Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2
A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.
Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases
A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)
A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.
Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type I
Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II
Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 4
Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II
Protein Kinase C
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases
Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 1
Molecular Sequence Data
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
Amino Acid Sequence
Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type I
Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor)
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
MAP Kinase Signaling System
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
An enzyme that phosphorylates myosin light chains in the presence of ATP to yield myosin-light chain phosphate and ADP, and requires calcium and CALMODULIN. The 20-kDa light chain is phosphorylated more rapidly than any other acceptor, but light chains from other myosins and myosin itself can act as acceptors. The enzyme plays a central role in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.
A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.
Protein Structure, Tertiary
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Protein Kinase C-alpha
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
Death-Associated Protein Kinases
Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Catalytic Subunits
Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases
A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3
Protein Kinase C-delta
JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
N-(N-(N(2)-(N-(N-(N-(N-D-Alanyl L-seryl)-L-threonyl)-L-threonyl) L-threonyl)-L-asparaginyl)-L-tyrosyl) L-threonine. Octapeptide sharing sequence homology with HIV envelope protein gp120. It is potentially useful as antiviral agent in AIDS therapy. The core pentapeptide sequence, TTNYT, consisting of amino acids 4-8 in peptide T, is the HIV envelope sequence required for attachment to the CD4 receptor.
AMP-Activated Protein Kinases
Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Recombinant Fusion Proteins
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Protein Kinase C-epsilon
A protein kinase C subtype that was originally characterized as a CALCIUM-independent, serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHORBOL ESTERS and DIACYLGLYCEROLS. It is targeted to specific cellular compartments in response to extracellular signals that activate G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS; TYROSINE KINASE RECEPTORS; and intracellular protein tyrosine kinase.
Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
Protein Kinase C beta
PKC beta encodes two proteins (PKCB1 and PKCBII) generated by alternative splicing of C-terminal exons. It is widely distributed with wide-ranging roles in processes such as B-cell receptor regulation, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation, insulin signaling, and endothelial cell proliferation.
Inhibition of the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I cascade by cAMP-dependent protein kinase. (1/105)Several recent studies have shown that Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I (CaMKI) is phosphorylated and activated by a protein kinase (CaMKK) that is itself subject to regulation by Ca2+/calmodulin. In the present study, we demonstrate that this enzyme cascade is regulated by cAMP-mediated activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). In vitro, CaMKK is phosphorylated by PKA and this is associated with inhibition of enzyme activity. The major site of phosphorylation is threonine 108, although additional sites are phosphorylated with lower efficiency. In vitro, CaMKK is also phosphorylated by CaMKI at the same sites as PKA, suggesting that this regulatory phosphorylation might play a role as a negative-feedback mechanism. In intact PC12 cells, activation of PKA with forskolin resulted in a rapid inhibition of both CaMKK and CaMKI activity. In hippocampal slices CaMKK was phosphorylated under basal conditions, and activation of PKA led to an increase in phosphorylation. Two-dimensional phosphopeptide mapping indicated that activation of PKA led to increased phosphorylation of multiple sites including threonine 108. These results indicate that in vitro and in intact cells the CaMKK/CaMKI cascade is subject to inhibition by PKA-mediated phosphorylation of CaMKK. The phosphorylation and inhibition of CaMKK by PKA is likely to be involved in modulating the balance between cAMP- and Ca2+-dependent signal transduction pathways. (+info)
Ca(2+)/Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase cascade in Caenorhabditis elegans. Implication in transcriptional activation. (2/105)We have recently demonstrated that Caenorhabditis elegans Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CeCaM-KK) can activate mammalian CaM-kinase IV in vitro (Tokumitsu, H., Takahashi, N., Eto, K., Yano, S., Soderling, T.R., and Muramatsu, M. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 15803-15810). In the present study, we have identified and cloned a target CaM-kinase for CaM-KK in C. elegans, CeCaM-kinase I (CeCaM-KI), which has approximately 60% identity to mammalian CaM-KI. CeCaM-KI has 348 amino acid residues with an apparent molecular mass of 40 kDa, which is activated by CeCaM-KK through phosphorylation of Thr(179) in a Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent manner, resulting in a 30-fold decrease in the K(m) of CeCaM-KI for its peptide substrate. Unlike mammalian CaM-KI, CeCaM-KI is mainly localized in the nucleus of transfected cells because the NH(2)-terminal six residues ((2)PLFKRR(7)) contain a functional nuclear localization signal. We have also demonstrated that CeCaM-KK and CeCaM-KI reconstituted a signaling pathway that mediates Ca(2+)-dependent phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and CRE-dependent transcriptional activation in transfected cells, consistent with nuclear localization of CeCaM-KI. These results suggest that the CaM-KK/CaM-KI cascade is conserved in C. elegans and is functionally operated both in vitro and in intact cells, and it may be involved in Ca(2+)-dependent nuclear events such as transcriptional activation through phosphorylation of CREB. (+info)
The expression of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I in rat retina is regulated by light stimulation. (3/105)Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I (CaM-kinase I) in rat retina was analyzed by immunohistochemical analysis, Western blot analysis and kinase activity assay. Western blot analysis revealed two immunoreactive bands similar to those detected in the brain. Developmental studies revealed that CaM-kinase I expression increased in accordance with postnatal development. Expression of CaM-kinase I in the retinas of rats raised in the complete darkness markedly decreased. CaM-kinase I activity assay supported these findings. Synapsin I was shown to be a possible intrinsic substrate of CaM-kinase I in rat retina. These results elucidated that CaM-kinase I is expressed in the retina and may play an important role in the retinal functions and that the expression of CaM-kinase I is regulated by light stimulation. (+info)
Increased expression of Galphaq protein in the heart of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. (4/105)Heart disease is one of the major cause of death in diabetic patients, but the pathogenesis of diabetic cardio-myopathy remains unclear. In this experiment, to assess the significance of G protein signaling pathways in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy, we analyzed the expression of G proteins and the activities of second messenger dependent protein kinases: cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), DAG-mediated protein kinase C (PKC), and calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaM kinase II) in the streptozotocin induced diabetic rat heart. The expression of Galphaq was increased by slightly over 10% (P<0.05) in diabetic rat heart, while Galphas, Galphai, and Gbeta remained unchanged. The PKA activity in the heart did not change significantly but increased by 27% (P<0.01) in the liver. Insulin treatment did not restore the increased activity in the liver. Total PKC activity in the heart was increased by 56% (P<0.01), and insulin treatment did not restore such increase. The CaM kinase II activity in the heart remained at the same level but was slightly increased in the liver (14% increase, P<0.05). These findings of increased expression of Galphaq in the streptozotocin-diabetic rat heart that are reflected by the increased level of PKC activity and insensitivity to insulin demonstrate that alteration of Galphaq may underlie, at least partly, the cardiac dysfunction that is associated with diabetes. (+info)
Regulation of phenobarbital induction of the cytochrome P450 2b9/10 genes in primary mouse hepatocyte culture. Involvement of calcium- and cAMP-dependent pathways. (5/105)Phenobarbital (PB) has long been known as an inducer of drug-metabolizing enzymes in liver, but the molecular mechanism underlying this induction is still poorly understood. Using primary mouse hepatocyte culture, we have investigated the possible involvement of different regulatory pathways in PB action, by exposing PB-treated cells to various protein kinase/phosphatase modulators. Our results showed a negative role of the cAMP-dependent pathway, as treatment with cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) activators (10 microM dibutyryl-cAMP and 50 microM forskolin) dramatically inhibited PB-induced Cyp2b9/10 mRNA accumulation, whereas PKA inhibitor potentiated the PB responsiveness of this gene. The cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) seems to play a positive role as PKG inhibitor reduced the PB-induced level of Cyp2b9/10 mRNA. We also obtained two lines of evidence for the involvement of Ca2+ in modulating PB action. Firstly, measurements of intracellular Fura-2 fluorescence ratio in murine hepatocytes showed that long-term PB incubation (24 and 48 h) led to a significant increase of [Ca2+]i. Secondly, treatment with an intracellular Ca2+ chelator (BAPTA-AM) nearly completely abolished PB-induced Cyp2b9/10 expression. Ca2+ thus appeared to mediate PB action likely via Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, as KN62, a specific inhibitor of this enzyme, also dramatically inhibited PB induction of the Cyp2b9/10 genes. (+info)
Activation of orphan receptor-mediated transcription by Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV. (6/105)Retinoid-related receptor alpha (RORalpha) is an orphan nuclear receptor that constitutively activates transcription from its cognate response element. We show that RORalpha is Ca(2+ )responsive, and a Ca(2+)/calmodulin-independent form of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV) potentiates RORalpha-dependent transcription 20- to 30-fold. Other orphan receptors including RORalpha2, RORgamma and COUP-TFI are also potentiated by CaMKIV. Transcriptional activation by CaMKIV is orphan receptor selective and does not occur with either the thyroid hormone or estrogen receptor. CaMKIV does not phosphorylate RORalpha or its ligand-binding domain (LBD) in vitro, although the LBD is essential for transactivation. Therefore, the RORalpha LBD was used in the mammalian two-hybrid assay to identify a single class of small peptide molecules containing LXXLL motifs that interacted with greater affinity in the presence of CaMKIV. This class of peptides antagonized activation of orphan receptor-mediated transcription by CaMKIV. These studies demonstrate a pivotal role for CaMKIV in the regulation of orphan receptor-mediated transcription. (+info)
Variation of phospholamban in slow-twitch muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum between mammalian species and a link to the substrate specificity of endogenous Ca(2+)-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase. (7/105)Systematic immunological and biochemical studies indicate that the level of expression of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+)-ATPase regulatory protein phospholamban (PLB) in mammalian slow-twitch fibers varies from zero, in the rat, to significant levels in the rabbit, and even higher in humans. The lack of PLB expression in the rat, at the mRNA level, is shown to be exclusive to slow-twitch skeletal muscle, and not to be shared by the heart, thus suggesting a tissue-specific, in addition to a species-specific regulation of PLB. A comparison of sucrose density-purified SR of rat and rabbit slow-twitch muscle, with regard to protein compositional and phosphorylation properties, demonstrates that the biodiversity is two-fold, i.e. (a) in PLB membrane density; and (b) in the ability of membrane-bound Ca(2+)-calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase II to phosphorylate both PLB and SERCA2a (slow-twitch isoform of Ca(2+)-ATPase). The basal phosphorylation state of PLB at Thr-17 in isolated SR vesicles from rabbit slow-twitch muscle, colocalization of CaM K II with PLB and SERCA2a at the same membrane domain, and the divergent subcellular distribution of PKA, taken together, seem to argue for a differential heterogeneity in the regulation of Ca(2+) transport between such muscle and heart muscle. (+info)
AMPA receptor-mediated, calcium-dependent CREB phosphorylation in a subpopulation of auditory neurons surviving activity deprivation. (8/105)Although dependence on afferent synaptic activity has been shown for central neurons in every sensory system, the mechanisms of afferent maintenance of target sensory neurons are not understood. Neurons in the cochlear nucleus (CN) require afferent activity for maintenance and survival. One of the earliest changes seen after activity deprivation is an increase in intracellular calcium that leads to the death of 30% of the neuronal population. Sixty minutes after deafferentation, the surviving neurons show increased phosphorylation of the transcription factor calcium/cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). CREB phosphorylation in activity-deprived CN neurons is dependent on increased intracellular calcium resulting from influx through AMPA receptors and is mediated by calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinases and protein kinase A. We conclude that in CN neurons, the deafferentation-induced increase in calcium activates at least two kinase pathways that phosphorylate CREB in surviving neurons. We hypothesize that this phosphorylation results in the transcription of genes containing the calcium/cAMP response element within their promoter regions, and these genes code for proteins that allow the neurons to compensate for their hypercalcemic, activity-deprived state. (+info)
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CAMK1 gene. Calcium/calmodulin ... calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I by calmodulin and by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase". J. Biol. Chem. 273 ... Phosphorylation by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, protein kinase C, and calcium/calmodulin protein kinase; identification ... Calcium/calmodulin directly activates calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I by binding to the enzyme and indirectly ...
Neuronal calcium sensor-1
PIK1 It binds to many proteins, some in calcium dependent and some in calcium independent ways, and switches many of the ... type III phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase β) IP3 receptor (this activity is inhibited by lithium - a drug used for the treatment ... calcium-binding protein. Frq can substitute for calmodulin in some situations. It is thought to be associated with neuronal ... Burgoyne RD (2007). "Neuronal calcium sensor proteins: generating diversity in neuronal Ca2+ signalling". Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 8 ...
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type IV is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CAMK4 gene. The product of ... calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I by calmodulin and by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase". J. Biol. Chem. 273 ... Phosphorylation by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, protein kinase C, and calcium/calmodulin protein kinase; identification ... and activation of Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV by Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase Ia kinase. ...
The increase in presynaptic calcium concentration activates calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK). CaMK ... The protein dense projections vary in size and shape depending on the type of synapse examined. One striking example of the ... The protein ELKS binds to the cell adhesion protein, β-neurexin, and other proteins within the complex such as Piccolo and ... that cause a local influx of calcium. The increase in calcium is detected by proteins in the active zone and forces vesicles ...
... a calcium pump EC 184.108.40.206. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of P-type primary ion transport ATPases ... Wang KK, Wright LC, Machan CL, Allen BG, Conigrave AD, Roufogalis BD (May 1991). "Protein kinase C phosphorylates the carboxyl ... "Primary structure of the cAMP-dependent phosphorylation site of the plasma membrane calcium pump". Biochemistry. 28 (10): 4253- ... Kessler F, Falchetto R, Heim R, Meili R, Vorherr T, Strehler EE, Carafoli E (December 1992). "Study of calmodulin binding to ...
... calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV, and the peroxisome proliferator γ coactivator 1 (PGC-1). The Ras/MAPK signaling ... Type I, which is slow, and Type II which are fast. Type II has two divisions of type IIA (oxidative), and type IIX (glycolytic ... proteins and other regulatory proteins. Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase activity is also upregulated by slow motor ... calcineurin and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV to activate transcription factors that regulate gene expression ...
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II gamma chain is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CAMK2G gene. The ... "Entrez Gene: CAMK2G calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) II gamma". Moyers JS, Bilan PJ, Zhu J, Kahn CR ( ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II subunit gamma) at the PDBe-KB. Portal: Biology This article incorporates ... calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily. Calcium signaling is crucial for several aspects of plasticity at glutamatergic ...
2005). "Multivalent interactions of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II with the postsynaptic density proteins NR2B ... 2007). "Densin and filtrin in the pancreas and in the kidney, targets for humoral autoimmunity in patients with type 1 diabetes ... 2001). "Densin-180 forms a ternary complex with the (alpha)-subunit of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and (alpha)- ... portray Densin-180 as a key interactor in the midst of receptor proteins, scaffolding proteins and structural proteins. [number ...
Calpain-1 catalytic subunit
Harris AS, Croall DE, Morrow JS (1988). "The calmodulin-binding site in alpha-fodrin is near the calcium-dependent protease-I ... "Primary structure of a gamma subunit of G protein, gamma 12, and its phosphorylation by protein kinase C". J. Biol. Chem. 270 ( ... Groupe d'Etude des Néoplasies Endocriniennes Multiples de type 1)". Genomics. 37 (3): 354-65. doi:10.1006/geno.1996.0570. PMID ... beta precursor proteins to cleavage by calpain, a calcium-dependent protease". J. Biol. Chem. 270 (46): 27758-65. doi:10.1074/ ...
... calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2, beta". "CAMK1 - Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type 1 ... calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV by Ca(2+)-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase Ia kinase. Phosphorylation of threonine ... July 2005). "Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-beta is an alternative upstream kinase for AMP-activated protein kinase ... and to the Ca++/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily. This protein plays a role in the calcium/calmodulin-dependent ( ...
The δ subunit is the ubiquitous eukaryotic protein calmodulin which itself has 4 calcium ion binding sites. When cytosolic Ca2+ ... but phosphorylation of both these subunits by protein kinase A (PKA, or cAMP-dependent protein kinase) reduces their respective ... Defects in phosphorylase kinase genes are the cause of glycogen storage disease type IX (GSD type IX) and GSD type VI (formerly ... In the active site, there is significant homology between PhK and other so-called P-loop protein kinases such as protein kinase ...
Human Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type 1D (CAMK1D)) at the PDBe-KB. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000183049 ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ID is a protein in humans that is encoded by the CAMK1D gene on chromosome 10 ( ... "Entrez Gene: Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ID". v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches ... This gene encodes a member of the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 1 subfamily of serine/threonine kinases. The encoded ...
Calmodulin-dependent kinase II and Rho-kinase are also found to phosphorylate calponin at Ser175 and Thr184 in vitro. Of these ... Dephosphorylation of calponin is catalyzed by type 2B protein phosphatase Unphosphorylated calponin binds to actin and inhibits ... Calcium-dependent mechanisms of regulation of smooth muscle contraction". Biochemistry and Cell Biology. 69 (12): 771-800. doi: ... the main site of regulatory phosphorylation by calmodulin-dependent kinase II and Rho-kinase is Ser175. ...
This gene is also known by several other names: CMG 2 (CAMGUK protein 2), calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase 3 ... Hsueh YP, Roberts AM, Volta M, Sheng M, Roberts RG (June 2001). "Bipartite interaction between neurofibromatosis type I protein ... "Entrez Gene: CASK Calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (MAGUK family)". Tarpey PS, Smith R, Pleasance E, Whibley ... Zhu ZQ, Wang D, Xiang D, Yuan YX, Wang Y (January 2014). "Calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase is involved in ...
Calcium-binding protein 1
... a novel two EF-hand calcium-binding protein that suppresses Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II activity in the brain ... Expression of CaBP1 helps to block Ca2+-dependent facilitation of P/Q-type Ca2+ current which is markedly reduced facilitation ... This protein causes rapid inactivation that is independent of calcium, and does not support Calcium-dependent facilitation. ... This gene encodes a protein that belongs to a subfamily of calcium binding proteins which share similarity to calmodulin. The ...
... cyclin-dependent kinase 5 activators p35 and p39 interact with the alpha-subunit of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II ... 1991). "Non-viral cellular substrates for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease". FEBS Lett. 278 (2): 199-203. doi: ... Bunn RC, Jensen MA, Reed BC (1999). "Protein interactions with the glucose transporter binding protein GLUT1CBP that provide a ... Bunn RC, Jensen MA, Reed BC (April 1999). "Protein interactions with the glucose transporter binding protein GLUT1CBP that ...
... cyclin-dependent kinase 5 activators p35 and p39 interact with the alpha-subunit of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II ... Sakashita G, Shima H, Komatsu M, Urano T, Kikuchi A, Kikuchi K (February 2003). "Regulation of type 1 protein phosphatase/ ... cyclin-dependent kinase 5 activators p35 and p39 interact with the alpha-subunit of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 activator 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CDK5R2 gene. The protein encoded by this ...
Collapsin response mediator protein family
Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II) is also activated by calcium influx through NMDA receptors, and is ... Lacosamide is used in combination with other types of medications to control various types of seizures, especially epilepsy. ... and cyclin-dependent protein kinase 5 (Cdk5) are highly expressed in Alzheimer's disease and are some of the protein kinases ... revealing the presence of both Rho kinase-dependent and Rho kinase-independent pathways for the growth cone collapse. In RhoA ...
Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) plays a crucial role in a type of synaptic plasticity known as long-term ... Many of the proteins that calmodulin binds are unable to bind calcium themselves, and use calmodulin as a calcium sensor and ... Proteopedia page for Calmodulin and its conformational change Protein kinase Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase Stevens ... This MLC kinase is activated by a calmodulin when it is bound by calcium, thus making smooth muscle contraction dependent on ...
... the microtubule-associated tau proteins and S100b regulate tau phosphorylation by the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ... "The calcium-modulated proteins, S100A1 and S100B, as potential regulators of the dynamics of type III intermediate filaments". ... S100 calcium-binding protein B (S100B) is a protein of the S-100 protein family. S100 proteins are localized in the cytoplasm ... the microtubule-associated tau proteins and S100b regulate tau phosphorylation by the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ...
Unfolded protein response
This calcium then interacts with calcineurin and calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinases that in turn activate transcription ... October 2004). "Endoplasmic reticulum stress links obesity, insulin action, and type 2 diabetes". Science. 306 (5695): 457-61. ... "Coupling of stress in the ER to activation of JNK protein kinases by transmembrane protein kinase IRE1". Science. 287 (5453): ... PERK (protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase) activates itself by oligomerization and autophosphorylation of the ...
... including elongation factor 1A and the calcium sensing protein calmodulin. Many eukaryotic proteins are post-translationally ... The arginine methylation of proteins can either inhibit or promote protein-protein interactions depending on the type of ... GTP-binding proteins, nuclear lamins and certain protein kinases. Many of these proteins participate in cell signaling, and ... A well-characterized example of a methylation dependent protein-protein interaction is related to the selective methylation of ...
"Calmodulin is involved in the Ca2+-dependent activation of ceramide kinase as a calcium sensor". J. Biol. Chem. 280 (49): 40436 ... CERK shares sequence homology with sphingosine kinase type I, including an N-terminal pleckstrin homology (PH) domain and a ... "Ceramide kinase uses ceramide provided by ceramide transport protein: localization to organelles of eicosanoid synthesis". J. ... CERK was later confirmed to bind calmodulin in the presence of calcium, indicating the calmodulin first binds calcium and then ...
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II delta chain is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CAMK2D gene. The ... CAMK2D calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) II delta". Hook SS, Means AR (2001). "Ca2+/CaM-dependent ... product of this gene belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase family and to the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ... "Rad and Rad-related GTPases interact with calmodulin and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (18): ...
The frequency (FRQ) protein accumulates and is progressively phosphorylated by CKI, CKII, and a calcium/calmodulin-dependent ... A similar palette of kinases modifies the clock proteins in all cases. Negative feedback White Collar-1 Baker CL, Loros JJ, ... Because sFRQ favors a longer period than lFRQ, free running rhythms in wild type Neurospora are somewhat decreased with ... with just one of the proteins present. The choice of which protein is made is the result of temperature-dependent splicing of ...
"Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II phosphorylation drives synapse-associated protein 97 into spines". The Journal ... "Ca2+/calmodulin-kinase II enhances channel conductance of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate type glutamate ... is the influx of calcium through the NMDA receptors and the resultant activation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ( ... element-binding protein through a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent stimulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase ...
... resulting in a calcium influx into the SCN. Calcium induces the activity of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases, ... CREB is also thought to be involved in the growth of some types of cancer. Entrainment of the mammalian circadian clock is ... and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases on the Serine 133 residue. When activated, CREB protein recruits other ... This protein kinase translocates to the cell nucleus, where it activates a CREB protein. The activated CREB protein then binds ...
Glial fibrillary acidic protein
... calcium/calmodulin dependent phosphorylation at various serine or threonine residues by PKC and PKA which are two kinases that ... GFAP can polymerize with other type III proteins. GFAP and other type III IF proteins cannot assemble with keratins, the type I ... Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is a protein that is encoded by the GFAP gene in humans. It is a type III intermediate ... There are different sets of kinases at work; cdc2 kinase acts only at the G2 phase transition, while other GFAP kinases are ...
... independent pathway involving calcium-binding protein 39 (Cab39) and serine threonine kinase with no lysine member 4 (WNK4) in ... WNK4 enhances TRPV5 by increasing its forward trafficking to the plasma membrane in a kinase-dependent manner. The inhibitory ... However, when Ca2+ levels are elevated, Ca2+/calmodulin complex binds to the C-terminal region, derepressing WNK4 kinase ... August 2005). "A new kindred with pseudohypoaldosteronism type II and a novel mutation (564D>H) in the acidic motif of the WNK4 ...
... an effect which is associated with DAT phosphorylation through a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CAMK)-dependent ... calcium/calmodulin protein kinases) signaling, which, in addition to phosphorylating CREB, also phosphorylates HDAC5. Figure 2 ... ΔFosB is also induced in D1-type NAc MSNs by chronic consumption of several natural rewards, including sucrose, high-fat food, ... it triggers transporter phosphorylation via protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC) signaling, ultimately resulting ...
Olfactory receptor neuron
The influx of calcium begins a cascade of events within the cell. Calcium first binds to calmodulin to form CaM. CaM will then ... a type of G protein-coupled receptor. Each olfactory receptor cell expresses only one type of olfactory receptor (OR), but many ... "Molecular cloning and characterization of a calmodulin-dependent phosphodiesterase enriched in olfactory sensory neurons". Proc ... "Phosphorylation and inhibition of olfactory adenylyl cyclase by CaM kinase II in Neurons: a mechanism for attenuation of ...
NADK is also reportedly stimulated by calcium/calmodulin binding in certain cell types, such as neutrophils. NAD kinases in ... Williams MB, Jones HP (Feb 1985). "Calmodulin-dependent NAD kinase of human neutrophils". Archives of Biochemistry and ... "A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome". Cell. 122 (6): 957-68. doi:10.1016/j.cell ... Epel D, Patton C, Wallace RW, Cheung WY (Feb 1981). "Calmodulin activates NAD kinase of sea urchin eggs: an early event of ...
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II beta chain is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CAMK2B gene. The ... "Entrez Gene: CAMK2B calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) II beta". Walikonis RS, Oguni A, Khorosheva EM, ... Sequence analyses of human brain calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II". Mol. Biol. Rep. 28 (1): 35-41. doi:10.1023/A: ... Novak G, Seeman P, Tallerico T (2001). "Schizophrenia: elevated mRNA for calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIbeta in ...
... induced NF-kappa B activation by calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase occurs through Akt activation associated ... triggers acute inflammation and stimulation of adaptive immunity IRFs is a group of proteins responsible for expression of type ... The MyD88 protein acts as an adapter, connecting proteins that receive signals from outside the cell to the proteins that relay ... After ligand binding, all TLRs apart from TLR3, interact with adaptor protein MyD88. Another adaptor protein, which is ...
Index of biochemistry articles
... calcium channel - calcium signaling - calcium-binding protein - calmodulin - calmodulin-binding protein - Calvin cycle - CAM ... cyclin-dependent kinase - cycloleucine - cyclosporin - cyclosporine - cystatin - cysteine - cystic fibrosis transmembrane ... IGF type 2 receptor - IgG - IgM - immediate-early protein - immune cell - immune system - immunoglobulin - immunoglobulin ... protein subunit - protein synthesis - protein targeting - protein translocation - protein-tyrosine kinase - protein-tyrosine- ...
Calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit (also known as Cav1.2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by ... When calcium ions bind to calmodulin, which in turn binds to a Cav1.2 channel, it allows the Cav1.2 channels within a cluster ... Perets T, Blumenstein Y, Shistik E, Lotan I, Dascal N (Apr 1996). "A potential site of functional modulation by protein kinase ... Cav1.2 is a subunit of L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel. This gene encodes an alpha-1 subunit of a voltage-dependent ...
Deficient hippocampal long-term potentiation in alpha-calcium-calmodulin kinase II mutant mice. Science, 257(5067), 201-206. ... Comparing the DNA of B cells (a type of white blood cell) in embryonic and adult mice, he observed that genes in the mature B ... He was involved in early work demonstrating the importance of CaMKII- (1992) and the NMDA receptor-dependent synaptic ... one early idea to explain the adaptive immune system suggested that each gene produces one protein; however, there are under ...
... is a calcium and calmodulin dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase (also known as protein phosphatase 3, and calcium- ... "Association of protein kinase A and protein phosphatase 2B with a common anchoring protein". Science. 267 (5194): 108-11. ... "T cell receptor-induced calcineurin activation regulates T helper type 2 cell development by modifying the interleukin 4 ... Giri PR, Higuchi S, Kincaid RL (1991). "Chromosomal mapping of the human genes for the calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase ...
Hata Y, Butz S, Südhof TC (1996). "CASK: a novel dlg/PSD95 homolog with an N-terminal calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ... a novel family of C-terminal-type tandem C2 proteins". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 281 (5): 1226-1233. doi:10.1006/bbrc. ... These alpha neurexins are involved in communication through coupling mechanisms of calcium channels and vesicle exocytosis, to ... Nakayama M, Kikuno R, Ohara O (2003). "Protein-protein interactions between large proteins: two-hybrid screening using a ...
Protein kinase A (PKA) has been found to play an important role in learning and memory in Drosophila. When calcium enters a ... The intermediate term memory trace is dependent on expression of the amn gene located in dorsal paired medial neurons. An ... or both types of sensory input. In Hymenoptera, olfactory input is layered in the calyx. In ants, several layers can be ... dual regulation of adenylate cyclase by Ca2+/calmodulin and transmitter". The Journal of Neuroscience. 11 (9): 2655-65. doi: ...
... and calmodulin (CaM). Calmodulin has been shown to activate cyclic nucleotide PDE in a calcium-dependent manner and the ... of PDE1A1 and PDE1A2 by protein kinase A and of PDE1B1 by CaM Kinase II decreases their sensitivity to calmodulin activation. ... basal and calmodulin stimulated purified PDE1. Since nimodipine at lower concentrations blocks the L-type calcium channel, it ... is a phosphodiesterase enzyme also known as calcium- and calmodulin-dependent phosphodiesterase. It is one of the 11 families ...
Myosin binding protein C, cardiac
Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII), ribosomal s6 kinase (RSK),protein kinase D (PKD), and protein kinase C (PKC). ... "Protein Information - Myosin-binding protein C, cardiac-type". Cardiac Organellar Protein Atlas Knowledgebase (COPaKB). NHLBI ... "Novel control of cardiac myofilament response to calcium by S-glutathionylation at specific sites of myosin binding protein C ... of purified cardiac muscle C-protein by purified cAMP-dependent and endogenous Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinases". The ...
... proteins typically found at the triad are reduced, including CaMKII (Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II). Decreased ... A triad protein complex plays a role converting electrical excitation into calcium release, and it is composed of two calcium ... Calpainopathy is the most common type of autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD). It preferentially affects ... Calpain 3 is both a protease and a structural protein. As a protease, it cleaves proteins of the sarcomere and cytoskeleton, ...
Other blockers include the large organic cations calmidazolium (a calmodulin antagonist) and KN-62 (a CaM kinase II antagonist ... "P2X7 receptor-dependent blebbing and the activation of Rho-effector kinases, caspases, and IL-1 beta release". Journal of ... P2X purinoceptor 7 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the P2RX7 gene. The product of this gene belongs to the family of ... Glutathione has been proposed to act as a P2X7 receptor agonist when present at milimolar levels, inducing calcium transients ...
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases Laube B, Hirai H, Sturgess M, Betz H, Kuhse J (March 1997). "Molecular ... These types of experiments have shown that different pathways are being activated or regulated depending on the location of the ... which contain residues that can be directly modified by a series of protein kinases and protein phosphatases, as well as ... "MHC class I immune proteins are critical for hippocampus-dependent memory and gate NMDAR-dependent hippocampal long-term ...
Troponin C type 1
"Phosphorylation of protein kinase C sites Ser42/44 decreases Ca(2+)-sensitivity and blunts enhanced length-dependent activation ... In a typical EF-hand protein like calmodulin, Ca2+ binding induces a closed-to-open conformational transition, exposing a large ... Strynadka NC, James MN (June 1989). "Crystal structures of the helix-loop-helix calcium-binding proteins". Annual Review of ... Kretsinger RH, Nockolds CE (May 1973). "Carp muscle calcium-binding protein. II. Structure determination and general ...
LDL-receptor-related protein-associated protein
... since it is able to bind calmodulin and be phosphorylated by calmodulin-dependent kinase II. LDL-receptor-related protein- ... "Surface location and high affinity for calcium of a 500-kd liver membrane protein closely related to the LDL-receptor suggest a ... characterization of a novel human hybrid-type receptor that binds the alpha2-macroglobulin receptor-associated protein". The ... "39 kDa receptor-associated protein is an ER resident protein and molecular chaperone for LDL receptor-related protein". The ...
This sudden increase in cytoplasmic calcium activates Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMKII). Activated CaMKII ... One of the most important results of Wnt signaling and the elevated level of beta-catenin in certain cell types is the ... January 2011). "Protein tyrosine kinase 7 has a conserved role in Wnt/β-catenin canonical signalling". EMBO Reports. 12 (1): 43 ... Ren J, Li Y, Kufe D (May 2002). "Protein kinase C delta regulates function of the DF3/MUC1 carcinoma antigen in beta-catenin ...
... purified hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase by a calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase". The Journal ... Inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase by statins is lessened in patients with type 2 diabetes, which results in lessened inhibition ... Fairly recently, LKB1 has been identified as a likely AMP kinase kinase, which appears to involve calcium/calmodulin signaling ... and the kinase in turn was held to be activated via phosphorylation by HMG-CoA reductase kinase kinase. An excellent review on ...
The encoded protein is a calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion glycoprotein composed of five extracellular cadherin repeats, a ... "The tyrosine kinase substrate p120cas binds directly to E-cadherin but not to the adenomatous polyposis coli protein or alpha- ... E-cadherin is a crucial type of cell-cell adhesion to hold the epithelial cells tight together. E-cadherin can sequester β- ... Li Z, Kim SH, Higgins JM, Brenner MB, Sacks DB (December 1999). "IQGAP1 and calmodulin modulate E-cadherin function". The ...
Enhancement of L-type calcium channel transsarcolemmal calcium influx by S100A has been shown to be dependent on protein kinase ... Holakovska B, Grycova L, Jirku M, Sulc M, Bumba L, Teisinger J (May 2012). "Calmodulin and S100A1 protein interact with N ... Protein S100-A1, also known as S100 calcium-binding protein A1 is a protein which in humans is encoded by the S100A1 gene. ... Donato R (July 1999). "Functional roles of S100 proteins, calcium-binding proteins of the EF-hand type". Biochimica et ...
"Evolutionary origin of a calcium-dependent protease by fusion of genes for a thiol protease and a calcium-binding protein?". ... the calcium-regulated signalling protein, calmodulin, and the cysteine protease of papaya, papain. Shortly thereafter, the ... Additionally, phosphorylation by protein kinase A and dephosphorylation by alkaline phosphatase have been found to positively ... or some types of traumatic brain injury such as diffuse axonal injury. Increase in concentration of calcium in the cell results ...
Neuronal memory allocation
Nguyen, P. V., & Woo, N. H. (2003). Regulation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases. ... Hippocampal synaptic metaplasticity requires inhibitory autophosphorylation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II. The Journal ... When activated by the second messengers such as cAMP and calcium ions, enzymes such as PKA and MAP kinase can translocate to ... This type of addition of spines occurs in a specific pattern, meaning that spines added after one task will not cluster with ...
... which can be targeted to specific cells using cell-specific promoters like Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII ... The calcium indicator is that is expressed in a cell-type specific manner is excited by this light and in turn, emits its own ... To observe simultaneous calcium dynamics in multiple cell types, researchers have combined two or more GECIs in a single brain ... These activity-dependent changes in intracellular calcium levels can be monitored by introducing GECIs to the cell. Following ...
Nitric oxide synthase
... which leads to hyperpolarization and relaxation Stimulates a cGMP-dependent protein kinase that activates myosin light chain ... Nitric oxide is mediated in mammals by the calcium-calmodulin controlled isoenzymes eNOS (endothelial NOS) and nNOS (neuronal ... It is synthesized by many cell types in response to cytokines and is an important factor in the response of the body to attack ... NOSs can be dimeric, calmodulin-dependent or calmodulin-containing cytochrome p450-like hemoprotein that combines reductase and ...
... phosphorylates DAT through protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC) signaling. Phosphorylation by either protein ... AMPH also increases intracellular calcium (Gnegy et al., 2004) that is associated with calmodulin/CamKII activation (Wei et al ... Preliminary evidence suggests that the dopamine transporter couples to L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (particularly ... These studies have also shown that transport rate and direction is totally dependent on the sodium gradient. Because of the ...
Homo sapiens calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase IV (CAMK4), t - Nucleotide - NCBI
RefSeq protein product See the reference protein sequence for calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type IV isoform 1 (NP ... calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase IV [Guide to Pharmacology] calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase IV. Guide to ... Homo sapiens calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase IV (CAMK4), transcript ... Homo sapiens calcium/calmodulin dependent ... Homo sapiens calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase IV (CAMK4), transcript variant 1, mRNA. NCBI Reference Sequence: NM_ ...
1hkx.1 | SWISS-MODEL Template Library
Crystal structure of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ... CALCIUM/CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE TYPE II ALPHA CHAIN ... CALCIUM/CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE TYPE II ALPHA CHAIN. Toggle Identical (BGN) Toggle Identical (CFJM) Toggle ... Crystal structure of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase Coordinates. PDB Format Method. X-RAY DIFFRACTION 2.65 Å. ... Hoelz, A. et al., Crystal Structure of a Tetradecameric Assembly of the Association Domain of Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Kinase ...
An Epilepsy-Associated GRIN2A Rare Variant Disrupts CaMKIIα Phosphorylation of GluN2A and NMDA Receptor Trafficking - PubMed
Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 1 / genetics Actions. * Search in PubMed ... Marta Mota Vieira 1 , Thien A Nguyen 1 , Kunwei Wu 2 , John D Badger 2nd 1 , Brett M Collins 3 , Victor Anggono 4 , Wei Lu 2 , ... Marta Mota Vieira 1 , Thien A Nguyen 1 , Kunwei Wu 2 , John D Badger 2nd 1 , Brett M Collins 3 , Victor Anggono 4 , Wei Lu 2 , ... Systematic Assessment of Protein C-Termini Mutated in Human Disorders. FitzHugh ZT, Schiller MR. FitzHugh ZT, et al. ...
MeSH Terms: Amino Acid Sequence; Animals; Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 1/genetics*; Gene Expression ... Title: Splice variant specific increase in Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 1-gamma mRNA expression in response to ... Previous work demonstrated increases in the expression of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 1-gamma (Camk1g) mRNA ... Dose-dependent increases in Camk1g1 mRNA expression were observed for both pyrethroids at 6 h. In addition, a dose-dependent ...
Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 1A Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 1B Calcium-Calmodulin- ... Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 1G Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 1alpha Calcium-Calmodulin- ... Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 1gamma Calcium-Dependent CaM Kinase I Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase I ... Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2 [D12.776.476.563.125.200] * Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type ...
... type 2A receptors regulate cyclic AMP accumulation in a neuronal cell line by protein kinase C-dependent and calcium/calmodulin ... Adenosine receptor, protein kinase G, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent up-regulation of serotonin ... receptors in PC12 cells is protein kinase C-independent and requires calmodulin and tyrosine kinases.. Quinn JC; Johnson-Farley ... regulation by protein kinase A and protein kinase C.. Ren J; Karpinski E; Benishin CG. J Pharmacol Exp Ther; 1996 Apr; 277(1): ...
Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 1A Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 1B Calcium-Calmodulin- ... Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 1G Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 1alpha Calcium-Calmodulin- ... Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 1gamma Calcium-Dependent CaM Kinase I Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase I ... Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2 [D12.776.476.563.125.200] * Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type ...
Calmodulin Dependent Protein Kinase I Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase I Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 1 ... Calcium Calmodulin Dependent Protein Kinase Type 1G Calcium Calmodulin Dependent Protein Kinase Type 1gamma Calcium-Calmodulin- ... Calcium Calmodulin Dependent Protein Kinase Type 1D Calcium Calmodulin Dependent Protein Kinase Type 1delta Calcium-Calmodulin- ... Calcium Calmodulin Dependent Protein Kinase Type 1A Calcium Calmodulin Dependent Protein Kinase Type 1alpha Calcium-Calmodulin- ...
Plasma level of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type 1 (CaMK1) was measured by Somascan proteomics. RESULTS: In ... In the uterus of VD3-treated rats, the transcript and protein levels of ADIPOQ and both receptors ADIPOR1 increased. At the ... In mice fed a vitamin D deficient diet, serum calcium and 25(OH)D3 concentrations were measured. We then conducted Rotarod test ... Podocyte-related proteins demonstrated different responses to in vitro treatment compared to previously reported changes in ...
Camkk1 Mouse Gene Details | calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 1, alpha | International Mouse Phenotyping...
Understudied Proteins | NIH Common Fund
... and protein kinases. This page lists protein targets that have been identified by the IDG program for additional research. This ... The implementation phase of the IDG program will focus on elucidating the function of understudied proteins from three protein ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type 1D. CAMK1G. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type 1G. ... Voltage-dependent calcium channel subunit alpha-2/delta-2. CACNA2D3. Voltage-dependent calcium channel subunit alpha-2/delta-3 ...
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase beta,CaMKK beta # _entity_poly.entity_id 1 _entity_poly.type polypeptide(L ... type.id HELX_P _struct_conf_type.criteria ? _struct_conf_type.reference ? # loop_ _struct_conn.id _struct_conn.conn_type_id _ ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2 (E.C.220.127.116.11) _struct.pdbx_model_details ? _struct.pdbx_formula_weight ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2 33711.637 1 18.104.22.168 ? ? ? 2 non-polymer syn 1-amino-4-hydroxy-9,10- ...
NEW (2008) MESH HEADINGS WITH SCOPE NOTES (UNIT RECORD FORMAT; 11/05/2007
CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE TYPE 2; CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE TYPE 4; and PROTEIN KINASE B. ... HN - 2008(1995) BX - Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Kinase Kinase MH - Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 1 UI - ... Protein Kinase A, Type I BX - Protein Kinase Type I, Cyclic AMP-Dependent MH - Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II UI ... HN - 2008(1987) BX - Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 3 BX - Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase III MH - ...
GI numbers Protein Name Gene Symbol Amino Acid Number Species Sequence pI MW Tech
12 6978595 calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II subunit delta Camk2d 533 Rattus norvegicus ... 13 19424316 calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II subunit gamma Camk2g 527 Rattus norvegicus ... 9.33 23456.32 12 8393035 calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type 1B Pnck 343 Rattus norvegicus ... 4.11 14464.05 12 13786172 calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2 Camkk2 587 Rattus norvegicus ...
... through protein kinase A/calcium calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (PKA/CaMKII) activation, followed by diastolic RyR2 ... IK1: Inward rectifier potassium channel; Iks : Slow delayed rectifier channel; LTCC: L-type calcium channel; FCC: Funny current ... which is augmented by β-adrenergic activation through the enhanced L-type calcium channel current (ICaL) 51. Beta-adrenergic ... calcium leakage mediating DAD 10. Parasympathetic stimulation activates the acetylcholine-dependent potassium current (IKAch) ...
Immunology of Transplant Rejection: Overview, History, Types of Grafts
... in calcium promotes the formation of calcium-calmodulin complexes that activate a number of kinases as well as protein ... Alternatively, CD8-positive CTLs can also use the Fas-dependent pathway to induce cytolysis and apoptosis. The Fas pathway is ... The degree and type of response also vary with the type of the transplant. Some sites, such as the eye and the brain, are ... It binds to a different intracellular protein (FK Binding Protein-12 [FKBP-12]) than cyclosporine but has the same mechanism of ...
Tg2 is a tetracycline transactivator transgenic line under control of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II α- ... 1993) Development of NMDA receptor-channel complex and L-type calcium channels in mouse hippocampus. J Neurosci Res 35:199-206. ... Of particular interest, CA3 PCs express L-type calcium channels in their soma and proximal dendrites near mossy fiber inputs ( ... 1993) Identification and differential subcellular localization of the neuronal class C and class D L-type calcium channel alpha ...
Hyperactivation of MEK/ERK pathway by Ca2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2 promotes cellular proliferation by...
Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Kinase / antagonists & inhibitors * Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase ... calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2 promotes cellular proliferation by activating cyclin-dependent kinases and ... Publication types * Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt MeSH terms * Benzimidazoles / pharmacology* ... Kinase enrichment analysis of hypo-phosphorylated proteins using the X2K Web tool identified ERK1, cyclin-dependant kinase 1 ( ...
SMART: Ca chan IQ domain annotation
... calmodulin (Ca(2+)/CaM)and a Ca(V) channel consensus isoleucine-glutamine (IQ) motif:calcium-dependent inactivation (CDI) and ... Properties of the protein including gating voltage-dependence, G protein modulation and kinase susceptibility can be influenced ... T-type) and high (L, N, P, Q and R-type) threshold-activated channels. ... calcium dependent inactivation (CDI), and calcium-dependent facilitation (CDF).. Interpro abstract (IPR014873):. Ca2+ ions are ...
DeCS 2008 - Changed terms
Ca(2+)-Calmodulin Dependent Protein Kinase. Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases. Cholesterol Esterase. Sterol Esterase ... SHP1 Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase. Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 6. Thioredoxin Reductase (NADPH). ... Unpublished Works [Publication Type]. Unpublished Works. V03 - Study Characteristics. Case Reports [Publication Type]. Case ... Protein Isoprenylation. Protein Prenylation. G09 - Circulatory and Respiratory Physiology. Hemodynamic Processes. Hemodynamics ...
NIH Guide: NEW APPROACHES TO DEVELOPING PHARMACOTHERAPY FOR ALCOHOLISM
... and calcium-calmodulin kinase signaling systems. Phosphorylation of membrane proteins by appropriate kinases may account for ... PKC-epsilon activity has been reported to mediate up-regulation of N-type calcium channels in response to sustained alcohol ... time-dependent, model-specific, or tissue-specific differences in response to alcohol. ... Membrane proteins, including voltage-gated calcium channels and ligand-gated receptor/channel complexes (e.g., GABA, glycine, ...
immune abnormalities : Bipolar Network News
... and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase activity (CaMKII).. PANS is three times more likely to affect males than ... a dihydropyridine L-type calcium channel blocker, is effective in the prevention of manic and depressive episodes in a subgroup ... the risk allele binds to a subunit of the voltage-dependent calcium channel, which modulates the influx of calcium from the ... signs of some types of pneumonia), ANA (antinuclear antibodies, sign of an autoimmune disease), ferritin (a protein that stores ...
The Oxidative Balance Orchestrates the Main Keystones of the Functional Activity of Cardiomyocytes
Although each system seems to be independent and finely controlled, the contractile proteins, intracellular Ca,sup,2+,/sup, ... and structural proteins); (b) the homeostasis of intracellular Ca,sup,2+,/sup, that represents a crucial ion for cardiac ... such as different protein complexes represented by contractile, regulatory, ... "Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II phosphorylation of ryanodine receptor does affect calcium sparks in mouse ...
IJMS | Free Full-Text | Brain RNA-Seq Profiling of the Mucopolysaccharidosis Type II Mouse Model
Among the pathways altered in both areas, axon guidance, calcium homeostasis, synapse and neuroactive ligand-receptor ... neurological functions showed a significant differential expression in the animal model for the disease compared to wild type. ... protein kinase C (Prkca/b/g), calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (Camk2a/2b), which are up-regulated in both areas ... calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (Camk2) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase families (Itpk), and an up- ...
Eukaryotic Cell | Scholars@Duke
Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunits have divergent roles in virulence factor production in two varieties of ... Calcium- and calcineurin-independent roles for calmodulin in Cryptococcus neoformans morphogenesis and high-temperature growth. ... Mating-type-specific and nonspecific PAK kinases play shared and divergent roles in Cryptococcus neoformans.. 1:257-272. 2002 ... Tor and cyclic AMP-protein kinase A: two parallel pathways regulating expression of genes required for cell growth.. 4:63-71. ...
Hormonal regulation of nodulation IPS2 - IPS2
NFP/LYK, Nod Factor perception / Lys-M Kinase receptor; DMI3/CCaMK, Does Not make Infections 3 / Calcium - CalModulin protein ... Type B Response Regulators; RR4, Type A RR 4; PINs, Pin-formed proteins. ... indicating that DELLA proteins also act downstream of the CRE1-dependent cytokinin pathway (Fonouni-Farde et al., 2017). ... depending on DELLA signaling proteins (Fonouni-Farde et al., 2016). Strikingly, DELLA proteins in the epidermis are sufficient ...
Human y+LAT1(L-Type Amino Acid Transporter 1) ELISA Kit - ELISA Kits
Human CAMK2b(Calcium/Calmodulin Dependent Protein Kinase II Beta) ELISA Kit. *Human CAMP(Cathelicidin Antimicrobial Peptide) ... Human PTPRQ(Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Receptor Type Q) ELISA Kit. *Human PTPRS(Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Receptor Type S ... Human CACNa1B(Calcium Channel, Voltage Dependent, N-Type, Alpha 1B Subunit) ELISA Kit ... Human PCSK2(Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin Type 2) ELISA Kit. *Human PDE1A(Phosphodiesterase 1A, Calmodulin Dependent) ...
Characterization of a Toxoplasma gondii calcium calmodulin-dependent protein kinase homolog | Parasites & Vectors | Full Text
We previously showed that Plasmodium falciparum expresses a homolog of human calcium calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK ... to detect the localization of this protein kinase by using the antibodies against this protein and organellar maker proteins of ... gondii by using purified proteins with various concentrations of calcium, calmodulin antagonists, or T. gondii glideosome ... An in vitro kinase assay was performed to assess the phosphorylation activities of a novel CaMK-like protein in T. ...
Publications - Microscopy and Imaging Core | NICHD - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human...
Depletion of type IA regulatory subunit (RIa) of protein kinase A (PKA) in mammalian cells and tissues activates mTOR and ... Rap1 signaling prevents L type calcium channel dependent neurotransmitter release. J Neuroscience. 33: 7245-7252. ... Calcium-Sensitive Translocation of Calmodulin and Neurogranin between Soma and Dendrites of Mouse Hippocampal CA1 Neurons. A.C. ... Depletion of type IA regulatory subunit (RIa) of protein kinase A (PKA) in mammalian cells and tissues activates mTOR and ...
Calcium-calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) mediates insulin-stimulated proliferation and glucose uptake
Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2, Cell Line, Down-Regulation, Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3, Proto- ... Keywords: Camk, Cellular Signalling, Glucose Uptake, Insulin, Calcium Calmodulin Dependent Protein Kinase Ii, Glucose ... Calcium-calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) mediates insulin-stimulated proliferation and glucose uptake. ▼ High-resolution ... Calcium-calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) mediates insulin-stimulated proliferation and glucose uptake. Filter those ...
SerineCaMKIIReceptorPhosphorylationCyclic adenosine monReceptorsSubunitAntagonistsDownstreamGeneSubunitsInhibitorsIsoformMitochondrialCDK1MediatesInteractionNeuronalTumorGenesGenome2023EndothelialInhibitionRegulatesCharacterizationAntibodiesInfluxPolymerSpecificitySynaptic plasticityHumansCaMKMyosinEnzymeRegulationVoltage-gated cSpliceModulatesTargetsLong-term potentiTransientsDendriticActivitySpeciesStimulationIntracellularGammaMRNAResiduesFunctionMembrane1992Regulate
- The product of this gene belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase family, and to the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfam. (nih.gov)
- This gene provides instructions for making a protein called calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (CASK). (medlineplus.gov)
- In the present study, we show that BRMS1 is a novel substrate of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2 (CDK2) that is phosphorylated on serine 237 (S237). (edu.au)
- Induction of depression requires [Ca 2+ ] elevations and activation of L-type VSCCs, which activate Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) and a cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent pathway. (nature.com)
- 1 Receptor Biology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. (nih.gov)
- 2. Ca2+ inhibition of beta-adrenergic receptor- and forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation in C6-2B rat glioma cells is independent of protein kinase C. (nih.gov)
- 4. Activation of the CD3/T cell receptor (TcR) complex or of protein kinase C potentiate adenylyl cyclase stimulation in a tumoral T cell line: involvement of two distinct intracellular pathways. (nih.gov)
- 5. The role of phosphodiesterase in mediating the effect of protein kinase C on cyclic AMP accumulation upon kappa-opioid receptor stimulation in the rat heart. (nih.gov)
- 8. Multiple phosphorylation sites are required for pathway-selective uncoupling of the 5-hydroxytryptamine1A receptor by protein kinase C. (nih.gov)
- 12. Adenosine receptor, protein kinase G, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent up-regulation of serotonin transporters involves both transporter trafficking and activation. (nih.gov)
- 17. Characterization of cloned human dopamine D1 receptor-mediated calcium release in 293 cells. (nih.gov)
- HN - 2008 (1993) MH - Agouti-Related Protein UI - D054369 MN - D12.644.276.74 MN - D12.776.467.74 MN - D23.529.74 MS - A secreted protein of approximately 131 amino acids that is related to AGOUTI SIGNALING PROTEIN and is also an antagonist of MELANOCORTIN RECEPTOR activity. (nih.gov)
- Carmignoto G, Vicini S (1992) Activity-dependent decrease in NMDA receptor responses during development of the visual cortex. (yale.edu)
- Upon NMDA receptor-mediated Ca(2+) elevation, promotes dendritic growth in hippocampal neurons and is essential in synapses for full long-term potentiation (LTP) and ERK2-dependent translational activation. (nih.gov)
- We observed decreased phosphorylation of 1101 phosphopeptides (1.5-fold) corresponding to 752 proteins upon CAMKK2 inhibition. (nih.gov)
- An in vitro kinase assay was performed to assess the phosphorylation activities of a novel CaMK-like protein in T. gondii by using purified proteins with various concentrations of calcium, calmodulin antagonists, or T. gondii glideosome proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
- We identified a novel CaMK homolog in T. gondii , T. gondii CaMK-related kinase (TgCaMKrk), which exhibits calmodulin-independent autophosphorylation and substrate phosphorylation activity. (biomedcentral.com)
Cyclic adenosine mon1
- 9. Protein kinase C is involved in cyclic adenosine monophosphate formation due to PGF2 alpha desensitization in bovine iris sphincter. (nih.gov)
- 1. 5-Hydroxytryptamine type 2A receptors regulate cyclic AMP accumulation in a neuronal cell line by protein kinase C-dependent and calcium/calmodulin-dependent mechanisms. (nih.gov)
- 6. Activation of extracellular-regulated kinase by 5-hydroxytryptamine(2A) receptors in PC12 cells is protein kinase C-independent and requires calmodulin and tyrosine kinases. (nih.gov)
- 13. Protein kinase C-mediated inhibition of transmembrane signalling through CCK(A) and CCK(B) receptors. (nih.gov)
- The patient had elevated ANA, anti-thyroid antibodies, and reduced complement C4 proteins, along with elevated antibodies to dopamine D1 and D2 receptors, LysoGM-1, and tubulin. (bipolarnews.org)
- Mainen, Z.F., Malinow, R. & Svoboda, K. Synaptic calcium transients in single spines indicate that NMDA receptors are not saturated. (nature.com)
- In people with the genetic variation, the risk allele binds to a subunit of the voltage-dependent calcium channel, which modulates the influx of calcium from the outside to the inside the neuron. (bipolarnews.org)
- However, calmodulin antagonists had no effect on its kinase activity. (biomedcentral.com)
- Kinase enrichment analysis of hypo-phosphorylated proteins using the X2K Web tool identified ERK1, cyclin-dependant kinase 1 (CDK1), and CDK2 as downstream substrates of CAMKK2. (nih.gov)
- Schizosaccharomyces pombe Sst4p, a conserved Vps27/Hrs homolog, functions downstream of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase Pik3p to mediate proper spore formation. (duke.edu)
- Given that L-type VSCCs do not contribute measurably to Ca 2+ influx in spines, they must activate downstream effectors either directly through voltage-dependent conformational changes or via [Ca 2+ ] microdomains. (nature.com)
- The IMPC applies a panel of phenotyping screens to characterise single-gene knockout mice by comparison to wild types. (mousephenotype.org)
- Strikingly, DELLA proteins in the epidermis are sufficient to induce a symbiotic infection marker , thanks to the interaction with the critical Nod Factor signalling components NSP2 and NF-YA1 to transactivate ERN1 gene expression . (u-psud.fr)
- Description of the protein which includes the UniProt Function and the NCBI Gene Summary. (nih.gov)
- Research suggests that the CASK protein may also interact with the protein produced from another gene, FRMD7 , to promote development of the nerves that control eye movement (the oculomotor neural network). (medlineplus.gov)
- Mutations in the CASK gene affect the role of the CASK protein in brain development and function, resulting in the signs and symptoms of CASK -related intellectual disability. (medlineplus.gov)
- Affected individuals with nystagmus may have CASK gene mutations that disrupt the interaction between the CASK protein and the protein produced from the FRMD7 gene, leading to problems with the development of the oculomotor neural network and resulting in abnormal eye movements. (medlineplus.gov)
- Over fifty members of this family exist, most of which bind specifically to regulatory subunits of CYCLIC-AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE TYPE II such as CAMP PROTEIN KINASE RIIALPHA or CAMP PROTEIN KINASE RIIBETA. (nih.gov)
- Properties of the protein including gating voltage-dependence, G protein modulation and kinase susceptibility can be influenced by these subunits. (embl.de)
- Divergence of protein kinase A catalytic subunits in Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii illustrates evolutionary reconfiguration of a signaling cascade. (duke.edu)
- citation.page_first 107599 _citation.page_last 107599 _citation.title ;Protein ligand interaction analysis against new CaMKK2 inhibitors by use of X-ray crystallography and the fragment molecular orbital (FMO) method. (rcsb.org)
- See the reference protein sequence for calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type IV isoform 1 (NP_001735.1). (nih.gov)
- A6: Cyclin B/Cdk1, a cell cycle-dependent kinase, is capable of phosphorylating SIRT1 at T530 and S540. (nih.gov)
- Cch1 mediates calcium entry in Cryptococcus neoformans and is essential in low-calcium environments. (duke.edu)
- The interaction regulates two self-regulatory calcium dependent feedback mechanism, calcium dependent inactivation (CDI), and calcium-dependent facilitation (CDF). (embl.de)
- Changes in activity-dependent calcium flux through voltage-gated calciumchannels (Ca(V)s) drive two self-regulatory calcium-dependent feedbackprocesses that require interaction between Ca(2+)/calmodulin (Ca(2+)/CaM)and a Ca(V) channel consensus isoleucine-glutamine (IQ) motif:calcium-dependent inactivation (CDI) and calcium-dependent facilitation(CDF). (embl.de)
- Thus, the interaction of the myofilament proteins, myosin and actin supported by other sarcomeric proteins, would not be possible without the crucial role of Ca 2+ in the excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling mechanism [ 7 , 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Our data improve our understanding of T. gondii motility and infection, the interaction between parasite protein kinases and glideosomes, and drug targets for protozoan diseases. (biomedcentral.com)
- Berridge, M.J. Neuronal calcium signaling. (nature.com)
- The secondary outcome was the decrease in steatosis grade in the ultrasound and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), signal transducer and activator of factor-3 (STAT-3), nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA), and hepassocin serum levels at the end of the study. (bvsalud.org)
- Tor and cyclic AMP-protein kinase A: two parallel pathways regulating expression of genes required for cell growth. (duke.edu)
- The CASK protein is primarily found in nerve cells (neurons) in the brain, where it helps control the activity (expression) of other genes that are involved in brain development. (medlineplus.gov)
- In this study, to identify novel targets for the treatment of Toxoplasma gondii infection (another apicomplexan parasite), we sought to identify a CaMK-like protein in the T. gondii genome and to characterize its role in the life-cycle of this parasite. (biomedcentral.com)
- Thus, given their level of involvement in many aspects of the parasitic life-cycle, the kinases encoded by the parasite genome are obvious potential drug targets. (biomedcentral.com)
- 2023 May 3;14(1):2555. (nih.gov)
- 18. Agonist-induced activation of phospholipase D in bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells: regulation by protein kinase C and calcium. (nih.gov)
- The heart, the first organ to be formed in the developing fetus and essential for life, is organized in a complex 3-dimensional tissue that is comprised of mechanically and electrically connected cardiomyocytes intimately coupled to capillary endothelial cells, fibroblasts, vascular smooth muscle cells, and macrophages [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
- In endothelial dysfunction, there is reduction in procoagulatory milieu that favours all stages of the bio-availability of vasodilators, in particular, atherogenesis ( Figure 1 ) 6 . (who.int)
- Endothelial dysfunction not only denotes impaired endothelial dependent vasodilatation, but also depicts a state of endothelial activation which is characterized by a proinflammatory, proliferative and procoagulatory milieu that favours all stages of atherogenesis. (who.int)
- 14. Endothelin- and ATP-induced inhibition of adenylyl cyclase activity in C6 glioma cells: role of Gi and calcium. (nih.gov)
- HN - 2008 BX - Child Abuse, Adult Survivors MH - Agouti Signaling Protein UI - D054366 MN - D12.644.276.49 MN - D12.776.467.49 MN - D23.529.49 MS - A secreted protein of approximately 131 amino acids (depending on species) that regulates the synthesis of eumelanin (brown/black) pigments in MELANOCYTES. (nih.gov)
- Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase that operates in the calcium-triggered CaMKK-CaMK1 signaling cascade and, upon calcium influx, regulates transcription activators activity, cell cycle, hormone production, cell differentiation, actin filament organization and neurite outgrowth. (nih.gov)
- DNA sequence characterization and molecular evolution of MAT1 and MAT2 mating-type loci of the self-compatible ascomycete mold Neosartorya fischeri. (duke.edu)
- Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy was performed to detect the localization of this protein kinase by using the antibodies against this protein and organellar maker proteins of T. gondii . (biomedcentral.com)
- These data may be related to findings that calcium influx may play a role in bipolar disorder. (bipolarnews.org)
- The contraction process is triggered by an initial calcium ion (Ca 2+ ) influx due to the opening of calcium channels located on the plasmatic membrane and activated by the electric signals. (hindawi.com)
- A3: The main protein that degrades PAR polymer is poly (ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) (PMID: 16140981). (nih.gov)
- Calcineurin-binding protein Cbp1 directs the specificity of calcineurin-dependent hyphal elongation during mating in Cryptococcus neoformans. (duke.edu)
- Colbran RJ (2004) Protein phosphatases and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-dependent synaptic plasticity. (yale.edu)
- Cormier RJ, Greenwood AC, Connor JA (2001) Bidirectional synaptic plasticity correlated with the magnitude of dendritic calcium transients above a threshold. (yale.edu)
- Zucker, R.S. Calcium- and activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. (nature.com)
- Its overexpression in agouti mice results in uniform yellow coat color, OBESITY, and metabolic defects similar to type II diabetes in humans. (nih.gov)
- Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite of the phylum Apicomplexa and a major pathogen of animals and immunocompromised humans, in whom it causes encephalitis [ 1 , 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- We previously showed that Plasmodium falciparum expresses a homolog of human calcium calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) that is important for host cell invasion. (biomedcentral.com)
- The glideosome of T. gondii is a macromolecular complex that includes myosin A, myosin light chain (TgMLC1), T. gondii glideosome-associated protein 50 (TgGAP50), TgGAP45, aldolase 1, and actin 1 (TgACT1) [ 20 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Description: This is Double-antibody Sandwich Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Human L-Type Amino Acid Transporter 1 (y+LAT1) in Tissue homogenates, cell lysates and other biological fluids. (myelisakit.com)
- 7. The actions of prostaglandin E2 on potassium currents in rat tail artery vascular smooth muscle cells: regulation by protein kinase A and protein kinase C. (nih.gov)
- 10. Role of protein kinase C in the regulation of prostaglandin synthesis in human endothelium. (nih.gov)
- 11. Competitive regulation of phospholipase C responses by cAMP and calcium. (nih.gov)
- Insights into voltage-gated calcium channel regulation from the structureof the CaV1.2 IQ domain-Ca2+/calmodulin complex. (embl.de)
- Frégnac Y, Shulz DE (1999) Activity-dependent regulation of receptive field properties of cat area 17 by supervised Hebbian learning. (yale.edu)
- Additional T. gondii protein kinases are involved in host manipulation, cell cycle regulation, and functions required for growth, stress responses, and the transition from tachyzoite to bradyzoite [ 15 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- The isoleucine-glutamine (IQ) motif in the voltage gated calcium channel IQ domain interacts with hydrophobic pockets of Ca2+/calmodulin ( PUBMED:16299511 ). (embl.de)
- Splice variant specific increase in Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 1-gamma mRNA expression in response to acute pyrethroid exposure. (nih.gov)
- Pde1 phosphodiesterase modulates cyclic AMP levels through a protein kinase A-mediated negative feedback loop in Cryptococcus neoformans. (duke.edu)
- This page lists protein targets that have been identified by the IDG program for additional research. (nih.gov)
- Artola A, Bröcher S, Singer W (1990) Different voltage-dependent thresholds for inducing long-term depression and long-term potentiation in slices of rat visual cortex. (yale.edu)
- Figure 1: Activity-dependent depression of action potential-evoked [Ca 2+ ] transients in spines. (nature.com)
- Voltage-sensitive Ca 2+ channels (VSCCs) constitute a major source of calcium ions in dendritic spines, but their function is unknown. (nature.com)
- They play a role in focusing the PROTEIN KINASE A activity toward relevant substrates. (nih.gov)
- Voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (VDCC) are a family of molecules that allow cells to couple electrical activity to intracellular Ca2+ signalling. (embl.de)
- Figure 6: Mechanism of activity-dependent depression of VSCCs. (nature.com)
- This function returns a dataframe with the UniProt id, the protein name and the species, for those proteins present into MetOSite whose name contains the keyword. (metositeptm.com)
- Currently, it contains over 7300 sites found in more than 3500 different proteins from over 20 species. (metositeptm.com)
- The mechanism was thought to be parasympathetic stimulation-induced inhomogeneous shortening of the atrial effective refractory period (AERP) and slowing of the sinus rate 1 . (jafib.com)
- 19. Intracellular cAMP and calcium signaling by serotonin in mouse cumulus-oocyte complexes. (nih.gov)
- 11/05/2007) TOTAL 2008 NEW DESCRIPTORS = 456 MH - A Kinase Anchor Proteins UI - D054758 MN - D12.644.360.24.65 MN - D12.776.157.57.01 MN - D12.776.476.24.69 MS - A structurally-diverse family of intracellular-signaling adaptor proteins that selectively tether specific protein kinase A subtypes to distinct subcellular sites. (nih.gov)
- Although each system seems to be independent and finely controlled, the contractile proteins, intracellular Ca 2+ homeostasis, and intracellular Zn 2+ signals are strongly linked to each other by the intracellular ROS management in a fascinating way to form a "functional tetrad" which ensures the proper functioning of the myocardium. (hindawi.com)
- Previous work demonstrated increases in the expression of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 1-gamma (Camk1g) mRNA following acute deltamethrin and permethrin exposure. (nih.gov)
- Dose-dependent increases in Camk1g1 mRNA expression were observed for both pyrethroids at 6 h. (nih.gov)
- We have search the literature to find those protein-bound methionine residues that have been detected, either in vitro or in vivo , as MetO. (metositeptm.com)
- however, no kinase function has been found to be of critical importance in the primary host, felines. (biomedcentral.com)
- The severe form of this disorder, MICPCH, is caused by mutations that eliminate CASK function, while mutations that impair the function of this protein cause the milder form, XL-ID with or without nystagmus. (medlineplus.gov)
- Thus, if you wish to know whether your protein of interest has been described to contain MetO sites, the function meto.scan() will help you. (metositeptm.com)
- Finally, the function meto.list() provides a list with the proteins found in MetOSite whose names contain the keyword provided as argument to the function. (metositeptm.com)
- Allbritton NL, Meyer T, Stryer L (1992) Range of messenger action of calcium ion and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. (yale.edu)
- Sex-specific homeodomain proteins Sxi1alpha and Sxi2a coordinately regulate sexual development in Cryptococcus neoformans. (duke.edu)