Compounds used extensively as acetylation, oxidation and dehydrating agents and in the modification of proteins and enzymes.
A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.
Organic compounds that contain silicon as an integral part of the molecule.
Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)
Hospital or other institutional committees established to protect the welfare of research subjects. Federal regulations (the "Common Rule" (45 CFR 46)) mandate the use of these committees to monitor federally-funded biomedical and behavioral research involving human subjects.
A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that is primarily expressed in neuronal tissues; T-LYMPHOCYTES and TESTIS. The activity of this enzyme is regulated by its phosphorylation by CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.
A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed in a broad variety of mammalian cell types. Its expression is regulated by the action of CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE. Several isoforms of this enzyme subtype are encoded by distinct genes.
Toluenes in which one hydrogen of the methyl group is substituted by an amino group. Permitted are any substituents on the benzene ring or the amino group.
A regulatory calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase that specifically phosphorylates CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE TYPE 1; CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE TYPE 2; CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE TYPE 4; and PROTEIN KINASE B. It is a monomeric enzyme that is encoded by at least two different genes.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A type of pancreatic cell representing about 50-80% of the islet cells. Beta cells secrete INSULIN.
A benign tumor of the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS. Insulinoma secretes excess INSULIN resulting in HYPOGLYCEMIA.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.
NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).
Disease-related laceration or tearing of tissues of the heart, including the free-wall MYOCARDIUM; HEART SEPTUM; PAPILLARY MUSCLES; CHORDAE TENDINEAE; and any of the HEART VALVES. Pathological rupture usually results from myocardial infarction (HEART RUPTURE, POST-INFARCTION).
Laceration or tearing of cardiac tissues appearing after MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.
Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."
Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.
The agent of South American trypanosomiasis or CHAGAS DISEASE. Its vertebrate hosts are man and various domestic and wild animals. Insects of several species are vectors.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
An adrenergic alpha-2 agonist used as a sedative, analgesic and centrally acting muscle relaxant in VETERINARY MEDICINE.
Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.
An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.
A mechanism of communication with a physiological system for homeostasis, adaptation, etc. Physiological feedback is mediated through extensive feedback mechanisms that use physiological cues as feedback loop signals to control other systems.
Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.
A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.
Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.
Drugs that block the transport of DOPAMINE into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. Most of the ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS also inhibit dopamine uptake.
Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.
Compounds with three fused rings that appear like a naphthalene fused to piperidone or like a benz(de)isoquinoline-1,3-dione (not to be confused with BENZYLISOQUINOLINES which have a methyl separating the naphthyl from the benzyl rings). Members are CYTOTOXINS.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
A large genus of gilled mushrooms in the family Tricholomataceae. They are most often found in mountain and northern forests.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Potassium channels whose activation is dependent on intracellular calcium concentrations.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
A major class of calcium-activated potassium channels that are found primarily in excitable CELLS. They play important roles in the transmission of ACTION POTENTIALS and generate a long-lasting hyperpolarization known as the slow afterhyperpolarization.
A major class of calcium activated potassium channels whose members are voltage-dependent. MaxiK channels are activated by either membrane depolarization or an increase in intracellular Ca(2+). They are key regulators of calcium and electrical signaling in a variety of tissues.
A major class of calcium-activated potassium channels that were originally discovered in ERYTHROCYTES. They are found primarily in non-excitable CELLS and set up electrical gradients for PASSIVE ION TRANSPORT.
The internal resistance of a material to moving some parts of it parallel to a fixed plane, in contrast to stretching (TENSILE STRENGTH) or compression (COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH). Ionic crystals are brittle because, when subjected to shear, ions of the same charge are brought next to each other, which causes repulsion.
A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.

Inhibition of the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I cascade by cAMP-dependent protein kinase. (1/175)

Several recent studies have shown that Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I (CaMKI) is phosphorylated and activated by a protein kinase (CaMKK) that is itself subject to regulation by Ca2+/calmodulin. In the present study, we demonstrate that this enzyme cascade is regulated by cAMP-mediated activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). In vitro, CaMKK is phosphorylated by PKA and this is associated with inhibition of enzyme activity. The major site of phosphorylation is threonine 108, although additional sites are phosphorylated with lower efficiency. In vitro, CaMKK is also phosphorylated by CaMKI at the same sites as PKA, suggesting that this regulatory phosphorylation might play a role as a negative-feedback mechanism. In intact PC12 cells, activation of PKA with forskolin resulted in a rapid inhibition of both CaMKK and CaMKI activity. In hippocampal slices CaMKK was phosphorylated under basal conditions, and activation of PKA led to an increase in phosphorylation. Two-dimensional phosphopeptide mapping indicated that activation of PKA led to increased phosphorylation of multiple sites including threonine 108. These results indicate that in vitro and in intact cells the CaMKK/CaMKI cascade is subject to inhibition by PKA-mediated phosphorylation of CaMKK. The phosphorylation and inhibition of CaMKK by PKA is likely to be involved in modulating the balance between cAMP- and Ca2+-dependent signal transduction pathways.  (+info)

Substrate recognition by Ca2+/Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase. Role of the arg-pro-rich insert domain. (2/175)

Mammalian Ca2+/CaM-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaM-KK) has been identified and cloned as an activator for two kinases, CaM kinase I (CaM-KI) and CaM kinase IV (CaM-KIV), and a recent report (Yano, S., Tokumitsu, H., and Soderling, T. R. (1998) Nature 396, 584-587) demonstrates that CaM-KK can also activate and phosphorylate protein kinase B (PKB). In this study, we identify a CaM-KK from Caenorhabditis elegans, and comparison of its sequence with the mammalian CaM-KK alpha and beta shows a unique Arg-Pro (RP)-rich insert in their catalytic domains relative to other protein kinases. Deletion of the RP-domain resulted in complete loss of CaM-KIV activation activity and physical interaction of CaM-KK with glutathione S-transferase-CaM-KIV (T196A). However, CaM-KK autophosphorylation and phosphorylation of a synthetic peptide substrate were normal in the RP-domain mutant. Site-directed mutagenesis of three conserved Arg in the RP- domain of CaM-KK confirmed that these positive charges are important for CaM-KIV activation. The RP- domain deletion mutant also failed to fully activate and phosphorylate CaM-KI, but this mutant was indistinguishable from wild-type CaM-KK for the phosphorylation and activation of PKB. These results indicate that the RP-domain in CaM-KK is critical for recognition of downstream CaM-kinases but not for its catalytic activity (i.e. autophosphorylation) and PKB activation.  (+info)

Ca(2+)/Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase cascade in Caenorhabditis elegans. Implication in transcriptional activation. (3/175)

We have recently demonstrated that Caenorhabditis elegans Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CeCaM-KK) can activate mammalian CaM-kinase IV in vitro (Tokumitsu, H., Takahashi, N., Eto, K., Yano, S., Soderling, T.R., and Muramatsu, M. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 15803-15810). In the present study, we have identified and cloned a target CaM-kinase for CaM-KK in C. elegans, CeCaM-kinase I (CeCaM-KI), which has approximately 60% identity to mammalian CaM-KI. CeCaM-KI has 348 amino acid residues with an apparent molecular mass of 40 kDa, which is activated by CeCaM-KK through phosphorylation of Thr(179) in a Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent manner, resulting in a 30-fold decrease in the K(m) of CeCaM-KI for its peptide substrate. Unlike mammalian CaM-KI, CeCaM-KI is mainly localized in the nucleus of transfected cells because the NH(2)-terminal six residues ((2)PLFKRR(7)) contain a functional nuclear localization signal. We have also demonstrated that CeCaM-KK and CeCaM-KI reconstituted a signaling pathway that mediates Ca(2+)-dependent phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and CRE-dependent transcriptional activation in transfected cells, consistent with nuclear localization of CeCaM-KI. These results suggest that the CaM-KK/CaM-KI cascade is conserved in C. elegans and is functionally operated both in vitro and in intact cells, and it may be involved in Ca(2+)-dependent nuclear events such as transcriptional activation through phosphorylation of CREB.  (+info)

Regulatory mechanism of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase. (4/175)

Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaM-KK) is a novel member of the CaM kinase family, which specifically phosphorylates and activates CaM kinase I and IV. In this study, we characterized the CaM-binding peptide of alphaCaM-KK (residues 438-463), which suppressed the activity of constitutively active CaM-KK (84-434) in the absence of Ca(2+)/CaM but competitively with ATP. Truncation and site-directed mutagenesis of the CaM-binding region in CaM-KK reveal that Ile(441) is essential for autoinhibition of CaM-KK. Furthermore, CaM-KK chimera mutants containing the CaM-binding sequence of either myosin light chain kinases or CaM kinase II located C-terminal of Leu(440), exhibited enhanced Ca(2+)/CaM-independent activity (60% of total activity). Although the CaM-binding domains of myosin light chain kinases and CaM kinase II bind to the N- and C-terminal domains of CaM in the opposite orientation to CaM-KK (Osawa, M., Tokumitsu, H., Swindells, M. B., Kurihara, H., Orita, M., Shibanuma, T., Furuya, T., and Ikura, M. (1999) Nat. Struct. Biol. 6, 819-824), the chimeric CaM-KKs containing Ile(441) remained Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent. This result demonstrates that the orientation of the CaM binding is not critical for relief of CaM-KK autoinhibition. However, the requirement of Ile(441) for autoinhibition, which is located at the -3 position from the N-terminal anchoring residue (Trp(444)) to CaM, accounts for the opposite orientation of CaM binding of CaM-KK compared with other CaM kinases.  (+info)

Studies on the phosphorylation of protein kinase B by Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases. (5/175)

Protein kinase B (PKB) was recently reported to be activated on the phosphorylation of Thr(308) by Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase alpha (CaM-kinase kinase alpha), suggesting that PKB was regulated through not only the phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway but also the Ca(2+)/calmodulin protein kinase pathway. The activation of PKB by CaM-kinase kinase alpha was as high as 300-fold after incubation for 30 min under the phosphorylation conditions, and still increased thereafter, suggesting that the maximal activation of PKB on phosphorylation of the Thr(308) residue is several hundred fold. On the other hand, the V(max) value of CaM-kinase kinase alpha for the phosphorylation of PKB was more than two orders of magnitude lower than that for CaM-kinase IV, although the K(m) values for PKB and CaM-kinase IV were not significantly different, raising the question of whether or not PKB is a physiological substrate of CaM-kinase kinase alpha. Besides CaM-kinase kinase alpha, CaM-kinase II also remarkably activated PKB. However, the specific activities of CaM-kinase kinase alpha and CaM-kinase II as to the activation of PKB were more than three orders of magnitude lower than that of 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1).  (+info)

Inhibition of neuronal nitric-oxide synthase by calcium/ calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIalpha through Ser847 phosphorylation in NG108-15 neuronal cells. (6/175)

We have previously demonstrated that phosphorylation of neuronal nitric-oxide synthase (nNOS) at Ser(847) by Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CaM kinases) attenuates the catalytic activity of the enzyme in vitro (Hayashi Y., Nishio M., Naito Y., Yokokura H., Nimura Y., Hidaka H., and Watanabe Y. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 20597-20602). In the present study we determined that CaM kinase IIalpha (CaM-K IIalpha) can directly phosphorylate nNOS on Ser(847), leading to a reduction of nNOS activity in cells. The phosphorylation abilities of purified CaM kinase Ialpha (CaM-K Ialpha), CaM-K IIalpha, and CaM-kinase IV (CaM-K IV) on Ser(847) were analyzed using the synthetic peptide nNOS-(836-859) (Glu-Glu-Arg-Lys-Ser-Tyr-Lys-Val-Arg-Phe-Asn-Ser-Val-Ser-Ser-Tyr-Ser- Asp-Ser-Arg-Lys-Ser-Ser-Gly) from nNOS as substrate. The relative V(max)/K(m) ratios of CaM kinases for nNOS-(836-859) were found to be as follows: CaM-K IIalpha, 100; CaM-K Ialpha, 54.5; CaM-K IV, 9.1. Co-transfection of constitutively active CaM-K IIalpha1-274 but not inactive CaM-K IIalpha1-274, generated by mutation of Lys(42) to Ala, with nNOS into NG108-15 cells, resulted in increased Ser(847) phosphorylation in the presence of okadaic acid, an inhibitor of protein phosphatase (PP)1 and PP2A, with a concomitant inhibition of NOS enzyme activity. In addition, this latter decrease could be reversed by treatment with exogenous PP2A. Cells expressing mutant nNOS (S847A) proved resistant to phosphorylation and a decrease of NOS activity. Thus, our results indicate that Ca(2+) triggers cross-talk signal transduction between CaM kinase and NO and CaM-K IIalpha phosphorylating nNOS on Ser(847), which in turn decreases the gaseous second messenger NO in neuronal cells.  (+info)

Cerebellar defects in Ca2+/calmodulin kinase IV-deficient mice. (7/175)

The Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase CaMKIV was first identified in the cerebellum and has been implicated in nuclear signaling events that control neuronal growth, differentiation, and plasticity. To understand the physiological importance of CaMKIV, we disrupted the mouse Camk4 gene. The CaMKIV null mice displayed locomotor defects consistent with altered cerebellar function. Although the overall cytoarchitecture of the cerebellum appeared normal in the Camk4(-/-) mice, we observed a significant reduction in the number of mature Purkinje neurons and reduced expression of the protein marker calbindin D28k within individual Purkinje neurons. Western immunoblot analyses of cerebellar extracts also established significant deficits in the phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein at serine-133, a proposed target of CaMKIV. Additionally, the absence of CaMKIV markedly altered neurotransmission at excitatory synapses in Purkinje cells. Multiple innervation by climbing fibers and enhanced parallel fiber synaptic currents suggested an immature development of Purkinje cells in the Camk4(-/-) mice. Together, these findings demonstrate that CaMKIV plays key roles in the function and development of the cerebellum.  (+info)

Human Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase beta gene encodes multiple isoforms that display distinct kinase activity. (8/175)

Ca(+2)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CaMKs) are activated upon binding of Ca(+2)/calmodulin. To gain maximal activity, CaMK I and CaMK IV can be further phosphorylated by an upstream kinase, CaMK kinase (CaMKK). We previously isolated cDNA clones encoding human CaMKK beta isoforms that are heterogeneous in their 3'-sequences (Hsu, L.-S., Tsou, A.-P., Chi, C.-W., Lee, C.-H., and Chen, J.-Y. (1998) J. Biomed. Sci. 5, 141-149). In the present study, we examined the genomic organization and transcription of the human CaMKK beta gene. The human CaMKK beta locus spans more than 40 kilobase pairs and maps to chromosome 12q24.2. It is organized into 18 exons and 17 introns that are flanked by typical splice donor and acceptor sequences. Two major species of transcripts, namely the beta1 (5.6 kilobase pairs) and beta2 (2.9 kilobase pairs), are generated through differential usage of polyadenylation sites located in the last and penultimate exons. Additional forms of CaMKK beta transcripts were also identified that resulted from alternative splicing of the internal exons 14 and/or 16. These isoforms display differential expression patterns in human tissues and tumor-derived cell lines. They also exhibit a distinct ability to undergo autophosphorylation and to phosphorylate the downstream kinases CaMK I and CaMK IV. The differential expression of CaMKK beta isoforms with distinct activity further suggests the complexity of the regulation of the CaMKK/CaMK cascade and an important role for CaMKK in the action of Ca(+2)-mediated cellular responses.  (+info)

We demonstrate for the first time that 4H-1,2,6-thiadiazin-4-one (TDZ) can function as a chemotype for the design of ATP-competitive kinase inhibitors. Using insights from a co-crystal structure of a 3,5-bis(arylamino)-4H-1,2,6-thiadiazin-4-one bound to calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2 (CaMKK2), several analogues were identified with micromolar activity through targeted displacement of bound water molecules in the active site. Since the TDZ analogues showed reduced promiscuity compared to their 2,4-dianilinopyrimidine counter parts, they represent starting points for development of highly selective kinase inhibitors.
Background: CaMKK β is a major kinase activated by elevated levels of intracellular calcium. Our previous data has suggested that CaMKK β is neuroprotective after stroke in young mice as inhibition of this kinase aggravated stroke outcome. As aging is an important determinant of stroke outcomes, here we evaluated the functional role of CaMKK β in stroke in aged mice.. Methods: Aged wild type (WT) males received intracerebral injections of lentiviral vectors carrying either CaMKK β (LV-CaMKK β) or GFP (LV-GFP) 7 days before middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO, 90 minutes). Acute infarcts and neurological deficits scores were then analyzed at 72 hours post MCAO. In chronic survival studies, aged male CaMKK β knockout (KO) and WT mice were subjected to 60 minutes MCAO. Following stroke, long-term behavioral assessments were continuously performed for 3 weeks in KO and WT mice until the sacrifice for tissue loss assessments.. Results: Baseline levels of CaMKK β in aged brain were ...
Neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) is a major cause of death and disability in neonates. HI leads to a dramatic rise in intracellular calcium levels, which was originally thought to be detrimental to the brain. However, it has been increasingly recognized that this calcium signaling may also play an important protective role after injury by triggering endogenous neuroprotective pathways. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase ß (CaMKK ß) is a major kinase activated by elevated levels of intracellular calcium. Here we evaluated the functional role of CaMKK ß in neonatal mice after HI in both acute and chronic survival experiments. Postnatal day ten wild-type (WT) and CaMKK ß knockout (KO) mouse male pups were subjected to unilateral carotid artery ligation, followed by 40 min of hypoxia (10% O2 in N2). STO-609, a CaMKK inhibitor, was administered intraperitoneally to WT mice at 5 minutes after HI. TTC (2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride monohydrate) staining was used to assess ...
Camkk1 - Camkk1 (Myc-DDK-tagged ORF) - Rat calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 1, alpha (Camkk1), (10 ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
The metabolic sensor, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a serine/threonine protein kinase existing as a heterotrimer of catalytic (α1/α2) and regulatory subunits (β1/β2 and γ1/γ2/γ3). The 12 possible heterotrimers exhibit tissue and potentially functional specificity [8], and all can be activated by binding of AMP/ADP to the AMPKγ subunit and phosphorylation by one of two upstream kinases, liver kinase B (LKB)1 or calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK)β. AMPK is activated in response to depletion of ATP or alterations in intracellular calcium concentrations, and acts to shut down ATP-consuming, anabolic pathways and promoting ATP-generating, catabolic pathways [9].. As a monitor of cellular and whole body energy status [10], it is probably unsurprising that a recent elegant study in Science from Reuben Shaws laboratory places AMPK at the heart of the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics. Using CRISPR modification to delete AMPKα1 and/or AMPKα2 in vitro, they ...
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase 2 (CaMKK2) has been implicated in the regulation of metabolic activity in cancer and immune cells, and affects whole-body metabolism by regulating ghrelin-signalling in the hypothalamus. This has led to efforts to develop specific CaMKK2 inhibitors, and STO-609 is the standardly used CaMKK2 inhibitor to date. We have developed a novel fluorescence-based assay by exploiting the intrinsic fluorescence properties of STO-609. Here, we report an in vitro binding constant of KD ∼17 nM between STO-609 and purified CaMKK2 or CaMKK2:Calmodulin complex. Whereas high concentrations of ATP were able to displace STO-609 from the kinase, GTP was unable to achieve this confirming the specificity of this association. Recent structural studies on the kinase domain of CaMKK2 had implicated a number of amino acids involved in the binding of STO-609. Our fluorescent assay enabled us to confirm that Phe(267) is critically important for this association since mutation of this
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase 2 (CaMKK2) has been implicated in a range of conditions and pathologies from prostate to hepatic cancer. Here, we describe the expression in Escherichia coli and the purification protocol for the following constructs: full-length CaMKK2 in complex with CaM, CaMKK2 apo, CaMKK2 (165-501) in complex with CaM, and the CaMKK2 F267G mutant. The protocols described have been optimized for maximum yield and purity with minimal purification steps required and the proteins subsequently used to develop a fluorescence-based assay for drug binding to the kinase, Using the fluorescent properties of STO-609 as a tool to assist structure-function analyses of recombinant CaMKK2 [1].
Looking for online definition of CaM-kinase kinase 1 in the Medical Dictionary? CaM-kinase kinase 1 explanation free. What is CaM-kinase kinase 1? Meaning of CaM-kinase kinase 1 medical term. What does CaM-kinase kinase 1 mean?
Here we show that BBR has a similar effect to metformin and rosiglitazone to inhibit respiratory complex I, consistent with previous studies (14-18). These data highlight the importance of complex I as a diabetes target. Inhibition of complex I is likely the main mechanism by which BBR activates AMPK, since we did not observe selective activation of either CAMKKβ or LKB1 by BBR. These findings are consistent with a recent model proposing a major role for AMPK regulation at the level of the AMPK phosphatase in response to metabolic stress (19,20). Finally, we have also identified a novel BBR derivative that displays improved in vivo efficacy, thus paving a path for future drug development in this area.. The use of LKB1−/− MEFs and the CAMKK inhibitor STO-609 has provided novel insights into the actions of BBR. We observed robust activation of AMPK in LKB1−/− MEFs by BBR, an effect that could be blocked by pretreatment with STO-609. Conversely in L6 myotubes, which express both LKB1 and ...
In the present study, we have examined the role of the CaM-KK/CaM-KIV cascade on insulin gene expression in response to glucose. CaM-Ks are implicated in the regulation of a wide variety of biological events requiring the participation of intracellular Ca2+, such as muscle contraction, neurotransmitter release, and gene expression (11,26). Recent studies (19,26) have indicated that so-called multifunctional CaM-Ks, including CaM-KI, -II, and -IV, are regulated by phosphorylation either by itself or an upstream protein kinase, CaM-KK.. Previous reports (12) showed that CaM-KIV was expressed in pancreatic islet and other insulin-secreting cells, including MIN6 and HIT cells. In the first set of studies, we established that the respective mRNAs encoding CaM-KIV and its upstream protein kinase, CaM-KK, were present in rat pancreatic islet and the insulin-secreting cell line, INS-1. Furthermore, the mRNA was expressed because both Western blot and immunohistochemistry of the cells showed the presence ...
Involvement of PCNK in CaMKIα phosphorylation.MCF-7 cells were transfected with siRNA targeting PNCK or control siRNA (NT1) and 72 h later, cells were exposed
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is normally a bioactive phospholipid that affects several biological functions such as for example cell proliferation migration and survival coming from LPA receptors. with cell migration in ovarian cancers cells. We discovered that LPA resulted in a striking upsurge in AMPK phosphorylation in pathways relating to the phospholipase C-β3 (PLC-β3) and calcium mineral/calmodulin-dependent proteins kinase kinase Roscovitine β (CaMKKβ) in SKOV3 ovarian cancers cells. siRNA-mediated knockdown of AMPKα1 PLC-β3 or (CaMKKβ) impaired the stimulatory ramifications of LPA on cell migration. Furthermore we discovered that knockdown of AMPKα1 abrogated LPA-induced activation of the tiny GTPase RhoA and ezrin/radixin/moesin protein regulating membrane dynamics as membrane-cytoskeleton linkers. In ovarian cancers xenograft choices knockdown of AMPK decreased peritoneal dissemination and lung metastasis significantly. Taken jointly our results claim that activation of AMPK by ...
Looking for online definition of CaM-kinase II alpha chain in the Medical Dictionary? CaM-kinase II alpha chain explanation free. What is CaM-kinase II alpha chain? Meaning of CaM-kinase II alpha chain medical term. What does CaM-kinase II alpha chain mean?
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a serine threonine kinase that is highly conserved through evolution. AMPK system acts as a sensor of cellular energy status. It is activated by increases in the cellular AMP:ATP ratio caused by metabolic stresses that either interfere with ATP production (eg, deprivation for glucose or oxygen) or that accelerate ATP consumption (eg, muscle contraction). Several upstream kinases, including liver kinase B1 (LKB1), calcium/calmodulin kinase kinase-beta (CaMKK beta), and TGF-beta-activated kinase-1 (TAK-1), can activate AMPK by phosphorylating a threonine residue on its catalytic alpha-subunit. Once activated, AMPK leads to a concomitant inhibition of energy-consuming biosynthetic pathways, such as protein, fatty acid and glycogen synthesis, and activation of ATP-producing catabolic pathways, such as fatty acid oxidation and glycolysis ...
Objective: To investigate the effect and mechanism of CTRP13 on hepatic sinusoidal capillarization induced by high glucose in rat liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (rLSECs).Results: CTRP13 was reduced in high glucose-treated rLSECs. High glucose increased LN and CAV-1 expression and inhibited CaMKKβ and AMPK phosphorylation. CTRP13 overexpression protected rLSECs against high glucose-induced increase of LN and CAV-1 expression. Moreover, CTRP13 overexpression increased high glucose-induced inhibition of CaMKKβ and AMPK activation in CTRP13-overexpressing rLSECs. Inhibition of CaMKKβ and AMPK disturbed the protective effects of CTRP13 in high glucose-induced increase of LN and CAV-1. Hepatic steatosis was enhanced and basement membrane was thickened in liver of diabetic fatty liver rats.Conclusions: Our data identified the protective role of CTRP13 in hepatic sinusoidal capillarization induced by high glucose via activating CAMKKβ/AMPK pathway. CTRP13 may be a potential target
Due to the current situation with Covid 19 this facility is currently closed and all staff are working from home. Although we will be checking emails regularly, there may be a longer delay than usual in replying.. ...
Professional essays on That Championship Season. Authoritative academic resources for essays, homework and school projects on That Championship Season.
Recombinant Calcium/calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase IV (CAMK4) Protein (His tag). Spezies: Human. Quelle: Escherichia coli (E. coli). Jetzt Produkt ABIN668012 bestellen.
Results We show that culture of MRL/lpr Foxp3-GFP T cells in the presence of KN-93 promotes Treg differentiation in a dose dependent manner (Fig. F). Treatment of MRL/lpr Foxp3-GFP mice with KN-93 results in significant induction of Treg cells in the spleen, peripheral lymph nodes (Fig. B-E) and peripheral blood (Fig. A and B) and this is accompanied by decreased skin and kidney damage. Notably, KN-93 clearly diminishes the accumulation of inflammatory cells along with reciprocally increased Treg cells in target organ.. ...
STO-609 acetate,7-Oxo-7H-benzimidazo[2,1-a]benz[de]isoquinoline-3-carboxylicacidacetate 52029-86-4 NMR spectrum, STO-609 acetate,7-Oxo-7H-benzimidazo[2,1-a]benz[de]isoquinoline-3-carboxylicacidacetate H-NMR spectral analysis, STO-609 acetate,7-Oxo-7H-benzimidazo[2,1-a]benz[de]isoquinoline-3-carboxylicacidacetate C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
Expression of CAMKK1 (CAMKKA, DKFZp761M0423, MGC34095) in pancreas tissue. Antibody staining with CAB009111 in immunohistochemistry.
1MXE: Structure of the Complex of Calmodulin with the Target Sequence of Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase I: Studies of the Kinase Activation Mechanism
Wet-lab validated real-time PCR primer assays for your biological pathway of interest. Select your gene target of interest using an interactive pathway map, and select your plate.
Top performende anti-Schaf CAMKK2 Antikörper für Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin-embedded Sections) (IHC (p)) vergleichen & kaufen.
pdf,http://hydrodictyon.eeb.uconn.edu/courses/systematicsseminar/restricted/Fujisawa%2C%20Barraclough_2013_Delimiting%20Species%20Using%20Single-Locus%20Data%20and%20the%20Generalized%20Mixed%20Yule%20Coalescent%20Approach%20A%20Revised%20Metho.pdf}}Fujisawa, Barraclough_2013_Delimiting Species Using Single-Locus Data and the Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent Approach A Revised Metho. ...
pdf,http://hydrodictyon.eeb.uconn.edu/courses/systematicsseminar/restricted/Fujisawa%2C%20Barraclough_2013_Delimiting%20Species%20Using%20Single-Locus%20Data%20and%20the%20Generalized%20Mixed%20Yule%20Coalescent%20Approach%20A%20Revised%20Metho.pdf}}Fujisawa, Barraclough_2013_Delimiting Species Using Single-Locus Data and the Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent Approach A Revised Metho. ...
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase belonging to a proposed calcium-triggered signaling cascade. In vitro phosphorylates CREB1 and SYN1/synapsin I. Phosphorylates and activates CAMK1 (By similarity).
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
calmodulin-dependent protein kinase V: widely distributed in various tissues, involved in calcium-regulated processes; from rat brain; may exist in 40 & 41 kDa isoforms; amino acid sequence has been determined
We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click Continue well assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you wont see this message again. Click Find out more for information on how to change your cookie settings ...
Camk1g - Camk1g (untagged ORF) - Rat calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IG (Camk1g), (10 ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Approximately ten percent of all bone fractures do not heal, resulting in patient morbidity and healthcare costs. However, no pharmacological treatments are currently available to promote efficient bone healing. Inhibition of Ca2+ /calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase kinase 2 (CaMKK2) reverses age-associated loss of trabecular and cortical bone volume and strength in mice. In the current study, we investigated the role of CaMKK2 in bone fracture healing and show that its pharmacological inhibition using STO-609 accelerates early cellular and molecular events associated with endochondral ossification, resulting in a more rapid and efficient healing of the fracture ...
Camk2d2 antibody (calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) II delta 2) for IHC-P, WB. Anti-Camk2d2 pAb (GTX124377) is tested in Zebrafish samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Complete information for CAMK4 gene (Protein Coding), Calcium/Calmodulin Dependent Protein Kinase IV, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Stone crusher and quarry plant in fujisawa kanagawa japan advanced rock crushing equipment how do stone crusher affect stone crusher and quarry plant in fujisawa kanagawa jap the gulin product line, consisting of more than 30 machines, sets the standard
This Histri was built automatically but not manually verified. As a consequence, the Histri can be incomplete or can contain errors ...
Affiliation:Kagawa University,Medicine,Professor,医学部,教授, Research Field:Metabolomics,Orthopaedic surgery,Functional biochemistry,General physiology,Medical systems, Keywords:PREB,insulin,糖尿病,glucose,グルコース,インスリン,CaM-KK,膵β細胞,Gas6,CaMKIV, # of Research Projects:9, # of Research Products:68
H. Watanabe, A. Kuhn, M. Fushiki, K. Agata, Y. Kocag z, S. zbek, T. Fujisawa & T.W. Holstein: Sequential actions of -catenin and Bmp pattern the oral nerve net in Nematostella vectensi. Nature Communication 5:5536 (23 December 2014), doi:10.1038/ ...
Takarada H, Sekine M, Kosugi H, Matsuo Y, Fujisawa T, Omata S, Kishi E, Shimizu A, Tsukatani N, Tanikawa S, Fujita N, Harayama S ...
Experimental Studies on the Influence of Surgical Intervention on the Metabolism of Reticuloendothelial System:II. A Study on Changes in the metabolic Function of RES under various conditions of Operation by means of Glycyrrhizin ,sup,59,/sup,Fe Colloid method (1967 ...
Oklahoma Immunization Update June 2012 PREVENTION and PREPAREDNESS SERVICES IMMUNIZATION SERVICE PLEASE POST & DISTRIBUTE TO ALL NURSING AND MEDICAL STAFF Interim MMR VIS Includes 2D Barcode The MMR vaccine information statement (VIS) has recently been updated and is now available at http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/vis/downloads/vi s-mmr.pdf. This interim VIS has been updated with minor changes throughout, and this new version will be the basis for a final edition, which should be available in several months. This is the first VIS to feature a 2D barcode that is located on the second page. This will allow providers with a 2D barcode reader and the appropriate software to scan the VIS name and edition date into an electronic system such as an electronic medical record or Immunization Information System (IIS), as an OPTIONAL alternative to entering this information manually. For more information, see CDCs VIS barcode webpage at http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/vis/vis-barcodes. htm. Health ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Amphetamine activate protein kinase C and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase via NMDA receptor in primary cultures of rat cortical neurons. AU - Wu, Hsueh-Hsia. AU - Lee, Horng-Mo. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. M3 - Article. VL - 1. SP - 12. EP - 19. JO - New Taipei Journal of Medicine. JF - New Taipei Journal of Medicine. SN - 1562-4242. ER - ...
Close The Infona portal uses cookies, i.e. strings of text saved by a browser on the users device. The portal can access those files and use them to remember the users data, such as their chosen settings (screen view, interface language, etc.), or their login data. By using the Infona portal the user accepts automatic saving and using this information for portal operation purposes. More information on the subject can be found in the Privacy Policy and Terms of Service. By closing this window the user confirms that they have read the information on cookie usage, and they accept the privacy policy and the way cookies are used by the portal. You can change the cookie settings in your browser. ...
We have professional and advanced research and production capacity for CAMKI reagents production, including Proteins, Antibodies, cDNA Clones,etc. All CAMK1 products are produced in house and quality controlled.
Fujisawa was developing a broad spectrum parenteral carbapenem FR 21818 in preclinical trials in Japan, however, no recent development has been reported. The
Most of the movie is one long Jmol script, but it took some post-editing of the resulting recording to smooth the transitions, i.e. remove the lag time when Jmol is computing the surfaces. The coordinates of the reaction and the large nanostructure is taken from Chemtube3D and this site, respectively. I have described how to extract the coordinates from a site using Jmol in a previous post. The orbitals and vibrational modes were computed using GAMESS and RHF/STO-3G ...
Olomoucine is known as a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. We found that olomoucine blocked insulins ability to stimulate glucose transport. It did so without affecting the activity of known insulin signaling proteins. To identify the olomoucine-sensitive kinase(s), we prepared analogs that could be immobilized to an affinity resin to isolate binding proteins. One of the generated analogs inhibited insulin-stimulated glucose uptake with increased sensitivity compared with olomoucine. The IC50 for inhibition of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake occurred at analog concentrations as low as 0.1 μm. To identify proteins binding to the analog, [35S]-labeled cell lysates prepared from 3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated with analog chemically cross-linked to a resin support and binding proteins analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The major binding species was a doublet at 50-60 kDa, which was identified as calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) by N-terminal peptide analysis and confirmed by ...
Small molecule inhibitors of the human sirtuins and calmodulin-dependent protein kinases have shown promising anti-cancer activity in cell-based screens and animal models. We have synthesized analogues of these compounds, identifying more selective sirtuin inhibitors and more potent calmodulin-dependent protein kinase inhibitors.The sirtuins are a family of NAD+-dependent deacetylases that regulate cellular aging and gene silencing in simple organisms and appear to play important regulatory roles in human cells that make them attractive anti-cancer targets. We have previously identified the compound cambinol, an inhibitor of the human sirtuins SIRT1 and SIRT2, which is selectively toxic to Burkitts lymphoma cells. In order to determine which sirtuin is the relevant target, we screened analogues of cambinol, identifying compounds that exhibited moderate selectivity for both SIRT1 and SIRT2. The compound JP136 is ten-fold more selective in vitro for SIRT1 over SIRT2, with respective IC50s of 13 ...
Overview Protocols Specifications Resources Convenient, 1-Hour Kinase Activity Assays The SignaTECT® Protein Kinase Assay Systems provide a rapid, radioactivity-based method for detection of kinase activity. The method is based on capture of phosphorylated labeled substrates on the SAM2® Biotin Capture Membrane, which
Watch JAV VENUS VENU-692 Miori Fujisawa Relatives Phase Sweat feel Hot Body, Stuffy Uterus, Parent-child Of Instinct That Can Not Stand - Japanese AV Porn in studio Venus, star Miori Fujisawa, year 2018 HD Streaming Online Free JAV on JAVMEC ✅.
Raval A, Tanner SM, Byrd JC, Angerman EB, Perko JD, Chen SS, Hackanson B, Grever MR, Lucas DM, Matkovic JJ, Lin TS, Kipps TJ, Murray F, Weisenburger D, Sanger W, Lynch J, Watson P, Jansen M, Yoshinaga Y, Rosenquist R, de Jong PJ, Coggill P, Beck S, Lynch H, de la Chapelle A, Plass C. Downregulation of death-associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1) in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Cell. 2007 Jun 01; 129(5):879-90 ...
Expression of CAMKK1 (CAMKKA, DKFZp761M0423, MGC34095) in parathyroid gland tissue. Antibody staining with CAB009111 in immunohistochemistry.
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Takamitsu Inoue, Masayoshi Miura, Masaaki Yanishi, Junya Furukawa, Fuminori Sato, Masahiro Nitta, Koji Yoshimura, Jun Hagiuda, Kazunobu Shinoda, Takashi Kobayashi, Akira Miyajima, Ken Nakagawa, Mototsugu Oya, Osamu Ogawa, Hiromitsu Mimata, Hiro-omi Kanayama, Masato Fujisawa, Toshiro Terachi, Tadashi Matsuda, Tomonori Habuchi, LESS and RPS Research Group in Japanese Society of ...
FR 186054 is an orally active ACAT inhibitor that was undergoing preclinical investigation with Fujisawa in Japan for the treatment of hyperlipidaemia. However,
Contraindicaciones del ampk. adversos, si bien la píldora del día después no presenta particulares indicaciones de uso, ni muchos efectos particulares,.
6-thiadiazin-4-one bound to calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2 (CaMKK2), several analogues were identified ... they represent starting points for development of highly selective kinase inhibitors. ... can function as a chemotype for the design of ATP-competitive kinase inhibitors. Using insights from a co-crystal structure of ... 1,2,6-Thiadiazinones as Novel Narrow Spectrum Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Kinase 2 (CaMKK2) Inhibitors by ...
Abstract 29: Calcium/calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase Kinase β (CaMKK β) is Neuroprotective in Stroke in Aged Mice. Lin Liu ... Abstract 29: Calcium/calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase Kinase β (CaMKK β) is Neuroprotective in Stroke in Aged Mice ... Abstract 29: Calcium/calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase Kinase β (CaMKK β) is Neuroprotective in Stroke in Aged Mice ... Abstract 29: Calcium/calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase Kinase β (CaMKK β) is Neuroprotective in Stroke in Aged Mice ...
AMP-activated protein kinase; CaMKK, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase; Drp, dynamin-related protein; Fis, ... liver kinase B (LKB)1 or calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK)β. AMPK is activated in response to ... The metabolic sensor, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a serine/threonine protein kinase existing as a heterotrimer of ... 2014) Ischemic preconditioning provides neuroprotection by induction of AMP-activated protein kinase-dependent autophagy in a ...
In further characterising the purified kinase and kinase-calmodulin complex we identified a number of phosphorylation sites ... pocket unless the field can develop approaches to control the spectrum of modifications that occur during recombinant protein ... Recent structural studies on the kinase domain of CaMKK2 had implicated a number of amino acids involved in the binding of STO- ... Here, we report an in vitro binding constant of KD ∼17 nM between STO-609 and purified CaMKK2 or CaMKK2:Calmodulin complex. ...
... steps required and the proteins subsequently used to develop a fluorescence-based assay for drug binding to the kinase, Using ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase 2 (CaMKK2) has been implicated in a range of conditions and pathologies from ... calmodulin, CaMK, calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase, CaMKK2, CaMKK2, calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase 2, CaMKK2:CaM ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase 2 (CaMKK2) has been implicated in a range of conditions and pathologies from ...
Protein KinasesProtein-Serine-Threonine KinasesCalcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein KinasesCalcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein ... Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2 delta Subunit. *Calcium Calmodulin Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2 delta ... Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2 alpha Subunit. *Calcium Calmodulin Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2 alpha ... Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2 beta Subunit. *Calcium Calmodulin Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2 beta ...
Calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II inhibitor 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CAMK2N1 gene. GRCh38: ... Calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II inhibitor 1". Retrieved 2017-09-09. Wang C, Li N, Liu X, Zheng Y, Cao X (2008 ... "A novel endogenous human CaMKII inhibitory protein suppresses tumor growth by inducing cell cycle arrest via p27 stabilization ... "CAMK2N1 inhibits prostate cancer progression through androgen receptor-dependent signaling". Oncotarget. 5 (21): 10293-306. doi ...
One of the major mediators of calcium action in neurons is the multifunctional calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM ... Inhibition of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase in Drosophila disrupts behavioral plasticity.. Griffith LC1, Verselis ... To assess the involvement of CaM kinase in experience-dependent behavior in an intact animal, we have designed a specific ... Protein Kinase Inhibitors. *Protein Kinases. *Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases. Grant support. *NS08779/NS/NINDS ...
Hunting Increases Phosphorylation of Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II in Adult Barn Owls. Grant S. Nichols ... Here we investigated phosphorylation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (pCaMKII) in both juveniles and adults. ... We previously demonstrated that phosphorylation of the cyclic-AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) provides a readout of ...
Hunting Increases Phosphorylation of Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II in Adult Barn Owls. Grant S. Nichols ... A. Rodriguez-Contreras, X.-B. Liu, and W. M. DeBello, "Axodendritic contacts onto calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ... A. Hudmon and H. Schulman, "Neuronal CA2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II: the role of structure and autoregulation in ... "Deficient hippocampal long-term potentiation in alpha-calcium-calmodulin kinase II mutant mice," Science, vol. 257, no. 5067, ...
Translocation of autophosphorylated calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II to the postsynaptic density. J. Biol. Chem. ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II links ER stress with Fas and mitochondrial apoptosis pathways. Jenelle M. ... Regulation and role of brain calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. Neurochem. Int. 21:469-497. View this article via ... Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II is required for microcystin-induced apoptosis. J. Biol. Chem. 277:2804-2811. View ...
... and CaMKII alpha and beta protein levels. In the hippocampus of Pb2+-exposed 50-day-old rats known to exhib ... we examined whether calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is affected by chronic developmental Pb2+ exposure ... Calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII); NMDA receptor (NMDAR); Lead (Pb2+); Calcium signaling; Enzyme kinetics ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II activity and expression are altered in the hippocampus of Pb2+- exposed rats.. ...
Calmodulin Trapping by Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase. By Tobias Meyer, Phyllis I. Hanson, Lubert Stryer, Howard ... Calmodulin Trapping by Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase. By Tobias Meyer, Phyllis I. Hanson, Lubert Stryer, Howard ... Calmodulin Trapping by Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ... Multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) transduces transient elevations in intracellular ...
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase belonging to a proposed calcium-triggered signaling cascade. In vitro ... View protein in PROSITE. PS00107. PROTEIN_KINASE_ATP. 1 hit. PS50011. PROTEIN_KINASE_DOM. 1 hit. PS00108. PROTEIN_KINASE_ST. 1 ... View protein in PROSITE. PS00107. PROTEIN_KINASE_ATP. 1 hit. PS50011. PROTEIN_KINASE_DOM. 1 hit. PS00108. PROTEIN_KINASE_ST. 1 ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase belonging to a proposed calcium-triggered signaling cascade. In vitro ...
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase belonging to a proposed calcium-triggered signaling cascade. In vitro ... View protein in PROSITE. PS00107 PROTEIN_KINASE_ATP, 1 hit. PS50011 PROTEIN_KINASE_DOM, 1 hit. PS00108 PROTEIN_KINASE_ST, 1 ... View protein in PROSITE. PS00107 PROTEIN_KINASE_ATP, 1 hit. PS50011 PROTEIN_KINASE_DOM, 1 hit. PS00108 PROTEIN_KINASE_ST, 1 ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase belonging to a proposed calcium-triggered signaling cascade. In vitro ...
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), a serine/threonine protein kinase, is well positioned to serve a role ... calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II;. PPF,. paired-pulse facilitation;. EPSC,. excitatory postsynaptic currents;. ES ... A significant fraction of the total calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) activity in neurons is associated ... Essential function of α-calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in neurotransmitter release at a glutamatergic central ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase that functions autonomously after Ca(2+)/calmodulin-binding and autophosphorylation ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II subunit beta - Q13554 (KCC2B_HUMAN) ... The CAMK2 protein kinases contain a unique C-terminal subunit association domain responsible for oligomerization. UniProt ...
Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases*Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases. *Protein Kinases, Calcium-Calmodulin ... Multifunctional Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases*Multifunctional Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases ... Restricted Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases*Restricted Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases ... Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases [D08.811.913.696.620.682.700]. *Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases [D08.811.913.696. ...
anti-Calcium/calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase I Antikörper * anti-Calcium/calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase (CaM Kinase) ... anti-Calcium/calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase IV Antikörper * anti-Calcium/calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Kinase 1, ... calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type 1D , caM kinase ID , calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 1D , camKI- ... like protein kinase , mCKLiK , calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ID , calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ...
... calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase kinase 2), Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. ... calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase beta. HGNC Previous name. calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase ... phosphorylation calmodulin-dependent protein kinase activity protein tyrosine kinase activity calcium ion binding calmodulin ... phosphorylation calmodulin-dependent protein kinase activity protein tyrosine kinase activity calcium ion binding calmodulin ...
The Medicago truncatula DMI3 gene encodes a calcium- and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) that is necessary for the ... The Medicago truncatula DMI3 gene encodes a calcium- and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) that is necessary for the ... acting like a switch able both to discriminate between rhizobial and mycorrhizal calcium signatures and to trigger the ... indicating that CCaMKs from nonlegumes can interpret the calcium signature elicited by rhizobial Nod factors and activate the ...
Park IK, Soderling TR: Activation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM-kinase) IV by CaM-kinase kinase in Jurkat T ... Enslen H, Soderling TR: Roles of calmodulin-dependent protein kinases and phosphatase in calcium-dependent transcription of ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase types II and IV differentially regulate CREB-dependent gene expression. Mol Cell ... molecular cloning and expression of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase. J Biol Chem270 :19320 -19324,1995. ...
The multifunctional calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is activated by catecholamines and angiotensin II, ... Aldosterone Enhances Cardiac Rupture After Myocardial Infarction Through Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II. B. ... Aldosterone Enhances Cardiac Rupture After Myocardial Infarction Through Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II ... Aldosterone Enhances Cardiac Rupture After Myocardial Infarction Through Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II ...
Differential and Time-Dependent Changes in Gene Expression for Type II Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase, 67 kDa ... Differential and Time-Dependent Changes in Gene Expression for Type II Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase, 67 kDa ... Differential and Time-Dependent Changes in Gene Expression for Type II Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase, 67 kDa ... Differential and Time-Dependent Changes in Gene Expression for Type II Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase, 67 kDa ...
2004) Protein phosphatases and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-dependent synaptic plasticity. J Neurosci 24:8404 ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a highly expressed serine/threonine kinase whose α and β isoforms ... 2003) Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II contributes to activity-dependent filopodia growth and spine formation. J ... 2005) Multivalent interactions of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II with the postsynaptic density proteins NR2B, ...
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and calcium/phospholipid-dependent protein kinase activities in rat tissues ... Calcium signaling through protein kinases. The Arabidopsis calcium-dependent protein kinase gene family. Plant Physiol 129: 469 ... Chimeric plant calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase gene with a neural visinin-like calcium-binding domain. Proc Natl ... Chimeric calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase in tobacco: differential regulation by calmodulin isoforms. Plant Mol Biol ...
Calcium-activated Potassium Channels via Activating Calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase Kinase and AMP-activated Protein Kinase ... Calcium-activated Potassium Channels via Activating Calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase Kinase and AMP-activated Protein Kinase ... Calcium-activated Potassium Channels via Activating Calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase Kinase and AMP-activated Protein Kinase ... Calcium-activated Potassium Channels via Activating Calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase Kinase and AMP-activated Protein Kinase ...
Expression of a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase, CaM kinase-Gr, in human T lymphocytes. Regulation of kinase activity ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMK4), a serine/threonine kinase expressed in T cells (6), regulates the ... calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV. CREM. cAMP responsive element modulator. SLE. systemic lupus erythematosus. ... Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase IV Suppresses IL-2 Production and Regulatory T Cell Activity in Lupus. Tomohiro ...
Protein (His tag). Spezies: Human. Quelle: Escherichia coli (E. coli). Jetzt Produkt ABIN668012 bestellen. ... Recombinant Calcium/calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase IV (CAMK4) ... Calcium/calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Kinase 1, alpha Proteine * Calcium/calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Kinase 2, ... Calcium/calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase I Proteine * Calcium/calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase (CaM Kinase) II beta ...
Showing Protein Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase isoform A (HMDBP09421). IdentificationBiological propertiesGene ... Protein Sequence. ,Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase isoform A ... Cloning and analysis of two new isoforms of multifunctional Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase. Expression in multiple ... protein binding. protein kinase activity. protein serine/threonine kinase activity. calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ...
Calcium can function as a second messenger through stimulation of calcium-dependent protein kinases. A protein kinase that ... A calcium-dependent protein kinase with a regulatory domain similar to calmodulin ... A calcium-dependent protein kinase with a regulatory domain similar to calmodulin ... A calcium-dependent protein kinase with a regulatory domain similar to calmodulin ...
Calcium and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, through phosphorylation of the ryanodine receptor would lead to Ca2+ leak ... Pharmacologic inhibition of calcium and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II with 2.5 µM of KN93 prevented the decrease in ... Calcium/Calmodulin Protein Kinase II-Dependent Ryanodine Receptor Phosphorylation Mediates Cardiac Contractile Dysfunction ... Development of organ-specific calcium and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibitors may result in a beneficial ...
CaMKII (Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II) is a ubiquitous serine/threonine protein kinase that is abundant in the ... CaMKII is a prominent kinase in the central nervous system that may function in long term potentiation and neurotransmitter ... brain as a major constituent of the postsynaptic density (PSD). The enzyme is an oligomeric protein composed of distinct but ... spatial learning and memory decline in C57BL/6 J mice by regulating hippocampal cyclic amp-response element binding protein ...
It was recently shown that an autoactive form of a nodulation-specific calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase is ... We show here that MtNIN is essential for autoactive calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase-induced nodule organogenesis. ... Mitra RM, Gleason CA, Edwards A, Hadfield J, Downie JA, Oldroyd GED, Long SR (2004a) A Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ... the information it encodes is believed to be accomplished through a plant-specific calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ...
  • Using insights from a co-crystal structure of a 3,5-bis(arylamino)-4 H -1,2,6-thiadiazin-4-one bound to calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2 (CaMKK2), several analogues were identified with micromolar activity through targeted displacement of bound water molecules in the active site. (mdpi.com)
  • Calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase 2 (CaMKK2) has been implicated in the regulation of metabolic activity in cancer and immune cells, and affects whole-body metabolism by regulating ghrelin-signalling in the hypothalamus. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Here, we report an in vitro binding constant of KD ∼17 nM between STO-609 and purified CaMKK2 or CaMKK2:Calmodulin complex. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Recent structural studies on the kinase domain of CaMKK2 had implicated a number of amino acids involved in the binding of STO-609. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In further characterising the purified kinase and kinase-calmodulin complex we identified a number of phosphorylation sites some of which corroborated previously reported CaMKK2 phosphorylation and some of which, particularly in the activation segment, were novel phosphorylation events. (ox.ac.uk)
  • It is however clear that the number of phosphorylation sites on CaMKK2 will pose a challenge in studying the impact of phosphorylation on the pocket unless the field can develop approaches to control the spectrum of modifications that occur during recombinant protein expression in Escherichia coli. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Data for the co-expression and purification of human recombinant CaMKK2 in complex with calmodulin in Escherichia coli. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase 2 (CaMKK2) has been implicated in a range of conditions and pathologies from prostate to hepatic cancer. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The protocols described have been optimized for maximum yield and purity with minimal purification steps required and the proteins subsequently used to develop a fluorescence-based assay for drug binding to the kinase, "Using the fluorescent properties of STO-609 as a tool to assist structure-function analyses of recombinant CaMKK2" [1]. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Protein kinases catalyze phosphate transfer from Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) to tyrosine, threonine or serine residues in specific target proteins. (mdpi.com)
  • We demonstrate for the first time that 4 H -1,2,6-thiadiazin-4-one (TDZ) can function as a chemotype for the design of ATP-competitive kinase inhibitors. (mdpi.com)
  • Since the TDZ analogues showed reduced promiscuity compared to their 2,4-dianilinopyrimidine counter parts, they represent starting points for development of highly selective kinase inhibitors. (mdpi.com)
  • Calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II inhibitor 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CAMK2N1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • To assess the involvement of CaM kinase in experience-dependent behavior in an intact animal, we have designed a specific peptide inhibitor of CaM kinase and made transgenic Drosophila that express it under control of an inducible promoter. (nih.gov)
  • This effect of calcium is completely blocked by exposure to a Ca 2+ /calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase (CaM-K) inhibitor ( 10 ) and thus suggests that the actions of calcium on the insulin gene are mediated in part by Ca 2+ /CaM-Ks. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Since the CaM-K inhibitor blocked calcium stimulation of insulin gene transcription ( 10 ), this finding suggests the participation of CaM-Ks in glucose control of the gene. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Lorecivivint, a Novel Intraarticular CDC-Like Kinase 2 and Dual-Specificity Tyrosine Phosphorylation-Regulated Kinase 1A Inhibitor and Wnt Pathway Modulator for the Treatment of Knee Osteoarthritis: A Phase II Randomized Trial. (escholarship.org)
  • A screen profiling 158 kinase inhibitors (Calbiochem Protein Kinase Inhibitor Library I and II, catalogue numbers 539744 and 539745) for their inhibitory activity at 1µM and 10µM against 234 human recombinant kinases using the EMD Millipore KinaseProfiler TM service. (guidetoimmunopharmacology.org)
  • 1. Anastassiadis T, Deacon SW, Devarajan K, Ma H, Peterson JR. (2011) Comprehensive assay of kinase catalytic activity reveals features of kinase inhibitor selectivity. (guidetoimmunopharmacology.org)
  • Pretreatment with KN-93, a specific CaM kinase II inhibitor, attenuated both thrombin-induced increases in monolayer permeability to albumin and decreases in transendothelial electrical resistance (TER). (elsevier.com)
  • Olomoucine is known as a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. (edu.au)
  • The Kinase Selectivity Profiling Systems provide a convenient 8-tube strip format that is optimized for fast and simple kinase inhibitor profiling. (promega.com)
  • A cDNA encoding a calcium (Ca 2+ )/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) from tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum ), NtCaMK1 , was isolated by protein-protein interaction-based screening of a cDNA expression library using 35 S-labeled CaM as a probe. (plantphysiol.org)
  • several protein kinases that share sequence homology with CaMK have been identified in plants. (plantphysiol.org)
  • 4,5 As part of the β 1 -adrenergic pathway, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II) is a serine/threonine kinase that is involved in intracellular Ca 2+ handling by phosphorylating various Ca 2+ handling proteins, including phospholamban and ryanodine receptors. (asahq.org)
  • Incubation of rat brain frontal cortical slices with 6-chloro-7,8-dihydroxy-3-methyl-1-(3-methylphenyl)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1 H -3-benzazepine (SKF83959), a recently identified selective agonist of the PI-linked D 1 -like dopamine receptor, elicited transient time- and dose-dependent stimulations of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (cdk5) and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II) activities. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Moreover, we found that cdk5 phosphorylates dopamine and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein at Thr75, whereas CaMK II is responsible for the activation of cAMP response element-binding protein in response to SKF83959 stimulation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Ca 2+ /calmodulin regulates CaMK, a serine/threonine protein kinase. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The neuroprotective mechanisms of the Ca2+/calmodulin kinase (CaMK) signaling pathway were studied in primary cerebellar neurons in vitro. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We previously showed that Plasmodium falciparum expresses a homolog of human calcium calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) that is important for host cell invasion. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, to identify novel targets for the treatment of Toxoplasma gondii infection (another apicomplexan parasite), we sought to identify a CaMK-like protein in the T. gondii genome and to characterize its role in the life-cycle of this parasite. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An in vitro kinase assay was performed to assess the phosphorylation activities of a novel CaMK-like protein in T. gondii by using purified proteins with various concentrations of calcium, calmodulin antagonists, or T. gondii glideosome proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We identified a novel CaMK homolog in T. gondii , T. gondii CaMK-related kinase (TgCaMKrk), which exhibits calmodulin-independent autophosphorylation and substrate phosphorylation activity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the present study, we examined whether calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is affected by chronic developmental Pb2+ exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • The effects of Pb2+ exposure on rat hippocampal CaMKII were assessed by measuring CaMKII activity, phosphorylation of CaMKII at threonine-286, and CaMKII alpha and beta protein levels. (cdc.gov)
  • These Pb2+-induced changes in CaMKII activity could not be explained by changes in enzyme phosphorylation at threonine-286 or sensitivity to calmodulin. (cdc.gov)
  • Western blots of cytosolic and membrane fractions from hippocampus showed a significant decrease in the levels of CaMKII-beta but not alpha protein in the cytosolic fraction of Pb2+-exposed rats. (cdc.gov)
  • These findings indicate effects of developmental Pb2+ exposure on CaMKII, a component of calcium signaling associated with synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory. (cdc.gov)
  • A significant fraction of the total calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) activity in neurons is associated with synaptic connections and is present in nerve terminals, thus suggesting a role for CaMKII in neurotransmitter release. (pnas.org)
  • Conditional CA3 α-CaMKII knockout mice exhibited an unchanged basal probability of neurotransmitter release at CA3-CA1 synapses but showed a significant enhancement in the activity-dependent increase in probability of release during repetitive presynaptic stimulation, as was shown with the analysis of unitary synaptic currents. (pnas.org)
  • These data indicate that α-CaMKII serves as a negative activity-dependent regulator of neurotransmitter release at hippocampal synapses and maintains synapses in an optimal range of release probabilities necessary for normal synaptic operation. (pnas.org)
  • Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), a serine/threonine protein kinase, is well positioned to serve a role in synaptic function regulation, because it is highly expressed in the brain and is known to phosphorylate multiple synaptic proteins ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • Accordingly, CaMKII has previously been implicated in the long-lasting frequency-dependent regulation of synaptic function in mammals ( 3 - 9 ), birds ( 10 ), frogs ( 11 ), and invertebrates ( 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • The multifunctional calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is activated by catecholamines and angiotensin II, and CaMKII inhibition prevents isoproterenol- and angiotensin II-mediated cardiomyopathy. (ahajournals.org)
  • To study potential molecular mechanisms of epileptogenesis in the neocortex, the motor cortex of rats was injected with tetanus toxin (TT), and gene expression for 67 kDa glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD-67), type II calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMKII), NMDA receptor subunit 1 (NR1), and AMPA receptor subunit 2 (GluR2) was investigated by in situ hybridization histochemistry. (jneurosci.org)
  • We examined gene expression for molecules involved in GABAergic and glutamatergic transmission in neocortex, namely type II Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMKII), GAD, and the most highly expressed NMDA and AMPA receptor subunits, in the presence of focal epilepsy induced by TT injection. (jneurosci.org)
  • The transcription factor ΔFosB and the brain-enriched calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKIIα) are induced in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) by chronic exposure to cocaine or other psychostimulant drugs of abuse, in which the two proteins mediate sensitized drug responses. (jneurosci.org)
  • Here, we demonstrate that ΔFosB is phosphorylated by CaMKIIα at the protein-stabilizing Ser27 and that CaMKII is required for the cocaine-mediated accumulation of ΔFosB in rat NAc. (jneurosci.org)
  • Furthermore, induction of dendritic spines on NAc MSNs and increased behavioral responsiveness to cocaine after NAc overexpression of ΔFosB are both CaMKII dependent. (jneurosci.org)
  • Among them, multifunctional CaMKII, a well-characterized kinase that can phosphorylate a broad range of proteins upon binding to Ca 2+ /CaM, is thought to play an important role in a variety of cellular events in mammals ( Colbran and Soderling, 1990 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • CaMKII (Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II) is a ubiquitous serine/threonine protein kinase that is abundant in the brain as a major constituent of the postsynaptic density (PSD). (neuromics.com)
  • CaMKII is a prominent kinase in the central nervous system that may function in long term potentiation and neurotransmitter release. (neuromics.com)
  • Ca(2+)/Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) signaling in the heart regulates cardiomyocyte contractility and growth in response to elevated intracellular Ca(2+). (escholarship.org)
  • CPCs undergoing early differentiation in vitro increase levels of CaMKIIδB in the nuclear compartment where the kinase may contribute to the regulation of CPC commitment. (escholarship.org)
  • Therefore, CaMKIIδB may serve as a novel modulatory protein to enhance CPC survival and commitment into the cardiac and smooth muscle lineages. (escholarship.org)
  • Recent evidence has shown that diabetic patients and mouse models of diabetes have an up-regulation of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase delta (CaMKIIδ) activity. (otago.ac.nz)
  • CaMKIIδ is a multifunctional serine-threonine kinase expressed as four different genes that generate four isoforms (αβγδ) and a number of splice variants. (otago.ac.nz)
  • Upon CaMKIIδ activation is involved in coordination of the ion channels and Ca2+ handling proteins involved in excitation-contraction and excitation-transcription coupling in the myocardium. (otago.ac.nz)
  • Calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) forms a highly conserved dodecameric assembly that is sensitive to the frequency of calcium pulse trains. (nih.gov)
  • We present the crystal structure of an autoinhibited full-length human CaMKII holoenzyme, revealing an unexpected compact arrangement of kinase domains docked against a central hub, with the calmodulin-binding sites completely inaccessible. (nih.gov)
  • Comparison of CaMKII isoforms, which differ in the length of the linker between the kinase domain and the hub, demonstrates that these interactions can be strengthened or weakened by changes in linker length. (nih.gov)
  • Aberrant calcium handling, including increased activation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), contributes to arrhythmia development during HF. (elsevier.com)
  • The major binding species was a doublet at 50-60 kDa, which was identified as calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) by N-terminal peptide analysis and confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry as the δ- and β-like isoforms. (edu.au)
  • To investigate CaMKII involvement in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, 3T3-L1 adipocytes were infected with retrovirus encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP)-hemagluttinin tag (HA)-tagged CaMKII wild-type or the ATP binding mutant, K42M. (edu.au)
  • GFP-HA-CaMKII K42M cells had less kinase activity than cells expressing wild-type GFP-HA-CaMKII. (edu.au)
  • Ca 2+ influx through the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptor leads to activation and postsynaptic accumulation of Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and ultimately to long term potentiation, which is thought to be the physiological correlate of learning and memory. (elsevier.com)
  • CaMKII as well as the previously identified NR1 binding partners calmodulin and α-actinin bind to the short C-terminal portion of the CO region of NR1. (elsevier.com)
  • Like Ca 2+ /calmodulin, autophosphorylated CaMKII competes with α-actinin-2 for binding to NR1. (elsevier.com)
  • We conclude that the NR1 C0 region is a key site for recruiting CaMKII to the postsynaptic site, where it may act in concert with calmodulin to modulate the stimulatory role of α-actinin interaction with the NMDA receptor. (elsevier.com)
  • Ca2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaM kinase II or CaMKII) is a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase that is regulated by the Ca2+ /calmodulin complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • CaMKII accounts for 1-2% of all proteins in the brain, and has 28 different isoforms. (wikipedia.org)
  • This enables CamKII to be active, even in the absence of calcium and calmodulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The self-association domain (CaMKII AD) is found at the C terminus, the function of this domain is the assembly of the single proteins into large (8 to 14 subunits) multimers The sensitivity of the CaMKII enzyme to calcium and calmodulin is governed by the variable and self-associative domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • As greater amounts of calcium and calmodulin accumulate, autophosphorylation occurs leading to persistent activation of the CaMKII enzyme for a short period of time. (wikipedia.org)
  • A mechanism that promotes autophosphorylation features inhibition of the PP1 (protein phosphatase I). This enables CaMKII to be constantly active by increasing the likelihood of autophosphorylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inhibition of Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) completely blocks the acute effect of NT3. (rupress.org)
  • Previous work has suggested that cell cycle resumption, but not cortical granule release, is mediated by calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CamKII). (biologists.org)
  • We show that substrate phosphorylation and autophosphorylation of NtCaMK1 is Ca 2+ /CaM dependent. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The two cytosolic kinases are distinguishable from each other and from myosin light chain kinase and phosphorylase b kinase by their substrate specificities and their chromatographic behavior on DEAE-cellulose. (caltech.edu)
  • None of the mutants exhibited enhanced Ca 2+ -independent kinase activity toward exogenous substrate, but the K300S and N294S mutants showed a significant enhancement in the rate and stoichiometry of 32 P incorporation during Ca 2+ -independent autophosphorylation. (elsevier.com)
  • Each SignaTECT® System contains a highly specific biotinylated peptide substrate for the appropriate kinase as well as the necessary reaction components. (mybio.ie)
  • After the kinase reaction is complete, the biotinylated, 32 P-labeled substrate is recovered from the reaction mix using the SAM 2 ® Biotin Capture Membrane. (mybio.ie)
  • Substrate specificity of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase phosphatase: kinetic studies using synthetic phosphopeptides as model substrates. (semanticscholar.org)
  • These results indicate that the auto-inhibitory domain in CaMKI gates, in a Ca(2+)-CaM dependent fashion, accessibility of both substrates to the substrate binding cleft and CaMKI kinase to Thr177. (duke.edu)
  • The multifunctional calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases I and IV (CaMKI and CaMKIV) are closely related by primary sequence and predicted to have similar substrate specificities based on peptide studies. (duke.edu)
  • We identified a fragment of p300-(1-117) that is a substrate of both kinases, and through both mutagenesis and Edman phosphate ((32)P) release sequencing, established that CaMKI and CaMKIV phosphorylate completely different sites. (duke.edu)
  • To compare kinase substrate preferences more generally, we employed a proteomic display technique that allowed comparison of complex cell extracts phosphorylated by each kinase in a rapid in vitro assay, thereby demonstrating substrate preferences that overlapped but were clearly distinct. (duke.edu)
  • To validate this approach, one of the proteins labeled in this assay was identified by microsequencing as HSP25, purified as a recombinant protein, and examined as a substrate for both CaMKI and CaMKIV. (duke.edu)
  • These differences in substrate specificities emphasize the need to consider these protein kinases independently despite their close homology. (duke.edu)
  • The catalytic domain has several binding sites for ATP and other substrate anchor proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • They provide all the optimized components (enzyme, preferred substrate, required cofactors, buffer) that you need to generate a kinase selectivity profile for a compound. (promega.com)
  • It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE. (nih.gov)
  • One of the major mediators of calcium action in neurons is the multifunctional calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase), an enzyme with the capability of directly regulating its own activity by autophosphorylation. (nih.gov)
  • A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. (harvard.edu)
  • This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. (harvard.edu)
  • This enzyme is a multifunctional serine/threonine protein kinase with limited tissue distribution, that has been implicated in transcriptional regulation in lymphocytes, neurons and male germ cells. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • The enzyme is an oligomeric protein composed of distinct but related subunits, alpha, beta, gamma, and delta, each encoded by a separate gene. (neuromics.com)
  • The stimulation by calcium of the particulate enzyme and of the partially purified cytosolic enzyme requires the addition of calmodulin. (caltech.edu)
  • Maximal enhancement of CaM-kinase II activity was observed when autophosphorylated or Ca 2+ /CaM-bound forms of the enzyme were proteolyzed. (elsevier.com)
  • The Kinase Enzyme Systems allow you to easily screen and profile kinase inhibitors. (promega.com)
  • Below each tab is a list of currently available Kinase Enzyme Systems (or those coming soon). (promega.com)
  • Click on any enzyme for additional information (such as Applications Note, the Catalog Page, or the NCBI Database entry) for that kinase. (promega.com)
  • A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. (nih.gov)
  • Multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) transduces transient elevations in intracellular calcium into changes in the phosphorylation state and activity of target proteins. (sciencemag.org)
  • The multifunctional calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase: from form to function. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Phosphorylated synthetic peptides as tools for studying protein phosphatases. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase belonging to a proposed calcium-triggered signaling cascade. (uniprot.org)
  • Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase that operates in the calcium-triggered CaMKK-CaMK4 signaling cascade and regulates, mainly by phosphorylation, the activity of several transcription activators, such as CREB1, MEF2D, JUN and RORA, which play pivotal roles in immune response, inflammation, and memory consolidation. (genecards.org)
  • Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase that operates in the calcium-triggered CaMKK-CaMK1 signaling cascade and, upon calcium influx, regulates transcription activators activity, cell cycle, hormone production, cell differentiation, actin filament organization and neurite outgrowth. (abcam.com)
  • This gene encodes a calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase. (genecards.org)
  • CASK (Calcium/Calmodulin Dependent Serine Protein Kinase) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • The CASK gene provides instructions for making a protein called calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (CASK). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Human genetic studies have indicated that mutations in calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase ( CASK ) result in X-linked mental retardation and autism-spectrum disorders. (jpn.ca)
  • One of these is found in both the particulate and cytosolic fractions and phosphorylates a region of protein I that is phosphorylated in intact synaptosomes in response to calcium but not to cyclic AMP. (caltech.edu)
  • A second calcium-stimulated protein I kinase is found only in the cytosol and phosphorylates a region of protein I that is phosphorylated in intact synaptosomes in response to either calcium or cyclic AMP. (caltech.edu)
  • There are two types of CaM kinase: Specialized CaM kinases, such as the myosin light chain kinase that phosphorylates myosin, causing smooth muscles to contract Multifunctional CaM kinases, also collectively called CaM kinase II, which play a role in neurotransmitter secretion, transcription factor regulation, and glycogen metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • CAMK4 belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase family, and to the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • CAMK1D encodes a member of the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 1 subfamily of serine/threonine kinases. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Protein kinases catalyze phosphate transfer from Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) to tyrosine, threonine or serine residues in specific target proteins. (mdpi.com)
  • GO annotations related to this gene include transferase activity, transferring phosphorus-containing groups and protein tyrosine kinase activity . (genecards.org)
  • Stimulated by its physiological ligand, hepatocyte growth factor, the transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase Met activates a signaling machinery that leads to mitogenic, motogenic, and morphogenic responses. (mcponline.org)
  • The horseshoe-like shape of InlB 321 allows binding to and activation of the transmembrane tyrosine kinase Met, which is also the receptor for the host growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). (mcponline.org)
  • Receptors include seven-pass transmembrane Frizzleds and receptor tyrosine kinases ROR and Ryk. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Analysis of the proteolytic products by Western blotting with a polyclonal antibody raised against soluble CaM-kinase II indicated that both proteases generated several immunoreactive fragments between 21 and 32 kDa. (elsevier.com)
  • Immunoblotting with antibody to the catalytic domain of the kinase indicated that there was a single active fragment of approximately 30 kDa in the μ-calpain digests. (elsevier.com)
  • Antibody microarray analysis identified 46 proteins that were differentially expressed between normal colorectal epithelium and adenocarcinoma. (mcponline.org)
  • To overcome this limitation and for a gain in sensitivity, we decided to test an antibody microarray strategy for detecting low abundance proteins. (mcponline.org)
  • In addition, the protein/antibody pairs are known " a priori . (mcponline.org)
  • The antibody microarray used in these studies contained 224 different antibodies ( 11 ), representing markers for eight biological pathways of interest (apoptosis, cell cycle, neurobiology, cytoskeleton, signal transduction, and nuclear proteins). (mcponline.org)
  • The Medicago truncatula DMI3 gene encodes a calcium- and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) that is necessary for the establishment of both rhizobial and mycorrhizal symbioses. (apsnet.org)
  • A gene on chromosome 17p13.2 that encodes a calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine/threonine protein kinase, which mediates many of calcium's second messenger effects. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • These results suggest that CaM kinase activity is required for plastic behaviors in an intact animal. (nih.gov)
  • Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II activity and expression are altered in the hippocampus of Pb2+- exposed rats. (cdc.gov)
  • CaM-KIVc alone was sufficient, and the upstream kinase, CaM-KK, was enhanced to upregulate the insulin promoter activity in INS-1 cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Using insights from a co-crystal structure of a 3,5-bis(arylamino)-4 H -1,2,6-thiadiazin-4-one bound to calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2 (CaMKK2), several analogues were identified with micromolar activity through targeted displacement of bound water molecules in the active site. (mdpi.com)
  • The activity of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMK4) is increased in T cells from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and has been shown to reduce IL-2 production by promoting the effect of the transcriptional repressor cAMP responsive element modulator-α on the IL2 promoter. (jimmunol.org)
  • Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMK4), a serine/threonine kinase expressed in T cells ( 6 ), regulates the activity of several transcription factors including CREM ( 7 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • A protein kinase that requires calcium but not calmodulin or phospholipids for activity has been purified from soybean. (sciencemag.org)
  • Colon ascendens stent peritonitis hearts showed a significant increase in oxidation-dependent calcium and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II activity, which could be prevented by pretreating animals with the antioxidant tempol. (ovid.com)
  • When calcium/calmodulin-dependent calmodulin protein kinase II activity in the lumbar spinal cord after acute i.t. administration of nicotine was investigated in wild-type and β 2 and α 7 knockout mice, the increase in calcium/calmodulin-dependent calmodulin protein kinase II activity was not significant reduced in α 7 KO mice but was eliminated in the β 2 KO mice. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In addition, L-type calcium channel blockers nimodipine and verapamil but not the N -methyl- d -aspartate antagonist MK-801 (dizocilpine maleate) blocked the increase in the kinase activity induced by nicotine. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In addition to its calcium-calmodulin (CaM)-dependent activity, this protein can undergo autophosphorylation, resulting in CaM-independent activity. (neuromics.com)
  • CaMKK2 isoform-7 (WT) and the pG539fs*4 mutant were expressed in COS7 cells and the pG539fs*4 mutant was noted to have significantly higher basal and Ca 2+ -CaM dependent kinase activity compared with WT isoform-7. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • We hypothesise that the increase in the Ca 2+ -CaM dependent kinase activity as a result of the mutation, to be increasing the insulin secretion, probably via the upregulated transcription of INS-1 . (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • Thus, these receptors regulate the levels of cAMP, which in turn regulates the activity of protein kinase A (PKA). (aspetjournals.org)
  • However, calmodulin antagonists had no effect on its kinase activity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The SignaTECT® Protein Kinase Assay Systems provide a rapid, radioactivity-based method for detection of kinase activity. (mybio.ie)
  • The perforated and numbered membrane allows researchers to measure from 1 up to 96 kinase reactions and does not require as much "hands-on" manipulation as other methods used to measure kinase activity. (mybio.ie)
  • 2013) A broad activity screen in support of a chemogenomic map for kinase signalling research and drug discovery. (guidetoimmunopharmacology.org)
  • In this study, we found that thrombin increased Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaM kinase II) activities in a Ca 2+ - and time-dependent manner in bovine pulmonary endothelium with maximal activity at 5 min. (elsevier.com)
  • To identify the molecular processes leading to these adaptations, we performed Cre/loxP-mediated genetic ablations of two key regulators of gene expression in response to activity, the Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV) and its postulated main target, the cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB). (pnas.org)
  • Incubation of the kinase with either protease resulted in a three- to fivefold enhancement of total kinase activity and solubilization of Ca 2+ /calmodulin (CaM)-independent activity from the PSD. (elsevier.com)
  • CaMKI was phosphorylated on Thr177 and its activity enhanced approximately 25-fold by CaMKI kinase in a Ca(2+)-CaM dependent manner. (duke.edu)
  • Additionally, CaMKI kinase responds directly to Ca(2+)-CaM with increased activity. (duke.edu)
  • It did so without affecting the activity of known insulin signaling proteins. (edu.au)
  • These animals were further used to estimate protein carbonyl content and mitochondrial complex I-IV activity in different regions of brain and peripheral organs, and the degree of age-related impairment and reversion by late-onset short-term IF-DR was compared with their levels in 3-month-old young rats. (springer.com)
  • The results of improvement in motor coordination by rotarod test and cognitive skills by Morris water maze in IF-DR rats were found to be positively correlated with the decline in the oxidative molecular damage to proteins and enhanced mitochondrial complex IV activity in different regions of ageing brain as well as peripheral organs. (springer.com)
  • Calcium regulation of neuronal gene expression," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , vol. 98, no. 20, pp. 11024-11031, 2001. (hindawi.com)
  • Up regulation of cAMP response element-mediated gene expression during experience-dependent plasticity in adult neocortex," Journal of Neuroscience , vol. 20, no. 11, pp. 4206-4216, 2000. (hindawi.com)
  • Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase that functions autonomously after Ca(2+)/calmodulin-binding and autophosphorylation, and is involved in dendritic spine and synapse formation, neuronal plasticity and regulation of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) transport in skeletal muscle. (rcsb.org)
  • The existence of multiple divergent CaM isoforms in plants poses the question of whether or not they allow differential regulation of targets and can confer different Ca 2+ sensitivity to CaM-binding enzymes or proteins. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Aim Endothelial cell (EC) KCa2.3 and KCa3.1, calcium-activated potassium channels, play a crucial role in NO- and EDHF-mediated regulation of vascular tone by controlling membrane potential and intracellular calcium levels. (ahajournals.org)
  • The predicted structure of this kinase explains its direct regulation via calcium binding and establishes it as a prototype for a new family of calcium-regulated protein kinases. (sciencemag.org)
  • The regulation of intracellular calcium content by IP 3 is critical in mediating neuronal responses. (aspetjournals.org)
  • 2. Li Y, Spangenberg O, Paarmann I, Konrad M, Lavie A. (2002) Structural basis for nucleotide-dependent regulation of membrane-associated guanylate kinase-like domains. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • Additional T. gondii protein kinases are involved in host manipulation, cell cycle regulation, and functions required for growth, stress responses, and the transition from tachyzoite to bradyzoite [ 15 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase involved in the regulation of Ca(2+) homeostatis and excitation-contraction coupling (ECC) in heart by targeting ion channels, transporters and accessory proteins involved in Ca(2+) influx into the myocyte, Ca(2+) release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), SR Ca(2+) uptake and Na(+) and K(+) channel transport. (cusabio.com)
  • Garcia, Joe G N. / Regulation of endothelial cell barrier function by calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II . (elsevier.com)
  • A putative mechanism for persistent regulation of synaptic events by such a proteolytic activation of CaM-kinase 11 is discussed. (elsevier.com)
  • The encoded protein contains a high mobility group-box DNA binding domain and participates in the regulation of cell. (antibodies-online.com)
  • BRCA1 encodes a tumour suppressor protein that plays pivotal roles in homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair, cell-cycle checkpoints, and transcriptional regulation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Regulation of cyclin D1/Cdk4 complexes by calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I. J Biol Chem. (proteopedia.org)
  • The CAMK2 protein kinases contain a unique C-terminal subunit association domain responsible for oligomerization. (rcsb.org)
  • CaM-kinase II (CAMK2) is a prominent kinase in the central nervous system that may function in long-term potentiation and neurotransmitter release. (creative-biogene.com)
  • These proteins are scaffold proteins and the encoded protein is located at synapses in the brain. (genecards.org)
  • Our results demonstrate the importance of the serine/threonine kinase CaMK4 in the generation and function of regulatory T cells in patients with SLE and lupus-prone mice, and its potential to serve as a therapeutic target. (jimmunol.org)
  • Dieses CAMK4 Protein ist gelabelt mit His tag. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Recombinant human CAMK4 protein, fused to His-tag at N-terminus, was expressed in E.coli and purified by using conventional chromatography. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMK4) is expressed at increased levels in T cells from SLE patients (4) and lupus-prone mice (5). (bmj.com)
  • 2014) CaMK4-dependent activation of AKT/mTOR and CREM-α underlies autoimmunity-associated Th17 imbalance. (guidetoimmunopharmacology.org)
  • Calcium has a key role in mediating glucose stimulated insulin secretion via the action of multifunctional kinases (CaM-KI and CaM-KIV), activated by CaMKK2 , an upstream kinase. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • Research suggests that the CASK protein may also interact with the protein produced from another gene, FRMD7 , to promote development of the nerves that control eye movement (the oculomotor neural network). (medlineplus.gov)
  • The mutations that cause CASK -related intellectual disability affect the role of the CASK protein in brain development and function. (medlineplus.gov)
  • MICPCH is caused by mutations that eliminate CASK function, while mutations that impair the function of this protein cause XL-ID with or without nystagmus. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Affected individuals with nystagmus may have CASK gene mutations that disrupt the interaction between the CASK protein and the protein produced from the FRMD7 gene, leading to problems with the development of the oculomotor neural network and resulting in abnormal eye movements. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Because Cask encodes a multidomain scaffold protein, a possible strategy to dissect how CASK regulates mental ability and cognition is to disrupt specific protein-protein interactions of CASK in vivo and then investigate the impact of individual specific protein interactions. (jpn.ca)
  • Immunoblotting, coimmunoprecipitation, histological methods and behavioural assays (including home cage, open field, auditory and contextual fear conditioning and conditioned taste aversion) were applied to investigate expression of CASK and its related proteins, the protein-protein interactions of CASK, and anatomic and behavioural features of CASK T740A mice. (jpn.ca)
  • The functions of other CASK protein interactions cannot be addressed using CASK T740A mice. (jpn.ca)
  • Expression analysis determined that each of the kinases was expressed during growth in vitro and also during infection. (edu.au)
  • Proteomic analysis of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I and IV in vitro substrates reveals distinct catalytic preferences. (duke.edu)
  • The active zone is the region in the presynaptic bouton that mediates neurotransmitter release and is composed of the presynaptic membrane and a dense collection of proteins called the cytomatrix at the active zone (CAZ). (wikipedia.org)
  • abstract = "Thrombin-induced endothelial cell barrier dysfunction is tightly linked to Ca2+-dependent cytoskeletal protein reorganization. (elsevier.com)
  • abstract = "Rat forebrain Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaM-kinase II) in isolated postsynaptic densities (PSD) was subjected to limited proteolysis with chymotrypsin or μ-calpain, a Ca2+-dependent protease. (elsevier.com)
  • Member of the NMDAR signaling complex in excitatory synapses, it may regulate NMDAR-dependent potentiation of the AMPAR and synaptic plasticity. (creative-biogene.com)
  • Calcium signaling is crucial for several aspects of plasticity at glutamatergic synapses. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Calcium/ calmodulin dependent protein kinase II is also heavily implicated in long-term potentiation (LTP) - the molecular process of strengthening active synapses that is thought to underlie the processes of memory. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon NMDA receptor-mediated Ca(2+) elevation, promotes dendritic growth in hippocampal neurons and is essential in synapses for full long-term potentiation (LTP) and ERK2-dependent translational activation. (abcam.com)
  • Axons typically form synapses en passant (in passage) with dendritic segments from many neurons. (els.net)
  • Inhibition of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase in Drosophila disrupts behavioral plasticity. (nih.gov)
  • Pharmacologic inhibition of calcium and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II with 2.5 µM of KN93 prevented the decrease in cell shortening, Ca 2+ transient amplitude, and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ content in colon ascendens stent peritonitis myocytes. (ovid.com)
  • Our previous data has suggested that CaMKK β is neuroprotective after stroke in young mice as inhibition of this kinase aggravated stroke outcome. (ahajournals.org)
  • The calcium stimulation of this latter kinase is probably mediated by calmodulin, judging from its inhibition by low concentrations of trifluoperazine. (caltech.edu)
  • It is a secreted protein with two cysteine rich regions and is involved in embryonic development through its inhibition of the WNT signaling pathway. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Furthermore, our findings indicate that nicotinic stimulation of β 2 -containing acetylcholine nicotinic receptors in the spinal cord can activate calcium/calmodulin-dependent calmodulin protein kinase II and produce nicotinic analgesia, which may require L-type calcium voltage and gated channels but not the intervention of glutamatergic transmission. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Recent evidence suggests a central role for Ras in transmitting signals from G-protein coupled receptors, from growth factor receptors and from cytokine receptors not only down the Raf-MEK-ERK pathway to the nucleus, but also to various other cytosolic effectors. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Interpretation of the presynaptic message takes place at the postsynaptic membrane through transmembrane proteins called receptors. (els.net)
  • The postsynaptic density is composed of receptors, scaffolding and adhesion proteins, kinases and phosphatases, as well as cytoskeletal elements, which are linked together to form macromolecular complexes. (els.net)
  • The neurotransmitters then diffuse across the cleft and bind to ligand gated ion channels and G-protein coupled receptors on the postsynaptic membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • In neurons, plays an essential structural role in the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton during plasticity by binding and bundling actin filaments in a kinase-independent manner. (rcsb.org)
  • Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type IV (CaMKIV) inhibits apoptosis induced by potassium deprivation in cerebellar granule neurons. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Wu, H-H & Lee, H-M 1999, ' Amphetamine activate protein kinase C and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase via NMDA receptor in primary cultures of rat cortical neurons ', New Taipei Journal of Medicine , vol. 1, pp. 12-19. (elsevier.com)
  • Nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT3), and NT4 belong to the neurotrophin family of signaling proteins essential for the survival and differentiation of different populations of neurons. (rupress.org)
  • [5] Previous research indicated that the active zone of glutamatergic neurons contained a highly regular array of pyramid shaped protein dense material and indicated that these pyramids were connected by filaments. (wikipedia.org)
  • This recombinant protein was biotinylated in vivo by AviTag-BirA technology, which method is BriA catalyzes amide linkage between the biotin and the specific lysine of the AviTag. (cusabio.com)
  • We previously demonstrated that phosphorylation of the cyclic-AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) provides a readout of the instructive signals that guide plasticity in juveniles. (hindawi.com)
  • This structural function is required for correct targeting of CaMK2A, which acts downstream of NMDAR to promote dendritic spine and synapse formation and maintain synaptic plasticity which enables long-term potentiation (LTP) and hippocampus-dependent learning. (rcsb.org)
  • Accumulating evidence indicates that long term-neuronal plasticity is dependent on specific patterns of gene expression evoked in response to stimuli. (pnas.org)
  • The work was further extended to study the expression of synaptic plasticity-related proteins, such as synaptophysin, calcineurin and CaM kinase II to explore the molecular basis of IF-DR regimen to improve cognitive function. (springer.com)
  • Multidomain scaffolding protein with a role in synaptic transmembrane protein anchoring and ion channel trafficking. (genecards.org)
  • The Candida albicans MKC1 gene encodes a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, which has been cloned by complementation of the lytic phenotype associated with Saccharomyces cerevisiae slt2 (mpk1) mutants. (nih.gov)
  • This gene encodes a protein that is a member of the dickkopf family. (antibodies-online.com)
  • This gene encodes a tumor suppressor protein that acts as an antagonist of the Wnt signaling pathway. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase types II and IV differentially regulate CREB-dependent gene expression. (asm.org)
  • In addition, this systematic approach suggests a new subset of protein kinases including Nek9, which are differentially phosphorylated after short time (4-min) treatment of cells with the Met-activating InlB 321 . (mcponline.org)
  • However, unlike chymotrypsin, μ-calpain degraded only a small fraction of the intact kinase subunits. (elsevier.com)
  • however, autophosphorylation does not occur because there is not enough Calcium or calmodulin present to bind to neighboring subunits. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calmodulin trapping provides for molecular potentiation of calcium transients and may enable detection of their frequency. (sciencemag.org)
  • These kinases belong to a diverse group of enzymes that participate in many cellular responses and are activated by increasing concentrations of intracellular Ca 2+ . (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The kinases were identified from the S. nodorum genome sequence on the basis of sequence homology to known Ca2+/calmodulin- dependent protein kinases. (edu.au)
  • Human calcium-calmodulin dependent protein kinase I: cDNA cloning, domain structure and activation by phosphorylation at threonine-177 by calcium-calmodulin dependent protein kinase I kinase. (duke.edu)
  • Human Ca(2+)-calmodulin (CaM) dependent protein kinase I (CaMKI) encodes a 370 amino acid protein with a calculated M(r) of 41,337. (duke.edu)
  • With this improved chemical proteomics strategy, we determined and relatively quantified 143 phosphorylation sites detected on 94 human protein kinases. (mcponline.org)
  • Human calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I (CaMKI) plays pivotal roles in the nervous system. (proteopedia.org)
  • Nghiem P, Saati SM, Martens CL, Gardner P, Schulman H: Cloning and analysis of two new isoforms of multifunctional Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase. (hmdb.ca)
  • Previously we have carried out studies on differential protein expression analysis based on two-dimensional DIGE gels ( 10 ), which enabled us to identify the most abundant proteins in CRC tissues, including some isoforms and post-translational modifications. (mcponline.org)
  • Kamata A, Sakagami H, Tokumitsu H, Owada Y, Fukunaga K, Kondo H. Spatiotemporal expression of four isoforms of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I in brain and its possible roles in hippocampal dendritic growth. (proteopedia.org)
  • We selected most pathways CAMK2A participated on our site, such as ErbB signaling pathway, Calcium signaling pathway, cAMP signaling pathway, which may be useful for your reference. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Among its related pathways are Calcium signaling pathway and DAG and IP3 signaling . (genecards.org)
  • They are activated through multiple signal pathways, including by Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent kinase IV (CaMKIV) and also cAMP-dependent signaling and the MAPK pathway, although other signaling cascades have also been implicated ( 2 , 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • It is well-known that SNF1-related kinase 2s (SnRK2s) and pathogenesis-related (PRs) are major factors that influence plant drought tolerance by ABA- and SA-mediated pathways, respectively. (frontiersin.org)
  • Conclusions LS upregulates KCa2.3 and KCa3.1 expressions via CREB phosphorylation through activation of CaMKK and AMPK, a downstream kinase of CaMKK, whereas TNF- α suppresses both channel expressions. (ahajournals.org)
  • CREB, cAMP response element-binding protein. (aspetjournals.org)
  • These findings reveal a critical role for CaMKIV in the development and persistence of cocaine-induced behaviors, through mechanisms dissociated from acute effects on gene expression and CREB-dependent transcription. (pnas.org)
  • The cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) and the related cAMP response element modulator (CREM) have been shown to be the main transcription factors regulating IEG expression ( 2 , 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • Although the main role of CaMKIV might be activation of CREB, it is also reported to phosphorylate the CREB-binding protein ( 12 , 13 ) and to regulate histone deacetylase (HDAC) trafficking ( 14 , 15 ). (pnas.org)
  • The glideosome of T. gondii is a macromolecular complex that includes myosin A, myosin light chain (TgMLC1), T. gondii glideosome-associated protein 50 (TgGAP50), TgGAP45, aldolase 1, and actin 1 (TgACT1) [ 20 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We next explored potential thrombin-induced CaM kinase II cytoskeletal targets and found that thrombin causes translocation and significant phosphorylation of nonmuscle filamin (ABP-280), which was attenuated by KN-93, whereas thrombin-induced myosin light chain phosphorylation was unaffected. (elsevier.com)
  • Autophosphorylation is the process in which a kinase attaches a phosphate group to itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calcium can function as a second messenger through stimulation of calcium-dependent protein kinases. (sciencemag.org)
  • 125 I-labeled CaM overlays indicated a major CaM-binding fragment of approximately 23 kDa in μ-calpain digests of purified cytosolic CaM-kinase II. (elsevier.com)
  • Kinetic analysis showed that the kinase not previously autophosphorylated had a K m for the synthetic peptide syntide-2 of 22.1 μ m and a V max of 644.1 n m min −1 mg −1 when assayed in the presence of Ca 2+ /CaM. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Contractile function was also preserved in colon ascendens stent peritonitis myocytes isolated from transgenic mice expressing a calcium and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibitory peptide (AC3-I) and in colon ascendens stent peritonitis myocytes isolated from mutant mice that have the ryanodine receptor 2 calcium and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-dependent phosphorylation site (serine 2814) mutated to alanine (S2814A). (ovid.com)
  • Furthermore, a cell-permeable N-myristoylated synthetic filamin peptide (containing the COOH-terminal CaM kinase II phosphorylation site) attenuated both thrombin-induced filamin phosphorylation and decreases in TER. (elsevier.com)
  • The analysis of regulated phosphorylation events on protein kinases is therefore of particular relevance, although this could not as yet be characterized systematically by proteomics. (mcponline.org)
  • In this work, the physiological role of this MAP kinase in the pathogenic fungus C. albicans was characterized and a role for MKC1 in the biogenesis of the cell wall suggested based on the following criteria. (nih.gov)
  • Recent data shows that the glutamatergic active zone does contain the dense protein material projections but these projections were not in a regular array and contained long filaments projecting about 80 nm into the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Replacement of Thr177 with Ala or Asp prevented both phosphorylation and activation by CaMKI kinase and the latter replacement also led to partial activation in the absence of CaMKI kinase. (duke.edu)
  • Whereas CaMKI 1-306 was unresponsive to CaMKI kinase, the 1-294 mutant was phosphorylated and activated by CaMKI kinase in both the presence and absence of Ca(2+)-CaM although at a faster rate in its presence. (duke.edu)
  • This effect appeared to be mediated by phosphorylation of a synaptic vesicle protein, synapsin I, which in its dephosphorylated form inhibited synaptic transmission. (pnas.org)
  • Synaptic vesicles are released by a process known as exocytosis through several distinct steps involving specialised proteins that form a highly interactive and dynamic protein complex at the site of synaptic vesicle release. (els.net)
  • Schematic diagram of the interacting protein complexes involved in synaptic vesicle cycling and maintenance of the presynaptic active zone. (els.net)
  • Proteins within the CAZ tether synaptic vesicles to the presynaptic membrane and mediate synaptic vesicle fusion , thereby allowing neurotransmitter to be released reliably and rapidly when an action potential arrives. (wikipedia.org)
  • The encoded protein is a MAGUK (membrane-associated guanylate kinase) protein family member. (genecards.org)
  • Arabidopsis PCaP2 is a plasma membrane-associated Ca 2+ -binding protein. (frontiersin.org)
  • The increase in calcium is detected by proteins in the active zone and forces vesicles containing neurotransmitter to fuse with the membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The active zones examined so far have at least two features in common, they all have protein dense material that project from the membrane and tethers synaptic vesicles close to the membrane and they have long filamentous projections originating at the membrane and terminating at vesicles slightly farther from the presynaptic membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • One striking example of the dense projection is the ribbon synapse (see below) which contains a "ribbon" of protein dense material that is surrounded by a halo of synaptic vesicles and extends perpendicular to the presynaptic membrane and can be as long as 500 nm. (wikipedia.org)
  • These ribs are then connected to the vesicles which are each positioned above a peg in the membrane (presumably a calcium channel). (wikipedia.org)
  • Isolation and characterization of two distinct forms of protein kinase C. (semanticscholar.org)