Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2: A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases: A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)Calmodulin: A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type I: A cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed in SMOOTH MUSCLE tissues and plays a role in regulation of smooth muscle contraction. Two isoforms, PKGIalpha and PKGIbeta, of the type I protein kinase exist due to alternative splicing of its mRNA.Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II: A cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed predominantly in INTESTINES, BRAIN, and KIDNEY. The protein is myristoylated on its N-terminus which may play a role its membrane localization.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 4: A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that is primarily expressed in neuronal tissues; T-LYMPHOCYTES and TESTIS. The activity of this enzyme is regulated by its phosphorylation by CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II: A cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase subtype primarily found in particulate subcellular fractions. They are tetrameric proteins that contain two catalytic subunits and two type II-specific regulatory subunits.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 1: A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed in a broad variety of mammalian cell types. Its expression is regulated by the action of CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE. Several isoforms of this enzyme subtype are encoded by distinct genes.Benzylamines: Toluenes in which one hydrogen of the methyl group is substituted by an amino group. Permitted are any substituents on the benzene ring or the amino group.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Calcium Signaling: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit: A type I cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit that plays a role in confering CYCLIC AMP activation of protein kinase activity. It has a lower affinity for cAMP than the CYCLIC-AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE RIBETA SUBUNIT.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Protein Kinase Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type I: A cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase subtype primarily found in the CYTOPLASM. They are tetrameric proteins that contain two catalytic subunits and two type I-specific regulatory subunits.Cyclic GMP: Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Sporothrix: A mitosporic Ophiostomataceae fungal genus, whose species Sporothrix schenckii is a well-known animal pathogen. The conidia of this soil fungus may be inhaled causing a primary lung infection, or may infect independently via skin punctures.Calmodulin-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind calmodulin. They are found in many tissues and have a variety of functions including F-actin cross-linking properties, inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and calcium and magnesium ATPases.Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor): A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).Paramecium tetraurelia: A species of ciliate protozoa. It is used in biomedical research.Sulfonamides: A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.Calcium-Binding Proteins: Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.1-(5-Isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-Methylpiperazine: A specific protein kinase C inhibitor, which inhibits superoxide release from human neutrophils (PMN) stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate or synthetic diacylglycerol.Trifluoperazine: A phenothiazine with actions similar to CHLORPROMAZINE. It is used as an antipsychotic and an antiemetic.MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Myosin-Light-Chain Kinase: An enzyme that phosphorylates myosin light chains in the presence of ATP to yield myosin-light chain phosphate and ADP, and requires calcium and CALMODULIN. The 20-kDa light chain is phosphorylated more rapidly than any other acceptor, but light chains from other myosins and myosin itself can act as acceptors. The enzyme plays a central role in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.eIF-2 Kinase: A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Protein Kinase C-alpha: A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Pyruvate Kinase: ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC 2.7.1.40.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1: A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.Calcium Channels: Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.Death-Associated Protein Kinases: A family of calcium/calmodulin-dependent PROETIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES. They are ubiquitously expressed in adult and embryonic mammalian tissues, and their functions are tightly related to the early stages of eukaryotic programmed cell death.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Catalytic Subunits: Specific enzyme subunits that form the active sites of the type I and type II cyclic-AMP protein kinases. Each molecule of enzyme contains two catalytic subunits.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Mycelium: The body of a fungus which is made up of HYPHAE.Phosphoprotein Phosphatases: A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases: A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3: A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Protein Kinase C-delta: A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.Isoquinolines: A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Peptide T: N-(N-(N(2)-(N-(N-(N-(N-D-Alanyl L-seryl)-L-threonyl)-L-threonyl) L-threonyl)-L-asparaginyl)-L-tyrosyl) L-threonine. Octapeptide sharing sequence homology with HIV envelope protein gp120. It is potentially useful as antiviral agent in AIDS therapy. The core pentapeptide sequence, TTNYT, consisting of amino acids 4-8 in peptide T, is the HIV envelope sequence required for attachment to the CD4 receptor.Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.PhosphoproteinsNucleotides, CyclicEgtazic Acid: A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.AMP-Activated Protein Kinases: Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Protamine Kinase: An aspect of protein kinase (EC 2.7.1.37) in which serine residues in protamines and histones are phosphorylated in the presence of ATP.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Calcium, Dietary: Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.src-Family Kinases: A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Protein Kinase C-epsilon: A protein kinase C subtype that was originally characterized as a CALCIUM-independent, serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHORBOL ESTERS and DIACYLGLYCEROLS. It is targeted to specific cellular compartments in response to extracellular signals that activate G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS; TYROSINE KINASE RECEPTORS; and intracellular protein tyrosine kinase.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Protein Kinase C beta: PKC beta encodes two proteins (PKCB1 and PKCBII) generated by alternative splicing of C-terminal exons. It is widely distributed with wide-ranging roles in processes such as B-cell receptor regulation, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation, insulin signaling, and endothelial cell proliferation.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.1-Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidylinositol (PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS) to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, the first committed step in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.

Inhibition of the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I cascade by cAMP-dependent protein kinase. (1/105)

Several recent studies have shown that Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I (CaMKI) is phosphorylated and activated by a protein kinase (CaMKK) that is itself subject to regulation by Ca2+/calmodulin. In the present study, we demonstrate that this enzyme cascade is regulated by cAMP-mediated activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). In vitro, CaMKK is phosphorylated by PKA and this is associated with inhibition of enzyme activity. The major site of phosphorylation is threonine 108, although additional sites are phosphorylated with lower efficiency. In vitro, CaMKK is also phosphorylated by CaMKI at the same sites as PKA, suggesting that this regulatory phosphorylation might play a role as a negative-feedback mechanism. In intact PC12 cells, activation of PKA with forskolin resulted in a rapid inhibition of both CaMKK and CaMKI activity. In hippocampal slices CaMKK was phosphorylated under basal conditions, and activation of PKA led to an increase in phosphorylation. Two-dimensional phosphopeptide mapping indicated that activation of PKA led to increased phosphorylation of multiple sites including threonine 108. These results indicate that in vitro and in intact cells the CaMKK/CaMKI cascade is subject to inhibition by PKA-mediated phosphorylation of CaMKK. The phosphorylation and inhibition of CaMKK by PKA is likely to be involved in modulating the balance between cAMP- and Ca2+-dependent signal transduction pathways.  (+info)

Ca(2+)/Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase cascade in Caenorhabditis elegans. Implication in transcriptional activation. (2/105)

We have recently demonstrated that Caenorhabditis elegans Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CeCaM-KK) can activate mammalian CaM-kinase IV in vitro (Tokumitsu, H., Takahashi, N., Eto, K., Yano, S., Soderling, T.R., and Muramatsu, M. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 15803-15810). In the present study, we have identified and cloned a target CaM-kinase for CaM-KK in C. elegans, CeCaM-kinase I (CeCaM-KI), which has approximately 60% identity to mammalian CaM-KI. CeCaM-KI has 348 amino acid residues with an apparent molecular mass of 40 kDa, which is activated by CeCaM-KK through phosphorylation of Thr(179) in a Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent manner, resulting in a 30-fold decrease in the K(m) of CeCaM-KI for its peptide substrate. Unlike mammalian CaM-KI, CeCaM-KI is mainly localized in the nucleus of transfected cells because the NH(2)-terminal six residues ((2)PLFKRR(7)) contain a functional nuclear localization signal. We have also demonstrated that CeCaM-KK and CeCaM-KI reconstituted a signaling pathway that mediates Ca(2+)-dependent phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and CRE-dependent transcriptional activation in transfected cells, consistent with nuclear localization of CeCaM-KI. These results suggest that the CaM-KK/CaM-KI cascade is conserved in C. elegans and is functionally operated both in vitro and in intact cells, and it may be involved in Ca(2+)-dependent nuclear events such as transcriptional activation through phosphorylation of CREB.  (+info)

The expression of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I in rat retina is regulated by light stimulation. (3/105)

Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I (CaM-kinase I) in rat retina was analyzed by immunohistochemical analysis, Western blot analysis and kinase activity assay. Western blot analysis revealed two immunoreactive bands similar to those detected in the brain. Developmental studies revealed that CaM-kinase I expression increased in accordance with postnatal development. Expression of CaM-kinase I in the retinas of rats raised in the complete darkness markedly decreased. CaM-kinase I activity assay supported these findings. Synapsin I was shown to be a possible intrinsic substrate of CaM-kinase I in rat retina. These results elucidated that CaM-kinase I is expressed in the retina and may play an important role in the retinal functions and that the expression of CaM-kinase I is regulated by light stimulation.  (+info)

Increased expression of Galphaq protein in the heart of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. (4/105)

Heart disease is one of the major cause of death in diabetic patients, but the pathogenesis of diabetic cardio-myopathy remains unclear. In this experiment, to assess the significance of G protein signaling pathways in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy, we analyzed the expression of G proteins and the activities of second messenger dependent protein kinases: cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), DAG-mediated protein kinase C (PKC), and calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaM kinase II) in the streptozotocin induced diabetic rat heart. The expression of Galphaq was increased by slightly over 10% (P<0.05) in diabetic rat heart, while Galphas, Galphai, and Gbeta remained unchanged. The PKA activity in the heart did not change significantly but increased by 27% (P<0.01) in the liver. Insulin treatment did not restore the increased activity in the liver. Total PKC activity in the heart was increased by 56% (P<0.01), and insulin treatment did not restore such increase. The CaM kinase II activity in the heart remained at the same level but was slightly increased in the liver (14% increase, P<0.05). These findings of increased expression of Galphaq in the streptozotocin-diabetic rat heart that are reflected by the increased level of PKC activity and insensitivity to insulin demonstrate that alteration of Galphaq may underlie, at least partly, the cardiac dysfunction that is associated with diabetes.  (+info)

Regulation of phenobarbital induction of the cytochrome P450 2b9/10 genes in primary mouse hepatocyte culture. Involvement of calcium- and cAMP-dependent pathways. (5/105)

Phenobarbital (PB) has long been known as an inducer of drug-metabolizing enzymes in liver, but the molecular mechanism underlying this induction is still poorly understood. Using primary mouse hepatocyte culture, we have investigated the possible involvement of different regulatory pathways in PB action, by exposing PB-treated cells to various protein kinase/phosphatase modulators. Our results showed a negative role of the cAMP-dependent pathway, as treatment with cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) activators (10 microM dibutyryl-cAMP and 50 microM forskolin) dramatically inhibited PB-induced Cyp2b9/10 mRNA accumulation, whereas PKA inhibitor potentiated the PB responsiveness of this gene. The cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) seems to play a positive role as PKG inhibitor reduced the PB-induced level of Cyp2b9/10 mRNA. We also obtained two lines of evidence for the involvement of Ca2+ in modulating PB action. Firstly, measurements of intracellular Fura-2 fluorescence ratio in murine hepatocytes showed that long-term PB incubation (24 and 48 h) led to a significant increase of [Ca2+]i. Secondly, treatment with an intracellular Ca2+ chelator (BAPTA-AM) nearly completely abolished PB-induced Cyp2b9/10 expression. Ca2+ thus appeared to mediate PB action likely via Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, as KN62, a specific inhibitor of this enzyme, also dramatically inhibited PB induction of the Cyp2b9/10 genes.  (+info)

Activation of orphan receptor-mediated transcription by Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV. (6/105)

Retinoid-related receptor alpha (RORalpha) is an orphan nuclear receptor that constitutively activates transcription from its cognate response element. We show that RORalpha is Ca(2+ )responsive, and a Ca(2+)/calmodulin-independent form of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV) potentiates RORalpha-dependent transcription 20- to 30-fold. Other orphan receptors including RORalpha2, RORgamma and COUP-TFI are also potentiated by CaMKIV. Transcriptional activation by CaMKIV is orphan receptor selective and does not occur with either the thyroid hormone or estrogen receptor. CaMKIV does not phosphorylate RORalpha or its ligand-binding domain (LBD) in vitro, although the LBD is essential for transactivation. Therefore, the RORalpha LBD was used in the mammalian two-hybrid assay to identify a single class of small peptide molecules containing LXXLL motifs that interacted with greater affinity in the presence of CaMKIV. This class of peptides antagonized activation of orphan receptor-mediated transcription by CaMKIV. These studies demonstrate a pivotal role for CaMKIV in the regulation of orphan receptor-mediated transcription.  (+info)

Variation of phospholamban in slow-twitch muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum between mammalian species and a link to the substrate specificity of endogenous Ca(2+)-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase. (7/105)

Systematic immunological and biochemical studies indicate that the level of expression of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+)-ATPase regulatory protein phospholamban (PLB) in mammalian slow-twitch fibers varies from zero, in the rat, to significant levels in the rabbit, and even higher in humans. The lack of PLB expression in the rat, at the mRNA level, is shown to be exclusive to slow-twitch skeletal muscle, and not to be shared by the heart, thus suggesting a tissue-specific, in addition to a species-specific regulation of PLB. A comparison of sucrose density-purified SR of rat and rabbit slow-twitch muscle, with regard to protein compositional and phosphorylation properties, demonstrates that the biodiversity is two-fold, i.e. (a) in PLB membrane density; and (b) in the ability of membrane-bound Ca(2+)-calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase II to phosphorylate both PLB and SERCA2a (slow-twitch isoform of Ca(2+)-ATPase). The basal phosphorylation state of PLB at Thr-17 in isolated SR vesicles from rabbit slow-twitch muscle, colocalization of CaM K II with PLB and SERCA2a at the same membrane domain, and the divergent subcellular distribution of PKA, taken together, seem to argue for a differential heterogeneity in the regulation of Ca(2+) transport between such muscle and heart muscle.  (+info)

AMPA receptor-mediated, calcium-dependent CREB phosphorylation in a subpopulation of auditory neurons surviving activity deprivation. (8/105)

Although dependence on afferent synaptic activity has been shown for central neurons in every sensory system, the mechanisms of afferent maintenance of target sensory neurons are not understood. Neurons in the cochlear nucleus (CN) require afferent activity for maintenance and survival. One of the earliest changes seen after activity deprivation is an increase in intracellular calcium that leads to the death of 30% of the neuronal population. Sixty minutes after deafferentation, the surviving neurons show increased phosphorylation of the transcription factor calcium/cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). CREB phosphorylation in activity-deprived CN neurons is dependent on increased intracellular calcium resulting from influx through AMPA receptors and is mediated by calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinases and protein kinase A. We conclude that in CN neurons, the deafferentation-induced increase in calcium activates at least two kinase pathways that phosphorylate CREB in surviving neurons. We hypothesize that this phosphorylation results in the transcription of genes containing the calcium/cAMP response element within their promoter regions, and these genes code for proteins that allow the neurons to compensate for their hypercalcemic, activity-deprived state.  (+info)

Human granulocytes are characterized by a variety of specific effector functions involved in host defense. Several widely expressed protein kinases have been implicated in the regulation of these effector functions. A polymerase chain reaction- based strategy was used to identify novel granulocyte-specific kinases.Anovel protein kinase complementary DNA with an open reading frame of 357 amino acids was identified with homology ... read more to calciumcalmodulin- dependent kinase I (CaMKI). This has been termed CaMKI-like kinase (CKLiK). Analysis of CKLiK messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in hematopoietic cells demonstrated an almost exclusive expression in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN). Up-regulation of CKLiK mRNA occurs during neutrophilic differentiation of CD341 stem cells. CKLiK kinase activity was dependent on Ca11 and calmodulin as analyzed by in vitro phosphorylation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate responsive element modulator (CREM). Furthermore, CKLiKtransfected cells treated ...
1MXE: Structure of the Complex of Calmodulin with the Target Sequence of Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase I: Studies of the Kinase Activation Mechanism
Involvement of PCNK in CaMKIα phosphorylation.MCF-7 cells were transfected with siRNA targeting PNCK or control siRNA (NT1) and 72 h later, cells were exposed
4316 An exciting recent advancement in EGFR biology is the discovery of EGFR mutations in the kinase domain that confer sensitivity to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors and increased ligand (EGF)-induced EGFR phosphorylation. An important question is the mechanism by which these EGFR mutants have intrinsic kinase activity. For this study, we utilized a non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line HCC827 with deletion of aa 746-750 in the kinase domain of EGFR. In the presence of 10% serum as well as after serum-deprivation for 2 days, HCC827 had increased levels of phosphorylated EGFR (p-EGFR) at the autophosphorylation site Y1068 as compared to six other cell lines with wild type EGFR. This suggests that HCC827 has ligand-independent EGFR kinase activity. This was also supported by the observation that treatment with GM6001, an inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases that release EGFR ligands, or with the EGFR antibody C225, did not detectably affect basal p-EGFR in HCC827. In a panel of cell ...
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase 2 (CaMKK2) has been implicated in a range of conditions and pathologies from prostate to hepatic cancer. Here, we describe the expression in Escherichia coli and the purification protocol for the following constructs: full-length CaMKK2 in complex with CaM, CaMKK2 apo, CaMKK2 (165-501) in complex with CaM, and the CaMKK2 F267G mutant. The protocols described have been optimized for maximum yield and purity with minimal purification steps required and the proteins subsequently used to develop a fluorescence-based assay for drug binding to the kinase, Using the fluorescent properties of STO-609 as a tool to assist structure-function analyses of recombinant CaMKK2 [1].
An influx of calcium into neurons causes mitochondrial fission, according to Han et al.. To respond to changing cellular needs, mitochondria move, fuse together, or undergo fission. Han et al. now reveal some of the proteins and signals that regulate fission in neurons.. The authors tested mitochondrial responses to an increase in potassium (K+) levels, which mimics an action potential. The K+ spike brought mitochondria to a halt and prompted their division, making them shorter and rounder. These changes depended on the opening of voltage-dependent calcium channels and the resulting Ca2+ gradient, which in turn activates the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMKIα). A CaMKIα antagonist blocked K+-triggered changes in mitochondrial shape.. In their search for CaMKIα substrates, the authors turned to Drp1 (dynamin-related protein 1), which promotes mitochondrial fission and whose sequence suggested it could be phosphorylated. And the authors found that it was, in fact, a CaMKIα ...
Buy our Recombinant mouse PNCK protein. Ab60891 is an active full length protein produced in Baculovirus infected Sf9 cells and has been validated in FuncS…
Plasmid pDONR223-CAMK1G from Dr. William Hahns lab contains the insert CAMK1G and is published in Nature. 2010 Nov 24. ():. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase 2 (CaMKK2) has been implicated in the regulation of metabolic activity in cancer and immune cells, and affects whole-body metabolism by regulating ghrelin-signalling in the hypothalamus. This has led to efforts to develop specific CaMKK2 inhibitors, and STO-609 is the standardly used CaMKK2 inhibitor to date. We have developed a novel fluorescence-based assay by exploiting the intrinsic fluorescence properties of STO-609. Here, we report an in vitro binding constant of KD ∼17 nM between STO-609 and purified CaMKK2 or CaMKK2:Calmodulin complex. Whereas high concentrations of ATP were able to displace STO-609 from the kinase, GTP was unable to achieve this confirming the specificity of this association. Recent structural studies on the kinase domain of CaMKK2 had implicated a number of amino acids involved in the binding of STO-609. Our fluorescent assay enabled us to confirm that Phe(267) is critically important for this association since mutation of this
TABLE-US-00006 TABLE 6 THI + 2 + 4 + 5 + 7 Composite (Meta-THc) OG- OG- OG- OG- OG- 3116 @ 3116 @ 3116 @ 3116 @ 3116 @ 50 100 1 μg/ml 5 μg/ml 25 μg/ml μg/ml μg/ml Abl(H396P)(h) 91 88 73 55 50 Abl(M351T)(h) 100 87 62 50 38 Abl(Q252H)(h) 89 86 58 45 44 Abl(h) 98 85 65 41 49 Abl(m) 99 87 60 47 43 Abl(T315I)(h) 100 91 79 65 52 Abl(Y253F)(h) 93 90 75 54 51 ACK1(h) 122 112 97 102 82 ALK(h) 76 38 17 16 26 ALK4(h) 96 95 85 68 48 Arg(h) 94 91 68 52 42 Arg(m) 100 99 94 73 50 ARK5(h) 100 97 82 64 75 Aurora-A(h) 92 79 40 41 27 Axl(h) 97 99 83 77 60 Blk(m) 95 102 71 49 54 Bmx(h) 91 94 84 77 43 BrSK1(h) 95 90 71 47 51 BrSK2(h) 91 82 77 70 63 BTK(h) 99 97 64 44 28 CaMKI(h) 95 84 46 28 48 CaMKII(r) 97 106 89 69 63 CaMKIIβ(h) 94 99 85 52 34 CaMKIIγ(h) 107 103 94 92 134 CaMKIIδ(h) 103 97 84 83 84 CaMKIV(h) 107 108 95 75 58 CaMKIδ(h) 91 93 92 75 80 CDK1/cyclinB(h) 99 101 91 71 58 CDK2/cyclinA(h) 105 106 92 83 63 CDK2/cyclinE(h) 99 103 75 60 42 CDK3/cyclinE(h) 108 100 96 79 45 CDK5/p25(h) 102 89 84 77 72 ...
THADA antibody [C3], C-term (thyroid adenoma associated) for WB. Anti-THADA pAb (GTX104909) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Use Bio-Rads PrimePCR assays, controls, templates for your target gene. Every primer pair is optimized, experimentally validated, and performance guaranteed.
View Tg(Camk2a-tTA)1Mmay/0 Tg(tetO-APPSwInd)102Dbo/0 involves: C3H/HeJ * C57BL/6 * CBA: phenotypes, images, diseases, and references.
Looking for online definition of CaM-kinase kinase 1 in the Medical Dictionary? CaM-kinase kinase 1 explanation free. What is CaM-kinase kinase 1? Meaning of CaM-kinase kinase 1 medical term. What does CaM-kinase kinase 1 mean?
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase belonging to a proposed calcium-triggered signaling cascade. In vitro phosphorylates CREB1 and SYN1/synapsin I. Phosphorylates and activates CAMK1 (By similarity).
Integrin signalling co-ordinates with signalling originating from growth factor receptors in the co-operative control of cell proliferation, survival and migration. Increasing evidence suggests that integrins form physical complexes at the cell membrane with growth factor receptors, giving rise to signalling platforms at the adhesive sites. It is probable that at these sites integrins regulate adhesion and at the same time physically constrain and direct the response to soluble growth factors towards proliferation or survival stimuli. These co-operative effects might depend on integrin ability to activate growth factor receptors. In the present paper, we summarize our recent study showing that integrin-dependent adhesion triggers ligand-independent EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) activation to transduce downstream signalling. In addition, we also show that integrin-induced signalling pathways are necessary for EGF-dependent transcriptional response, demonstrating the requirement of the ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
calmodulin-dependent protein kinase V: widely distributed in various tissues, involved in calcium-regulated processes; from rat brain; may exist in 40 & 41 kDa isoforms; amino acid sequence has been determined
Camk1g - Camk1g (untagged ORF) - Rat calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IG (Camk1g), (10 ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Camk2d2 antibody (calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) II delta 2) for IHC-P, WB. Anti-Camk2d2 pAb (GTX124377) is tested in Zebrafish samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Expression of CAMK4 (CaMK-GR) in duodenum tissue. Antibody staining with HPA011753, HPA017206 and CAB004347 in immunohistochemistry.
2IZV: Structure of the Socs4-Elonginb/C Complex Reveals a Distinct Socs Box Interface and the Molecular Basis for Socs-Dependent Egfr Degradation.
Background: CaMKK β is a major kinase activated by elevated levels of intracellular calcium. Our previous data has suggested that CaMKK β is neuroprotective after stroke in young mice as inhibition of this kinase aggravated stroke outcome. As aging is an important determinant of stroke outcomes, here we evaluated the functional role of CaMKK β in stroke in aged mice.. Methods: Aged wild type (WT) males received intracerebral injections of lentiviral vectors carrying either CaMKK β (LV-CaMKK β) or GFP (LV-GFP) 7 days before middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO, 90 minutes). Acute infarcts and neurological deficits scores were then analyzed at 72 hours post MCAO. In chronic survival studies, aged male CaMKK β knockout (KO) and WT mice were subjected to 60 minutes MCAO. Following stroke, long-term behavioral assessments were continuously performed for 3 weeks in KO and WT mice until the sacrifice for tissue loss assessments.. Results: Baseline levels of CaMKK β in aged brain were ...
Recombinant Calcium/calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase IV (CAMK4) Protein (His tag). Spezies: Human. Quelle: Escherichia coli (E. coli). Jetzt Produkt ABIN668012 bestellen.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Amphetamine activate protein kinase C and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase via NMDA receptor in primary cultures of rat cortical neurons. AU - Wu, Hsueh-Hsia. AU - Lee, Horng-Mo. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. M3 - Article. VL - 1. SP - 12. EP - 19. JO - New Taipei Journal of Medicine. JF - New Taipei Journal of Medicine. SN - 1562-4242. ER - ...
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Expression of CAMK2A (CAMKA, CaMKIINalpha, KIAA0968) in ovary tissue. Antibody staining with HPA051783, HPA051785, HPA053973 and CAB004330 in immunohistochemistry.
This page contains the article Correctly Completing a Medicare Claim http://www.chiro.org/Medicare/ABSTRACTS/Correctly_Completing_a_Medicare_Claim.shtml
Camkk1 - Camkk1 (Myc-DDK-tagged ORF) - Rat calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 1, alpha (Camkk1), (10 ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) is a major cause of death and disability in neonates. HI leads to a dramatic rise in intracellular calcium levels, which was originally thought to be detrimental to the brain. However, it has been increasingly recognized that this calcium signaling may also play an important protective role after injury by triggering endogenous neuroprotective pathways. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase ß (CaMKK ß) is a major kinase activated by elevated levels of intracellular calcium. Here we evaluated the functional role of CaMKK ß in neonatal mice after HI in both acute and chronic survival experiments. Postnatal day ten wild-type (WT) and CaMKK ß knockout (KO) mouse male pups were subjected to unilateral carotid artery ligation, followed by 40 min of hypoxia (10% O2 in N2). STO-609, a CaMKK inhibitor, was administered intraperitoneally to WT mice at 5 minutes after HI. TTC (2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride monohydrate) staining was used to assess ...
Results We show that culture of MRL/lpr Foxp3-GFP T cells in the presence of KN-93 promotes Treg differentiation in a dose dependent manner (Fig. F). Treatment of MRL/lpr Foxp3-GFP mice with KN-93 results in significant induction of Treg cells in the spleen, peripheral lymph nodes (Fig. B-E) and peripheral blood (Fig. A and B) and this is accompanied by decreased skin and kidney damage. Notably, KN-93 clearly diminishes the accumulation of inflammatory cells along with reciprocally increased Treg cells in target organ.. ...
Human CAMK2D full-length ORF ( NP_742126.1, 1 a.a. - 478 a.a.) recombinant protein with GST-tag at N-terminal. (H00000817-P01) - Products - Abnova
Contact Us. Tel:732-484-9848. Fax:888-484-5008. Email:[email protected]. Add:1 Deer Park Dr, Suite Q,. Monmouth Junction, NJ 08852, USA. ...
Raval A, Tanner SM, Byrd JC, Angerman EB, Perko JD, Chen SS, Hackanson B, Grever MR, Lucas DM, Matkovic JJ, Lin TS, Kipps TJ, Murray F, Weisenburger D, Sanger W, Lynch J, Watson P, Jansen M, Yoshinaga Y, Rosenquist R, de Jong PJ, Coggill P, Beck S, Lynch H, de la Chapelle A, Plass C. Downregulation of death-associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1) in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Cell. 2007 Jun 01; 129(5):879-90 ...
The graphic displays domains and Protease cut sites on the protein sequence. Drag your mouse right/left over the graphic. Use the selection boxes on the right to select which annotations to view simultaneously. Combine annotation with multiple checkmarks.. ...
Radial glial cell-neuron interaction directs axon formation at the opposite side of the neuron from the contact siteRadial glial cell-neuron interaction directs axon formation at the opposite side of the neuron from the contact site ...
Recombinant full-length human CAMK4 was expressed by baculovirus in Sf9 insect cells using an N-terminal GST tag. CAMK4 is a multifunctional serine/threonine protein kinase and a member of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase family.
STO-609 acetate,7-Oxo-7H-benzimidazo[2,1-a]benz[de]isoquinoline-3-carboxylicacidacetate 52029-86-4 NMR spectrum, STO-609 acetate,7-Oxo-7H-benzimidazo[2,1-a]benz[de]isoquinoline-3-carboxylicacidacetate H-NMR spectral analysis, STO-609 acetate,7-Oxo-7H-benzimidazo[2,1-a]benz[de]isoquinoline-3-carboxylicacidacetate C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mutational analysis of Ca2+-independent autophosphorylation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. AU - Mukherji, Sucheta. AU - Soderling, Thomas. PY - 1995/6/9. Y1 - 1995/6/9. N2 - Previous studies with synthetic peptides indicate that residues 290-309, corresponding to the calmodulin (CaM)-binding domain of Ca2+/CaM-dependent protein kinase II interact with the catalytic core of the enzyme as a pseudosubstrate (Colbran, R. J., Smith, M. K., Schworer, C. M., Fong, Y. L., and Soderling, T. R. (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264, 4800-4804). In the present study, we attempted to locate the pseudosubstrate motif by generation or removal of potential substrate recognition sequences (RXXS/T) at selected positions using site-directed mutagenesis. Based on previous results, Arg297, Thr305/306, and Ser314 were selected as key residues. Single mutations such as N294S, K300S, A302R, A309R, and R311A were expressed, purified, and characterized. Several of the mutants exhibited decreased ...
Three genes encoding different Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases have been characterized in the wheat phytopathogenic fungus Stagonospora nodorum. The kinases were identified from the S. nodorum genome sequence on the basis of sequence homology to known Ca2+/calmodulin- dependent protein kinases. Expression analysis determined that each of the kinases was expressed during growth in vitro and also during infection. The onset of sporulation triggered increased transcript levels of each of the kinases, particularly CpkA where an 11-fold increase in expression was observed during sporulation in planta. The role of the kinases was further determined via a reverse genetics approach. The disruption of CpkA affected vegetative growth in vitro and also sporulation. The cpkA strains produced 20-fold less spores on complex media and were unable to sporulate on defined minimal media. Infection assays showed that CpkA was not required for lesion development but was essential for sporulation at the ...
Small molecule inhibitors of the human sirtuins and calmodulin-dependent protein kinases have shown promising anti-cancer activity in cell-based screens and animal models. We have synthesized analogues of these compounds, identifying more selective sirtuin inhibitors and more potent calmodulin-dependent protein kinase inhibitors.The sirtuins are a family of NAD+-dependent deacetylases that regulate cellular aging and gene silencing in simple organisms and appear to play important regulatory roles in human cells that make them attractive anti-cancer targets. We have previously identified the compound cambinol, an inhibitor of the human sirtuins SIRT1 and SIRT2, which is selectively toxic to Burkitts lymphoma cells. In order to determine which sirtuin is the relevant target, we screened analogues of cambinol, identifying compounds that exhibited moderate selectivity for both SIRT1 and SIRT2. The compound JP136 is ten-fold more selective in vitro for SIRT1 over SIRT2, with respective IC50s of 13 ...
In the present study, we have examined the role of the CaM-KK/CaM-KIV cascade on insulin gene expression in response to glucose. CaM-Ks are implicated in the regulation of a wide variety of biological events requiring the participation of intracellular Ca2+, such as muscle contraction, neurotransmitter release, and gene expression (11,26). Recent studies (19,26) have indicated that so-called multifunctional CaM-Ks, including CaM-KI, -II, and -IV, are regulated by phosphorylation either by itself or an upstream protein kinase, CaM-KK.. Previous reports (12) showed that CaM-KIV was expressed in pancreatic islet and other insulin-secreting cells, including MIN6 and HIT cells. In the first set of studies, we established that the respective mRNAs encoding CaM-KIV and its upstream protein kinase, CaM-KK, were present in rat pancreatic islet and the insulin-secreting cell line, INS-1. Furthermore, the mRNA was expressed because both Western blot and immunohistochemistry of the cells showed the presence ...
Usled njihove sposobnosti da se autofosforilišu, CaMK aktivnost može da bude dugotrajnija od intracelularnog kalcijuma koji je neophodan za njihovu aktivaciju. U neuronima, ova osobina je važna za indukciju sinaptičke plastičnosti.[2] Farmakološka inhibicija CaMKII blokira indukciju dugotrajne potencijacije. Nakon aktivacije, CaMKII fosforiliše postsinaptičke glutamatne receptore i time menja električne osobine sinapse.. ...
Complete information for CAMK4 gene (Protein Coding), Calcium/Calmodulin Dependent Protein Kinase IV, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Authors Affiliations: 1Dipartimento di Medicina Molecolare e Biotecnologie Mediche, Istituto di Endocrinologia e Oncologia Sperimentale del CNR Naples; 2Department of Neuroscience, Reproductive and Odontostomatological Sciences, University of Naples "Federico II", Naples; 3Department of Medicine-DIMED, Unit of Endocrinology, University of Padua, Padova; and 4Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Salerno, Salerno, ...
The metabolic sensor, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a serine/threonine protein kinase existing as a heterotrimer of catalytic (α1/α2) and regulatory subunits (β1/β2 and γ1/γ2/γ3). The 12 possible heterotrimers exhibit tissue and potentially functional specificity [8], and all can be activated by binding of AMP/ADP to the AMPKγ subunit and phosphorylation by one of two upstream kinases, liver kinase B (LKB)1 or calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK)β. AMPK is activated in response to depletion of ATP or alterations in intracellular calcium concentrations, and acts to shut down ATP-consuming, anabolic pathways and promoting ATP-generating, catabolic pathways [9].. As a monitor of cellular and whole body energy status [10], it is probably unsurprising that a recent elegant study in Science from Reuben Shaws laboratory places AMPK at the heart of the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics. Using CRISPR modification to delete AMPKα1 and/or AMPKα2 in vitro, they ...
Looking for online definition of CaM-kinase II alpha chain in the Medical Dictionary? CaM-kinase II alpha chain explanation free. What is CaM-kinase II alpha chain? Meaning of CaM-kinase II alpha chain medical term. What does CaM-kinase II alpha chain mean?
Rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against synthetic peptide of CAMK2A. A synthetic peptide (conjugated with KLH) corresponding to C-terminus of human CAMK2A. (PAB2770) - Products - Abnova
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Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CAMK1 gene. Calcium/calmodulin ... calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I by calmodulin and by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase". J. Biol. Chem. 273 ... Phosphorylation by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, protein kinase C, and calcium/calmodulin protein kinase; identification ... Calcium/calmodulin directly activates calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I by binding to the enzyme and indirectly ...
PIK1 It binds to many proteins, some in calcium dependent and some in calcium independent ways, and switches many of the ... type III phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase β) IP3 receptor (this activity is inhibited by lithium - a drug used for the treatment ... calcium-binding protein. Frq can substitute for calmodulin in some situations. It is thought to be associated with neuronal ... Burgoyne RD (2007). "Neuronal calcium sensor proteins: generating diversity in neuronal Ca2+ signalling". Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 8 ...
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type IV is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CAMK4 gene. The product of ... calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I by calmodulin and by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase". J. Biol. Chem. 273 ... Phosphorylation by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, protein kinase C, and calcium/calmodulin protein kinase; identification ... and activation of Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV by Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase Ia kinase. ...
... calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV, and the peroxisome proliferator γ coactivator 1 (PGC-1). The Ras/MAPK signaling ... Calcineurin, a Ca2+/calmodulin-activated phosphatase implicated in nerve activity-dependent fiber-type specification in ... proteins and other regulatory proteins. Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase activity is also upregulated by slow motor ... calcineurin and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV to activate transcription factors that regulate gene expression ...
The increase in presynaptic calcium concentration activates calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK). CaMK ... The protein dense projections vary in size and shape depending on the type of synapse examined. One striking example of the ... The protein ELKS binds to the cell adhesion protein, β-neurexin, and other proteins within the complex such as Piccolo and ... that cause a local influx of calcium. The increase in calcium is detected by proteins in the active zone and forces vesicles ...
Calcium-Calmodulin Dependent Protein Kinases at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) To learn ... Erondu, N.E., and Kennedy, M.B. (1985). Regional distribution of type II Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase in rat brain ... Ca2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaM kinase II or CaMKII) is a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase that is ... Calcium/ calmodulin dependent protein kinase II is also heavily implicated in long-term potentiation (LTP) - the molecular ...
... by protein kinase C and calcium/calmodulin kinase II in vitro". J. Neurochem. 71 (3): 1307-14. doi:10.1046/j.1471-4159.1998. ... Kubes M, Cordier J, Glowinski J, Girault JA, Chneiweiss H (1998). "Endothelin induces a calcium-dependent phosphorylation of ... "Molecular characterization of the human PEA15 gene on 1q21-q22 and association with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Pima Indians". ... "Protein kinase B/Akt binds and phosphorylates PED/PEA-15, stabilizing its antiapoptotic action". Mol. Cell. Biol. 23 (13): 4511 ...
2005). "Multivalent interactions of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II with the postsynaptic density proteins NR2B ... 2007). "Densin and filtrin in the pancreas and in the kidney, targets for humoral autoimmunity in patients with type 1 diabetes ... 2001). "Densin-180 forms a ternary complex with the (alpha)-subunit of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and (alpha)- ... portray Densin-180 as a key interactor in the midst of receptor proteins, scaffolding proteins and structural proteins. [number ...
The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of P-type primary ion transport ATPases characterized by the formation ... 1989). "Primary structure of the cAMP-dependent phosphorylation site of the plasma membrane calcium pump". Biochemistry. 28 (10 ... 1991). "Protein kinase C phosphorylates the carboxyl terminus of the plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase from human erythrocytes". J ... 1992). "Study of calmodulin binding to the alternatively spliced C-terminal domain of the plasma membrane Ca2+ pump". ...
... cyclin-dependent kinase 5 activators p35 and p39 interact with the alpha-subunit of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II ... Alpha actinin is an actin-binding protein with multiple roles in different cell types. In nonmuscle cells, the cytoskeletal ... Bunn RC, Jensen MA, Reed BC (1999). "Protein interactions with the glucose transporter binding protein GLUT1CBP that provide a ... Bunn RC, Jensen MA, Reed BC (April 1999). "Protein interactions with the glucose transporter binding protein GLUT1CBP that ...
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II gamma chain is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CAMK2G gene. The ... "Entrez Gene: CAMK2G calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) II gamma". Moyers JS, Bilan PJ, Zhu J, Kahn CR ( ... calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily. Calcium signaling is crucial for several aspects of plasticity at glutamatergic ... "Phosphorylation and inhibition of type III adenylyl cyclase by calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in vivo". J. Biol. Chem. ...
Calmodulin-dependent kinase II and Rho-kinase are also found to phosphorylate calponin at Ser175 and Thr184 in vitro. Of these ... Dephosphorylation of calponin is catalyzed by type 2B protein phosphatase Unphosphorylated calponin binds to actin and inhibits ... Calcium-dependent mechanisms of regulation of smooth muscle contraction". Biochemistry and Cell Biology = Biochimie Et Biologie ... the main site of regulatory phosphorylation by calmodulin-dependent kinase II and Rho-kinase is Ser175. ...
This gene is also known by several other names: CMG 2 (CAMGUK protein 2), calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase 3 ... Hsueh YP, Roberts AM, Volta M, Sheng M, Roberts RG (June 2001). "Bipartite interaction between neurofibromatosis type I protein ... "Entrez Gene: CASK Calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (MAGUK family)". Tarpey PS, Smith R, Pleasance E, Whibley ... Zhu ZQ, Wang D, Xiang D, Yuan YX, Wang Y (2014). "Calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase is involved in exendin-4- ...
The δ subunit is the ubiquitous eukaryotic protein calmodulin which itself has 4 calcium ion binding sites. When cytosolic Ca2+ ... but phosphorylation of both these subunits by protein kinase A (PKA, or cAMP-dependent protein kinase) reduces their respective ... Defects in phosphorylase kinase genes are the cause of glycogen storage disease type IX (GSD type IX) and GSD type VI (formerly ... In the active site, there is significant homology between PhK and other so-called P-loop protein kinases such as protein kinase ...
... other cellular proteins carry N-methyllysine residues including elongation factor 1A and the calcium sensing protein calmodulin ... The arginine methylation of proteins can either inhibit or promote protein-protein interactions depending on the type of ... GTP-binding proteins, nuclear lamins and certain protein kinases. Many of these proteins participate in cell signaling, and ... A well-characterized example of a methylation dependent protein-protein interaction is related to the selective methylation of ...
... a novel two EF-hand calcium-binding protein that suppresses Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II activity in the brain ... Expression of CaBP1 helps to block Ca2+-dependent facilitation of P/Q-type Ca2+ current which is markedly reduced facilitation ... This protein causes rapid inactivation that is independent of calcium, and does not support Calcium-dependent facilitation. ... This gene encodes a protein that belongs to a subfamily of calcium binding proteins which share similarity to calmodulin. The ...
... the microtubule-associated tau proteins and S100b regulate tau phosphorylation by the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ... "The calcium-modulated proteins, S100A1 and S100B, as potential regulators of the dynamics of type III intermediate filaments". ... S100 calcium-binding protein B (S100B) is a protein of the S-100 protein family. S100 proteins are localized in the cytoplasm ... the microtubule-associated tau proteins and S100b regulate tau phosphorylation by the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ...
This calcium then interacts with calcineurin and calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinases that in turn activate transcription ... Ozcan, U. (2004). "Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Links Obesity, Insulin Action, and Type 2 Diabetes". Science. 306 (5695): 457- ... "Coupling of stress in the ER to activation of JNK protein kinases by transmembrane protein kinase IRE1". Science. 287 (5453): ... PERK (protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase) activates itself by oligomerization and autophosphorylation of the ...
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II delta chain is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CAMK2D gene. The ... CAMK2D calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) II delta". Hook SS, Means AR (2001). "Ca2+/CaM-dependent ... product of this gene belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase family and to the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ... "Rad and Rad-related GTPases interact with calmodulin and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (18): ...
The frequency (FRQ) protein accumulates and is progressively phosphorylated by CKI, CKII, and a calcium/calmodulin-dependent ... A similar palette of kinases modifies the clock proteins in all cases. White Collar-1 Colin Pittendrigh Period (gene) Casein ... Because sFRQ favors a longer period than lFRQ, free running rhythms in wild type Neurospora are somewhat decreased with ... with just one of the proteins present. The choice of which protein is made is the result of temperature-dependent splicing of ...
"Calmodulin is involved in the Ca2+-dependent activation of ceramide kinase as a calcium sensor". J. Biol. Chem. 280 (49): 40436 ... CERK shares sequence homology with sphingosine kinase type I, including an N-terminal pleckstrin homology (PH) domain and a ... "Ceramide kinase uses ceramide provided by ceramide transport protein: localization to organelles of eicosanoid synthesis". J. ... CERK was later confirmed to bind calmodulin in the presence of calcium, indicating the calmodulin first binds calcium and then ...
Calcium influx into the cell through NMDA receptors binds to calmodulin and activates the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein ... The activation of the RhoA protein will activate ROCK, a RhoA kinase, which leads to the stimulation of LIM kinase, which in ... Another cellular behavior that is affected by rho proteins is phagocytosis. As with most other types of cell membrane ... A second target to explain the role of the Rho proteins in cancer is their regulatory proteins. Rho proteins are very tightly ...
"Feasibility of long-term storage of graded information by the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase molecules of the ... Silva decided to study hippocampal-dependent memory formation. The compelling properties of calcium calmodulin kinase II, one ... Gutmann, DH; Parada, LF; Silva, AJ; Ratner, N (2012). "Neurofibromatosis type 1: modeling CNS dysfunction". J Neurosci. 32 (41 ... Silva, A.J.; Paylor, R.; Wehner, J.M.; Tonegawa, S. (1992). "Impaired spatial learning in alpha-calcium-calmodulin kinase II ...
... resulting in a calcium influx into the SCN. Calcium induces the activity of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases, ... CREB is also thought to be involved in the growth of some types of cancer. Entrainment of the mammalian circadian clock is ... and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases on the Serine 133 residue. When activated, CREB protein recruits other ... This protein kinase translocates to the cell nucleus, where it activates a CREB protein. The activated CREB protein then binds ...
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent 3',5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 1C is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PDE1C ... Tat protein down-regulates CREB transcription factor expression in PC12 neuronal cells through a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/ ... 2006). "Subcellular localization and regulation of type-1C and type-5 phosphodiesterases". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 341 ( ... "Entrez Gene: PDE1C phosphodiesterase 1C, calmodulin-dependent 70kDa". Vandeput F, Wolda SL, Krall J, et al. (2007). "Cyclic ...
... which in turn go on to bind and allosterically activate enzymes such as Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinases (CAMKs). The ... and all are directly stimulated by G-proteins of the Gαs class. Interaction with Gα subunits of the Gαi/o type, on the contrary ... Action potential Voltage-dependent calcium channel Calcium-activated potassium channel Cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel Acid ... Once bound to GTP, Rho can then go on to activate various proteins responsible for cytoskeleton regulation such as Rho-kinase ( ...
Calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit (also known as Cav1.2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by ... When depolarization occurs, calcium ions flow through the channel and some bind to Calmodulin. The Calcium/Calmodulin binding ... Perets T, Blumenstein Y, Shistik E, Lotan I, Dascal N (Apr 1996). "A potential site of functional modulation by protein kinase ... protein binding. • alpha-actinin binding. • voltage-gated calcium channel activity. • voltage-gated calcium channel activity ...
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II alpha chain (CAMKIIα) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CAMK2A ... Phosphorylation by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, protein kinase C, and calcium/calmodulin protein kinase; identification ... "Entrez Gene: CAMK2A calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) II alpha". Walikonis RS, Oguni A, Khorosheva EM, ... calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II phosphorylates various types of non-epithelial intermediate filament proteins". Biochem ...
Protein (His tag). Spezies: Human. Quelle: Escherichia coli (E. coli). Jetzt Produkt ABIN668012 bestellen. ... Recombinant Calcium/calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase IV (CAMK4) ... Synonyms: Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type IV, caMK, CaMK IV, CaMK-GR, IV. NCBI no.: NP_001735 ... Calcium/calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase I Proteine * Calcium/calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase (CaM Kinase) II beta ...
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ... Death-associated protein kinase 2 is a new calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase that signals apoptosis through its ... Protein kinase function is evolutionarily conserved from Escherichia coli to human [PMID: 12471243]. Protein kinases play a ...
Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2. *Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 4 ... Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases*Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases. *Protein Kinases, Calcium-Calmodulin ... Multifunctional Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases*Multifunctional Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases ... Restricted Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases*Restricted Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases ...
Calcium Amino Acids Bearings (structural) Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2 ... T2 - Conformational changes induced by calmodulin-binding peptides from myosin light chain kinase and protein kinase II ... or calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMPK-II), respectively. Both steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence data were ... or calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMPK-II), respectively. Both steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence data were ...
Death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) is really a calmodulin-regulated serine/threonine kinase and August 2, 2018. by Felix ... Syk Kinase *T-Type Calcium Channels *Transient Receptor Potential Channels *TRPP *Uncategorized ... Louis, MO, USA), and macrophage, neutrophil, and lymphocyte quantities were dependant on keeping track of 400 cells in ... Death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) is really a calmodulin-regulated serine/threonine kinase and possesses apoptotic and ...
Protein. Similar proteins. Species. Score. Length. Source. B0YIY3. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type 1. ). HUMAN ... Protein. Similar proteins. Species. Score. Length. Source. B0YIY3. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type 1. ). HUMAN ... Protein. Similar proteins. Species. Score. Length. Source. B0YIY3. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type 1. ). HUMAN ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type 1Imported. Automatic assertion inferred from database entriesi ...
... protein kinase A/calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II; CnA, calcineurin; PI3K, phosphoinositide 3 kinase; Synpo, ... Publication types, MeSH terms, Substances, Grant support. Publication types. *Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural ... Podocyte plasma membrane proteins and a canonical pattern of injury. Shown is an (incomplete) list of membrane proteins that ... Abbreviations: TLR, Toll-like receptor; AT1R, angiotensin type 1 receptor; TRPC6/5, transient receptor potential canonical ...
Ab160080 is a full length protein produced in Wheat germ and has been validated in WB, ELISA. Abcam provides free… ... Calcium / calmodulin dependent protein kinase I. *Calcium / calmodulin dependent protein kinase type 1 ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase that operates in the calcium-triggered CaMKK-CaMK1 signaling cascade and, upon ... Calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase I. *Calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase type 1 ...
... to hypothetical proteins, and finally 24.1 and 17.2% to unknown genes, from the down- and up-regulated libraries, respectively ... According to blast screening and functional annotation, 20.2% and 20.9% of genes were related to metabolism proteins, 9% and ... Calcium-and calmodulindependent protein kinase type 1 (Camk1). 256. 1.226. NM_012517.2. Calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L ... Regarding the up-regulated genes, the calcium- and calmodulin- dependent protein kinase (CamK) gen was over-expressed (1.2 fold ...
L-type calcium channel; MCU, mitochondria calcium uniporter; NCX, Na+/Ca2+ exchanger; NHE, Na+/H+ exchanger; PKA, protein ... Calcium-calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII): a main signal responsible for early reperfusion arrhythmias. J Mol ... In Vivo Post-Cardiac Arrest Myocardial Dysfunction Is Supported by Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II-Mediated Calcium ... E, Proposed mechanism for PMAD, mediated by calcium overload, Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), and ...
Also, several other calpain-sensitive calmodulin-binding proteins (plasma membrane calcium pump, microtubule-associated protein ... Under the same conditions, calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-alpha (CaMPK-IIalpha) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase ( ... and protein kinase C-alpha are also degraded in neurotoxin-treated cultures. Lastly, in a rat pup model of acute excitotoxicity ... Such fragmentation can be reduced by calpain inhibitors (acetyl-Leu-Leu-Nle-CHO and PD151746). In vitro digestion of protein ...
Home > Protein > CAMK1A human. mouse. rat. New Protein Search:. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type 1 ... Protein Mutation Frequency in Cancer. The lollipop plot above illustrates recurrent (observed in 3 or more out of 4440 TCGA ... We integrated 4440 tumor samples from 15 cancer types from TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas). To retrieve more detailed mutation ... We integrated the following cancer types: • Acute Myeloid Leukemia (TCGA, NEJM 2013). ...
Analysis in conditional cannabinoid 1 receptor-knockout mice reveals neuronal subpopulation-specific effects on epileptogenesis ... Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 1 (genetics, metabolism) *Cannabinoid Receptor Antagonists (adverse effects) ... 25123336 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt) Copyright. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All ... These effects are dependent on the neuronal subpopulation. Thus, the data argue that the endocannabinoid system plays an active ...
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CAMK1 gene. Calcium/calmodulin ... calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I by calmodulin and by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase". J. Biol. Chem. 273 ... Phosphorylation by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, protein kinase C, and calcium/calmodulin protein kinase; identification ... Calcium/calmodulin directly activates calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I by binding to the enzyme and indirectly ...
Exercise training and activation of both AMP kinase and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase increase mitochondrial gene ... Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is characterized by insulin resistance and pancreatic β cell dysfunction. In high-risk subjects, ... protein biosynthesis/ribosomal proteins (P = 0.013), RNA binding (P = 0.007), ribosomal structural protein (P = 0.0007), and ... AMP-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) Activation, and Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor {gamma} Coactivator 1{alpha} ( ...
... the mechanisms that underlie experience-dependent transcriptional regulation of the rate-limiting serotonin biosynthetic enzyme ... Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2 / genetics*, metabolism. GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gq-G11 / ... EC 2.7.11.17/Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2; EC 2.7.11.17/unc-43 protein, C elegans; EC 3.6.5.1/GTP-Binding ... Upstream of ADF, the Gqα protein EGL-30 facilitates training-dependent induction of tph-1 by functional regulation of olfactory ...
... interaction and modulation by calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. J. Biol. Chem. 280, 15912-15920. ... Signaling to the nucleus by an L-type calcium channel-calmodulin complex through the MAP kinase pathway. Science 294, 333-339. ... Proteins in excess of ∼50 kDa require energy-dependent movement across the NPC. Such large proteins are often designated for ... Calmodulin does not contain an obvious motif for nuclear localisation, and might therefore `piggy-back on other proteins that ...
calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-β. wt. wild type.. REFERENCES. 1. Cookson M. R. (2005) Annu. Rev. Biochem. 74, ... whereas a 7-fold induction was observed for the GTPase CDC42 and 2-fold for the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II ... A construct encoding for an unrelated protein (DsRed2, red fluorescent protein) was used as an additional control. ... whereas RET protein levels were reduced. After 24 h of treatment, RET protein was almost completely undetectable (Fig. 4B). To ...
Myc-DDK-tagged ORF clone of Homo sapiens calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 1, alpha (CAMKK1), transcript ... variant 1 as transfection-ready DNA - 10 µg - OriGene - cdna clones ... Product types:. - all types -. Antibodies. Assays & Kits. Blood products. cDNA clones. Cell lines. Cells & Human Biospecimens. ... home , products , origene , myc-ddk-tagged orf clone of homo sapiens calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 1, ...
RAS p21 protein activator 2; CAMK2B - calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II beta; DAB2IP - disabled 2 (DAB2) ... phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase catalytic subunit type 3; PI3KCA - phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic ... Novel role of pleckstrin homology domain of the Bcr-Abl protein: analysis of protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions. ... PLC proteins can be activated by the receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) or G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) in response to the ...
2010) Transient viral-mediated overexpression of alpha-calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in the nucleus accumbens ... 2010) Cell type-specific loss of BDNF signaling mimics optogenetic control of cocaine reward. Science 330:385-390, doi:10.1126/ ... responses to chronic cocaine require a feedforward loop involving DeltaFosB and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ii ... 2010) Transient overexpression of alpha-Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in the nucleus accumbens shell enhances ...
Grant S. Nichols, William M. DeBello, Hunting Increases Phosphorylation of Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II ... M. G. Belekhova, N. B. Kenigfest, T. V. Chudinova, N. P. Vesselkin, Distribution of calcium-binding proteins, parvalbumin and ... Expression of calcium-binding proteins and metabolic activity, Brain Research, 2010, 1345, 84. CrossRef ... in Zebra Finches Using Calcium-Binding Protein Immunocytochemistry, PLoS ONE, 2011, 6, 6, e20686. CrossRef ...
... calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type 1D , caM kinase ID , calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 1D , camKI- ... calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ID , calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type 1D-like , CAMKI-like protein ... anti-Calcium/calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase I Antikörper * anti-Calcium/calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase (CaM Kinase) ... anti-Calcium/calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase IV Antikörper * anti-Calcium/calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Kinase 1, ...
In Vivo Post-Cardiac Arrest Myocardial Dysfunction Is Supported by Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II-Mediated Calcium ... Peptidomimetic Targeting of Cavβ2 Overcomes Dysregulation of the L-Type Calcium Channel Density and Recovers Cardiac Function ... an Agonist of Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Type 2Clinical Perspective Christopher E. Woods, Ching Shang, Fouad Taghavi, Peter Downey ... Long-Term Potentiation and Mitigated by Alda-1, ...
These data are compatible with a model where Ca2+ influx via L-type Ca2+ channels prevents caspase-dependent cleavage of CaMKIV ... We present evidence that blockade of L-type Ca2+ channels (nifedipine sensitive) but not N/P/Q-type Ca2+ channels (omega- ... The entry into apoptosis was associated with a progressive caspase-3-dependent cleavage of CaMKIV, but not of CaMKII. CaMKIV ... and promotes neuronal survival by maintaining a constitutive level of CaMKIV/CREB-dependent gene expression. ...
  • Peptide-induced conformational changes in five isofunctional mutants of calmodulin (CaM), each bearing a single tryptophan residue either at the seventh position of each of the four calcium-binding loops (i.e., amino acids 26, 62, 99, and 135) or in the central helix (amino acid 81) were studied by using fluorescence spectroscopy. (elsevier.com)
  • Analysis of the tryptophan fluorescence decay of the last mentioned calmodulins supports a model in which the equilibrium between two (Trp-99) or three (Trp-62) states of these tryptophan residues, each characterized by a different lifetime, was altered toward the blue-shifted short lifetime component upon peptide binding. (elsevier.com)
  • This difference may be a consequence of the different structure of the potential receptor(s) required for perceiving chitin, CERK1 (Chitin Elicitor Receptor Kinase 1), a LysM-containing RLK in Arabidopsis [ 12 ]-[ 14 ] as compared to the LRR-type RLKs such as FLS2, EFR or PEPR1/R2. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinases (cdk) play an essential role in the intracellular control of the cell division cycle (cdc). (nih.gov)
  • Among a series of C2, N6, N9-substituted adenines tested on purified cdc2/cyclin B, 2-(1-ethyl-2-hydroxyethylamino)-6-benzylamino-9-isopropylpurine (roscovitine) displays high efficiency and high selectivity towards some cyclin-dependent kinases. (nih.gov)
  • Through its unique selectivity for some cyclin-dependent kinases, roscovitine provides a useful antimitotic reagent for cell cycle studies and may prove interesting to control cells with deregulated cdc2, cdk2 or cdk5 kinase activities. (nih.gov)
  • Strikingly, RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) is itself a substrate for two protein kinases-the cyclin-dependent kinases Cdk7 and Cdk9-that are activated by hypertrophic cues. (ahajournals.org)
  • This structural function is required for correct targeting of CaMK2A, which acts downstream of NMDAR to promote dendritic spine and synapse formation and maintain synaptic plasticity which enables long-term potentiation (LTP) and hippocampus-dependent learning. (rcsb.org)
  • abstract = "Objective: Calcium overloading is responsible for initiating the cell death in neuronal tissue after hypoxic injury. (elsevier.com)
  • although the relative importance of each isoform varies with species and blood vessel type. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In the majority of cases, the targeting moiety is an antibody [ 1 , 2 ] or antibody fragment [ 1 , 3 ] but equally it can also be another protein species or a non-protein chemical structure that recognizes and binds to a suitable target cell-specific surface molecule. (mdpi.com)
  • Interestingly, four of them are able to bind calmodulin among which the IP3 kinase A (ITPKA) and pregnancy up-regulated non-ubiquitously expressed CaM kinase (PNCK, also named CaMKIβ). (nih.gov)
  • Taken together, these results demonstrate that MyD88 is a critical component in the signaling cascade that is mediated by IL-1 receptor as well as IL-18 receptor. (nih.gov)
  • The principal cytoplasmic proteins are myosin and actin (also known as "thick" and "thin" filaments, respectively) which are arranged in a repeating unit called a sarcomere . (wikipedia.org)
  • Mapping, sequencing of the mutated locus and complementation studies revealed CCE5 to encode the receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase (RLCK), avrPphB sensitive 1-like 1 ( PBL1 ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • IP3R-dependent calcium transients in the glutamatergic neurons convey this signal to downstream medial neurosecretory cells (mNSCs). (sdbonline.org)
  • Unless the variant is located at the beginning or at the end of the protein sequence, both residues upstream (20) and downstream (20) of the variant will be shown. (expasy.org)
  • It is well established that caspase-1 exerts its biological activities through its downstream targets such as IL-1β, IL-18, and Sirt-1. (springer.com)
  • We used these statistical methods to integrate different microarray datasets conducted on different caspase-1 knockout tissues and datasets where caspase-1 downstream targets were manipulated. (springer.com)
  • A large network of calcium‐binding proteins act as calcium sensors and relay calcium signals to downstream effector proteins. (els.net)
  • Calcium, as a signaling molecule, is a prerequisite for most downstream responses elicited by MAMPs/DAMPs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Sandwhich ELISA using mouse monoclonal antibody to human CaM kinase 1 [3G catalogue number M-810-100. (biosensis.com)
  • This antibody has a detection limit of 0.3ng/ml for recombinant GST tagged CaM kinase 1 when used in sandwich ELISA. (biosensis.com)
  • The specificity of this antibody has been confirmed by WB and ELISA against the recombinant GST tagged CaM Kinase 1 protein. (biosensis.com)
  • This peptide may be used for neutralization and control experiments with the polyclonal antibody that reacts with this product and human CaMKI protein, catalog ab3551 . (abcam.cn)
  • Monocular enucleation induces nuclear localization of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV in cortical interneurons of adult monkey area V1. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In an active area of research known as HIV-1 cure research, the purposeful reactivation of latent/dormant HIV-1 in memory T cells, which induces death of the infected cell or alerts the immune system to the presence of the virus, is known as the "shock and kill" approach. (atlasofscience.org)
  • Furthermore, metformin and bryostatin-1 (a PKC activator) both activate AMPK and when combined induces latent HIV-1 reactivation in monocytic cells in an AMPK-dependent manner. (atlasofscience.org)
  • DJ-1 encodes for a highly conserved, ubiquitously expressed protein involved in multiple cellular processes including sperm maturation, fertilization, and oncogenesis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • CILP encodes cartilage intermediate layer protein, which is highly associated with LDD. (matci.jp)
  • Calcium signaling is crucial for several aspects of plasticity at glutamatergic synapses . (wikidoc.org)
  • AS is caused by disrupted neuronal expression of the maternally inherited Ube3A ubiquitin protein ligase, required for the proteasomal degradation of proteins implicated in synaptic plasticity, such as the activity-regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein (Arc/Arg3.1). (plos.org)
  • In neurons, plays an essential structural role in the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton during plasticity by binding and bundling actin filaments in a kinase-independent manner. (rcsb.org)
  • Through diverse cAMP- and Ca2+-dependent and - independent mechanisms, DA influences neuronal activity, synaptic plasticity, and behavior. (genome.jp)
  • These kinases and their regulators are frequently deregulated in human tumours. (nih.gov)
  • Core domain of PLCε is responsible for the hydrolysis of membrane phosphoinositides into second messengers inositol-1,4,5-phosphate and diacylglycerol (DAG) [ 4 - 6 , 8 ]. (jcancer.org)
  • The transduction mechanism at ORNs is mediated by cAMP and/or inositol,1,4,5-triphosphate (InsP3)-signaling pathways in an odorant-dependent manner. (sdbonline.org)
  • These slow imaginal disc intercellular calcium waves (SIDICs) are mediated by the inositol-3-phosphate receptor , the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium pump SERCA and the key gap junction component Inx2 . (sdbonline.org)
  • The C-terminus is deglutamylated by AGTPBP1/ CCP1, AGBL1/CCP4 and AGBL4/CCP6, leading to the formation of Myosin light chain kinase, smooth muscle, deglutamylated form. (abcam.com)
  • 2007) Death don't have no mercy and neither does calcium: Arabidopsis cyclic nucleotide gated channel2 and innate immunity. (els.net)
  • The majority of decreased proteins were of cell adhesion, however, some had to do with cell differentiation and growth factors. (nature.com)
  • Analysis in conditional cannabinoid 1 receptor-knockout mice reveals neuronal subpopulation-specific effects on epileptogenesis in the kindling paradigm. (curehunter.com)
  • Measurements of nuclear and cytosolic Ca 2+ transients in IP 3 sponge mice showed no increase of Ca 2+ levels during diastole as we detected in wild-type mice. (springer.com)
  • The inducible loss of DJ-1 triggers the establishment of hypoxia and the production of reactive oxygen species that stabilize the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1a). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • For instance, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the NADPH oxidase, RBOHD, in Arabidopsis [ 20 ] is a calcium-dependent process stimulated by direct binding of calcium to EF-hands in the N-terminus of RBOHD. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 1 Electrical depolarization of the cell membrane opens L-type Ca 2+ channels, causing Ca 2+ influx. (ahajournals.org)
  • The presynaptic bouton is responsible for packaging neurotransmitters into synaptic vesicles, then releasing their contents into the synaptic cleft in response to calcium influx. (els.net)
  • Calcium signals are generated through the coordinated action of calcium influx channels and calcium efflux transporters. (els.net)
  • Quantitative proteolytic footprinting and applications of multi-dimensional heteronuclear NMR are capable of monitoring individual residues or bonds during a titration representative of a cellular influx of calcium. (uiowa.edu)
  • The expression of synaptic proteins (synapsin I and PSD95) was examined. (springer.com)
  • Reduction in post-synaptic scaffolding PSD-95 and SAP-102 protein levels in the alzheimer inferior temporal cortex is correlated with disease pathology. (springer.com)
  • Release of synaptic vesicles occurs through several distinct stages, coordinated by a group of specialised proteins. (els.net)
  • The synaptic cleft contains proteins that ensure that active zone and PSD remain in proximity. (els.net)
  • Synaptic vesicles are released by a process known as exocytosis through several distinct steps involving specialised proteins that form a highly interactive and dynamic protein complex at the site of synaptic vesicle release. (els.net)
  • Schematic diagram of the interacting protein complexes involved in synaptic vesicle cycling and maintenance of the presynaptic active zone. (els.net)
  • entry: EMBL:ATTIF4A1 DE A.thaliana mRNA for eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4A-1 9. (bio.net)
  • Conversely, no significant changes were detected on protein levels or mRNA expression in hippocampus. (elsevier.com)
  • In human post mortem brains of sporadic PD patients, DJ-1 protein is irreversibly oxidized and, thus, inactivated ( 5 , 6 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the experimental and clinical data about the role of PLCε in the development and progression of the different types of human and experimental tumors. (jcancer.org)
  • Partial recombinant protein of human CaM kinase 1 (amino acids 271 to 370) with a GST tag. (biosensis.com)
  • The flanking amino-acid limits shown correspond to the human protein. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Backbone resonance assignments of complexes of human voltage-dependent sodium channel NaV1.2 IQ motif peptide bound to apo calmodulin and to the C-domain fragment of apo calmodulin. (uiowa.edu)
  • RESULTS: Subconfluent human VSMCs were stimulated by ET-1 at different concentrations (1 nM-1 microM). (lu.se)