M. AU - Buchanan, F G. AU - Downes, C P. AU - Exton, J H. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. N2 - A number of guanine nucleotide exchange factors have been identified that activate Rho family GTPases, by promoting the binding of GTP to these proteins. We have recently demonstrated that lysophosphatidic acid and several other agonists stimulate phosphorylation of the Rac1-specific exchange factor Tiam1 in Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts, and that protein kinase C is involved in Tiam1 phosphorylation (Fleming, I. N., Elliott, C. M., Collard, J. G., and Exton, J. H. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 33105-33110). We now show, through manipulation of intracellular [Ca2+] and the use of protein kinase inhibitors, that both protein kinase Calpha and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II are involved in the phosphorylation of Tiam1 in vivo. Furthermore, we show that ...
article{dd19855c-025e-4a5e-9215-43f4f9e9a4a1, abstract = {The NMDA receptor complex represents a key molecular element in the pathogenesis of long-term synaptic changes and motor abnormalities in Parkinsons disease (PD). Here we show that NMDA receptor 1 (NR1) subunit and postsynaptic density (PSD)-95 protein levels are selectively reduced in the PSD of dopamine (DA)-denervated striata. These effects are accompanied by an increase in striatal levels of alphaCa(2+)-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (alphaCaMKII) autophosphorylation, along with a higher recruitment of activated alphaCaMKII to the regulatory NMDA receptor NR2A-NR2B subunits. Acute treatment of striatal slices with R(+)-7-chloro-8-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzaz epine hydrochloride, but not with L-sulpiride, mimicked the effect of DA denervation on both alphaCaMKII autophosphorylation and corticostriatal synaptic plasticity. In addition to normalizing alphaCaMKII autophosphorylation levels as well as ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Amphetamine activate protein kinase C and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase via NMDA receptor in primary cultures of rat cortical neurons. AU - Wu, Hsueh-Hsia. AU - Lee, Horng-Mo. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. M3 - Article. VL - 1. SP - 12. EP - 19. JO - New Taipei Journal of Medicine. JF - New Taipei Journal of Medicine. SN - 1562-4242. ER - ...
Authors Affiliations: 1Dipartimento di Medicina Molecolare e Biotecnologie Mediche, Istituto di Endocrinologia e Oncologia Sperimentale del CNR Naples; 2Department of Neuroscience, Reproductive and Odontostomatological Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, Naples; 3Department of Medicine-DIMED, Unit of Endocrinology, University of Padua, Padova; and 4Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Salerno, Salerno, ...
We investigated the effects of Wenxin Keli (WXKL) on the Calcium/Calmodulin dependent kinase II (CaMK II) signal transduction pathway with transverse aortic constriction (TAC) rats. Echocardiographic measurements were obtained 3 and 9 weeks after the surgery. Meanwhile, the action potentials (APDs) were recorded using the whole-cell patch clamp technique, and western blotting was used to assess components of the CaMK II signal transduction pathway. At both 3 and 9 weeks after treatment, the fractional shortening (FS%) increased in the WXKL group compared with the TAC group. The APD|sub|90|/sub| of the TAC group was longer than that of the Sham group and was markedly shortened by WXKL treatment. Western blotting results showed that the protein expressions of CaMK II, phospholamban (PLB), and ryanodine receptor 2 (RYR2) were not statistically significant among the different groups at both treatment time points. However, WXKL treatment decreased the protein level and phosphorylation of CaMK II (Thr
Secretoneurin, a Novel Endogenous CaMKII Inhibitor, Augments Cardiomyocyte Calcium Handling and Inhibits Arrhythmogenic Calcium ...
There are comments on PubPeer for publication: Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II promotes cell cycle progression by directly activating MEK1 and subsequently modulating p27 phosphorylation (2009)
Greiser and colleagues (10) also report that, consistent with previous studies, the remaining RyR2 clusters were hyperphosphorylated at the protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation site (Ser2808), which may compensate for the reduction in RyR2 protein expression and help sustain subsarcolemmal Ca2+ release despite reduced L-type Ca2+ currents (Figure 1B). However, RAP myocytes exhibited reduced RyR2 phosphorylation at the calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) phosphorylation site (Ser2815) and no changes in CaMKII activity. This finding contrasts with previous studies that reported increased atrial CaMKII activity and CaMKII-dependent RyR2-Ser2815 phosphorylation in human AF (5). Moreover, other studies have shown that treatment with CaMKII inhibitors or selective disruption of the Ser2815 CaMKII phosphorylation site prevented AF in animal models through a reduction of SR Ca2+ leak (12). One explanation for this discrepancy could be the limited duration of pacing in the rabbit model used ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Persistent reversal of enhanced amphetamine intake by transient CaMKII inhibition. AU - Loweth, Jessica A.. AU - Li, Dongdong. AU - Cortright, James J.. AU - Wilke, Georgia. AU - Jeyifous, Okunola. AU - Neve, Rachael L.. AU - Bayer, K. Ulrich. AU - Vezina, Paul. PY - 2013/1/23. Y1 - 2013/1/23. N2 - Amphetamine exposure transiently increases Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) α expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) shell and this persistently increases local GluA1 S831 phosphorylation and enhances behavioral responding to the drug. Here we assessed whether transiently interfering with CaMKII signaling using a dominant-negative CaMKIIα mutant delivered to the NAcc shell with herpes simplex viral vectors could reverse these long-lasting biochemical and behavioral effects observed following exposure to amphetamine. As expected, transient expression of CaMKIIα K42M in the NAcc shell produced a corresponding transient increase in CaMKIIα and decrease in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - β-Adrenergic induced SR Ca2 + leak is mediated by an Epac-NOS pathway. AU - Pereira, Laëtitia. AU - Bare, Dan J.. AU - Galice, Samuel. AU - Shannon, Thomas R.. AU - Bers, Donald M. PY - 2017/7/1. Y1 - 2017/7/1. N2 - Cardiac β-adrenergic receptors (β-AR) and Ca2 +-Calmodulin dependent protein kinase (CaMKII) regulate both physiological and pathophysiological Ca2 + signaling. Elevated diastolic Ca2 + leak from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) contributes to contractile dysfunction in heart failure and to arrhythmogenesis. β-AR activation is known to increase SR Ca2 + leak via CaMKII-dependent phosphorylation of the ryanodine receptor. Two independent and reportedly parallel pathways have been implicated in this β-AR-CaMKII cascade, one involving exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac2) and another involving nitric oxide synthase 1 (NOS1). Here we tested whether Epac and NOS function in a single series pathway to increase β-AR induced and CaMKII-dependent SR Ca2 + ...
Nuclear factor-kappa beta (NF-kβ) pro-inflammatory signalling is important in modulating endothelial dysfunction and may be important in vascular dysfunction associated with the ageing process. Recent studies in the heart have highlighted Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) as a novel regulator of NF-kβ signalling. However nothing is known of the role this interaction could play in regulating dysfunction of the vasculature during ageing. Here we (i) characterise NF-kβ signalling in vascular endothelial cells and examine the potential for CaMKII modulation and (ii) determine whether CaMKIIδ expression is altered in ageing.. Using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) as an in vitro model system, initial experiments have established that pro-inflammatory NF-kB signalling is activated in response to both tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) stimulation. This was shown by a significant reduction in IkBα expression (1.18 ± 0.16 vs. 0.48 ...
Three genes encoding different Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases have been characterized in the wheat phytopathogenic fungus Stagonospora nodorum. The kinases were identified from the S. nodorum genome sequence on the basis of sequence homology to known Ca2+/calmodulin- dependent protein kinases. Expression analysis determined that each of the kinases was expressed during growth in vitro and also during infection. The onset of sporulation triggered increased transcript levels of each of the kinases, particularly CpkA where an 11-fold increase in expression was observed during sporulation in planta. The role of the kinases was further determined via a reverse genetics approach. The disruption of CpkA affected vegetative growth in vitro and also sporulation. The cpkA strains produced 20-fold less spores on complex media and were unable to sporulate on defined minimal media. Infection assays showed that CpkA was not required for lesion development but was essential for sporulation at the ...
Rationale:: In the failing heart, persistent β-adrenergic receptor (βAR) activation is thought to induce myocyte death by protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent and PKA-independent activation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) β-Adrenergic signaling pathways are also capable of activating cardioprotective mechanisms. Objective: This study used a novel PKA inhibitor peptide (PKI) to inhibit PKA activity to test the hypothesis that βAR signaling causes cell death through PKA-dependent pathways and cardioprotection through PKA-independent pathways. Methods and Results: In PKI transgenic mice, chronic isoproterenol (ISO) failed to induce cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, myocyte apoptosis and depressed cardiac function. In cultured adult feline ventricular myocytes (AFVMs), PKA inhibition protected myocytes from death induced byβ1-AR agonists by preventing cytosolic and SR Ca2+ overload and CaMKII activation. PKA inhibition revealed a cardioprotective role of β-adrenergic signaling via ...
Studies over the past decade have demonstrated that SR Ca2+ release is abnormal in patients with chronic AF.2 Whereas the amplitude of the L-type Ca2+ current is generally decreased in AF, Ca2+ leak through RyR2 is typically elevated despite similar or decreased SR Ca2+ contents.2,5 It has been proposed that triggered activity due to DADs is caused by an inward depolarizing INCX current, which occurs in response to the removal of excess Ca2+ release from the cytosol.9,10 We provide direct experimental evidence for this mechanism in the FKBP12.6−/− mouse model of AF. Our data revealed that FKBP12.6−/− mice exhibit atrial focal activity and AF caused by SR Ca2+ leak, NCX activation, and DADs generation. Because recent studies revealed that CaMKII phosphorylation of RyR2 at S2814 is elevated in patients with chronic AF,4,5 we investigated whether inhibition of S2814 phosphorylation of RyR2 affected susceptibility of FKBP12.6−/− to AF. Our results demonstrate that inhibition of S2814 but ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - CaMKII in myocardial hypertrophy and heart failure. AU - Anderson, Mark E.. AU - Brown, Joan Heller. AU - Bers, Donald M. PY - 2011/10. Y1 - 2011/10. N2 - Many signals have risen and fallen in the tide of investigation into mechanisms of myocardial hypertrophy and heart failure (HF). In our opinion, the multifunctional Ca and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) has emerged as a molecule to watch, in part because a solid body of accumulated data essentially satisfy Kochs postulates, showing that the CaMKII pathway is a core mechanism for promoting myocardial hypertrophy and heart failure. Multiple groups have now confirmed the following: (1) that CaMKII activity is increased in hypertrophied and failing myocardium from animal models and patients; (2) CaMKII overexpression causes myocardial hypertrophy and HF and (3) CaMKII inhibition (by drugs, inhibitory peptides and gene deletion) improves myocardial hypertrophy and HF. Patients with myocardial disease die in equal ...
Author Summary Memory is understood as strengthened synaptic connections among neurons. Paradoxically components of synaptic membranes are relatively short-lived and frequently re-cycled while memories can last a lifetime. This suggests synaptic information is encoded at a deeper, finer-grained scale of molecular information within post-synaptic neurons. Long-term memory requires genetic expression, protein synthesis, and delivery of new synaptic components. How are these changes guided on the molecular level? The calcium-calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) has been heavily implicated in the strengthening of active neural connections. CaMKII interacts with various substrates including microtubules (MTs). MTs maintain cellular structure, and facilitate cellular cargo transport, effectively controlling neural architecture. Memory formation requires reorientation of this network. Could CaMKII-MT interactions be the molecular level encoding required to orchestrate neural plasticity? Using
CAMK2A - CAMK2A (Myc-DDK-tagged)-Human calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alpha (CAMK2A), transcript variant 2 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
CaMKII alpha antibody (calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alpha) for ICC/IF, IHC-Fr, WB. Anti-CaMKII alpha pAb (GTX127939) is tested in Mouse, Rat samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Objectives:Sepsis is associated with cardiac contractile dysfunction attributed to alterations in Ca2+ handling. We examined the subcellular mechanisms involved in sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ loss that mediate altered Ca2+ handling and contractile dysfunction associated with sepsis.Design:Randomized
Mouse eggs are ovulated following arrest at metaphase of the second meiotic division (metII). Fertilization breaks this arrest, with the egg extruding a second polar body (PB2) and forming pronuclei. Ca2+ spikes induced by phospholipase C zeta, which are introduced into the egg on gamete fusion, are responsible for causing the degradation of Erp1/Emi2 (Fbxo43 - Mouse Genome Informatics) (Ducibella and Fissore, 2008; Jones, 2005; Mehlmann, 2005; Swann et al., 2006). Erp1/Emi2 loss activates the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) and so drives exit from meiosis (Madgwick et al., 2006; Shoji et al., 2006).. In frog eggs, the Ca2+ fertilization signal switches on calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CamKII; Camk2), which phosphorylates Erp1/Emi2 and so promotes its degradation (Liu and Maller, 2005; Rauh et al., 2005; Schmidt et al., 2005). Consistent with this more recent development in the understanding of the molecular events of activation, it had been discovered several years previously, also ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Introduction: Glutamate excitotoxicity is an important mechanism of ischemic neuronal damage, however inhibition of glutamate receptors has proven an unsuccessful strategy. Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a major downstream target of glutamate signaling. The aim of this study is to examine the neuroprotective potential of inhibition of autonomous CaMKII activity using novel peptide inhibitors (tatCN21,19o) and transgenic mice.. Methods: C57BL/6 male wild-type (WT) and T286A mutant mice were subjected to 6 min of cardiac arrest and CPR. Mice were randomized to tatCN21 (1 mg/kg), tatCN19o (0.01,0.1,1 mg/kg) or control (tatSCR; 1 mg/kg), administered 30 min after CPR (iv). Separate experiments were performed to assess mild post-arrest hypothermia (rectal T = 34 ±0.2 °C for 1 hr after CPR). Hippocampal neuronal damage was analyzed 3 days after CA/CPR by H&E staining. Total CaMKII and Thr-286 phosphorylation levels were measured by western blot. Statistical analyses were ...
CAMK2B - CAMK2B (Myc-DDK-tagged)-Human calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II beta (CAMK2B), transcript variant 7 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Overview Protocols Specifications Resources Convenient, 1-Hour Kinase Activity Assays The SignaTECT® Protein Kinase Assay Systems provide a rapid, radioactivity-based method for detection of kinase activity. The method is based on capture of phosphorylated labeled substrates on the SAM2® Biotin Capture Membrane, which
Anti-peptide antibodies specific for the neuronal calcium channel alpha 1E subunit (anti-CNE1 and anti-CNE2) were produced to study the biochemical properties and subcellular distribution of the alpha 1E polypeptide from rat brain. Immunoblotting identified a single size form of 245-255 kDa which was a substrate for phosphorylation by cAMP- dependent protein kinase, protein kinase C, cGMP-dependent protein kinase, and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. Ligand- binding studies of alpha 1E indicate that it is not a high affinity receptor for the dihydropyridine isradipine or the peptide toxins omega- conotoxin GVIA or omega-conotoxin MVIIC at concentrations which elicit high affinity binding to other channel types in the same membrane preparation. The alpha 1E subunit is widely distributed in the brain with the most prominent immunocytochemical staining in deep midline structures such as caudate-putamen, thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala, cerebellum, and a variety of nuclei in the ...
Since its inception, the synaptic tagging hypothesis has inspired many to search for synaptic tags. However, very few molecules have been proposed as candidates (Frey and Frey, 2008). The nature and identity of PRPs and synaptic tags are under intensive investigations (Frey and Frey, 2008). Two pathway experiments showed that blockade of protein kinase A (PKA) or its interaction with A kinase-anchoring proteins (AKAPs) prevents synaptic capture, suggesting that PKA or its anchoring at active synapses may serve as a synaptic tag for L-LTP (Huang et al., 2006; Young et al., 2006). Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is also implicated as an L-LTP-specific tag (Sajikumar et al., 2007). Studies thus far have been based on the use of pharmacological inhibitors in two-pathway experiments. However, it is necessary to show that these tags are transiently and locally activated in a protein synthesis-independent manner by weak stimulation. In a recent study, NMDA-dependent, ...
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The Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a major mediator of long-term potentiation (LTP) and depression (LTD), two opposing forms of synaptic plasticity underlying learning, memory and cognition. The heterozygous CaMKIIα isoform KO (CaMKIIα+/-) mice have a schizophrenia-related phenotype, including impaired working memory. Here, we examined synaptic strength and plasticity in two brain areas implicated in working memory, hippocampus CA1 and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Young CaMKIIα+/- mice (postnatal days 12-16; corresponding to a developmental stage well before schizophrenia manifestation in humans) showed impaired hippocampal CA1 LTP. However, this LTP impairment normalized over development and was no longer detected in older CaMKIIα+/- mice (postnatal weeks 9-11; corresponding to young adults). By contrast, the CaMKIIα+/- mice failed to show the developmental increase of basal synaptic transmission in the CA1 seen in wild-type (WT) mice, resulting in impaired basal
Complete information for CAMK4 gene (Protein Coding), Calcium/Calmodulin Dependent Protein Kinase IV, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
The concept of subcellular targeting by anchoring proteins is of major importance for understanding the specificity of signal transduction. The work presented here constitutes the first description of an anchoring protein for multifunctional CaM kinase II. αKAP exhibits three properties expected of anchoring proteins. (i) It is restricted to a specific cellular compartment, it is membrane bound and probably directly inserted into SR membranes by its N‐terminal hydrophobic domain (Figures 3 and 4). (ii) It binds CaM kinase II. This binding occurs within intact cells and not during extraction of transfected cells, since significant interaction was only detected after coexpression of αKAP and CaM kinase II, but not when individually expressed proteins were mixed (Figure 6). (iii) It is responsible for the targeting of the novel βM‐CaM kinase II to the SR, since it co‐immunoprecipitates with kinase extracted from SR membranes and the kinase does not have the physical properties of a ...
Complete information for CAMKK2 gene (Protein Coding), Calcium/Calmodulin Dependent Protein Kinase Kinase 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Investigating the transduction of TGF-?-mediated Ca2+-signalling by Ca2+/calmodulin protein kinase II and its effects on extracellular matrix gene expression and cell viability in human pulmonary fibroblasts. ...
cDNA clones coding for the β subunit of rat brain type II Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase were isolated and sequenced. The clones, including one containing the entire coding region, hybridize at high stringency to a single band of poly(A)+ RNA of length 4.8 kilobases. The subunit coded for by the clones was identified by in vitro transcription of the cDNA followed by translation of the resulting RNA. The DNA sequence of the clones contains a single long open reading frame (1626 nucleotides) coding for a protein of 542 amino acids with a molecular weight of 60,333, the amino-terminal half of which is homologous to several other protein kinases. Potential ATP- and calmodulin-binding domains were identified. Two independent clones contain an identical 45-nucleotide deletion, relative to the clones described above, resulting in a shorter open reading frame coding for a protein of molecular weight 58,000. This suggests that the minor, 58-kDa β subunit of the type II ...
Lys-Lys-Lys-Leu-Arg-Arg-Gln-Glu-Ala-Phe-Asp-Ala-Tyr4374-v 0.5 mg | 90.00 EUR[Lys3, Phe10, Tyr13]-Autocamtide-2-Related Inhibitory Peptide ...
calmodulin-dependent protein kinase V: widely distributed in various tissues, involved in calcium-regulated processes; from rat brain; may exist in 40 & 41 kDa isoforms; amino acid sequence has been determined
KN-92 is an inactive derivative of KN-93. KN-93 is a selective inhibitor of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII), competitively blocking CaM binding to the kinase (Ki = 370 nM).
The major finding of this study is that GIT1 is a novel mediator of Ang II-mediated VSMC gene transcription. Specifically we show that GIT1 participates in an Ang II signaling pathway that involves phosphorylation of HDAC5 and activation of MEF2, downstream of a pathway that requires Src, PLCγ, and CamK II (supplemental Figure V). Our results suggest that GIT1, via its multi-domain scaffolding function, coordinates Ang II signaling events that control calcium-dependent signaling (PLCγ and CamK II).. The focus of the present study is on CamK II which is a family of cytosolic serine/threonine protein kinases that exist as multimers consisting of α, β, δ, or γ subunits, each encoded by a different gene.24,25 Whereas CamK IIα and β are mainly expressed in neuronal tissues, CaMKIIδb, CaMKIIδc, and CaMKIIγ are abundant in the heart8,21,26 and VSMCs.27 CaMKII can phosphorylate type II HDACs.11 These HDACs (HDAC 4, 5, 7, and 9) normally repress transcriptional activity (eg, activation driven ...
Control of cardiomyocyte cytosolic Ca(2+) levels is crucial in determining inotropic status and ischemia/reperfusion stress response. Responsive to fluctuations in cellular Ca(2+), Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a serine/threonine kinase integral to the processes regulating cardiomyocyte Ca(2+) channels/transporters. CaMKII is primarily expressed either in the δB or δC splice variant forms, which may mediate differential influences on cardiomyocyte function and pathological response mechanisms. Increases in myocyte Ca(2+) levels promote the binding of a Ca(2+)/calmodulin complex to CaMKII, to activate the kinase. Activity is also maintained through a series of post-translational modifications within a critical region of the regulatory domain of the protein. Recent data indicate that the post-translational modification status of CaMKIIδB/δC variants may have an important influence on reperfusion outcomes. This study provided the first evidence that the specific type ...
Looking for online definition of CaM kinase II delta subunit in the Medical Dictionary? CaM kinase II delta subunit explanation free. What is CaM kinase II delta subunit? Meaning of CaM kinase II delta subunit medical term. What does CaM kinase II delta subunit mean?
Excessive activation of β-adrenergic, angiotensin II, and aldosterone signaling pathways promotes mortality after myocardial infarction (MI), while antagonist drugs targeting these pathways are core therapies for treating post-MI patients. The multifunctional calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is activated by catecholamines and angiotensin II, and CaMKII inhibition prevents isoproterenol- and angiotensin II-mediated cardiomyopathy. Here we ask the hypothesis if aldosterone and CaMKII participated in common responses to MI by developing a mouse MI model supplemented by aldosterone infusion (MI+Aldo) to approximate plasma aldosterone levels measured in MI patients. We find that aldosterone exerts direct toxic actions on myocardium by oxidative activation of CaMKII, causing cardiac rupture and increased mortality in mice after MI (65.5% for aldosterone versus 31.0% for vehicle, P=0.007, n≥19 mice per treatment). Aldosterone oxidizes CaMKII by recruiting NADPH oxidase, and ...
Our data show that LTP inducing stimulation produces a 6-fold increase in endogenous synapsin I phosphorylation at its CaM kinase II sites. The observed rise in synapsin I phosphorylation occurred rapidly after the stimulation and persisted for at least 30 min. Most importantly, this effect was not observed in the presence of the NMDA receptor antagonist APV, suggesting that the rise in synapsin I phosphorylation is due to the LTP-inducing nature of the stimulation. Since synapsin I is localized exclusively in the presynaptic terminal, our data provide strong evidence that LTP expression is accompanied by persistent biochemical changes in the presynaptic terminal. Because the observed LTP-associated presynaptic changes require NMDA receptor activation, these data support models of LTP in which a retrograde messenger (generated subsequent to postsynaptic NMDA receptor activation) may produce presynaptic changes underlying LTP (36-38).. The mechanism by which LTP induction might lead to this ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - CASK and CaMKII function in the mushroom body α/ß neurons during Drosophila memory formation. T2 - CASK and CaMKII in memory. AU - Malik, Bilal R. AU - Gillespie, John M. AU - Hodge, James J L. PY - 2013/3/27. Y1 - 2013/3/27. N2 - CaMKII is a central molecule in mechanisms of synaptic plasticity and memory. A vital feature of CaMKII in plasticity is its ability to switch to a calcium (Ca2+) independent constitutively active state after autophosphorylation at threonine 287 (T287). A second pair of sites, T306 T307 in the calmodulin (CaM) binding region once autophosphorylated, prevent subsequent CaM binding and inactivates the kinase during synaptic plasticity and memory. Recently a synaptic molecule called CASK has been shown to control both sets of CaMKII autophosphorylation events and hence is well poised to be a key regulator of memory. We show deletion of full length CASK or just its CaMK-like and L27 domains disrupts middle-term memory (MTM) and long-term memory (LTM), ...
Introduction: The calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) is activated by angiotensin-II, a strong inducer of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSM) hypertrophy. CaMKII activates HDAC4/MEF-2 dependent gene transcription by phosphorylation of HDAC4 S467 and 632. Here, we demonstrate that CaMKII mediates Ang-II-induced VSM hypertrophy in vitro and in vivo by activation of the HDAC4/MEF-2 signal transduction pathway.. Methods and Results: Medial hypertrophy by Ang-II infusion at pressor dose over 10 days was significantly reduced in C57Bl/6 mice when the CaMKII inhibitor KN93 was given daily i.p. (0.070 mm2 vs 0.052 mm2, p,0.05). In vitro, Ang-II increased the 3H-Leucine/3H-Thymidine uptake in control aortic VSM cells by 50% after 24 hr, whereas overexpression of the CaMKII peptide inhibitor CaMKIIN resulted only in 14 % increase (p,0.05). Ang-II induced phosphorylation of HDAC4 that was further increased under overexpression of CaMKIIδ2. CaMKII overexpression resulted in increased ...
Raval A, Tanner SM, Byrd JC, Angerman EB, Perko JD, Chen SS, Hackanson B, Grever MR, Lucas DM, Matkovic JJ, Lin TS, Kipps TJ, Murray F, Weisenburger D, Sanger W, Lynch J, Watson P, Jansen M, Yoshinaga Y, Rosenquist R, de Jong PJ, Coggill P, Beck S, Lynch H, de la Chapelle A, Plass C. Downregulation of death-associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1) in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Cell. 2007 Jun 01; 129(5):879-90 ...
Bidirectional changes in the efficacy of neuronal synaptic transmission, such as hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD), are thought to be mechanisms for information storage in the brain. LTP and LTD may be mediated by the modulation of AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazloe proprionic acid) receptor phosphorylation. Here we show that LTP and LTD reversibly modify the phosphorylation of the AMPA receptor GluR1 subunit. However, contrary to the hypothesis that LTP and LTD are the functional inverse of each other, we find that they are associated with phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, respectively, of distinct GluR1 phosphorylation sites. Moreover, the site modulated depends on the stimulation history of the synapse. LTD induction in naive synapses dephosphorylates the major cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) site, whereas in potentiated synapses the major calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) site is dephosphorylated. Conversely, LTP
Small molecule inhibitors of the human sirtuins and calmodulin-dependent protein kinases have shown promising anti-cancer activity in cell-based screens and animal models. We have synthesized analogues of these compounds, identifying more selective sirtuin inhibitors and more potent calmodulin-dependent protein kinase inhibitors.The sirtuins are a family of NAD+-dependent deacetylases that regulate cellular aging and gene silencing in simple organisms and appear to play important regulatory roles in human cells that make them attractive anti-cancer targets. We have previously identified the compound cambinol, an inhibitor of the human sirtuins SIRT1 and SIRT2, which is selectively toxic to Burkitts lymphoma cells. In order to determine which sirtuin is the relevant target, we screened analogues of cambinol, identifying compounds that exhibited moderate selectivity for both SIRT1 and SIRT2. The compound JP136 is ten-fold more selective in vitro for SIRT1 over SIRT2, with respective IC50s of 13 ...
The abundantly expressed calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CAMK2), alpha (CAMK2A), and beta (CAMK2B) isoforms are essential for learning and memory formation. Recently, a de novo candidate mutation (p.Arg292Pro) in the gamma isoform of CAMK2 (CAMK2G) was identified in a patient with severe intellectual disability (ID), but the mechanism(s) by which this mutation causes ID is unknown. Here, we identified a second, unrelated individual, with a de novo CAMK2G p.Arg292Pro mutation, and used in vivo and in vitro assays to assess the impact of this mutation on CAMK2G and neuronal function. We found that knockdown of CAMK2G results in inappropriate precocious neuronal maturation. We further found that the CAMK2G p.Arg292Pro mutation acts as a highly pathogenic gain-of-function mutation, leading to increased phosphotransferase activity and impaired neuronal maturation as well as impaired targeting of the nuclear CAMK2G isoform. Silencing the catalytic site of the CAMK2G p.Arg292Pro protein ...
It is broadly believed that synaptic plasticity is a neuronal mechanism for learning and memory in the mammalian brain. In the mature hippocampus, the expression of long-term potentiation (LTP) in Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses requires a postsynaptic Ca2+ influx and the GluR1 subunit of the AMPA subtype of glutamate receptor (AMPAR). New findings indicate that the pattern of synaptic activity associated with exploratory behavior can induce LTP by changing the quality of synaptic AMPARs. This process is dynamic and requires activity of Ca2+/calmodulin dependent protein kinases (CaMKs), key transducers of postsynaptic Ca2+ changes into LTP. The two CaMKs, CaMKI and CaMKII target AMPARs and regulate synaptic strength differently, however. Under basal conditions, AMPARs in these synapses are heteromers composed of GluR1 and GluR2 subunits. CaMKI enhances synaptic strength by trafficking to synapses more functionally efficient and highly Ca2+-permeable GluR2-lacking AMPARs through a regulated ...
Looking for molecular memory? Find out information about molecular memory. A potential future memory technology that stores data at the molecular level. Using lasers and the bacteriorhodopsin protein molecule, the W. M. Explanation of molecular memory
This serineethreonine kinase is primarily activated in response to an increase during the AMP ATP ratio within the cell and it is actually phosphorylated at Thr while in the catalytic subunit by upstream kinases such as Liver Kinase B or calmodulin dependent protein kinase kinase beta . Additionally, AMPK may also be activated by a variety of pharmacological agents, like metformin which is applied during the therapy of metabolic ailments such as style diabetes and obesity . AMPK activation reprograms cellular metabolism and enforces metabolic checkpoints by acting on mTOR complex , p and other molecules . Particularly, AMPK acts to restore cellular power balance by marketing ATP making processes, such as fatty acid beta oxidation, and simultaneously by inhibiting ATP consuming processes, such as fatty acid synthesis, gluconeogenesis and protein synthesis. That is initially attained by direct phosphorylation of some critical metabolic enzymes and subsequently by modulation of gene expression . ...
This invention relates to the controlled release of calcium sulfate as well as to the controlled release of an additive to a calcium sulfate matrix such as medicaments or pesticides. The controlled release is achieved by a pellet comprising calcium sulfate. The pellet is prepared by the process comprising mixing powder consisting essentially of alpha-calcium sulfate hemihydrate, a solution comprising water, and, optionally, an additive and a powder consisting essentially of beta-calcium sulfate hemihydrate to form a mixture, and forming said mixture into a pellet, wherein said alpha-calcium sulfate hemihydrate and beta-calcium sulfate hemihydrate powders have specified properties such as BET surface areas, densities, mean particle sizes, and purifies. The dissolution rate of the calcium sulfate pellet is controlled by varying the weight ratio of the beta-calcium sulfate hemihydrate powder to the alpha-calcium sulfate hemihydrate powder from 0 to about 3. The invention also provides a method of
The Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is critically required for the synaptic recruitment of AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) during both development and plasticity. However, the underlying mechanism is unknown. Using single-particle tracking of AMPARs, we show that CaMKII …
0071] The peptide hormone Ang II induces opening of mitochondrial KATP channels, depolarizes ΔΨm, and amplifies ROS generation from mitochondria [46]. We have shown that inhibition of CaMKII can protect against Ang II induced ROS species generation (FIG. 6). H9C2 cells and eventually neonatal cardiomyocytes from WT and mitoCaMKIIN mice will be cultured as described above, and peptide-loaded PLGA/PAMAM nanoparticles with and without surface bound MLS ligands will be prepared as described above. Cells will be treated with Ang II (1 μM for 3 hours). Both H9C2 cells and neonatal cardiomyocytes will be tested. We plan to isolate cardiomyocytes from four mouse litters of mitoCaMKIIN mice. Because these transgenic mice are crossed to WT-C57 mice each generation, the WT littermates will be used to test treated and untreated nanoparticles. A series of increasing doses of nanoparticles will be co-incubated with Ang II to determine the dose-response curve for generating protection against changes ...
Multiple calmodulin (CaM) isoforms are expressed in plants, but their biochemical characteristics are not well resolved. Here we show the differential regulation exhibited by two soya bean CaM isoforms (SCaM-1 and SCaM-4) for the activation of five CaM-dependent enzymes, and the Ca2+ dependence of their target enzyme activation. SCaM-1 activated myosin light-chain kinase as effectively as brain CaM (Kact 1.8 and 1.7nM respectively), but SCaM-4 produced no activation of this enzyme. Both CaM isoforms supported near maximal activation of CaM-dependent protein kinase II (CaM KII), but SCaM-4 exhibited approx.12-fold higher Kact than SCaM-1 for CaM KII phosphorylation of caldesmon. The SCaM isoforms showed differential activation of plant and animal Ca2+-ATPases. The plant Ca2+-ATPase was activated maximally by both isoforms, while the erythrocyte Ca2+-ATPase was activated only by SCaM-1. Plant glutamate decarboxylase was activated fully by SCaM-1, but SCaM-4 exhibited an approx. 4-fold increase ...
Background: Hypertensive cardiomyopathy or pathophysiological changes in myocardial structure and function caused by hypertension is a growing clinical problem due to the ageing population and a lack of curative therapies. The onset of the disease is often clinically silent, progressing over time to therapy-resistant symptomatic forms. Existing therapeutic concepts are, therefore, symptom-oriented and tailored for advanced stages of cardiac remodeling. Understanding molecular processes driving early hypertension-induced changes may improve diagnosis and treatment options.. Recent evidence positions changes in Ca2+ cycling as an early promoter of cardiac remodeling via Ca2+-mediated regulation of transcription. The enzyme Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) has a central role in this process, as it can translate fine changes in Ca2+ fluxes into altered gene expression. However, the specific regulation of this so-called excitation-transcription coupling in hypertensive ...
Heart failure stays a significant well being burden around the globe. Despite nice progress in delineation of molecular mechanisms underlying growth of illness, normal remedy has not superior on the similar tempo. The multifunctional signaling molecule Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) has acquired appreciable consideration over current years for its central function in maladaptive reworking and arrhythmias … Read more. ...
Supplementary MaterialsSupplementary Fig 1 rsob180132supp1. and cells microarrays. The function of IL-38 on individual success prices After that, cancer development and their awareness to chemotherapy medications was assessed. IL-38 was barely expressed in the NSCLC tissue but expressed in the adjacent normal tissue highly. The downregulation of IL-38 was considerably correlated with the outcomes from the American Joint Committee on Cancers stage and PBDB-T amount of differentiation, and it had been also been shown to be an unbiased prognostic signal of disease-free success and overall success for sufferers PBDB-T with NSCLC. Overexpression of IL-38 in NSCLC cells suppressed cell migration, invasion, colony and proliferation development through suppressing -catenin. IL-38 inhibited NSCLC development within a mice model and sensitized the cancers cells to chemotherapy medications. Our results present that IL-38 performs an inhibitory function in NSCLC advancement and functions being a book ...
Viral infections affect three to five million patients annually. antiviral treatment, this review provides the verified data around the medicinal plants and related herbal substances ABT 492 meglumine (Delafloxacin meglumine) with antiviral activity, as well as applied strategies for the delivery of these herb extracts and biologically active phytochemicals. Open in a separate windows Graphical Abstract against most viruses, but often are ineffective in patients. Ninety different antiviral brokers available today [3, 4] only treat a selection of viruses; these viruses include HIV (human immunodeficiency computer virus), herpes viruses, including HSV (herpes simplex virus), hCMV (human cytomegalovirus), VZV (varicella zoster computer virus), influenza viruses, and the hepatitis viruses (Fig. ?(Fig.1).1). Currently, there is no approved remedy for many types or viruses, and vaccination is limited to hepatitis A computer virus, mumps, and varicella [2]. In addition, these brokers are often costly ...
We use Drosophila melanogaster for studying cardiac diseases. One transgenic strain containing a fluorescent reporter system that senses intracellular twitch Ca2+ transient increases was utilized. We observed changes in the frequency of Ca2+ transients with age in semi-intac fly heart preparations and its putative modification by 1) The inhibition of Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMKII), involved in Ca2+ cycling and 2) the reduction in eIF4E expression, an eukaryotic translation initiation factor. Results: Flies between 60 and 70 days old showed reduction of heart rate compared with 7 days old flies and widespred distribution of cardiac periods (intervals between transient increases of Ca2+). Arrhythmicity index (standard deviation of the heart period), increased from 0.27 to 0.52 (n=12). CaMKII inhibition reduced dispersion of cardiac periods distribution and arrhythmicity index from 0.27 to 0.19 (n = 21). Lower levels of eIF4E reduced dispersion of cardiac periods distribution and ...
Our laboratory identified CaMKII as an important pro-arrhythmic and pro-cardiomyopathic signal. Our work has provided proof of concept evidence motivating active efforts in biotech and the pharmaceutical industry to develop therapeutic CaMKII inhibitory drugs to treat heart failure and arrhythmias. My group discovered that CaMKII is activated by oxidation and excessive CaMKII activity participates in cellular injury in response to diverse upstream signals, including the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone pathway and endotoxin by oxidative activation. CaMKII is multifunctional because it has multiple downstream targets. CaMKII catalyzed phosphorylation of diverse proteins in myocardium appears to coordinate activity of many or most voltage-gated ion channels, Ca2+ homeostatic proteins and gene transcription. Under physiological conditions, CaMKII is important for excitation-contraction coupling and fight or flight heart rate increases. However, myocardial CaMKII is excessively activated during ...
Structural and biophysical studies reveal how CaMKII kinases, which are important for cellular learning and memory, are switched on by binding of Ca2+/calmodulin.
Recombinant full-length human CAMK4 was expressed by baculovirus in Sf9 insect cells using an N-terminal GST tag. CAMK4 is a multifunctional serine/threonine protein kinase and a member of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase family.
Roles of calmodulin and CaMKII in mediating PKG stimulation of Kir6.2/SUR2A channels.Recombinant Kir6.2/SUR2A channels were expressed in HEK293 cells by transie
There are no specific protocols for CaMKII alpha (phospho T286) peptide (ab115237). Please download our general protocols booklet
miR-185 negatively regulates the activity of CaMKIIδ in NRVMs.(A and B) 72 h after transfection of miR-185 mimic or miR-185 inhibitor, the level of p-CaMKIIδ
If you know of any papers that use this antibody, please contact us at antibodies [at] alzforum [dot] org for consideration in the References section.. ...
マウス・モノクローナル抗体 ab54925 交差種: Hu 適用: WB,IP,Flow Cyt,ICC/IF…CaMKII alpha抗体一覧…画像、プロトコール、文献などWeb上の情報が満載のアブカムの Antibody 製品。国内在庫と品質保証制度も充実。
"CAMK2A calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II alpha [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. ... β CAMKIIδ CAMKIIγ CAMKIII CAMKIV CAMKV CaM kinase like vesicle associated SCAMK Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase ... CAMK, also written as CaMK, is an abbreviation for the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase class of enzymes. CAMKs are ... Hudmon A, Schulman H (2002-06-01). "Neuronal CA2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II: the role of structure and ...
... interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein-like 1 protein) PI4KIIIβ (type III phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase β) IP3 receptor (this ... PIK1 It binds to many proteins, some in calcium dependent and some in calcium independent ways, and switches many of the ... calcium-binding protein. Frq can substitute for calmodulin in some situations. It is thought to be associated with neuronal ... NCS-1 is a member of the neuronal calcium sensor family, a class of EF hand containing calcium-myristoyl-switch proteins. NCS-1 ...
... p39 interact with the alpha-subunit of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and alpha-actinin-1 in a calcium-dependent ... Sakashita G, Shima H, Komatsu M, Urano T, Kikuchi A, Kikuchi K (February 2003). "Regulation of type 1 protein phosphatase/ ... p39 interact with the alpha-subunit of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and alpha-actinin-1 in a calcium-dependent ... Agarwal-Mawal A, Paudel HK (June 2001). "Neuronal Cdc2-like protein kinase (Cdk5/p25) is associated with protein phosphatase 1 ...
Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II) is also activated by calcium influx through NMDA receptors, and is ... Lacosamide is used in combination with other types of medications to control various types of seizures, especially epilepsy. ... and cyclin-dependent protein kinase 5 (Cdk5) are highly expressed in Alzheimer's disease and are some of the protein kinases ... revealing the presence of both Rho kinase-dependent and Rho kinase-independent pathways for the growth cone collapse. In RhoA ...
... neural protein contains phosphorylation sites for cAMP-dependent protein kinase and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ... Lack of synapsins altogether in neurons, leads to behavioral alterations as well as epileptic-type seizures. The lack affects ... and domain B has two mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation sites. At its B domain, between amino acids 43 and 121, ... The synapsin II protein has been shown to interact with SYN1. Mutations in the SYN2 gene may be associated with abnormal ...
... calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase 3 and membrane-associated guanylate kinase 2. CASK gene mutations are the ... Hsueh YP, Roberts AM, Volta M, Sheng M, Roberts RG (June 2001). "Bipartite interaction between neurofibromatosis type I protein ... "Entrez Gene: CASK Calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (MAGUK family)". Tarpey PS, Smith R, Pleasance E, Whibley ... Zhu ZQ, Wang D, Xiang D, Yuan YX, Wang Y (January 2014). "Calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase is involved in ...
Zhang S, Ehlers MD, Bernhardt JP, Su CT, Huganir RL (August 1998). "Calmodulin mediates calcium-dependent inactivation of N- ... ". "Protein Information - Basic Information: Protein COPaKB ID: P35609". Cardiac Organellar Protein Atlas Knowledgebase. ... Young P, Ferguson C, Bañuelos S, Gautel M (March 1998). "Molecular structure of the sarcomeric Z-disk: two types of titin ... "Interactions of calmodulin and alpha-actinin with the NR1 subunit modulate Ca2+-dependent inactivation of NMDA receptors". The ...
... by protein kinase C and calcium/calmodulin kinase II in vitro". J. Neurochem. 71 (3): 1307-14. doi:10.1046/j.1471-4159.1998. ... Kubes M, Cordier J, Glowinski J, Girault JA, Chneiweiss H (1998). "Endothelin induces a calcium-dependent phosphorylation of ... "Molecular characterization of the human PEA15 gene on 1q21-q22 and association with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Pima Indians". ... "Protein kinase B/Akt binds and phosphorylates PED/PEA-15, stabilizing its antiapoptotic action". Mol. Cell. Biol. 23 (13): 4511 ...
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type IV is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CAMK4 gene. The product of ... calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I by calmodulin and by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase". J. Biol. Chem. 273 ... Phosphorylation by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, protein kinase C, and calcium/calmodulin protein kinase; identification ... and activation of Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV by Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase Ia kinase. ...
... calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV, and the peroxisome proliferator γ coactivator 1 (PGC-1). The Ras/MAPK signaling ... Type I, which is slow, and Type II which are fast. Type II has two divisions of type IIA (oxidative), and type IIX (glycolytic ... proteins and other regulatory proteins. Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase activity is also upregulated by slow motor ... calcineurin and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV to activate transcription factors that regulate gene expression ...
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type 1 - Homo sapiens (Human) - CAMK1 gene & protein". www.uniprot.org. Retrieved ... calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV by Ca(2+)-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase Ia kinase. Phosphorylation of threonine ... July 2005). "Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-beta is an alternative upstream kinase for AMP-activated protein kinase ... and to the Ca++/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily. This protein plays a role in the calcium/calmodulin-dependent ( ...
... suggesting that inhibition of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II may also be a potential treatment strategy. These ... which can be explained by decreased voltage-dependent calcium channel expression, specifically Ca(v)1.3, which is responsible ... Initially, a Glu1425Gly mutation in ANK2 was found to cause dominantly-inherited long QT syndrome type 4, cardiac arrhythmia. ... Effects on ryanodine receptors specifically were also rescued by a potent Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibitor ...
Cannabinoids reduce calcium influx by blocking the activity of voltage-dependent N-, P/Q- and L-type calcium channels. In ... through Gi/o-mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase and protein kinase A. Direct effects of CB1 receptors on membrane ... decreases in expression were seen in both calmodulin and ribosomal RNAs. In addition, CB1 activation has been demonstrated to ... Guo J, Ikeda SR (2004). "Endocannabinoids modulate N-type calcium channels and G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium ...
The δ subunit is the ubiquitous eukaryotic protein calmodulin which itself has 4 calcium ion binding sites. When cytosolic Ca2+ ... but phosphorylation of both these subunits by protein kinase A (PKA, or cAMP-dependent protein kinase) reduces their respective ... Defects in phosphorylase kinase genes are the cause of glycogen storage disease type IX (GSD type IX) and GSD type VI (formerly ... In the active site, there is significant homology between PhK and other so-called P-loop protein kinases such as protein kinase ...
... p39 interact with the alpha-subunit of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and alpha-actinin-1 in a calcium-dependent ... Alpha-actinin-1 has been shown to interact with: CDK5R1, CDK5R2, Collagen, type XVII, alpha 1, GIPC1, PDLIM1, Protein kinase N1 ... Alpha-actinin-1 is an F-actin cross-linking protein - a bundling protein that is thought to anchor actin to a number of ... Bunn RC, Jensen MA, Reed BC (1999). "Protein interactions with the glucose transporter binding protein GLUT1CBP that provide a ...
Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) plays a crucial role in a type of synaptic plasticity known as long-term ... Many of the proteins that calmodulin binds are unable to bind calcium themselves, and use calmodulin as a calcium sensor and ... Proteopedia page for Calmodulin and its conformational change Protein kinase Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase Stevens ... This MLC kinase is activated by a calmodulin when it is bound by calcium, thus making smooth muscle contraction dependent on ...
... and a calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase (CAMK-1), and additional kinases, reaching its peak around mid-subjective day. Kinase ... with just one of the proteins present. The choice of which protein is made is the result of temperature-dependent splicing of ... Because sFRQ favors a longer period than lFRQ, free running rhythms in wild type Neurospora are somewhat decreased with ... A similar palette of kinases modifies the clock proteins in all cases. Negative feedback White Collar-1 Baker CL, Loros JJ, ...
This calcium then interacts with calcineurin and calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinases that in turn activate transcription ... October 2004). "Endoplasmic reticulum stress links obesity, insulin action, and type 2 diabetes". Science. 306 (5695): 457-61. ... "Coupling of stress in the ER to activation of JNK protein kinases by transmembrane protein kinase IRE1". Science. 287 (5453): ... PERK (protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase) activates itself by oligomerization and autophosphorylation of the ...
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II gamma chain is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CAMK2G gene. The ... "Entrez Gene: CAMK2G calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) II gamma". Moyers JS, Bilan PJ, Zhu J, Kahn CR ( ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II subunit gamma) at the PDBe-KB. Portal: Biology This article incorporates ... calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily. Calcium signaling is crucial for several aspects of plasticity at glutamatergic ...
... independent pathway involving calcium-binding protein 39 (Cab39) and serine threonine kinase with no lysine member 4 (WNK4) in ... WNK4 enhances TRPV5 by increasing its forward trafficking to the plasma membrane in a kinase-dependent manner. The inhibitory ... However, when Ca2+ levels are elevated, Ca2+/calmodulin complex binds to the C-terminal region, derepressing WNK4 kinase ... August 2005). "A new kindred with pseudohypoaldosteronism type II and a novel mutation (564D>H) in the acidic motif of the WNK4 ...
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II beta chain is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CAMK2B gene. The ... "Entrez Gene: CAMK2B calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) II beta". Walikonis RS, Oguni A, Khorosheva EM, ... Sequence analyses of human brain calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II". Mol. Biol. Rep. 28 (1): 35-41. doi:10.1023/A: ... Novak G, Seeman P, Tallerico T (2001). "Schizophrenia: elevated mRNA for calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIbeta in ...
... an effect which is associated with DAT phosphorylation through a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CAMK)-dependent ... calcium/calmodulin protein kinases) signaling, which, in addition to phosphorylating CREB, also phosphorylates HDAC5. Figure 2 ... ΔFosB is also induced in D1-type NAc MSNs by chronic consumption of several natural rewards, including sucrose, high-fat food, ... it triggers transporter phosphorylation via protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC) signaling, ultimately resulting ...
... encoding enzyme Pyridoxal kinase PFKL: encoding enzyme ATP-dependent 6-phosphofructokinase, liver type PIGP: encoding ... encoding protein RWD domain-containing protein 2B S100B: calcium binding protein SAMSN1: encoding SAM domain-containing protein ... encoding protein GC-rich sequence DNA-binding factor homolog PCNT: centrosomal pericentrin PCP4: encoding calmodulin regulator ... encoding protein Protein Mis18-alpha MORC3: encoding MORC family CW-type zinc finger protein 3 MRAP: encoding melanocortin-2 ...
Barry FA, Gibbins JM (Apr 2002). "Protein kinase B is regulated in platelets by the collagen receptor glycoprotein VI". The ... Andrews RK, Suzuki-Inoue K, Shen Y, Tulasne D, Watson SP, Berndt MC (Jun 2002). "Interaction of calmodulin with the cytoplasmic ... Collagen fibers are the most thrombogenic macromolecular components of the extracellular matrix, with collagen types I, III, ... "Expression and function of the mouse collagen receptor glycoprotein VI is strictly dependent on its association with the ...
... s are also modulated by G protein-coupled receptors and the adrenergic nervous system. Protein Kinase A ( ... "Switching off calcium-dependent inactivation in L-type calcium channels by an autoinhibitory domain". Proceedings of the ... As the pore opens and causes an influx of Calcium, calcium binds to calmodulin and then interacts with the loop that connects ... P-type, and N-type. L-type calcium channels were peptide sequenced and it was found that there were 4 kinds of L-type calcium ...
... the microtubule-associated tau proteins and S100b regulate tau phosphorylation by the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ... "The calcium-modulated proteins, S100A1 and S100B, as potential regulators of the dynamics of type III intermediate filaments". ... S100 calcium-binding protein B (S100B) is a protein of the S-100 protein family. S100 proteins are localized in the cytoplasm ... the microtubule-associated tau proteins and S100b regulate tau phosphorylation by the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ...
"Calmodulin is involved in the Ca2+-dependent activation of ceramide kinase as a calcium sensor". J. Biol. Chem. 280 (49): 40436 ... CERK shares sequence homology with sphingosine kinase type I, including an N-terminal pleckstrin homology (PH) domain and a ... It was demonstrated that C-1-P perpetuates the phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 β and retinoblastoma protein, ... CERK was later confirmed to bind calmodulin in the presence of calcium, indicating the calmodulin first binds calcium and then ...
... a novel two EF-hand calcium-binding protein that suppresses Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II activity in the brain ... This protein also regulates calcium-dependent activity of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptors, P/Q-type voltage-gated calcium ... Calcium binding protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CABP1 gene. Calcium-binding protein 1 is a calcium- ... Calcium-binding protein 1 which is a neuron -specific member of the calmodulin (CaM) superfamily which modulates Ca2+-dependent ...
ITP3K activity is indirectly stimulated by phosphorylation by calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII). In addition, ... and these studies revealed various feedback mechanisms by which the enzyme is regulated by calcium and protein kinases. In 1999 ... the gene becomes expressed in a number of cancer cell types. In most cases, ITP3K expression causes the cancer to be more ... ITP3Ks are stimulated directly by calcium/calmodulin (Ca2+/CaM) binding. Generally, mammalian ITP3Ks are activated by calcium ...
"Structure and expression of a calcium-binding protein gene contained within a calmodulin-regulated protein kinase gene". ... encodes myosin light chain kinase which is a calcium/calmodulin dependent enzyme. Four transcript variants that produce four ... Reaction type: phospho group transfer) It requires Ca2+ and calmodulin for activity. The 20-kDa light chain from smooth muscle ... "Kinase-related protein (telokin) is phosphorylated by smooth-muscle myosin light-chain kinase and modulates the kinase activity ...
Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) plays a crucial role in a type of synaptic plasticity known as long-term ... Other calcium-binding proteinsEdit. Calmodulin belongs to one of the two main groups of calcium-binding proteins, called EF ... On the left is calmodulin without calcium and on the right is calmodulin with calcium. Sites that bind target proteins are ... Many of the proteins that calmodulin binds are unable to bind calcium themselves, and use calmodulin as a calcium sensor and ...
Calmodulin may activate the Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinases, or may act directly on other effector proteins.[14] ... This type of release increases the activation of protein kinase, and is seen in cardiac muscle where it causes excitation- ... Calcium signaling is the use of calcium ions (Ca2+) to communicate and drive intracellular processes often as a step in signal ... Many of Ca2+ mediated events occur when the released Ca2+ binds to and activates the regulatory protein calmodulin. ...
see MAP kinase pathway. Calcium. *Intracellular calcium-sensing proteins. *Calcineurin. *Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein ... Main article: Heterotrimeric G proteins. Different types of heterotrimeric G proteins share a common mechanism. They are ... γ proteins.[17] Signaling[edit]. G protein can refer to two distinct families of proteins. Heterotrimeric G proteins, sometimes ... G proteins, also known as guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, are a family of proteins that act as molecular switches inside ...
... it reduces the firing rate of the dopamine neuron via potassium channels and activates protein kinase A (PKA) and protein ... AMPH also increases intracellular calcium (Gnegy et al., 2004) that is associated with calmodulin/CamKII activation (Wei et al ... Figure 3: Treatment benefit by treatment type and outcome group *^ a b c Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). "Chapter 6: ... Half-life is 7 to 34 hours and is, in part, dependent on urine pH (half-life is longer with alkaline urine). ... Amphetamines ...
The influx of calcium begins a cascade of events within the cell. Calcium first binds to calmodulin to form CaM. CaM will then ... a type of G protein-coupled receptor. Each olfactory receptor cell expresses only one type of olfactory receptor (OR), but many ... "Molecular cloning and characterization of a calmodulin-dependent phosphodiesterase enriched in olfactory sensory neurons". Proc ... "Phosphorylation and inhibition of olfactory adenylyl cyclase by CaM kinase II in Neurons: a mechanism for attenuation of ...
NADK is also reportedly stimulated by calcium/calmodulin binding in certain cell types, such as neutrophils. NAD kinases in ... Williams MB, Jones HP (Feb 1985). "Calmodulin-dependent NAD kinase of human neutrophils". Archives of Biochemistry and ... "A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome". Cell. 122 (6): 957-68. doi:10.1016/j.cell ... Epel D, Patton C, Wallace RW, Cheung WY (Feb 1981). "Calmodulin activates NAD kinase of sea urchin eggs: an early event of ...
... induced NF-kappa B activation by calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase occurs through Akt activation associated ... triggers acute inflammation and stimulation of adaptive immunity IRFs is a group of proteins responsible for expression of type ... The MyD88 protein acts as an adapter, connecting proteins that receive signals from outside the cell to the proteins that relay ... After ligand binding, all TLRs apart from TLR3, interact with adaptor protein MyD88. Another adaptor protein, which is ...
... calcium channel - calcium signaling - calcium-binding protein - calmodulin - calmodulin-binding protein - Calvin cycle - CAM ... cyclin-dependent kinase - cycloleucine - cyclosporin - cyclosporine - cystatin - cysteine - cystic fibrosis transmembrane ... Integral membrane protein - intein - intercellular adhesion molecule-1 - interferon receptor - interferon type I - interferon ... protein subunit - protein synthesis - protein targeting - protein translocation - protein-tyrosine kinase - protein-tyrosine- ...
Calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit (also known as Cav1.2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by ... When calcium ions bind to calmodulin, which in turn binds to a Cav1.2 channel, it allows the Cav1.2 channels within a cluster ... Perets T, Blumenstein Y, Shistik E, Lotan I, Dascal N (Apr 1996). "A potential site of functional modulation by protein kinase ... Cav1.2 is a subunit of L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel. This gene encodes an alpha-1 subunit of a voltage-dependent ...
Deficient hippocampal long-term potentiation in alpha-calcium-calmodulin kinase II mutant mice. Science, 257(5067), 201-206. ... Comparing the DNA of B cells (a type of white blood cell) in embryonic and adult mice, he observed that genes in the mature B ... He was involved in early work demonstrating the importance of CaMKII- (1992) and the NMDA receptor-dependent synaptic ... one early idea to explain the adaptive immune system suggested that each gene produces one protein; however, there are under ...
... is a calcium and calmodulin dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase (also known as protein phosphatase 3, and calcium- ... "Association of protein kinase A and protein phosphatase 2B with a common anchoring protein". Science. 267 (5194): 108-11. ... "T cell receptor-induced calcineurin activation regulates T helper type 2 cell development by modifying the interleukin 4 ... Giri PR, Higuchi S, Kincaid RL (1991). "Chromosomal mapping of the human genes for the calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase ...
Hata Y, Butz S, Südhof TC (1996). "CASK: a novel dlg/PSD95 homolog with an N-terminal calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ... Fukuda M, Mikoshiba K (2001). "Synaptotagmin-like protein 1-3: a novel family of C-terminal-type tandem C2 proteins". Biochem. ... These alpha neurexins are involved in communication through coupling mechanisms of calcium channels and vesicle exocytosis, to ... Nakayama M, Kikuno R, Ohara O (2003). "Protein-protein interactions between large proteins: two-hybrid screening using a ...
2005). "Multivalent interactions of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II with the postsynaptic density proteins NR2B ... 2007). "Densin and filtrin in the pancreas and in the kidney, targets for humoral autoimmunity in patients with type 1 diabetes ... 2001). "Densin-180 forms a ternary complex with the (alpha)-subunit of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and (alpha)- ... portray Densin-180 as a key interactor in the midst of receptor proteins, scaffolding proteins and structural proteins. [number ...
Protein kinase A (PKA) has been found to play an important role in learning and memory in Drosophila. When calcium enters a ... The intermediate term memory trace is dependent on expression of the amn gene located in dorsal paired medial neurons. An ... or both types of sensory input. In Hymenoptera, olfactory input is layered in the calyx. In ants, several layers can be ... dual regulation of adenylate cyclase by Ca2+/calmodulin and transmitter". The Journal of Neuroscience. 11 (9): 2655-65. doi: ...
... and calmodulin (CaM). Calmodulin has been shown to activate cyclic nucleotide PDE in a calcium-dependent manner and the ... of PDE1A1 and PDE1A2 by protein kinase A and of PDE1B1 by CaM Kinase II decreases their sensitivity to calmodulin activation. ... basal and calmodulin stimulated purified PDE1. Since nimodipine at lower concentrations blocks the L-type calcium channel, it ... is a phosphodiesterase enzyme also known as calcium- and calmodulin-dependent phosphodiesterase. It is one of the 11 families ...
Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII), ribosomal s6 kinase (RSK),protein kinase D (PKD), and protein kinase C (PKC). ... "Protein Information - Myosin-binding protein C, cardiac-type". Cardiac Organellar Protein Atlas Knowledgebase (COPaKB). NHLBI ... "Novel control of cardiac myofilament response to calcium by S-glutathionylation at specific sites of myosin binding protein C ... of purified cardiac muscle C-protein by purified cAMP-dependent and endogenous Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinases". The ...
Other blockers include the large organic cations calmidazolium (a calmodulin antagonist) and KN-62 (a CaM kinase II antagonist ... "P2X7 receptor-dependent blebbing and the activation of Rho-effector kinases, caspases, and IL-1 beta release". Journal of ... P2X purinoceptor 7 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the P2RX7 gene. The product of this gene belongs to the family of ... Glutathione has been proposed to act as a P2X7 receptor agonist when present at milimolar levels, inducing calcium transients ...
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases Laube B, Hirai H, Sturgess M, Betz H, Kuhse J (March 1997). "Molecular ... These types of experiments have shown that different pathways are being activated or regulated depending on the location of the ... which contain residues that can be directly modified by a series of protein kinases and protein phosphatases, as well as ... "MHC class I immune proteins are critical for hippocampus-dependent memory and gate NMDAR-dependent hippocampal long-term ...
"Phosphorylation of protein kinase C sites Ser42/44 decreases Ca(2+)-sensitivity and blunts enhanced length-dependent activation ... In a typical EF-hand protein like calmodulin, Ca2+ binding induces a closed-to-open conformational transition, exposing a large ... Strynadka NC, James MN (June 1989). "Crystal structures of the helix-loop-helix calcium-binding proteins". Annual Review of ... "Entrez Gene: TNNC1 troponin C type 1 (slow)". "Troponin C, slow skeletal and cardiac muscles". Cardiac Organellar Protein Atlas ...
... since it is able to bind calmodulin and be phosphorylated by calmodulin-dependent kinase II. LDL-receptor-related protein- ... "Surface location and high affinity for calcium of a 500-kd liver membrane protein closely related to the LDL-receptor suggest a ... characterization of a novel human hybrid-type receptor that binds the alpha2-macroglobulin receptor-associated protein". The ... Low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-associated protein 1 also known as LRPAP1 or RAP is a chaperone protein which ...
This sudden increase in cytoplasmic calcium activates Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMKII). Activated CaMKII ... One of the most important results of Wnt signaling and the elevated level of beta-catenin in certain cell types is the ... January 2011). "Protein tyrosine kinase 7 has a conserved role in Wnt/β-catenin canonical signalling". EMBO Reports. 12 (1): 43 ... Ren J, Li Y, Kufe D (May 2002). "Protein kinase C delta regulates function of the DF3/MUC1 carcinoma antigen in beta-catenin ...
... purified hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase by a calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase". The Journal ... Inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase by statins is lessened in patients with type 2 diabetes, which results in lessened inhibition ... Fairly recently, LKB1 has been identified as a likely AMP kinase kinase, which appears to involve calcium/calmodulin signaling ... and the kinase in turn was held to be activated via phosphorylation by HMG-CoA reductase kinase kinase. An excellent review on ...
The encoded protein is a calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion glycoprotein composed of five extracellular cadherin repeats, a ... "The tyrosine kinase substrate p120cas binds directly to E-cadherin but not to the adenomatous polyposis coli protein or alpha- ... E-cadherin is a crucial type of cell-cell adhesion to hold the epithelial cells tight together. E-cadherin can sequester β- ... Li Z, Kim SH, Higgins JM, Brenner MB, Sacks DB (December 1999). "IQGAP1 and calmodulin modulate E-cadherin function". The ...
Enhancement of L-type calcium channel transsarcolemmal calcium influx by S100A has been shown to be dependent on protein kinase ... Holakovska B, Grycova L, Jirku M, Sulc M, Bumba L, Teisinger J (May 2012). "Calmodulin and S100A1 protein interact with N ... Protein S100-A1, also known as S100 calcium-binding protein A1 is a protein which in humans is encoded by the S100A1 gene. ... Donato R (July 1999). "Functional roles of S100 proteins, calcium-binding proteins of the EF-hand type". Biochimica et ...
"Evolutionary origin of a calcium-dependent protease by fusion of genes for a thiol protease and a calcium-binding protein?". ... the calcium-regulated signalling protein, calmodulin, and the cysteine protease of papaya, papain. Shortly thereafter, the ... Additionally, phosphorylation by protein kinase A and dephosphorylation by alkaline phosphatase have been found to positively ... or some types of traumatic brain injury such as diffuse axonal injury. Increase in concentration of calcium in the cell results ...
Nguyen, P. V., & Woo, N. H. (2003). Regulation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases. ... Hippocampal synaptic metaplasticity requires inhibitory autophosphorylation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II. The Journal ... When activated by the second messengers such as cAMP and calcium ions, enzymes such as PKA and MAP kinase can translocate to ... This type of addition of spines occurs in a specific pattern, meaning that spines added after one task will not cluster with ...
... which can be targeted to specific cells using cell-specific promoters like Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII ... The calcium indicator is that is expressed in a cell-type specific manner is excited by this light and in turn, emits its own ... To observe simultaneous calcium dynamics in multiple cell types, researchers have combined two or more GECIs in a single brain ... These activity-dependent changes in intracellular calcium levels can be monitored by introducing GECIs to the cell. Following ...
... but immunodetection of postsynaptic proteins in brain sections proves difficult. We performed immunofluorescent double labeling ... Presynaptic proteins are readily identified by light microscopic immunocytochemistry, ... Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2 * Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases / metabolism ... Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2 * Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases ...
Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases * Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2 * Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein ... Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors * Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases / ... Erk MAP Kinase and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II Neuron. 2001 Jan;29(1):255-66. doi: 10.1016/s0896-6273(01)00195- ... Erk and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). Erk is maximally active during the subjective night, whereas ...
Ohta Y, Nishida E, Sakai H (1986) Type II Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase binds to actin filaments in a calmodulin- ... polyadenylation element binding protein-dependent protein synthesis is regulated by calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ... Regulation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II docking to N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors by calcium/calmodulin ... Activity-Dependent Regulation of Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II Localization Message Subject (Your Name) has ...
"CAMK2A calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II alpha [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. ... β CAMKIIδ CAMKIIγ CAMKIII CAMKIV CAMKV CaM kinase like vesicle associated SCAMK Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase ... CAMK, also written as CaMK, is an abbreviation for the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase class of enzymes. CAMKs are ... Hudmon A, Schulman H (2002-06-01). "Neuronal CA2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II: the role of structure and ...
Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2 Medicine & Life Sciences 100% * Peptides Medicine & Life Sciences 50% ... "Ca/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase, CaM-KNtide analogs, CaMKinase II inhibitor, Cell growth inhibition, Protein kinase", ... in the Leu6-Arg11 segment well overlapping with the crystal structure of 21-residue segment of CaM-KNtide bound to the kinase ... in the Leu6-Arg11 segment well overlapping with the crystal structure of 21-residue segment of CaM-KNtide bound to the kinase ...
... in calcium promotes the formation of calcium-calmodulin complexes that activate a number of kinases as well as protein ... Alternatively, CD8-positive CTLs can also use the Fas-dependent pathway to induce cytolysis and apoptosis. The Fas pathway is ... The degree and type of response also vary with the type of the transplant. Some sites, such as the eye and the brain, are ... Numerous other intracellular events, including protein kinase C (PKC) activation by DAG and activation of nuclear factor kappa ...
Protein Association domain of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II alpha subunit, CAMK2A [89852] (3 species). ... crystal structure of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase. PDB Compounds: (M:) calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein ... Family d.17.4.7: Association domain of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II alpha subunit, CAMK2A [89851] (2 ... d1hkxm_ d.17.4.7 (M:) Association domain of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II alpha subunit, CAMK2A {Mouse ( ...
Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2/antagonists & inhibitors. *Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type ... We also found that pharmacological blockade of either L-type Ca2+ channels or calcium-/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II ( ... Synaptic transmission-dependent regulation of neurotransmitter receptor accumulation at postsynaptic sites underlies the ... This is the first demonstration of synaptic transmission-dependent modulation of synaptic GlyRs in vivo. ...
Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2 89% * Proteins 25% * Limbic System 14% ... Regulation of dopamine D3 receptors by protein-protein interactions. Guo, M. L., Liu, X. Y., Mao, L. M. & Wang, J. Q., Apr 2010 ... A conformational switch regulates receptor-G protein interaction. Gautam, N., Apr 1 2003, In: Structure. 11, 4, p. 359-360 2 p. ... Nykamp, M. J., Marks, L., Kerby, P. W. & Cristancho, P., Dec 1 2021, In: Journal of ECT. 37, 4, p. 220-221 2 p.. Research ...
The increase in synaptic currents is dependent upon an increase in newly synthesized cell surface synaptic GABAA receptors and ... cGMP-dependent protein kinase protein kinase C and Ca2+/calmodulin type II-dependent protein kinase. Neuropharmacol 36, 1377- ... regulation of β2 and β3 subunit-containing cerebellar synaptic GABAA receptors by calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ... dependent protein kinase and cGMP-dependent protein kinase. J. Biol. Chem. 269, 18111-18117 (1994). ...
Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2 Medicine & Life Sciences 24% * Cognitive Dysfunction Medicine & Life ... APP depletion alters selective pre- and post-synaptic proteins. Martinsson, I., Capetillo-Zarate, E., Faideau, M., Willén, K., ... At the advanced stages of the disease the patient is more or less completely dependent upon help from caregivers and family ... At the advanced stages of the disease the patient is more or less completely dependent upon help from caregivers and family ...
Downregulated gene sets in the frontal cortex were related to protein synthesis, chromatin organization, transmembrane ... dependent protein kinase II (Camk2n2) was downregulated, while Camk2n1 and calcium/calmodulin dependent kinase genes showed ... A variety of calcium signaling pathway members were dysregulated, the type 2 inhibitor of the calcium/calmodulin ... upregulation of some of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinases (CAMK), calcium transporters, an inositol transporter and the ...
Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2 80% * KN 93 50% * Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel 39% ... Buonocore, M., Demartini, L., Mandrini, S., DallAngelo, A. & Toffola, E. D., Feb 1 2017, In: PM and R. 9, 2, p. 200-203 4 p.. ... Casale, R., Glynn, C. & Buonocore, M., 1992, In: Pain. 50, 2, p. 169-175 7 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › ... Buonocore, M., Demartini, L. & Bonezzi, C., Jul 1 2015, In: Pain. 156, 7, p. 1368-1369 2 p.. Research output: Contribution to ...
Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2 74% * Drug 31% * Pharmaceutical Preparations 24% ... Predictor Choice, Investor Types, and the Price Impact of Trades on the Tokyo Stock Exchange. Yamamoto, R., 2022 1月, In: ... Prediction of Resistance Mutations Against Upcoming Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase Inhibitors. Doi, Y., Tagaya, H., Noge, A. & ... Oka, K., Kataoka, M., Nishide, H. & Oyaizu, K., 2022 4月, In: MRS Communications. 12, 2, p. 213-216 4 p.. 研究成果: Article › 査読 ...
Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2 41% * Gene Expression 39% * Messenger RNA 37% ... Reverse two-hybrid screening to analyze protein-protein interaction of HIV-1 viral and cellular proteins. Das, S. & Kalpana, G ... Tension-type headache. Lipton, R. B. & Newman, L. C., Dec 1 2009, Pain Management Secrets. Elsevier Inc., p. 65-69 5 p.. ... Chitu, V. & Stanley, E. R., Jan 1 2009, The Pombe Cdc15 Homology Proteins. CRC Press, p. 49-61 13 p.. Research output: Chapter ...
Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2 Medicine & Life Sciences 24% * Immediate-Early Genes Medicine & Life ... A number of studies have demonstrated taste memory formation to be dependent on protein synthesis at the IC and to correlate ... A number of studies have demonstrated taste memory formation to be dependent on protein synthesis at the IC and to correlate ... A number of studies have demonstrated taste memory formation to be dependent on protein synthesis at the IC and to correlate ...
Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2 Medicine & Life Sciences 17% * Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Medicine & ... Y1 - 2022/2/1. N2 - Background: One third of heart failure patients exhibit dyssynchronized electromechanical activity of the ...
Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2 61% * Neurons 59% * Messenger RNA 55% ... Selective memory generalization by spatial patterning of protein synthesis. ODonnell, C. & Sejnowski, T. J., 16 Apr 2014, In: ... Simplicity, Flexibility, and Interpretability in a Model of Dendritic Protein Distributions. ODonnell, C., 25 Sep 2019, In: ... Balint, P., Kasabov, N. & Kiss, R., 5 Feb 2020, In: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems. 31, 2, p. 358- ...
Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2 94% * N-Methylaspartate 80% * Prefrontal Cortex 67% ... Involvement of a dysfunctional dopamine-D1/N-methyl-D-aspartate-NR1 and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II pathway in ... Memory Impairment and Neuronal Dysfunction Induced by β-Amyloid Protein in Rats. Nabeshima, T. & Nitta, A., 1994, In: Tohoku ... Involvement of hippocampal extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 in spatial working memory in rats. Nagai, T., Kamei, H., ...
We produced a plasmid construct expressing the atrial IP3R1 together with green fluorescent protein (GFP), and successfully ... 5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 (IP3R1) is already known to be highly expressed in the brain, and is found in many other ... Interaction and modulation by calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. J. Biol. Chem. 280 (2005) 15912-15920. ... Microtubule-dependent redistribution of the type-1 inositol 1, 4, 5 trisphosphate receptor in A7r5 smooth muscle cells. J. Cell ...
Connections to Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2 are shown below. Double-click or tap a node for more ... Protein phosphatases and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-dependent synaptic plasticity.. Colbran RJ. (2004) J ... If you expected more, please view all publication matches for Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2. ... Multivalent interactions of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II with the postsynaptic density proteins NR2B, densin- ...
Name: calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, delta. Synonyms: CaMK II, 2810011D23Rik, 8030469K03Rik ... Name: protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, f polypeptide (PTPRF), interacting protein (liprin), alpha 3 ... Name: sodium channel, voltage-gated, type VIII, alpha. Synonyms: med, seal, motor end-plate disease, nmf2, ataxia 3, mnd2, mnd- ... When maintaining a live colony, heterozygous mice may be bred together, bred with wild-type siblings, or bred with C57BL/6J ...
Open in a separate window CaMK, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase; CRC, colorectal.To deepen the knowledge about the ... mobile prion proteins; ROR, retinoid receptor-related orphan receptor; ROS, reactive air types; RZR, retinoid Z receptor. Desk ... Open up in another window CaMK, calcium mineral/calmodulin-dependent proteins kinase; CRC, colorectal tumor; FoxO, forkhead ... most likely through the inactivation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) II.19 More recently, Lee showed that ...
... interaction and modulation by calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. J Biol Chem. 2005 Apr 22; 280(16):15912-20. PMID ... Structure of the type 1 inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor revealed by electron cryomicroscopy. J Biol Chem. 2003 Jun 13; ... McKee C, Bare DJ, Ai X. Stress-driven cardiac calcium mishandling via a kinase-to-kinase crosstalk. Pflugers Arch. 2021 03; 473 ... IP3-dependent nuclear Ca2+ signalling in the mammalian heart. J Physiol. 2007 Oct 15; 584(Pt 2):601-11. PMID: 17761776. ...
calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II delta. chr7_+_99971129. 0.10. ENST00000394000.2. ENST00000350573.2. PILRA. ... phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase complex, class III, type I(GO:0034271) phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase complex, class III, type II( ... calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II delta. chr13_+_73302047. 0.11. ENST00000377814.2. ENST00000377815.3. ... 3-phosphoinositide dependent protein kinase-1. chr4_+_88928777. 0.07. ENST00000237596.2. PKD2. polycystic kidney disease 2 ( ...
calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, beta. U: 6. CCL2. chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2. U: 39 ... calcium channel, voltage-dependent, P/Q type, alpha 1A subunit. U: 2 ... Search type: go_term. Results for query: perikaryon. Gene Symbol. Gene Name. Links to Senescence. ...
Here we have utilised an aptamer-based proteomics approach to profile 1,129 proteins in the serum of wild-type and mdx ( ... dystrophin protein expression caused many of the differentially abundant serum proteins to be restored towards wild-type levels ... Identification of novel protein biomarkers has been limited due to the massive complexity of the serum proteome and the ... The serum levels of 96 proteins were found to be significantly altered (P , 0.001, q , 0.01) in mdx mice. Additionally, ...
Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 4*Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 4 ... Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases [D12.644.360.100]. *Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 4 [D12.644. ... Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases [D12.776.476.100]. *Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 4 [D12.776. ... Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases [D08.811.913.696.620.682.700.125]. *Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase ...
  • KN-93 is a selective inhibitor of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII), competitively blocking CaM binding to the kinase. (targetmol.com)
  • Lavendustin C is a potent inhibitor of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor-associated tyrosine kinase. (targetmol.com)
  • Autocamtide-2-related inhibitory peptide is a highly specific and potent inhibitor of CaMKII with an IC50 of 40 nM. (targetmol.com)
  • NH125 is a selective eEF-2 kinase inhibitor with IC50 of 60 nM, >125-fold selectivity over PKC, PKA, and CaMKII, and also a potent histidine kinase inhibitor. (targetmol.com)
  • STO-609 is a specific and cell-permeable inhibitor of the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaM-KK) for recombinant CaM-KKα/KKβ (Ki: 80/15 ng/mL). (targetmol.com)
  • A 484954 is a highly specific eukaryotic elongation factor-2 (eEF2, IC50: 280 nM) inhibitor. (targetmol.com)
  • KN-62 is a potent and specific Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) inhibitor with Ki of 0.9 μM. (targetmol.com)
  • KN-93 is a selective Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) inhibitor, competitively blocking CaM b. (targetmol.com)
  • The protein kinase C inhibitor CGP41251 suppresses cytokine release and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 expression in cancer patients. (ox.ac.uk)
  • A screen profiling 158 kinase inhibitors (Calbiochem Protein Kinase Inhibitor Library I and II, catalogue numbers 539744 and 539745) for their inhibitory activity at 1µM and 10µM against 234 human recombinant kinases using the EMD Millipore KinaseProfiler TM service. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • 1. Anastassiadis T, Deacon SW, Devarajan K, Ma H, Peterson JR. (2011) Comprehensive assay of kinase catalytic activity reveals features of kinase inhibitor selectivity. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • 3. Tokumitsu H, Inuzuka H, Ishikawa Y, Ikeda M, Saji I, Kobayashi R. (2002) STO-609, a specific inhibitor of the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 2D [S. (gsea-msigdb.org)
  • The dimerization of RAF kinase occurs in both physiological and pathological conditions, which can be induced by active Ras 13 , 17 , inhibitor binding 9 , 11 , 12 , 14 , gene fusions 22 - 25 , and alternative splicings 26 . (biorxiv.org)
  • However, pharmacological inhibition of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins or proteasome function led to neuronal death, suggesting that caspase activation is spatially restricted by these "molecular brakes" on apoptosis. (jneurosci.org)
  • We present evidence that the restriction of caspase-3 activation to the region of photostimulation-and hence protection against cell death-is mediated by the action of proteasomes and the inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs). (jneurosci.org)
  • and caspase-9 ON-01910 inhibitor activities and Bcl-2, Bax, and Cyt-c levels in NCCIT cells incubated with curcumin (5 mu M), bleomycin (120 mu g/ml), bleomycin + curcumin, H2O2 (35 mu M), and H2O2 + curcumin for 72 h. (bcl2signaling.com)
  • Indeed, it is well established that virus production requires cell activation and TRV130 HCl tyrosianse inhibitor that nuclear translocation of NF-B enhances the B-dependent early transcription of HIV-?1. (bioscience2006.org)
  • To better understand the mechanism of cell signaling that results TRV130 HCl tyrosianse inhibitor from HIV-?1 interaction with CD4, signal transduction studies have been performed which demonstrate that CD4 ligation by HIV-?1 or gp120 stimulates protein kinase C (PKC) (60), generates PKC-dependent phosphorylation. (bioscience2006.org)
  • Circadian modulation of ligand affinity is a posttranslational effect and is driven by rhythms in the activities of two protein kinases: Erk and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). (nih.gov)
  • Members of the CAMK enzyme class include, but are not limited to: CAMKI CAMKIα (CAMK1) CAMKIβ (PNCK) CAMKIδ CAMKIγ (CAMK1G) CAMKII CAMKIIα CAMKIIβ CAMKIIδ CAMKIIγ CAMKIII CAMKIV CAMKV CaM kinase like vesicle associated SCAMK Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase CAMKK1 CAMKK2 Pseudokinases are pseudoenzymes, proteins that resemble enzymes structurally, but lack catalytic activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • We also found that pharmacological blockade of either L-type Ca 2+ channels or calcium-/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) disturbed GlyR clustering. (zfin.org)
  • Thus, the formation and maintenance of GlyR clusters in the M-cells in the developing animals are regulated in a synaptic transmission-dependent manner, and CaMKII activation at the postsynapse is essential for GlyR clustering. (zfin.org)
  • The increase in synaptic currents is dependent upon an increase in newly synthesized cell surface synaptic GABA A receptors and is abolished by preventing CaMKII phosphorylation of GABA A receptors. (nature.com)
  • The resulting postsynaptic Ca 2+ entry via voltage-gated Ca 2+ channels activates Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. (nature.com)
  • The subsequent activation of downstream protein kinases (ERK, CaMKII), transcription factors (CREB, Elk-1) and immediate early genes (c-fos, Arc), has been implicated in the regulation of the different phases of taste learning. (haifa.ac.il)
  • citation.id primary _citation.title 'Structure of the Camkiidelta/Calmodulin Complex Reveals the Molecular Mechanism of Camkii Kinase Activation. (rcsb.org)
  • L-type Ca2+ channel facilitation mediated by phosphorylation of the beta subunit by CaMKII. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • O-Uchi J, Komukai K, Kusakari Y, Obata T, Hongo K, Sasaki H, Kurihara S. alpha1-adrenoceptor stimulation potentiates L-type Ca2+ current through Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent PK II (CaMKII) activation in rat ventricular myocytes. (jefferson.edu)
  • Canonical" targets of calmodulin, such as myosin light-chain kinases and CaMKII , bind only to the Ca 2+ -bound protein, whereas some proteins, such as NaV channels and IQ-motif proteins, also bind to calmodulin in the absence of Ca 2+ . (wikipedia.org)
  • Calcium-calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a protein kinase, which detects Ca2+ signals and can phosphorylate many target proteins as well as itself. (eur.nl)
  • However, in chapter 3 we show that although CaMKII is required for normal presynaptic function, its ability to phosphorylate itself, or other proteins does not appear to be necessary for its presynaptic role. (eur.nl)
  • This suggests that CaMKII plays a structural (non-enzymatic) role and may explain why this kinase is so abundant. (eur.nl)
  • In the present study, we identified that both mRNA and protein levels of CaMKII (δ) were upregulated in a time-dependent manner during osteoclast differentiation. (nbrp.jp)
  • Furthermore, CaMKII (δ) gene silencing downregulated phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), including JNK, ERK, and p38, which were transiently activated by RANKL. (nbrp.jp)
  • Both molecules, the NMDA receptor subunit NR2B and Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), are strongly implicated in mediating synaptic plasticity. (ulaval.ca)
  • This activity-dependent incorporation of CaMKII into postsynaptic sites may play a role in maturation and plasticity of synapses. (ulaval.ca)
  • Further, experimental validation showed that the QX1 formula inhibited the activity of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), MAPK (P38, ERK1/2, and JNK), and TLR4/NF- κ B signaling pathways but promoted the activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway. (hindawi.com)
  • The stability of CaMKIIα is investigated using a combination of differential scanning calorimetry, X‐ray crystallography, and mass photometry to conclude that within the context of the holoenzyme structure, the kinase domain is stabilized, whereas the hub domain is destabilized. (semanticscholar.org)
  • It is shown that activation of CaMKII by Ca2+-calmodulin is cooperative, with a Hill coefficient of ∼3.0, implying sequential kinase-domain activation beyond dimeric units, and points to the importance of kinetic dissection of the frequency-response mechanism in future experiments. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Structural Insights into the Regulation of Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II (CaMKII). (semanticscholar.org)
  • The binding of glutamate or NMDA to these receptors in the synaptic membrane allows calcium influx and subsequent activation of cation-dependent enzymes, such as calcium-calmodulin protein kinase II (CaMKII), PKC, phospholipase C gamma and some subtypes of PLA2. (fapesp.br)
  • In long-term potentiation (LTP), a cellular and molecular model for memory, post-synaptic calcium ion (Ca 2+ ) flux activates the hexagonal Ca 2+ -calmodulin dependent kinase II (CaMKII), a dodacameric holoenzyme containing 2 hexagonal sets of 6 kinase domains. (nova.edu)
  • Candidate sites for CaMKII phosphorylation-encoded molecular memory include microtubules (MTs), cylindrical organelles whose surfaces represent a regular lattice with a pattern of hexagonal polymers of the protein tubulin. (nova.edu)
  • Using molecular mechanics modeling and electrostatic profiling, we find that spatial dimensions and geometry of the extended CaMKII kinase domains precisely match those of MT hexagonal lattices. (nova.edu)
  • This suggests sets of six CaMKII kinase domains phosphorylate hexagonal MT lattice neighborhoods collectively, e.g. conveying synaptic information as ordered arrays of six "bits", and thus "bytes", with 64 to 5,281 possible bit states per CaMKII-MT byte. (nova.edu)
  • This 1.3 Kb promoter is derived from the murine α-Calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII), a gene with expression restricted to excitatory neurons in the neocortex and hippocampus. (vectorbiolabs.com)
  • Specifically, we have developed and applied novel experimental and computational tools to determine the underlying molecular mechanism for CaMKII-dependent regulation of voltage-gated Na+ channel activity, cell membrane excitability, and heart function. (osu.edu)
  • Role of activated CaMKII in abnormal calcium homeostasis and INa remodeling after myocardial infarction: Insights from mathematical modeling. (osu.edu)
  • This calcium saturation activates the kinase and allows it to undergo a conformational change which permits the kinase to bind to its phosphorylation target sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • These groups allow for the CaM-dependent phosphorylation of targets, but also allows the structure to autophosphorylate itself and become CaM-independent, as seen in Figure 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • The activity of this enzyme is regulated by its phosphorylation by CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE. (jefferson.edu)
  • A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. (jefferson.edu)
  • Other pathways modulating energy metabolism, cell signaling, Golgi apparatus, carbohydrates, and lipids are also targets of dysregulated protein phosphorylation in P301S mice. (ibecbarcelona.eu)
  • The present results, together with accompanying immunohistochemical and Western-blotting studies, show widespread abnormal phosphorylation of proteins, in addition to protein tau, in P301S mice. (ibecbarcelona.eu)
  • These observations point to dysregulated protein phosphorylation as a relevant contributory pathogenic component of tauopathies. (ibecbarcelona.eu)
  • Using transgenic mice expressing a constitutively active form of H-ras (H- rasG12V), we studied the H-Ras/ERK/Syn I pathway and showed that in these mice ERK-dependent phosphorylation of synansin I is increased and causes several presynaptic changes. (eur.nl)
  • In addition, metrnl increases glucose uptake via the calcium‐dependent AMPKα2 pathway in skeletal muscle cells and increases the phosphorylation of HDAC5, a transcriptional repressor of GLUT4, in an AMPKα2‐dependent manner. (edu.au)
  • Lung injury related to mechanical ventilation ranges from macroscopic air leaks to intracellular changes in protein phosphorylation signaling cascades and gene expression [ 5 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moreover, blockade of NMDA receptors diminishes the ability of dopamine to induce phosphorylation of the cyclic AMP responsive element binding protein CREB. (jneurosci.org)
  • AA regulates the conductance of ion channels, the release of neurotransmitters, the phosphorylation of substrates by the action of kinases and the synthesis of transcriptional factors, with effects on neuronal polarity, synaptic plasticity and long-term potentiation (LTP). (fapesp.br)
  • the interaction requires DAPK2 phosphorylation at Thr-369 and suppresses DAPK2 kinase activity and DAPK2-induced apoptosis. (icr.ac.uk)
  • Here, we found that zipper-interacting protein (ZIP) kinase plays a predominant role in myosin II phosphorylation in mammalian fibroblasts. (rupress.org)
  • and (c) disruption of ZIP kinase expression by RNA interference diminished myosin phosphorylation, and resulted in the defect of cell polarity and migration efficiency. (rupress.org)
  • These results suggest that ZIP kinase is critical for myosin phosphorylation and necessary for cell motile processes in mammalian fibroblasts. (rupress.org)
  • Protein modification.phosphorylation.CAMK kinase. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • We identify a cytoskeletal protein, non-muscle myosin IIA (NMIIA) whose abundance and phosphorylation status differs between reticulocytes and erythrocytes and localized it in the proximity of autophagosomal vesicles. (haematologica.org)
  • Ligand binding to the four closely related members of this RTK family -epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, also known as ErbB-1 or HER1), ErbB-2 (HER2), ErbB-3 (HER3), and ErbB-4 (HER4)-induces the formation of receptor homo- and heterodimers and the activation of the intrinsic kinase domain, resulting in phosphorylation on specific tyrosine residues (pY) within the cytoplasmic tail. (uni-freiburg.de)
  • AM, which should block the interaction of calcium with calmodulin and thus prevent phosphorylation of the enzyme. (ahlinyaobatgatal07.com)
  • There is the presynaptic activity, new light chain phosphorylation substrate at the concentration in situ brain protein kinase c augments evoked transmitter release. (ahlinyaobatgatal07.com)
  • In transfected cells expressing CaMKIV, ionomycin-induced CaMKIV phosphorylation at Thr 196 was decreased upon treatment with either Na 2 S 4 or the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress inducer thapsigargin, whereas cells expressing mutant CaMKIV (C198V) were resistant to this treatment. (elsevier.com)
  • Furthermore, CD4 can participate in transmembrane signal transduction actively, since coaggregation from the TCR-CD3 complicated and Compact disc4 in multimeric clusters (40, 49) potentiates a number of biochemical reactions, including proteins tyrosine phosphorylation, creation of cytoplasmic inositol triphosphate, and launch of intracellular Ca2+ (58), that eventually regulate cell proliferation (2). (bioscience2006.org)
  • Goutsouliak, V. and Rabkin, S.W. Angiotensin II-induced inositol phosphate generation is mediated through tyrosine kinase pathways in cardiomyocytes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Acute inhibition of these signaling pathways causes phase-dependent changes in the affinity of the channels for cGMP. (nih.gov)
  • [ 2 ] Given the different nature of physical exercise and sleep, one might assume that the enhancing effects that these two activities have on memory are irremediably mediated through different pathways. (medscape.com)
  • High levels of glucose in diabetes induce multiple biochemical pathways in vascular cells, including increased oxidative stress, generation of advanced glycation end-products, excess synthesis of extracellular matrix, altered protein kinase C activity, increased vascular permeability, and endothelial cell apoptosis ( 2 , 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Current research into the role of hydrogen peroxide in plant stress and defense responses is primarily focused on uncovering novel sources of the compound in response pathways, examining molecular networks that control oxidative burst events, assessing interactions between various environmental and endogenous factors and H 2 O 2 signaling, and studying gene products that protect cellular components during H 2 O 2 responses. (inquiriesjournal.com)
  • The integrating pathway analysis indicated the calcium, PI3K/AKT, MAPK, and Toll-like receptor signaling pathways may be involved in the protective effect of the QX1 formula on sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction. (hindawi.com)
  • Our data suggested that QX1 may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for sepsis by suppressing the activity of calcium, MAPK, and TLR4/NF- κ B pathways, but promoting the activation of AKT, thus controlling cytokine storm and regulating immune balance. (hindawi.com)
  • Homeostasis of articular cartilage and subchondral bone is essential for maintenance of joint function which is critically dependent on the balance between anabolic and catabolic signaling pathways [ 1 , 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • RasGrf1 elimination resulted in differential gene expression of numerous components of MAPK- and Calcium-signaling pathways, suggesting a relevant contribution of this GEF to modulation of cellular signaling in the cell lineages integrating the pancreatic islets. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Transient receptor potential cation channel protein 6 (TRPC6) plays an important role in renal function through its regulation of intracellular Ca 2+ influx and RhoA/ROCK pathways. (dovepress.com)
  • Calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine/threonine kinase involved in multiple cellular signaling pathways that trigger cell survival, apoptosis, and autophagy. (icr.ac.uk)
  • block of the K + ion channels (Class III AADs) results in the lengthening of the cardiac refractory period, and Class IV AADs block peak L-type Ca 2+ channels suppressing slowly conducting fronts and reentrant pathways supported by the slow inward Ca2+ current [3]. (sciforschenonline.org)
  • Transcriptome and proteomic studies shows that the genes including calmodulin, calcium dependent protein kinase 2, HSFs, and HSPs, might be involved in heat stress response pathways that function during pollen development. (kib.ac.cn)
  • Ca 2+ can act in signal transduction resulting from activation of ion channels or as a second messenger caused by indirect signal transduction pathways such as G protein-coupled receptors . (wikipedia.org)
  • The atypical protein kinase C (PKC) member PKC-zeta has been implicated in several signal transduction pathways regulating differentiation, proliferation or apoptosis of mammalian cells. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Activation of caspase-3, an executioner caspase that lies downstream of both extrinsic and intrinsic (mitochondrial) pathways of apoptosis, plays a central role in programmed cell death of many cell types, including neurons ( Fuchs and Steller, 2011 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • 7 Other notable hallmarks of maturation include a progressive loss of RNA content, an increase in cell deformability, and a decrease in both cytoplasmic and surface protein content through exocytosis, membrane shedding and autophagy-mediated pathways. (haematologica.org)
  • In this tutorial, I explain how to develop models of second messenger pathways and calcium dynamics. (brains-minds-media.org)
  • The ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) couples binding of extracellular growth factor ligands to intracellular signaling pathways regulating diverse biologic responses, including proliferation, differentiation, cell motility, and survival. (uni-freiburg.de)
  • The kinase of the pathways have new in the CYP1-4 isozymes. (evakoch.com)
  • Jnk activity regulates actin depolymerization factor signalling pathways regulating mitochondrial calcium concentration used as yet been described above are pseudocolored for brain nerve action is indicated. (ahlinyaobatgatal07.com)
  • Yu Activation of p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathways and induction of apoptosis by chelerythrine do not require inhibition of protein kinase C. J.Biol.Chem. (bio-techne.com)
  • Here we show that inactivation of the β-arrestin-2 gene, barr2, in β-cells of adult mice greatly impairs insulin release and glucose tolerance in mice fed with a calorie-rich diet. (nih.gov)
  • Downregulated gene sets in the frontal cortex were related to protein synthesis, chromatin organization, transmembrane transport processes, while 'dendrite development', 'regulation of synaptic plasticity' and 'positive regulation of synapse assembly' gene sets were upregulated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II triggers cell membrane injury by inducing complement factor B gene expression in the mouse heart. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • Phenotype annotations for a gene are curated single mutant phenotypes that require an observable (e.g., "cell shape"), a qualifier (e.g., "abnormal"), a mutant type (e.g., null), strain background, and a reference. (yeastgenome.org)
  • In chapter 5 we studied one of the most common single-gene disorders affecting cognitive function in human, neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). (eur.nl)
  • 2012) revealed that heat shock in Arabidopsis caused the induction of a spermine synthase gene ( SPMS ), S-adenosylmethionine gene, and an arginine decarboxylase 2 gene. (inquiriesjournal.com)
  • Gene Ontology analysis showed that the genes associated with small molecule metabolic process, oxidation‑reduction processes, protein kinase activity, transport, and cell junction were commonly downregulated in cells whose proliferation was attenuated by the knockdown of RHOA . (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Gene-expression analysis of the articular cartilage and subchondral bone of three wild-type and three Frzb -/- mice was performed by microarray. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CUBN rs11591606 was associated with maternal risk, and is in a smaller haplo type block at the 3 end of the gene. (trpvantagonists.com)
  • CDKN2a is a tumor suppressor gene that codes for several isoforms, including ARF, a protein that stabilizes p53. (trpvantagonists.com)
  • The diversification of the MAGUK protein gene family occurred, most probably, prior to the divergence between Metazoa+choanoflagellates and the Capsaspora + Ministeria clade. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study highlights the importance of generating enough genome data from the broadest possible taxonomic sampling, in order to fully understand the evolutionary history of major protein gene families. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Neuromodulators may modify gene expression, produce plasticity of various synaptic channels, or modify properties of voltage dependent channels, depending on both the specific neuromodulator and the target neuron. (brains-minds-media.org)
  • The product of this gene belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase family and to the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily. (anticorps-enligne.fr)
  • Our group was the first to characterize ion channels in lymphocytes and the first to demonstrate a specific requirement for ion channel activity in T cell functions including: membrane potential, cell volume, calcium signaling, cellular motility, gene expression, and cell proliferation. (uci.edu)
  • It was realized later that a new gene dubbed trp-like ( trpl ) showed structural homologies to Drosophila trp as well as with the superfamily of voltage-gated channel genes, raising the possibility that trpl encoded subunits of a calcium or a nonspecific cation channel (Phillips, A.M., A. Bull, and L.E. Kelly. (rupress.org)
  • Protein class the gene product belongs to according to selected gene lists. (proteinatlas.org)
  • Number of protein-coding transcribed from this gene as defined by Ensembl . (proteinatlas.org)
  • The "presenilin hypothesis" posits a loss of essential presenilin protein functions as a consequence of gene mutation, which might be one factor influencing disease phenotype. (j-alz.com)
  • Wang Y, Sun HY, Kumar S , Puerta MDM, Jo H , Rezvan A. ZBTB46 is a shear-sensitive transcription factor inhibiting endothelial cell proliferation via gene expression regulation of cell cycle proteins. (academictree.org)
  • Hormone receptors are membrane proteins which are specific for each hormone. (howmed.net)
  • G protein-coupled receptors in cell signaling. (pharmaceuticalintelligence.com)
  • These types of receptors transmit information from the extracellular environment to the inside of the cell. (pharmaceuticalintelligence.com)
  • A growing body of evidence indicates that the transport of GluA1 subunit-containing calcium-permeable AMPA receptors (CP-AMPARs) to synapses in subregions of the nucleus accumbens promotes cocaine seeking. (nature.com)
  • In these cultures, we find that dopamine- or forskolin-mediated IEG induction requires Ca 2+ entry via NMDA receptors but not via L-type Ca 2+ channels. (jneurosci.org)
  • Many cell surface receptors , including G protein-coupled receptors and receptor tyrosine kinases , activate the PLC enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • T cells are activated when T cell receptors (TCRs) engage peptides presented by antigen-presenting cells (APC), causing an increase of intracellular calcium (Ca 2+ ) concentration. (mdpi.com)
  • Secreted by the acidophil cells of the anterior pituitary, circulating GH shoots to the liver where it can bind GH receptors to stimulate the expression of IGF-I and its cohort IGFBP3 (IGF binding protein 3, there are six in total), a protein that carries IGF-I and magnifies its effects. (bodybuilding.com)
  • Lacking an intrinsic catalytic activity, cytokine receptors respond to ligand binding by first dimerizing and then activating one or more cytosolic protein tyrosine kinases, many of which belong to the Janus (JAK) kinase family. (horizondiscovery.com)
  • 2019 ). At least some members of this family (e.g., 1.A.10.1.10) and at least some of the metabolomic G-protein receptors (e.g. (tcdb.org)
  • NMDA receptors are the most abundant glutamate-stimulated, calcium-conducting channels in brain and spinal cord. (buffalo.edu)
  • The most common signaling pathway that increases cytoplasmic calcium concentration is the phospholipase C (PLC) pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mapping, sequencing of the mutated locus and complementation studies revealed CCE5 to encode the receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase (RLCK), avrPphB sensitive 1-like 1 ( PBL1 ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • We report here the identification of a cytoplasmic and membrane-associated protein that we name zeta-interacting protein (ZIP) and that interacts with the regulatory domain of PKC-zeta but not classic PKCs. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • however, free iron (Fe2+), in excess, can exacerbate oxidative damage through the Fenton reaction, which generates hydroxyl radicals, probably the most enthusiastic and deleterious reactive oxygen varieties (ROS).1C3 Therefore, iron-sequestering proteins such as ferritin have evolved as one of the cellular mechanisms of detoxification.4C7 Although it was generally believed the subcellular localization of ferritin is exclusively cytoplasmic, recent studies have reported cells with ferritin inside a nuclear location. (biotuesday.ca)
  • caused apoptosis indicated as increases in caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 activities and Bax and cytoplasmic Cyt-c levels and a decrease in Bcl-2 level. (bcl2signaling.com)
  • We have previously shown that NF-B nuclear translocation can be observed upon human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) binding to cells expressing the wild-type CD4 molecule, but not in cells expressing a truncated form of CD4 that lacks the cytoplasmic domain (M. V regions and that is predominantly expressed at the surface of helper T lymphocytes (29, 36, 48). (bioscience2006.org)
  • The present structure provides a molecular basis for clarifying the known biochemical properties of CaMKKβ and for designing novel inhibitors targeting CaMkkβ and the related protein kinases. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A screen of 72 inhibitors against 456 human kinases. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • A screen profiling the inhibitory activity of 178 commercially available kinase inhibitors at 0.5µM against a panel of 300 recombinant protein kinases using the Reaction Biology Corporation Kinase Hotspot SM platform. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • 2010) Activation state-dependent binding of small molecule kinase inhibitors: structural insights from biochemistry. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • Clinical Evidence and Proposed Mechanisms of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction: A Class Effect? (cfrjournal.com)
  • Remarkably, sodium- glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2is) may be the first drug class to improve cardiovascular outcomes in HFpEF. (cfrjournal.com)
  • Interestingly, Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries GART rs4817579 in intron 2 has been associated with cleft lip and or palate plus dental anomalies. (trpvantagonists.com)
  • To target this kinase cascade for cancer therapy, both RAF inhibitors and MEK inhibitors have been developed and applied to clinical treatment 6 - 8 . (biorxiv.org)
  • Understanding the regulation of the RAF/MEK/ERK kinase cascade could help us to design strategies to circumvent this resistance and develop more effective inhibitors for cancer treatment. (biorxiv.org)
  • Irreversible inhibitors are generally specific for one class of enzyme and do not inactivate all proteins. (bcl2signaling.com)
  • When ACE inhibitors are given, angiotensin II is still formed under the effects of kinase. (foobrdigital.com)
  • According to American Urological Association (AUA) guidelines, oral phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors are first-line therapy unless contraindicated. (medscape.com)
  • Calmodulin kinase II inhibition protects against structural heart disease. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • Additionally, the background preclinical research on this combination therapy based on the reconsolidation-updating mechanism, the inhibition of histone deacetylase 2, and critical period reopening, off-label use of valproate in panic disorder, plasticity-augmented psychotherapy, and how to combine valproate with CBT is discussed. (psychiatryinvestigation.org)
  • Sakata-Yanagimoto et al ( 5 ) also reported that the RHOA p.Gly17Val mutation was a loss-of-function mutation because it showed loss of GTP binding activity and inhibition of wild-type RHOA function. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • If, on the one hand, the inhibition of cPLA2 by lithium is consistent with its therapeutic action in mood disorders, this effect may hinder the formation and consolidation of memory, which are processes dependent on the integrity of this pathway and the release of AA. (fapesp.br)
  • Na+ /H+ exchanger 1 inhibition in the heart and lungs reduces sodium-induced calcium overload and pulmonary hypertension, respectively. (cfrjournal.com)
  • 1,2 SOLOIST-WHF was also the first to show initiation of SGLT2 inhibition in HFpEF patients with acute HF, in stabilised patients preceding discharge or shortly afterwards - resulting in a lower total number of CV deaths and HHF, and urgent visits for HF versus placebo. (cfrjournal.com)
  • In vitro incubation of CaMKIV with the exogenous RSS donors Na 2 S n (n = 2-4) resulted in dose-dependent inhibition of the CaMKK-induced phospho-Thr 196 and consequent inactivation of the enzyme activity. (elsevier.com)
  • Conversely, mutated CaMKIV (C198V) was refractory to the Na 2 S n -induced enzyme inhibition. (elsevier.com)
  • CAMK, also written as CaMK, is an abbreviation for the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase class of enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This group of proteins includes CAMK III. (wikipedia.org)
  • CAMK II is the main protein in this subset. (wikipedia.org)
  • CAMK removes a phosphate group from ATP, most typically using a Mg2+ ion, and adds it to the CAM protein, rendering it active. (wikipedia.org)
  • Figure 1 shows how the presence of calcium or calmodulin allows for the activation of CAM kinases (CAMK II). (wikipedia.org)
  • CAMK I as shown in Figure 2, has a double-lobed structure, consisting of a catalytic, substrate-binding domain and an autoinhibitory domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Figure 2 goes into detail showing the structure and domains of CAMK I. CAMK II has a variety of different forms, with CAMK 2A being the most common, as shown in Figure 3. (wikipedia.org)
  • This means once the CAMK 2A protein is initially activated by calcium or calmodulin, it can, in turn, further activate itself, so it doesn't become inactive even when it is without calcium or calmodulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • CAMK also works to regulate the cell life cycle (i.e. programmed cell death), rearrangement of the cell's cytoskeletal network, and mechanisms involved in the learning and memory of an organism.There are 2 common types of CAM Kinase proteins: specialized and multi-functional CAM kinases. (targetmol.com)
  • CaMKIV is phosphorylated at Thr 196 by its upstream CaMK kinase (CaMKK), resulting in the induction of its full activity. (elsevier.com)
  • Strong calcium entry activates mitochondrial superoxide generation, upregulating kinase signaling in hippocampal neurons. (jefferson.edu)
  • The pathological mechanisms of cardiac dysfunction in sepsis are multifactorial, including inflammatory mediator disorder, mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis, and calcium regulation disorder [ 5 , 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • mitochondrial calcium uniporter reg. (gsea-msigdb.org)
  • These mechanisms include bottlenecks of metabolic flux, redox imbalance, protein modification, ROS-induced ROS generation, impaired mitochondrial Ca 2+ homeostasis, and inflammation. (jci.org)
  • Local activation of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway in dendrites is sufficient to cause elimination of spines and dendrite branches that are localized in the vicinity of Mito-KillerRed photostimulation in a manner dependent on caspase-3 activation. (jneurosci.org)
  • To elucidate mitochondrial complex I-dependent ROS-signaling after lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulation THP-1 macrophages with a knockdown of the transmembrane protein TMEM126B were generated. (uni-frankfurt.de)
  • Endurance exercise has been shown to be of greater benefit than strength training in treating type 2 diabetes due to improved oxidative capacity through increased mitochondrial density. (back-in-business-physiotherapy.com)
  • Once bound to Ca 2+ , calmodulin acts as part of a calcium signal transduction pathway by modifying its interactions with various target proteins such as kinases or phosphatases . (wikipedia.org)
  • Data from three wild-type and two Frzb -/- samples could be used for pathway analysis of differentially expressed genes and were explored with PANTHER, DAVID and GSEA bioinformatics tools. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Activation of the wingless-type (WNT) pathway was analysed using Western blot. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The RhoA/ROCK pathway and podocyte-specific proteins (nephrin and synaptopodin) levels were quantified. (dovepress.com)
  • Both 100 μM valsartan and 10 μM tetrandrine for 48 h significantly inhibited intracellular Ca 2+ influx, apoptosis, and RhoA/ROCK pathway, and increased nephrin and synaptopodin proteins in podocytes stably expressing TRPC6. (dovepress.com)
  • This study characterizes a special category of oncogenic kinase mutations, and elucidates the molecular basis that underlies the differential ability of RAF isoforms to stimulate MEK-ERK pathway. (biorxiv.org)
  • Active Ras-induced homo/hetero-dimerization of RAF kinase is responsible not only for the pathway activation by physiological agonists but also for its hyperactivation by genetic alterations upstream of RAF in carcinogenesis 13 , 17 , 27 . (biorxiv.org)
  • Recent data imply that an obesogenic high fat diet enhance myocardial tolerance against ischemic-reperfusion induced injury (IR), but this cardioprotection was not associated with activation of ERK p44/p42 or PKB/Akt dependent RISK signaling (reperfusion injury salvage kinase pathway) [ 11 ], a pathway widely accepted to mediate protection against reperfusion injury [ 12 , 13 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The most well-described pathway relating to loss of protein during reticulocyte maturation concerns the removal of the transferrin receptor CD71. (haematologica.org)
  • BRAF V600E is a well-recognized driver mutation that activates the RAS-BRAF-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway among 40%-60% of melanoma cases. (tcmjmed.com)
  • We seek to define the activation pathway, modulatory mechanisms and structure-function relationships of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor to better understand the roles played by this protein in the central nervous system. (buffalo.edu)
  • SQS, squalene synthase Squalene epoxidase (SQE) catalyzes the epoxidation of squalene to 2,3\oxidosqualene, which is the 1st oxidation reaction in the triterpene biosynthesis pathway. (cancerbiomarkerstrondheim.com)
  • Calcium signaling is the use of calcium ions (Ca 2+ ) to communicate and drive intracellular processes often as a step in signal transduction . (wikipedia.org)
  • It remains to be investigated if the many other RLCKs encoded in the Arabidopsis genome affect early calcium signal transduction - perhaps in dependence on the type of MAMP/DAMP ligands. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The C2 domain is a Ca 2+ -dependent membrane-targeting module found in many cellular proteins involved in signal transduction or membrane trafficking. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • They regulate STDP through various mechanisms, as they can control the biophysical properties of dendrites , including the dynamics of spike backpropagation, and can influence the state of kinases and phosphatases implicated in synaptic plasticity (Seol et al. (lookformedical.com)
  • modulations by kinases and phosphatases. (stanford.edu)
  • Long term effects are mediated by various kinases and phosphatases. (brains-minds-media.org)
  • The chaperonin( IL6) drug of phosphatases is IL6, IL11, eukaryotic, formation extracellular orientation( LIF), oncostatin M( OSM), immune enhanced strand( CNTF), cardiotrophin 1 and 2( CT-1) and effective ligand( CLC)( Heinrich et al. (erik-mill.de)
  • Learning is thought to occur through activity-dependent synaptic modification in the neuronal network. (eur.nl)
  • Glycogen synthase kinase 3² (GSK3²) is another important neuronal enzyme whose activity is inhibited by lithium. (fapesp.br)
  • [2] These include muscle contraction , neuronal transmission (as in an excitatory synapse ), cellular motility (including the movement of flagella and cilia ), fertilization , cell growth (proliferation), neurogenesis , learning and memory as with synaptic plasticity , and secretion of saliva . (wikipedia.org)
  • But it still takes tens or hundreds of msec to get a signal from a 'pain' neuronal assembly when you stub your toe (and reconfigure a few stress proteins, and trigger a signalling cascade). (scienceforums.net)
  • This is exemplified by the neuronal tau proteins, which are critically involved in a class of neurodegenerative diseases collectively called tauopathies and which includes Alzheimer's disease (AD) as its most common representative. (microbialcell.com)
  • In this respect, although obviously lacking a brain with a multicellular neuronal network, simple unicellular yeast are of great value to investigate the effects of overexpression and single point-mutations in genes encoding key proteins on cell physiology and on the function of conserved signaling cascades. (microbialcell.com)
  • In the tutorial that follows we find support for the view that mechanisms and examples from the current literature, which give insight into the developments in cell metabolism, are achieving a separation from inconsistent views introduced by the classical model of molecular biology and genomics, toward a more functional cellular dynamics that is not dependent on the classic view. (pharmaceuticalintelligence.com)
  • Mechanical force modulates the conformation and function of individual proteins, and this underpins many mechanically driven cellular processes. (ibecbarcelona.eu)
  • Another clue to metformin's cellular target came to light in a 2001 paper reporting that metformin activates AMP-activated protein kinase, or AMPK. (asbmb.org)
  • Ca 2+ is important for cellular signalling , for once it enters the cytosol of the cytoplasm it exerts allosteric regulatory effects on many enzymes and proteins . (wikipedia.org)
  • Using MAMP-induced rise in cellular calcium levels as one of the earliest biochemical readouts, we initiated a genetic screen for components involved in early MAMP signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Sumoylation, the covalent attachment of the small ubiquitin-related modifier SUMO to target proteins, regulates different cellular processes,although its role in the control of development remains unclear. (biologists.com)
  • Post-translational modifications modulate the activity of proteins and therefore have crucial roles in many cellular processes. (biologists.com)
  • However, if not performed properly, resuscitation can actually exacerbate cellular injury caused by hemorrhagic shock, and the type of fluid used for resuscitation plays an important role in this injury pattern. (scienceopen.com)
  • Cellular stress and eccentric contractions activate MAP kinase signalling which affect MSK 1, p90rsk and p38. (back-in-business-physiotherapy.com)
  • Substrate-specific CAM Kinases only have one target that they can phosphorylate, such as myosin light chain kinases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multi-functional CAM Kinases have multiple targets they can phosphorylate and are found in processes including the secretion of neurotransmitters, metabolism of glycogen, and the regulation of various transcription factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metrnl improves glucose metabolism via AMPKα2 and is a promising therapeutic candidate for glucose‐related diseases such as type 2 diabetes. (edu.au)
  • 5 10 Of Daily Caloric Consumption, When Possible, Go Along With Excessive Kathryn Dennis Weight Loss Fiber And Complicated Carbs 15 30 Of Total Energy, How Much Protein You Eat Retains Your Metabolism On Observe All Of The Above Benefits Mixed Lead To A Decrease Danger Of Obesity And Other Health Concerns That Come Along With It. (borrellimetalbuildings.com)
  • Intermediary metabolism in the mitochondria provides metabolites for multiple biological processes, such as biosynthesis and protein modifications (refs. (jci.org)
  • The QTL regions described in this study harbor genes with biological functions related to metabolic processes, lipid and protein metabolism, generation of energy and growth. (biomedcentral.com)
  • SIRT1 is an NAD + -dependent protein deacetylase, which functions as an important regulator of energy hemostasis and lipid metabolism in mammals [ 8 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Calmodulin kinase II interacts with the dopamine transporter C terminus to regulate amphetamine-induced reverse transport. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • The α subunit dissociates and interacts with the membrane bound target protein (enzyme) to initiate intracellular signal. (howmed.net)
  • CaMKK2 kinase domain interacts with the autoinhibitory region through the N-terminal lobe including the RP insert. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Phosphorylated HDAC5 interacts with 14‐3‐3 proteins and sequesters them in the cytoplasm, resulting in the activation of GLUT4 transcription. (edu.au)
  • One defective role that interacts 2-oxo Dephosphorylation deposition, structurally synthesised in kinases and some soluble junctions, builds also reviewed. (evakoch.com)
  • The CAM Kinase contains a highly concentrated glycine loop where the gamma phosphate from the donor ATP molecule is easily able to bind to the enzyme which then utilizes the metal ion to facilitate a smooth phosphate transfer to the target protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. (jefferson.edu)
  • G-protein is the membrane bound protein which couples hormone receptor to the effector enzyme. (howmed.net)
  • Description: This is Double-antibody Sandwich Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Human Troponin C Type 2, Fast (TNNC2) in serum, plasma, tissue homogenates and other biological fluids. (kits-elisa.com)
  • Description: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the Double-antibody Sandwich method for detection of Human Troponin C Type 2, Fast (TNNC2) in samples from Serum, plasma, tissue homogenates and other biological fluids with no significant corss-reactivity with analogues from other species. (kits-elisa.com)
  • [11] Other biochemical roles of calcium include regulating enzyme activity, permeability of ion channels , [12] activity of ion pumps , and components of the cytoskeleton . (wikipedia.org)
  • Enzyme classification.EC_2 transferases.EC_2.7. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • The first part of the tutorial explains the equations used to model bimolecular reactions, enzyme reactions, calcium release channels, calcium pumps and diffusion. (brains-minds-media.org)
  • Description: This is Double-antibody Sandwich Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Human Complement Factor H Related Protein 5 (CFHR5) in serum, plasma and other biological fluids. (operatiebrp.nl)
  • heart: An type that exerts blood without suffering type of enzyme. (augenta.net)
  • The same enzyme (under the name of plasma kinase) inactivates bradykinin, so it accumulates. (foobrdigital.com)
  • Each kinase domain can either phosphorylate substrate proteins, or not (i.e. encoding one bit). (nova.edu)
  • Using these unique mutants, we demonstrate that active RAFs, including the BRAF(V600E) mutant, phosphorylate MEK in a dimer-dependent manner. (biorxiv.org)
  • We and others have additionally shown that glucose-induced upregulation of p300 can regulate the expression of genes for extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and vasoactive factors in endothelial cells ( 11 , 12 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The genes in the Arabidopsis Rboh family encode for integral membrane proteins characterized by six membrane-spanning domains, two heme groups and a C-terminal domain with NADPH- and FAD- binding sites (Figure 5). (inquiriesjournal.com)
  • At present, 15 different variants of the Romano-Ward syndrome have been published resulting from mutations in genes coding for cardiac proteins including ion channels, accessory subunits, and associated modulator proteins, responsible for orchestrating the cardiac AP. (edu.es)
  • The first three LQTS genes identified were: KCNQ1 (LQT1), KCNH2 (LQT2), and SCN5A (LQT3) encoding for the proteins that conducts IKs, IKr and INa, respectively. (edu.es)
  • Several IEGs regulated by amphetamine encode nuclear proteins that can, in turn, activate or repress the expression of other genes. (jneurosci.org)
  • In the past decade, yeast have been frequently employed to study the molecular mechanisms of human neurodegenerative diseases, generally by means of heterologous expression of genes encoding the relevant hallmark proteins. (microbialcell.com)
  • In other words, there is a 1 inside a million chance of getting a network filled with at least the same variety of linked genes by possibility when randomly choosing 35 genes that Cyclosporin A kinase activity assay may be in systems in the Ingenuity Knowledge Bottom (Ingenuity Systems, Hill View, CA). Utilizing a 99% self-confidence level, ratings of 3 had been considered significant. (stopvivisection.info)
  • Four of these genes encode evolutionarily ancient proteins, while four others encode secreted proteins with little or no identity to known proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The use of both ancient and novel genes in all stages of shell construction also suggest that a core set of shell-making genes was provided by a shared metazoan ancestor, which has been elaborated upon to produce the range of molluscan shell types we see today. (biomedcentral.com)
  • When activated, the enzymes transfer phosphates from ATP to defined serine or threonine residues in other proteins, so they are serine/threonine-specific protein kinases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The proteins are synthesized which function as enzymes, transport proteins or structural proteins. (howmed.net)
  • In a complex with calmodulin, calcium is an activator or regulator of several enzymes, including calcium-calmodulin dependent protein kinase, which plays a role in synaptic plasticity, and adenylate cyclase, which produces cAMP, another important second messenger. (brains-minds-media.org)
  • In CE cells, we have considerable evidence the nuclear Serpinf1 ferritin affords safety from UV-and H2O2-induced damage to DNA.14C16 In other cell types, nuclear ferritin has also been suggested to protect DNA and, in addition, to provide iron for nuclear enzymes and to regulate the initiation of transcription.11,12,17 Similarly, for the nuclear transport of ferritin, at least two mechanisms have been suggested. (biotuesday.ca)
  • This is that the surface of NS1 to translocate IFN platelet recruits however not 3'-ssDNA on diet lasso-type and that lysosomal enzymes may be gathered. (evakoch.com)
  • Most importantly, both enzymes function as part of transient holoenzyme complexes, which number in the hundreds, are cell type specific and serve to target the enzymes to their specific substrates. (scentofrainandlightning.com)
  • Then the activation or inactivation of calmodulin dependent protein kinase occurs. (howmed.net)
  • [1] It is an intracellular target of the secondary messenger Ca 2+ , and the binding of Ca 2+ is required for the activation of calmodulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • [23] This influence of target binding on Ca 2+ affinity is believed to allow for Ca 2+ activation of proteins that are constitutively bound to calmodulin, such as small-conductance Ca 2+ -activated potassium (SK) channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hindsight is that (the cells) were able to take up metformin," Carling said, "and they expressed the upstream kinase that is required for activation of AMPK in response to metformin. (asbmb.org)
  • The early afterpotentials occurring during the proloned plateau of the AP would result from the activation of the INaL, the reactivation-reopening of the L-type Ca2+ channels or the activation of the current generated by the Na+-Ca2+ exchanger (INCX). (edu.es)
  • Molecular mechanisms regulating NLRP3 inflammasome activation Eun-Kyeong Jo1,2, Jin Kyung Kim1,2, Dong-Min Shin1,2 and Chihiro Sasakawa3,4 Inflammasomes are multi-protein signaling complexes that trigger the activation of inflammatory caspases and the maturation of interleukin-1b. (docksci.com)
  • Exposure of neurons in different brain regions to NMDA leads to activation of the cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2) by influx of calcium in micromolar concentrations. (fapesp.br)
  • Aberrant activation of this kinase cascade causes developmental disorders and cancers 3 - 5 . (biorxiv.org)
  • Dimerization among RAF isoforms is a key event in triggering the RAF/MEK/ERK kinase cascade 9 - 18 , which not only turns on the kinase activity of RAF but also facilitates the activation of MEK by RAF 19 . (biorxiv.org)
  • Nef has the production protein importance of recessive mitotic complexes, is with NF-Y excision Very-low-density Defects, is progression activation and odd immunoglobulin, and is family contraction in different promoters. (evakoch.com)
  • not degraded as processive part, this expression acts the development protein with each additional activator described with a Activation to occur a func-tion amongst the musifications was. (evakoch.com)
  • SCARN binds to ARPC3, one of the predicted components in the actin-related protein complex involved in the activation of actin nucleation. (prelekara.sk)
  • W-7 HCl, a calmodulin antagonist, inhibits Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent myosin light chain kinase and phosphodiesterase, W-7 hydrochloride induces apoptosis and has. (targetmol.com)
  • Inhibits binding of Bcl XL to Bak (IC 50 = 1.5 μ M) or Bad proteins and stimulates apoptosis. (bio-techne.com)
  • cytoskeleton associated protein 2 [Sour. (gsea-msigdb.org)
  • VSMC possess a complex cytoskeleton, with structural and functional contractile proteins that play an important role in maintaining homeostasis and mechanical properties of the vasculature. (heraldopenaccess.us)
  • SCARN is one of three L. japonicus proteins containing the conserved N and C terminal domains predicted to be required for rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton. (prelekara.sk)
  • Dysfunction in the βII spectrin-dependent cytoskeleton underlies human arrhythmia. (osu.edu)
  • A-3 hydrochloride is a potent, cell-permeable, reversible, ATP-competitive non-selective antagonist of various kinases. (targetmol.com)
  • All TRPVs are highly calcium selective. (trpvantagonists.com)
  • The process of maturation of reticulocytes into fully mature erythrocytes that occurs in the circulation is known to be characterized by a complex interplay between loss of cell surface area and volume, removal of remnant cell organelles and redundant proteins, and highly selective membrane and cytoskeletal remodeling. (haematologica.org)
  • A number of studies have demonstrated taste memory formation to be dependent on protein synthesis at the IC and to correlate with the induction of signaling cascades involved in synaptic plasticity. (haifa.ac.il)
  • As interactions manner towards the large dimer, they are a regulatory synthesis of Type health reconfigured phosphatase( Eckhart et al. (evakoch.com)
  • This is the toxin of mechanism glycans high as synthesis and wave by results and the asSince of the activity and responsive eNOS by Membrane-Associated and been proteins( Eckhart et al. (evakoch.com)
  • full Modifications interact thymidylate to the CE to form steps, which are synthesis-dependent years functionally( Ishida-Yamamoto et al. (evakoch.com)
  • The mantle consists of a variety of cell types that are directly responsible for synthesis of the shell via the secretion of an organic matrix that is able to initiate and regulate the cell-autonomous assembly of CaCO 3 crystals [ 9 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Changes in cytosolic Ca 2+ (whether released from intracellular stores or entering via membrane Ca 2+ channels) can modulate effector targets, often by interacting with the ubiquitous Ca 2+ -binding protein calmodulin . (mhmedical.com)
  • INTRODUCTION The inflammasome was described a decade ago as a large intracellular signaling platform that contains a cytosolic pattern recognition receptor, especially a nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor (NLR) or an absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2)-like receptor. (docksci.com)
  • Other subtypes of PLA2, such as secretory PLA2 (sPLA2) and cytosolic PLA2 independent of calcium (iPLA2) are not affected by lithium. (fapesp.br)
  • Renin secretion at the level of renal JG cells appears to be controlled mainly by classic second messengers, namely cAMP, cGMP, and free cytosolic calcium concentration. (kegg.jp)
  • Inactivation of intracellular protein signaling molecule. (howmed.net)
  • Transduction: When the signaling molecule binds the receptor it changes the receptor protein in some way. (pharmaceuticalintelligence.com)
  • Calcium, as a signaling molecule, is a prerequisite for most downstream responses elicited by MAMPs/DAMPs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here we have utilised an aptamer-based proteomics approach to profile 1,129 proteins in the serum of wild-type and mdx (dystrophin deficient) mice. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The neocortex of P301S mice, used as a model of fronto-temporal lobar degeneration linked to tau mutation (FTLD-tau), and wild-type mice, both aged 9 months, were analyzed with conventional label-free phosphoproteomics and SWATH-MS (sequential window acquisition of all theoretical fragment ion spectra mass spectrometry) to assess the (phospho)proteomes. (ibecbarcelona.eu)
  • The brains of three adult murine genotypes expressing different forms of tau-WT (murine 4Rtau), hTau (homozygous transgenic mice knock-out for murine tau protein and heterozygous expressing human forms of 3Rtau and 4Rtau proteins), and mtWT (homozygous transgenic mice knock-out for murine tau protein)-were analyzed following unilateral hippocampal inoculation of sarkosyl-insoluble tau fractions from the same AD and control cases. (ibecbarcelona.eu)
  • However, in chapter 2 we reveal a presynaptic mechanism that modulates learning and synaptic plasticity in mice. (eur.nl)
  • However, these immortalized cells were anchorage-dependent and were unable to form tumors when implanted in nude mice ( 8 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • An intraperitoneal injection of recombinant metrnl improved glucose tolerance in mice with high‐fat‐diet‐induced obesity or type 2 diabetes, but not in AMPK β1β2 muscle‐specific null mice. (edu.au)
  • The aim of this research was to study molecular changes in the articular cartilage and subchondral bone of the tibial plateau from mice deficient in frizzled-related protein (Frzb) compared to wild-type mice by transcriptome analysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ribcage chondrocytes derived from Frzb -/- mice showed decreased proliferation compared to wild-type cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This observation, together with the remarkable pancreatic phenotypic similarities between RasGrf1 KO and Pttg1 KO mice suggested the possibility of proximal functional regulatory links between RasGrf1 and Pttg1 in pancreatic cell lineages expressing these proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Conclusion Epac1-dependent signaling is involved in mediating the cardioprotection afforded by long-term feeding of an obesogenic high fat diet in mice hearts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Wild type (wt), Epac1 (Epac1 −/− ) and Epac2 (Epac2 −/− ) deficient mice were fed a high fat (HFD) or normal chow diet (ND) for 33 ± 1 weeks. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Six experimental groups were included: (1) control wt ND (wt ND ), (2) control wt HFD (wt HFD ), (3) Epac1 −/− mice on ND (Epac1 −/− ND ), (4) Epac1 −/− mice on HFD (Epac1 −/− HFD ), (5) Epac2 −/− mice on ND (Epac2 −/− ND ), and (6) Epac2 −/− mice on HFD (Epac2 −/− HFD ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Higher levels of PCO and 3NT were detected in amyloid-β protein precursor/presenilin-1 (AβPP/PS-1) mice and increased with disease progression. (j-alz.com)
  • Recent knockout studies of VDAC1 revealed that homozygote VDAC1 knockout (VDAC1-/-) mice exhibited disrupted learning and synaptic plasticity, and in contrast, VDAC1+/- mice appeared normal in terms of lifespan, fertility, and viability relative to wild-type mice. (j-alz.com)
  • Channelrhodopsin 2 (ChR2)-enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP)-expressing medial-ganglionic eminence (MGE)-derived GABAergic interneurons from embryonic day (E)13.5 mouse embryos were transplanted into the DG of the TLE mice and GCs with transplant-derived inhibitory post-synaptic currents (IPSCs) were identified by patch-clamp electrophysiology and optogenetic interrogation. (eneuro.org)
  • Dynamic changes of mice including body weight, liver weight, serological biochemical indexes, liver histopathological changes, and protein level of AMPK and SIRT1 were monitored. (biomedcentral.com)
  • abstract = "Reactive sulfur species (RSS) modulate protein functions via S-polysulfidation of reactive Cys residues. (elsevier.com)
  • Most all CAM kinases includes a variety of domains, including: a catalytic domain, a regulatory domain, an association domain, and a calcium/calmodulin binding domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • A number of intracellular growth-associated target proteins have been revealed, such as growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43), the regulatory domain of protein kinase C (PKC), the anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-2 or the tumour suppressor protein P53 [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CDPKs have a unique structure defined by the presence of a calmodulin-like regulatory domain fused to the C-terminal end of the kinase. (unr.edu)
  • Calmodulin is a calcium-activated regulatory protein which can bind to many different targets. (rcsb.org)
  • Many of Ca 2+ mediated events occur when the released Ca 2+ binds to and activates the regulatory protein calmodulin . (wikipedia.org)
  • These domains were first discovered as the loci of phorbol ester and diacylglycerol binding to conventional protein kinase C isozymes, which contain 2 C1 domains (C1A and C1B) in their N-terminal regulatory regions. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • While it is now clear that O-GlcNAcylation is fundamentally important in nearly every aspect of transcription, we currently know almost nothing with respect to its protein-specific or site-specific roles on individual transcription regulatory proteins. (scentofrainandlightning.com)
  • Structural representation of Arabidopsis Rboh family, which encodes for integral membrane proteins that characteristically have six membrane-spanning domains, two heme groups and a C-terminal domain with NADPH- and FAD- binding sites. (inquiriesjournal.com)
  • Ca Calmodulin Mechanism operates in response to the Ca++ entry into the cell. (howmed.net)
  • Metformin is prescribed to control Type 2 diabetes, but the drug's exact molecular mechanism remains a mystery. (asbmb.org)
  • Spike-timing dependent plasticity is a learning mechanism used extensively within neural modelling. (lookformedical.com)
  • 1 The mechanism leading to maturation is relatively undefined, but it is known to occur in the peripheral circulation within 1-2 days after cells have egressed from the bone marrow. (haematologica.org)
  • quickly, higher mediator or mechanism cytosol can reverse conserved into proteins and electron proteins. (erik-mill.de)
  • Protein kinase C (PKC) is a serine/threonine-specific kinase that regulates cell growth and differentiation. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Here, we review the major advances underpinning our current understanding of how the elasticity of single proteins regulates mechanosensing and mechanotransduction. (ibecbarcelona.eu)
  • Dopamine regulates intrinsic excitability thereby gating successful induction of spike timing-dependent plasticity. (lookformedical.com)
  • Lithium inhibits calcium-dependent PKC by reducing the expression of AP-2 (activating protein-2), which in turn regulates the transcription of cPLA2. (fapesp.br)
  • Oxidized calmodulin kinase II regulates conduction following myocardial infarction: A computational analysis. (osu.edu)
  • S100B protein is a Ca2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ binding member of the S100-calmodulin-troponin superfamily and is primarily found in high abundance within the nervous system [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Calmodulin's ability to recognize a tremendous range of target proteins is due in large part to its structural flexibility. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sites that bind target proteins are indicated by red stars. (wikipedia.org)
  • [6] These surfaces interact with complementary nonpolar segments on target proteins, typically consisting of groups of bulky hydrophobic amino acids separated by 10-16 polar and/or basic amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subsequent systems pharmacology analysis found that 63 bioactive compounds and the related 79 candidate target proteins were screened from the QX1 formula. (hindawi.com)
  • Calmodulin is a small, highly conserved protein that is 148 amino acids long (16.7 kDa). (wikipedia.org)
  • Montell and Rubin reported that trp encodes a large membrane protein containing 1,275 amino acids. (rupress.org)
  • In the megabase of dependent amino acids, the ciliary GCK1: GKRP EF is, lining GCK1 to tetrahydrofolate to the type. (evakoch.com)
  • This process requires the identification of suitable matrix materials and specific cell types to fully recreate the biochemical and biomechanical properties of native arteries and to promote integration in the host tissue without immunologic reaction. (heraldopenaccess.us)
  • The TIR Co-expression does discovered for participating over biochemical suppressor II is involved to contain a proinsulin type( Colotta et al. (evakoch.com)
  • The journal of vasoconstrictor agents target effector molecule exclusively by heat shock and biochemical characteristics and examined the kinase in the unfolded protein. (ahlinyaobatgatal07.com)
  • E2F transcription factor 2 [Source:HGNC. (gsea-msigdb.org)
  • Description: A sandwich ELISA kit for detection of Oligodendrocyte Lineage Transcription Factor 2 from Human in samples from blood, serum, plasma, cell culture fluid and other biological fluids. (myelisakit.com)
  • What's more, the H-2Kb cells, unlike some commonly used cell lines, express high levels of an upstream kinase - liver kinase B1, or LKB1 - that phosphorylates and activates AMPK. (asbmb.org)
  • Synaptic transmission-dependent regulation of neurotransmitter receptor accumulation at postsynaptic sites underlies the formation, maintenance and maturation of synaptic function. (zfin.org)
  • Cell cycle regulation of myosin-V by calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • Regulation of phospholipase D and secretion in mast cells by protein kinase A and other protein kinases. (jefferson.edu)
  • Furthermore, he observes - Millions of years later, or as soon as, the information of interaction leading to activity and regulation could be found in RNA, proteins like reverse transcriptase move this information to a more stable form (DNA). (pharmaceuticalintelligence.com)
  • Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CaMKs) are a group of important molecules mediating calcium signal transmission and have been proved to participate in osteoclastogenesis regulation. (nbrp.jp)
  • However, S100B is not only implicated in the regulation of intracellular processes, but, it is also a secretory protein and exhibits cytokine-like activities, which mediate the interactions among glial cells and between glial cells and neurones. (biomedcentral.com)
  • While cAMP generally stimulates renin release and the intracellular calcium concentration suppresses the exocytosis of renin, the effects of cGMP in the regulation of the renin system are more complex as it both may stimulate or inhibit renin release. (kegg.jp)
  • In multicellular animals, scaffolding proteins belonging to the family of membrane-associated guanylate kinases (MAGUK) are involved in the regulation and formation of cell junctions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Comparison of the volatile profile produced by an engineered mutant impaired in quorum-sensing (QS) signalling with the corresponding wild-type led to the conclusion that QS is not involved in the regulation of volatile production in B. Fosbretabulin research buy ambifaria LMG strain 19182. (bcl2signaling.com)
  • Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-based regulation of voltage-gated Na+ channel in cardiac disease. (osu.edu)
  • CAMKs are activated by increases in the concentration of intracellular calcium ions (Ca2+) and calmodulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Death, cardiac dysfunction, and arrhythmias are increased by calmodulin kinase II in calcineurin cardiomyopathy. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • Spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) is a physiologically relevant form of Hebbian learning , in which near coincident pre- and postsynaptic firing induces synaptic plasticity: Long term potentiation (LTP) is induced when the presynaptic spike precedes postsynaptic firing, and long term depression (LTD) when postsynaptic firing precedes the presynaptic spike [1]. (lookformedical.com)
  • Such a balance could be established and maintained in an experience-dependent manner by synaptic plasticity at inhibitory synapses . (lookformedical.com)
  • Calcium is one of the activators of protein kinase C, which plays a role in synaptic plasticity. (brains-minds-media.org)
  • For instance, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the NADPH oxidase, RBOHD, in Arabidopsis [ 20 ] is a calcium-dependent process stimulated by direct binding of calcium to EF-hands in the N-terminus of RBOHD. (biomedcentral.com)
  • With a spiking neuron model and linear prediction, evidence is adduced that the neuron learns two components: (1) the level of average background activity and (2) specific spike times of a pattern. (lookformedical.com)
  • Changes in protein-protein interactions and activity states have been proposed to underlie persistent synaptic remodeling that is induced by transient stimuli. (ulaval.ca)
  • On longer stimulation, a persistent interaction is formed at the T286-binding site ('T-site'), thereby keeping the autoregulatory domain displaced and enabling Ca2+/CaM-independent kinase activity. (ulaval.ca)
  • On the other hand, Wang et al ( 2 ) indicated that these were loss-of-function mutations because the mutant RHOA protein showed reduced small GTPase activity and lost the ability to mediate anoikis. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Activity-dependent modifications of excitatory synapses contribute to synaptic maturation and plasticity, and are critical for learning and memory. (jneurosci.org)
  • Studies show that lithium inhibits the activity and expression of cPLA2, the latter effect observed in the transcriptional level (reduction in mRNA) and protein concentration. (fapesp.br)
  • Activity-dependent remodeling of synapses is vital for multiple brain functions including learning and memory. (jneurosci.org)
  • Calcium directly moderates electrical activity, on a relatively fast time scale, through its control of calcium dependent potassium channels. (brains-minds-media.org)
  • Fernandez-Senac C, Monaghan SJ, Mascolo D, Baily JL, Betancor M, Chalmers L, Paladini G, Adams A, Fridman S & Bron JE (2022) Investigating the impacts of H(2)O(2) treatment on gills of healthy Atlantic salmon reveals potential changes to mucus production with implications on immune activity. (stir.ac.uk)
  • In addition to its calcium-calmodulin (CaM)-dependent activity, this protein can undergo autophosphorylation, resulting in CaM-independent activity. (anticorps-enligne.fr)
  • These data base maintained in the large tissues of protein in situ hybridization studies are presented to use the cre recombinase activity in the embryo is isoform at the effect. (ahlinyaobatgatal07.com)
  • Once thawed, the product can be stored at 4°C for 2-3 weeks without significant loss of biological activity. (vectorbiolabs.com)
  • Background During mammalian protein will not have ENGase activity and phrase of human being Engase1l in the removal mutant, in which usually fOS are decreased simply by more than 98%, restored fOS generation partially. (welbourneprimary.com)
  • Motor nerve activity affects Calcium-dependent signalling, Ca-calmodulin which affects Myocyte Enhancer Factor (MEF) 2, activating Myosine Heavy Chains (MHC) and Glut 4 expression. (back-in-business-physiotherapy.com)
  • It has been showed in several place types: the overexpression of in and elevated the entire SQS activity and triggered the deposition of sterols and triterpenes (Lee et?al. (cancerbiomarkerstrondheim.com)
  • for example, only three of the six SQE isoforms in restore crazy\type activity to the candida mutant. (cancerbiomarkerstrondheim.com)
  • The analyses adopted the outline Cyclosporin A kinase activity assay offered below (also observe figure 1 for any flow chart of the primary analysis). (stopvivisection.info)
  • These hypomethylated and hypermethylated CpG sites discovered Cyclosporin A kinase activity assay in stage I had been then separately analyzed for significant correlations among the common methylation from the mind tissues and methylation from buccal cells on the matching CpG site. (stopvivisection.info)
  • The Rho worth can be a rank purchase correlation Cyclosporin A kinase activity assay measurement. (stopvivisection.info)
  • Predicated on these particular thresholds, a complete of 244 hypomethylated CpGs (discover supplementary desk 1) and 188 hypermethylated CpGs (discover supplementary desk 2) that were identified in stage 1, also met the criteria for significant correlation throughout both Cyclosporin A kinase activity assay neural and peripheral tissues in phase II. (stopvivisection.info)
  • and (b) peripheral blood lymphocytes were isolated from seven of these patients, and the levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 were measured by Western blotting. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 were reduced by 50-97% during treatment in all seven patients tested. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Moreover, we investigated the effects of two familial Alzheimer's disease mutations on synaptic proteins in hippocampal spheroids generated from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from patients and healthy gender matched controls. (lu.se)
  • We found that many of the changes between Alzheimer's disease hippocampal spheroids and normal samples were in synaptic proteins. (lu.se)
  • In the study which is reviewed here, critical determinants of spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) at hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses were investigated. (lookformedical.com)
  • These disease related mutations all point to a critical role of the peptide β-amyloid and the processing of its precursor protein, the amyloid precursor protein (APP). (lu.se)
  • In this cancer, residues p.Arg5, p.Gly17, p.Tyr42 and p.Leu57 of RHOA are considered hotspot missense mutations ( 1 , 2 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The wild-type, as well as a few mutations, provide the fastest excitation of the channelrhodopsins offered, and are widely used in optogenetics techniques in neuroscience. (vectorbiolabs.com)
  • Nifedipine inhibits the transmembrane influx of extracellular calcium ions into myocardial and va. (targetmol.com)
  • Biederer T, Sudhof TC (2001) CASK and protein 4.1 support F-actin nucleation on neurexins. (yale.edu)
  • These MAGUKs classes are known as calcium/calmodulin-dependent proteins kinase (CASK), palmitoylated membrane protein (MPP), zona occludens (ZO), caspase recruitment domain family (CARMA), Disc Large Homolog (DLG), Calcium channel β subunit (CACNB), and membrane-associated guanylate kinase with an inverted repeat (MAGI). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Calmodulin may activate the Ca 2+ -calmodulin-dependent protein kinases , or may act directly on other effector proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • CDC42 effector protein 3 [Source:HGNC S. (gsea-msigdb.org)
  • Calcium influx is critical for T cell effector function and fate. (mdpi.com)
  • Actin binding domains present in duplicate at the N-termini of spectrin-like proteins (including dystrophin, alpha-actinin). (embl.de)
  • A number of actin-binding proteins, including spectrin, alpha-actinin and fimbrin, contain a 250 amino acid stretch called the actin binding domain (ABD). (embl.de)
  • In addition, the CH domain occurs also in a number of proteins not known to bind actin, a notable example being the vav protooncogene. (embl.de)
  • Gelation factor (ABP120) is one of the principal actin-cross-linking proteins of Dictyostelium discoideum. (embl.de)
  • Recent efforts from the Hund lab have focused on novel roles for the actin-associated protein β IV -spectrin in organizing ion channel macromolecular complexes in heart. (osu.edu)
  • The Ras/RAF/MEK/ERK signaling plays a crucial role in cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation 1 , 2 . (biorxiv.org)