A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.
A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)
A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.
Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKKs) are serine-threonine protein kinases that initiate protein kinase signaling cascades. They phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKs) which in turn phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs).
A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed in a broad variety of mammalian cell types. Its expression is regulated by the action of CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE. Several isoforms of this enzyme subtype are encoded by distinct genes.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
A regulatory calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase that specifically phosphorylates CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE TYPE 1; CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE TYPE 2; CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE TYPE 4; and PROTEIN KINASE B. It is a monomeric enzyme that is encoded by at least two different genes.
An abundant 43-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase subtype with specificity for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 3.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and the RETINOID X RECEPTORS. It takes part in a SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway that is activated in response to cellular stress.
A 195-kDa MAP kinase kinase kinase with broad specificity for MAP KINASE KINASES. It is found localized in the CYTOSKELETON and can activate a variety of MAP kinase-dependent pathways.
A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.
A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for a subset of P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES that includes MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 12; MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 13; and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 14.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
A 44 kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 3.
Toluenes in which one hydrogen of the methyl group is substituted by an amino group. Permitted are any substituents on the benzene ring or the amino group.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES. It takes part in a SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway that is activated in response to CYTOKINES.
A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that is primarily expressed in neuronal tissues; T-LYMPHOCYTES and TESTIS. The activity of this enzyme is regulated by its phosphorylation by CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Proteins which bind calmodulin. They are found in many tissues and have a variety of functions including F-actin cross-linking properties, inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and calcium and magnesium ATPases.
A mitosporic Ophiostomataceae fungal genus, whose species Sporothrix schenckii is a well-known animal pathogen. The conidia of this soil fungus may be inhaled causing a primary lung infection, or may infect independently via skin punctures.
A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.
An enzyme that phosphorylates myosin light chains in the presence of ATP to yield myosin-light chain phosphate and ADP, and requires calcium and CALMODULIN. The 20-kDa light chain is phosphorylated more rapidly than any other acceptor, but light chains from other myosins and myosin itself can act as acceptors. The enzyme plays a central role in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction.
A specific protein kinase C inhibitor, which inhibits superoxide release from human neutrophils (PMN) stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate or synthetic diacylglycerol.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.
A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A species of ciliate protozoa. It is used in biomedical research.
A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.
Four carbon unsaturated hydrocarbons containing two double bonds.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A phenothiazine with actions similar to CHLORPROMAZINE. It is used as an antipsychotic and an antiemetic.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Compounds with three fused rings that appear like a naphthalene fused to piperidone or like a benz(de)isoquinoline-1,3-dione (not to be confused with BENZYLISOQUINOLINES which have a methyl separating the naphthyl from the benzyl rings). Members are CYTOTOXINS.
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
A 180-kDa MAP kinase kinase kinase with specificity for MAP KINASE KINASE 4 and MAP KINASE KINASE 6.
A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.
A family of calcium/calmodulin-dependent PROETIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES. They are ubiquitously expressed in adult and embryonic mammalian tissues, and their functions are tightly related to the early stages of eukaryotic programmed cell death.
A 150-kDa MAP kinase kinase kinase that may play a role in the induction of APOPTOSIS. It has specificity for MAP KINASE KINASE 3; MAP KINASE KINASE 4; and MAP KINASE KINASE 6.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Specific enzyme subunits that form the active sites of the type I and type II cyclic-AMP protein kinases. Each molecule of enzyme contains two catalytic subunits.
Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase subtype primarily found in particulate subcellular fractions. They are tetrameric proteins that contain two catalytic subunits and two type II-specific regulatory subunits.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Organic compounds containing the -CN radical. The concept is distinguished from CYANIDES, which denotes inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A family of protein serine/threonine kinases which act as intracellular signalling intermediates. Ribosomal protein S6 kinases are activated through phosphorylation in response to a variety of HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Phosphorylation of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 by enzymes in this class results in increased expression of 5' top MRNAs. Although specific for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 members of this class of kinases can act on a number of substrates within the cell. The immunosuppressant SIROLIMUS inhibits the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases.
A 70-kDa MAPK kinase kinase with specificity for MAP KINASE KINASE 5.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A family of serine-threonine kinases that bind to and are activated by MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS such as RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS and CDC42 GTP-BINDING PROTEIN. They are intracellular signaling kinases that play a role the regulation of cytoskeletal organization.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The body of a fungus which is made up of HYPHAE.
A ubiquitously expressed raf kinase subclass that plays an important role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. The c-raf Kinases are MAP kinase kinase kinases that have specificity for MAP KINASE KINASE 1 and MAP KINASE KINASE 2.
A ubiquitous casein kinase that is comprised of two distinct catalytic subunits and dimeric regulatory subunit. Casein kinase II has been shown to phosphorylate a large number of substrates, many of which are proteins involved in the regulation of gene expression.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A 70-kDa MAP kinase kinase kinase with specificity for MAP KINASE KINASE 5. It is activated during the cellular response to GROWTH FACTORS, oxidative stress, and hyperosmotic conditions.
A protein kinase C subtype that was originally characterized as a CALCIUM-independent, serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHORBOL ESTERS and DIACYLGLYCEROLS. It is targeted to specific cellular compartments in response to extracellular signals that activate G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS; TYROSINE KINASE RECEPTORS; and intracellular protein tyrosine kinase.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
PKC beta encodes two proteins (PKCB1 and PKCBII) generated by alternative splicing of C-terminal exons. It is widely distributed with wide-ranging roles in processes such as B-cell receptor regulation, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation, insulin signaling, and endothelial cell proliferation.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed in SMOOTH MUSCLE tissues and plays a role in regulation of smooth muscle contraction. Two isoforms, PKGIalpha and PKGIbeta, of the type I protein kinase exist due to alternative splicing of its mRNA.
Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
N-(N-(N(2)-(N-(N-(N-(N-D-Alanyl L-seryl)-L-threonyl)-L-threonyl) L-threonyl)-L-asparaginyl)-L-tyrosyl) L-threonine. Octapeptide sharing sequence homology with HIV envelope protein gp120. It is potentially useful as antiviral agent in AIDS therapy. The core pentapeptide sequence, TTNYT, consisting of amino acids 4-8 in peptide T, is the HIV envelope sequence required for attachment to the CD4 receptor.
A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
A group of protein-serine-threonine kinases that was originally identified as being responsible for the PHOSPHORYLATION of CASEINS. They are ubiquitous enzymes that have a preference for acidic proteins. Casein kinases play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by phosphorylating a variety of regulatory cytoplasmic and regulatory nuclear proteins.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
A type I cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit that plays a role in confering CYCLIC AMP activation of protein kinase activity. It has a lower affinity for cAMP than the CYCLIC-AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE RIBETA SUBUNIT.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
An aspect of protein kinase (EC 2.7.1.37) in which serine residues in protamines and histones are phosphorylated in the presence of ATP.
An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.
A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.
A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.
A c-jun amino-terminal kinase that is activated by environmental stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Several isoforms of the protein with molecular sizes of 43 and 48 KD exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
A protein serine-threonine kinase that catalyzes the PHOSPHORYLATION of I KAPPA B PROTEINS. This enzyme also activates the transcription factor NF-KAPPA B and is composed of alpha and beta catalytic subunits, which are protein kinases and gamma, a regulatory subunit.
Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.
A cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed predominantly in INTESTINES, BRAIN, and KIDNEY. The protein is myristoylated on its N-terminus which may play a role its membrane localization.
Derivatives of the steroid androstane having two double bonds at any site in any of the rings.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC 2.7.1.40.
A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.

Inhibition of the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I cascade by cAMP-dependent protein kinase. (1/175)

Several recent studies have shown that Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I (CaMKI) is phosphorylated and activated by a protein kinase (CaMKK) that is itself subject to regulation by Ca2+/calmodulin. In the present study, we demonstrate that this enzyme cascade is regulated by cAMP-mediated activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). In vitro, CaMKK is phosphorylated by PKA and this is associated with inhibition of enzyme activity. The major site of phosphorylation is threonine 108, although additional sites are phosphorylated with lower efficiency. In vitro, CaMKK is also phosphorylated by CaMKI at the same sites as PKA, suggesting that this regulatory phosphorylation might play a role as a negative-feedback mechanism. In intact PC12 cells, activation of PKA with forskolin resulted in a rapid inhibition of both CaMKK and CaMKI activity. In hippocampal slices CaMKK was phosphorylated under basal conditions, and activation of PKA led to an increase in phosphorylation. Two-dimensional phosphopeptide mapping indicated that activation of PKA led to increased phosphorylation of multiple sites including threonine 108. These results indicate that in vitro and in intact cells the CaMKK/CaMKI cascade is subject to inhibition by PKA-mediated phosphorylation of CaMKK. The phosphorylation and inhibition of CaMKK by PKA is likely to be involved in modulating the balance between cAMP- and Ca2+-dependent signal transduction pathways.  (+info)

Substrate recognition by Ca2+/Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase. Role of the arg-pro-rich insert domain. (2/175)

Mammalian Ca2+/CaM-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaM-KK) has been identified and cloned as an activator for two kinases, CaM kinase I (CaM-KI) and CaM kinase IV (CaM-KIV), and a recent report (Yano, S., Tokumitsu, H., and Soderling, T. R. (1998) Nature 396, 584-587) demonstrates that CaM-KK can also activate and phosphorylate protein kinase B (PKB). In this study, we identify a CaM-KK from Caenorhabditis elegans, and comparison of its sequence with the mammalian CaM-KK alpha and beta shows a unique Arg-Pro (RP)-rich insert in their catalytic domains relative to other protein kinases. Deletion of the RP-domain resulted in complete loss of CaM-KIV activation activity and physical interaction of CaM-KK with glutathione S-transferase-CaM-KIV (T196A). However, CaM-KK autophosphorylation and phosphorylation of a synthetic peptide substrate were normal in the RP-domain mutant. Site-directed mutagenesis of three conserved Arg in the RP- domain of CaM-KK confirmed that these positive charges are important for CaM-KIV activation. The RP- domain deletion mutant also failed to fully activate and phosphorylate CaM-KI, but this mutant was indistinguishable from wild-type CaM-KK for the phosphorylation and activation of PKB. These results indicate that the RP-domain in CaM-KK is critical for recognition of downstream CaM-kinases but not for its catalytic activity (i.e. autophosphorylation) and PKB activation.  (+info)

Ca(2+)/Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase cascade in Caenorhabditis elegans. Implication in transcriptional activation. (3/175)

We have recently demonstrated that Caenorhabditis elegans Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CeCaM-KK) can activate mammalian CaM-kinase IV in vitro (Tokumitsu, H., Takahashi, N., Eto, K., Yano, S., Soderling, T.R., and Muramatsu, M. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 15803-15810). In the present study, we have identified and cloned a target CaM-kinase for CaM-KK in C. elegans, CeCaM-kinase I (CeCaM-KI), which has approximately 60% identity to mammalian CaM-KI. CeCaM-KI has 348 amino acid residues with an apparent molecular mass of 40 kDa, which is activated by CeCaM-KK through phosphorylation of Thr(179) in a Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent manner, resulting in a 30-fold decrease in the K(m) of CeCaM-KI for its peptide substrate. Unlike mammalian CaM-KI, CeCaM-KI is mainly localized in the nucleus of transfected cells because the NH(2)-terminal six residues ((2)PLFKRR(7)) contain a functional nuclear localization signal. We have also demonstrated that CeCaM-KK and CeCaM-KI reconstituted a signaling pathway that mediates Ca(2+)-dependent phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and CRE-dependent transcriptional activation in transfected cells, consistent with nuclear localization of CeCaM-KI. These results suggest that the CaM-KK/CaM-KI cascade is conserved in C. elegans and is functionally operated both in vitro and in intact cells, and it may be involved in Ca(2+)-dependent nuclear events such as transcriptional activation through phosphorylation of CREB.  (+info)

Regulatory mechanism of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase. (4/175)

Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaM-KK) is a novel member of the CaM kinase family, which specifically phosphorylates and activates CaM kinase I and IV. In this study, we characterized the CaM-binding peptide of alphaCaM-KK (residues 438-463), which suppressed the activity of constitutively active CaM-KK (84-434) in the absence of Ca(2+)/CaM but competitively with ATP. Truncation and site-directed mutagenesis of the CaM-binding region in CaM-KK reveal that Ile(441) is essential for autoinhibition of CaM-KK. Furthermore, CaM-KK chimera mutants containing the CaM-binding sequence of either myosin light chain kinases or CaM kinase II located C-terminal of Leu(440), exhibited enhanced Ca(2+)/CaM-independent activity (60% of total activity). Although the CaM-binding domains of myosin light chain kinases and CaM kinase II bind to the N- and C-terminal domains of CaM in the opposite orientation to CaM-KK (Osawa, M., Tokumitsu, H., Swindells, M. B., Kurihara, H., Orita, M., Shibanuma, T., Furuya, T., and Ikura, M. (1999) Nat. Struct. Biol. 6, 819-824), the chimeric CaM-KKs containing Ile(441) remained Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent. This result demonstrates that the orientation of the CaM binding is not critical for relief of CaM-KK autoinhibition. However, the requirement of Ile(441) for autoinhibition, which is located at the -3 position from the N-terminal anchoring residue (Trp(444)) to CaM, accounts for the opposite orientation of CaM binding of CaM-KK compared with other CaM kinases.  (+info)

Studies on the phosphorylation of protein kinase B by Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases. (5/175)

Protein kinase B (PKB) was recently reported to be activated on the phosphorylation of Thr(308) by Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase alpha (CaM-kinase kinase alpha), suggesting that PKB was regulated through not only the phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway but also the Ca(2+)/calmodulin protein kinase pathway. The activation of PKB by CaM-kinase kinase alpha was as high as 300-fold after incubation for 30 min under the phosphorylation conditions, and still increased thereafter, suggesting that the maximal activation of PKB on phosphorylation of the Thr(308) residue is several hundred fold. On the other hand, the V(max) value of CaM-kinase kinase alpha for the phosphorylation of PKB was more than two orders of magnitude lower than that for CaM-kinase IV, although the K(m) values for PKB and CaM-kinase IV were not significantly different, raising the question of whether or not PKB is a physiological substrate of CaM-kinase kinase alpha. Besides CaM-kinase kinase alpha, CaM-kinase II also remarkably activated PKB. However, the specific activities of CaM-kinase kinase alpha and CaM-kinase II as to the activation of PKB were more than three orders of magnitude lower than that of 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1).  (+info)

Inhibition of neuronal nitric-oxide synthase by calcium/ calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIalpha through Ser847 phosphorylation in NG108-15 neuronal cells. (6/175)

We have previously demonstrated that phosphorylation of neuronal nitric-oxide synthase (nNOS) at Ser(847) by Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CaM kinases) attenuates the catalytic activity of the enzyme in vitro (Hayashi Y., Nishio M., Naito Y., Yokokura H., Nimura Y., Hidaka H., and Watanabe Y. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 20597-20602). In the present study we determined that CaM kinase IIalpha (CaM-K IIalpha) can directly phosphorylate nNOS on Ser(847), leading to a reduction of nNOS activity in cells. The phosphorylation abilities of purified CaM kinase Ialpha (CaM-K Ialpha), CaM-K IIalpha, and CaM-kinase IV (CaM-K IV) on Ser(847) were analyzed using the synthetic peptide nNOS-(836-859) (Glu-Glu-Arg-Lys-Ser-Tyr-Lys-Val-Arg-Phe-Asn-Ser-Val-Ser-Ser-Tyr-Ser- Asp-Ser-Arg-Lys-Ser-Ser-Gly) from nNOS as substrate. The relative V(max)/K(m) ratios of CaM kinases for nNOS-(836-859) were found to be as follows: CaM-K IIalpha, 100; CaM-K Ialpha, 54.5; CaM-K IV, 9.1. Co-transfection of constitutively active CaM-K IIalpha1-274 but not inactive CaM-K IIalpha1-274, generated by mutation of Lys(42) to Ala, with nNOS into NG108-15 cells, resulted in increased Ser(847) phosphorylation in the presence of okadaic acid, an inhibitor of protein phosphatase (PP)1 and PP2A, with a concomitant inhibition of NOS enzyme activity. In addition, this latter decrease could be reversed by treatment with exogenous PP2A. Cells expressing mutant nNOS (S847A) proved resistant to phosphorylation and a decrease of NOS activity. Thus, our results indicate that Ca(2+) triggers cross-talk signal transduction between CaM kinase and NO and CaM-K IIalpha phosphorylating nNOS on Ser(847), which in turn decreases the gaseous second messenger NO in neuronal cells.  (+info)

Cerebellar defects in Ca2+/calmodulin kinase IV-deficient mice. (7/175)

The Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase CaMKIV was first identified in the cerebellum and has been implicated in nuclear signaling events that control neuronal growth, differentiation, and plasticity. To understand the physiological importance of CaMKIV, we disrupted the mouse Camk4 gene. The CaMKIV null mice displayed locomotor defects consistent with altered cerebellar function. Although the overall cytoarchitecture of the cerebellum appeared normal in the Camk4(-/-) mice, we observed a significant reduction in the number of mature Purkinje neurons and reduced expression of the protein marker calbindin D28k within individual Purkinje neurons. Western immunoblot analyses of cerebellar extracts also established significant deficits in the phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein at serine-133, a proposed target of CaMKIV. Additionally, the absence of CaMKIV markedly altered neurotransmission at excitatory synapses in Purkinje cells. Multiple innervation by climbing fibers and enhanced parallel fiber synaptic currents suggested an immature development of Purkinje cells in the Camk4(-/-) mice. Together, these findings demonstrate that CaMKIV plays key roles in the function and development of the cerebellum.  (+info)

Human Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase beta gene encodes multiple isoforms that display distinct kinase activity. (8/175)

Ca(+2)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CaMKs) are activated upon binding of Ca(+2)/calmodulin. To gain maximal activity, CaMK I and CaMK IV can be further phosphorylated by an upstream kinase, CaMK kinase (CaMKK). We previously isolated cDNA clones encoding human CaMKK beta isoforms that are heterogeneous in their 3'-sequences (Hsu, L.-S., Tsou, A.-P., Chi, C.-W., Lee, C.-H., and Chen, J.-Y. (1998) J. Biomed. Sci. 5, 141-149). In the present study, we examined the genomic organization and transcription of the human CaMKK beta gene. The human CaMKK beta locus spans more than 40 kilobase pairs and maps to chromosome 12q24.2. It is organized into 18 exons and 17 introns that are flanked by typical splice donor and acceptor sequences. Two major species of transcripts, namely the beta1 (5.6 kilobase pairs) and beta2 (2.9 kilobase pairs), are generated through differential usage of polyadenylation sites located in the last and penultimate exons. Additional forms of CaMKK beta transcripts were also identified that resulted from alternative splicing of the internal exons 14 and/or 16. These isoforms display differential expression patterns in human tissues and tumor-derived cell lines. They also exhibit a distinct ability to undergo autophosphorylation and to phosphorylate the downstream kinases CaMK I and CaMK IV. The differential expression of CaMKK beta isoforms with distinct activity further suggests the complexity of the regulation of the CaMKK/CaMK cascade and an important role for CaMKK in the action of Ca(+2)-mediated cellular responses.  (+info)

We demonstrate for the first time that 4H-1,2,6-thiadiazin-4-one (TDZ) can function as a chemotype for the design of ATP-competitive kinase inhibitors. Using insights from a co-crystal structure of a 3,5-bis(arylamino)-4H-1,2,6-thiadiazin-4-one bound to calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2 (CaMKK2), several analogues were identified with micromolar activity through targeted displacement of bound water molecules in the active site. Since the TDZ analogues showed reduced promiscuity compared to their 2,4-dianilinopyrimidine counter parts, they represent starting points for development of highly selective kinase inhibitors.
Background: CaMKK β is a major kinase activated by elevated levels of intracellular calcium. Our previous data has suggested that CaMKK β is neuroprotective after stroke in young mice as inhibition of this kinase aggravated stroke outcome. As aging is an important determinant of stroke outcomes, here we evaluated the functional role of CaMKK β in stroke in aged mice.. Methods: Aged wild type (WT) males received intracerebral injections of lentiviral vectors carrying either CaMKK β (LV-CaMKK β) or GFP (LV-GFP) 7 days before middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO, 90 minutes). Acute infarcts and neurological deficits scores were then analyzed at 72 hours post MCAO. In chronic survival studies, aged male CaMKK β knockout (KO) and WT mice were subjected to 60 minutes MCAO. Following stroke, long-term behavioral assessments were continuously performed for 3 weeks in KO and WT mice until the sacrifice for tissue loss assessments.. Results: Baseline levels of CaMKK β in aged brain were ...
Neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) is a major cause of death and disability in neonates. HI leads to a dramatic rise in intracellular calcium levels, which was originally thought to be detrimental to the brain. However, it has been increasingly recognized that this calcium signaling may also play an important protective role after injury by triggering endogenous neuroprotective pathways. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase ß (CaMKK ß) is a major kinase activated by elevated levels of intracellular calcium. Here we evaluated the functional role of CaMKK ß in neonatal mice after HI in both acute and chronic survival experiments. Postnatal day ten wild-type (WT) and CaMKK ß knockout (KO) mouse male pups were subjected to unilateral carotid artery ligation, followed by 40 min of hypoxia (10% O2 in N2). STO-609, a CaMKK inhibitor, was administered intraperitoneally to WT mice at 5 minutes after HI. TTC (2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride monohydrate) staining was used to assess ...
Camkk1 - Camkk1 (Myc-DDK-tagged ORF) - Rat calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 1, alpha (Camkk1), (10 ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
This serineethreonine kinase is primarily activated in response to an increase during the AMP ATP ratio within the cell and it is actually phosphorylated at Thr while in the catalytic subunit by upstream kinases such as Liver Kinase B or calmodulin dependent protein kinase kinase beta . Additionally, AMPK may also be activated by a variety of pharmacological agents, like metformin which is applied during the therapy of metabolic ailments such as style diabetes and obesity . AMPK activation reprograms cellular metabolism and enforces metabolic checkpoints by acting on mTOR complex , p and other molecules . Particularly, AMPK acts to restore cellular power balance by marketing ATP making processes, such as fatty acid beta oxidation, and simultaneously by inhibiting ATP consuming processes, such as fatty acid synthesis, gluconeogenesis and protein synthesis. That is initially attained by direct phosphorylation of some critical metabolic enzymes and subsequently by modulation of gene expression . ...
AMPK is a ubiquitously expressed heterotrimeric kinase that plays a key role in cellular energy homeostasis (2). AMPK consists of an α, a β, and a γ subunit and is activated by the upstream kinases such as calcium calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK) and serine/threonine kinase 11 (LKB1) via phosphorylation of threonine residue 172 (47). Activation of AMPK by CaMKK and LKB1 is dependent, respectively, on intracellular calcium and the AMP:ATP ratio (47). During energy-depleted conditions, intracellular concentrations of AMP rise while ATP levels fall, leading to increased activation of AMPK and phosphorylation of its multiple substrates to enhance catabolism and suppress anabolic energy consumption. In excess energy states, reduced AMPK activation stimulates protein synthesis, cell growth, and storage. AMPK activity is also independently regulated by circulating hormones and cytokines, including bradykinin and the adipokines leptin and adiponectin (2,47). AMPK is also induced by ...
The metabolic sensor, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a serine/threonine protein kinase existing as a heterotrimer of catalytic (α1/α2) and regulatory subunits (β1/β2 and γ1/γ2/γ3). The 12 possible heterotrimers exhibit tissue and potentially functional specificity [8], and all can be activated by binding of AMP/ADP to the AMPKγ subunit and phosphorylation by one of two upstream kinases, liver kinase B (LKB)1 or calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK)β. AMPK is activated in response to depletion of ATP or alterations in intracellular calcium concentrations, and acts to shut down ATP-consuming, anabolic pathways and promoting ATP-generating, catabolic pathways [9].. As a monitor of cellular and whole body energy status [10], it is probably unsurprising that a recent elegant study in Science from Reuben Shaws laboratory places AMPK at the heart of the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics. Using CRISPR modification to delete AMPKα1 and/or AMPKα2 in vitro, they ...
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase 2 (CaMKK2) has been implicated in the regulation of metabolic activity in cancer and immune cells, and affects whole-body metabolism by regulating ghrelin-signalling in the hypothalamus. This has led to efforts to develop specific CaMKK2 inhibitors, and STO-609 is the standardly used CaMKK2 inhibitor to date. We have developed a novel fluorescence-based assay by exploiting the intrinsic fluorescence properties of STO-609. Here, we report an in vitro binding constant of KD ∼17 nM between STO-609 and purified CaMKK2 or CaMKK2:Calmodulin complex. Whereas high concentrations of ATP were able to displace STO-609 from the kinase, GTP was unable to achieve this confirming the specificity of this association. Recent structural studies on the kinase domain of CaMKK2 had implicated a number of amino acids involved in the binding of STO-609. Our fluorescent assay enabled us to confirm that Phe(267) is critically important for this association since mutation of this
FVII, factor VII; FX, factor X; FXa, factor X activated; TF, tissue factor; PAR1, protease-activated receptor 1; TRPC, transient receptor potential canonical; PLC, phospholipase C; PKC, protein kinase C; CaMKKB, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase B; AMPK, AMP-activated protein kinase; mTORC1, mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1; VE-cadherin, vascular endothelial cadherin; vWF, von Willebrand factor; WBP, Weibel-Palade bodies; Sirt1, sirtuin 1; FoxO1, forkhead box protein O1; ox-LDL, oxidized low-density lipoprotein. Poor vascular integrity contributes to the TME. in cancer treatment. In this review, we aim to bring to light possible new areas of cancer investigation and elucidate strategies for future therapeutic intervention. fusion with endosomes and subsequently with lysosomes to form a degradative autolysosome (64, 65). Maturation and autophagosome-lysosome fusion requires several proteins including Rab GTPases, membrane-tethering complexes and soluble ...
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase 2 (CaMKK2) has been implicated in a range of conditions and pathologies from prostate to hepatic cancer. Here, we describe the expression in Escherichia coli and the purification protocol for the following constructs: full-length CaMKK2 in complex with CaM, CaMKK2 apo, CaMKK2 (165-501) in complex with CaM, and the CaMKK2 F267G mutant. The protocols described have been optimized for maximum yield and purity with minimal purification steps required and the proteins subsequently used to develop a fluorescence-based assay for drug binding to the kinase, Using the fluorescent properties of STO-609 as a tool to assist structure-function analyses of recombinant CaMKK2 [1].
Looking for online definition of CaM-kinase kinase 1 in the Medical Dictionary? CaM-kinase kinase 1 explanation free. What is CaM-kinase kinase 1? Meaning of CaM-kinase kinase 1 medical term. What does CaM-kinase kinase 1 mean?
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a serine threonine kinase that is highly conserved through evolution. AMPK system acts as a sensor of cellular energy status. It is activated by increases in the cellular AMP:ATP ratio caused by metabolic stresses that either interfere with ATP production (eg, deprivation for glucose or oxygen) or that accelerate ATP consumption (eg, muscle contraction). Several upstream kinases, including liver kinase B1 (LKB1), calcium/calmodulin kinase kinase-beta (CaMKK beta), and TGF-beta-activated kinase-1 (TAK-1), can activate AMPK by phosphorylating a threonine residue on its catalytic alpha-subunit. Once activated, AMPK leads to a concomitant inhibition of energy-consuming biosynthetic pathways, such as protein, fatty acid and glycogen synthesis, and activation of ATP-producing catabolic pathways, such as fatty acid oxidation and glycolysis ...
Here we show that BBR has a similar effect to metformin and rosiglitazone to inhibit respiratory complex I, consistent with previous studies (14-18). These data highlight the importance of complex I as a diabetes target. Inhibition of complex I is likely the main mechanism by which BBR activates AMPK, since we did not observe selective activation of either CAMKKβ or LKB1 by BBR. These findings are consistent with a recent model proposing a major role for AMPK regulation at the level of the AMPK phosphatase in response to metabolic stress (19,20). Finally, we have also identified a novel BBR derivative that displays improved in vivo efficacy, thus paving a path for future drug development in this area.. The use of LKB1−/− MEFs and the CAMKK inhibitor STO-609 has provided novel insights into the actions of BBR. We observed robust activation of AMPK in LKB1−/− MEFs by BBR, an effect that could be blocked by pretreatment with STO-609. Conversely in L6 myotubes, which express both LKB1 and ...
Involvement of PCNK in CaMKIα phosphorylation.MCF-7 cells were transfected with siRNA targeting PNCK or control siRNA (NT1) and 72 h later, cells were exposed
Alzheimer disease is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder characterized by amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptide deposition into cerebral amyloid plaques. The natural polyphenol resveratrol promotes anti-aging pathways via the activation of several metabolic sensors, including the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Resveratrol also lowers Abeta levels in cell lines; however, the underlying mechanism responsible for this effect is largely unknown. Moreover, the bioavailability of resveratrol in the brain remains uncertain. Here we show that AMPK signaling controls Abeta metabolism and mediates the anti-amyloidogenic effect of resveratrol in non-neuronal and neuronal cells, including in mouse primary neurons. Resveratrol increased cytosolic calcium levels and promoted AMPK activation by the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-beta. Direct pharmacological and genetic activation of AMPK lowered extracellular Abeta accumulation, whereas AMPK inhibition reduced the effect of resveratrol on Abeta
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is normally a bioactive phospholipid that affects several biological functions such as for example cell proliferation migration and survival coming from LPA receptors. with cell migration in ovarian cancers cells. We discovered that LPA resulted in a striking upsurge in AMPK phosphorylation in pathways relating to the phospholipase C-β3 (PLC-β3) and calcium mineral/calmodulin-dependent proteins kinase kinase Roscovitine β (CaMKKβ) in SKOV3 ovarian cancers cells. siRNA-mediated knockdown of AMPKα1 PLC-β3 or (CaMKKβ) impaired the stimulatory ramifications of LPA on cell migration. Furthermore we discovered that knockdown of AMPKα1 abrogated LPA-induced activation of the tiny GTPase RhoA and ezrin/radixin/moesin protein regulating membrane dynamics as membrane-cytoskeleton linkers. In ovarian cancers xenograft choices knockdown of AMPK decreased peritoneal dissemination and lung metastasis significantly. Taken jointly our results claim that activation of AMPK by ...
Looking for online definition of CaM-kinase II alpha chain in the Medical Dictionary? CaM-kinase II alpha chain explanation free. What is CaM-kinase II alpha chain? Meaning of CaM-kinase II alpha chain medical term. What does CaM-kinase II alpha chain mean?
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a serine threonine kinase that is highly conserved through evolution. AMPK system acts as a sensor of cellular energy status. It is activated by increases in the cellular AMP:ATP ratio caused by metabolic stresses that either interfere with ATP production (eg, deprivation for glucose or oxygen) or that accelerate ATP consumption (eg, muscle contraction). Several upstream kinases, including liver kinase B1 (LKB1), calcium/calmodulin kinase kinase-beta (CaMKK beta), and TGF-beta-activated kinase-1 (TAK-1), can activate AMPK by phosphorylating a threonine residue on its catalytic alpha-subunit. Once activated, AMPK leads to a concomitant inhibition of energy-consuming biosynthetic pathways, such as protein, fatty acid and glycogen synthesis, and activation of ATP-producing catabolic pathways, such as fatty acid oxidation and glycolysis ...
Objective: To investigate the effect and mechanism of CTRP13 on hepatic sinusoidal capillarization induced by high glucose in rat liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (rLSECs).Results: CTRP13 was reduced in high glucose-treated rLSECs. High glucose increased LN and CAV-1 expression and inhibited CaMKKβ and AMPK phosphorylation. CTRP13 overexpression protected rLSECs against high glucose-induced increase of LN and CAV-1 expression. Moreover, CTRP13 overexpression increased high glucose-induced inhibition of CaMKKβ and AMPK activation in CTRP13-overexpressing rLSECs. Inhibition of CaMKKβ and AMPK disturbed the protective effects of CTRP13 in high glucose-induced increase of LN and CAV-1. Hepatic steatosis was enhanced and basement membrane was thickened in liver of diabetic fatty liver rats.Conclusions: Our data identified the protective role of CTRP13 in hepatic sinusoidal capillarization induced by high glucose via activating CAMKKβ/AMPK pathway. CTRP13 may be a potential target
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Professional essays on That Championship Season. Authoritative academic resources for essays, homework and school projects on That Championship Season.
Recombinant Calcium/calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase IV (CAMK4) Protein (His tag). Spezies: Human. Quelle: Escherichia coli (E. coli). Jetzt Produkt ABIN668012 bestellen.
Results We show that culture of MRL/lpr Foxp3-GFP T cells in the presence of KN-93 promotes Treg differentiation in a dose dependent manner (Fig. F). Treatment of MRL/lpr Foxp3-GFP mice with KN-93 results in significant induction of Treg cells in the spleen, peripheral lymph nodes (Fig. B-E) and peripheral blood (Fig. A and B) and this is accompanied by decreased skin and kidney damage. Notably, KN-93 clearly diminishes the accumulation of inflammatory cells along with reciprocally increased Treg cells in target organ.. ...
High fat diet-induced endotoxaemia triggers low-grade inflammation and lipid release from adipose tissue. This study aims to unravel the cellular mechanisms leading to the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) effects in human adipocytes. Subcutaneous pre-adipocytes surgically isolated from patients were differentiated into mature adipocytes in vitro. Lipolysis was assessed by measurement of glycerol release and mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines were evaluated by real-time PCR. Treatment with LPS for 24 h induced a dose-dependent increase in interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 mRNA expression. At 1?µg/ml LPS, IL-6 and IL-8 were induced to 19.5?±?1.8-fold and 662.7?±?91.5-fold (P?,?0.01 vs basal), respectively. From 100?ng/ml to 1?µg/ml, LPS-induced lipolysis increased to a plateau of 3.1-fold above basal level (P?,?0.001 vs basal). Co-treatment with inhibitors of inhibitory kappa B kinase kinase beta (IKK?) or NF-?B inhibited LPS-induced glycerol release. Co-treatment with the protein kinase A (PKA) ...
AMPK can also be activated by a Ca2+-mediated pathway involving phosphorylation at Thr-172 by the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase, CaMKK 3. CaMKKa and CaMKK 3 were discovered as the upstream kinase for the calmodulin-dependent protein kinases-1 and -IV they both activate AMPK in a Ca2+/ calmodulin-dependent manner in cell-free assays, although CaMKK 3 appears to much more active against AMPK in intact cells. Expression of CaMKKa and CaMKK(3 primarily occurs in neural tissues, but CaMKKp is also expressed in some other cell types. Thus, the Ca2+-mediated pathway for AMPK activation has now been shown to occur in response to depolarization in rat neuronal tissue, in response to thrombin (acting via a Gq-coupled receptor) in endothelial cells, and in response to activation of the T cell receptor in T cells. [Pg.71] ...
STO-609 acetate,7-Oxo-7H-benzimidazo[2,1-a]benz[de]isoquinoline-3-carboxylicacidacetate 52029-86-4 NMR spectrum, STO-609 acetate,7-Oxo-7H-benzimidazo[2,1-a]benz[de]isoquinoline-3-carboxylicacidacetate H-NMR spectral analysis, STO-609 acetate,7-Oxo-7H-benzimidazo[2,1-a]benz[de]isoquinoline-3-carboxylicacidacetate C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
Complete information for CAMKK2 gene (Protein Coding), Calcium/Calmodulin Dependent Protein Kinase Kinase 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Expression of CAMKK1 (CAMKKA, DKFZp761M0423, MGC34095) in pancreas tissue. Antibody staining with CAB009111 in immunohistochemistry.
1MXE: Structure of the Complex of Calmodulin with the Target Sequence of Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase I: Studies of the Kinase Activation Mechanism
Wet-lab validated real-time PCR primer assays for your biological pathway of interest. Select your gene target of interest using an interactive pathway map, and select your plate.
Top performende anti-Schaf CAMKK2 Antikörper für Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin-embedded Sections) (IHC (p)) vergleichen & kaufen.
pdf,http://hydrodictyon.eeb.uconn.edu/courses/systematicsseminar/restricted/Fujisawa%2C%20Barraclough_2013_Delimiting%20Species%20Using%20Single-Locus%20Data%20and%20the%20Generalized%20Mixed%20Yule%20Coalescent%20Approach%20A%20Revised%20Metho.pdf}}Fujisawa, Barraclough_2013_Delimiting Species Using Single-Locus Data and the Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent Approach A Revised Metho. ...
pdf,http://hydrodictyon.eeb.uconn.edu/courses/systematicsseminar/restricted/Fujisawa%2C%20Barraclough_2013_Delimiting%20Species%20Using%20Single-Locus%20Data%20and%20the%20Generalized%20Mixed%20Yule%20Coalescent%20Approach%20A%20Revised%20Metho.pdf}}Fujisawa, Barraclough_2013_Delimiting Species Using Single-Locus Data and the Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent Approach A Revised Metho. ...
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase belonging to a proposed calcium-triggered signaling cascade. In vitro phosphorylates CREB1 and SYN1/synapsin I. Phosphorylates and activates CAMK1 (By similarity).
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
calmodulin-dependent protein kinase V: widely distributed in various tissues, involved in calcium-regulated processes; from rat brain; may exist in 40 & 41 kDa isoforms; amino acid sequence has been determined
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Camk1g - Camk1g (untagged ORF) - Rat calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IG (Camk1g), (10 ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Approximately ten percent of all bone fractures do not heal, resulting in patient morbidity and healthcare costs. However, no pharmacological treatments are currently available to promote efficient bone healing. Inhibition of Ca2+ /calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase kinase 2 (CaMKK2) reverses age-associated loss of trabecular and cortical bone volume and strength in mice. In the current study, we investigated the role of CaMKK2 in bone fracture healing and show that its pharmacological inhibition using STO-609 accelerates early cellular and molecular events associated with endochondral ossification, resulting in a more rapid and efficient healing of the fracture ...
Camk2d2 antibody (calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) II delta 2) for IHC-P, WB. Anti-Camk2d2 pAb (GTX124377) is tested in Zebrafish samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Complete information for CAMK4 gene (Protein Coding), Calcium/Calmodulin Dependent Protein Kinase IV, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Stone crusher and quarry plant in fujisawa kanagawa japan advanced rock crushing equipment how do stone crusher affect stone crusher and quarry plant in fujisawa kanagawa jap the gulin product line, consisting of more than 30 machines, sets the standard
This Histri was built automatically but not manually verified. As a consequence, the Histri can be incomplete or can contain errors ...
Affiliation:Kagawa University,Medicine,Professor,医学部,教授, Research Field:Metabolomics,Orthopaedic surgery,Functional biochemistry,General physiology,Medical systems, Keywords:PREB,insulin,糖尿病,glucose,グルコース,インスリン,CaM-KK,膵β細胞,Gas6,CaMKIV, # of Research Projects:9, # of Research Products:68
H. Watanabe, A. Kuhn, M. Fushiki, K. Agata, Y. Kocag z, S. zbek, T. Fujisawa & T.W. Holstein: Sequential actions of -catenin and Bmp pattern the oral nerve net in Nematostella vectensi. Nature Communication 5:5536 (23 December 2014), doi:10.1038/ ...
Takarada H, Sekine M, Kosugi H, Matsuo Y, Fujisawa T, Omata S, Kishi E, Shimizu A, Tsukatani N, Tanikawa S, Fujita N, Harayama S ...
Experimental Studies on the Influence of Surgical Intervention on the Metabolism of Reticuloendothelial System:II. A Study on Changes in the metabolic Function of RES under various conditions of Operation by means of Glycyrrhizin ,sup,59,/sup,Fe Colloid method (1967 ...
As part of SGC-UNCs scaffold hopping strategy to identify new series of compounds active against CaMKK2, we recently submitted a select number of compounds differing in hinge-binder for CaMKK2 enzyme inhibition assay. The hinge-binders included thienopyridine, furopyridine, quinoline, thienopyrimidines, pyrimidine, N-methyl azaindoles and quinazoline, Figure 1. Others are azaindoles, triazolopyridazine, pyrazolopyridine, imidazopyridine etc. Figure 1: Read More …. ...
Oklahoma Immunization Update June 2012 PREVENTION and PREPAREDNESS SERVICES IMMUNIZATION SERVICE PLEASE POST & DISTRIBUTE TO ALL NURSING AND MEDICAL STAFF Interim MMR VIS Includes 2D Barcode The MMR vaccine information statement (VIS) has recently been updated and is now available at http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/vis/downloads/vi s-mmr.pdf. This interim VIS has been updated with minor changes throughout, and this new version will be the basis for a final edition, which should be available in several months. This is the first VIS to feature a 2D barcode that is located on the second page. This will allow providers with a 2D barcode reader and the appropriate software to scan the VIS name and edition date into an electronic system such as an electronic medical record or Immunization Information System (IIS), as an OPTIONAL alternative to entering this information manually. For more information, see CDCs VIS barcode webpage at http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/vis/vis-barcodes. htm. Health ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Amphetamine activate protein kinase C and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase via NMDA receptor in primary cultures of rat cortical neurons. AU - Wu, Hsueh-Hsia. AU - Lee, Horng-Mo. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. M3 - Article. VL - 1. SP - 12. EP - 19. JO - New Taipei Journal of Medicine. JF - New Taipei Journal of Medicine. SN - 1562-4242. ER - ...
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We have professional and advanced research and production capacity for CAMKI reagents production, including Proteins, Antibodies, cDNA Clones,etc. All CAMK1 products are produced in house and quality controlled.
Fujisawa was developing a broad spectrum parenteral carbapenem FR 21818 in preclinical trials in Japan, however, no recent development has been reported. The
Most of the movie is one long Jmol script, but it took some post-editing of the resulting recording to smooth the transitions, i.e. remove the lag time when Jmol is computing the surfaces. The coordinates of the reaction and the large nanostructure is taken from Chemtube3D and this site, respectively. I have described how to extract the coordinates from a site using Jmol in a previous post. The orbitals and vibrational modes were computed using GAMESS and RHF/STO-3G ...
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases. References[edit]. .mw-parser-output .reflist{font-size:90%;margin-bottom:0.5em; ... which contain residues that can be directly modified by a series of protein kinases and protein phosphatases, as well as ... "MHC class I immune proteins are critical for hippocampus-dependent memory and gate NMDAR-dependent hippocampal long-term ... Yu XM, Askalan R, Keil GJ, Salter MW (January 1997). "NMDA channel regulation by channel-associated protein tyrosine kinase Src ...
Calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase IG is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CAMK1G gene. This gene encodes a ... "Entrez Gene: Calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase IG". Retrieved 2018-08-28. Takemoto-Kimura S, Terai H, Takamoto M, ... protein similar to calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase, however, its exact function is not known. [provided by RefSeq, ... a novel membrane-anchored neuronal Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK)". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (20): 18597-605. doi: ...
... calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) II delta". Hook SS, Means AR (2001). "Ca2+/CaM-dependent ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II delta chain is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CAMK2D gene. The ... product of this gene belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase family and to the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ... "Rad and Rad-related GTPases interact with calmodulin and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (18): ...
Picciotto, M. R.; Czernik, A. J.; Nairn, A. C. (15 December 1993). "Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I. cDNA cloning ... "Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I - cDNA cloning and identification of autophosphorylation site". J. Biol. Chem. ... work with Paul Greengard at Rockefeller University where she cloned the gene for calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 1 ... "Menthol disrupts nicotine's psychostimulant properties in an age and sex-dependent manner in C57BL/6J mice". Behav. Brain Res. ...
This sudden increase in cytoplasmic calcium activates Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMKII). Activated CaMKII ... Ren J, Li Y, Kufe D (May 2002). "Protein kinase C delta regulates function of the DF3/MUC1 carcinoma antigen in beta-catenin ... There is one additional requirement: Similar to the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), substrates need to associate ... Thus it also requires a "priming kinase" for its activities. In the case of beta-catenin, the most important priming kinase is ...
... is phosphorylated by the calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase. MAPKAPK2 (mitogen-activated-protein kinase-activating ... that are phosphorylated by a variety of protein kinases. Ser40 is phosphorylated by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Ser19 ( ... "Molecular cloning of cDNA coding for brain-specific 14-3-3 protein, a protein kinase-dependent activator of tyrosine and ... Tyrosine hydroxylase is activated by phosphorylation dependent binding to 14-3-3 proteins. Since the 14-3-3 proteins also are ...
Like neuroligins, neurexins possess a PDZ-domain that associates with CASK (Calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase). In ... Cadherins are calcium- dependent, homophilic cell adhesion molecules that form complexes with cytosolic partners known as ... This interaction, mediated by ephrin A3/EphA4 signaling, induces the recruitment and activation of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 ( ... Components of this complex bind to a number of different scaffolding proteins, phosphotases, kinases, and receptors. Classical ...
Activation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in obesity mediates suppression of hepatic insulin signaling". ... and a calcium-induced apoptosis pathway, which involves an ER calcium-release channel IP3R, a calcium-sensitive protein kinase ... Tabas discovered a calcium-IP3R-CaMKII pathway plays a key role in glucagon-mediated excessive hepatic glucose production, ... One notable finding showed a critical link between the PERK / CHOP branch of the stress Unfolded protein response (UPR) ...
Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-protein phosphatase 1 switch facilitates specificity in postsynaptic calcium ... calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), which leads to LTP. The difference in Ca2+ concentration required for a cell ... in the phosphorylation of isocitrate dehydrogenase and in the activation of the calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CAMKII ... called MAPK kinase, or MAPKK. Similarly, MAPKK is activated by MAPKK kinase, or MAPKKK. These kinases are sequentially ...
"CAMK2A calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II alpha [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. ... β CAMKIIδ CAMKIIγ CAMKIII CAMKIV CAMKV CaM kinase like vesicle associated SCAMK Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase ... CAMK, also written as CaMK, is an abbreviation for the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase class of enzymes. CAMKs are ... Hudmon A, Schulman H (2002-06-01). "Neuronal CA2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II: the role of structure and ...
"Liprinalpha1 degradation by calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II regulates LAR receptor tyrosine phosphatase ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the LAR protein tyrosine phosphatase-interacting protein (liprin) family. ... Protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, f polypeptide (PTPRF), interacting protein (liprin), alpha 1 has been shown to ... "Entrez Gene: PPFIA1 protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, f polypeptide (PTPRF), interacting protein (liprin), alpha 1 ...
This gene is also known by several other names: CMG 2 (CAMGUK protein 2), calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase 3 ... "Entrez Gene: CASK Calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (MAGUK family)". Tarpey PS, Smith R, Pleasance E, Whibley ... Zhu ZQ, Wang D, Xiang D, Yuan YX, Wang Y (2014). "Calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase is involved in exendin-4- ... "Association of junctional adhesion molecule with calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (CASK/LIN-2) in human ...
"Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II phosphorylation drives synapse-associated protein 97 into spines". The Journal ... is the influx of calcium through the NMDA receptors and the resultant activation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ( ... element-binding protein through a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent stimulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase ... "Long-term potentiation is associated with an increased activity of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II". The Journal of ...
... calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CAMK) subfamily. This protein plays a role in the calcium/calmodulin-dependent (CaM) ... calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I by calmodulin and by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase". J. Biol. Chem. 273 ... calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV by Ca(2+)-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase Ia kinase. Phosphorylation of threonine ... calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase alpha by cAMP-dependent protein kinase: I. Biochemical analysis". J. Biochem. 130 (4 ...
Phosphorylation by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, protein kinase C, and calcium/calmodulin protein kinase; identification ... calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I by calmodulin and by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase". J. Biol. Chem. 273 ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I is expressed in many tissues and is a component of a calmodulin-dependent protein ... Calcium/calmodulin directly activates calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I by binding to the enzyme and indirectly ...
Ng J, Rashid AJ, So CH, O'Dowd BF, George SR (January 2010). "Activation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIalpha ... dual functional regulation by G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 285 (45): 35092-103. ... Hasbi A, Fan T, Alijaniaram M, Nguyen T, Perreault ML, O'Dowd BF, George SR (December 2009). "Calcium signaling cascade links ... In comparison, signalling of the homologous D5-D2 receptor heteromer involves the influx of extracellular calcium. The D1-D2 ...
... and to the Ca++/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily. This protein plays a role in the calcium/calmodulin-dependent ( ... 2005). "Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-beta is an alternative upstream kinase for AMP-activated protein kinase". ... 2005). "Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-beta acts upstream of AMP-activated protein kinase in mammalian cells ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CAMKK2 gene. The product of ...
Phosphorylation by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, protein kinase C, and calcium/calmodulin protein kinase; identification ... calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I by calmodulin and by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase". J. Biol. Chem. 273 ... and activation of Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV by Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase Ia kinase. ... 2001). "Human Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase beta gene encodes multiple isoforms that display distinct kinase ...
"Entrez Gene: CAMK2B calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) II beta". Walikonis RS, Oguni A, Khorosheva EM, ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II beta chain is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CAMK2B gene. The ... Sequence analyses of human brain calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II". Mol. Biol. Rep. 28 (1): 35-41. doi:10.1023/A: ... Novak G, Seeman P, Tallerico T (2001). "Schizophrenia: elevated mRNA for calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIbeta in ...
In an experiment using virus-induced gene silencing of two calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) in a wild tobacco ( ... are turned on by Ca2+ dependent protein kinases. In Arabidopsis, over expression of the IQD1 calmodulin-binding transcriptional ... This increase in cytosolic concentration activates target proteins such as Calmodulin and other binding proteins. Downstream ... When fatty acid amides are present in insect saliva, the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are activated. These genes ...
The increase in presynaptic calcium concentration activates calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK). CaMK ... Voltage-dependent calcium channel (VDCC) Allows the rapid influx of calcium during an action potential. ... The protein ELKS binds to the cell adhesion protein, β-neurexin, and other proteins within the complex such as Piccolo and ... that cause a local influx of calcium. The increase in calcium is detected by proteins in the active zone and forces vesicles ...
"Association of junctional adhesion molecule with calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (CASK/LIN-2) in human ... "Association of junctional adhesion molecule with calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (CASK/LIN-2) in human ... "Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human cDNAs". Genome ... KDR+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text from ...
1999). "Death-associated protein kinase 2 is a new calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase that signals apoptosis through ... Membrane protein MLC1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MLC1 gene. MLC1 (also called WKL1) is the only human gene ... homology to other proteins suggests that it may be an integral membrane transport protein. Mutations in this gene have been ... The MLC1 protein contains six putative transmembrane domains (S1-S6) and a pore region (P) between S5 and S6. Furthermore, MLC1 ...
... for nuclear calcium oscillations and a nuclear localized complex comprising a calcium-and-calmodulin dependent protein kinase ... and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase CCaMK. Moreover, the role of CYCLOPS, initially annotated as a protein with unknown ... Deregulation of a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase leads to spontaneous nodule development. Nature Volume: 441 Issue: 7097 ... The Parniske lab discovered that CYCLOPS is an interactor and phosphorylation substrate of the calcium- ...
"Entrez Gene: CAMK2G calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) II gamma". Moyers JS, Bilan PJ, Zhu J, Kahn CR ( ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II gamma chain is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CAMK2G gene. The ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II subunit gamma) at the PDBe-KB. Biology portal This article incorporates ... calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily. Calcium signaling is crucial for several aspects of plasticity at glutamatergic ...
... a protein kinase mediating biological effects downstream of Rho GTPases. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II gamma ( ... Harvey BP, Banga SS, Ozer HL (2004). "Regulation of the multifunctional Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II by the PP2C ... are Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase phosphatases that promote apoptosis". J Biol Chem. 276 (47): 44193-202. doi: ... Protein phosphatase 1F is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PPM1F gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member ...
Ca2+ quickly enters and binds to calmodulin. Calmodulin activates calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), ... and calcium ions. Calcium ion entry into the presynaptic terminal causes the presynaptic release of glutamate, which diffuses ... This gives the NMDAR the property of being voltage-dependent, in that it requires strong postsynaptic depolarization to allow ...
Class IIa HDACs are phosphorylated by calcium/calmodulin dependent-kindase (CaMK) and protein kinase D (PKD) in response to ... This is most likely to allow for substrate recognition and protein-protein interactions that are necessary for class IIa HDAC ... This overexpression promoted lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-inducible expression of HDAC-dependent genes via a HIF-1alpha-dependent ... The protein encoded by this gene has sequence homology to members of the histone deacetylase family. This gene is orthologous ...
Phosphorylation of calponin by a protein kinase, which is dependent upon calcium binding to calmodulin, releases the calponin's ... Calmodulin, when activated by calcium may bind weakly to the CH domain and inhibit calponin binding with α-actin. Calponin is ... Calponin is a calcium binding protein. Calponin tonically inhibits the ATPase activity of myosin in smooth muscle. ... It is a binding protein and is made up of three domains. These domains in order of appearance are Calponin Homology (CH), ...
Protein KinasesProtein-Serine-Threonine KinasesCalcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein KinasesCalcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein ... Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2 delta Subunit. *Calcium Calmodulin Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2 delta ... Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2 alpha Subunit. *Calcium Calmodulin Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2 alpha ... Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2 beta Subunit. *Calcium Calmodulin Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2 beta ...
One of the major mediators of calcium action in neurons is the multifunctional calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM ... Inhibition of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase in Drosophila disrupts behavioral plasticity.. Griffith LC1, Verselis ... To assess the involvement of CaM kinase in experience-dependent behavior in an intact animal, we have designed a specific ... Protein Kinase Inhibitors. *Protein Kinases. *Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases. Grant support. *NS08779/NS/NINDS ...
View protein in PROSITE. PS00107, PROTEIN_KINASE_ATP, 1 hit. PS50011, PROTEIN_KINASE_DOM, 1 hit. PS00108, PROTEIN_KINASE_ ... View protein in PROSITE. PS00107, PROTEIN_KINASE_ATP, 1 hit. PS50011, PROTEIN_KINASE_DOM, 1 hit. PS00108, PROTEIN_KINASE_ ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinaseARBA annotation. Automatic assertion according to rulesi ... tr,F1MVF1,F1MVF1_BOVIN Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase OS=Bos taurus OX=9913 GN=CAMK2G PE=3 SV=3 ...
Hunting Increases Phosphorylation of Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II in Adult Barn Owls. Grant S. Nichols ... Here we investigated phosphorylation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (pCaMKII) in both juveniles and adults. ... We previously demonstrated that phosphorylation of the cyclic-AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) provides a readout of ...
Hunting Increases Phosphorylation of Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II in Adult Barn Owls. Grant S. Nichols ... A. Rodriguez-Contreras, X.-B. Liu, and W. M. DeBello, "Axodendritic contacts onto calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ... A. Hudmon and H. Schulman, "Neuronal CA2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II: the role of structure and autoregulation in ... "Deficient hippocampal long-term potentiation in alpha-calcium-calmodulin kinase II mutant mice," Science, vol. 257, no. 5067, ...
Translocation of autophosphorylated calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II to the postsynaptic density. J. Biol. Chem. ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II links ER stress with Fas and mitochondrial apoptosis pathways. Jenelle M. ... Regulation and role of brain calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. Neurochem. Int. 21:469-497. View this article via ... Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II is required for microcystin-induced apoptosis. J. Biol. Chem. 277:2804-2811. View ...
... and CaMKII alpha and beta protein levels. In the hippocampus of Pb2+-exposed 50-day-old rats known to exhib ... we examined whether calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is affected by chronic developmental Pb2+ exposure ... Calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII); NMDA receptor (NMDAR); Lead (Pb2+); Calcium signaling; Enzyme kinetics ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II activity and expression are altered in the hippocampus of Pb2+- exposed rats.. ...
Calmodulin Trapping by Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase. By Tobias Meyer, Phyllis I. Hanson, Lubert Stryer, Howard ... Calmodulin Trapping by Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase. By Tobias Meyer, Phyllis I. Hanson, Lubert Stryer, Howard ... Calmodulin Trapping by Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ... Multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) transduces transient elevations in intracellular ...
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase belonging to a proposed calcium-triggered signaling cascade. In vitro ... View protein in PROSITE. PS00107. PROTEIN_KINASE_ATP. 1 hit. PS50011. PROTEIN_KINASE_DOM. 1 hit. PS00108. PROTEIN_KINASE_ST. 1 ... View protein in PROSITE. PS00107. PROTEIN_KINASE_ATP. 1 hit. PS50011. PROTEIN_KINASE_DOM. 1 hit. PS00108. PROTEIN_KINASE_ST. 1 ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase belonging to a proposed calcium-triggered signaling cascade. In vitro ...
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), a serine/threonine protein kinase, is well positioned to serve a role ... calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II;. PPF,. paired-pulse facilitation;. EPSC,. excitatory postsynaptic currents;. ES ... A significant fraction of the total calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) activity in neurons is associated ... Essential function of α-calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in neurotransmitter release at a glutamatergic central ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase that functions autonomously after Ca(2+)/calmodulin-binding and autophosphorylation ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II subunit beta - Q13554 (KCC2B_HUMAN) ... The CAMK2 protein kinases contain a unique C-terminal subunit association domain responsible for oligomerization. UniProt ...
CALCIUM/CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE TYPE II DELTA CHAIN. A, B. 301. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: CAMK2D, ... Crystal Structure of Human Calcium Calmodulin dependent Protein Kinase II delta isoform 1, CAMKD. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb2VN9/pdb ... LTP triggers high-frequency calcium pulses that result in the activation of Calcium/Calmodulin (CaM)-dependent kinase II ( ... LTP triggers high-frequency calcium pulses that result in the activation of Calcium/Calmodulin (CaM)-dependent kinase II ( ...
Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases*Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases. *Protein Kinases, Calcium-Calmodulin ... Multifunctional Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases*Multifunctional Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases ... Restricted Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases*Restricted Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases ... Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases [D08.811.913.696.620.682.700]. *Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases [D08.811.913.696. ...
anti-Calcium/calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase I Antikörper * anti-Calcium/calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase (CaM Kinase) ... anti-Calcium/calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase IV Antikörper * anti-Calcium/calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Kinase 1, ... calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type 1D , caM kinase ID , calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 1D , camKI- ... like protein kinase , mCKLiK , calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ID , calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ...
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase I and calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase participate in the control of cell cycle ... Inhibition of the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I cascade by cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Matsushita, M., Nairn, A ... Multifunctional Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent (CaM) kinase, CaM kinase Ia, CaM kinase Ib and CaM kinase IV are four of the kinases ... BL included calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I (CAMK1) and mitogen-activated protein kinase 10 (MAPK10) [18]. ...
... calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase kinase 2), Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. ... calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase beta. HGNC Previous name. calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase ... phosphorylation calmodulin-dependent protein kinase activity protein tyrosine kinase activity calcium ion binding calmodulin ... phosphorylation calmodulin-dependent protein kinase activity protein tyrosine kinase activity calcium ion binding calmodulin ...
The Medicago truncatula DMI3 gene encodes a calcium- and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) that is necessary for the ... The Medicago truncatula DMI3 gene encodes a calcium- and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) that is necessary for the ... acting like a switch able both to discriminate between rhizobial and mycorrhizal calcium signatures and to trigger the ... indicating that CCaMKs from nonlegumes can interpret the calcium signature elicited by rhizobial Nod factors and activate the ...
Park IK, Soderling TR: Activation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM-kinase) IV by CaM-kinase kinase in Jurkat T ... Enslen H, Soderling TR: Roles of calmodulin-dependent protein kinases and phosphatase in calcium-dependent transcription of ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase types II and IV differentially regulate CREB-dependent gene expression. Mol Cell ... molecular cloning and expression of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase. J Biol Chem270 :19320 -19324,1995. ...
The multifunctional calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is activated by catecholamines and angiotensin II, ... Aldosterone Enhances Cardiac Rupture After Myocardial Infarction Through Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II. B. ... Aldosterone Enhances Cardiac Rupture After Myocardial Infarction Through Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II ... Aldosterone Enhances Cardiac Rupture After Myocardial Infarction Through Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II ...
Differential and Time-Dependent Changes in Gene Expression for Type II Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase, 67 kDa ... Differential and Time-Dependent Changes in Gene Expression for Type II Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase, 67 kDa ... Differential and Time-Dependent Changes in Gene Expression for Type II Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase, 67 kDa ... Differential and Time-Dependent Changes in Gene Expression for Type II Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase, 67 kDa ...
2004) Protein phosphatases and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-dependent synaptic plasticity. J Neurosci 24:8404 ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a highly expressed serine/threonine kinase whose α and β isoforms ... 2003) Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II contributes to activity-dependent filopodia growth and spine formation. J ... 2005) Multivalent interactions of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II with the postsynaptic density proteins NR2B, ...
6-thiadiazin-4-one bound to calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2 (CaMKK2), several analogues were identified ... they represent starting points for development of highly selective kinase inhibitors. ... can function as a chemotype for the design of ATP-competitive kinase inhibitors. Using insights from a co-crystal structure of ... 1,2,6-Thiadiazinones as Novel Narrow Spectrum Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Kinase 2 (CaMKK2) Inhibitors by ...
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and calcium/phospholipid-dependent protein kinase activities in rat tissues ... Calcium signaling through protein kinases. The Arabidopsis calcium-dependent protein kinase gene family. Plant Physiol 129: 469 ... Chimeric plant calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase gene with a neural visinin-like calcium-binding domain. Proc Natl ... Chimeric calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase in tobacco: differential regulation by calmodulin isoforms. Plant Mol Biol ...
Calcium-activated Potassium Channels via Activating Calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase Kinase and AMP-activated Protein Kinase ... Calcium-activated Potassium Channels via Activating Calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase Kinase and AMP-activated Protein Kinase ... Calcium-activated Potassium Channels via Activating Calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase Kinase and AMP-activated Protein Kinase ... Calcium-activated Potassium Channels via Activating Calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase Kinase and AMP-activated Protein Kinase ...
Expression of a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase, CaM kinase-Gr, in human T lymphocytes. Regulation of kinase activity ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMK4), a serine/threonine kinase expressed in T cells (6), regulates the ... calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV. CREM. cAMP responsive element modulator. SLE. systemic lupus erythematosus. ... Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase IV Suppresses IL-2 Production and Regulatory T Cell Activity in Lupus. Tomohiro ...
Protein (His tag). Spezies: Human. Quelle: Escherichia coli (E. coli). Jetzt Produkt ABIN668012 bestellen. ... Recombinant Calcium/calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase IV (CAMK4) ... Calcium/calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Kinase 1, alpha Proteine * Calcium/calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Kinase 2, ... Calcium/calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase I Proteine * Calcium/calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase (CaM Kinase) II beta ...
Showing Protein Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase isoform A (HMDBP09421). IdentificationBiological propertiesGene ... Protein Sequence. ,Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase isoform A ... Cloning and analysis of two new isoforms of multifunctional Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase. Expression in multiple ... protein binding. protein kinase activity. protein serine/threonine kinase activity. calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ...
Calcium can function as a second messenger through stimulation of calcium-dependent protein kinases. A protein kinase that ... A calcium-dependent protein kinase with a regulatory domain similar to calmodulin ... A calcium-dependent protein kinase with a regulatory domain similar to calmodulin ... A calcium-dependent protein kinase with a regulatory domain similar to calmodulin ...
Calcium and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, through phosphorylation of the ryanodine receptor would lead to Ca2+ leak ... Pharmacologic inhibition of calcium and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II with 2.5 µM of KN93 prevented the decrease in ... Calcium/Calmodulin Protein Kinase II-Dependent Ryanodine Receptor Phosphorylation Mediates Cardiac Contractile Dysfunction ... Development of organ-specific calcium and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibitors may result in a beneficial ...
CaMKII (Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II) is a ubiquitous serine/threonine protein kinase that is abundant in the ... CaMKII is a prominent kinase in the central nervous system that may function in long term potentiation and neurotransmitter ... brain as a major constituent of the postsynaptic density (PSD). The enzyme is an oligomeric protein composed of distinct but ... spatial learning and memory decline in C57BL/6 J mice by regulating hippocampal cyclic amp-response element binding protein ...
  • A cDNA encoding a calcium (Ca 2+ )/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) from tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum ), NtCaMK1 , was isolated by protein-protein interaction-based screening of a cDNA expression library using 35 S-labeled CaM as a probe. (plantphysiol.org)
  • several protein kinases that share sequence homology with CaMK have been identified in plants. (plantphysiol.org)
  • 4,5 As part of the β 1 -adrenergic pathway, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II) is a serine/threonine kinase that is involved in intracellular Ca 2+ handling by phosphorylating various Ca 2+ handling proteins, including phospholamban and ryanodine receptors. (asahq.org)
  • Incubation of rat brain frontal cortical slices with 6-chloro-7,8-dihydroxy-3-methyl-1-(3-methylphenyl)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1 H -3-benzazepine (SKF83959), a recently identified selective agonist of the PI-linked D 1 -like dopamine receptor, elicited transient time- and dose-dependent stimulations of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (cdk5) and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II) activities. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Moreover, we found that cdk5 phosphorylates dopamine and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein at Thr75, whereas CaMK II is responsible for the activation of cAMP response element-binding protein in response to SKF83959 stimulation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Ca 2+ /calmodulin regulates CaMK, a serine/threonine protein kinase. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The neuroprotective mechanisms of the Ca2+/calmodulin kinase (CaMK) signaling pathway were studied in primary cerebellar neurons in vitro. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We previously showed that Plasmodium falciparum expresses a homolog of human calcium calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) that is important for host cell invasion. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, to identify novel targets for the treatment of Toxoplasma gondii infection (another apicomplexan parasite), we sought to identify a CaMK-like protein in the T. gondii genome and to characterize its role in the life-cycle of this parasite. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An in vitro kinase assay was performed to assess the phosphorylation activities of a novel CaMK-like protein in T. gondii by using purified proteins with various concentrations of calcium, calmodulin antagonists, or T. gondii glideosome proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We identified a novel CaMK homolog in T. gondii , T. gondii CaMK-related kinase (TgCaMKrk), which exhibits calmodulin-independent autophosphorylation and substrate phosphorylation activity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we found that calcium / calmodulin -dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase , CaMK) is involved in HMGB1 release by regulating IFN-beta production . (bvsalud.org)
  • To investigate the effects of valsartan on myocardial expression and activity of calcium / calmodulin -dependent protein kinase -II (CaMK II) in a rabbit model of heart failure . (bvsalud.org)
  • In the present study, we examined whether calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is affected by chronic developmental Pb2+ exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • The effects of Pb2+ exposure on rat hippocampal CaMKII were assessed by measuring CaMKII activity, phosphorylation of CaMKII at threonine-286, and CaMKII alpha and beta protein levels. (cdc.gov)
  • These Pb2+-induced changes in CaMKII activity could not be explained by changes in enzyme phosphorylation at threonine-286 or sensitivity to calmodulin. (cdc.gov)
  • Western blots of cytosolic and membrane fractions from hippocampus showed a significant decrease in the levels of CaMKII-beta but not alpha protein in the cytosolic fraction of Pb2+-exposed rats. (cdc.gov)
  • These findings indicate effects of developmental Pb2+ exposure on CaMKII, a component of calcium signaling associated with synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory. (cdc.gov)
  • A significant fraction of the total calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) activity in neurons is associated with synaptic connections and is present in nerve terminals, thus suggesting a role for CaMKII in neurotransmitter release. (pnas.org)
  • Conditional CA3 α-CaMKII knockout mice exhibited an unchanged basal probability of neurotransmitter release at CA3-CA1 synapses but showed a significant enhancement in the activity-dependent increase in probability of release during repetitive presynaptic stimulation, as was shown with the analysis of unitary synaptic currents. (pnas.org)
  • These data indicate that α-CaMKII serves as a negative activity-dependent regulator of neurotransmitter release at hippocampal synapses and maintains synapses in an optimal range of release probabilities necessary for normal synaptic operation. (pnas.org)
  • Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), a serine/threonine protein kinase, is well positioned to serve a role in synaptic function regulation, because it is highly expressed in the brain and is known to phosphorylate multiple synaptic proteins ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • Accordingly, CaMKII has previously been implicated in the long-lasting frequency-dependent regulation of synaptic function in mammals ( 3 - 9 ), birds ( 10 ), frogs ( 11 ), and invertebrates ( 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • CaMKII acts as a molecular switch because it remains active for a long time after the return to basal calcium levels, which is a unique property required for CaMKII function. (rcsb.org)
  • Comparisons with autoinhibited CaMKII structures showed that binding of calmodulin leads to the rearrangement of residues in the active site to a conformation suitable for ATP binding and to the closure of the binding groove for the autoinhibitory helix by helix alphaD. (rcsb.org)
  • The structural data, together with biophysical interaction studies, reveals the mechanism of CaMKII activation by calmodulin and explains many of the unique regulatory properties of these two essential signaling molecules. (rcsb.org)
  • The multifunctional calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is activated by catecholamines and angiotensin II, and CaMKII inhibition prevents isoproterenol- and angiotensin II-mediated cardiomyopathy. (ahajournals.org)
  • To study potential molecular mechanisms of epileptogenesis in the neocortex, the motor cortex of rats was injected with tetanus toxin (TT), and gene expression for 67 kDa glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD-67), type II calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMKII), NMDA receptor subunit 1 (NR1), and AMPA receptor subunit 2 (GluR2) was investigated by in situ hybridization histochemistry. (jneurosci.org)
  • We examined gene expression for molecules involved in GABAergic and glutamatergic transmission in neocortex, namely type II Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMKII), GAD, and the most highly expressed NMDA and AMPA receptor subunits, in the presence of focal epilepsy induced by TT injection. (jneurosci.org)
  • The transcription factor ΔFosB and the brain-enriched calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKIIα) are induced in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) by chronic exposure to cocaine or other psychostimulant drugs of abuse, in which the two proteins mediate sensitized drug responses. (jneurosci.org)
  • Here, we demonstrate that ΔFosB is phosphorylated by CaMKIIα at the protein-stabilizing Ser27 and that CaMKII is required for the cocaine-mediated accumulation of ΔFosB in rat NAc. (jneurosci.org)
  • Furthermore, induction of dendritic spines on NAc MSNs and increased behavioral responsiveness to cocaine after NAc overexpression of ΔFosB are both CaMKII dependent. (jneurosci.org)
  • Among them, multifunctional CaMKII, a well-characterized kinase that can phosphorylate a broad range of proteins upon binding to Ca 2+ /CaM, is thought to play an important role in a variety of cellular events in mammals ( Colbran and Soderling, 1990 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • CaMKII (Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II) is a ubiquitous serine/threonine protein kinase that is abundant in the brain as a major constituent of the postsynaptic density (PSD). (neuromics.com)
  • CaMKII is a prominent kinase in the central nervous system that may function in long term potentiation and neurotransmitter release. (neuromics.com)
  • Ca(2+)/Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) signaling in the heart regulates cardiomyocyte contractility and growth in response to elevated intracellular Ca(2+). (escholarship.org)
  • CPCs undergoing early differentiation in vitro increase levels of CaMKIIδB in the nuclear compartment where the kinase may contribute to the regulation of CPC commitment. (escholarship.org)
  • Therefore, CaMKIIδB may serve as a novel modulatory protein to enhance CPC survival and commitment into the cardiac and smooth muscle lineages. (escholarship.org)
  • Further quantitative immunoblotting indicated that CaMKIId is highly expressed in the vasculature and initial results suggest some alterations in ox-CaMKII protein levels with ageing, parallel to that observed in the heart. (strath.ac.uk)
  • Recent evidence has shown that diabetic patients and mouse models of diabetes have an up-regulation of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase delta (CaMKIIδ) activity. (otago.ac.nz)
  • CaMKIIδ is a multifunctional serine-threonine kinase expressed as four different genes that generate four isoforms (αβγδ) and a number of splice variants. (otago.ac.nz)
  • Upon CaMKIIδ activation is involved in coordination of the ion channels and Ca2+ handling proteins involved in excitation-contraction and excitation-transcription coupling in the myocardium. (otago.ac.nz)
  • Calmodulin (CaM) mediates Ca-dependent regulation of numerous pathways in the heart, including CaM-dependent kinase (CaMKII) and calcineurin (CaN), yet the local Ca(2+) signals responsible for their selective activation are unclear. (nih.gov)
  • Dyadic cleft CaMKII exhibits dynamic frequency-dependent responses to Ca, yet autophosphorylates only when local phosphatases are suppressed. (nih.gov)
  • One consequence of increased [Ca 2+ ] i would be altered activity and function of calcium-regulated proteins, including calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), which is autophosphorylated on Thr 286 (pCaMKII 286 ) in the presence of calcium and calmodulin. (elsevier.com)
  • Aberrant calcium handling, including increased activation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), contributes to arrhythmia development during HF. (elsevier.com)
  • The major binding species was a doublet at 50-60 kDa, which was identified as calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) by N-terminal peptide analysis and confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry as the δ- and β-like isoforms. (edu.au)
  • To investigate CaMKII involvement in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, 3T3-L1 adipocytes were infected with retrovirus encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP)-hemagluttinin tag (HA)-tagged CaMKII wild-type or the ATP binding mutant, K42M. (edu.au)
  • GFP-HA-CaMKII K42M cells had less kinase activity than cells expressing wild-type GFP-HA-CaMKII. (edu.au)
  • HF has been demonstrated to increase the expression and function of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), a key regulator of calcium homeostasis and excitation-contraction coupling in cardiomyocytes. (purdue.edu)
  • Whole-cell, voltage-clamp patch clamp electrophysiology experiments were performed in HEK 293 cells transiently co-expressing wild-type (WT) or mutant KCNQ1 (mutations conferring mimics of dephosphorylation and phosphorylation were introduced at phosphorylation sites identified by LCMS/MS) and KCNE1 (auxiliary subunit) during ISO treatment, treatment with CaMKII or protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitors, or during lentiviral δCaMKII overexpression. (purdue.edu)
  • Protein immunoblot experiments were performed to (1) assess CaMKII activation during ISO treatment and (2) to assess plasma membrane expression of KCNQ1 and KCNE1 subunits with mimics of differential KCNQ1 phosphorylation following a membrane protein biotinylation procedure. (purdue.edu)
  • The complex was more readily detected in older mice and could modulate levels of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIα (CaMKIIα) in the nucleus accumbens, indicating a potential role for the D1-D2 heteromer in synaptic plasticity in the postadolescent brain. (pnas.org)
  • Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIα ( CamKIIα ) may modulate the function of mu-opioid receptors by phosphorylation and therefore, be involved in development of morphine-induced analgesic tolerance. (kowsarpub.com)
  • Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II (CamKII) is a serine/threonine kinase that constitutes a family of multifunctional protein kinases and plays a major role in Ca 2+- mediated signal transduction ( 14 ). (kowsarpub.com)
  • Once activated, CaMKII phosphorylates numerous target proteins and is involved in many cellular functions, including synaptic plasticity, synaptic vesicle mobilization, regulation of gene expression and modulation of ion channel function ( 14 , 20 ). (kowsarpub.com)
  • A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. (nih.gov)
  • One of the major mediators of calcium action in neurons is the multifunctional calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase), an enzyme with the capability of directly regulating its own activity by autophosphorylation. (nih.gov)
  • Multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) transduces transient elevations in intracellular calcium into changes in the phosphorylation state and activity of target proteins. (sciencemag.org)
  • The multifunctional calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase: from form to function. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We demonstrate for the first time that 4 H -1,2,6-thiadiazin-4-one (TDZ) can function as a chemotype for the design of ATP-competitive kinase inhibitors. (mdpi.com)
  • Since the TDZ analogues showed reduced promiscuity compared to their 2,4-dianilinopyrimidine counter parts, they represent starting points for development of highly selective kinase inhibitors. (mdpi.com)
  • Development of organ-specific calcium and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibitors may result in a beneficial therapeutic strategy to ameliorate contractile dysfunction associated with sepsis. (ovid.com)
  • A screen of 72 inhibitors against 456 human kinases. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • A screen profiling 158 kinase inhibitors (Calbiochem Protein Kinase Inhibitor Library I and II, catalogue numbers 539744 and 539745) for their inhibitory activity at 1µM and 10µM against 234 human recombinant kinases using the EMD Millipore KinaseProfiler TM service. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • A screen profiling the inhibitory activity of 178 commercially available kinase inhibitors at 0.5µM against a panel of 300 recombinant protein kinases using the Reaction Biology Corporation Kinase Hotspot SM platform. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • 2010) Activation state-dependent binding of small molecule kinase inhibitors: structural insights from biochemistry. (guidetoimmunopharmacology.org)
  • The Kinase Enzyme Systems allow you to easily screen and profile kinase inhibitors. (promega.com)
  • We show that substrate phosphorylation and autophosphorylation of NtCaMK1 is Ca 2+ /CaM dependent. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The two cytosolic kinases are distinguishable from each other and from myosin light chain kinase and phosphorylase b kinase by their substrate specificities and their chromatographic behavior on DEAE-cellulose. (caltech.edu)
  • None of the mutants exhibited enhanced Ca 2+ -independent kinase activity toward exogenous substrate, but the K300S and N294S mutants showed a significant enhancement in the rate and stoichiometry of 32 P incorporation during Ca 2+ -independent autophosphorylation. (elsevier.com)
  • Each SignaTECT® System contains a highly specific biotinylated peptide substrate for the appropriate kinase as well as the necessary reaction components. (mybio.ie)
  • After the kinase reaction is complete, the biotinylated, 32 P-labeled substrate is recovered from the reaction mix using the SAM 2 ® Biotin Capture Membrane. (mybio.ie)
  • These results indicate that the auto-inhibitory domain in CaMKI gates, in a Ca(2+)-CaM dependent fashion, accessibility of both substrates to the substrate binding cleft and CaMKI kinase to Thr177. (duke.edu)
  • The multifunctional calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases I and IV (CaMKI and CaMKIV) are closely related by primary sequence and predicted to have similar substrate specificities based on peptide studies. (duke.edu)
  • We identified a fragment of p300-(1-117) that is a substrate of both kinases, and through both mutagenesis and Edman phosphate ((32)P) release sequencing, established that CaMKI and CaMKIV phosphorylate completely different sites. (duke.edu)
  • To compare kinase substrate preferences more generally, we employed a proteomic display technique that allowed comparison of complex cell extracts phosphorylated by each kinase in a rapid in vitro assay, thereby demonstrating substrate preferences that overlapped but were clearly distinct. (duke.edu)
  • To validate this approach, one of the proteins labeled in this assay was identified by microsequencing as HSP25, purified as a recombinant protein, and examined as a substrate for both CaMKI and CaMKIV. (duke.edu)
  • These differences in substrate specificities emphasize the need to consider these protein kinases independently despite their close homology. (duke.edu)
  • Substrate specificity of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase phosphatase: kinetic studies using synthetic phosphopeptides as model substrates. (semanticscholar.org)
  • They provide all the optimized components (enzyme, preferred substrate, required cofactors, buffer) that you need to generate a kinase selectivity profile for a compound. (promega.com)
  • It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE. (nih.gov)
  • A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. (harvard.edu)
  • This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. (harvard.edu)
  • This enzyme is a multifunctional serine/threonine protein kinase with limited tissue distribution, that has been implicated in transcriptional regulation in lymphocytes, neurons and male germ cells. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • The enzyme is an oligomeric protein composed of distinct but related subunits, alpha, beta, gamma, and delta, each encoded by a separate gene. (neuromics.com)
  • The stimulation by calcium of the particulate enzyme and of the partially purified cytosolic enzyme requires the addition of calmodulin. (caltech.edu)
  • The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a widely used application for detecting and quantifying proteins and antigens from various samples. (biocompare.com)
  • Description: This is Double-antibody Sandwich Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Human Calcium/Calmodulin Dependent Protein Kinase II Beta (CAMK2b) in Tissue homogenates, cell lysates and other biological fluids. (unicoupi.com)
  • Maximal enhancement of CaM-kinase II activity was observed when autophosphorylated or Ca 2+ /CaM-bound forms of the enzyme were proteolyzed. (elsevier.com)
  • Below each tab is a list of currently available Kinase Enzyme Systems (or those coming soon). (promega.com)
  • Click on any enzyme for additional information (such as Applications Note, the Catalog Page, or the NCBI Database entry) for that kinase. (promega.com)
  • Inhibition of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase in Drosophila disrupts behavioral plasticity. (nih.gov)
  • Pharmacologic inhibition of calcium and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II with 2.5 µM of KN93 prevented the decrease in cell shortening, Ca 2+ transient amplitude, and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ content in colon ascendens stent peritonitis myocytes. (ovid.com)
  • Our previous data has suggested that CaMKK β is neuroprotective after stroke in young mice as inhibition of this kinase aggravated stroke outcome. (ahajournals.org)
  • The calcium stimulation of this latter kinase is probably mediated by calmodulin, judging from its inhibition by low concentrations of trifluoperazine. (caltech.edu)
  • [9] As well as preventing methamphetamine (Meth) induced neurotoxicity via inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) expression and astrocyte activation, is seen to reduce methamphetamine induced brain damage through a CB1-dependent and independent mechanisms, respectively, and inhibition of methamphetamine induced astrogliosis is likely to occur through a CB2 receptor dependent mechanism for THC . (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, CPK28 autophosphorylation substantially reduced sensitivity of the kinase to Ca 2+ /CaM inhibition. (illinois.edu)
  • Diverse roles for each of the five dopamine receptors (D1-D5) have been shown to be initiated primarily through stimulation or inhibition of adenylyl cyclase (AC) via G s /olf or G i /o signaling proteins, respectively ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Another source of smooth muscle disorders like ischemia-reperfusion, hypertension, and coronary artery disease arise when mutations to protein kinase C (PKC) result in excessive inhibition of MYLP, which counteracts the activity of MYLK by dephosphorylating myosin light chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phosphorylated synthetic peptides as tools for studying protein phosphatases. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Protein kinases catalyze phosphate transfer from Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) to tyrosine, threonine or serine residues in specific target proteins. (mdpi.com)
  • Lorecivivint, a Novel Intraarticular CDC-Like Kinase 2 and Dual-Specificity Tyrosine Phosphorylation-Regulated Kinase 1A Inhibitor and Wnt Pathway Modulator for the Treatment of Knee Osteoarthritis: A Phase II Randomized Trial. (escholarship.org)
  • GO annotations related to this gene include transferase activity, transferring phosphorus-containing groups and protein tyrosine kinase activity . (genecards.org)
  • Stimulated by its physiological ligand, hepatocyte growth factor, the transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase Met activates a signaling machinery that leads to mitogenic, motogenic, and morphogenic responses. (mcponline.org)
  • The horseshoe-like shape of InlB 321 allows binding to and activation of the transmembrane tyrosine kinase Met, which is also the receptor for the host growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). (mcponline.org)
  • 30% and phosphoserine-mediated transcriptional activity by 58% but has no effect on phosphorylation of Y701 or receptor-associated JAK tyrosine kinases. (jimmunol.org)
  • Three genes encoding different Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases have been characterized in the wheat phytopathogenic fungus Stagonospora nodorum. (edu.au)
  • In the nucleus, phosphorylates the MEF2 repressor HDAC4, promoting its nuclear export and binding to 14-3-3 protein, and expression of MEF2 and genes involved in the hypertrophic program. (cusabio.com)
  • The CASK protein is primarily found in nerve cells (neurons) in the brain, where it helps control the activity (expression) of other genes that are involved in brain development. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Calcium regulation of neuronal gene expression," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , vol. 98, no. 20, pp. 11024-11031, 2001. (hindawi.com)
  • Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase that functions autonomously after Ca(2+)/calmodulin-binding and autophosphorylation, and is involved in dendritic spine and synapse formation, neuronal plasticity and regulation of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) transport in skeletal muscle. (rcsb.org)
  • The regulation of intracellular calcium content by IP 3 is critical in mediating neuronal responses. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Olomoucine is known as a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. (edu.au)
  • This gene encodes a calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase. (genecards.org)
  • CASK (Calcium/Calmodulin Dependent Serine Protein Kinase) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • The CASK gene provides instructions for making a protein called calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (CASK). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Human genetic studies have indicated that mutations in calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase ( CASK ) result in X-linked mental retardation and autism-spectrum disorders. (jpn.ca)
  • Up regulation of cAMP response element-mediated gene expression during experience-dependent plasticity in adult neocortex," Journal of Neuroscience , vol. 20, no. 11, pp. 4206-4216, 2000. (hindawi.com)
  • The existence of multiple divergent CaM isoforms in plants poses the question of whether or not they allow differential regulation of targets and can confer different Ca 2+ sensitivity to CaM-binding enzymes or proteins. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Aim Endothelial cell (EC) KCa2.3 and KCa3.1, calcium-activated potassium channels, play a crucial role in NO- and EDHF-mediated regulation of vascular tone by controlling membrane potential and intracellular calcium levels. (ahajournals.org)
  • The predicted structure of this kinase explains its direct regulation via calcium binding and establishes it as a prototype for a new family of calcium-regulated protein kinases. (sciencemag.org)
  • Additional T. gondii protein kinases are involved in host manipulation, cell cycle regulation, and functions required for growth, stress responses, and the transition from tachyzoite to bradyzoite [ 15 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase involved in the regulation of Ca(2+) homeostatis and excitation-contraction coupling (ECC) in heart by targeting ion channels, transporters and accessory proteins involved in Ca(2+) influx into the myocyte, Ca(2+) release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), SR Ca(2+) uptake and Na(+) and K(+) channel transport. (cusabio.com)
  • Garcia, Joe G N. / Regulation of endothelial cell barrier function by calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II . (elsevier.com)
  • A putative mechanism for persistent regulation of synaptic events by such a proteolytic activation of CaM-kinase 11 is discussed. (elsevier.com)
  • CPKs are composed of a dual specificity (Ser/Thr and Tyr) kinase domain tethered to a calmodulin-like domain (CLD) via an autoinhibitory junction (J). Although regulation of CPKs by Ca 2+ has been extensively studied, the contribution of autophosphorylation in controlling CPK activity is less well understood. (illinois.edu)
  • Furthermore, whether calmodulin (CaM) contributes to CPK regulation, as is the case for Ca 2+ /CaM-dependent protein kinases outside the plant lineage, remains an open question. (illinois.edu)
  • BRCA1 encodes a tumour suppressor protein that plays pivotal roles in homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair, cell-cycle checkpoints, and transcriptional regulation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • CAMK4 belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase family, and to the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Research suggests that the CASK protein may also interact with the protein produced from another gene, FRMD7 , to promote development of the nerves that control eye movement (the oculomotor neural network). (medlineplus.gov)
  • The mutations that cause CASK -related intellectual disability affect the role of the CASK protein in brain development and function. (medlineplus.gov)
  • MICPCH is caused by mutations that eliminate CASK function, while mutations that impair the function of this protein cause XL-ID with or without nystagmus. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Affected individuals with nystagmus may have CASK gene mutations that disrupt the interaction between the CASK protein and the protein produced from the FRMD7 gene, leading to problems with the development of the oculomotor neural network and resulting in abnormal eye movements. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Because Cask encodes a multidomain scaffold protein, a possible strategy to dissect how CASK regulates mental ability and cognition is to disrupt specific protein-protein interactions of CASK in vivo and then investigate the impact of individual specific protein interactions. (jpn.ca)
  • Immunoblotting, coimmunoprecipitation, histological methods and behavioural assays (including home cage, open field, auditory and contextual fear conditioning and conditioned taste aversion) were applied to investigate expression of CASK and its related proteins, the protein-protein interactions of CASK, and anatomic and behavioural features of CASK T740A mice. (jpn.ca)
  • The functions of other CASK protein interactions cannot be addressed using CASK T740A mice. (jpn.ca)
  • CAMK1D encodes a member of the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 1 subfamily of serine/threonine kinases. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • These results suggest that CaM kinase activity is required for plastic behaviors in an intact animal. (nih.gov)
  • Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II activity and expression are altered in the hippocampus of Pb2+- exposed rats. (cdc.gov)
  • CaM-KIVc alone was sufficient, and the upstream kinase, CaM-KK, was enhanced to upregulate the insulin promoter activity in INS-1 cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Using insights from a co-crystal structure of a 3,5-bis(arylamino)-4 H -1,2,6-thiadiazin-4-one bound to calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2 (CaMKK2), several analogues were identified with micromolar activity through targeted displacement of bound water molecules in the active site. (mdpi.com)
  • The activity of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMK4) is increased in T cells from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and has been shown to reduce IL-2 production by promoting the effect of the transcriptional repressor cAMP responsive element modulator-α on the IL2 promoter. (jimmunol.org)
  • Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMK4), a serine/threonine kinase expressed in T cells ( 6 ), regulates the activity of several transcription factors including CREM ( 7 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • A protein kinase that requires calcium but not calmodulin or phospholipids for activity has been purified from soybean. (sciencemag.org)
  • Colon ascendens stent peritonitis hearts showed a significant increase in oxidation-dependent calcium and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II activity, which could be prevented by pretreating animals with the antioxidant tempol. (ovid.com)
  • When calcium/calmodulin-dependent calmodulin protein kinase II activity in the lumbar spinal cord after acute i.t. administration of nicotine was investigated in wild-type and β 2 and α 7 knockout mice, the increase in calcium/calmodulin-dependent calmodulin protein kinase II activity was not significant reduced in α 7 KO mice but was eliminated in the β 2 KO mice. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In addition, L-type calcium channel blockers nimodipine and verapamil but not the N -methyl- d -aspartate antagonist MK-801 (dizocilpine maleate) blocked the increase in the kinase activity induced by nicotine. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In addition to its calcium-calmodulin (CaM)-dependent activity, this protein can undergo autophosphorylation, resulting in CaM-independent activity. (neuromics.com)
  • CaMKK2 isoform-7 (WT) and the pG539fs*4 mutant were expressed in COS7 cells and the pG539fs*4 mutant was noted to have significantly higher basal and Ca 2+ -CaM dependent kinase activity compared with WT isoform-7. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • We hypothesise that the increase in the Ca 2+ -CaM dependent kinase activity as a result of the mutation, to be increasing the insulin secretion, probably via the upregulated transcription of INS-1 . (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • Thus, these receptors regulate the levels of cAMP, which in turn regulates the activity of protein kinase A (PKA). (aspetjournals.org)
  • 1. Anastassiadis T, Deacon SW, Devarajan K, Ma H, Peterson JR. (2011) Comprehensive assay of kinase catalytic activity reveals features of kinase inhibitor selectivity. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • 2013) A broad activity screen in support of a chemogenomic map for kinase signalling research and drug discovery. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • However, calmodulin antagonists had no effect on its kinase activity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The SignaTECT® Protein Kinase Assay Systems provide a rapid, radioactivity-based method for detection of kinase activity. (mybio.ie)
  • The perforated and numbered membrane allows researchers to measure from 1 up to 96 kinase reactions and does not require as much "hands-on" manipulation as other methods used to measure kinase activity. (mybio.ie)
  • Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase that operates in the calcium-triggered CaMKK-CaMK4 signaling cascade and regulates, mainly by phosphorylation, the activity of several transcription activators, such as CREB1, MEF2D, JUN and RORA, which play pivotal roles in immune response, inflammation, and memory consolidation. (genecards.org)
  • In this study, we found that thrombin increased Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaM kinase II) activities in a Ca 2+ - and time-dependent manner in bovine pulmonary endothelium with maximal activity at 5 min. (elsevier.com)
  • Incubation of the kinase with either protease resulted in a three- to fivefold enhancement of total kinase activity and solubilization of Ca 2+ /calmodulin (CaM)-independent activity from the PSD. (elsevier.com)
  • Peptide kinase activity of fully dephosphorylated CPK28 was Ca 2+ -responsive and was inhibited by Ca 2+ /CaM. (illinois.edu)
  • Using in situ autophosphorylated protein, we expand on the known set of CPK28 autophosphorylation sites, and we demonstrate that, unexpectedly, autophosphorylated CPK28 had enhanced kinase activity at physiological concentrations of Ca 2+ compared with the dephosphorylated protein, suggesting that autophosphorylation functions to prime CPK28 for Ca 2+ activation and might also allow CPK28 to remain active when Ca 2+ levels are low. (illinois.edu)
  • CaMKI was phosphorylated on Thr177 and its activity enhanced approximately 25-fold by CaMKI kinase in a Ca(2+)-CaM dependent manner. (duke.edu)
  • Additionally, CaMKI kinase responds directly to Ca(2+)-CaM with increased activity. (duke.edu)
  • It did so without affecting the activity of known insulin signaling proteins. (edu.au)
  • Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase that operates in the calcium-triggered CaMKK-CaMK1 signaling cascade and, upon calcium influx, regulates transcription activators activity, cell cycle, hormone production, cell differentiation, actin filament organization and neurite outgrowth. (abcam.com)
  • Reducing intracellular calcium concentration inactivates MLCK but does not stop smooth muscle contraction since the myosin light chain has been physically modified through phosphorylation(and not via ATPase activity). (wikipedia.org)
  • Rho kinase also modulates the activity of MYLK by downregulating the activity of MYLK's counterpart protein: Myosin Light Chain Phosphatase (MYLP). (wikipedia.org)
  • Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase belonging to a proposed calcium-triggered signaling cascade. (uniprot.org)
  • Analysis of the proteolytic products by Western blotting with a polyclonal antibody raised against soluble CaM-kinase II indicated that both proteases generated several immunoreactive fragments between 21 and 32 kDa. (elsevier.com)
  • Immunoblotting with antibody to the catalytic domain of the kinase indicated that there was a single active fragment of approximately 30 kDa in the μ-calpain digests. (elsevier.com)
  • Antibody microarray analysis identified 46 proteins that were differentially expressed between normal colorectal epithelium and adenocarcinoma. (mcponline.org)
  • To overcome this limitation and for a gain in sensitivity, we decided to test an antibody microarray strategy for detecting low abundance proteins. (mcponline.org)
  • In addition, the protein/antibody pairs are known " a priori . (mcponline.org)
  • The antibody microarray used in these studies contained 224 different antibodies ( 11 ), representing markers for eight biological pathways of interest (apoptosis, cell cycle, neurobiology, cytoskeleton, signal transduction, and nuclear proteins). (mcponline.org)
  • abstract = "Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II delta (CaMKIId) plays a fundamental role in cardiac dysfunction and is known to be overexpressed and hyper-activated in the diseased heart. (strath.ac.uk)
  • abstract = "Thrombin-induced endothelial cell barrier dysfunction is tightly linked to Ca2+-dependent cytoskeletal protein reorganization. (elsevier.com)
  • abstract = "Rat forebrain Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaM-kinase II) in isolated postsynaptic densities (PSD) was subjected to limited proteolysis with chymotrypsin or μ-calpain, a Ca2+-dependent protease. (elsevier.com)
  • One of these is found in both the particulate and cytosolic fractions and phosphorylates a region of protein I that is phosphorylated in intact synaptosomes in response to calcium but not to cyclic AMP. (caltech.edu)
  • A second calcium-stimulated protein I kinase is found only in the cytosol and phosphorylates a region of protein I that is phosphorylated in intact synaptosomes in response to either calcium or cyclic AMP. (caltech.edu)
  • Myosin light-chain kinase also known as MYLK or MLCK is a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase that phosphorylates a specific myosin light chain, namely, the regulatory light chain of myosin II. (wikipedia.org)
  • To assess the involvement of CaM kinase in experience-dependent behavior in an intact animal, we have designed a specific peptide inhibitor of CaM kinase and made transgenic Drosophila that express it under control of an inducible promoter. (nih.gov)
  • Kinetic analysis showed that the kinase not previously autophosphorylated had a K m for the synthetic peptide syntide-2 of 22.1 μ m and a V max of 644.1 n m min −1 mg −1 when assayed in the presence of Ca 2+ /CaM. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Contractile function was also preserved in colon ascendens stent peritonitis myocytes isolated from transgenic mice expressing a calcium and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibitory peptide (AC3-I) and in colon ascendens stent peritonitis myocytes isolated from mutant mice that have the ryanodine receptor 2 calcium and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-dependent phosphorylation site (serine 2814) mutated to alanine (S2814A). (ovid.com)
  • Furthermore, a cell-permeable N-myristoylated synthetic filamin peptide (containing the COOH-terminal CaM kinase II phosphorylation site) attenuated both thrombin-induced filamin phosphorylation and decreases in TER. (elsevier.com)
  • Our results demonstrate the importance of the serine/threonine kinase CaMK4 in the generation and function of regulatory T cells in patients with SLE and lupus-prone mice, and its potential to serve as a therapeutic target. (jimmunol.org)
  • Dieses CAMK4 Protein ist gelabelt mit His tag. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Recombinant human CAMK4 protein, fused to His-tag at N-terminus, was expressed in E.coli and purified by using conventional chromatography. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMK4) is expressed at increased levels in T cells from SLE patients (4) and lupus-prone mice (5). (bmj.com)
  • 2014) CaMK4-dependent activation of AKT/mTOR and CREM-α underlies autoimmunity-associated Th17 imbalance. (guidetoimmunopharmacology.org)
  • Calcium has a key role in mediating glucose stimulated insulin secretion via the action of multifunctional kinases (CaM-KI and CaM-KIV), activated by CaMKK2 , an upstream kinase. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • This effect appeared to be mediated by phosphorylation of a synaptic vesicle protein, synapsin I, which in its dephosphorylated form inhibited synaptic transmission. (pnas.org)
  • This structural function is required for correct targeting of CaMK2A, which acts downstream of NMDAR to promote dendritic spine and synapse formation and maintain synaptic plasticity which enables long-term potentiation (LTP) and hippocampus-dependent learning. (rcsb.org)
  • Member of the NMDAR signaling complex in excitatory synapses, it may regulate NMDAR-dependent potentiation of the AMPAR and synaptic plasticity. (creative-biogene.com)
  • Two calcium-stimulated protein kinase activities (ATP:protein phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.37) that phosphorylate protein I, a specific synaptic protein, have been identified in homogenates of rat brain. (caltech.edu)
  • Multidomain scaffolding protein with a role in synaptic transmembrane protein anchoring and ion channel trafficking. (genecards.org)
  • Activation of G q /11 through the heteromer increases levels of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIα in the nucleus accumbens, unlike activation of G s /olf-coupled D1 receptors, indicating a mechanism by which D1-D2 dopamine receptor complexes may contribute to synaptic plasticity. (pnas.org)
  • Expression analysis determined that each of the kinases was expressed during growth in vitro and also during infection. (edu.au)
  • Proteomic analysis of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I and IV in vitro substrates reveals distinct catalytic preferences. (duke.edu)
  • A gene on chromosome 17p13.2 that encodes a calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine/threonine protein kinase, which mediates many of calcium's second messenger effects. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Calcium signaling is crucial for several aspects of plasticity at glutamatergic synapses. (creativebiomart.net)
  • These proteins are scaffold proteins and the encoded protein is located at synapses in the brain. (genecards.org)
  • Upon NMDA receptor-mediated Ca(2+) elevation, promotes dendritic growth in hippocampal neurons and is essential in synapses for full long-term potentiation (LTP) and ERK2-dependent translational activation. (abcam.com)
  • Human Ca(2+)-calmodulin (CaM) dependent protein kinase I (CaMKI) encodes a 370 amino acid protein with a calculated M(r) of 41,337. (duke.edu)
  • Whereas CaMKI 1-306 was unresponsive to CaMKI kinase, the 1-294 mutant was phosphorylated and activated by CaMKI kinase in both the presence and absence of Ca(2+)-CaM although at a faster rate in its presence. (duke.edu)
  • The NMDA receptor is ionotropic , meaning it is a protein which allows the passage of ions through the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wu, H-H & Lee, H-M 1999, ' Amphetamine activate protein kinase C and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase via NMDA receptor in primary cultures of rat cortical neurons ', New Taipei Journal of Medicine , vol. 1, pp. 12-19. (elsevier.com)
  • However, other molecular changes in other neurotransmitter receptors such as N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and signaling molecules including protein kinases are proposed to be involved in morphine-induced analgesic tolerance ( 9 , 11 - 13 ). (kowsarpub.com)
  • This recombinant protein was biotinylated in vivo by AviTag-BirA technology, which method is BriA catalyzes amide linkage between the biotin and the specific lysine of the AviTag. (cusabio.com)
  • In neurons, plays an essential structural role in the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton during plasticity by binding and bundling actin filaments in a kinase-independent manner. (rcsb.org)
  • Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type IV (CaMKIV) inhibits apoptosis induced by potassium deprivation in cerebellar granule neurons. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Furthermore, our findings indicate that nicotinic stimulation of β 2 -containing acetylcholine nicotinic receptors in the spinal cord can activate calcium/calmodulin-dependent calmodulin protein kinase II and produce nicotinic analgesia, which may require L-type calcium voltage and gated channels but not the intervention of glutamatergic transmission. (aspetjournals.org)
  • We demonstrate a heteromeric D1-D2 dopamine receptor signaling complex in brain that is coupled to G q /11 and requires agonist binding to both receptors for G protein activation and intracellular calcium release. (pnas.org)
  • We have shown that heterologously coexpressed D1 and D2 dopamine receptors formed heterooligomers ( 7 ) and that coactivation of these receptors resulted in a PLC-dependent rise in intracellular calcium ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • We examined calcium signaling through D1 and D2 dopamine receptors that were stably coexpressed in human embryonic kidney cells (D1-D2 HEK cells). (pnas.org)
  • Because treatment of D1-D2 HEK cells or D2 HEK cells with quinpirole alone did not stimulate calcium release (data not shown), calcium release appeared to depend on coordinated activation of both D1 and D2 receptors. (pnas.org)
  • Most of the known immunomodulatory effects of adenosine are mediated through its interaction with specific cell surface G protein-coupled receptors. (jimmunol.org)
  • Recent evidence suggests a central role for Ras in transmitting signals from G-protein coupled receptors, from growth factor receptors and from cytokine receptors not only down the Raf-MEK-ERK pathway to the nucleus, but also to various other cytosolic effectors. (biomedsearch.com)
  • However, overactivation of NMDAR increases the cytosolic concentrations of calcium and zinc , which significantly contributes to neural death , that is found to be prevented by cannabinoids , with requirement of a HINT1 protein to counteract the toxic effects of NMDAR-mediated NO production and zinc release, through activation of the CB1 receptor . (wikipedia.org)
  • 125 I-labeled CaM overlays indicated a major CaM-binding fragment of approximately 23 kDa in μ-calpain digests of purified cytosolic CaM-kinase II. (elsevier.com)
  • it encodes a protein with a predicted molecular mass of 57,175 daltons. (sciencemag.org)
  • This gene encodes a protein similar to calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase, however, its exact function is not known. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase types II and IV differentially regulate CREB-dependent gene expression. (asm.org)
  • In addition, this systematic approach suggests a new subset of protein kinases including Nek9, which are differentially phosphorylated after short time (4-min) treatment of cells with the Met-activating InlB 321 . (mcponline.org)
  • Dexamethasone (Dex) treatment increased mRNA and protein expression of cardiomyogenic markers cardiac troponin T and α-smooth muscle actin in CPCeδB compared with CPCe, suggesting increased differentiation. (escholarship.org)
  • The onset of sporulation triggered increased transcript levels of each of the kinases, particularly CpkA where an 11-fold increase in expression was observed during sporulation in planta. (edu.au)
  • The expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and the α subunit of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II mRNA in hippocampi obtained during surgical resections for intractable temporal lobe epilepsy were examined. (elsevier.com)
  • Several lines of evidence indicate NO as a key signaling molecule in mediating various plant responses such as photosynthesis, oxidative defense, osmolyte accumulation, gene expression, and protein modifications under heat stress. (frontiersin.org)
  • Previously we have carried out studies on differential protein expression analysis based on two-dimensional DIGE gels ( 10 ), which enabled us to identify the most abundant proteins in CRC tissues, including some isoforms and post-translational modifications. (mcponline.org)
  • Hence microarrays allow for a rapid identification of low expression proteins such as signaling molecules, cell cycle regulators, etc. (mcponline.org)
  • The absence of protein expression was confirmed by western blot analysis on brain extracts. (jax.org)
  • The CAMK2 protein kinases contain a unique C-terminal subunit association domain responsible for oligomerization. (rcsb.org)
  • CaM-kinase II (CAMK2) is a prominent kinase in the central nervous system that may function in long-term potentiation and neurotransmitter release. (creative-biogene.com)
  • These kinases belong to a diverse group of enzymes that participate in many cellular responses and are activated by increasing concentrations of intracellular Ca 2+ . (diabetesjournals.org)
  • However, unlike chymotrypsin, μ-calpain degraded only a small fraction of the intact kinase subunits. (elsevier.com)
  • Cell surface binding of IFN-γ induces dimerization of its receptor subunits (IFNGR1 and IFNGR2) and subsequent activation of the receptor-associated JAK kinases 1 and 2 ( 9 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • By fluorescence emission anisotropy, the affinity of CaM kinase for dansylated calmodulin was measured and found to increase 1000 times after autophosphorylation of the threonine at position 286 of the protein. (sciencemag.org)
  • The kinase itself binds calcium with high affinity. (sciencemag.org)
  • We therefore screened a subset of plant CPKs for CaM binding and found that CPK28 is a high affinity Ca 2+ /CaM-binding protein. (illinois.edu)
  • To identify the olomoucine-sensitive kinase(s), we prepared analogs that could be immobilized to an affinity resin to isolate binding proteins. (edu.au)
  • Binding of calcium ion to this domain increases the affinity of MYLK binding to myosin light chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • CaMKK β is a major kinase activated by elevated levels of intracellular calcium. (ahajournals.org)
  • Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can dramatically increase levels of intracellular calcium ([Ca 2+ ] i ). (elsevier.com)
  • We previously demonstrated that phosphorylation of the cyclic-AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) provides a readout of the instructive signals that guide plasticity in juveniles. (hindawi.com)
  • May mediate a link between the extracellular matrix and the actin cytoskeleton via its interaction with syndecan and with the actin/spectrin-binding protein 4.1. (genecards.org)
  • Since the CaM-K inhibitor blocked calcium stimulation of insulin gene transcription ( 10 ), this finding suggests the participation of CaM-Ks in glucose control of the gene. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Calcium can function as a second messenger through stimulation of calcium-dependent protein kinases. (sciencemag.org)
  • Relative to autopsy control tissue, decreased hybridization to mRNA of the α subunit of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and increased hybridization to brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA were found throughout the granule cells of the epileptic hippocampus. (elsevier.com)
  • The analysis of regulated phosphorylation events on protein kinases is therefore of particular relevance, although this could not as yet be characterized systematically by proteomics. (mcponline.org)
  • p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the 'basket' to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later. (uniprot.org)
  • RT-PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemical staining analysis revealed that CaM-K kinase-α (CaM-KKα) and CaM-KIV were localized in rat pancreatic β-cells and their cell line, INS-1. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In D1-D2 HEK cells treated with SKF81297, there was a smaller rise in calcium ( Fig. 1 a and b ) not seen in cells expressing D1 alone (data not shown), which could also be blocked by SCH23390 or raclopride ( Fig. 1 c ). (pnas.org)
  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (uniprot.org)
  • The kinases were identified from the S. nodorum genome sequence on the basis of sequence homology to known Ca2+/calmodulin- dependent protein kinases. (edu.au)
  • Your search returned 54 calmodulin 3 (phosphorylase kinase, delta) ELISA ELISA Kit across 1 supplier. (biocompare.com)