A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.
A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)
A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.
A cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed in SMOOTH MUSCLE tissues and plays a role in regulation of smooth muscle contraction. Two isoforms, PKGIalpha and PKGIbeta, of the type I protein kinase exist due to alternative splicing of its mRNA.
A cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed predominantly in INTESTINES, BRAIN, and KIDNEY. The protein is myristoylated on its N-terminus which may play a role its membrane localization.
A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that is primarily expressed in neuronal tissues; T-LYMPHOCYTES and TESTIS. The activity of this enzyme is regulated by its phosphorylation by CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase subtype primarily found in particulate subcellular fractions. They are tetrameric proteins that contain two catalytic subunits and two type II-specific regulatory subunits.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.
A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed in a broad variety of mammalian cell types. Its expression is regulated by the action of CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE. Several isoforms of this enzyme subtype are encoded by distinct genes.
Toluenes in which one hydrogen of the methyl group is substituted by an amino group. Permitted are any substituents on the benzene ring or the amino group.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A type I cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit that plays a role in confering CYCLIC AMP activation of protein kinase activity. It has a lower affinity for cAMP than the CYCLIC-AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE RIBETA SUBUNIT.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.
A cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase subtype primarily found in the CYTOPLASM. They are tetrameric proteins that contain two catalytic subunits and two type I-specific regulatory subunits.
Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A mitosporic Ophiostomataceae fungal genus, whose species Sporothrix schenckii is a well-known animal pathogen. The conidia of this soil fungus may be inhaled causing a primary lung infection, or may infect independently via skin punctures.
Proteins which bind calmodulin. They are found in many tissues and have a variety of functions including F-actin cross-linking properties, inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and calcium and magnesium ATPases.
A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
A species of ciliate protozoa. It is used in biomedical research.
A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
A specific protein kinase C inhibitor, which inhibits superoxide release from human neutrophils (PMN) stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate or synthetic diacylglycerol.
A phenothiazine with actions similar to CHLORPROMAZINE. It is used as an antipsychotic and an antiemetic.
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
An enzyme that phosphorylates myosin light chains in the presence of ATP to yield myosin-light chain phosphate and ADP, and requires calcium and CALMODULIN. The 20-kDa light chain is phosphorylated more rapidly than any other acceptor, but light chains from other myosins and myosin itself can act as acceptors. The enzyme plays a central role in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC
A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
A family of calcium/calmodulin-dependent PROETIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES. They are ubiquitously expressed in adult and embryonic mammalian tissues, and their functions are tightly related to the early stages of eukaryotic programmed cell death.
Specific enzyme subunits that form the active sites of the type I and type II cyclic-AMP protein kinases. Each molecule of enzyme contains two catalytic subunits.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The body of a fungus which is made up of HYPHAE.
A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.
A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.
A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
N-(N-(N(2)-(N-(N-(N-(N-D-Alanyl L-seryl)-L-threonyl)-L-threonyl) L-threonyl)-L-asparaginyl)-L-tyrosyl) L-threonine. Octapeptide sharing sequence homology with HIV envelope protein gp120. It is potentially useful as antiviral agent in AIDS therapy. The core pentapeptide sequence, TTNYT, consisting of amino acids 4-8 in peptide T, is the HIV envelope sequence required for attachment to the CD4 receptor.
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
An aspect of protein kinase (EC in which serine residues in protamines and histones are phosphorylated in the presence of ATP.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.
A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
A protein kinase C subtype that was originally characterized as a CALCIUM-independent, serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHORBOL ESTERS and DIACYLGLYCEROLS. It is targeted to specific cellular compartments in response to extracellular signals that activate G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS; TYROSINE KINASE RECEPTORS; and intracellular protein tyrosine kinase.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
PKC beta encodes two proteins (PKCB1 and PKCBII) generated by alternative splicing of C-terminal exons. It is widely distributed with wide-ranging roles in processes such as B-cell receptor regulation, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation, insulin signaling, and endothelial cell proliferation.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidylinositol (PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS) to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, the first committed step in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.

Inhibition of the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I cascade by cAMP-dependent protein kinase. (1/105)

Several recent studies have shown that Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I (CaMKI) is phosphorylated and activated by a protein kinase (CaMKK) that is itself subject to regulation by Ca2+/calmodulin. In the present study, we demonstrate that this enzyme cascade is regulated by cAMP-mediated activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). In vitro, CaMKK is phosphorylated by PKA and this is associated with inhibition of enzyme activity. The major site of phosphorylation is threonine 108, although additional sites are phosphorylated with lower efficiency. In vitro, CaMKK is also phosphorylated by CaMKI at the same sites as PKA, suggesting that this regulatory phosphorylation might play a role as a negative-feedback mechanism. In intact PC12 cells, activation of PKA with forskolin resulted in a rapid inhibition of both CaMKK and CaMKI activity. In hippocampal slices CaMKK was phosphorylated under basal conditions, and activation of PKA led to an increase in phosphorylation. Two-dimensional phosphopeptide mapping indicated that activation of PKA led to increased phosphorylation of multiple sites including threonine 108. These results indicate that in vitro and in intact cells the CaMKK/CaMKI cascade is subject to inhibition by PKA-mediated phosphorylation of CaMKK. The phosphorylation and inhibition of CaMKK by PKA is likely to be involved in modulating the balance between cAMP- and Ca2+-dependent signal transduction pathways.  (+info)

Ca(2+)/Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase cascade in Caenorhabditis elegans. Implication in transcriptional activation. (2/105)

We have recently demonstrated that Caenorhabditis elegans Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CeCaM-KK) can activate mammalian CaM-kinase IV in vitro (Tokumitsu, H., Takahashi, N., Eto, K., Yano, S., Soderling, T.R., and Muramatsu, M. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 15803-15810). In the present study, we have identified and cloned a target CaM-kinase for CaM-KK in C. elegans, CeCaM-kinase I (CeCaM-KI), which has approximately 60% identity to mammalian CaM-KI. CeCaM-KI has 348 amino acid residues with an apparent molecular mass of 40 kDa, which is activated by CeCaM-KK through phosphorylation of Thr(179) in a Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent manner, resulting in a 30-fold decrease in the K(m) of CeCaM-KI for its peptide substrate. Unlike mammalian CaM-KI, CeCaM-KI is mainly localized in the nucleus of transfected cells because the NH(2)-terminal six residues ((2)PLFKRR(7)) contain a functional nuclear localization signal. We have also demonstrated that CeCaM-KK and CeCaM-KI reconstituted a signaling pathway that mediates Ca(2+)-dependent phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and CRE-dependent transcriptional activation in transfected cells, consistent with nuclear localization of CeCaM-KI. These results suggest that the CaM-KK/CaM-KI cascade is conserved in C. elegans and is functionally operated both in vitro and in intact cells, and it may be involved in Ca(2+)-dependent nuclear events such as transcriptional activation through phosphorylation of CREB.  (+info)

The expression of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I in rat retina is regulated by light stimulation. (3/105)

Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I (CaM-kinase I) in rat retina was analyzed by immunohistochemical analysis, Western blot analysis and kinase activity assay. Western blot analysis revealed two immunoreactive bands similar to those detected in the brain. Developmental studies revealed that CaM-kinase I expression increased in accordance with postnatal development. Expression of CaM-kinase I in the retinas of rats raised in the complete darkness markedly decreased. CaM-kinase I activity assay supported these findings. Synapsin I was shown to be a possible intrinsic substrate of CaM-kinase I in rat retina. These results elucidated that CaM-kinase I is expressed in the retina and may play an important role in the retinal functions and that the expression of CaM-kinase I is regulated by light stimulation.  (+info)

Increased expression of Galphaq protein in the heart of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. (4/105)

Heart disease is one of the major cause of death in diabetic patients, but the pathogenesis of diabetic cardio-myopathy remains unclear. In this experiment, to assess the significance of G protein signaling pathways in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy, we analyzed the expression of G proteins and the activities of second messenger dependent protein kinases: cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), DAG-mediated protein kinase C (PKC), and calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaM kinase II) in the streptozotocin induced diabetic rat heart. The expression of Galphaq was increased by slightly over 10% (P<0.05) in diabetic rat heart, while Galphas, Galphai, and Gbeta remained unchanged. The PKA activity in the heart did not change significantly but increased by 27% (P<0.01) in the liver. Insulin treatment did not restore the increased activity in the liver. Total PKC activity in the heart was increased by 56% (P<0.01), and insulin treatment did not restore such increase. The CaM kinase II activity in the heart remained at the same level but was slightly increased in the liver (14% increase, P<0.05). These findings of increased expression of Galphaq in the streptozotocin-diabetic rat heart that are reflected by the increased level of PKC activity and insensitivity to insulin demonstrate that alteration of Galphaq may underlie, at least partly, the cardiac dysfunction that is associated with diabetes.  (+info)

Regulation of phenobarbital induction of the cytochrome P450 2b9/10 genes in primary mouse hepatocyte culture. Involvement of calcium- and cAMP-dependent pathways. (5/105)

Phenobarbital (PB) has long been known as an inducer of drug-metabolizing enzymes in liver, but the molecular mechanism underlying this induction is still poorly understood. Using primary mouse hepatocyte culture, we have investigated the possible involvement of different regulatory pathways in PB action, by exposing PB-treated cells to various protein kinase/phosphatase modulators. Our results showed a negative role of the cAMP-dependent pathway, as treatment with cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) activators (10 microM dibutyryl-cAMP and 50 microM forskolin) dramatically inhibited PB-induced Cyp2b9/10 mRNA accumulation, whereas PKA inhibitor potentiated the PB responsiveness of this gene. The cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) seems to play a positive role as PKG inhibitor reduced the PB-induced level of Cyp2b9/10 mRNA. We also obtained two lines of evidence for the involvement of Ca2+ in modulating PB action. Firstly, measurements of intracellular Fura-2 fluorescence ratio in murine hepatocytes showed that long-term PB incubation (24 and 48 h) led to a significant increase of [Ca2+]i. Secondly, treatment with an intracellular Ca2+ chelator (BAPTA-AM) nearly completely abolished PB-induced Cyp2b9/10 expression. Ca2+ thus appeared to mediate PB action likely via Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, as KN62, a specific inhibitor of this enzyme, also dramatically inhibited PB induction of the Cyp2b9/10 genes.  (+info)

Activation of orphan receptor-mediated transcription by Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV. (6/105)

Retinoid-related receptor alpha (RORalpha) is an orphan nuclear receptor that constitutively activates transcription from its cognate response element. We show that RORalpha is Ca(2+ )responsive, and a Ca(2+)/calmodulin-independent form of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV) potentiates RORalpha-dependent transcription 20- to 30-fold. Other orphan receptors including RORalpha2, RORgamma and COUP-TFI are also potentiated by CaMKIV. Transcriptional activation by CaMKIV is orphan receptor selective and does not occur with either the thyroid hormone or estrogen receptor. CaMKIV does not phosphorylate RORalpha or its ligand-binding domain (LBD) in vitro, although the LBD is essential for transactivation. Therefore, the RORalpha LBD was used in the mammalian two-hybrid assay to identify a single class of small peptide molecules containing LXXLL motifs that interacted with greater affinity in the presence of CaMKIV. This class of peptides antagonized activation of orphan receptor-mediated transcription by CaMKIV. These studies demonstrate a pivotal role for CaMKIV in the regulation of orphan receptor-mediated transcription.  (+info)

Variation of phospholamban in slow-twitch muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum between mammalian species and a link to the substrate specificity of endogenous Ca(2+)-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase. (7/105)

Systematic immunological and biochemical studies indicate that the level of expression of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+)-ATPase regulatory protein phospholamban (PLB) in mammalian slow-twitch fibers varies from zero, in the rat, to significant levels in the rabbit, and even higher in humans. The lack of PLB expression in the rat, at the mRNA level, is shown to be exclusive to slow-twitch skeletal muscle, and not to be shared by the heart, thus suggesting a tissue-specific, in addition to a species-specific regulation of PLB. A comparison of sucrose density-purified SR of rat and rabbit slow-twitch muscle, with regard to protein compositional and phosphorylation properties, demonstrates that the biodiversity is two-fold, i.e. (a) in PLB membrane density; and (b) in the ability of membrane-bound Ca(2+)-calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase II to phosphorylate both PLB and SERCA2a (slow-twitch isoform of Ca(2+)-ATPase). The basal phosphorylation state of PLB at Thr-17 in isolated SR vesicles from rabbit slow-twitch muscle, colocalization of CaM K II with PLB and SERCA2a at the same membrane domain, and the divergent subcellular distribution of PKA, taken together, seem to argue for a differential heterogeneity in the regulation of Ca(2+) transport between such muscle and heart muscle.  (+info)

AMPA receptor-mediated, calcium-dependent CREB phosphorylation in a subpopulation of auditory neurons surviving activity deprivation. (8/105)

Although dependence on afferent synaptic activity has been shown for central neurons in every sensory system, the mechanisms of afferent maintenance of target sensory neurons are not understood. Neurons in the cochlear nucleus (CN) require afferent activity for maintenance and survival. One of the earliest changes seen after activity deprivation is an increase in intracellular calcium that leads to the death of 30% of the neuronal population. Sixty minutes after deafferentation, the surviving neurons show increased phosphorylation of the transcription factor calcium/cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). CREB phosphorylation in activity-deprived CN neurons is dependent on increased intracellular calcium resulting from influx through AMPA receptors and is mediated by calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinases and protein kinase A. We conclude that in CN neurons, the deafferentation-induced increase in calcium activates at least two kinase pathways that phosphorylate CREB in surviving neurons. We hypothesize that this phosphorylation results in the transcription of genes containing the calcium/cAMP response element within their promoter regions, and these genes code for proteins that allow the neurons to compensate for their hypercalcemic, activity-deprived state.  (+info)

The amount of cell-surface Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) available to secreted ligand (EGF) dictates a cells ability to mediate cell proliferation, differentiation or migration. Multiple factors regulate EGFR cell-surface expression including the rates of protein synthesis and protein deg …
Human granulocytes are characterized by a variety of specific effector functions involved in host defense. Several widely expressed protein kinases have been implicated in the regulation of these effector functions. A polymerase chain reaction- based strategy was used to identify novel granulocyte-specific kinases.Anovel protein kinase complementary DNA with an open reading frame of 357 amino acids was identified with homology ... read more to calciumcalmodulin- dependent kinase I (CaMKI). This has been termed CaMKI-like kinase (CKLiK). Analysis of CKLiK messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in hematopoietic cells demonstrated an almost exclusive expression in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN). Up-regulation of CKLiK mRNA occurs during neutrophilic differentiation of CD341 stem cells. CKLiK kinase activity was dependent on Ca11 and calmodulin as analyzed by in vitro phosphorylation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate responsive element modulator (CREM). Furthermore, CKLiKtransfected cells treated ...
1MXE: Structure of the Complex of Calmodulin with the Target Sequence of Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase I: Studies of the Kinase Activation Mechanism
Involvement of PCNK in CaMKIα phosphorylation.MCF-7 cells were transfected with siRNA targeting PNCK or control siRNA (NT1) and 72 h later, cells were exposed
We have professional and advanced research and production capacity for CAMKI reagents production, including Proteins, Antibodies, cDNA Clones,etc. All CAMK1 products are produced in house and quality controlled.
4316 An exciting recent advancement in EGFR biology is the discovery of EGFR mutations in the kinase domain that confer sensitivity to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors and increased ligand (EGF)-induced EGFR phosphorylation. An important question is the mechanism by which these EGFR mutants have intrinsic kinase activity. For this study, we utilized a non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line HCC827 with deletion of aa 746-750 in the kinase domain of EGFR. In the presence of 10% serum as well as after serum-deprivation for 2 days, HCC827 had increased levels of phosphorylated EGFR (p-EGFR) at the autophosphorylation site Y1068 as compared to six other cell lines with wild type EGFR. This suggests that HCC827 has ligand-independent EGFR kinase activity. This was also supported by the observation that treatment with GM6001, an inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases that release EGFR ligands, or with the EGFR antibody C225, did not detectably affect basal p-EGFR in HCC827. In a panel of cell ...
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase 2 (CaMKK2) has been implicated in a range of conditions and pathologies from prostate to hepatic cancer. Here, we describe the expression in Escherichia coli and the purification protocol for the following constructs: full-length CaMKK2 in complex with CaM, CaMKK2 apo, CaMKK2 (165-501) in complex with CaM, and the CaMKK2 F267G mutant. The protocols described have been optimized for maximum yield and purity with minimal purification steps required and the proteins subsequently used to develop a fluorescence-based assay for drug binding to the kinase, Using the fluorescent properties of STO-609 as a tool to assist structure-function analyses of recombinant CaMKK2 [1].
An influx of calcium into neurons causes mitochondrial fission, according to Han et al.. To respond to changing cellular needs, mitochondria move, fuse together, or undergo fission. Han et al. now reveal some of the proteins and signals that regulate fission in neurons.. The authors tested mitochondrial responses to an increase in potassium (K+) levels, which mimics an action potential. The K+ spike brought mitochondria to a halt and prompted their division, making them shorter and rounder. These changes depended on the opening of voltage-dependent calcium channels and the resulting Ca2+ gradient, which in turn activates the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMKIα). A CaMKIα antagonist blocked K+-triggered changes in mitochondrial shape.. In their search for CaMKIα substrates, the authors turned to Drp1 (dynamin-related protein 1), which promotes mitochondrial fission and whose sequence suggested it could be phosphorylated. And the authors found that it was, in fact, a CaMKIα ...
Buy our Recombinant mouse PNCK protein. Ab60891 is an active full length protein produced in Baculovirus infected Sf9 cells and has been validated in FuncS…
克拉玛尔专业提供CaMKII Phospho (pT286) (CAMK2A)高品质试剂,可查询CaMKII Phospho (pT286) (CAMK2A)价格,提供CaMKII Phospho (pT286) (CAMK2A)技术资料,CaMKII Phospho (pT286) (CAMK2A)定制合成和大包装,是专业生产各种高端试剂的制造商和供应商.联系电话4001650900
Plasmid pDONR223-CAMK1G from Dr. William Hahns lab contains the insert CAMK1G and is published in Nature. 2010 Nov 24. ():. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
Plasmid pWZL Neo Myr Flag CAMK4 from Dr. Jean Zhaos lab contains the insert CAMK4 and is published in Cell. 2007 Jun 15. 129(6):1065-1079. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase 2 (CaMKK2) has been implicated in the regulation of metabolic activity in cancer and immune cells, and affects whole-body metabolism by regulating ghrelin-signalling in the hypothalamus. This has led to efforts to develop specific CaMKK2 inhibitors, and STO-609 is the standardly used CaMKK2 inhibitor to date. We have developed a novel fluorescence-based assay by exploiting the intrinsic fluorescence properties of STO-609. Here, we report an in vitro binding constant of KD ∼17 nM between STO-609 and purified CaMKK2 or CaMKK2:Calmodulin complex. Whereas high concentrations of ATP were able to displace STO-609 from the kinase, GTP was unable to achieve this confirming the specificity of this association. Recent structural studies on the kinase domain of CaMKK2 had implicated a number of amino acids involved in the binding of STO-609. Our fluorescent assay enabled us to confirm that Phe(267) is critically important for this association since mutation of this
CaMK2 (calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 2), a multifunctional serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in diverse cellular processes, is vital for the transduction of the Ca2+ signaling cascade. Recently, research has highlighted the involvement of CaMK2 in cancer development. However, the specific effects of CaMK2 on cancer have not been fully elucidated. In this review, we summarize not only the altered expression of CaMK2 in a range of cancers, as evidenced by bioinformatics analysis, but also the significant role of CaMK2 in regulating cancer progression, such as proliferation and metastasis. In addition, we described the functional influence of CaMK2 on cancer stemness and resistance. Understanding the critical effects and mechanisms of CaMK2 in cancer would facilitate the development of a promising therapeutic strategy for cancer treatment.
TABLE-US-00006 TABLE 6 THI + 2 + 4 + 5 + 7 Composite (Meta-THc) OG- OG- OG- OG- OG- 3116 @ 3116 @ 3116 @ 3116 @ 3116 @ 50 100 1 μg/ml 5 μg/ml 25 μg/ml μg/ml μg/ml Abl(H396P)(h) 91 88 73 55 50 Abl(M351T)(h) 100 87 62 50 38 Abl(Q252H)(h) 89 86 58 45 44 Abl(h) 98 85 65 41 49 Abl(m) 99 87 60 47 43 Abl(T315I)(h) 100 91 79 65 52 Abl(Y253F)(h) 93 90 75 54 51 ACK1(h) 122 112 97 102 82 ALK(h) 76 38 17 16 26 ALK4(h) 96 95 85 68 48 Arg(h) 94 91 68 52 42 Arg(m) 100 99 94 73 50 ARK5(h) 100 97 82 64 75 Aurora-A(h) 92 79 40 41 27 Axl(h) 97 99 83 77 60 Blk(m) 95 102 71 49 54 Bmx(h) 91 94 84 77 43 BrSK1(h) 95 90 71 47 51 BrSK2(h) 91 82 77 70 63 BTK(h) 99 97 64 44 28 CaMKI(h) 95 84 46 28 48 CaMKII(r) 97 106 89 69 63 CaMKIIβ(h) 94 99 85 52 34 CaMKIIγ(h) 107 103 94 92 134 CaMKIIδ(h) 103 97 84 83 84 CaMKIV(h) 107 108 95 75 58 CaMKIδ(h) 91 93 92 75 80 CDK1/cyclinB(h) 99 101 91 71 58 CDK2/cyclinA(h) 105 106 92 83 63 CDK2/cyclinE(h) 99 103 75 60 42 CDK3/cyclinE(h) 108 100 96 79 45 CDK5/p25(h) 102 89 84 77 72 ...
THADA antibody [C3], C-term (thyroid adenoma associated) for WB. Anti-THADA pAb (GTX104909) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Use Bio-Rads PrimePCR assays, controls, templates for your target gene. Every primer pair is optimized, experimentally validated, and performance guaranteed.
View Tg(Camk2a-tTA)1Mmay/0 Tg(tetO-APPSwInd)102Dbo/0 involves: C3H/HeJ * C57BL/6 * CBA: phenotypes, images, diseases, and references.
Looking for online definition of CaM-kinase kinase 1 in the Medical Dictionary? CaM-kinase kinase 1 explanation free. What is CaM-kinase kinase 1? Meaning of CaM-kinase kinase 1 medical term. What does CaM-kinase kinase 1 mean?
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase belonging to a proposed calcium-triggered signaling cascade. In vitro phosphorylates CREB1 and SYN1/synapsin I. Phosphorylates and activates CAMK1 (By similarity).
Integrin signalling co-ordinates with signalling originating from growth factor receptors in the co-operative control of cell proliferation, survival and migration. Increasing evidence suggests that integrins form physical complexes at the cell membrane with growth factor receptors, giving rise to signalling platforms at the adhesive sites. It is probable that at these sites integrins regulate adhesion and at the same time physically constrain and direct the response to soluble growth factors towards proliferation or survival stimuli. These co-operative effects might depend on integrin ability to activate growth factor receptors. In the present paper, we summarize our recent study showing that integrin-dependent adhesion triggers ligand-independent EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) activation to transduce downstream signalling. In addition, we also show that integrin-induced signalling pathways are necessary for EGF-dependent transcriptional response, demonstrating the requirement of the ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
calmodulin-dependent protein kinase V: widely distributed in various tissues, involved in calcium-regulated processes; from rat brain; may exist in 40 & 41 kDa isoforms; amino acid sequence has been determined
Camk1g - Camk1g (untagged ORF) - Rat calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IG (Camk1g), (10 ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Camk2d2 antibody (calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) II delta 2) for IHC-P, WB. Anti-Camk2d2 pAb (GTX124377) is tested in Zebrafish samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Expression of CAMK4 (CaMK-GR) in duodenum tissue. Antibody staining with HPA011753, HPA017206 and CAB004347 in immunohistochemistry.
2IZV: Structure of the Socs4-Elonginb/C Complex Reveals a Distinct Socs Box Interface and the Molecular Basis for Socs-Dependent Egfr Degradation.
We demonstrate for the first time that 4H-1,2,6-thiadiazin-4-one (TDZ) can function as a chemotype for the design of ATP-competitive kinase inhibitors. Using insights from a co-crystal structure of a 3,5-bis(arylamino)-4H-1,2,6-thiadiazin-4-one bound to calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2 (CaMKK2), several analogues were identified with micromolar activity through targeted displacement of bound water molecules in the active site. Since the TDZ analogues showed reduced promiscuity compared to their 2,4-dianilinopyrimidine counter parts, they represent starting points for development of highly selective kinase inhibitors.
Background: CaMKK β is a major kinase activated by elevated levels of intracellular calcium. Our previous data has suggested that CaMKK β is neuroprotective after stroke in young mice as inhibition of this kinase aggravated stroke outcome. As aging is an important determinant of stroke outcomes, here we evaluated the functional role of CaMKK β in stroke in aged mice.. Methods: Aged wild type (WT) males received intracerebral injections of lentiviral vectors carrying either CaMKK β (LV-CaMKK β) or GFP (LV-GFP) 7 days before middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO, 90 minutes). Acute infarcts and neurological deficits scores were then analyzed at 72 hours post MCAO. In chronic survival studies, aged male CaMKK β knockout (KO) and WT mice were subjected to 60 minutes MCAO. Following stroke, long-term behavioral assessments were continuously performed for 3 weeks in KO and WT mice until the sacrifice for tissue loss assessments.. Results: Baseline levels of CaMKK β in aged brain were ...
Recombinant Calcium/calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase IV (CAMK4) Protein (His tag). Spezies: Human. Quelle: Escherichia coli (E. coli). Jetzt Produkt ABIN668012 bestellen.
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II gamma subunit - CAMK2 family. Detailed annotation on the structure, function, physiology, pharmacology and clinical relevance of drug targets.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Amphetamine activate protein kinase C and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase via NMDA receptor in primary cultures of rat cortical neurons. AU - Wu, Hsueh-Hsia. AU - Lee, Horng-Mo. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. M3 - Article. VL - 1. SP - 12. EP - 19. JO - New Taipei Journal of Medicine. JF - New Taipei Journal of Medicine. SN - 1562-4242. ER - ...
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Expression of CAMK2A (CAMKA, CaMKIINalpha, KIAA0968) in ovary tissue. Antibody staining with HPA051783, HPA051785, HPA053973 and CAB004330 in immunohistochemistry.
This page contains the article Correctly Completing a Medicare Claim http://www.chiro.org/Medicare/ABSTRACTS/Correctly_Completing_a_Medicare_Claim.shtml
Olomoucine is known as a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. We found that olomoucine blocked insulins ability to stimulate glucose transport. It did so without affecting the activity of known insulin signaling proteins. To identify the olomoucine-sensitive kinase(s), we prepared analogs that could be immobilized to an affinity resin to isolate binding proteins. One of the generated analogs inhibited insulin-stimulated glucose uptake with increased sensitivity compared with olomoucine. The IC50 for inhibition of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake occurred at analog concentrations as low as 0.1 μm. To identify proteins binding to the analog, [35S]-labeled cell lysates prepared from 3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated with analog chemically cross-linked to a resin support and binding proteins analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The major binding species was a doublet at 50-60 kDa, which was identified as calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) by N-terminal peptide analysis and confirmed by ...
Camkk1 - Camkk1 (Myc-DDK-tagged ORF) - Rat calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 1, alpha (Camkk1), (10 ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) is a major cause of death and disability in neonates. HI leads to a dramatic rise in intracellular calcium levels, which was originally thought to be detrimental to the brain. However, it has been increasingly recognized that this calcium signaling may also play an important protective role after injury by triggering endogenous neuroprotective pathways. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase ß (CaMKK ß) is a major kinase activated by elevated levels of intracellular calcium. Here we evaluated the functional role of CaMKK ß in neonatal mice after HI in both acute and chronic survival experiments. Postnatal day ten wild-type (WT) and CaMKK ß knockout (KO) mouse male pups were subjected to unilateral carotid artery ligation, followed by 40 min of hypoxia (10% O2 in N2). STO-609, a CaMKK inhibitor, was administered intraperitoneally to WT mice at 5 minutes after HI. TTC (2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride monohydrate) staining was used to assess ...
Results We show that culture of MRL/lpr Foxp3-GFP T cells in the presence of KN-93 promotes Treg differentiation in a dose dependent manner (Fig. F). Treatment of MRL/lpr Foxp3-GFP mice with KN-93 results in significant induction of Treg cells in the spleen, peripheral lymph nodes (Fig. B-E) and peripheral blood (Fig. A and B) and this is accompanied by decreased skin and kidney damage. Notably, KN-93 clearly diminishes the accumulation of inflammatory cells along with reciprocally increased Treg cells in target organ.. ...
Overview Protocols Specifications Resources Convenient, 1-Hour Kinase Activity Assays The SignaTECT® Protein Kinase Assay Systems provide a rapid, radioactivity-based method for detection of kinase activity. The method is based on capture of phosphorylated labeled substrates on the SAM2® Biotin Capture Membrane, which
AMPK is a ubiquitously expressed heterotrimeric kinase that plays a key role in cellular energy homeostasis (2). AMPK consists of an α, a β, and a γ subunit and is activated by the upstream kinases such as calcium calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK) and serine/threonine kinase 11 (LKB1) via phosphorylation of threonine residue 172 (47). Activation of AMPK by CaMKK and LKB1 is dependent, respectively, on intracellular calcium and the AMP:ATP ratio (47). During energy-depleted conditions, intracellular concentrations of AMP rise while ATP levels fall, leading to increased activation of AMPK and phosphorylation of its multiple substrates to enhance catabolism and suppress anabolic energy consumption. In excess energy states, reduced AMPK activation stimulates protein synthesis, cell growth, and storage. AMPK activity is also independently regulated by circulating hormones and cytokines, including bradykinin and the adipokines leptin and adiponectin (2,47). AMPK is also induced by ...
Supplementary MaterialsAdditional document 1: Body S1. for profiling little RNAs. Body S15. The saturation curves of miRNA. Body S16. RPM scatterplots of portrayed small RNAs. Body S17. Comparative expression heat maps of super-enhancer-regulated professional mRNAs and miRNAs. Body S18. Hematoxylin and Eosin (HE) staining from the HCC tissues. Figure S19. Comparative expression degrees of gene groupings between HCC Exp-subpopulations. Body S20. mRNA catch sequencing from the Holo-Seq total RNA collection. Body S21. mRNA and miRNA single transcriptome analyses of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) one cells. (DOCX 5908 kb) 13059_2018_1553_MOESM1_ESM.docx (5.7M) GUID:?8BF5D1B7-5F74-410D-8E95-CCE7DDE5D5D7 Extra file YM348 2: Desk S1. Not really1-site-containing transcripts in mouse. Desk S2. Not really1-site-containing transcripts in individual. Desk S3. Sequencing figures of RNA libraries. Desk S4. One cell collection price with different strategies. (XLSX 171 kb) 13059_2018_1553_MOESM2_ESM.xlsx ...
Human CAMK2D full-length ORF ( NP_742126.1, 1 a.a. - 478 a.a.) recombinant protein with GST-tag at N-terminal. (H00000817-P01) - Products - Abnova
If you know of any papers that use this antibody, please contact us at antibodies [at] alzforum [dot] org for consideration in the References section.. ...
Contact Us. Tel:732-484-9848. Fax:888-484-5008. Email:[email protected]. Add:1 Deer Park Dr, Suite Q,. Monmouth Junction, NJ 08852, USA. ...
Raval A, Tanner SM, Byrd JC, Angerman EB, Perko JD, Chen SS, Hackanson B, Grever MR, Lucas DM, Matkovic JJ, Lin TS, Kipps TJ, Murray F, Weisenburger D, Sanger W, Lynch J, Watson P, Jansen M, Yoshinaga Y, Rosenquist R, de Jong PJ, Coggill P, Beck S, Lynch H, de la Chapelle A, Plass C. Downregulation of death-associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1) in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Cell. 2007 Jun 01; 129(5):879-90 ...
The abundantly expressed calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CAMK2), alpha (CAMK2A), and beta (CAMK2B) isoforms are essential for learning and memory formation. Recently, a de novo candidate mutation (p.Arg292Pro) in the gamma isoform of CAMK2 (CAMK2G) was identified in a patient with severe intellectual disability (ID), but the mechanism(s) by which this mutation causes ID is unknown. Here, we identified a second, unrelated individual, with a de novo CAMK2G p.Arg292Pro mutation, and used in vivo and in vitro assays to assess the impact of this mutation on CAMK2G and neuronal function. We found that knockdown of CAMK2G results in inappropriate precocious neuronal maturation. We further found that the CAMK2G p.Arg292Pro mutation acts as a highly pathogenic gain-of-function mutation, leading to increased phosphotransferase activity and impaired neuronal maturation as well as impaired targeting of the nuclear CAMK2G isoform. Silencing the catalytic site of the CAMK2G p.Arg292Pro protein ...
The graphic displays domains and Protease cut sites on the protein sequence. Drag your mouse right/left over the graphic. Use the selection boxes on the right to select which annotations to view simultaneously. Combine annotation with multiple checkmarks.. ...
Radial glial cell-neuron interaction directs axon formation at the opposite side of the neuron from the contact siteRadial glial cell-neuron interaction directs axon formation at the opposite side of the neuron from the contact site ...
Recombinant full-length human CAMK4 was expressed by baculovirus in Sf9 insect cells using an N-terminal GST tag. CAMK4 is a multifunctional serine/threonine protein kinase and a member of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase family.
STO-609 acetate,7-Oxo-7H-benzimidazo[2,1-a]benz[de]isoquinoline-3-carboxylicacidacetate 52029-86-4 NMR spectrum, STO-609 acetate,7-Oxo-7H-benzimidazo[2,1-a]benz[de]isoquinoline-3-carboxylicacidacetate H-NMR spectral analysis, STO-609 acetate,7-Oxo-7H-benzimidazo[2,1-a]benz[de]isoquinoline-3-carboxylicacidacetate C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CAMK1 gene. Calcium/calmodulin ... calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I by calmodulin and by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase". J. Biol. Chem. 273 ... Phosphorylation by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, protein kinase C, and calcium/calmodulin protein kinase; identification ... Calcium/calmodulin directly activates calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I by binding to the enzyme and indirectly ...
PIK1 It binds to many proteins, some in calcium dependent and some in calcium independent ways, and switches many of the ... type III phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase β) IP3 receptor (this activity is inhibited by lithium - a drug used for the treatment ... calcium-binding protein. Frq can substitute for calmodulin in some situations. It is thought to be associated with neuronal ... Burgoyne RD (2007). "Neuronal calcium sensor proteins: generating diversity in neuronal Ca2+ signalling". Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 8 ...
... calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV, and the peroxisome proliferator γ coactivator 1 (PGC-1). The Ras/MAPK signaling ... Calcineurin, a Ca2+/calmodulin-activated phosphatase implicated in nerve activity-dependent fiber-type specification in ... proteins and other regulatory proteins. Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase activity is also upregulated by slow motor ... calcineurin and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV to activate transcription factors that regulate gene expression ...
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type IV is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CAMK4 gene. The product of ... calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I by calmodulin and by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase". J. Biol. Chem. 273 ... Phosphorylation by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, protein kinase C, and calcium/calmodulin protein kinase; identification ... and activation of Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV by Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase Ia kinase. ...
The increase in presynaptic calcium concentration activates calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK). CaMK ... The protein dense projections vary in size and shape depending on the type of synapse examined. One striking example of the ... The protein ELKS binds to the cell adhesion protein, β-neurexin, and other proteins within the complex such as Piccolo and ... that cause a local influx of calcium. The increase in calcium is detected by proteins in the active zone and forces vesicles ...
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II gamma chain is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CAMK2G gene. The ... "Entrez Gene: CAMK2G calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) II gamma". Moyers JS, Bilan PJ, Zhu J, Kahn CR ( ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II subunit gamma) at the PDBe-KB. Biology portal This article incorporates ... calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily. Calcium signaling is crucial for several aspects of plasticity at glutamatergic ...
... a calcium pump EC The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of P-type primary ion transport ATPases ... Wang KK, Wright LC, Machan CL, Allen BG, Conigrave AD, Roufogalis BD (May 1991). "Protein kinase C phosphorylates the carboxyl ... "Primary structure of the cAMP-dependent phosphorylation site of the plasma membrane calcium pump". Biochemistry. 28 (10): 4253- ... Kessler F, Falchetto R, Heim R, Meili R, Vorherr T, Strehler EE, Carafoli E (December 1992). "Study of calmodulin binding to ...
2005). "Multivalent interactions of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II with the postsynaptic density proteins NR2B ... 2007). "Densin and filtrin in the pancreas and in the kidney, targets for humoral autoimmunity in patients with type 1 diabetes ... 2001). "Densin-180 forms a ternary complex with the (alpha)-subunit of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and (alpha)- ... portray Densin-180 as a key interactor in the midst of receptor proteins, scaffolding proteins and structural proteins. [number ...
Calmodulin-dependent kinase II and Rho-kinase are also found to phosphorylate calponin at Ser175 and Thr184 in vitro. Of these ... Dephosphorylation of calponin is catalyzed by type 2B protein phosphatase Unphosphorylated calponin binds to actin and inhibits ... Calcium-dependent mechanisms of regulation of smooth muscle contraction". Biochemistry and Cell Biology. 69 (12): 771-800. doi: ... the main site of regulatory phosphorylation by calmodulin-dependent kinase II and Rho-kinase is Ser175. ...
... cyclin-dependent kinase 5 activators p35 and p39 interact with the alpha-subunit of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II ... Alpha actinin is an actin-binding protein with multiple roles in different cell types. In nonmuscle cells, the cytoskeletal ... Bunn RC, Jensen MA, Reed BC (1999). "Protein interactions with the glucose transporter binding protein GLUT1CBP that provide a ... Bunn RC, Jensen MA, Reed BC (April 1999). "Protein interactions with the glucose transporter binding protein GLUT1CBP that ...
This gene is also known by several other names: CMG 2 (CAMGUK protein 2), calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase 3 ... Hsueh YP, Roberts AM, Volta M, Sheng M, Roberts RG (June 2001). "Bipartite interaction between neurofibromatosis type I protein ... "Entrez Gene: CASK Calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (MAGUK family)". Tarpey PS, Smith R, Pleasance E, Whibley ... Zhu ZQ, Wang D, Xiang D, Yuan YX, Wang Y (2014). "Calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase is involved in exendin-4- ...
The δ subunit is the ubiquitous eukaryotic protein calmodulin which itself has 4 calcium ion binding sites. When cytosolic Ca2+ ... but phosphorylation of both these subunits by protein kinase A (PKA, or cAMP-dependent protein kinase) reduces their respective ... Defects in phosphorylase kinase genes are the cause of glycogen storage disease type IX (GSD type IX) and GSD type VI (formerly ... In the active site, there is significant homology between PhK and other so-called P-loop protein kinases such as protein kinase ...
... a novel two EF-hand calcium-binding protein that suppresses Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II activity in the brain ... Expression of CaBP1 helps to block Ca2+-dependent facilitation of P/Q-type Ca2+ current which is markedly reduced facilitation ... This protein causes rapid inactivation that is independent of calcium, and does not support Calcium-dependent facilitation. ... This gene encodes a protein that belongs to a subfamily of calcium binding proteins which share similarity to calmodulin. The ...
... cyclin-dependent kinase 5 activators p35 and p39 interact with the alpha-subunit of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II ... Sakashita G, Shima H, Komatsu M, Urano T, Kikuchi A, Kikuchi K (February 2003). "Regulation of type 1 protein phosphatase/ ... cyclin-dependent kinase 5 activators p35 and p39 interact with the alpha-subunit of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 activator 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDK5R2 gene. The protein encoded by this ...
... the microtubule-associated tau proteins and S100b regulate tau phosphorylation by the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ... "The calcium-modulated proteins, S100A1 and S100B, as potential regulators of the dynamics of type III intermediate filaments". ... S100 calcium-binding protein B (S100B) is a protein of the S-100 protein family. S100 proteins are localized in the cytoplasm ... the microtubule-associated tau proteins and S100b regulate tau phosphorylation by the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ...
Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II) is also activated by calcium influx through NMDA receptors, and is ... Lacosamide is used in combination with other types of medications to control various types of seizures, especially epilepsy. ... and cyclin-dependent protein kinase 5 (Cdk5) are highly expressed in Alzheimer's disease and are some of the protein kinases ... revealing the presence of both Rho kinase-dependent and Rho kinase-independent pathways for the growth cone collapse. In RhoA ...
The frequency (FRQ) protein accumulates and is progressively phosphorylated by CKI, CKII, and a calcium/calmodulin-dependent ... A similar palette of kinases modifies the clock proteins in all cases. Negative feedback White Collar-1 Baker CL, Loros JJ, ... Because sFRQ favors a longer period than lFRQ, free running rhythms in wild type Neurospora are somewhat decreased with ... with just one of the proteins present. The choice of which protein is made is the result of temperature-dependent splicing of ...
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II delta chain is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CAMK2D gene. The ... CAMK2D calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) II delta". Hook SS, Means AR (2001). "Ca2+/CaM-dependent ... product of this gene belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase family and to the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ... "Rad and Rad-related GTPases interact with calmodulin and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (18): ...
This calcium then interacts with calcineurin and calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinases that in turn activate transcription ... October 2004). "Endoplasmic reticulum stress links obesity, insulin action, and type 2 diabetes". Science. 306 (5695): 457-61. ... "Coupling of stress in the ER to activation of JNK protein kinases by transmembrane protein kinase IRE1". Science. 287 (5453): ... PERK (protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase) activates itself by oligomerization and autophosphorylation of the ...
... resulting in a calcium influx into the SCN. Calcium induces the activity of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases, ... CREB is also thought to be involved in the growth of some types of cancer. Entrainment of the mammalian circadian clock is ... and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases on the Serine 133 residue. When activated, CREB protein recruits other ... This protein kinase translocates to the cell nucleus, where it activates a CREB protein. The activated CREB protein then binds ...
... including elongation factor 1A and the calcium sensing protein calmodulin. Many eukaryotic proteins are post-translationally ... The arginine methylation of proteins can either inhibit or promote protein-protein interactions depending on the type of ... GTP-binding proteins, nuclear lamins and certain protein kinases. Many of these proteins participate in cell signaling, and ... A well-characterized example of a methylation dependent protein-protein interaction is related to the selective methylation of ...
"Calmodulin is involved in the Ca2+-dependent activation of ceramide kinase as a calcium sensor". J. Biol. Chem. 280 (49): 40436 ... CERK shares sequence homology with sphingosine kinase type I, including an N-terminal pleckstrin homology (PH) domain and a ... "Ceramide kinase uses ceramide provided by ceramide transport protein: localization to organelles of eicosanoid synthesis". J. ... CERK was later confirmed to bind calmodulin in the presence of calcium, indicating the calmodulin first binds calcium and then ...
Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) plays a crucial role in a type of synaptic plasticity known as long-term ... Many of the proteins that calmodulin binds are unable to bind calcium themselves, and use calmodulin as a calcium sensor and ... Proteopedia page for Calmodulin and its conformational change Protein kinase Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase Stevens ... This MLC kinase is activated by a calmodulin when it is bound by calcium, thus making smooth muscle contraction dependent on ...
... suggesting that inhibition of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II may also be a potential treatment strategy. These ... which can be explained by decreased voltage-dependent calcium channel expression, specifically Ca(v)1.3, which is responsible ... Initially, a Glu1425Gly mutation in ANK2 was found to cause dominantly-inherited long QT syndrome, type 4, cardiac arrhythmia. ... Effects on ryanodine receptors specifically were also rescued by a potent Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibitor ...
... by protein kinase C and calcium/calmodulin kinase II in vitro". J. Neurochem. 71 (3): 1307-14. doi:10.1046/j.1471-4159.1998. ... Kubes M, Cordier J, Glowinski J, Girault JA, Chneiweiss H (1998). "Endothelin induces a calcium-dependent phosphorylation of ... "Molecular characterization of the human PEA15 gene on 1q21-q22 and association with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Pima Indians". ... "Protein kinase B/Akt binds and phosphorylates PED/PEA-15, stabilizing its antiapoptotic action". Mol. Cell. Biol. 23 (13): 4511 ...
"CAMK2A calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II alpha [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. ... There are 2 common types of CAM Kinase proteins: specialized and multi-functional CAM kinases. Substrate-specific CAM Kinases ... β CAMKIIδ CAMKIIγ CAMKIII CAMKIV CAMKV CaM kinase like vesicle associated SCAMK Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase ... CAMK, also written as CaMK, is an abbreviation for the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase class of enzymes. CAMKs are ...
"Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II phosphorylation drives synapse-associated protein 97 into spines". The Journal ... "Ca2+/calmodulin-kinase II enhances channel conductance of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate type glutamate ... is the influx of calcium through the NMDA receptors and the resultant activation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ( ... element-binding protein through a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent stimulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase ...
... s are also modulated by G protein-coupled receptors and the adrenergic nervous system. Protein Kinase A ( ... "Switching off calcium-dependent inactivation in L-type calcium channels by an autoinhibitory domain". Proceedings of the ... As the pore opens and causes an influx of Calcium, calcium binds to calmodulin and then interacts with the loop that connects ... P-type, and N-type. L-type calcium channels were peptide sequenced and it was found that there were 4 kinds of L-type calcium ...
Like neuroligins, neurexins possess a PDZ-domain that associates with CASK (Calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase). In ... Multiple nectins on one cell membrane will bind together at the V-type loop to form a cluster of nectin proteins, a process ... Cadherins are calcium- dependent, homophilic cell adhesion molecules that form complexes with cytosolic partners known as ... This interaction, mediated by ephrin A3/EphA4 signaling, induces the recruitment and activation of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 ( ...
... independent pathway involving calcium-binding protein 39 (Cab39) and serine threonine kinase with no lysine member 4 (WNK4) in ... WNK4 enhances TRPV5 by increasing its forward trafficking to the plasma membrane in a kinase-dependent manner. The inhibitory ... However, when Ca2+ levels are elevated, Ca2+/calmodulin complex binds to the C-terminal region, derepressing WNK4 kinase ... August 2005). "A new kindred with pseudohypoaldosteronism type II and a novel mutation (564D>H) in the acidic motif of the WNK4 ...
Calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit (also known as Cav1.2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by ... When depolarization occurs, calcium ions flow through the channel and some bind to Calmodulin. The Calcium/Calmodulin binding ... Perets T, Blumenstein Y, Shistik E, Lotan I, Dascal N (Apr 1996). "A potential site of functional modulation by protein kinase ... protein binding. • alpha-actinin binding. • voltage-gated calcium channel activity. • voltage-gated calcium channel activity ...
positive regulation of non-membrane spanning protein tyrosine kinase activity. • transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase ... TrkB autophosphorylation is dependent upon its ligand-specific association with BDNF, a widely expressed activity-dependent ... triggering a calcium influx. Through a protein signaling cascade requiring Erk, CaM KII/IV, PI3K, and PLC, NMDA receptor ... Blockading BDNF signaling with a tyrosine kinase inhibitor or a PKC inhibitor in wild type mice produced significant reductions ...
S6 kinase, protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase C, Cdc2, and/or a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase; b) moves to bind ... Aberrant expression of LOX5 is seen in various types of human cancer tumors in vivo as well as in various types of human cancer ... Hammarberg T, Reddy KV, Persson B, Rådmark O (2002). "Calcium binding to 5-lipoxygenase". Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. Advances in ... ALOX5 binds with the F actin-binding protein, coactin-like protein. Based on in vitro studies, this protein binding serves to ...
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases. References[edit]. .mw-parser-output .reflist{font-size:90%;margin-bottom:0.5em; ... These types of experiments have shown that different pathways are being activated or regulated depending on the location of the ... which contain residues that can be directly modified by a series of protein kinases and protein phosphatases, as well as ... "MHC class I immune proteins are critical for hippocampus-dependent memory and gate NMDAR-dependent hippocampal long-term ...
"Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II phosphorylation drives synapse-associated protein 97 into spines". J. Biol. Chem ... "Ca2+/calmodulin-kinase II enhances channel conductance of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate type glutamate ... is the influx of calcium through the NMDA receptors and the resultant activation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ( ... "Long-term potentiation is associated with an increased activity of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II". J. Biol. Chem ...
The encoded protein is a calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion glycoprotein composed of five extracellular cadherin repeats, a ... "The tyrosine kinase substrate p120cas binds directly to E-cadherin but not to the adenomatous polyposis coli protein or alpha- ... Inactivation of CDH1 (accompany with loss of the wild-type allele) in 56% of lobular breast carcinomas.[54][55] ... Li Z, Kim SH, Higgins JM, Brenner MB, Sacks DB (December 1999). "IQGAP1 and calmodulin modulate E-cadherin function". The ...
... which leads to hyperpolarization and relaxation Stimulates a cGMP-dependent protein kinase that activates myosin light chain ... Nitric oxide is mediated in mammals by the calcium-calmodulin controlled isoenzymes eNOS (endothelial NOS) and nNOS (neuronal ... It is synthesized by many cell types in response to cytokines and is an important factor in the response of the body to attack ... NOSs can be dimeric, calmodulin-dependent or calmodulin-containing cytochrome p450-like hemoprotein that combines reductase and ...
see MAP kinase pathway. Calcium. *Intracellular calcium-sensing proteins. *Calcineurin. *Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein ... phospholipase C-activating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • retina development in camera-type eye. • Ras protein ... protein heterotrimerization. • Wnt signaling pathway, calcium modulating pathway. • protein folding. • G-protein coupled ... protein complex binding. • signal transducer activity. • protein binding. • GTPase activity. • GTPase binding. • G-protein ...
... is phosphorylated by the calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase.[27] MAPKAPK2 (mitogen-activated-protein kinase-activating ... embryonic camera-type eye morphogenesis. • social organism behavior. • cellular response to manganese ion. • response to ether ... that are phosphorylated by a variety of protein kinases.[12][25] Ser40 is phosphorylated by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase.[ ... "Molecular cloning of cDNA coding for brain-specific 14-3-3 protein, a protein kinase-dependent activator of tyrosine and ...
see MAP kinase pathway. Calcium. *Intracellular calcium-sensing proteins. *Calcineurin. *Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein ... Types of G protein signaling[edit]. G protein can refer to two distinct families of proteins. Heterotrimeric G proteins, ... Heterotrimeric G proteins[edit]. Main article: Heterotrimeric G proteins. Different types of heterotrimeric G proteins share a ... 3 Types of G protein signaling *3.1 Heterotrimeric G proteins *3.1.1 Common mechanism * Activation ...
... but most prominently by Rho-dependent kinase and/or by the calcium-calmodulin-dependent myosin light chain kinase, not only ... "Cleavage of human and mouse cytoskeletal and sarcomeric proteins by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease. Actin, desmin ... protein binding. • ADP binding. • protein membrane anchor. • actin-dependent ATPase activity. • calmodulin binding. • ATPase ... Other proteins that are known to interact with NM IIA include the actin binding protein tropomyosin 4.2 [26] and a novel actin ...
It was regulated by Ca2+ via a calmodulin kinase II-dependent mechanism. Distant homologues may be present in plants, ciliates ... demonstrated that CLIC proteins have glutaredoxin-like glutathione-dependent oxidoreductase enzymatic activity. CLICs 1, 2 and ... Agnel, M.; Vermat, T.; Culouscou, J. M. (1999-07-23). "Identification of three novel members of the calcium-dependent chloride ... In terms of primary structure, they are unrelated to known cation channels or other types of anion channels. Three CLC ...
Calcium binds to proteins such as calmodulin (CaM) and an eye-specific protein kinase C (PKC) known as InaC. These proteins ... y-type) and other mutants that show a mosaic pigment pattern with some regions of the cuticle (wild type, y2-type).[69] The ... Sepia colored eyes are not dependent on the sex of the fly. The Sepia eye color decreases sexual activity in males and ... In addition, proteins called arrestins bind metarhodopsin and prevent it from activating more Gq. A sodium-calcium exchanger ...
... in which calcium-modulated protein calmodulin (CaM) binds Ca2+, undergoes a change in conformation, and activates CaM kinase II ... "G(i)-dependent localization of beta(2)-adrenergic receptor signaling to L-type Ca(2+) channels". Biophysical Journal. 79 (5): ... Phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent protein kinasesEdit. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases (protein kinase A) are activated by ... The G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) are protein kinases that phosphorylate only active GPCRs.[53] G-protein-coupled ...
see MAP kinase pathway. Calcium. *Intracellular calcium-sensing proteins. *Calcineurin. *Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein ... Depending on cell type, it can drive adaptive/developmental changes requiring protein synthesis. In smooth muscle, cGMP is the ... Types[edit]. There are membrane-bound (type 1, guanylate cyclase-coupled receptor) and soluble (type 2, soluble guanylate ... Guanylate cyclase is often part of the G protein signaling cascade that is activated by low intracellular calcium levels and ...
... protein kinase Cs, calmodulin-modulated myosin light chain kinase, RAF/MEK/Mitogen-activated protein kinases, PKC/Ca2+/ ... IP stimulates one or more of three types of G protein complexes, depending on cell type: a) Gs alpha subunit-Gβγ complexes ... G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • inflammatory response. • positive regulation of cytosolic calcium ion ... stimulates adenyl cyclase to raise intracellular levels of cAMP and thereby activate cAMP-regulated protein kinases A-dependent ...
"The tyrosine kinase substrate p120cas binds directly to E-cadherin but not to the adenomatous polyposis coli protein or alpha- ... Li Z, Kim SH, Higgins JM, Brenner MB, Sacks DB (December 1999). "IQGAP1 and calmodulin modulate E-cadherin function". J. Biol. ... November 1994). "E-cadherin gene mutations provide clues to diffuse type gastric carcinomas.". Cancer Res 54 (14): 3845-3852. ... Laoukili J, Alvarez-Fernandez M, Stahl M, Medema RH (September 2008). "FoxM1 is degraded at mitotic exit in a Cdh1-dependent ...
... activation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II can be cAMP dependent or independent.[15] ... Type of reinforcer Sources Opiates Psychostimulants High fat or sugar food Sexual intercourse Physical exercise. (aerobic) ... increasing intracellular calcium among other cAMP mediated processes. The D2 class of receptors produce the opposite effect, as ... cAMP mediated protein kinase A activity also results in the phosphorylation of DARPP-32, an inhibitor of protein phosphatase 1 ...
see MAP kinase pathway. Calcium. *Intracellular calcium-sensing proteins. *Calcineurin. *Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein ... which vary based on the type of cell. ... cAMP-dependent protein kinase), one of the first few kinases ... Main article: function of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. In humans, cAMP works by activating protein kinase A (PKA, ... an enzyme called protein kinase A (PKA).[12]. The PKA enzyme is also known as cAMP-dependent enzyme because it gets activated ...
A calcium-calmodulin complex also acts to inhibit the binding of cAMP to the cAMP-dependent channel, thus contributing to ... in that cAMP works by directly binding to the ion channel rather than through activation of protein kinase A. It is similar to ... Because several receptor types are activated due to the different chemical features of the odorant, several glomeruli are ... In mammals, the odorants stimulate adenylate cyclase to synthesize cAMP via a G protein called Golf. cAMP, which is the second ...
see MAP kinase pathway. Calcium. *Intracellular calcium-sensing proteins. *Calcineurin. *Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein ... Types[edit]. There are several different cyclins that are active in different parts of the cell cycle and that cause the Cdk to ... Cyclins, when bound with the dependent kinases, such as the p34/cdc2/cdk1 protein, form the maturation-promoting factor. MPFs ... is a family of proteins that control the progression of cells through the cell cycle by activating cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK ...
Opening of the L-type calcium channel causes influx of extracellular Ca2+, which then binds calmodulin. The activated ... The intracellular β subunit (55 kDa) is an intracellular MAGUK-like protein (Membrane-Associated Guanylate Kinase) containing a ... Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs), also known as voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs), are a group of voltage-gated ... opening of the L-type calcium channel permits influx of calcium into the cell. The calcium binds to the calcium release ...
... calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV, and the peroxisome proliferator γ coactivator 1 (PGC-1). The Ras/MAPK signaling ... Calcineurin, a Ca2+/calmodulin-activated phosphatase implicated in nerve activity-dependent fiber-type specification in ... proteins and other regulatory proteins. Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase activity is also upregulated by slow motor ... calcineurin and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV to activate transcription factors that regulate gene expression ...
It is a calcium-independent and phospholipid-dependent protein kinase. This kinase is important for T-cell activation. It is ... positive regulation of T-helper 17 type immune response. • regulation of cell growth. • positive regulation of T cell ... kinase activity. • protein binding. • ATP binding. • protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • protein kinase activity. ... Protein kinase C (PKC) is a family of serine- and threonine-specific protein kinases that can be activated by the second ...
Opening of the L-type calcium channel causes influx of extracellular Ca2+, which then binds calmodulin. The activated ... The intracellular β subunit (55 kDa) is an intracellular MAGUK-like protein (Membrane-Associated Guanylate Kinase) containing a ... Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs), also known as voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs), are a group of voltage-gated ... P-type calcium channel ("Purkinje") /Q-type calcium channel. HVA (high voltage activated). Cav2.1 (CACNA1A). α2δ, β, possibly γ ...
... through a protein kinase C-dependent mechanism". Biochem J. 466 (2): 379-390. doi:10.1042/bj20140881. PMID 25422863.. ... The effects of calcium on human cells are specific, meaning that different types of cells respond in different ways. However, ... and calmodulin, proteins that are necessary for promoting contraction in muscle. ... Activation of protein kinase C. Further reading: Function of protein kinase C. ...
Protein. Similar proteins. Species. Score. Length. Source. B0YIY3. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type 1. ). HUMAN ... Protein. Similar proteins. Species. Score. Length. Source. B0YIY3. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type 1. ). HUMAN ... Protein. Similar proteins. Species. Score. Length. Source. B0YIY3. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type 1. ). HUMAN ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type 1Imported. Automatic assertion inferred from database entriesi ...
... protein kinase A/calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II; CnA, calcineurin; PI3K, phosphoinositide 3 kinase; Synpo, ... Publication types, MeSH terms, Substances, Grant support. Publication types. *Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural ... Podocyte plasma membrane proteins and a canonical pattern of injury. Shown is an (incomplete) list of membrane proteins that ... Abbreviations: TLR, Toll-like receptor; AT1R, angiotensin type 1 receptor; TRPC6/5, transient receptor potential canonical ...
Ab160080 is a full length protein produced in Wheat germ and has been validated in WB, ELISA. Abcam provides free… ... Calcium / calmodulin dependent protein kinase I. *Calcium / calmodulin dependent protein kinase type 1 ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase that operates in the calcium-triggered CaMKK-CaMK1 signaling cascade and, upon ... Calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase I. *Calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase type 1 ...
... to hypothetical proteins, and finally 24.1 and 17.2% to unknown genes, from the down- and up-regulated libraries, respectively ... According to blast screening and functional annotation, 20.2% and 20.9% of genes were related to metabolism proteins, 9% and ... Calcium-and calmodulindependent protein kinase type 1 (Camk1). 256. 1.226. NM_012517.2. Calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L ... Regarding the up-regulated genes, the calcium- and calmodulin- dependent protein kinase (CamK) gen was over-expressed (1.2 fold ...
TNFalpha increased the activity of the p38 substrate MAP kinase-activated-protein (MAPKAP) kinase 2 and the subsequent ph … ... kinase signalling cascade in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. ... alpha was found to stimulate the p38 mitogen activated protein (MAP) ... Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors * Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases / ...
L-type calcium channel; MCU, mitochondria calcium uniporter; NCX, Na+/Ca2+ exchanger; NHE, Na+/H+ exchanger; PKA, protein ... Calcium-calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII): a main signal responsible for early reperfusion arrhythmias. J Mol ... In Vivo Post-Cardiac Arrest Myocardial Dysfunction Is Supported by Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II-Mediated Calcium ... E, Proposed mechanism for PMAD, mediated by calcium overload, Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), and ...
Much has been learned about the activity-dependent synaptic modifications (long-term potentiation and long-term depression) ... Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 1 * Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases / metabolism* ... A good candidate for the storage mechanism is Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaM kinase II) because it is ... The CaM kinase II hypothesis for the storage of synaptic memory Trends Neurosci. 1994 Oct;17(10):406-12. doi: 10.1016/0166-2236 ...
... calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. (B) Schematic diagram of synaptic and behavioral timescales in reward learning ... Abbreviations: AMPAR, AMPA-type glutamate receptor; NMDAR, NMDA-type glutamate receptor; mGluR1/5, group I metabotropic ... Role for rapid dendritic protein synthesis in hippocampal mGluR-dependent long-term depression * KM Huber ... During Exploration, the activity-dependent modification of synaptic strength due to spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) ...
Home > Protein > CAMK1A human. mouse. rat. New Protein Search:. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type 1 ... Protein Mutation Frequency in Cancer. The lollipop plot above illustrates recurrent (observed in 3 or more out of 4440 TCGA ... We integrated 4440 tumor samples from 15 cancer types from TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas). To retrieve more detailed mutation ... We integrated the following cancer types: • Acute Myeloid Leukemia (TCGA, NEJM 2013). ...
Analysis in conditional cannabinoid 1 receptor-knockout mice reveals neuronal subpopulation-specific effects on epileptogenesis ... Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 1 (genetics, metabolism) *Cannabinoid Receptor Antagonists (adverse effects) ... 25123336 (Publication Type: Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt) Copyright. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All ... These effects are dependent on the neuronal subpopulation. Thus, the data argue that the endocannabinoid system plays an active ...
Also, several other calpain-sensitive calmodulin-binding proteins (plasma membrane calcium pump, microtubule-associated protein ... Under the same conditions, calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-alpha (CaMPK-IIalpha) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase ( ... and protein kinase C-alpha are also degraded in neurotoxin-treated cultures. Lastly, in a rat pup model of acute excitotoxicity ... Such fragmentation can be reduced by calpain inhibitors (acetyl-Leu-Leu-Nle-CHO and PD151746). In vitro digestion of protein ...
Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2). ... and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. Substance P also ... The physalaemin-evoked contractions were blocked by pretreatment with nifedipine, a blocker of L-type calcium channels in both ... OCLN protein, human); 0 (Occludin); 0 (Phosphoproteins); 0 (TJP1 protein, human); 0 (Zonula Occludens-1 Protein); 129623-01-4 ( ... Protein aggregation and amyloid formation are associated with both pathological conditions in humans such as Alzheimers ...
CALCIUM/CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE TYPE II DELTA CHAIN. A, B. 301. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: CAMK2D, ... Crystal Structure of Human Calcium Calmodulin dependent Protein Kinase II delta isoform 1, CAMKD. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb2VN9/pdb ... LTP triggers high-frequency calcium pulses that result in the activation of Calcium/Calmodulin (CaM)-dependent kinase II ( ... LTP triggers high-frequency calcium pulses that result in the activation of Calcium/Calmodulin (CaM)-dependent kinase II ( ...
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CAMK1 gene. Calcium/calmodulin ... calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I by calmodulin and by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase". J. Biol. Chem. 273 ... Phosphorylation by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, protein kinase C, and calcium/calmodulin protein kinase; identification ... Calcium/calmodulin directly activates calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I by binding to the enzyme and indirectly ...
Exercise training and activation of both AMP kinase and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase increase mitochondrial gene ... Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is characterized by insulin resistance and pancreatic β cell dysfunction. In high-risk subjects, ... protein biosynthesis/ribosomal proteins (P = 0.013), RNA binding (P = 0.007), ribosomal structural protein (P = 0.0007), and ... AMP-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) Activation, and Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor {gamma} Coactivator 1{alpha} ( ...
... the mechanisms that underlie experience-dependent transcriptional regulation of the rate-limiting serotonin biosynthetic enzyme ... Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2 / genetics*, metabolism. GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gq-G11 / ... EC Protein Kinase Type 2; EC protein, C elegans; EC ... Upstream of ADF, the Gqα protein EGL-30 facilitates training-dependent induction of tph-1 by functional regulation of olfactory ...
Neuronal excitability and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II: Location, location, location. Epilepsia 53, ( ... D) Left: IL-4 effects in neuron-specific IL-4R floxed/floxed (fl/fl) calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIα (CamKIIα) ... with the neuron-specific calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIα (CamKIIα) Cre line (16). The CamKIIα Cre-driven IL-4Rα ... Stereological analysis of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIα -containing dorsal root ganglion neurons in the rat: ...
Increases in immunocytochemically detectable type II calcium-calmodulin- dependent protein kinase (CaM II kinase) and decreases ... effects of monocular deprivation on glutamic acid decarboxylase and type II calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase gene ... effects of monocular deprivation on glutamic acid decarboxylase and type II calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase gene ... effects of monocular deprivation on glutamic acid decarboxylase and type II calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase gene ...
... interaction and modulation by calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. J. Biol. Chem. 280, 15912-15920. ... Signaling to the nucleus by an L-type calcium channel-calmodulin complex through the MAP kinase pathway. Science 294, 333-339. ... Proteins in excess of ∼50 kDa require energy-dependent movement across the NPC. Such large proteins are often designated for ... Calmodulin does not contain an obvious motif for nuclear localisation, and might therefore `piggy-back on other proteins that ...
Six pituitary-specific cell types were identified based on known marker genes and characterized: folliculostellate cells and ... Six pituitary-specific cell types were identified based on known marker genes and characterized: folliculostellate cells and ... This survey highlights many novel genetic markers contributing to pituitary cell type identity, sexual dimorphism, and function ... This survey highlights many novel genetic markers contributing to pituitary cell type identity, sexual dimorphism, and function ...
calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-β. wt. wild type.. REFERENCES. 1. Cookson M. R. (2005) Annu. Rev. Biochem. 74, ... whereas a 7-fold induction was observed for the GTPase CDC42 and 2-fold for the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II ... A construct encoding for an unrelated protein (DsRed2, red fluorescent protein) was used as an additional control. ... whereas RET protein levels were reduced. After 24 h of treatment, RET protein was almost completely undetectable (Fig. 4B). To ...
Myc-DDK-tagged ORF clone of Homo sapiens calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 1, alpha (CAMKK1), transcript ... variant 1 as transfection-ready DNA - 10 µg - OriGene - cdna clones ... Product types:. - all types -. Antibodies. Assays & Kits. Blood products. cDNA clones. Cell lines. Cells & Human Biospecimens. ... home , products , origene , myc-ddk-tagged orf clone of homo sapiens calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 1, ...
RAS p21 protein activator 2; CAMK2B - calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II beta; DAB2IP - disabled 2 (DAB2) ... phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase catalytic subunit type 3; PI3KCA - phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic ... Novel role of pleckstrin homology domain of the Bcr-Abl protein: analysis of protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions. ... PLC proteins can be activated by the receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) or G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) in response to the ...
2010) Transient viral-mediated overexpression of alpha-calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in the nucleus accumbens ... 2010) Cell type-specific loss of BDNF signaling mimics optogenetic control of cocaine reward. Science 330:385-390, doi:10.1126/ ... responses to chronic cocaine require a feedforward loop involving DeltaFosB and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ii ... 2010) Transient overexpression of alpha-Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in the nucleus accumbens shell enhances ...
Grant S. Nichols, William M. DeBello, Hunting Increases Phosphorylation of Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II ... M. G. Belekhova, N. B. Kenigfest, T. V. Chudinova, N. P. Vesselkin, Distribution of calcium-binding proteins, parvalbumin and ... Expression of calcium-binding proteins and metabolic activity, Brain Research, 2010, 1345, 84. CrossRef ... in Zebra Finches Using Calcium-Binding Protein Immunocytochemistry, PLoS ONE, 2011, 6, 6, e20686. CrossRef ...
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type 1 ecNumber2.7.11.17/ecNumber, KCC1A_HUMAN ...
In Vivo Post-Cardiac Arrest Myocardial Dysfunction Is Supported by Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II-Mediated Calcium ... Peptidomimetic Targeting of Cavβ2 Overcomes Dysregulation of the L-Type Calcium Channel Density and Recovers Cardiac Function ... an Agonist of Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Type 2Clinical Perspective Christopher E. Woods, Ching Shang, Fouad Taghavi, Peter Downey ... Long-Term Potentiation and Mitigated by Alda-1, ...
Shop a large selection of products and learn more about CaM Kinase I Rabbit anti-Human, DyLight 550, Polyclonal, Novus ... calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type 1, CaM kinase I, CaM kinase I ... CaM Kinase I Polyclonal antibody specifically detects CaM Kinase I in Human samples. It is validated for Western Blot, ELISA ... What type of issue did you experience with the content on the page?*. ...
... calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type 1D , caM kinase ID , calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 1D , camKI- ... calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ID , calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type 1D-like , CAMKI-like protein ... anti-Calcium/calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase I Antikörper * anti-Calcium/calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase (CaM Kinase) ... anti-Calcium/calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase IV Antikörper * anti-Calcium/calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Kinase 1, ...
  • TNFalpha increased the activity of the p38 substrate MAP kinase-activated-protein (MAPKAP) kinase 2 and the subsequent phosphorylation of the small heat shock protein Hsp27 about two to three fold. (nih.gov)
  • Differential phosphorylation of two size forms of the N-type calcium channel alpha 1 subunit which have different COOH termini. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Calcium/calmodulin directly activates calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I by binding to the enzyme and indirectly promotes the phosphorylation and synergistic activation of the enzyme by calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I kinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Characterization of substrate phosphorylation and use of calmodulin mutants to address implications from the enzyme crystal structure of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I". J. Biol. (wikipedia.org)
  • We demonstrate that prediabetic and diabetic muscle is characterized by decreased expression of oxidative phosphorylation genes, many of which are regulated by nuclear respiratory factor (NRF)-dependent transcription. (pnas.org)
  • A second form of CaM II kinase alpha, CaM II kinase alpha-33, which contains an additional phosphorylation consensus sequence, was identified. (jneurosci.org)
  • This leads to the activation of protein kinase C and D and subsequent downstream signaling: PKC induces phosphorylation of multiple transcription factors and along with DAG takes part in Ca2+ signaling (Figure 1 ). (jcancer.org)
  • Phosphorylation at Ser 27 contributes to ΔFosB's stability and accumulation following repeated exposure to drugs, and our recent work demonstrates that the protein kinase CaMKIIα phosphorylates ΔFosB at Ser 27 and regulates its stability in vivo . (jneurosci.org)
  • Because no marked de novo synthesis was detected after light treatment, light may induce post-translational modifications of GT-1 such as phosphorylation or dephosphorylation. (deepdyve.com)
  • Whereas phosphorylation by casein kinase II had no apparent effect on hGT-1 DNA binding, phosphorylation by calcium/calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII) increased the binding activity 10-20-fold. (deepdyve.com)
  • Analyses of mutants altered at T86, T133, S175, T179, S198 and T278 demonstrated that phosphorylation of T133 can account for most of the stimulation of DNA-binding activity by CaMKII, indicating that this residue plays an important role in hGT-1/BoxII interaction. (deepdyve.com)
  • Taken together, our results suggest that GT-1 may act as a molecular switch modulated by calcium-dependent phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in response to light signals. (deepdyve.com)
  • These results support the conclusion that IGF-1 controls CREB phosphorylation by activating a phosphorylation and dephosphorylation cascade, which ultimately modulates the DHPRα1S gene transcription. (deepdyve.com)
  • Calcium/calmodulin-dependent enzyme implicated in smooth muscle contraction via phosphorylation of myosin light chains (MLC). (abcam.com)
  • Only two domains are conserved in all synapsins: a short N-terminal A domain with a single phosphorylation site for cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and CaM Kinase I, and a large central C domain that binds ATP and may be enzymatic. (elsevier.com)
  • Our results suggest a novel mechanism by which proteins reversibly bind to membranes using a phosphorylation-dependent phospholipid- binding domain. (elsevier.com)
  • Camkii-mediated phosphorylation regulates distributions of Syngap-?1 and -?2 at the postsynaptic density. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • Ca 2+ sensors activate transcription factors (TF) and other proteins either by direct binding or through phosphorylation (P). TFs bind DNA and cause up‐ or down‐regulation of gene expression. (els.net)
  • We measured phosphorylation with at least two different antibodies per site and demonstrate that for S2808 results were highly antibody-dependent and two out of three S2808 antibodies did not accurately report phosphorylation level. (elsevier.com)
  • Basal phosphorylation at S2808/S2814 was maintained by a Ca 2+ dependent kinase other than Ca2+/Calmodulin-dependent kinase (CaMKII). (elsevier.com)
  • Huke, S & Bers, DM 2008, ' Ryanodine receptor phosphorylation at Serine 2030, 2808 and 2814 in rat cardiomyocytes ', Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications , vol. 376, no. 1, pp. 80-85. (elsevier.com)
  • Here we investigated the hypothesis that Ang II-mediated vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) gene transcription involves GIT1-CamK II-dependent phosphorylation of HDAC5. (ahajournals.org)
  • Moreover, the interaction of GIT1 and CamK II through the ARF GTPase-activating protein (ARF-GAP) and coiled-coil domains of GIT1 was essential for the phosphorylation of HDAC5. (ahajournals.org)
  • Phosphorylation of the amino termini of class II HDACs by CamK II creates docking sites for the 14-3-3 family of chaperone proteins, which promote shuttling of these HDACs from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, thereby derepressing HDAC target genes. (ahajournals.org)
  • 16 Based on these findings, we hypothesized that GIT1 mediates HDAC5 phosphorylation stimulated by Ang II via a pathway dependent on c-Src, PLCγ, and CamK II. (ahajournals.org)
  • CAMK1D encodes a member of the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 1 subfamily of serine/threonine kinases. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • The product of this gene belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase family and to the Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily. (wikidoc.org)
  • Ligation of CD3/TCR on T-cells induces transient activation of lymphoid MAP-2 kinase (MAP-2K), a 43 kDa serine kinase which itself is a substrate of an unidentified tyrosine kinase (pp43). (umassmed.edu)
  • Non-specific serine/threonine protein kinase. (cathdb.info)
  • This is a heterogeneous group of serine/threonine protein kinases that do not have an activating compound and are either non-specific or their specificity has not been analyzed to date. (cathdb.info)
  • H-Ras then activates v-raf-1 murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 ( c-Raf-1 ) / Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases 1 and 2 ( MEK1(MAP2K1) and MEK2(MAP2K2) )/ Mitogen activated protein kinase 1 ( ERK2(MAPK1) ) [ 1 ], [ 10 ]. (bio-rad.com)
  • PD 098059 is a specific inhibitor of the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase in vitro and in vivo. (deepdyve.com)
  • MKK4 is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase group of dual specificity protein kinases that functions as an activator of the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) in vitro. (umassmed.edu)
  • Disruption of the MKK4 gene blocked JNK activation caused by: (i) the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase MEKK1, and (ii) treatment with anisomycin or heat shock. (umassmed.edu)
  • CaMKII acts as a molecular switch because it remains active for a long time after the return to basal calcium levels, which is a unique property required for CaMKII function. (rcsb.org)
  • Comparisons with autoinhibited CaMKII structures showed that binding of calmodulin leads to the rearrangement of residues in the active site to a conformation suitable for ATP binding and to the closure of the binding groove for the autoinhibitory helix by helix alphaD. (rcsb.org)
  • The structural data, together with biophysical interaction studies, reveals the mechanism of CaMKII activation by calmodulin and explains many of the unique regulatory properties of these two essential signaling molecules. (rcsb.org)
  • A neuronal signaling pathway of CaMKII and Gqα regulates experience-dependent transcription of tph-1. (biomedsearch.com)
  • At the molecular level, the C. elegans homolog of CaMKII, UNC-43, functions cell-autonomously in ADF neurons to generate training-dependent enhancement in neuronal activity and tph-1 transcription, and this cell-autonomous function of UNC-43 is required for learning. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 5 Notably, this pathway could only be activated by Ca 2+ from local InsP 3 R (not global Ca 2+ transients), presumably because calmodulin and CaMKII physically associate with the InsP 3 R at the NucEn. (ahajournals.org)
  • The effects of propofol on intracellular calcium concentration, the activation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), and protein kinase C (PKC) were measured. (springer.com)
  • In addition, propofol induced intracellular calcium concentration, and activated CaMKII as well as PKCβ. (springer.com)
  • Importantly, the Ang II-mediated effects were diminished by α-tocopherol, and the propofol-mediated effects were alleviated by calcium chelator, CaMKII inhibitor, and PKCβ inhibitor. (springer.com)
  • Here we show that mice devoid of IFNAR1 signaling in calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alpha (CaMKIIα) expressing neurons (CaMKIIcre:IFNARfl/fl mice) infected with a mildly pathogenic neurotropic coronavirus (mouse hepatitis virus A59 strain [MHV-A59]) developed severe encephalomyelitis with hind-limb paralysis and succumbed within 7 days. (bvsalud.org)
  • In Ube3A deficient mice, the BDNF-induced recruitment of PSD-95, as well as PLCγ and Grb2-associated binder 1 (Gab1) with TrkB receptors was attenuated, resulting in reduced activation of PLCγ-α-calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and PI3K-Akt, but leaving the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) pathway intact. (plos.org)
  • Application of tatCN21, a cell-penetrating inhibitor of CaMKII, to hippocampal neuronal cultures blocks NMDA-induced redistribution of SynGAP-?1 and SynGAP-?2. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • Further identifying the signaling pathway involved in the regulation, we found Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) inhibitor KN-62 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor SP600125 reduced the expression of IP3R1 suggesting the role of CaMKII and JNK in the regulation of IP3R1 expression. (elsevier.com)
  • Results: The spinal cytokine up-regulation induced by HIV-1 gp120 protein depends on Wnt5a/CaMKII and/or Wnt5a/JNK pathways. (utmb.edu)
  • During stimulation with Isoproterenol S2808 was phosphorylated by protein kinase A (PKA) and S2814 was phosphorylated by CaMKII. (elsevier.com)
  • Here we show that the MAPKK kinase TAK1 acts upstream of NIK in the IL-1-activated signalling pathway and that TAK1 associates with TRAF6 during IL-1 signalling. (nih.gov)
  • Our results indicate that TAK1 links TRAF6 to the NIK-IKK cascade in the IL-1 signalling pathway. (nih.gov)
  • This stimulation was blocked almost completely by the specific p38 MAP kinase inhibitor SB203580. (nih.gov)
  • This inhibitor also suppressed the TNFalpha-induced surface expression of the endothelial adhesion molecule vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1. (nih.gov)
  • Herein we aimed to evaluate the antitumor and antiangiogenic potential of a novel pyrazolyl-urea kinase inhibitor, GeGe3, and to identify its kinase targets. (oncotarget.com)
  • 1-[N, O-bis-(5-isoquinolinesulphonyl)-N-methyl-L-tyrosyl]-4-phenylpiperazine (KN-62), an inhibitor of calcium-dependent camodulin protein kinase II, inhibits both insulin- and hypoxia-stimulated glucose transport in skeletal muscle. (deepdyve.com)
  • Effects of YC-1 with or without either PKG or sGC inhibitor on H 2 S generation and the sensory nerve activity of wild-type and CSE −/− mouse carotid bodies. (sciencemag.org)
  • Fragment-Based Screening Maps Inhibitor Interactions in the ATP-Binding Site of Checkpoint Kinase 2. (cathdb.info)
  • Biochemical characterization reveals that SBI-0206965 is a mixed-type inhibitor. (edu.au)
  • A co-crystal structure of the AMPK kinase domain/SBI-0206965 complex shows that the drug occupies a pocket that partially overlaps the ATP active site in a type IIb inhibitor manner. (edu.au)
  • Defects in insulin signal transduction, gene expression, and muscle glycogen synthesis, and accumulation of intramyocellular triglycerides have all been identified as potential mediators of insulin resistance in high-risk individuals ( 1 , 3 - 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • Calcium (Ca 2+ ) is a key player in signal transduction. (biologists.org)
  • Regulated AP-1 transcriptional activity, a target of the JNK signal transduction pathway, was also selectively blocked in MKK4 (-/-) cells. (umassmed.edu)
  • Substance P and neurokinin 1 receptors as potential therapeutic targets in children with OSA. (bireme.br)
  • PLC proteins can be activated by the receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) or G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) in response to the different extracellular stimuli including hormones and growth factors. (jcancer.org)
  • VEGF-A is the major angiogenic factor that activates VEGF receptors (VEGFR)-1 and -2 on endothelial cells. (oncotarget.com)
  • Targeting the ligand, VEGF, with humanized neutralizing monoclonal antibody, or the receptors with receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors, are promising cancer therapy approaches [ 5 - 8 ]. (oncotarget.com)
  • Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3R) are Ca2+ channels on the neuronal endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. (sdbonline.org)
  • In addition NCS-1 is significant in intelligence in creating curiosity by its function on dopamine D2 receptors in the dentate gyrus, increasing memory for complex tasks. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular signatures of G-protein-coupled receptors. (painresearchforum.org)
  • Subtype alpha-1 adrenergic receptors consist of Alpha-1A adrenergic receptor , Alpha-1B adrenergic receptor and Alpha-1D adrenergic receptor . (bio-rad.com)
  • These adrenergic receptors activate different Guanine nucleotide binding proteins (G-proteins). (bio-rad.com)
  • Receptors Channels 1 (1993) 11-24. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Interpretation of the presynaptic message takes place at the postsynaptic membrane through transmembrane proteins called receptors. (els.net)
  • The postsynaptic density is composed of receptors, scaffolding and adhesion proteins, kinases and phosphatases, as well as cytoskeletal elements, which are linked together to form macromolecular complexes. (els.net)
  • SynGAP, a protein abundant at the postsynaptic density (PSD) of glutamatergic neurons, is known to modulate synaptic strength by regulating the incorporation of AMPA receptors at the synapse. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • Inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) is an important calcium channel which regulates cellular calcium homeostasis. (elsevier.com)
  • Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase that operates in the calcium-triggered CaMKK-CaMK1 signaling cascade and, upon calcium influx, regulates transcription activators activity, cell cycle, hormone production, cell differentiation, actin filament organization and neurite outgrowth. (abcam.com)
  • VCAM-1 mRNA accumulation induced by TNFalpha was not affected by SB203580, suggesting that the p38 MAP kinase signalling cascade regulates the endothelial expression of VCAM-1 at the post-transcriptional level. (nih.gov)
  • Our findings suggest that caspase-1 regulates many new signaling pathways potentially via its known substrates and also via transcription factors and other proteins that are yet to be identified. (springer.com)
  • However, it remains unclear whether caspase-1 regulates gene transcription independent of the three well-characterized caspase-1 substrates IL-1β, IL-18, and Sirt-1. (springer.com)
  • Also regulates actin-myosin interaction through a non-kinase activty (By similarity). (abcam.com)
  • The Ube3A enzyme normally regulates the degradation of the synaptic protein Arc, and in its absence the resulting elevated levels of Arc weaken synaptic contacts, making it difficult to generate long-term potentiation (LTP) and to process and store memory. (plos.org)
  • Only a handful of studies have explored the underlying mechanisms by which calcium signaling regulates alternative splicing. (frontiersin.org)
  • Neuronal nitric oxide synthase and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIalpha undergo neurotoxin-induced proteolysis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Calpain (calcium-activated neutral protease) has been implicated as playing a role of neuronal injury in cerebral ischemia and excitotoxicity. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Analysis in conditional cannabinoid 1 receptor-knockout mice reveals neuronal subpopulation-specific effects on epileptogenesis in the kindling paradigm. (curehunter.com)
  • Our principal results revealed that the endocannabinoid system affects seizure and afterdischarge duration dependent on the neuronal subpopulation being modulated. (curehunter.com)
  • These effects are dependent on the neuronal subpopulation. (curehunter.com)
  • Calcium regulation of neuronal gene expression," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , vol. 98, no. 20, pp. 11024-11031, 2001. (hindawi.com)
  • Neuronal calcium sensor-1 (NCS-1) also known as frequenin homolog (Drosophila) (freq) is a protein that is encoded by the FREQ gene in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • NCS-1 is a member of the neuronal calcium sensor family, a class of EF hand containing calcium-myristoyl-switch proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The designation 'NCS-1' came from the assumption that the protein was expressed only in neuronal cell types, which is not the case. (wikipedia.org)
  • AS is caused by disrupted neuronal expression of the maternally inherited Ube3A ubiquitin protein ligase, required for the proteasomal degradation of proteins implicated in synaptic plasticity, such as the activity-regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein (Arc/Arg3.1). (plos.org)
  • Following subsequent calcium binding (such as neuronal activation), bright EGFP fluorescence is observed. (jax.org)
  • One example of such signaling involves a local increase in Ca2+ concentration near a class of Ca2+ channels (L-type) different from those that trigger presynaptic transmitter release, subsequently leading to activation of an exemplar transcription factor, CREB, a regulator of transcription of many important neuronal genes. (stanford.edu)
  • Objective: Calcium overloading is responsible for initiating the cell death in neuronal tissue after hypoxic injury. (elsevier.com)
  • Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase that functions autonomously after Ca(2+)/calmodulin-binding and autophosphorylation, and is involved in dendritic spine and synapse formation, neuronal plasticity and regulation of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) transport in skeletal muscle. (rcsb.org)
  • As calcium signaling in neurons plays a crucial role in essential neuronal functions such as learning and memory formation, it is important to understand how this process is regulated at every level in gene expression. (frontiersin.org)
  • In neurons, changes in intracellular calcium levels cause changes in membrane potential that control neuronal excitability (reviewed in Berridge, 1998 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Finally, he speculated how calcium signaling influences neuronal functions and disease development. (frontiersin.org)
  • Through diverse cAMP- and Ca2+-dependent and - independent mechanisms, DA influences neuronal activity, synaptic plasticity, and behavior. (genome.jp)
  • In contrast, inhibition of p38 MAP kinase had no effect on the stimulated surface expression of the intercellular cell adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, embryonic stem cells deficient for DJ-1 expression and DA neurons derived from KO mice displayed increased sensitivity to oxidative stress and proteasome inhibition ( 14 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We found that inhibition of the Ca2+/Calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase or calcineurin, influenced IGF-1-induced increase in DHPRα1S expression, as detected by recording the luminescence of the DHPRα1S promoter-luciferase fusion construct and by immunoblot analysis of the DHPR α1 subunit. (deepdyve.com)
  • The role of CaM kinase and calcineurin in DHPRα1S expression was confirmed by functional recording of the effects of the inhibition of the kinase and phosphatase on IGF-1-mediated enhancement of charge movement. (deepdyve.com)
  • Calcium-dependent calmodulin activity is not required for inhibition of CSE by CO. (sciencemag.org)
  • Inhibition of the metabolic regulator AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is increasingly being investigated for its therapeutic potential in diseases where AMPK hyperactivity results in poor prognoses, as in established cancers and neurodegeneration. (edu.au)
  • Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CAMK1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Entrez Gene: CAMK1 calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I". Bredt DS, Ferris CD, Snyder SH (1992). (wikipedia.org)
  • Screening for GeGe3-targeted kinases revealed Aurora B, Aurora C, NEK10, polo-like kinase (PLK)2, PLK3, DMPK1 and CAMK1 as candidate targets. (oncotarget.com)
  • Shown is an (incomplete) list of membrane proteins that have been implicated in the regulation of podocyte function in health and disease. (nih.gov)
  • however, the mechanisms that underlie experience-dependent transcriptional regulation of the rate-limiting serotonin biosynthetic enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) are poorly understood. (biomedsearch.com)
  • While activating ADF increases tph-1 transcription, inhibiting ADF activity abolishes the training effect on tph-1, demonstrating the dependence of tph-1 transcriptional regulation on ADF neural activity. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Upstream of ADF, the Gqα protein EGL-30 facilitates training-dependent induction of tph-1 by functional regulation of olfactory sensory neurons, which underscores the importance of sensory experience. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Klee CB, Ren H, Wang X (1998) Regulation of the calmodulin-stimulated protein phosphatase, calcineurin. (springer.com)
  • Biochemical analysis of these kinases showed DMPK1 regulation upon VEGF challenge. (oncotarget.com)
  • Up regulation of cAMP response element-mediated gene expression during experience-dependent plasticity in adult neocortex," Journal of Neuroscience , vol. 20, no. 11, pp. 4206-4216, 2000. (hindawi.com)
  • CaM kinase I belongs to a calcium-triggered signalling cascade involved in trasncriptional regulation, hormone production, translational regulation, regulation of actin filament organisation and neurite outgrowth. (biosensis.com)
  • RNAi-based screening identifies kinases interfering with dioxin-mediated up-regulation of CYP1A1 activity. (nih.gov)
  • We performed a kinome-wide siRNA screen in human mammary MCF-7 cells to identify non redundant protein kinases implicated in the up-regulation of cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 1A1 activity, an AhR referent target, in response to TCDD exposure. (nih.gov)
  • Next, 22 novel candidates were identified as kinases potentially implicated in the up-regulation of CYP1A1 in response to TCDD, without alteration of cell survival or cell proliferation. (nih.gov)
  • The pathway maps illustrate protein interactions and regulation to provide a comprehensive picture of signaling and disease processes. (bio-rad.com)
  • We will also discuss a novel mode of calcium-mediated splicing regulation at the level of chromatin structure and transcription. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, a number of recent studies are revealing an intriguing new post-transcriptional level of regulation by calcium signaling: at the level of alternative pre-mRNA splicing. (frontiersin.org)
  • Studies carried out during the last three decades have generated a wealth of information that contributes to our understanding of cell type- and developmental stage-specific regulation of alternative splicing. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this review, the author compiled a list of nearly 20 alternative exons that were demonstrated to undergo calcium-mediated regulation. (frontiersin.org)
  • A daunting task after a genome has been fully sequenced is to understand the functions, modification, and regulation of every encoded protein ( 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Currently, much effort is devoted toward studying gene, and hence protein, function and regulation by analyzing mRNA expression profiles, gene disruption phenotypes, two-hybrid interactions, and protein subcellular localization ( 2 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase involved in the regulation of Ca(2+) homeostatis and excitation-contraction coupling (ECC) in heart by targeting ion channels, transporters and accessory proteins involved in Ca(2+) influx into the myocyte, Ca(2+) release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), SR Ca(2+) uptake and Na(+) and K(+) channel transport. (cusabio.com)
  • Substrate competitive inhibitors of IGF-1 receptor kinase. (deepdyve.com)
  • The importance of the renin angiotensin system (RAS) in cardiovascular disease has been dramatically shown by the beneficial effects of inhibiting the RAS with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 receptor (AT 1 R) blockers. (ahajournals.org)
  • It belongs to the protein kinase superfamily, the CAMK Ser/Thr protein kinase family and the CaMK subfamily. (biosensis.com)
  • We demonstrate that nuclear calcineurin was able to act as a nuclear Ca 2+ sensor detecting local Ca 2+ release from the nuclear envelope via IP 3 R. Nuclear calcineurin mutants defective for Ca 2+ binding failed to activate NFAT-dependent transcription. (springer.com)
  • Nuclei, isolated from ventricular myocytes of mice after chronic Ang II treatment, showed an elevation of IP 3 R2 expression which was dependent on calcineurin/NFAT signaling and persisted for 3 weeks after removal of the Ang II stimulus. (springer.com)
  • IP 3 R2 expression is directly dependent on calcineurin/NFAT. (springer.com)
  • Zhu J, McKeon F (1999) NF-AT activation requires suppression of Crm1-dependent export by calcineurin. (springer.com)
  • IGF-1 significantly increased CaM kinase and calcineurin activity and the cellular levels of phosphorylated CREB in a time-dependent manner. (deepdyve.com)
  • It is the Ca2+-sensing subunit of the yeast phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns)-4-OH kinase, PIK1 It binds to many proteins, some in calcium dependent and some in calcium independent ways, and switches many of the targets "on" (some off). (wikipedia.org)
  • The CAMK2 protein kinases contain a unique C-terminal subunit association domain responsible for oligomerization. (rcsb.org)
  • We further showed that nuclear GT-1 DNA-binding activity to BoxII was reduced by treatment with calf intestine phosphatase in extracts prepared from light-grown plants but not from etiolated plants. (deepdyve.com)
  • Phosphatase 1 appears to be the main phosphatase dephosphorylating S2808/S2814, but phosphatase 2a may also dephosphorylate S2814. (elsevier.com)
  • Upon NMDA receptor-mediated Ca(2+) elevation, promotes dendritic growth in hippocampal neurons and is essential in synapses for full long-term potentiation (LTP) and ERK2-dependent translational activation. (abcam.com)
  • This structural function is required for correct targeting of CaMK2A, which acts downstream of NMDAR to promote dendritic spine and synapse formation and maintain synaptic plasticity which enables long-term potentiation (LTP) and hippocampus-dependent learning. (rcsb.org)
  • According to blast screening and functional annotation, 20.2% and 20.9% of genes were related to metabolism proteins, 9% and 3.6% to transporters and channels, 16% and 6.3% to transcription factors, 19% and 17.2% to hypothetical proteins, and finally 24.1 and 17.2% to unknown genes, from the down- and up-regulated libraries, respectively. (mdpi.com)
  • We demonstrate that insulin resistance and DM associate with reduced expression of multiple nuclear respiratory factor-1 ( NRF-1 )-dependent genes encoding key enzymes in oxidative metabolism and mitochondrial function. (pnas.org)
  • Decreased PGC1 expression may be responsible for decreased expression of NRF-dependent genes, leading to the metabolic disturbances characteristic of insulin resistance and DM. (pnas.org)
  • We used high-density oligonucleotide arrays to identify genes differentially expressed in skeletal muscle from nondiabetic and type 2 diabetic subjects. (pnas.org)
  • Six pituitary-specific cell types were identified based on known marker genes and characterized: folliculostellate cells and hormone-producing corticotrophs, gonadotrophs, thyrotrophs, somatotrophs, and lactotrophs. (frontiersin.org)
  • The embryonic development of anterior and intermediate lobes is initiated by formation of a rudimentary Rathke's pouch, followed by development of a definitive pouch, which is critically dependent on expression of LIM homeobox genes Lhx3 and Lhx4 ( 1 , 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Liu, Ao, Zhou, Cui, Zhou, Yuan, Xiang, Cao, Liu: CpG island hypermethylation of multiple tumor suppressor genes associated with loss of their protein expression during rat lung carcinogenesis induced by 3-methylcholanthrene and diethylnitrosamine. (antibodies-online.com)
  • and (5) The meta-analysis identified new cooperatively and non-cooperatively regulated genes in caspase-1, IL-1β, IL-18, and Sirt-1 pathways. (springer.com)
  • Our approach is to combine physiological approaches (how fast, how steeply voltage-dependent, how is signal transduced) and biochemical experiments using cDNA microarrays (which genes, in what context, what relationship to learning and memory). (stanford.edu)
  • In the nucleus, phosphorylates the MEF2 repressor HDAC4, promoting its nuclear export and binding to 14-3-3 protein, and expression of MEF2 and genes involved in the hypertrophic program. (cusabio.com)
  • Delbono, O. 2003-01-01 00:00:00 The skeletal muscle L-type Ca2+ channel or dihydropyridine(DHP)-sensitive receptor is a key molecule involved in membrane voltage-sensing, sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release, and muscle contraction. (deepdyve.com)
  • The sarcoplasmic reticulum surrounds the myofibrils and holds a reserve of the calcium ions needed to cause a muscle contraction. (wikipedia.org)
  • T tubules are the pathways for action potentials to signal the sarcoplasmic reticulum to release calcium, causing a muscle contraction. (wikipedia.org)
  • The neuroprotective mechanisms of the Ca2+/calmodulin kinase (CaMK) signaling pathway were studied in primary cerebellar neurons in vitro. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Elevated Ca('2+) level activates Calmodulin / Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II ( CaMK II ) / PTK2B protein tyrosine kinase 2 beta ( Pyk2(FAK2) ) / v-src sarcoma viral oncogene homolog ( c-Src ) [ 7 ]. (bio-rad.com)
  • Analyses of the cell density data allowed us to identify several hits already well-characterized as effectors of the cell cycle and original hits.PNCK was finally shown to regulate activation of CaMKIα, a CaMKI isoform previously reported to interplay with the AhR pathway.These data fully support a role for both IP3-related kinase and CaMK isoforms in the AhR signaling cascade. (nih.gov)
  • These data fully support a role for both IP3-related kinase and CaMK isoforms in the AhR signaling cascade. (nih.gov)
  • CAMK Ser/Thr protein kinase family. (abcam.com)
  • To investigate the effects of valsartan on myocardial expression and activity of calcium / calmodulin -dependent protein kinase -II (CaMK II) in a rabbit model of heart failure . (bvsalud.org)
  • Histone deacetylase-5 (HDAC5) has emerged as an important substrate of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CamK II) in GPCR signaling. (ahajournals.org)
  • 5 Activation of PLCγ is responsible for the elevation of intracellular calcium, which results in the autophosphorylation (activation) of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CamK II). (ahajournals.org)
  • Activation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and protein kinase C by glutamate in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Here, we characterize the molecular and cellular mechanisms that regulate increased transcription of Caenorhabditis elegans tph-1 in a pair of serotonergic neurons ADF during an aversive experience with pathogenic bacteria, a common environmental peril for worms. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Furthermore, selective expression of an activated form of UNC-43 in ADF neurons is sufficient to increase ADF activity and tph-1 transcription, mimicking the training effect. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Here we show that DJ-1 plays an essential role in the expression of re arranged during t ransfection (RET), a receptor for the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, a neuroprotective molecule for dopaminergic neurons, the main target of degeneration in PD. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This study establishes for the first time a molecular link between the lack of functional DJ-1 and the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor signaling pathway that may explain the adult-onset loss of dopaminergic neurons. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Its neuropathological hallmark is the selective degeneration of mesencephalic DA neurons in the substantia nigra that leads to the decrease of dopamine at their synapses in the striatum ( 1 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type IV (CaMKIV) inhibits apoptosis induced by potassium deprivation in cerebellar granule neurons. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Through live calcium imaging experiments, this study shows that these cholinergic stimuli are conveyed to glutamatergic neurons in the ventral ganglion through mAChR. (sdbonline.org)
  • IP3R-dependent calcium transients in the glutamatergic neurons convey this signal to downstream medial neurosecretory cells (mNSCs). (sdbonline.org)
  • Using a neurotropic mouse hepatitis virus encephalomyelitis model, this study demonstrated an essential role of IFN-α/ß receptor 1 (IFNAR1) specifically in neurons to control virus spread, regulate IFN-γ signaling, and prevent acute mortality. (bvsalud.org)
  • an intergenic region on mouse chromosome 9 that allows reporter expression to be tightly regulated), as well as a transgene directing tetracycline-controlled transactivator protein (tTA) expression in forebrain neurons. (jax.org)
  • a) Schematic diagram of two pyramidal‐like neurons forming a type 1 glutamatergic synapse. (els.net)
  • Axons typically form synapses en passant (in passage) with dendritic segments from many neurons. (els.net)
  • In neurons, plays an essential structural role in the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton during plasticity by binding and bundling actin filaments in a kinase-independent manner. (rcsb.org)
  • It may act as an atypical peroxiredoxin-like peroxidase, a redox-dependent chaperone, and a regulator of transcription and RNA metabolism ( 3 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • As with every cell, the ability of the podocyte to receive signals from the surrounding environment and to translate them to the intracellular milieu is dependent largely on molecules residing on the cell membrane. (nih.gov)
  • Intracellular signals mediating the food intake-suppressive effects of hindbrain glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor activation. (nih.gov)
  • Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) activation within the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) suppresses food intake and body weight (BW), but the intracellular signals mediating these effects are unknown. (nih.gov)
  • In the present study, we used the phencyclidine (PCP) animal model of schizophrenia to investigate possible defects in intracellular signaling proteins involved in neuroplasticity. (elsevier.com)
  • In addition to describing the cis -acting RNA elements on the pre-mRNA molecules that respond to changes of intracellular calcium levels, we will summarize how splicing regulators change and affect alternative splicing in this process. (frontiersin.org)
  • It has been observed that an alteration of the intracellular calcium level can lead to differential expression of numerous alternative exons (reviewed in Xie, 2008 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • In addition, D1Rs and D2Rs modulate intracellular Ca2+ levels and a number of Ca2+ -dependent intracellular signaling processes. (genome.jp)
  • When it binds to its cell-surface receptor, IL-1 initiates a signalling cascade that leads to activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB and is relayed through the protein TRAF6 and a succession of kinase enzymes, including NF-kappaB-inducing kinase (NIK) and I kappaB kinases (IKKs). (nih.gov)
  • As a largest known PLC protein, PLCε is involved in a variety of signaling pathways and controls different cellular properties. (jcancer.org)
  • Due to its complex structure, PLCε is involved in the different signaling pathways (Figure 1 ). (jcancer.org)
  • The term "oncotarget" encompasses all molecules, pathways, cellular functions, cell types, and even tissues that can be viewed as targets relevant to cancer as well as other diseases. (oncotarget.com)
  • The transduction mechanism at ORNs is mediated by cAMP and/or inositol,1,4,5-triphosphate (InsP3)-signaling pathways in an odorant-dependent manner. (sdbonline.org)
  • In the mid and late phases after compression, many of the identified pathways shifted in significance, and new pathways such as calcium signaling and cholesterol synthesis emerged. (woundsresearch.com)
  • Goutsouliak, V. and Rabkin, S.W. Angiotensin II-induced inositol phosphate generation is mediated through tyrosine kinase pathways in cardiomyocytes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Putative pathways for pathogen‐mediated, Ca 2+ ‐dependent activation of plant defence responses. (els.net)
  • 1-3 The G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-kinase 2 interacting protein-1 (GIT1) is a multi-domain scaffold protein involved in multiple GPCR signal pathways including endocytosis, cell adhesion, and migration. (ahajournals.org)
  • Here we show that dopamine, a positive reinforcement signal, can retroactively convert hippocampal timing-dependent synaptic depression into potentiation. (elifesciences.org)
  • The expression of synaptic proteins (synapsin I and PSD95) was examined. (springer.com)
  • Reduction in post-synaptic scaffolding PSD-95 and SAP-102 protein levels in the alzheimer inferior temporal cortex is correlated with disease pathology. (springer.com)
  • Synapsins constitute a family of synaptic vesicle proteins essential for regulating neurotransmitter release. (elsevier.com)
  • The dynamic association of synapsins with synaptic vesicles correlates with their role in activity-dependent plasticity. (elsevier.com)
  • Release of synaptic vesicles occurs through several distinct stages, coordinated by a group of specialised proteins. (els.net)
  • The synaptic cleft contains proteins that ensure that active zone and PSD remain in proximity. (els.net)
  • The presynaptic bouton is responsible for packaging neurotransmitters into synaptic vesicles, then releasing their contents into the synaptic cleft in response to calcium influx. (els.net)
  • Synaptic vesicles are released by a process known as exocytosis through several distinct steps involving specialised proteins that form a highly interactive and dynamic protein complex at the site of synaptic vesicle release. (els.net)
  • Schematic diagram of the interacting protein complexes involved in synaptic vesicle cycling and maintenance of the presynaptic active zone. (els.net)
  • Two isoforms of SynGAP, ?1 and ?2, which differ in their C-termini, have opposing effects on synaptic strength. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • The increase was blocked if the researchers first gave the animals CPP ((R,S)-3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)propyl-1-phosphoric acid), an NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist. (alzforum.org)
  • C. Proteolipid protein 1 (PLP1) D. Glutamate synthetase (GLUL). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The limitation of targeting VEGF/VEGFR2 signalling to stop angiogenesis in cancer therapy has been blamed on re-activation of alternative receptor tyrosine kinases by compensatory angiogenic factors. (oncotarget.com)
  • 1 Department of Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, and CREST, Japan Science and Technology Corporation. (nih.gov)
  • Together, our work elucidates the molecular and cellular mechanisms whereby experience modulates tph-1 transcription. (biomedsearch.com)
  • CaM kinase I has a length of 370 amino acids (unprocessed precursor) and a predicted molecular weight of 41.3KDa. (biosensis.com)
  • Mouse monoclonal antibody to human CaM kinase 1 [3G1], catalogue number M-810-100, detects a band of molecular weight 42KDa in human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cell lysate under denaturing conditions for WB. (biosensis.com)
  • GT-1, a DNA-binding protein that interacts with BoxII in vitro, is a good candidate for being a light-modulated molecular switch controlling gene expression. (deepdyve.com)
  • In this study, we investigated the signaling pathway whereby IGF-1 enhances the expression of DHPRα1S in C2C12 myotubes, using a molecular, pharmacological and electrophysiological approach. (deepdyve.com)
  • Our working hypothesis involves molecular slots for particular types of channels. (stanford.edu)
  • Calcium signaling plays a pivotal role in many functions of the cell at the molecular level. (frontiersin.org)
  • The current review is aimed at providing an in-depth discussion of the molecular mechanisms of the dynamic control of alternative splicing regulated by calcium signaling. (frontiersin.org)
  • Stimulation of TAK1 causes activation of NF-kappaB, which is blocked by dominant-negative mutants of NIK, and an inactive TAK1 mutant prevents activation of NF-kappaB that is mediated by IL-1 but not by NIK. (nih.gov)
  • Angiotensin II does not directly affect Aβ secretion or β-/γ-secretase activity via activation of angiotensin II type 1 receptor. (springer.com)
  • CaM kinase I is involved in calcium-dependent activation of the ERK pathway. (biosensis.com)
  • However, the relationship between GT-1 activity and light-responsive gene activation still remains hypothetical. (deepdyve.com)
  • Insulin-like growth factor-I extends in vitro replicative life span of skeletal muscle satellite cells by enhancing G1/S cell cycle progression via the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3′-kinase/Akt signaling pathway. (deepdyve.com)
  • A protein called activation-induced deaminase (AID) plays an essential role in the development of B-cell lymphomas such as non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. (westonaprice.org)
  • Partial recombinant protein of human CaM kinase 1 (amino acids 271 to 370) with a GST tag. (biosensis.com)
  • Four pairs of alpha-helices each form independent 12-amino-acid loops containing a negatively charged calcium binding domain known as an EF-hand. (wikipedia.org)
  • The position of the amino-acid change on the UniProtKB canonical protein sequence. (expasy.org)
  • The score within a Blosum matrix for the corresponding wild-type to variant amino acid change. (expasy.org)
  • Glyphosate has a uniquely destructive ability to function as an amino acid analogue of glycine (an important protein building block). (westonaprice.org)
  • ERK2(MAPK1) activates Tuberous sclerosis 2 ( Tuberin ) [ 12 ]/ Ras homolog enriched in brain ( RHEB2 )/ FK506 binding protein 12-rapamycin associated protein 1 ( mTOR ) / Ribosomal protein S6 kinase 70kDa polypeptide 1 and 2 ( p70 S6 kinase1 and p70 S6 kinase2 )/ Eukaryotic elongation factor-2 kinase ( eEF2K )/ Eukaryotic translation elongation factor 2 ( eEF2 ). (bio-rad.com)
  • Ca 2+ binding to calmodulin (CaM) and calcium‐dependent protein kinases (CDPK) indirectly activates the hypersensitive response (HR), defence‐related gene expression and increased salicylic acid (SA) production. (els.net)
  • Sandwhich ELISA using mouse monoclonal antibody to human CaM kinase 1 [3G1], catalogue number M-810-100. (biosensis.com)
  • Search, Find and Buy Antibodies, ELISA Kits and Proteins. (antibodies-online.com)
  • 9 Calcium/calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Kinase 2, beta (CAMKK2) ELISA Kits from 7 manufacturers are available on www.antibodies-online.com. (antibodies-online.com)
  • In the present study, antibodies specific for SynGAP-?1 and SynGAP-?2 are used to compare the distribution patterns of the two isoforms at the postsynaptic density (PSD) under basal and excitatory conditions. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • Furthermore, Rathke's pouch is mainly composed of progenitor cells expressing Sox2 and Sox3 , which are essential for progenitor proliferation and development of all major anterior pituitary cell types downstream of Lhx3 / Lhx4 ( 5 - 7 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Unless the variant is located at the beginning or at the end of the protein sequence, both residues upstream (20) and downstream (20) of the variant will be shown. (expasy.org)
  • It is well established that caspase-1 exerts its biological activities through its downstream targets such as IL-1β, IL-18, and Sirt-1. (springer.com)
  • We used these statistical methods to integrate different microarray datasets conducted on different caspase-1 knockout tissues and datasets where caspase-1 downstream targets were manipulated. (springer.com)
  • Information is therefore hypothesised to be encoded in these signals, which are decoded and relayed to downstream gene expression regulators and protein kinases via an array of Ca 2+ ‐binding sensor proteins. (els.net)
  • A large network of calcium‐binding proteins act as calcium sensors and relay calcium signals to downstream effector proteins. (els.net)
  • abstract = "Background: HIV-1 infection causes chronic neuroinflammation in the central nervous system (CNS). (utmb.edu)
  • Spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) is a physiologically relevant form of Hebbian learning ( Caporale and Dan, 2008 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • Calcium signaling is crucial for several aspects of plasticity at glutamatergic synapses . (wikidoc.org)
  • SBI-0206965 inhibits AMPK with 40-fold greater potency and markedly lower kinase promiscuity than compound C and inhibits cellular AMPK signaling. (edu.au)
  • The cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha was found to stimulate the p38 mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase signalling cascade in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. (nih.gov)
  • Macrophage recognition of cells with elevated calcium is mediated by carbohydrate chains of CD43. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In situ hybridization in normal visual cortex revealed a complex sublaminar organization of GAD-expressing cells within layers IVC and VI and a distribution of CaM II kinase alpha-expressing cells that was greatest in layers II, III, IVB, and VI. (jneurosci.org)
  • This survey highlights many novel genetic markers contributing to pituitary cell type identity, sexual dimorphism, and function, and points to relationships between hormone-producing and folliculostellate cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • The expression of Tbx19 in a fraction of these cells leads to generation of two cell types producing proopiomelanocortin (POMC): corticotrophs (C)-secreting adrenocorticotropin, and melanotrophs-secreting melanocyte-stimulating hormone ( 9 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Finally, from a fraction of cells expressing Pou1f1 are derived three cell types: thyrotrophs (T)-secreting thyroid-stimulating hormone, somatotrophs (S)-secreting growth hormone, and lactotrophs (L)-secreting prolactin ( 11 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • These cell types, known as endocrine, secretory, or hormone-producing cells (HPC), release hormones predominantly through regulated exocytosis. (frontiersin.org)
  • They observed that targeting the Ca 2+ -binding protein parvalbumin to the nucleus significantly reduced cell proliferation and altered the proportions of cells that were in the S and G 2 -M phases of the cell cycle. (biologists.org)
  • Anthraquinone derivative exerted hormetic effect on the apoptosis in oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced PC12 cells via ERK and Akt activated Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Cells were stimulated at 1 Hz. (springer.com)
  • In some cell types (nonmuscle cells), it is generally accepted that the outer nuclear membrane and ER have similar characteristics and outer nuclear membrane is continuous with ER membrane including SERCA, whereas the inner nuclear membrane is quite different from the outer nuclear membrane. (ahajournals.org)
  • Work in bovine chromaffin cells demonstrated that NCS-1 is also a modulator of neurotransmission in mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • MCF-7 cells were transfected with siRNA targeting PNCK or their control (NT1) and 72 h later, cells were exposed to the calcium ionophore ionomycin, a strong activator of the Ca2+/CaM/CaMKs cascade [36]. (nih.gov)
  • When Ai93D;CaMK2a-tTA mice are bred with Cre-driver lines to create triple transgenic animals (GCaMP6f+/tTA+/Cre+), EGFP fluorescence in cre -expressing cells is low in the absence of calcium binding. (jax.org)
  • Complementation studies demonstrated that the defective AP-1 transcriptional activity was restored by transfection of MKK4 (-/-) cells with an MKK4 expression vector. (umassmed.edu)
  • This process can be quickly reversed when the energy requirements in the body cells rise again, and the blood glucose levels fall (Figure 1). (termedia.pl)
  • p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the 'basket' to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later. (uniprot.org)
  • Moreover, the association of the postsynaptic density protein PSD-95 with TrkB is critical for intact BDNF signaling, and elevated levels of Arc were found to impede PSD-95/TrkB association. (plos.org)
  • We find that the association of the postsynaptic density protein PSD-95 with TrkB is critical for intact BDNF signaling, and that the high levels of Arc in AS interfere with BDNF-induced recruitment of postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95) and other effectors to TrkB. (plos.org)
  • It is activated by calcium ions or calmodulin. (biosensis.com)
  • They could be occupied not only by calcium but also by magnesium and zinc ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein arginine N-methyltransferase 3 (PRMT3) is a cytoplasmic enzyme that utilizes S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet) to methylate specific proteins, most of which contain GAR (glycine-arginine rich) motifs. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • The principal cytoplasmic proteins are myosin and actin (also known as "thick" and "thin" filaments, respectively) which are arranged in a repeating unit called a sarcomere . (wikipedia.org)
  • Monocular enucleation induces nuclear localization of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV in cortical interneurons of adult monkey area V1. (semanticscholar.org)
  • DJ-1 encodes for a highly conserved, ubiquitously expressed protein involved in multiple cellular processes including sperm maturation, fertilization, and oncogenesis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Other than CB1, genetic deletion or pharmacological blockade with SB366791 (1 mg/kg) of transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) had no effect on the duration of behavioral or electrographic seizure activity in the kindling model. (curehunter.com)
  • Over the past 15 years or so, numerous studies have sought to characterise how nuclear calcium (Ca 2+ ) signals are generated and reversed, and to understand how events that occur in the nucleoplasm influence cellular Ca 2+ activity, and vice versa. (biologists.org)
  • We show that phosphomimetic mutation of Thr 149 (T149D) dramatically increases AP-1 transcriptional activity while alanine mutation does not affect transcriptional activity when compared with wild-type (WT) ΔFosB. (jneurosci.org)
  • Alpha-1B adrenergic receptor acts through G-protein beta/gamma of pertussis toxin-sensitive Alpha activating activity polypeptide O ( G-protein alpha-o ) [ 3 ], [ 5 ]. (bio-rad.com)
  • Remarkably, for both proteins, their kinase activity depends on the calmodulin binding. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we show that recombinant GT-1 (hGT-1) of Arabidopsis can be phosphorylated by various mammalian kinase activities in vitro. (deepdyve.com)
  • Free [Ca 2+ ] inside these stores can be &1 mmol/L, which is similar to that in the extracellular space. (ahajournals.org)
  • Western Blot analysis has been performed to determine total and phospho-protein levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2), type II calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (αCaMKII) and cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) in prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (HIP) of rat chronically treated with PCP, whereas their mRNA levels were determined by real time RT-PCR. (elsevier.com)
  • In the present study, GAD and CaM II kinase gene expression was investigated under these conditions. (jneurosci.org)
  • Calcium currents in embryonic and neonatal mammalian skeletal muscle. (deepdyve.com)
  • 2007) Death don't have no mercy and neither does calcium: Arabidopsis cyclic nucleotide gated channel2 and innate immunity. (els.net)
  • Podocyte plasma membrane proteins and a canonical pattern of injury. (nih.gov)
  • Core domain of PLCε is responsible for the hydrolysis of membrane phosphoinositides into second messengers inositol-1,4,5-phosphate and diacylglycerol (DAG) [ 4 - 6 , 8 ]. (jcancer.org)
  • 1 Electrical depolarization of the cell membrane opens L-type Ca 2+ channels, causing Ca 2+ influx. (ahajournals.org)
  • Measurements of nuclear and cytosolic Ca 2+ transients in IP 3 sponge mice showed no increase of Ca 2+ levels during diastole as we detected in wild-type mice. (springer.com)
  • In situ hybridization in the cortex from animals that had been monocularly deprived revealed enhanced CaM II kinase mRNA levels in deprived-eye columns of layer IVC and, associated with the deprived eye, cytochrome oxidase-stained periodicities in other layers. (jneurosci.org)
  • We found reduced levels of P-ERK1/2, P-αCaMKII and P-CREB in prefrontal cortex of PCP-treated animals when compared to controls, whereas no effects were observed on total protein or mRNA levels. (elsevier.com)
  • 1 Department of Neurology, Focus Program Translational Neuroscience (FTN) and Research Center for Immunotherapy (FZI), Rhine-Main Neuroscience Network (rmn 2 ), University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, 55131 Mainz, Germany. (sciencemag.org)
  • To determine new global and tissue-specific gene regulatory effects of caspase-1, we took novel microarray data analysis approaches including Venn analysis, cooperation analysis, and meta-analysis methods. (springer.com)
  • In this communication, we will summarize the recent advances in calcium signaling-mediated alternative splicing that have provided some insights into the important regulatory mechanisms. (frontiersin.org)