Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2: A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases: A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)Calmodulin: A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases: A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.MAP Kinase Kinase Kinases: Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKKs) are serine-threonine protein kinases that initiate protein kinase signaling cascades. They phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKs) which in turn phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs).Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 1: A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed in a broad variety of mammalian cell types. Its expression is regulated by the action of CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE. Several isoforms of this enzyme subtype are encoded by distinct genes.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Protein Kinase Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Kinase: A regulatory calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase that specifically phosphorylates CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE TYPE 1; CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE TYPE 2; CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE TYPE 4; and PROTEIN KINASE B. It is a monomeric enzyme that is encoded by at least two different genes.MAP Kinase Kinase 1: An abundant 43-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase subtype with specificity for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 3.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Calcium Signaling: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1: A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.MAP Kinase Kinase 4: A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and the RETINOID X RECEPTORS. It takes part in a SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway that is activated in response to cellular stress.MAP Kinase Kinase Kinase 1: A 195-kDa MAP kinase kinase kinase with broad specificity for MAP KINASE KINASES. It is found localized in the CYTOSKELETON and can activate a variety of MAP kinase-dependent pathways.JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3: A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.MAP Kinase Kinase 3: A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for a subset of P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES that includes MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 12; MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 13; and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 14.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.MAP Kinase Kinase 2: A 44 kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 3.Benzylamines: Toluenes in which one hydrogen of the methyl group is substituted by an amino group. Permitted are any substituents on the benzene ring or the amino group.MAP Kinase Kinase 6: A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.MAP Kinase Kinase 7: A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES. It takes part in a SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway that is activated in response to CYTOKINES.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 4: A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that is primarily expressed in neuronal tissues; T-LYMPHOCYTES and TESTIS. The activity of this enzyme is regulated by its phosphorylation by CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Calmodulin-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind calmodulin. They are found in many tissues and have a variety of functions including F-actin cross-linking properties, inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and calcium and magnesium ATPases.Sporothrix: A mitosporic Ophiostomataceae fungal genus, whose species Sporothrix schenckii is a well-known animal pathogen. The conidia of this soil fungus may be inhaled causing a primary lung infection, or may infect independently via skin punctures.eIF-2 Kinase: A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.Myosin-Light-Chain Kinase: An enzyme that phosphorylates myosin light chains in the presence of ATP to yield myosin-light chain phosphate and ADP, and requires calcium and CALMODULIN. The 20-kDa light chain is phosphorylated more rapidly than any other acceptor, but light chains from other myosins and myosin itself can act as acceptors. The enzyme plays a central role in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction.1-(5-Isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-Methylpiperazine: A specific protein kinase C inhibitor, which inhibits superoxide release from human neutrophils (PMN) stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate or synthetic diacylglycerol.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.src-Family Kinases: A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.Sulfonamides: A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Calcium-Binding Proteins: Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Paramecium tetraurelia: A species of ciliate protozoa. It is used in biomedical research.Flavonoids: A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Protein Kinase C-alpha: A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.Butadienes: Four carbon unsaturated hydrocarbons containing two double bonds.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Trifluoperazine: A phenothiazine with actions similar to CHLORPROMAZINE. It is used as an antipsychotic and an antiemetic.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.AMP-Activated Protein Kinases: Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Naphthalimides: Compounds with three fused rings that appear like a naphthalene fused to piperidone or like a benz(de)isoquinoline-1,3-dione (not to be confused with BENZYLISOQUINOLINES which have a methyl separating the naphthyl from the benzyl rings). Members are CYTOTOXINS.Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.Phosphoprotein Phosphatases: A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)MAP Kinase Kinase Kinase 4: A 180-kDa MAP kinase kinase kinase with specificity for MAP KINASE KINASE 4 and MAP KINASE KINASE 6.Isoquinolines: A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Protein Kinase C-delta: A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.Death-Associated Protein Kinases: A family of calcium/calmodulin-dependent PROETIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES. They are ubiquitously expressed in adult and embryonic mammalian tissues, and their functions are tightly related to the early stages of eukaryotic programmed cell death.MAP Kinase Kinase Kinase 5: A 150-kDa MAP kinase kinase kinase that may play a role in the induction of APOPTOSIS. It has specificity for MAP KINASE KINASE 3; MAP KINASE KINASE 4; and MAP KINASE KINASE 6.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.PhosphoproteinsRecombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Catalytic Subunits: Specific enzyme subunits that form the active sites of the type I and type II cyclic-AMP protein kinases. Each molecule of enzyme contains two catalytic subunits.CDC2 Protein Kinase: Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.Calcium Channels: Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Cyclic GMP: Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II: A cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase subtype primarily found in particulate subcellular fractions. They are tetrameric proteins that contain two catalytic subunits and two type II-specific regulatory subunits.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Nitriles: Organic compounds containing the -CN radical. The concept is distinguished from CYANIDES, which denotes inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases: A family of protein serine/threonine kinases which act as intracellular signalling intermediates. Ribosomal protein S6 kinases are activated through phosphorylation in response to a variety of HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Phosphorylation of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 by enzymes in this class results in increased expression of 5' top MRNAs. Although specific for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 members of this class of kinases can act on a number of substrates within the cell. The immunosuppressant SIROLIMUS inhibits the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases.MAP Kinase Kinase Kinase 3: A 70-kDa MAPK kinase kinase with specificity for MAP KINASE KINASE 5.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.p21-Activated Kinases: A family of serine-threonine kinases that bind to and are activated by MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS such as RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS and CDC42 GTP-BINDING PROTEIN. They are intracellular signaling kinases that play a role the regulation of cytoskeletal organization.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Mycelium: The body of a fungus which is made up of HYPHAE.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-raf: A ubiquitously expressed raf kinase subclass that plays an important role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. The c-raf Kinases are MAP kinase kinase kinases that have specificity for MAP KINASE KINASE 1 and MAP KINASE KINASE 2.Casein Kinase II: A ubiquitous casein kinase that is comprised of two distinct catalytic subunits and dimeric regulatory subunit. Casein kinase II has been shown to phosphorylate a large number of substrates, many of which are proteins involved in the regulation of gene expression.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.MAP Kinase Kinase Kinase 2: A 70-kDa MAP kinase kinase kinase with specificity for MAP KINASE KINASE 5. It is activated during the cellular response to GROWTH FACTORS, oxidative stress, and hyperosmotic conditions.Protein Kinase C-epsilon: A protein kinase C subtype that was originally characterized as a CALCIUM-independent, serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHORBOL ESTERS and DIACYLGLYCEROLS. It is targeted to specific cellular compartments in response to extracellular signals that activate G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS; TYROSINE KINASE RECEPTORS; and intracellular protein tyrosine kinase.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Protein Kinase C beta: PKC beta encodes two proteins (PKCB1 and PKCBII) generated by alternative splicing of C-terminal exons. It is widely distributed with wide-ranging roles in processes such as B-cell receptor regulation, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation, insulin signaling, and endothelial cell proliferation.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type I: A cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed in SMOOTH MUSCLE tissues and plays a role in regulation of smooth muscle contraction. Two isoforms, PKGIalpha and PKGIbeta, of the type I protein kinase exist due to alternative splicing of its mRNA.Cyclin-Dependent Kinases: Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Peptide T: N-(N-(N(2)-(N-(N-(N-(N-D-Alanyl L-seryl)-L-threonyl)-L-threonyl) L-threonyl)-L-asparaginyl)-L-tyrosyl) L-threonine. Octapeptide sharing sequence homology with HIV envelope protein gp120. It is potentially useful as antiviral agent in AIDS therapy. The core pentapeptide sequence, TTNYT, consisting of amino acids 4-8 in peptide T, is the HIV envelope sequence required for attachment to the CD4 receptor.Nucleotides, CyclicEgtazic Acid: A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Casein Kinases: A group of protein-serine-threonine kinases that was originally identified as being responsible for the PHOSPHORYLATION of CASEINS. They are ubiquitous enzymes that have a preference for acidic proteins. Casein kinases play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by phosphorylating a variety of regulatory cytoplasmic and regulatory nuclear proteins.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit: A type I cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit that plays a role in confering CYCLIC AMP activation of protein kinase activity. It has a lower affinity for cAMP than the CYCLIC-AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE RIBETA SUBUNIT.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.ChromonesCell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Protamine Kinase: An aspect of protein kinase (EC 2.7.1.37) in which serine residues in protamines and histones are phosphorylated in the presence of ATP.Threonine: An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor): A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.MorpholinesMitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 8: A c-jun amino-terminal kinase that is activated by environmental stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Several isoforms of the protein with molecular sizes of 43 and 48 KD exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.I-kappa B Kinase: A protein serine-threonine kinase that catalyzes the PHOSPHORYLATION of I KAPPA B PROTEINS. This enzyme also activates the transcription factor NF-KAPPA B and is composed of alpha and beta catalytic subunits, which are protein kinases and gamma, a regulatory subunit.Calcium, Dietary: Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II: A cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed predominantly in INTESTINES, BRAIN, and KIDNEY. The protein is myristoylated on its N-terminus which may play a role its membrane localization.Androstadienes: Derivatives of the steroid androstane having two double bonds at any site in any of the rings.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Indoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Pyruvate Kinase: ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC 2.7.1.40.Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3: A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.MaleimidesCell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Imidazoles: Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.rho-Associated Kinases: A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Phosphatidylserines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.

Inhibition of the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I cascade by cAMP-dependent protein kinase. (1/175)

Several recent studies have shown that Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I (CaMKI) is phosphorylated and activated by a protein kinase (CaMKK) that is itself subject to regulation by Ca2+/calmodulin. In the present study, we demonstrate that this enzyme cascade is regulated by cAMP-mediated activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). In vitro, CaMKK is phosphorylated by PKA and this is associated with inhibition of enzyme activity. The major site of phosphorylation is threonine 108, although additional sites are phosphorylated with lower efficiency. In vitro, CaMKK is also phosphorylated by CaMKI at the same sites as PKA, suggesting that this regulatory phosphorylation might play a role as a negative-feedback mechanism. In intact PC12 cells, activation of PKA with forskolin resulted in a rapid inhibition of both CaMKK and CaMKI activity. In hippocampal slices CaMKK was phosphorylated under basal conditions, and activation of PKA led to an increase in phosphorylation. Two-dimensional phosphopeptide mapping indicated that activation of PKA led to increased phosphorylation of multiple sites including threonine 108. These results indicate that in vitro and in intact cells the CaMKK/CaMKI cascade is subject to inhibition by PKA-mediated phosphorylation of CaMKK. The phosphorylation and inhibition of CaMKK by PKA is likely to be involved in modulating the balance between cAMP- and Ca2+-dependent signal transduction pathways.  (+info)

Substrate recognition by Ca2+/Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase. Role of the arg-pro-rich insert domain. (2/175)

Mammalian Ca2+/CaM-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaM-KK) has been identified and cloned as an activator for two kinases, CaM kinase I (CaM-KI) and CaM kinase IV (CaM-KIV), and a recent report (Yano, S., Tokumitsu, H., and Soderling, T. R. (1998) Nature 396, 584-587) demonstrates that CaM-KK can also activate and phosphorylate protein kinase B (PKB). In this study, we identify a CaM-KK from Caenorhabditis elegans, and comparison of its sequence with the mammalian CaM-KK alpha and beta shows a unique Arg-Pro (RP)-rich insert in their catalytic domains relative to other protein kinases. Deletion of the RP-domain resulted in complete loss of CaM-KIV activation activity and physical interaction of CaM-KK with glutathione S-transferase-CaM-KIV (T196A). However, CaM-KK autophosphorylation and phosphorylation of a synthetic peptide substrate were normal in the RP-domain mutant. Site-directed mutagenesis of three conserved Arg in the RP- domain of CaM-KK confirmed that these positive charges are important for CaM-KIV activation. The RP- domain deletion mutant also failed to fully activate and phosphorylate CaM-KI, but this mutant was indistinguishable from wild-type CaM-KK for the phosphorylation and activation of PKB. These results indicate that the RP-domain in CaM-KK is critical for recognition of downstream CaM-kinases but not for its catalytic activity (i.e. autophosphorylation) and PKB activation.  (+info)

Ca(2+)/Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase cascade in Caenorhabditis elegans. Implication in transcriptional activation. (3/175)

We have recently demonstrated that Caenorhabditis elegans Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CeCaM-KK) can activate mammalian CaM-kinase IV in vitro (Tokumitsu, H., Takahashi, N., Eto, K., Yano, S., Soderling, T.R., and Muramatsu, M. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 15803-15810). In the present study, we have identified and cloned a target CaM-kinase for CaM-KK in C. elegans, CeCaM-kinase I (CeCaM-KI), which has approximately 60% identity to mammalian CaM-KI. CeCaM-KI has 348 amino acid residues with an apparent molecular mass of 40 kDa, which is activated by CeCaM-KK through phosphorylation of Thr(179) in a Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent manner, resulting in a 30-fold decrease in the K(m) of CeCaM-KI for its peptide substrate. Unlike mammalian CaM-KI, CeCaM-KI is mainly localized in the nucleus of transfected cells because the NH(2)-terminal six residues ((2)PLFKRR(7)) contain a functional nuclear localization signal. We have also demonstrated that CeCaM-KK and CeCaM-KI reconstituted a signaling pathway that mediates Ca(2+)-dependent phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and CRE-dependent transcriptional activation in transfected cells, consistent with nuclear localization of CeCaM-KI. These results suggest that the CaM-KK/CaM-KI cascade is conserved in C. elegans and is functionally operated both in vitro and in intact cells, and it may be involved in Ca(2+)-dependent nuclear events such as transcriptional activation through phosphorylation of CREB.  (+info)

Regulatory mechanism of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase. (4/175)

Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaM-KK) is a novel member of the CaM kinase family, which specifically phosphorylates and activates CaM kinase I and IV. In this study, we characterized the CaM-binding peptide of alphaCaM-KK (residues 438-463), which suppressed the activity of constitutively active CaM-KK (84-434) in the absence of Ca(2+)/CaM but competitively with ATP. Truncation and site-directed mutagenesis of the CaM-binding region in CaM-KK reveal that Ile(441) is essential for autoinhibition of CaM-KK. Furthermore, CaM-KK chimera mutants containing the CaM-binding sequence of either myosin light chain kinases or CaM kinase II located C-terminal of Leu(440), exhibited enhanced Ca(2+)/CaM-independent activity (60% of total activity). Although the CaM-binding domains of myosin light chain kinases and CaM kinase II bind to the N- and C-terminal domains of CaM in the opposite orientation to CaM-KK (Osawa, M., Tokumitsu, H., Swindells, M. B., Kurihara, H., Orita, M., Shibanuma, T., Furuya, T., and Ikura, M. (1999) Nat. Struct. Biol. 6, 819-824), the chimeric CaM-KKs containing Ile(441) remained Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent. This result demonstrates that the orientation of the CaM binding is not critical for relief of CaM-KK autoinhibition. However, the requirement of Ile(441) for autoinhibition, which is located at the -3 position from the N-terminal anchoring residue (Trp(444)) to CaM, accounts for the opposite orientation of CaM binding of CaM-KK compared with other CaM kinases.  (+info)

Studies on the phosphorylation of protein kinase B by Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases. (5/175)

Protein kinase B (PKB) was recently reported to be activated on the phosphorylation of Thr(308) by Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase alpha (CaM-kinase kinase alpha), suggesting that PKB was regulated through not only the phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway but also the Ca(2+)/calmodulin protein kinase pathway. The activation of PKB by CaM-kinase kinase alpha was as high as 300-fold after incubation for 30 min under the phosphorylation conditions, and still increased thereafter, suggesting that the maximal activation of PKB on phosphorylation of the Thr(308) residue is several hundred fold. On the other hand, the V(max) value of CaM-kinase kinase alpha for the phosphorylation of PKB was more than two orders of magnitude lower than that for CaM-kinase IV, although the K(m) values for PKB and CaM-kinase IV were not significantly different, raising the question of whether or not PKB is a physiological substrate of CaM-kinase kinase alpha. Besides CaM-kinase kinase alpha, CaM-kinase II also remarkably activated PKB. However, the specific activities of CaM-kinase kinase alpha and CaM-kinase II as to the activation of PKB were more than three orders of magnitude lower than that of 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1).  (+info)

Inhibition of neuronal nitric-oxide synthase by calcium/ calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIalpha through Ser847 phosphorylation in NG108-15 neuronal cells. (6/175)

We have previously demonstrated that phosphorylation of neuronal nitric-oxide synthase (nNOS) at Ser(847) by Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CaM kinases) attenuates the catalytic activity of the enzyme in vitro (Hayashi Y., Nishio M., Naito Y., Yokokura H., Nimura Y., Hidaka H., and Watanabe Y. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 20597-20602). In the present study we determined that CaM kinase IIalpha (CaM-K IIalpha) can directly phosphorylate nNOS on Ser(847), leading to a reduction of nNOS activity in cells. The phosphorylation abilities of purified CaM kinase Ialpha (CaM-K Ialpha), CaM-K IIalpha, and CaM-kinase IV (CaM-K IV) on Ser(847) were analyzed using the synthetic peptide nNOS-(836-859) (Glu-Glu-Arg-Lys-Ser-Tyr-Lys-Val-Arg-Phe-Asn-Ser-Val-Ser-Ser-Tyr-Ser- Asp-Ser-Arg-Lys-Ser-Ser-Gly) from nNOS as substrate. The relative V(max)/K(m) ratios of CaM kinases for nNOS-(836-859) were found to be as follows: CaM-K IIalpha, 100; CaM-K Ialpha, 54.5; CaM-K IV, 9.1. Co-transfection of constitutively active CaM-K IIalpha1-274 but not inactive CaM-K IIalpha1-274, generated by mutation of Lys(42) to Ala, with nNOS into NG108-15 cells, resulted in increased Ser(847) phosphorylation in the presence of okadaic acid, an inhibitor of protein phosphatase (PP)1 and PP2A, with a concomitant inhibition of NOS enzyme activity. In addition, this latter decrease could be reversed by treatment with exogenous PP2A. Cells expressing mutant nNOS (S847A) proved resistant to phosphorylation and a decrease of NOS activity. Thus, our results indicate that Ca(2+) triggers cross-talk signal transduction between CaM kinase and NO and CaM-K IIalpha phosphorylating nNOS on Ser(847), which in turn decreases the gaseous second messenger NO in neuronal cells.  (+info)

Cerebellar defects in Ca2+/calmodulin kinase IV-deficient mice. (7/175)

The Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase CaMKIV was first identified in the cerebellum and has been implicated in nuclear signaling events that control neuronal growth, differentiation, and plasticity. To understand the physiological importance of CaMKIV, we disrupted the mouse Camk4 gene. The CaMKIV null mice displayed locomotor defects consistent with altered cerebellar function. Although the overall cytoarchitecture of the cerebellum appeared normal in the Camk4(-/-) mice, we observed a significant reduction in the number of mature Purkinje neurons and reduced expression of the protein marker calbindin D28k within individual Purkinje neurons. Western immunoblot analyses of cerebellar extracts also established significant deficits in the phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein at serine-133, a proposed target of CaMKIV. Additionally, the absence of CaMKIV markedly altered neurotransmission at excitatory synapses in Purkinje cells. Multiple innervation by climbing fibers and enhanced parallel fiber synaptic currents suggested an immature development of Purkinje cells in the Camk4(-/-) mice. Together, these findings demonstrate that CaMKIV plays key roles in the function and development of the cerebellum.  (+info)

Human Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase beta gene encodes multiple isoforms that display distinct kinase activity. (8/175)

Ca(+2)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CaMKs) are activated upon binding of Ca(+2)/calmodulin. To gain maximal activity, CaMK I and CaMK IV can be further phosphorylated by an upstream kinase, CaMK kinase (CaMKK). We previously isolated cDNA clones encoding human CaMKK beta isoforms that are heterogeneous in their 3'-sequences (Hsu, L.-S., Tsou, A.-P., Chi, C.-W., Lee, C.-H., and Chen, J.-Y. (1998) J. Biomed. Sci. 5, 141-149). In the present study, we examined the genomic organization and transcription of the human CaMKK beta gene. The human CaMKK beta locus spans more than 40 kilobase pairs and maps to chromosome 12q24.2. It is organized into 18 exons and 17 introns that are flanked by typical splice donor and acceptor sequences. Two major species of transcripts, namely the beta1 (5.6 kilobase pairs) and beta2 (2.9 kilobase pairs), are generated through differential usage of polyadenylation sites located in the last and penultimate exons. Additional forms of CaMKK beta transcripts were also identified that resulted from alternative splicing of the internal exons 14 and/or 16. These isoforms display differential expression patterns in human tissues and tumor-derived cell lines. They also exhibit a distinct ability to undergo autophosphorylation and to phosphorylate the downstream kinases CaMK I and CaMK IV. The differential expression of CaMKK beta isoforms with distinct activity further suggests the complexity of the regulation of the CaMKK/CaMK cascade and an important role for CaMKK in the action of Ca(+2)-mediated cellular responses.  (+info)

*Calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II inhibitor 1

... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CAMK2N1 gene. GRCh38: ... Calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II inhibitor 1". Retrieved 2017-09-09. Wang C, Li N, Liu X, Zheng Y, Cao X (2008 ... "A novel endogenous human CaMKII inhibitory protein suppresses tumor growth by inducing cell cycle arrest via p27 stabilization ... "CAMK2N1 inhibits prostate cancer progression through androgen receptor-dependent signaling". Oncotarget. 5 (21): 10293-306. doi ...

*CAMK1D

Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ID is a protein in humans that is encoded by the CAMK1D gene on chromosome 10 ( ... This gene encodes a member of the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 1 subfamily of serine/threonine kinases. The encoded ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ID". ... protein may be involved in the regulation of granulocyte ...

*CAMK2D

... calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) II delta". Hook SS, Means AR (2001). "Ca2+/CaM-dependent ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II delta chain is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CAMK2D gene. The ... product of this gene belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase family and to the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ... "Rad and Rad-related GTPases interact with calmodulin and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (18): ...

*Marina Picciotto

Picciotto, M. R.; Czernik, A. J.; Nairn, A. C. (15 December 1993). "Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I. cDNA cloning ... "Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I - cDNA cloning and identification of autophosphorylation site". J. Biol. Chem. ... work with Paul Greengard at Rockefeller University where she cloned the gene for calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 1 ... "Menthol disrupts nicotine's psychostimulant properties in an age and sex-dependent manner in C57BL/6J mice". Behav Brain Res. ...

*CASK

This gene is also known by several other names: CMG 2 (CAMGUK protein 2), calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase 3 ... "Entrez Gene: CASK Calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (MAGUK family)". Tarpey PS, Smith R, Pleasance E, Whibley ... Zhu ZQ, Wang D, Xiang D, Yuan YX, Wang Y (2014). "Calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase is involved in exendin-4- ... "Association of junctional adhesion molecule with calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (CASK/LIN-2) in human ...

*CAMK2A

Phosphorylation by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, protein kinase C, and calcium/calmodulin protein kinase; identification ... "Entrez Gene: CAMK2A calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) II alpha". Walikonis RS, Oguni A, Khorosheva EM, ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II alpha chain (CAMKIIα) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CAMK2A ... p39 interact with the alpha-subunit of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and alpha-actinin-1 in a calcium-dependent ...

*Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II

Calcium-Calmodulin Dependent Protein Kinases at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) To learn ... Ca2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaM kinase II or CaMKII) is a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase that is ... Calcium/ calmodulin dependent protein kinase II is also heavily implicated in long-term potentiation (LTP) - the molecular ... "A pivotal role for the multifunctional calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in T cells: from activation to ...

*Protein kinase

CaM kinases - containing the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases. CK1 - containing the casein kinase 1 group. CMGC - ... One very important group of protein kinases are the MAP kinases (acronym from: "mitogen-activated protein kinases"). Important ... Hanks SK, Hunter T (May 1995). "Protein kinases 6. The eukaryotic protein kinase superfamily: kinase (catalytic) domain ... A protein kinase is a kinase enzyme that modifies other proteins by chemically adding phosphate groups to them (phosphorylation ...

*Ira Tabas

Activation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in obesity mediates suppression of hepatic insulin signaling". ... and a calcium-induced apoptosis pathway, which involves an ER calcium-release channel IP3R, a calcium-sensitive protein kinase ... Tabas discovered a calcium-IP3R-CaMKII pathway plays a key role in glucagon-mediated excessive hepatic glucose production, ... One notable finding showed a critical link between the PERK / CHOP branch of the stress Unfolded protein response (UPR) ...

*CAMK2B

... calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) II beta". Walikonis RS, Oguni A, Khorosheva EM, Jeng CJ, ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II beta chain is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CAMK2B gene. The ... Novak G, Seeman P, Tallerico T (2001). "Schizophrenia: elevated mRNA for calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIbeta in ... calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily. Calcium signaling is crucial for several aspects of plasticity at glutamatergic ...

*CAMK

... 1 calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I". Yamauchi, Takashi (2005). "Neuronal Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein ... domain structure and activation by phosphorylation at threonine-177 by calcium-calmodulin dependent protein kinase I kinase". ... "Human calcium-calmodulin dependent protein kinase I: cDNA cloning, ... CAMK, also written as CaMK, is an abbreviation for the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase class of enzymes. CAMKs are ...

*Liprin-alpha-1

"Liprinalpha1 degradation by calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II regulates LAR receptor tyrosine phosphatase ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the LAR protein tyrosine phosphatase-interacting protein (liprin) family. ... Protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, f polypeptide (PTPRF), interacting protein (liprin), alpha 1 has been shown to ... "Entrez Gene: PPFIA1 protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, f polypeptide (PTPRF), interacting protein (liprin), alpha 1 ...

*AMPA receptor

"Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II phosphorylation drives synapse-associated protein 97 into spines". J. Biol. Chem ... is the influx of calcium through the NMDA receptors and the resultant activation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ( ... element-binding protein through a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent stimulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase ... "Long-term potentiation is associated with an increased activity of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II". J. Biol. Chem ...

*Beta-catenin

This sudden increase in cytoplasmic calcium activates Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMKII). Activated CaMKII ... Ren J, Li Y, Kufe D (May 2002). "Protein kinase C delta regulates function of the DF3/MUC1 carcinoma antigen in beta-catenin ... There is one additional requirement: Similar to the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), substrates need to associate ... Thus it also requires a "priming kinase" for its activities. In the case of beta-catenin, the most important priming kinase is ...

*Active zone

The increase in presynaptic calcium concentration activates calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK). CaMK ... The protein ELKS binds to the cell adhesion protein, β-neurexin, and other proteins within the complex such as Piccolo and ... that cause a local influx of calcium. The increase in calcium is detected by proteins in the active zone and forces vesicles ... It is stabilized by proteins within the active zone and bound to the presynaptic membrane by SNARE proteins. These vesicles are ...

*CAMKK1

... calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily. This protein plays a role in the calcium/calmodulin-dependent (CaM) kinase ... calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I by calmodulin and by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase". J. Biol. Chem. 273 ... calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV by Ca(2+)-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase Ia kinase. Phosphorylation of threonine ... calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase alpha by cAMP-dependent protein kinase: I. Biochemical analysis". J. Biochem. 130 (4 ...

*CAMK1

Phosphorylation by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, protein kinase C, and calcium/calmodulin protein kinase; identification ... calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I by calmodulin and by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase". J. Biol. Chem. 273 ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I is expressed in many tissues and is a component of a calmodulin-dependent protein ... Calcium/calmodulin directly activates calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I by binding to the enzyme and indirectly ...

*D1-D2 dopamine receptor heteromer

Ng J, Rashid AJ, So CH, O'Dowd BF, George SR (Jan 2010). "Activation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIalpha in ... dual functional regulation by G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 285 (45): 35092-103. ... Hasbi A, Fan T, Alijaniaram M, Nguyen T, Perreault ML, O'Dowd BF, George SR (Dec 2009). "Calcium signaling cascade links ... Verma V, Hasbi A, O'Dowd BF, George SR (Nov 2010). "Dopamine D1-D2 receptor Heteromer-mediated calcium release is desensitized ...

*CAMKK2

... and to the Ca++/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily. This protein plays a role in the calcium/calmodulin-dependent ( ... 2005). "Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-beta is an alternative upstream kinase for AMP-activated protein kinase". ... 2005). "Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-beta acts upstream of AMP-activated protein kinase in mammalian cells ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CAMKK2 gene. The product of ...

*CAMK4

Phosphorylation by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, protein kinase C, and calcium/calmodulin protein kinase; identification ... calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I by calmodulin and by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase". J. Biol. Chem. 273 ... and activation of Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV by Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase Ia kinase. ... 2001). "Human Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase beta gene encodes multiple isoforms that display distinct kinase ...

*NMDA receptor

Neuroscience portal Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases Laube B, Hirai H, Sturgess M, Betz H, Kuhse J (1997). " ... which contain residues that can be directly modified by a series of protein kinases and protein phosphatases, as well as ... "MHC class I immune proteins are critical for hippocampus-dependent memory and gate NMDAR-dependent hippocampal long-term ... Yu XM, Askalan R, Keil GJ, Salter MW (January 1997). "NMDA channel regulation by channel-associated protein tyrosine kinase Src ...

*MLC1

1999). "Death-associated protein kinase 2 is a new calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase that signals apoptosis through ... Membrane protein MLC1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MLC1 gene. MLC1 (also called WKL1) is the only human gene ... homology to other proteins suggests that it may be an integral membrane transport protein. Mutations in this gene have been ... The MLC1 protein contains six putative transmembrane domains (S1-S6) and a pore region (P) between S5 and S6. Furthermore, MLC1 ...

*CAMK2G

"Entrez Gene: CAMK2G calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) II gamma". Moyers JS, Bilan PJ, Zhu J, Kahn CR ( ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II gamma chain is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CAMK2G gene. The ... calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily. Calcium signaling is crucial for several aspects of plasticity at glutamatergic ... "Localization of the CAMKG gene encoding gamma isoforms of multifunctional calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM ...

*PPM1F

... a protein kinase mediating biological effects downstream of Rho GTPases. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II gamma ( ... Harvey BP, Banga SS, Ozer HL (2004). "Regulation of the multifunctional Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II by the PP2C ... are Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase phosphatases that promote apoptosis". J Biol Chem. 276 (47): 44193-202. doi: ... Protein phosphatase 1F is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PPM1F gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member ...

*Tyrosine hydroxylase

... is phosphorylated by the calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase. MAPKAPK2 (mitogen-activated-protein kinase-activating ... that are phosphorylated by a variety of protein kinases. Ser40 is phosphorylated by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Ser19 ( ... "Molecular cloning of cDNA coding for brain-specific 14-3-3 protein, a protein kinase-dependent activator of tyrosine and ... Tyrosine hydroxylase is activated by phosphorylation dependent binding to 14-3-3 proteins. Since the 14-3-3 proteins also are ...
Background: CaMKK β is a major kinase activated by elevated levels of intracellular calcium. Our previous data has suggested that CaMKK β is neuroprotective after stroke in young mice as inhibition of this kinase aggravated stroke outcome. As aging is an important determinant of stroke outcomes, here we evaluated the functional role of CaMKK β in stroke in aged mice.. Methods: Aged wild type (WT) males received intracerebral injections of lentiviral vectors carrying either CaMKK β (LV-CaMKK β) or GFP (LV-GFP) 7 days before middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO, 90 minutes). Acute infarcts and neurological deficits scores were then analyzed at 72 hours post MCAO. In chronic survival studies, aged male CaMKK β knockout (KO) and WT mice were subjected to 60 minutes MCAO. Following stroke, long-term behavioral assessments were continuously performed for 3 weeks in KO and WT mice until the sacrifice for tissue loss assessments.. Results: Baseline levels of CaMKK β in aged brain were ...
Neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) is a major cause of death and disability in neonates. HI leads to a dramatic rise in intracellular calcium levels, which was originally thought to be detrimental to the brain. However, it has been increasingly recognized that this calcium signaling may also play an important protective role after injury by triggering endogenous neuroprotective pathways. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase ß (CaMKK ß) is a major kinase activated by elevated levels of intracellular calcium. Here we evaluated the functional role of CaMKK ß in neonatal mice after HI in both acute and chronic survival experiments. Postnatal day ten wild-type (WT) and CaMKK ß knockout (KO) mouse male pups were subjected to unilateral carotid artery ligation, followed by 40 min of hypoxia (10% O2 in N2). STO-609, a CaMKK inhibitor, was administered intraperitoneally to WT mice at 5 minutes after HI. TTC (2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride monohydrate) staining was used to assess ...
Camkk1 - Camkk1 (Myc-DDK-tagged ORF) - Rat calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 1, alpha (Camkk1), (10 ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
The metabolic sensor, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a serine/threonine protein kinase existing as a heterotrimer of catalytic (α1/α2) and regulatory subunits (β1/β2 and γ1/γ2/γ3). The 12 possible heterotrimers exhibit tissue and potentially functional specificity [8], and all can be activated by binding of AMP/ADP to the AMPKγ subunit and phosphorylation by one of two upstream kinases, liver kinase B (LKB)1 or calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK)β. AMPK is activated in response to depletion of ATP or alterations in intracellular calcium concentrations, and acts to shut down ATP-consuming, anabolic pathways and promoting ATP-generating, catabolic pathways [9].. As a monitor of cellular and whole body energy status [10], it is probably unsurprising that a recent elegant study in Science from Reuben Shaws laboratory places AMPK at the heart of the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics. Using CRISPR modification to delete AMPKα1 and/or AMPKα2 in vitro, they ...
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase 2 (CaMKK2) has been implicated in the regulation of metabolic activity in cancer and immune cells, and affects whole-body metabolism by regulating ghrelin-signalling in the hypothalamus. This has led to efforts to develop specific CaMKK2 inhibitors, and STO-609 is the standardly used CaMKK2 inhibitor to date. We have developed a novel fluorescence-based assay by exploiting the intrinsic fluorescence properties of STO-609. Here, we report an in vitro binding constant of KD ∼17 nM between STO-609 and purified CaMKK2 or CaMKK2:Calmodulin complex. Whereas high concentrations of ATP were able to displace STO-609 from the kinase, GTP was unable to achieve this confirming the specificity of this association. Recent structural studies on the kinase domain of CaMKK2 had implicated a number of amino acids involved in the binding of STO-609. Our fluorescent assay enabled us to confirm that Phe(267) is critically important for this association since mutation of this
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase 2 (CaMKK2) has been implicated in a range of conditions and pathologies from prostate to hepatic cancer. Here, we describe the expression in Escherichia coli and the purification protocol for the following constructs: full-length CaMKK2 in complex with CaM, CaMKK2 apo, CaMKK2 (165-501) in complex with CaM, and the CaMKK2 F267G mutant. The protocols described have been optimized for maximum yield and purity with minimal purification steps required and the proteins subsequently used to develop a fluorescence-based assay for drug binding to the kinase, Using the fluorescent properties of STO-609 as a tool to assist structure-function analyses of recombinant CaMKK2 [1].
Looking for online definition of CaM-kinase kinase 1 in the Medical Dictionary? CaM-kinase kinase 1 explanation free. What is CaM-kinase kinase 1? Meaning of CaM-kinase kinase 1 medical term. What does CaM-kinase kinase 1 mean?
Here we show that BBR has a similar effect to metformin and rosiglitazone to inhibit respiratory complex I, consistent with previous studies (14-18). These data highlight the importance of complex I as a diabetes target. Inhibition of complex I is likely the main mechanism by which BBR activates AMPK, since we did not observe selective activation of either CAMKKβ or LKB1 by BBR. These findings are consistent with a recent model proposing a major role for AMPK regulation at the level of the AMPK phosphatase in response to metabolic stress (19,20). Finally, we have also identified a novel BBR derivative that displays improved in vivo efficacy, thus paving a path for future drug development in this area.. The use of LKB1−/− MEFs and the CAMKK inhibitor STO-609 has provided novel insights into the actions of BBR. We observed robust activation of AMPK in LKB1−/− MEFs by BBR, an effect that could be blocked by pretreatment with STO-609. Conversely in L6 myotubes, which express both LKB1 and ...
In the present study, we have examined the role of the CaM-KK/CaM-KIV cascade on insulin gene expression in response to glucose. CaM-Ks are implicated in the regulation of a wide variety of biological events requiring the participation of intracellular Ca2+, such as muscle contraction, neurotransmitter release, and gene expression (11,26). Recent studies (19,26) have indicated that so-called multifunctional CaM-Ks, including CaM-KI, -II, and -IV, are regulated by phosphorylation either by itself or an upstream protein kinase, CaM-KK.. Previous reports (12) showed that CaM-KIV was expressed in pancreatic islet and other insulin-secreting cells, including MIN6 and HIT cells. In the first set of studies, we established that the respective mRNAs encoding CaM-KIV and its upstream protein kinase, CaM-KK, were present in rat pancreatic islet and the insulin-secreting cell line, INS-1. Furthermore, the mRNA was expressed because both Western blot and immunohistochemistry of the cells showed the presence ...
Involvement of PCNK in CaMKIα phosphorylation.MCF-7 cells were transfected with siRNA targeting PNCK or control siRNA (NT1) and 72 h later, cells were exposed
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is normally a bioactive phospholipid that affects several biological functions such as for example cell proliferation migration and survival coming from LPA receptors. with cell migration in ovarian cancers cells. We discovered that LPA resulted in a striking upsurge in AMPK phosphorylation in pathways relating to the phospholipase C-β3 (PLC-β3) and calcium mineral/calmodulin-dependent proteins kinase kinase Roscovitine β (CaMKKβ) in SKOV3 ovarian cancers cells. siRNA-mediated knockdown of AMPKα1 PLC-β3 or (CaMKKβ) impaired the stimulatory ramifications of LPA on cell migration. Furthermore we discovered that knockdown of AMPKα1 abrogated LPA-induced activation of the tiny GTPase RhoA and ezrin/radixin/moesin protein regulating membrane dynamics as membrane-cytoskeleton linkers. In ovarian cancers xenograft choices knockdown of AMPK decreased peritoneal dissemination and lung metastasis significantly. Taken jointly our results claim that activation of AMPK by ...
Looking for online definition of CaM-kinase II alpha chain in the Medical Dictionary? CaM-kinase II alpha chain explanation free. What is CaM-kinase II alpha chain? Meaning of CaM-kinase II alpha chain medical term. What does CaM-kinase II alpha chain mean?
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a serine threonine kinase that is highly conserved through evolution. AMPK system acts as a sensor of cellular energy status. It is activated by increases in the cellular AMP:ATP ratio caused by metabolic stresses that either interfere with ATP production (eg, deprivation for glucose or oxygen) or that accelerate ATP consumption (eg, muscle contraction). Several upstream kinases, including liver kinase B1 (LKB1), calcium/calmodulin kinase kinase-beta (CaMKK beta), and TGF-beta-activated kinase-1 (TAK-1), can activate AMPK by phosphorylating a threonine residue on its catalytic alpha-subunit. Once activated, AMPK leads to a concomitant inhibition of energy-consuming biosynthetic pathways, such as protein, fatty acid and glycogen synthesis, and activation of ATP-producing catabolic pathways, such as fatty acid oxidation and glycolysis ...
Due to the current situation with Covid 19 this facility is currently closed and all staff are working from home. Although we will be checking emails regularly, there may be a longer delay than usual in replying.. ...
Professional essays on That Championship Season. Authoritative academic resources for essays, homework and school projects on That Championship Season.
Recombinant Calcium/calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase IV (CAMK4) Protein (His tag). Spezies: Human. Quelle: Escherichia coli (E. coli). Jetzt Produkt ABIN668012 bestellen.
Results We show that culture of MRL/lpr Foxp3-GFP T cells in the presence of KN-93 promotes Treg differentiation in a dose dependent manner (Fig. F). Treatment of MRL/lpr Foxp3-GFP mice with KN-93 results in significant induction of Treg cells in the spleen, peripheral lymph nodes (Fig. B-E) and peripheral blood (Fig. A and B) and this is accompanied by decreased skin and kidney damage. Notably, KN-93 clearly diminishes the accumulation of inflammatory cells along with reciprocally increased Treg cells in target organ.. ...
STO-609 acetate,7-Oxo-7H-benzimidazo[2,1-a]benz[de]isoquinoline-3-carboxylicacidacetate 52029-86-4 NMR spectrum, STO-609 acetate,7-Oxo-7H-benzimidazo[2,1-a]benz[de]isoquinoline-3-carboxylicacidacetate H-NMR spectral analysis, STO-609 acetate,7-Oxo-7H-benzimidazo[2,1-a]benz[de]isoquinoline-3-carboxylicacidacetate C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
Expression of CAMKK1 (CAMKKA, DKFZp761M0423, MGC34095) in pancreas tissue. Antibody staining with CAB009111 in immunohistochemistry.
1MXE: Structure of the Complex of Calmodulin with the Target Sequence of Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase I: Studies of the Kinase Activation Mechanism
Top performende anti-Schaf CAMKK2 Antikörper für Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin-embedded Sections) (IHC (p)) vergleichen & kaufen.
pdf,http://hydrodictyon.eeb.uconn.edu/courses/systematicsseminar/restricted/Fujisawa%2C%20Barraclough_2013_Delimiting%20Species%20Using%20Single-Locus%20Data%20and%20the%20Generalized%20Mixed%20Yule%20Coalescent%20Approach%20A%20Revised%20Metho.pdf}}Fujisawa, Barraclough_2013_Delimiting Species Using Single-Locus Data and the Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent Approach A Revised Metho. ...
pdf,http://hydrodictyon.eeb.uconn.edu/courses/systematicsseminar/restricted/Fujisawa%2C%20Barraclough_2013_Delimiting%20Species%20Using%20Single-Locus%20Data%20and%20the%20Generalized%20Mixed%20Yule%20Coalescent%20Approach%20A%20Revised%20Metho.pdf}}Fujisawa, Barraclough_2013_Delimiting Species Using Single-Locus Data and the Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent Approach A Revised Metho. ...
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase belonging to a proposed calcium-triggered signaling cascade. In vitro phosphorylates CREB1 and SYN1/synapsin I. Phosphorylates and activates CAMK1 (By similarity).
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
calmodulin-dependent protein kinase V: widely distributed in various tissues, involved in calcium-regulated processes; from rat brain; may exist in 40 & 41 kDa isoforms; amino acid sequence has been determined
Camk1g - Camk1g (untagged ORF) - Rat calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IG (Camk1g), (10 ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Approximately ten percent of all bone fractures do not heal, resulting in patient morbidity and healthcare costs. However, no pharmacological treatments are currently available to promote efficient bone healing. Inhibition of Ca2+ /calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase kinase 2 (CaMKK2) reverses age-associated loss of trabecular and cortical bone volume and strength in mice. In the current study, we investigated the role of CaMKK2 in bone fracture healing and show that its pharmacological inhibition using STO-609 accelerates early cellular and molecular events associated with endochondral ossification, resulting in a more rapid and efficient healing of the fracture ...
Camk2d2 antibody (calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) II delta 2) for IHC-P, WB. Anti-Camk2d2 pAb (GTX124377) is tested in Zebrafish samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Complete information for CAMK4 gene (Protein Coding), Calcium/Calmodulin Dependent Protein Kinase IV, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
This Histri was built automatically but not manually verified. As a consequence, the Histri can be incomplete or can contain errors ...
Affiliation:Kagawa University,Medicine,Professor,医学部,教授, Research Field:Metabolomics,Orthopaedic surgery,Functional biochemistry,General physiology,Medical systems, Keywords:PREB,insulin,糖尿病,glucose,グルコース,インスリン,CaM-KK,膵β細胞,Gas6,CaMKIV, # of Research Projects:9, # of Research Products:68
H. Watanabe, A. Kuhn, M. Fushiki, K. Agata, Y. Kocag z, S. zbek, T. Fujisawa & T.W. Holstein: Sequential actions of -catenin and Bmp pattern the oral nerve net in Nematostella vectensi. Nature Communication 5:5536 (23 December 2014), doi:10.1038/ ...
Takarada H, Sekine M, Kosugi H, Matsuo Y, Fujisawa T, Omata S, Kishi E, Shimizu A, Tsukatani N, Tanikawa S, Fujita N, Harayama S ...
Oklahoma Immunization Update June 2012 PREVENTION and PREPAREDNESS SERVICES IMMUNIZATION SERVICE PLEASE POST & DISTRIBUTE TO ALL NURSING AND MEDICAL STAFF Interim MMR VIS Includes 2D Barcode The MMR vaccine information statement (VIS) has recently been updated and is now available at http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/vis/downloads/vi s-mmr.pdf. This interim VIS has been updated with minor changes throughout, and this new version will be the basis for a "final" edition, which should be available in several months. This is the first VIS to feature a 2D barcode that is located on the second page. This will allow providers with a 2D barcode reader and the appropriate software to scan the VIS name and edition date into an electronic system such as an electronic medical record or Immunization Information System (IIS), as an OPTIONAL alternative to entering this information manually. For more information, see CDCs VIS barcode webpage at http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/vis/vis-barcodes. htm. Health ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Amphetamine activate protein kinase C and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase via NMDA receptor in primary cultures of rat cortical neurons. AU - Wu, Hsueh-Hsia. AU - Lee, Horng-Mo. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. M3 - Article. VL - 1. SP - 12. EP - 19. JO - New Taipei Journal of Medicine. JF - New Taipei Journal of Medicine. SN - 1562-4242. ER - ...
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Fujisawa was developing a broad spectrum parenteral carbapenem FR 21818 in preclinical trials in Japan, however, no recent development has been reported. The
Most of the movie is one long Jmol script, but it took some post-editing of the resulting recording to smooth the transitions, i.e. remove the lag time when Jmol is computing the surfaces. The coordinates of the reaction and the large nanostructure is taken from Chemtube3D and this site, respectively. I have described how to extract the coordinates from a site using Jmol in a previous post. The orbitals and vibrational modes were computed using GAMESS and RHF/STO-3G ...
Small molecule inhibitors of the human sirtuins and calmodulin-dependent protein kinases have shown promising anti-cancer activity in cell-based screens and animal models. We have synthesized analogues of these compounds, identifying more selective sirtuin inhibitors and more potent calmodulin-dependent protein kinase inhibitors.The sirtuins are a family of NAD+-dependent deacetylases that regulate cellular aging and gene silencing in simple organisms and appear to play important regulatory roles in human cells that make them attractive anti-cancer targets. We have previously identified the compound cambinol, an inhibitor of the human sirtuins SIRT1 and SIRT2, which is selectively toxic to Burkitts lymphoma cells. In order to determine which sirtuin is the relevant target, we screened analogues of cambinol, identifying compounds that exhibited moderate selectivity for both SIRT1 and SIRT2. The compound JP136 is ten-fold more selective in vitro for SIRT1 over SIRT2, with respective IC50s of 13 ...
Raval A, Tanner SM, Byrd JC, Angerman EB, Perko JD, Chen SS, Hackanson B, Grever MR, Lucas DM, Matkovic JJ, Lin TS, Kipps TJ, Murray F, Weisenburger D, Sanger W, Lynch J, Watson P, Jansen M, Yoshinaga Y, Rosenquist R, de Jong PJ, Coggill P, Beck S, Lynch H, de la Chapelle A, Plass C. Downregulation of death-associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1) in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Cell. 2007 Jun 01; 129(5):879-90 ...
Expression of CAMKK1 (CAMKKA, DKFZp761M0423, MGC34095) in parathyroid gland tissue. Antibody staining with CAB009111 in immunohistochemistry.
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
FR 186054 is an orally active ACAT inhibitor that was undergoing preclinical investigation with Fujisawa in Japan for the treatment of hyperlipidaemia. However,
Contraindicaciones del ampk. adversos, si bien la píldora del día después no presenta particulares indicaciones de uso, ni muchos efectos particulares,.
Our results show that, even in LKB1-null tumor cells, activation of AMPK is sufficient for cell-cycle arrest, and necessary for the arrest induced by Ca2+-elevating agents. Inhibition of cell proliferation and G1 arrest in response to AMPK activation has been demonstrated previously in cells expressing LKB1 (12-14). However, those studies relied on the use of the pharmacologic activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside (AICAR), which can have AMP-independent "off-target" effects (42), or on overexpression of activated AMPK, which might also lead to nonphysiologic effects. Our results show that the G1 arrest (25) and consequent inhibition of proliferation (24) caused by the reexpression of LKB1 in LKB1-null tumor cells is mediated by AMPK and not by any of the AMPK-related kinases (ARK). We have previously shown that the ARKs that have detectable activity in HeLa cells, that is, SIK1, SIK2, SIK3, NUAK2, MARK1, MARK2/3, and MARK4, were (unlike AMPK) not activated in the cells by ...

PNCK - Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type 1B - Homo sapiens (Human) - PNCK gene & proteinPNCK - Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type 1B - Homo sapiens (Human) - PNCK gene & protein

Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase belonging to a proposed calcium-triggered signaling cascade. In vitro ... View protein in PROSITE. PS00107. PROTEIN_KINASE_ATP. 1 hit. PS50011. PROTEIN_KINASE_DOM. 1 hit. PS00108. PROTEIN_KINASE_ST. 1 ... View protein in PROSITE. PS00107. PROTEIN_KINASE_ATP. 1 hit. PS50011. PROTEIN_KINASE_DOM. 1 hit. PS00108. PROTEIN_KINASE_ST. 1 ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase belonging to a proposed calcium-triggered signaling cascade. In vitro ...
more infohttp://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q6P2M8

Human Calcium/calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase IV (CAMK4) Protein (His tag), Recombinant | ABIN668012Human Calcium/calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase IV (CAMK4) Protein (His tag), Recombinant | ABIN668012

Protein (His tag). Spezies: Human. Quelle: Escherichia coli (E. coli). Jetzt Produkt ABIN668012 bestellen. ... Recombinant Calcium/calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase IV (CAMK4) ... Calcium/calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Kinase 1, alpha Proteine * Calcium/calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Kinase 2, ... Calcium/calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase I Proteine * Calcium/calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase (CaM Kinase) II beta ...
more infohttp://www.antikoerper-online.de/protein/668012/Calcium/calmodulin-Dependent+Protein+Kinase+IV+CAMK4+AA+1-473+protein+His+tag/

Abstract 29: Calcium/calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase Kinase β (CaMKK β) is Neuroprotective in Stroke in Aged Mice | StrokeAbstract 29: Calcium/calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase Kinase β (CaMKK β) is Neuroprotective in Stroke in Aged Mice | Stroke

Abstract 29: Calcium/calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase Kinase β (CaMKK β) is Neuroprotective in Stroke in Aged Mice. Lin Liu ... Abstract 29: Calcium/calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase Kinase β (CaMKK β) is Neuroprotective in Stroke in Aged Mice ... Abstract 29: Calcium/calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase Kinase β (CaMKK β) is Neuroprotective in Stroke in Aged Mice ... Abstract 29: Calcium/calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase Kinase β (CaMKK β) is Neuroprotective in Stroke in Aged Mice ...
more infohttp://stroke.ahajournals.org/content/46/Suppl_1/A29

THU0057 Kn-93, an Inhibitor of Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Iv, Promotes Generation and Function of Foxp3+...THU0057 Kn-93, an Inhibitor of Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Iv, Promotes Generation and Function of Foxp3+...

Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase IV Suppresses IL-2 Production and Regulatory T Cell Activity in Lupus. J Immunol. ... THU0057 Kn-93, an Inhibitor of Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Iv, Promotes Generation and Function of Foxp3+ ... THU0057 Kn-93, an Inhibitor of Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Iv, Promotes Generation and Function of Foxp3+ ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMK4) is expressed at increased levels in T cells from SLE patients (4) and ...
more infohttp://ard.bmj.com/content/73/Suppl_2/195.3

Mutational analysis of Ca2+-independent autophosphorylation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II<...Mutational analysis of Ca2+-independent autophosphorylation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II<...

Mutational analysis of Ca2+-independent autophosphorylation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. In: Journal of ... Mutational analysis of Ca2+-independent autophosphorylation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. / Mukherji, ... title = "Mutational analysis of Ca2+-independent autophosphorylation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II", ... T1 - Mutational analysis of Ca2+-independent autophosphorylation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II ...
more infohttps://ohsu.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/mutational-analysis-of-ca2-independent-autophosphorylation-of-cal-2

PKCA - Raf-1 inhibitor GW5074 Sustained Morphine Treatment AugmentsPKCA - Raf-1 inhibitor GW5074 Sustained Morphine Treatment Augments

Death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) is really a calmodulin-regulated serine/threonine kinase and August 2, 2018. by Felix ... Louis, MO, USA), and macrophage, neutrophil, and lymphocyte quantities were dependant on keeping track of 400 cells in ... Death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) is really a calmodulin-regulated serine/threonine kinase and possesses apoptotic and ... Death-associated proteins kinase (DAPK) is really a calmodulin-regulated and cytoskeleton-associated serine/threonine kinase ( ...
more infohttp://gw5074.com/tag/pkca/

Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2 - MeSH - NCBICalcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2 - MeSH - NCBI

Protein KinasesProtein-Serine-Threonine KinasesCalcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein KinasesCalcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein ... Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2 delta Subunit. *Calcium Calmodulin Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2 delta ... Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2 alpha Subunit. *Calcium Calmodulin Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2 alpha ... Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2 beta Subunit. *Calcium Calmodulin Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2 beta ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/mesh?Db=mesh&Cmd=DetailsSearch&Term=%22Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent+Protein+Kinase+Type+2%22%5BMeSH+Terms%5D

calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II subunit alpha isof - Protein - NCBIcalcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II subunit alpha isof - Protein - NCBI

calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II subunit alpha isoform 2 [Hom... calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ... calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II subunit alpha isoform 2 [Homo sapiens]. NCBI Reference Sequence: NP_ ... The product of this gene belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinases family, and to the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein ... Transcript/Protein Information [PANTHER Classification System] Transcript/Protein Information. PANTHER Classification System ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/NP_741960

CAMKK2 (calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase kinase 2)CAMKK2 (calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase kinase 2)

... calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase kinase 2), Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. ... phosphorylation calmodulin-dependent protein kinase activity protein tyrosine kinase activity calcium ion binding calmodulin ... phosphorylation calmodulin-dependent protein kinase activity protein tyrosine kinase activity calcium ion binding calmodulin ... PROTEIN_KINASE_ATP (PS00107) PROTEIN_KINASE_DOM (PS50011) PROTEIN_KINASE_ST (PS00108) ...
more infohttp://atlasgeneticsoncology.org/Genes/GC_CAMKK2.html

Calcium/calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase ID (CAMK1D) AntikörperCalcium/calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase ID (CAMK1D) Antikörper

anti-Calcium/calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase I Antikörper * anti-Calcium/calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase (CaM Kinase) ... anti-Calcium/calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase IV Antikörper * anti-Calcium/calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Kinase 1, ... calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type 1D , caM kinase ID , calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 1D , camKI- ... like protein kinase , mCKLiK , calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ID , calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ...
more infohttps://www.antikoerper-online.de/abstract/Calcium-calmodulin-Dependent+Protein+Kinase+ID+

Hunting Increases Phosphorylation of Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase  Type II in Adult Barn OwlsHunting Increases Phosphorylation of Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II in Adult Barn Owls

Hunting Increases Phosphorylation of Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II in Adult Barn Owls. Grant S. Nichols ... Here we investigated phosphorylation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (pCaMKII) in both juveniles and adults. ... We previously demonstrated that phosphorylation of the cyclic-AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) provides a readout of ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/np/2015/819257/abs/

Hunting Increases Phosphorylation of Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase  Type II in Adult Barn OwlsHunting Increases Phosphorylation of Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II in Adult Barn Owls

Hunting Increases Phosphorylation of Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II in Adult Barn Owls. Grant S. Nichols ... A. Rodriguez-Contreras, X.-B. Liu, and W. M. DeBello, "Axodendritic contacts onto calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ... A. Hudmon and H. Schulman, "Neuronal CA2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II: the role of structure and autoregulation in ... "Deficient hippocampal long-term potentiation in alpha-calcium-calmodulin kinase II mutant mice," Science, vol. 257, no. 5067, ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/np/2015/819257/ref/

CAMK1G - Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type 1G - Homo sapiens (Human) - CAMK1G gene & proteinCAMK1G - Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type 1G - Homo sapiens (Human) - CAMK1G gene & protein

Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase belonging to a proposed calcium-triggered signaling cascade. In vitro ... View protein in PROSITE. PS00107 PROTEIN_KINASE_ATP, 1 hit. PS50011 PROTEIN_KINASE_DOM, 1 hit. PS00108 PROTEIN_KINASE_ST, 1 ... View protein in PROSITE. PS00107 PROTEIN_KINASE_ATP, 1 hit. PS50011 PROTEIN_KINASE_DOM, 1 hit. PS00108 PROTEIN_KINASE_ST, 1 ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase belonging to a proposed calcium-triggered signaling cascade. In vitro ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q96NX5

A Rice Calcium- and Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Restores Nodulation to a Legume MutantA Rice Calcium- and Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Restores Nodulation to a Legume Mutant

The Medicago truncatula DMI3 gene encodes a calcium- and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) that is necessary for the ... The Medicago truncatula DMI3 gene encodes a calcium- and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) that is necessary for the ... acting like a switch able both to discriminate between rhizobial and mycorrhizal calcium signatures and to trigger the ... indicating that CCaMKs from nonlegumes can interpret the calcium signature elicited by rhizobial Nod factors and activate the ...
more infohttps://www.apsnet.org/publications/mpmi/2006/May/Pages/19_5_495.aspx

CaMKII (calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II) AntibodyCaMKII (calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II) Antibody

CaMKII (Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II) is a ubiquitous serine/threonine protein kinase that is abundant in the ... CaMKII is a prominent kinase in the central nervous system that may function in long term potentiation and neurotransmitter ... brain as a major constituent of the postsynaptic density (PSD). The enzyme is an oligomeric protein composed of distinct but ... spatial learning and memory decline in C57BL/6 J mice by regulating hippocampal cyclic amp-response element binding protein ...
more infohttps://www.neuromics.com/RA18006

RCSB PDB - Protein Feature View 









 - Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II subunit beta - Q13554 (KCC2B...RCSB PDB - Protein Feature View - Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II subunit beta - Q13554 (KCC2B...

The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase that functions autonomously after Ca(2+)/calmodulin-binding and autophosphorylation ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II subunit beta - Q13554 (KCC2B_HUMAN) ... The CAMK2 protein kinases contain a unique C-terminal subunit association domain responsible for oligomerization. UniProt ...
more infohttp://www.rcsb.org/pdb/protein/Q9UGH9

Essential function of α-calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in neurotransmitter release at a glutamatergic central...Essential function of α-calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in neurotransmitter release at a glutamatergic central...

Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), a serine/threonine protein kinase, is well positioned to serve a role ... calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II;. PPF,. paired-pulse facilitation;. EPSC,. excitatory postsynaptic currents;. ES ... A significant fraction of the total calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) activity in neurons is associated ... Essential function of α-calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in neurotransmitter release at a glutamatergic central ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/100/7/4275?ijkey=339757d39f63df47aef53e511f53bf09382b34f1&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

NIOSHTIC-2  Publications Search - 20027079 - Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II activity and expression are altered...NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 20027079 - Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II activity and expression are altered...

... and CaMKII alpha and beta protein levels. In the hippocampus of Pb2+-exposed 50-day-old rats known to exhib ... we examined whether calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is affected by chronic developmental Pb2+ exposure ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II activity and expression are altered in the hippocampus of Pb2+- exposed rats.. ... In the present study, we examined whether calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is affected by chronic ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/niosh/nioshtic-2/20027079.html

The Role of Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Cascade in Glucose Upregulation of Insulin Gene Expression | DiabetesThe Role of Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Cascade in Glucose Upregulation of Insulin Gene Expression | Diabetes

Park IK, Soderling TR: Activation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM-kinase) IV by CaM-kinase kinase in Jurkat T ... Enslen H, Soderling TR: Roles of calmodulin-dependent protein kinases and phosphatase in calcium-dependent transcription of ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase types II and IV differentially regulate CREB-dependent gene expression. Mol Cell ... molecular cloning and expression of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase. J Biol Chem270 :19320 -19324,1995. ...
more infohttp://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/53/6/1475

Abstract 12091: Aldosterone Enhances Cardiac Rupture After Myocardial Infarction Through Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein...Abstract 12091: Aldosterone Enhances Cardiac Rupture After Myocardial Infarction Through Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein...

The multifunctional calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is activated by catecholamines and angiotensin II, ... Aldosterone Enhances Cardiac Rupture After Myocardial Infarction Through Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II. B. ... Aldosterone Enhances Cardiac Rupture After Myocardial Infarction Through Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II ... Aldosterone Enhances Cardiac Rupture After Myocardial Infarction Through Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II ...
more infohttp://circ.ahajournals.org/content/124/Suppl_21/A12091

Calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II inhibitor 1 - WikipediaCalcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II inhibitor 1 - Wikipedia

Calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II inhibitor 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CAMK2N1 gene. GRCh38: ... Calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II inhibitor 1". Retrieved 2017-09-09. Wang C, Li N, Liu X, Zheng Y, Cao X (2008 ... "A novel endogenous human CaMKII inhibitory protein suppresses tumor growth by inducing cell cycle arrest via p27 stabilization ... "CAMK2N1 inhibits prostate cancer progression through androgen receptor-dependent signaling". Oncotarget. 5 (21): 10293-306. doi ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calcium/calmodulin_dependent_protein_kinase_II_inhibitor_1

camk2b, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II beta - Creative Biogenecamk2b, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II beta - Creative Biogene

... calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, delta; calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II beta; calcium/calmodulin ... CAMK2B; calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, beta; Camk2d; calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II ... proline rich calmodulin-dependent protein kinase; CAMKB; MGC29528; calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) II ... dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) II beta , CAMKB; calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase type II beta chain; CaM ...
more infohttps://www.creative-biogene.com/symbolsearch_camk2b.html

US9090701B2 - Methods of detecting oxidized calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II 
        - Google PatentsUS9090701B2 - Methods of detecting oxidized calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II - Google Patents

... and direct oxidation of CaMKII was observed to result in calcium independent activation of CaMKII. Antibodies that bind ... Calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) has been found to be directly oxidized, ... Patton et al., "Activation of Type II Calcium/Calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase by Ca2+/Calmodulin Is Inhibited by ... Activation of type II calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase by Ca2+/calmodulin is inhibited by autophosphorylation of ...
more infohttps://patents.google.com/patent/US9090701B2/en

camk2n1b, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibitor 1b - Creative Biogenecamk2n1b, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibitor 1b - Creative Biogene

CAMK2N1B; calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibitor 1b; si:dkey-262n17.3 ... Profiling ServicesKinase Screening & Profiling ServicesProtease Screening & Profiling ServicesNuclear Receptor Screening & ... Creative Biogene Introduces Innovative Expression Vectors for High Level of Protein Production ...
more infohttps://www.creative-biogene.com/symbolsearch_camk2n1b.html

CaMKII (calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II) 2A or CAMK2A  AntibodyCaMKII (calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II) 2A or CAMK2A Antibody

CaMKII (Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II) is a ubiquitous serine/threonine protein kinase that is abundant in the ... In addition to its calcium-calmodulin (CaM)-dependent activity, this protein can undergo autophosphorylation, resulting in CaM- ... Immunogen: Peptide with sequence C-PRTAQSEETRVWHR, from the internal region of the protein sequence according to NP_057065.2; ... CAMK2A (dilution: 0.1µg/ml) staining of Mouse Brain lysate (35µg protein in RIPA buffer). Primary incubation was 1 hour. ...
more infohttps://www.neuromics.com/GT41019
  • None of the mutants exhibited enhanced Ca 2+ -independent kinase activity toward exogenous substrate, but the K300S and N294S mutants showed a significant enhancement in the rate and stoichiometry of 32 P incorporation during Ca 2+ -independent autophosphorylation. (elsevier.com)
  • This specific Ca 2+ -independent autophosphorylation of Ser 300 is consistent with the hypothesis that Arg 297 may occupy the P (-3) position in a pseudosubstrate autoinhibitory interaction with the catalytic core in the nonactivated state of the kinase. (elsevier.com)
  • Up regulation of cAMP response element-mediated gene expression during experience-dependent plasticity in adult neocortex," Journal of Neuroscience , vol. 20, no. 11, pp. 4206-4216, 2000. (hindawi.com)
  • This structural function is required for correct targeting of CaMK2A, which acts downstream of NMDAR to promote dendritic spine and synapse formation and maintain synaptic plasticity which enables long-term potentiation (LTP) and hippocampus-dependent learning. (rcsb.org)
  • Association of CamK2A genetic variants with transition time from occasional to regular heroin use in a sample of heroin-dependent individuals. (nih.gov)
  • See 5 reference sequence protein isoforms for the CAMK2A gene. (nih.gov)
  • CAMK2A (dilution: 0.1µg/ml) staining of Mouse Brain lysate (35µg protein in RIPA buffer). (neuromics.com)
  • Also, other proteins which involved in the same pathway with CAMK2A were listed below. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Our previous data has suggested that CaMKK β is neuroprotective after stroke in young mice as inhibition of this kinase aggravated stroke outcome. (ahajournals.org)
  • be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the 'correct annotation' for any given protein. (uniprot.org)
  • p>An evidence describes the source of an annotation, e.g. an experiment that has been published in the scientific literature, an orthologous protein, a record from another database, etc. (uniprot.org)
  • The Protein Feature View requires a browser that supports SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics). (rcsb.org)