S100 Calcium Binding Protein G: A calbindin protein found in many mammalian tissues, including the UTERUS, PLACENTA, BONE, PITUITARY GLAND, and KIDNEYS. In intestinal ENTEROCYTES it mediates intracellular calcium transport from apical to basolateral membranes via calcium binding at two EF-HAND MOTIFS. Expression is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.Calcium-Binding Proteins: Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.Calbindins: Calcium-binding proteins that are found in DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES, INTESTINES, BRAIN, and other tissues where they bind, buffer and transport cytoplasmic calcium. Calbindins possess a variable number of EF-HAND MOTIFS which contain calcium-binding sites. Some isoforms are regulated by VITAMIN D.Calbindin 1: A calcium-binding protein that mediates calcium HOMEOSTASIS in KIDNEYS, BRAIN, and other tissues. It is found in well-defined populations of NEURONS and is involved in CALCIUM SIGNALING and NEURONAL PLASTICITY. It is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.Calbindin 2: A calbindin protein that is differentially expressed in distinct populations of NEURONS throughout the vertebrate and invertebrate NERVOUS SYSTEM, and modulates intrinsic neuronal excitability and influences LONG-TERM POTENTIATION. It is also found in LUNG, TESTIS, OVARY, KIDNEY, and BREAST, and is expressed in many tumor types found in these tissues. It is often used as an immunohistochemical marker for MESOTHELIOMA.Parvalbumins: Low molecular weight, calcium binding muscle proteins. Their physiological function is possibly related to the contractile process.S100 Proteins: A family of highly acidic calcium-binding proteins found in large concentration in the brain and believed to be glial in origin. They are also found in other organs in the body. They have in common the EF-hand motif (EF HAND MOTIFS) found on a number of calcium binding proteins. The name of this family derives from the property of being soluble in a 100% saturated ammonium sulfate solution.EF Hand Motifs: Calcium-binding motifs composed of two helices (E and F) joined by a loop. Calcium is bound by the loop region. These motifs are found in many proteins that are regulated by calcium.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Calmodulin: A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.Recoverin: A neuronal calcium-sensor protein that is found in ROD PHOTORECEPTORS and CONE PHOTORECEPTORS. It interacts with G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTOR KINASE 1 in a Ca2+ dependent manner and plays an important role in PHOTOTRANSDUCTION.Calgranulin B: A 13.2-kDa member of the S-100 family of calcium-binding proteins that can form homo- or heterocomplexes with CALGRANULIN A and a variety of other proteins. The calgranulin A/B heterodimer is known as LEUKOCYTE L1 ANTIGEN COMPLEX. Calgranulin B is expressed at high concentrations in GRANULOCYTES during early monocyte differentiation, and serum calgranulin B levels are elevated in many inflammatory disorders such as CYSTIC FIBROSIS.Calsequestrin: Acidic protein found in SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM that binds calcium to the extent of 700-900 nmoles/mg. It plays the role of sequestering calcium transported to the interior of the intracellular vesicle.Calgranulin A: A 10.8-kDa member of the S-100 family of calcium-binding proteins that can form homo- or heterocomplexes with CALGRANULIN B and a variety of other proteins. The calgranulin A/B heterodimer is known as LEUKOCYTE L1 ANTIGEN COMPLEX. Calgranulin A is found in many cell types including GRANULOCYTES; KERATINOCYTES; and myelomonocytes, and has been shown to act as a chemotactic substance for NEUTROPHILS. Because it is present in acute inflammation but absent in chronic inflammation, it is a useful biological marker for a number of pathological conditions.Salamandra: A genus of European newts in the Salamandridae family. The two species of this genus are Salamandra salamandra (European "fire" salamander) and Salamandra atra (European alpine salamander).Fluorescamine: A nonfluorescent reagent for the detection of primary amines, peptides and proteins. The reaction products are highly fluorescent.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Calcium Signaling: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Collodion: A nitrocellulose solution in ether and alcohol. Collodion has a wide range of uses in industry including applications in the manufacture of photographic film, in fibers, in lacquers, and in engraving and lithography. In medicine it is used as a drug solvent and a wound sealant.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Calcium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of calcium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ca atoms with atomic weights 39, 41, 45, 47, 49, and 50 are radioactive calcium isotopes.Entamoeba histolytica: A species of parasitic protozoa causing ENTAMOEBIASIS and amebic dysentery (DYSENTERY, AMEBIC). Characteristics include a single nucleus containing a small central karyosome and peripheral chromatin that is finely and regularly beaded.Calcium Channels: Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.Egtazic Acid: A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Sarcoplasmic Reticulum: A network of tubules and sacs in the cytoplasm of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that assist with muscle contraction and relaxation by releasing and storing calcium ions.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Calcium, Dietary: Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Poly(A)-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to the 3' polyadenylated region of MRNA. When complexed with RNA the proteins serve an array of functions such as stabilizing the 3' end of RNA, promoting poly(A) synthesis and stimulating mRNA translation.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Calcium Isotopes: Stable calcium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element calcium, but differ in atomic weight. Ca-42-44, 46, and 48 are stable calcium isotopes.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Troponin C: One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex of skeletal muscle. It is a calcium-binding protein.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Calcitriol: The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit: A calcium-binding protein that is 92 AA long, contains 2 EF-hand domains, and is concentrated mainly in GLIAL CELLS. Elevation of S100B levels in brain tissue correlates with a role in neurological disorders.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Calcium Chloride: A salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.Nerve Tissue ProteinsCalcium Carbonate: Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Terbium: Terbium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Tb, atomic number 65, and atomic weight 158.92.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Troponin: One of the minor protein components of skeletal muscle. Its function is to serve as the calcium-binding component in the troponin-tropomyosin B-actin-myosin complex by conferring calcium sensitivity to the cross-linked actin and myosin filaments.Calcium Phosphates: Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Tacrolimus Binding Proteins: A family of immunophilin proteins that bind to the immunosuppressive drugs TACROLIMUS (also known as FK506) and SIROLIMUS. EC 5.2.1.-Poly(A)-Binding Protein I: A poly(A) binding protein that has a variety of functions such as mRNA stabilization and protection of RNA from nuclease activity. Although poly(A) binding protein I is considered a major cytoplasmic RNA-binding protein it is also found in the CELL NUCLEUS and may be involved in transport of mRNP particles.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Calcium Channels, L-Type: Long-lasting voltage-gated CALCIUM CHANNELS found in both excitable and nonexcitable tissue. They are responsible for normal myocardial and vascular smooth muscle contractility. Five subunits (alpha-1, alpha-2, beta, gamma, and delta) make up the L-type channel. The alpha-1 subunit is the binding site for calcium-based antagonists. Dihydropyridine-based calcium antagonists are used as markers for these binding sites.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Hippocalcin: A neuronal calcium-sensor protein that was initially found in the NEURONS of the HIPPOCAMPUS. It interacts with NEURONAL APOPTOSIS-INHIBITORY PROTEIN.Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins: A family of soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors and modulate their biological actions at the cellular level. (Int J Gynaecol Obstet 1992;39(1):3-9)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Calcium Oxalate: The calcium salt of oxalic acid, occurring in the urine as crystals and in certain calculi.Chelating Agents: Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.Ytterbium: Ytterbium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Yb, atomic number 70, and atomic weight 173. Ytterbium has been used in lasers and as a portable x-ray source.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Lanthanum: Lanthanum. The prototypical element in the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol La, atomic number 57, and atomic weight 138.91. Lanthanide ion is used in experimental biology as a calcium antagonist; lanthanum oxide improves the optical properties of glass.Calcium Gluconate: The calcium salt of gluconic acid. The compound has a variety of uses, including its use as a calcium replenisher in hypocalcemic states.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.Cations, Divalent: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Microfilament Proteins: Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins: Intracellular proteins that reversibly bind hydrophobic ligands including: saturated and unsaturated FATTY ACIDS; EICOSANOIDS; and RETINOIDS. They are considered a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed family of proteins that may play a role in the metabolism of LIPIDS.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Dialysis: A process of selective diffusion through a membrane. It is usually used to separate low-molecular-weight solutes which diffuse through the membrane from the colloidal and high-molecular-weight solutes which do not. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Naphthalenesulfonates: A class of organic compounds that contains a naphthalene moiety linked to a sulfonic acid salt or ester.Poly(A)-Binding Protein II: A poly(A) binding protein that is involved in promoting the extension of the poly A tails of MRNA. The protein requires a minimum of ten ADENOSINE nucleotides in order for binding to mRNA. Once bound it works in conjunction with CLEAVAGE AND POLYADENYLATION SPECIFICITY FACTOR to stimulate the rate of poly A synthesis by POLY A POLYMERASE. Once poly-A tails reach around 250 nucleotides in length poly(A) binding protein II no longer stimulates POLYADENYLATION. Mutations within a GCG repeat region in the gene for poly(A) binding protein II have been shown to cause the disease MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY, OCULOPHARYNGEAL.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Marfan Syndrome: An autosomal dominant disorder of CONNECTIVE TISSUE with abnormal features in the heart, the eye, and the skeleton. Cardiovascular manifestations include MITRAL VALVE PROLAPSE, dilation of the AORTA, and aortic dissection. Other features include lens displacement (ectopia lentis), disproportioned long limbs and enlarged DURA MATER (dural ectasia). Marfan syndrome is associated with mutations in the gene encoding fibrillin, a major element of extracellular microfibrils of connective tissue.Metals, Rare Earth: A group of elements that include SCANDIUM; YTTRIUM; and the LANTHANOID SERIES ELEMENTS. Historically, the rare earth metals got their name from the fact that they were never found in their pure elemental form, but as an oxide. In addition they were very difficult to purify. They are not truly rare and comprise about 25% of the metals in the earth's crust.Calcium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain calcium as an integral part of the molecule.Calcium Channels, N-Type: CALCIUM CHANNELS that are concentrated in neural tissue. Omega toxins inhibit the actions of these channels by altering their voltage dependence.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Edetic Acid: A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3: One of the six homologous soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors (SOMATOMEDINS) and modulate their mitogenic and metabolic actions at the cellular level.Ions: An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Neuronal Calcium-Sensor Proteins: A family of intracellular calcium-sensing proteins found predominately in NEURONS and PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They contain EF HAND MOTIFS and undergo conformational changes upon calcium-binding. Neuronal calcium-sensor proteins interact with other regulatory proteins to mediate physiological responses to a change in intracellular calcium concentration.Periplasmic Binding Proteins: Periplasmic proteins that scavenge or sense diverse nutrients. In the bacterial environment they usually couple to transporters or chemotaxis receptors on the inner bacterial membrane.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Calcium-Transporting ATPases: Cation-transporting proteins that utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis for the transport of CALCIUM. They differ from CALCIUM CHANNELS which allow calcium to pass through a membrane without the use of energy.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Trifluoperazine: A phenothiazine with actions similar to CHLORPROMAZINE. It is used as an antipsychotic and an antiemetic.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel: A tetrameric calcium release channel in the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM membrane of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, acting oppositely to SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES. It is important in skeletal and cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and studied by using RYANODINE. Abnormalities are implicated in CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS and MUSCULAR DISEASES.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Aequorin: A photoprotein isolated from the bioluminescent jellyfish Aequorea. It emits visible light by an intramolecular reaction when a trace amount of calcium ion is added. The light-emitting moiety in the bioluminescence reaction is believed to be 2-amino-3-benzyl-5-(p-hydroxyphenyl)pyrazine (AF-350).Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.1-Carboxyglutamic Acid: Found in various tissues, particularly in four blood-clotting proteins including prothrombin, in kidney protein, in bone protein, and in the protein present in various ectopic calcifications.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Neurocalcin: A neuronal calcium sensor protein that is expressed as several isoforms and can interact with ACTIN; TUBULIN; and CLATHRIN.Calcium Channel Agonists: Agents that increase calcium influx into calcium channels of excitable tissues. This causes vasoconstriction in VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE and/or CARDIAC MUSCLE cells as well as stimulation of insulin release from pancreatic islets. Therefore, tissue-selective calcium agonists have the potential to combat cardiac failure and endocrinological disorders. They have been used primarily in experimental studies in cell and tissue culture.Tacrolimus Binding Protein 1A: A 12-KDa tacrolimus binding protein that is found associated with and may modulate the function of calcium release channels. It is a peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase which is inhibited by both tacrolimus (commonly called FK506) and SIROLIMUS.Calreticulin: A multifunctional protein that is found primarily within membrane-bound organelles. In the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM it binds to specific N-linked oligosaccharides found on newly-synthesized proteins and functions as a MOLECULAR CHAPERONE that may play a role in PROTEIN FOLDING or retention and degradation of misfolded proteins. In addition calreticulin is a major storage form for CALCIUM and functions as a calcium-signaling molecule that can regulate intracellular calcium HOMEOSTASIS.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Crystallography: The branch of science that deals with the geometric description of crystals and their internal arrangement. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Latent TGF-beta Binding Proteins: A family of secreted multidomain proteins that were originally identified by their association with the latent form of TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTORS. They interact with a variety of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS and may play a role in the regulation of TGB-beta bioavailability.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Calorimetry: The measurement of the quantity of heat involved in various processes, such as chemical reactions, changes of state, and formations of solutions, or in the determination of the heat capacities of substances. The fundamental unit of measurement is the joule or the calorie (4.184 joules). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Mollusca: A phylum of the kingdom Metazoa. Mollusca have soft, unsegmented bodies with an anterior head, a dorsal visceral mass, and a ventral foot. Most are encased in a protective calcareous shell. It includes the classes GASTROPODA; BIVALVIA; CEPHALOPODA; Aplacophora; Scaphopoda; Polyplacophora; and Monoplacophora.Annexins: Family of calcium- and phospholipid-binding proteins which are structurally related and exhibit immunological cross-reactivity. Each member contains four homologous 70-kDa repeats. The annexins are differentially distributed in vertebrate tissues (and lower eukaryotes) and appear to be involved in MEMBRANE FUSION and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Apoproteins: The protein components of a number of complexes, such as enzymes (APOENZYMES), ferritin (APOFERRITINS), or lipoproteins (APOLIPOPROTEINS).Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 2: One of the six homologous soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors (SOMATOMEDINS) and modulate their mitogenic and metabolic actions at the cellular level.Taurodeoxycholic Acid: A bile salt formed in the liver by conjugation of deoxycholate with taurine, usually as the sodium salt. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic, also industrially as a fat emulsifier.Thoracica: A superorder of marine CRUSTACEA, free swimming in the larval state, but permanently fixed as adults. There are some 800 described species, grouped in several genera, and comprising of two major orders of barnacles: stalked (Pedunculata) and sessile (Sessilia).Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein: A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Calcimycin: An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.TATA-Box Binding Protein: A general transcription factor that plays a major role in the activation of eukaryotic genes transcribed by RNA POLYMERASES. It binds specifically to the TATA BOX promoter element, which lies close to the position of transcription initiation in RNA transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE II. Although considered a principal component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID it also takes part in general transcription factor complexes involved in RNA POLYMERASE I and RNA POLYMERASE III transcription.Alkanesulfonates: Organic esters or salts of sulfonic acid derivatives containing an aliphatic hydrocarbon radical.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Potassium Chloride: A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.Lactalbumin: A major protein fraction of milk obtained from the WHEY.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 1: One of the six homologous proteins that specifically bind insulin-like growth factors (SOMATOMEDINS) and modulate their mitogenic and metabolic actions. The function of this protein is not completely defined. However, several studies demonstrate that it inhibits IGF binding to cell surface receptors and thereby inhibits IGF-mediated mitogenic and cell metabolic actions. (Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1993;204(1):4-29)Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Buffers: A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.Extracellular Matrix Proteins: Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Sarcolemma: The excitable plasma membrane of a muscle cell. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Xanthenes: Compounds with three aromatic rings in linear arrangement with an OXYGEN in the center ring.Consensus Sequence: A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular: NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.Fibrinogens, Abnormal: Fibrinogens which have a functional defect as the result of one or more amino acid substitutions in the amino acid sequence of normal fibrinogen. Abnormalities of the fibrinogen molecule may impair any of the major steps involved in the conversion of fibrinogen into stabilized fibrin, such as cleavage of the fibrinopeptides by thrombin, polymerization and cross-linking of fibrin. The resulting dysfibrinogenemias can be clinically silent or can be associated with bleeding, thrombosis or defective wound healing.Retinol-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind with RETINOL. The retinol-binding protein found in plasma has an alpha-1 mobility on electrophoresis and a molecular weight of about 21 kDa. The retinol-protein complex (MW=80-90 kDa) circulates in plasma in the form of a protein-protein complex with prealbumin. The retinol-binding protein found in tissue has a molecular weight of 14 kDa and carries retinol as a non-covalently-bound ligand.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Calcium Hydroxide: A white powder prepared from lime that has many medical and industrial uses. It is in many dental formulations, especially for root canal filling.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.CREB-Binding Protein: A member of the p300-CBP transcription factor family that was initially identified as a binding partner for CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN. Mutations in CREB-binding protein are associated with RUBINSTEIN-TAYBI SYNDROME.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Parathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Nifedipine: A potent vasodilator agent with calcium antagonistic action. It is a useful anti-anginal agent that also lowers blood pressure.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Calcium Sulfate: A calcium salt that is used for a variety of purposes including: building materials, as a desiccant, in dentistry as an impression material, cast, or die, and in medicine for immobilizing casts and as a tablet excipient. It exists in various forms and states of hydration. Plaster of Paris is a mixture of powdered and heat-treated gypsum.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Vitamin D-Binding Protein: An alpha-globulin found in the plasma of man and other vertebrates. It is apparently synthesized in the liver and carries vitamin D and its metabolites through the circulation and mediates the response of tissue. It is also known as group-specific component (Gc). Gc subtypes are used to determine specific phenotypes and gene frequencies. These data are employed in the classification of population groups, paternity investigations, and in forensic medicine.CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins: A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Microsomes: Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Mathematics: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Fura-2: A fluorescent calcium chelating agent which is used to study intracellular calcium in tissues.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Polypyrimidine Tract-Binding Protein: A RNA-binding protein that binds to polypyriminidine rich regions in the INTRONS of messenger RNAs. Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein may be involved in regulating the ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of mRNAs since its presence on an intronic RNA region that is upstream of an EXON inhibits the splicing of the exon into the final mRNA product.Fluorescence Polarization: Measurement of the polarization of fluorescent light from solutions or microscopic specimens. It is used to provide information concerning molecular size, shape, and conformation, molecular anisotropy, electronic energy transfer, molecular interaction, including dye and coenzyme binding, and the antigen-antibody reaction.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Myosins: A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Thapsigargin: A sesquiterpene lactone found in roots of THAPSIA. It inhibits CA(2+)-TRANSPORTING ATPASE mediated uptake of CALCIUM into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.

Endocytosis: EH domains lend a hand. (1/7886)

A number of proteins that have been implicated in endocytosis feature a conserved protein-interaction module known as an EH domain. The three-dimensional structure of an EH domain has recently been solved, and is likely to presage significant advances in understanding molecular mechanisms of endocytosis.  (+info)

Binding of the G domains of laminin alpha1 and alpha2 chains and perlecan to heparin, sulfatides, alpha-dystroglycan and several extracellular matrix proteins. (2/7886)

The C-terminal G domain of the mouse laminin alpha2 chain consists of five lamin-type G domain (LG) modules (alpha2LG1 to alpha2LG5) and was obtained as several recombinant fragments, corresponding to either individual modules or the tandem arrays alpha2LG1-3 and alpha2LG4-5. These fragments were compared with similar modules from the laminin alpha1 chain and from the C-terminal region of perlecan (PGV) in several binding studies. Major heparin-binding sites were located on the two tandem fragments and the individual alpha2LG1, alpha2LG3 and alpha2LG5 modules. The binding epitope on alpha2LG5 could be localized to a cluster of lysines by site-directed mutagenesis. In the alpha1 chain, however, strong heparin binding was found on alpha1LG4 and not on alpha1LG5. Binding to sulfatides correlated to heparin binding in most but not all cases. Fragments alpha2LG1-3 and alpha2LG4-5 also bound to fibulin-1, fibulin-2 and nidogen-2 with Kd = 13-150 nM. Both tandem fragments, but not the individual modules, bound strongly to alpha-dystroglycan and this interaction was abolished by EDTA but not by high concentrations of heparin and NaCl. The binding of perlecan fragment PGV to alpha-dystroglycan was even stronger and was also not sensitive to heparin. This demonstrated similar binding repertoires for the LG modules of three basement membrane proteins involved in cell-matrix interactions and supramolecular assembly.  (+info)

Identification of a novel family of targets of PYK2 related to Drosophila retinal degeneration B (rdgB) protein. (3/7886)

The protein tyrosine kinase PYK2 has been implicated in signaling pathways activated by G-protein-coupled receptors, intracellular calcium, and stress signals. Here we describe the molecular cloning and characterization of a novel family of PYK2-binding proteins designated Nirs (PYK2 N-terminal domain-interacting receptors). The three Nir proteins (Nir1, Nir2, and Nir3) bind to the amino-terminal domain of PYK2 via a conserved sequence motif located in the carboxy terminus. The primary structures of Nirs reveal six putative transmembrane domains, a region homologous to phosphatidylinositol (PI) transfer protein, and an acidic domain. The Nir proteins are the human homologues of the Drosophila retinal degeneration B protein (rdgB), a protein implicated in the visual transduction pathway in flies. We demonstrate that Nirs are calcium-binding proteins that exhibit PI transfer activity in vivo. Activation of PYK2 by agents that elevate intracellular calcium or by phorbol ester induce tyrosine phosphorylation of Nirs. Moreover, PYK2 and Nirs exhibit similar expression patterns in several regions of the brain and retina. In addition, PYK2-Nir complexes are detected in lysates prepared from cultured cells or from brain tissues. Finally, the Nir1-encoding gene is located at human chromosome 17p13.1, in proximity to a locus responsible for several human retinal diseases. We propose that the Nir and rdgB proteins represent a new family of evolutionarily conserved PYK2-binding proteins that play a role in the control of calcium and phosphoinositide metabolism downstream of G-protein-coupled receptors.  (+info)

Phospholamban is present in endothelial cells and modulates endothelium-dependent relaxation. Evidence from phospholamban gene-ablated mice. (4/7886)

Vascular endothelial cells regulate vascular smooth muscle tone through Ca2+-dependent production and release of vasoactive molecules. Phospholamban (PLB) is a 24- to 27-kDa phosphoprotein that modulates activity of the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA). Expression of PLB is reportedly limited to cardiac, slow-twitch skeletal and smooth muscle in which PLB is an important regulator of [Ca2+]i and contractility in these muscles. In the present study, we report the existence of PLB in the vascular endothelium, a nonmuscle tissue, and provide functional data on PLB regulation of vascular contractility through its actions in the endothelium. Endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine was attenuated in aorta of PLB-deficient (PLB-KO) mice compared with wild-type (WT) controls. This effect was not due to actions of nitric oxide on the smooth muscle, because sodium nitroprusside-mediated relaxation in either denuded or endothelium-intact aortas was unaffected by PLB ablation. Relative to denuded vessels, relaxation to forskolin was enhanced in WT endothelium-intact aortas. The endothelium-dependent component of this relaxation was attenuated in PLB-KO aortas. To investigate whether these changes were due to PLB, WT mouse aorta endothelial cells were isolated. Both reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses revealed the presence of PLB in endothelial cells, which were shown to be >98% pure by diI-acetylated LDL uptake and nuclear counterstaining. These data indicate that PLB is present and modulates vascular function as a result of its actions in endothelial cells. The presence of PLB in endothelial cells opens new fields for investigation of Ca2+ regulatory pathways in nonmuscle cells and for modulation of endothelial-vascular interactions.  (+info)

A novel interaction mechanism accounting for different acylphosphatase effects on cardiac and fast twitch skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pumps. (5/7886)

In cardiac and skeletal muscle Ca2+ translocation from cytoplasm into sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) is accomplished by different Ca2+-ATPases whose functioning involves the formation and decomposition of an acylphosphorylated phosphoenzyme intermediate (EP). In this study we found that acylphosphatase, an enzyme well represented in muscular tissues and which actively hydrolyzes EP, had different effects on heart (SERCA2a) and fast twitch skeletal muscle SR Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA1). With physiological acylphosphatase concentrations SERCA2a exhibited a parallel increase in the rates of both ATP hydrolysis and Ca2+ transport; in contrast, SERCA1 appeared to be uncoupled since the stimulation of ATP hydrolysis matched an inhibition of Ca2+ pump. These different effects probably depend on phospholamban, which is associated with SERCA2a but not SERCA1. Consistent with this view, the present study suggests that acylphosphatase-induced stimulation of SERCA2a, in addition to an enhanced EP hydrolysis, may be due to a displacement of phospholamban, thus to a removal of its inhibitory effect.  (+info)

Oligosaccharide modification in the early secretory pathway directs the selection of a misfolded glycoprotein for degradation by the proteasome. (6/7886)

The role of conformation-based quality control in the early secretory pathway is to eliminate misfolded polypeptides and unassembled multimeric protein complexes from the endoplasmic reticulum, ensuring the deployment of only functional molecules to distal sites. The intracellular fate of terminally misfolded human alpha1-antitrypsin was examined in hepatoma cells to identify the functional role of asparagine-linked oligosaccharide modification in the selection of glycoproteins for degradation by the cytosolic proteasome. Proteasomal degradation required physical interaction with the molecular chaperone calnexin. Altered sedimentation of intracellular complexes following treatment with the specific proteasome inhibitor lactacystin, and in combination with mannosidase inhibition, revealed that the removal of mannose from attached oligosaccharides abrogates the release of misfolded alpha1-antitrypsin from calnexin prior to proteasomal degradation. Intracellular turnover was arrested with kifunensine, implicating the participation of endoplasmic reticulum mannosidase I in the disposal process. Accelerated degradation occurred in a mannosidase-independent manner and was arrested by lactacystin, in response to the posttranslational inhibition of glucosidase II, demonstrating that the attenuated removal of glucose from attached oligosaccharides functions as the underlying rate-limiting step in the proteasome-mediated pathway. A model is proposed in which the removal of mannose from multiple attached oligosaccharides directs calnexin in the selection of misfolded alpha1-antitrypsin for degradation by the proteasome.  (+info)

Complete exon-intron organization of the mouse fibulin-1 gene and its comparison with the human fibulin-1 gene. (7/7886)

Fibulin-1 is a 90 kDa calcium-binding protein present in the extracellular matrix and in the blood. Two major variants, C and D, differ in their C-termini as well as the ability to bind the basement membrane protein nidogen. Here we characterized genomic clones encoding the mouse fibulin-1 gene, which contains 18 exons spanning at least 75 kb of DNA. The two variants are generated by alternative splicing of exons in the 3' end. By searching the database we identified most of the exons encoding the human fibulin-1 gene and showed that its exon-intron organization is similar to that of the mouse gene.  (+info)

Function of WW domains as phosphoserine- or phosphothreonine-binding modules. (8/7886)

Protein-interacting modules help determine the specificity of signal transduction events, and protein phosphorylation can modulate the assembly of such modules into specific signaling complexes. Although phosphotyrosine-binding modules have been well-characterized, phosphoserine- or phosphothreonine-binding modules have not been described. WW domains are small protein modules found in various proteins that participate in cell signaling or regulation. WW domains of the essential mitotic prolyl isomerase Pin1 and the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4 bound to phosphoproteins, including physiological substrates of enzymes, in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. The Pin1 WW domain functioned as a phosphoserine- or phosphothreonine-binding module, with properties similar to those of SRC homology 2 domains. Phosphoserine- or phosphothreonine-binding activity was required for Pin1 to interact with its substrates in vitro and to perform its essential function in vivo.  (+info)

Allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1) is an evolutionary conserved protein important to inflammatory responses throughout the body including that of microglia in the central nervous system (CNS). In addition to critical intracellular roles in the activation of microglia and macrophages, AIF-1 can be secreted by these cells in response to inflammatory signals as well as soluble signals released by dying neurons. In response to the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, we found increased levels of AIF-1 expression in cells clustered in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc), the site of dopaminergic cell death. The number of these AIF-1 bright cells continued to increase even after neuronal cell death was complete. This increased expression of AIF-1 was restricted to resident microglia; flow cytometric analysis showed that infiltrating CD45hi leukocytes did not express high levels of AIF-1. Analysis of microglia ex vivo demonstrated the secretion of AIF-1 by these cells, ...
Early myocardial reperfusion is an effective therapy but ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) causes lethal myocardial injury. The aging heart was reported to show greater cardiac damage after I/R injury than that observed in young hearts. Senescence marker protein 30 (SMP30), whose expression decreases with age, plays a role in reducing oxidative stress and apoptosis. However, the impact of SMP30 on myocardial I/R injury remains to be determined. In this study, the left anterior descending coronary artery was occluded for 30 min, followed by reperfusion in wild-type (WT) and SMP30 knockout (KO) mice. After I/R, cardiomyocyte apoptosis and the ratio of infarct area/area at risk were higher, left ventricular fractional shortening was lower, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was enhanced in SMP30 KO mice. Moreover, the previously increased phosphorylation of GSK-3β and Akt was lower in SMP30 KO mice than in WT mice. In cardiomyocytes, silencing of SMP30 expression attenuated Akt and GSK-3β
Buy our Recombinant Human Phospholamban protein. Ab114227 is a protein fragment produced in Wheat germ and has been validated in WB, ELISA, SDS-PAGE. Abcam…
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Among the EF-Hand calcium-binding proteins the subgroup of S100 proteins constitute a large family with numerous and diverse functions in calcium-mediated signaling. The evolutionary origin of this family is still uncertain and most studies have examined mammalian family members. We have performed an extensive search in several teleost genomes to establish the s100 gene family in fish. We report that the teleost S100 repertoire comprises fourteen different subfamilies which show remarkable similarity across six divergent teleost species. Individual species feature distinctive subsets of thirteen to fourteen genes that result from local gene duplications and gene losses. Eight of the fourteen S100 subfamilies are unique for teleosts, while six are shared with mammalian species and three of those even with cartilaginous fish. Several S100 family members are found in jawless fish already, but none of them are clear orthologs of cartilaginous or bony fish s100 genes. All teleost s100 genes show the expected
Reversibly inhibits the activity of ATP2A2 in cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum by decreasing the apparent affinity of the ATPase for Ca(2+). Modulates the contractility of the heart muscle in response to physiological stimuli via its effects on ATP2A2. Modulates calcium re-uptake during muscle relaxation and plays an important role in calcium homeostasis in the heart muscle. The degree of ATP2A2 inhibition depends on the oligomeric state of PLN. ATP2A2 inhibition is alleviated by PLN phosphorylation (By similarity).
Alix [ALG-2 (apoptosis-linked gene 2)-interacting protein X] is a ubiquitinous adaptor protein first described for its capacity to bind to the calcium-binding protein, ALG-2. Alix regulates neuronal death in ways involving interactions with ALG-2 and with proteins of the ESCRT (endosomal sorting complex required for transport). Even though all Alix interactors characterized to date are involved in endosomal trafficking, the genuine function of the protein in this process remains unclear. We have demonstrated recently that Alix and ALG-2 form in the presence of calcium, a complex with apical caspases and with the endocytosed death receptor TNFR1 (tumour necrosis factor α receptor 1), thus suggesting a molecular coupling between endosomes and the cell death machinery.. ...
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , GenWay \ S-100 Protein beta chain (S100B) Human - S100 calcium-binding protein B. S-100 protein beta subunit. S-100 protein beta chain N_A \ 10-663-45599 for more molecular products just contact us
casSAR Dugability of Q9DB16 | Cab39l | Calcium-binding protein 39-like - Also known as CB39L_MOUSE, Cab39l. Component of a complex that binds and activates STK11/LKB1. In the complex, required to stabilize the interaction between CAB39/MO25 (CAB39/MO25alpha or CAB39L/MO25beta) and STK11/LKB1 (By similarity). Component of a trimeric complex composed of STK11/LKB1, STRAD (STRADA or STRADB) and CAB39/MO25 (CAB39/MO25alpha or CAB39L/MO25beta): the complex tethers STK11/LKB1 in the cytoplasm and stimulates its catalytic activity.
Opens the Highlight Feature Bar and highlights feature annotations from the FEATURES table of the record. The Highlight Feature Bar can be used to navigate to and highlight other features and provides links to display the highlighted region separately. Links in the FEATURES table will also highlight the corresponding region of the sequence. More... ...
One of the analyzed signal transduction systems mediates the specific transmission of calcium signals. One type of calcium sensors are the AtCBL (Calcineurin B-like) protein family comprising of ten members in Arabidopsis ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Leyuan Bao, Adam F Odell, Sam L Stephen, Stephen B Wheatcroft, John H Walker, Sreenivasan Ponnambalam].
oncomodulin: cytoplasmic calcium-binding protein found only in tumor cells; MW 11,500; not a fragment of calmodulin; stimulates liver cell DNA synthesis
Clotting factors VII, IX, and X and prothrombin all require carboxylation of glutamate residues for functional activity. Carboxylation provides calcium-binding sites and thus allows calcium-dependent interaction of these clotting factors with a phospholipid surface involved in the generation of thrombin ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the S100 family of proteins containing 2 EF-hand calcium-binding motifs. S100 proteins are localized in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus of a wide range of cells, and involved in the regulation of a number of cellular processes such as cell cycle progression and differentiation. S100 genes include at least 13 members which are located as a cluster on chromosome 1q21. This protein may function in motility, invasion, and tubulin polymerization. Chromosomal rearrangements and altered expression of this gene have been implicated in tumor metastasis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Providing premium quality antibodies to cardiovascular phosphorylated targets. Fully validated by western blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy by PhD scientists. We supply antibodies to Phospholamban, SERCA, RYR2 and their phosphorylated forms.
Phospholamban兔多克隆抗体(ab85146)可与小鼠, 大鼠, 人样本反应并经WB, IHC实验严格验证。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
Phospholamban兔多克隆抗体(ab15000)可与小鼠, 大鼠, 兔, 仓鼠, 牛, 人, 猪, 中国仓鼠样本反应并经WB, IHC, ICC/IF实验严格验证,被7篇文献引用并得到11个独立的用户反馈。
The 67 kDa calcimedin is a Ca2+-binding protein isolated from several muscle tissues. A recent report [Morse & Moore (1988) Biochem. J. 251, 171-174] indicated that the 67 kDa calcimedin is distinct from 67 kDa calelectrin, which is purified from various non-muscle cells. In the present study we have purified the 67 kDa protein from bovine aorta (i.e. 67 kDa calcimedin) and liver (i.e. 67 kDa calelectrin) and compared them by immunological and biochemical criteria. The aorta calcimedin is identical with the liver calelectrin by the following criteria. (1) The calcimedin co-electrophoresed with the calelectrin on SDS/5-15%-(w/v)-linear-gradient polyacrylamide gels. (2) The two proteins selectively cross-reacted with a chicken gizzard calcimedin antibody. (3) An antibody raised against the bovine aorta calcimedin also recognized the bovine liver calelectrin. (4) One-dimensional peptide maps of the two proteins revealed no significant difference. (5) The calcimedin appeared to have an amino acid ...
Vitamin D-dependent calcium binding proteins were discovered in the cytosolic fractions of chicken intestine, and later in mammalian intestine and kidney, by workers including Robert Wasserman of Cornell University. They bound calcium in the micromolar range and were greatly reduced in vitamin D-deficient animals. Expression could be induced by treating these animals with vitamin D metabolites such as calcitriol. They were found to exist in two distinct sizes with a molecular weight of approximately 9 kDa and 28 kDa. They were renamed calbindin. Calbindin-D9k (S100G) is found in mammalian intestine and calbindin-D28k is in avian intestine and in mammalian kidney and other tissues. Calcium-binding protein Wasserman, RH; Taylor, AN (1966). "Vitamin D3-induced calcium-binding protein in chick intestinal mucosa". Science. 152 (3723): 791-3. doi:10.1126/science.152.3723.791. PMID 17797460. Wasserman, RH; Corradino, RA; Taylor, AN (1969). "Binding proteins from animals with possible transport ...
Looking for online definition of S100 calcium-binding protein A13 in the Medical Dictionary? S100 calcium-binding protein A13 explanation free. What is S100 calcium-binding protein A13? Meaning of S100 calcium-binding protein A13 medical term. What does S100 calcium-binding protein A13 mean?
1. The rapid stimulation of intestinal Ca2+transport observed in vitamin D-deficient chicks after receiving 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol has necessitated a re-evaluation of the correlation hitherto observed between this stimulation and the induction of calcium-binding protein synthesis. By 1h after a dose of 125ng of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, Ca2+transport is increased. This is at least 2h before calcium-binding protein can be detected immunologically and 1h before synthesis of the protein begins on polyribosomes, and thus the hormone stimulates Ca2+transport before calcium-binding-protein biosynthesis is induced. 2. The maximum increase in Ca2+transport observed after this dose of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (attained by 8h) is similar to that observed after 1.25-25μg of cholecalciferol, but the stimulation is only short-lived, in contrast with the effect observed after the vitamin. At later times after the hormone, however, when Ca2+transport has declined to its basal rate, the ...
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma express high levels of the EF-hand calcium-binding protein S100A2 in contrast to other tumorigenic tissues and cell lines where the expression of this protein is reduced. Subtractive hybridization of tumorigenic versus normal tumor-derived mammary epithelial cells has previously identified the S100A2 protein as potential tumor suppressor. The biological function of S100A2 in carcinogenesis, however, has not been elucidated to date. Here, we report for the first time that during recovery from hydroxyurea treatment, the S100A2 protein translocated from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and co-localized with the tumor suppressor p53 in two different oral carcinoma cells (FADU and SCC-25). Co-immunoprecipitation experiments and electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that the interaction between S100A2 and p53 is Ca(2+)-dependent. Preliminary characterization of this interaction indicated that the region in p53 involved with binding to S100A2 is located at the C ...
Comparative Studies on Metabolic Rate and Calpain/Calpastatin Activity between Hanwoo and Holstein Beef - Hanwoo Beef;Holstein Beef;Temperature Conditioning;Metabolic Rate;Calpain;Calpastatin;
Calpastatin (CAST) is a calpain inhibitor, a calcium-dependent cysteine protease that is widely distributed in higher order animals. There are different types of calpastatins; examples include the 68 kDa erythrocyte-derived calpastatin and the 107 kDa myocyte-derived calpastatin (as evidenced by SDS-PAGE). Through its inhibition of calpain, calpastatin is believed to play important roles in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation and aging. CAST is also involved in the proteolysis of amyloid precursor protein (APP). ...
Calpastatin (CAST) is a calpain inhibitor, a calcium-dependent cysteine protease that is widely distributed in higher order animals. There are different types of calpastatins; examples include the 68 kDa erythrocyte-derived calpastatin and the 107 kDa myocyte-derived calpastatin (as evidenced by SDS-PAGE). Through its inhibition of calpain, calpastatin is believed to play important roles in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation and aging. CAST is also involved in the proteolysis of amyloid precursor protein (APP). ...
Expression of ECM proteins fibulin-1 and -2 in acute and chronic liver disease and in cultured rat liver cells. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Neocortical neurones can be classified according to several independent criteria: morphological, physiological, and molecular expression (neuropeptides (NPs) and/or calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs)). While it has been suggested that particular NPs and CaBPs characterize certain anatomical subtypes of neurones, there is also considerable overlap in their expression, and little is known about simultaneous expression of multiple NPs and CaBPs in morphologically characterized neocortical neurones. Here we determined the gene expression profiles of calbindin (CB), parvalbumin (PV), calretinin (CR), neuropeptide Y (NPY), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), somatostatin (SOM) and cholecystokinin (CCK) in 268 morphologically identified neurones located in layers 2-6 in the juvenile rat somatosensory neocortex. We used patch-clamp electrodes to label neurones with biocytin and harvest the cytoplasm to perform single-cell RT-multiplex PCR. Quality threshold clustering, an unsupervised algorithm that clustered
casSAR Dugability of Q9D581 | Efcab10 | EF-hand calcium-binding domain-containing protein 10 - Also known as EFC10_MOUSE, Efcab10.
Calcium-binding protein that may play a role in the regulation of voltage-dependent calcium channels (PubMed:28398555). May also play a role in cyclic-nucleotide-mediated signaling through the regulation of adenylate and guanylate cyclases (By similarity).
Phospholamban (PLN) regulates myocyte calcium cycling by inhibiting the Ca2+ATPase SERCA2a. Protein kinase A (PKA) mediated phosphorylation attenuates PLN activity leading to enhanced calcium uptake rates and accelerated cardiac relaxation. In vivo, PLN is present in monomeric and pentameric form. It is believed that PKA primarily targets the PLN monomer. However, we found that a R9C mutant of PLN dominantly inhibits PLN phosphorylation only within the pentamer suggesting a significant role of the pentamer in determining phosphorylation and, thus, PLN activity.. To investigate the role of the pentamer in PLN phosphorylation and function, the sensitivity, kinetics and stoichiometry of phosphorylation were analyzed in monomeric and pentameric PLN mutants expressed in a human cell line (HEK293AD). We found an independent increase of phosphorylation for monomer and pentamer upon forskolin stimulation, both in a concentration and time-dependent manner. Intriguingly, phosphorylation signals of PLN ...
Calcium-Binding Proteins: Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
The secretory pathway Ca\(^{2+}\)-ATPase (SPCA) provides the Golgi apparatus with a luminal Ca\(^{2+}\) store, which is used to modulate the activity of Ca\(^{2+}\)-dependent enzymes involved in controlling the secretory pathway and post-translational modification of proteins. This Ca\(^{2+}\) store controlled by SPCA is also believed to be agonist-releasable. Regucalcin (RGN), (also known as senescence marker protein 30 (SMP30)) is believed to be a Ca\(^{2+}\)-binding protein expressed in an age-dependent manner, whereby its protein levels decrease in a number of organs as aging progresses. It has been suggested to be able to affect the activities of the sarco/endo-plasmic reticulum Ca\(^{2+}\)-ATPase (SERCA), as well as other Ca\(^{2+}\)-dependent enzymes. On the other hand, RGNs ability to bind Ca\(^{2+}\) has been argued against and this protein has been shown to modulate the activities of enzymes not involved in Ca\(^{2+}\) homeostasis, as well as have intrinsic enzymatic activity in ...
Fimbrins are EF-hand calcium-binding proteins that actively participate in binding to and bundling of actin. In actin filaments, one molecule of fimbrin might
Calpain-like mRNAs have been identified in other organisms including bacteria, but the molecules encoded by these mRNAs have not been isolated, so little is known about their properties. How calpain activity is regulated in these organisms cells is still unclear In metazoans, the activity of calpain is controlled by a single proteinase inhibitor, calpastatin (IPR001259). The calpastatin gene can produce eight or more calpastatin polypeptides ranging from 17 to 85 kDa by use of different promoters and alternative splicing events. The physiological significance of these different calpastatins is unclear, although all bind to three different places on the calpain molecule; binding to at least two of the sites is Ca2+ dependent. The calpains ostensibly participate in a variety of cellular processes including remodelling of cytoskeletal/membrane attachments, different signal transduction pathways, and apoptosis. Deregulated calpain activity following loss of Ca2+ homeostasis results in tissue damage ...
Buy our Recombinant Human S100 Calcium Binding Protein A13. Ab125667 is a full length protein produced in Escherichia coli and has been validated in SDS-PAGE…
Many calcium-binding proteins belong to the same evolutionary family and share a type of calcium-binding domain known as the EF-hand [1,2,3,4,5]. This type of domain consists of a twelve residue loop flanked on both side by a twelve residue α-helical domain (see ,PDB:1CLL,). In an EF-hand loop the calcium ion is coordinated in a pentagonal bipyramidal configuration. The six residues involved in the binding are in positions 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 12; these residues are denoted by X, Y, Z, -Y, -X and -Z. The invariant Glu or Asp at position 12 provides two oxygens for liganding Ca (bidentate ligand). The basic structural/functional unit of EF-hand proteins is usually a pair of EF-hand motifs that together form a stable four-helix bundle domain. The pairing of EF-hand enables cooperativity in the binding of Ca2+ ions. We list below the proteins which are known to contain EF-hand regions. For each type of protein we have indicated between parenthesis the total number of EF-hand regions known or supposed ...
Calcium binding protein information including symptoms, causes, diseases, symptoms, treatments, and other medical and health issues.
S100 calcium-binding protein A11 (S100A11) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the S100A11 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the S100 family of proteins containing 2 EF-hand calcium-binding motifs. S100 proteins are localized in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus of a wide range of cells, and involved in the regulation of a number of cellular processes such as cell cycle progression and differentiation. S100A11 is localized in the cytoplasm of resting human keratinocytes in vitro. S100A11, along with all 13 members of the S100 family, are located as a cluster on chromosome 1q21. The protein may function in motility, invasion, and tubulin polymerization. Chromosomal rearrangements and altered expression of this gene have been implicated in tumor metastasis. Suppression of S100A11 by small interfering RNA caused cells to apoptosis, and overexpression of S100A11 has been found to inhibit apoptosis in tumor cells. Furthermore, the knock-down of S100A11 via siRNA reduces the ...
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Ca2+ signaling in neurons is characterized by highly restricted and dynamic gradients called Ca2+ waves, spikes, transients and puffs depending upon their corresponding spatial and temporal features. Based on this strict segmentation the Ca2+ ion provides a versatile basis for complex signaling in neuronal subcompartments with a spatial resolution of micro- and nanodomains. The multitude of Ca2+-regulated processes requires specialized downstream processing machinery, translating the Ca2+ signal into alterations of cellular processes. The broad range of different Ca2+-triggered phenomena in neurons, ranging from neurotransmission to gene expression, is reflected by the existence of a multitude of different Ca2+-binding proteins (CaBPs) from which numerous belong to the EF-hand super-family. EF-hand proteins can be subdivided into Ca2+ buffer and Ca2+ sensor proteins. Whereas the first group has a very high affinity for Ca2+, exhibits little conformational change in the Ca2+-bound state and is thought to
Heart failure (HF) represents the common endpoint of many different kinds of cardiopulmonary diseases. Essentially, loss of myocardium triggers a sequence of molecular, cellular and physiological responses leading to ventricular remodelling and the inability of the ventricle to maintain an output sufficient for the metabolic requirements of the tissues of the body [1]. Although these responses may be viewed as compensatory in nature, many of them are or become counterregulatory and lead to long-term adverse effects [1]. Thus, novel insight into the regulatory mechanisms that contribute to the compensation and subsequent decompensation is urgently needed to broaden our knowledge about HF and to develop therapeutic strategies that can prevent the progressive deterioration of cardiac function and ultimately avoid this disease. S100 proteins constitute the largest subfamily of EF-hand Ca-binding proteins. Several biological activities, such as the regulation of myocardial and skeletal muscle contractility,
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the S100 family of proteins containing 2 EF-hand calcium-binding motifs. S100 proteins are localized in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus of a wide range of cells, and involved in the regulation of a number of cellular processes such as cell cycle progression and differentiation. S100 genes include at least 13 members which are located as a cluster on chromosome 1q21. This protein may function in motility, invasion, and tubulin polymerization. Chromosomal rearrangements and altered expression of this gene have been implicated in tumor metastasis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008] ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
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Recombinant human S100B Calcium-Binding Protein, Western Blot Control protein - 230-00002-WBC. Liquid . Expression system is Escherichia coli (E.coli).
S100A8 and S100A9 are cytosolic calcium-binding proteins of 8kDa and 14kDa respectively that form a heterodimer. S100A8 and S100A9 are
S100A8 and S100A9 are cytosolic calcium-binding proteins of 8kDa and 14kDa respectively that form a heterodimer. S100A8 and S100A9 are
Recombinant protein of human S100 calcium binding protein A11 (S100A11), 20 ug available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
S100A12 - S100A12 (untagged)-Human S100 calcium binding protein A12 (S100A12) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
pep:known chromosome:VEGA66:3:90511034:90514392:-1 gene:OTTMUSG00000022107 transcript:OTTMUST00000052482 gene_biotype:protein_coding transcript_biotype:protein_coding gene_symbol:S100a1 description:S100 calcium binding protein A1 ...
namiescie.pl zostala zarejstrowana 6 years 1 month temu. Domena z rozszerzeniem .pl . Jej przyblizona wartosc to PLN 26.85 , a dzienny przychod z reklam jest na poziomie ok. PLN 0.45. Nie stwierdzono potencjalnych zagrozen, namiescie.pl jest bezpieczna do surfowania.. ...
Looking for online definition of S100 calcium binding protein A3 in the Medical Dictionary? S100 calcium binding protein A3 explanation free. What is S100 calcium binding protein A3? Meaning of S100 calcium binding protein A3 medical term. What does S100 calcium binding protein A3 mean?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential expression of regucalcin (SMP30) and its function in hypoxic cardiomyocytes. AU - Lim, Soyeon. AU - Song, Byeong Wook. AU - Cha, Min Ji. AU - Choi, Eun Ju. AU - Ham, On Ju. AU - Lee, Chang Yeon. AU - Choi, Seong Yong. AU - Lee, Se Yeon. AU - Jang, Yangsoo. AU - Hwang, Ki Chul. PY - 2009/10/1. Y1 - 2009/10/1. N2 - Regucalcin (SMP30) has been proposed to be involved in the maintenance of calcium homeostasis. Although the expression of regucalcin was regulated in the liver and kidney during the embryogenesis and maturation of these tissues, the roles of regucalcin were not defined yet in heart. This study focused on the investigation of the differential expression changes in regucalcin and its function in hypoxic cardiomyocytes. The expression level of regucalcin was the highest in 7 days after neonatal stage of rat heart. In hypoxic condition, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and calcium level were decreased in regucalcin-over expressed cardiomyocytes about 60% ...
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In human disease and experimental animal models, depressed Ca2+ handling in failing cardiomyocytes is widely attributed to impaired sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) function. In mice, disruption of the PLN gene encoding phospholamban (PLN) or expression of dominant-negative PLN mutants enhances SR and cardiac function, but effects of PLN mutations in humans are unknown. Here, a T116G point mutation, substituting a termination codon for Leu-39 (L39stop), was identified in two families with hereditary heart failure. The heterozygous individuals exhibited hypertrophy without diminished contractile performance. Strikingly, both individuals homozygous for L39stop developed dilated cardiomyopathy and heart failure, requiring cardiac transplantation at ages 16 and 27. An over 50% reduction in PLN mRNA and no detectable PLN protein were noted in one explanted heart. The expression of recombinant PLN-L39stop in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells and adult rat cardiomyocytes showed no PLN inhibition of SR ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Most questions in proteomics require complex answers. Yet graph theory, supervised learning, and statistical model have decomposed complex questions into simple questions with simple answers. The expertise in the field of protein study often address tasks that demand answers as complex as the questions. Such complex answers may consist of multiple factors that must be weighed against each other to arrive at a globally satisfactory and consistent solution to the question. In the prediction of calcium binding in proteins, we construct a global oxygen contact graph of a protein, then apply a graph algorithm to find oxygen clusters with the fixed size of four, finally employ a geometry algorithm to judge if the oxygen clusters are calcium-binding sites or not. Additionally, we can predict the locations of those sites. Furthermore, we construct a global oxygen contact graph including oxygen-bonded carbon atoms of a protein, then apply a graph algorithm to find local biggest oxygen clusters, finally design
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Innovative Researchs Innovative Grade US Origin CD-1 Mouse Liver was recently used in the following study: Differences in amino acid residues in the binding pockets dictate substrate specificities of mouse senescence marker protein-30, human paraoxonase1, and squid ...T Belinskaya, N Pattabiraman, R diTargiani... - ... et Biophysica Acta (BBA ..., 2012 - Elsevier...2. Materials and methods. 2.1. Materials. Livers from CD-1 mice were purchased from Innovative Research Inc. (Novi, MI). All chromatography media and columns were purchased from GE Healthcare (Piscataway, NJ). Phenyl.... ...
The protein fragment nesfatin-1 was recently implicated in the control of food intake. Central administration of this fragment results in anorexia and reduced body weight gain, whereas antisense or immunological nesfatin-1 antagonism causes increased food intake and overweight. Nesfatin-1 is derived from the precursor nucleobindin-2 (NUCB2). To identify the neurocircuitry underpinning the catabolic effects of NUCB2/nesfatin-1, we have used in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry to map the distribution of this protein and its mRNA in the rat CNS and performed double-labeling experiments to localize its expression to functionally defined neuronal populations. These experiments confirm previous observations but also present several novel NUCB2 cell populations. Both NUCB2 mRNA and nesfatin-like immunoreactivity was most concentrated in the hypothalamus, in the supraoptic, paraventricular, periventricular and arcuate nuclei and the lateral hypothalamic area/perifornical region. Additionally, ...
Structure determination of calcium-binding proteins and nucleic acid fragments in solution by nuclear magnetic resonance. Home of the calcium-binding protein database.
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Phospholamban (PLN) is an integral membrane protein that regulates calcium homeostasis by inhibiting sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) in cardiac muscle. PLN exists in two primary oligomeric forms: (1) a monomer that directly bind
The idea of Professors Bolis and Gilles to gather together for a 3 days meeting in the splendid environment of Crans-Montana in Switzerland a limited number of people around the subject of calcium an
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Calprotectin is a 36kDa calcium and zinc binding protein expressed by the gene S100 calcium-binding protein A8, S100A8. It accounts for 30 to 40% of neutrophils cytosol. In vitro studies show it has bacteriostatic and fungistatic properties. It is...
S100A9 is a calcium-binding protein with two EF-hands and deregulated in several cancer types frequently, however, with no clear role in oral cancer. myeloid cell guns and pro-inflammatory Albaspidin AA manufacture IL-6. The manifestation of H100A9 in one stromal component, monocytes, activated the aggressiveness of co-cultured dental malignancy cells. We also recognized the height of […]. Read More ». ...
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CAB39 antibody (calcium binding protein 39) for ICC/IF, IHC-P, WB. Anti-CAB39 pAb (GTX110628) is tested in Human, Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
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Providing premium quality antibodies to cardiovascular phosphorylated targets. Fully validated by western blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy by PhD scientists. We supply antibodies to Phospholamban, SERCA, RYR2 and their phosphorylated forms.
Browse many computed properties for this orthorhombic CaLu2O4 compound, including formation energy from the elements, energy of decomposition into the set of most stable materials at this chemical composition, bulk crystalline density, and band gap. Also known as: Calcium dilutetium oxide. Cite this material using DOI 10.17188/1261764.
Plasmid CIB81-pmGFP from Dr. Chandra Tuckers lab contains the insert CIB1 and is published in Nat Chem Biol. 2016 Apr 11. doi: 10.1038/nchembio.2063. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
Regulatory elements controlling gene expression are often found in separate, sometimes remote, regions around gene loci. Artificial chromosomes offer a means to capture all regulatory elements for study of gene regulation in a near-correct genomic context. The smooth muscle calponin gene (CNN1) encodes for a multifunctional protein involved in signaling, contractile force generation, and growth regulation. While CNN1s physiology has been studied extensively, its transcriptional regulation has proven to be intractable to conventional in vivo assays. Four evolutionarily-conserved serum response factor (SRF) binding sites (called CArG boxes) are present in the first intron of CNN1 and appear to be required for full transcriptional competence of CNN1 in cultured smooth muscle cells (SMC). To assess the functionality of CNN1 CArG elements in vivo, we exploited a 103-kb bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) containing the human CNN1 locus shown previously to completely recapitulate endogenous mouse ...
Background: Secretagogin (Scgn), a member of the EF-hand calcium-binding protein (CaBP) superfamily, has recently been found in subsets of developing and adult neurons. Here, we have analyzed the expression of Scgn in dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) and trigeminal ganglia (TGs), and in spinal cord of mouse at the mRNA and protein levels, and in comparison to the well-known CaBPs, calbindin D-28k, parvalbumin and calretinin. Rat DRGs, TGs and spinal cord, as well as human DRGs and spinal cord were used to reveal phylogenetic variations. Results: We found Scgn mRNA expressed in mouse and human DRGs and in mouse ventral spinal cord. Our immunohistochemical data showed a complementary distribution of Scgn and the three CaBPs in mouse DRG neurons and spinal cord. Scgn was expressed in similar to 7% of all mouse DRG neuron profiles, mainly small ones and almost exclusively co-localized with calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). This co-localization was also seen in human, but not in rat DRGs. Scgn could ...
S100 Calcium Binding Protein B (S100B) is an acidic calcium binding protein and a member of the S100 family of proteins containing 2 EF-hand calcium-binding motifs. S100 proteins are localized in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus of a wide range of cells, and
Matrix Gla protein (MGP) belongs to the family of vitamin K dependent, Gla containing proteins and, in mammals, birds and Xenopus, its mRNA has been previously detected in bone, cartilage and soft...
Involvement of calmodulin and calmodulin-like proteins in plant responses to abiotic stresses Published In Frontiers in Plant Science, 6:600, 2015, by Houqing Zeng, Luqin Xu, Amarjeet Singh, Huizhong Wang, Liqun Du, B. W. Poovaiah ...
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] This gene encodes a member of the family of voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channel-interacting proteins, which belong to the recoverin branch of the EF-hand superfamily. Members of this family are small calcium binding proteins containing EF-hand-like domains. They are integral subunit components of native Kv4 channel complexes that may regulate A-type currents, and hence neuronal excitability, in response to changes in intracellular calcium. The encoded protein also functions as a calcium-regulated transcriptional repressor, and interacts with presenilins. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Unregulated increases in cellular Ca2+ homeostasis are a hallmark of pathophysiological conditions and a key trigger of cell death. Endothelial cells cultured under physiologic O2 conditions (5% O2) exhibit a reduced cytosolic Ca2+ response to stimulation. The mechanism for reduced plateau [Ca2+]i upon stimulation was due to increased sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA)-mediated reuptake rather than changes in Ca2+ influx capacity. Agonist-stimulated phosphorylation of the SERCA regulatory protein phospholamban was increased in cells cultured under 5% O2 Elevation of cytosolic and mitochondrial [Ca2+] and cell death after prolonged ionomycin treatment, as a model of Ca2+ overload, were lower when cells were cultured long-term under 5% compared with 18% O2 This protection was abolished by cotreatment with the SERCA inhibitor cyclopiazonic acid ...
Alagille syndrome is a genetic disorder affecting heart, liver and other body systems. Alagille syndrome pictures, symptoms, causes and treatment explained.
Psoriasin (S100A7), a member of the S100 family of calcium-binding proteins, is highly expressed in high-grade ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and in the benign hyper-proliferative skin disorder psoriasis. Both breast cancer and psoriasis are diseases which are characterized by hyperproliferation and a disturbed differentiation of the epithelial cells as well as a pronounced angiogenesis. The potential role of psoriasin in angiogenesis and the epithelial differentiation remain unclear.. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the cellular effects of psoriasin in angiogenesis and the differentiation processes, with special emphasis on breast cancer and psoriasis.. We found that psoriasin expression was induced in mammary epithelial cells and keratinocytes by oxidative stress. Psoriasin expression was shown to induce vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and several other pro-angiogenic factors in epithelial cells. Upon down-regulation of psoriasin, H2O2-induced expression of VEGF ...
... , Authors: M Rosario Fernandez-Fernandez, Alan R Fersht. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
Calmodulin (CaM) (an abbreviation for CALcium MODULated proteIN) is a calcium-binding protein expressed in all eukaryotic cells. It can bind to and regulate a number of different protein targets, thereby affecting many different cellular functions. Calmodulin 1 is one of nearly twenty human calmodulins.Calmodulinis the archetype of the family of calcium-modulated proteins of which nearly 20 members have been found. They are identified by their occurrence in the cytosol or on membranes facing the cytosol and by a high affinity for calcium. Calmodulin contains 148 amino acids and has 4 calcium-binding motifs. Its functions include roles in growth and the cell cycle as well as in signal transduction and the synthesis and release of neurotransmitters.
The claustrum is present in all mammalian species examined so far and its morphology, chemoarchitecture, physiology, phylogenesis and ontogenesis are still a matter of debate. Several morphologically distinct types of immunostained cells were described in different mammalian species. To date, a comparative study on the neurochemical organization of the human and non-human primates claustrum has not been fully described yet, partially due to technical reasons linked to the postmortem sampling interval. The present study analyzes the localization and morphology of neurons expressing parvalbumin (PV), calretinin (CR), NPY, and somatostatin (SOM) in the claustrum of man (# 5), chimpanzee (# 1) and crab-eating monkey (#3). Immunoreactivity for the used markers was observed in neuronal cell bodies and processes distributed throughout the anterior-posterior extent of human, chimpanzee and macaque claustrum. Both CR- and PV-immunoreactive (ir) neurons were mostly localized in the central and ventral region of
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Describes Alagille syndrome, a rare, inherited disorder that affects the liver. Covers the causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and long-term outlook.
A main challenge in stem-cell mediated regenerative medication is the advancement of described culture systems for the maintenance of clinical-grade individual embryonic stem (hES) cells. laboratories possess concentrated on developing described circumstances for hES cell lifestyle4C9. One technique provides been to replace nonhuman items, i.age. pet sera and mouse embryonic Angiotensin (1-7) IC50 fibroblast (MEF) […]. Read More ». ...
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1BYN: Solution structures of the Ca2+-free and Ca2+-bound C2A domain of synaptotagmin I: does Ca2+ induce a conformational change?
Shop Oncomodulin ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Oncomodulin Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Complete information for MYLK4 gene (Protein Coding), Myosin Light Chain Kinase Family Member 4, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
View Notes - cells08-Transport2-2009 from BIO 106 at Conn College. Lect 8 Transport 2: Channels; Nerves GlucoseGlucose-Na+ Symport Protein In the previous slide, what is the source of energy to move
1. Alagille syndrome: spectrum of clinical presentation in India. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22692667. Gupta P, Bhakhri BK, Paul P.. Indian J Gastroenterol.2012Jun;31(3):149-50.doi:10.1007/s12664-012-0199-8. No abstract available.. PMID: 22692667 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. 2. Alagille syndrome: a rare disease in an adolescent.. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22678460. Guru Murthy GS, Rana BS, Das A, Thapa BR, Duseja AK, Dhiman RK, Chawla YK.. Dig Dis Sci. 2012Nov;57(11):3035-7. doi:10.1007/s10620-012-2226-0.Epub 2012Jun 8. No abstract. available.. PMID: 22678460 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. 3. Alagille syndrome with prominent skin manifestations.. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16394388. Sengupta S, Das JK, Gangopadhyay A.. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2005 Mar-Apr;71(2):119-21.. PMID: 16394388 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Free Article. 4. Alagille syndrome.. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12420920. Shendge H, Tullu MS, Shenoy A, Chaturvedi R, Kamat JR, Khare ...
Introduction: S100A1 is a member of the S100 family of calcium-binding proteins. S100A1 controls Ca2+ dynamics in cardiomyocytes and plays an important role in heart failure. S100A1 is also strongly expressed in mouse platelets, but its role in platelet biology has not been investigated.. Goal: To determine the role of S100A1 in platelet activation and thrombosis.. Methods and Results: Platelet activation in response to threshold levels of convulxin, a specific agonist for the collagen receptor GPVI, showed significantly increased activation of αIIbβ3 integrin and α-granule release in S100A1-deficient (SKO) platelets compared with wild-type (WT) platelets. Consistently, SKO platelets also showed a more robust aggregation response to convulxin and collagen. In contrast, SKO platelets responded normally to stimulation with PAR4 receptor-activating peptide or ADP. Adhesion of SKO platelets to collagen under flow conditions was not significantly different to that of WT platelets. However, we ...
Alagille syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder with high penetrance but variable expressivity. Alagille syndrome 1 (ALGS1; MIM 118450) is caused by mutations in the JAG1 gene, encoding jagged-1, a ligand for the Notch receptors. Alagille syndrome 2 (ALGS2; MIM 610205) is caused by mutations in NOTCH2, which encodes a transmembrane Notch receptor. Interactions between Notch ligands and receptors regulate signaling pathways important for cell fate determination. The main clinical findings of Alagille syndrome include cholestasis due to bile duct paucity, congenital heart defects, skeletal abnormalities, a characteristic facial appearance, eye abnormalities, and renal disease. Cardiovascular findings include tetralogy of Fallot, peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis, atrial and/or ventricular septal defects, and coarctation of the aorta. Butterfly vertebra is the most common skeletal finding, particularly in individuals with JAG1 mutations. Other findings include narrowing of interpeduncular ...
RNPS1 (uc002cpu.3) at chr16:2303100-2317858 - Homo sapiens RNA binding protein S1, serine-rich domain (RNPS1), transcript variant 1, mRNA. RNPS1 (uc010uwa.2) at chr16:2303100-2318413 - Homo sapiens RNA binding protein S1, serine-rich domain (RNPS1), transcript variant 2, mRNA. RNPS1 (uc002cpx.3) at chr16:2303100-2318413 - Homo sapiens RNA binding protein S1, serine-rich domain (RNPS1), transcript variant 2, mRNA. RNPS1 (uc002cpw.3) at chr16:2303100-2318413 - Homo sapiens RNA binding protein S1, serine-rich domain (RNPS1), transcript variant 2, mRNA. RNPS1 (uc002cpt.3) at chr16:2303100-2317604 - Homo sapiens RNA binding protein S1, serine-rich domain (RNPS1), transcript variant 1, mRNA. NRDE2 (uc010atp.1) at chr14:90744398-90778887 - Homo sapiens NRDE-2, necessary for RNA interference, domain containing (NRDE2), mRNA. NRDE2 (uc001xyj.2) at chr14:90744398-90798481 - Homo sapiens NRDE-2, necessary for RNA interference, domain containing (NRDE2), mRNA. NRDE2 (uc001xyi.2) at chr14:90744398-90798481 - ...
Shop Junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum protein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Purpose: : The specific molecular mechanisms underlying age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are largely unknown. Fibulin 5 is an extracellular matrix protein abundantly expressed in tissues with enriched elastic fibers. This protein plays a critical role in the assembly and crosslinking of tropoelastin. Missense variations of fibulin 5 have been reported to occur exclusively in 1.7 percent of AMD patients (EM Stone et al, 2004, NEJM351:346-53). We characterized the distribution of fibulin 5 in healthy and diseased retina and, in vitro, investigated functional alterations of fibulin 5 due to missense variations found in AMD. Methods: : The expression of fibulin 5 in mouse retina and human macula was assessed by RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Expression constructs containing the seven variants (EM Stone et al, 2004, NEJM351:346-53) were generated by site-directed mutagenesis from the human fibulin-5 cDNA (generously provided by B. Schiemann). Secretion rates/levels of the ...
... purification and characterization of calcium-triggered luciferin-binding protein of Renilla reniformis". Protein expression and ... Involvement of a calcium-triggered luciferin binding protein". Biochemistry. 13 (6): 1195-200. doi:10.1021/bi00703a602. PMID ... Unlike photoproteins which stably bind coelenterazine and emit light upon addition of calcium, coelenterazine is normally bound ... and is coupled with a closely interacting green fluorescent protein (RrGFP), and a Ca++ activated luciferin binding protein ( ...
... is a calcium-binding protein of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. The protein helps hold calcium in the cisterna of the ... The release of calsequestrin-bound calcium (through a calcium release channel) triggers muscle contraction. The active protein ... Each molecule of calsequestrin can bind 18 to 50 Ca2+ ions.[1] Sequence analysis has suggested that calcium is not bound in ... When calcium binds there is a structural change whereby the alpha-helical content of the protein increases from 3 to 11%.[2] ...
metal ion binding. • calcium-dependent protein binding. • protein binding. • RAGE receptor binding. • identical protein binding ... calcium ion binding. • S100 protein binding. • protein homodimerization activity. • zinc ion binding. • ... S100 calcium-binding protein B (S100B) is a protein of the S-100 protein family. ... "Entrez Gene: S100B S100 calcium binding protein B".. *^ Verma N, Karmakar M, Singh KP, Smita S (February 2013). "Structural and ...
"Calcium regulation of Ndr protein kinase mediated by S100 calcium-binding proteins". EMBO J. 17 (20): 5913-22. doi:10.1093/ ... 2004). "Proteomic, functional, and domain-based analysis of in vivo 14-3-3 binding proteins involved in cytoskeletal regulation ... protein kinase by the hMOB1 protein". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (34): 35228-35. doi:10.1074/jbc.M404542200. PMID 15197186. Jin J, ... Serine/threonine-protein kinase 38 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the STK38 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ...
S100 calcium-binding protein P (S100P) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the S100P gene. The protein encoded by this ... This protein, in addition to binding Ca2+, also binds Zn2+ and Mg2+. This protein may play a role in the etiology of prostate ... S100P S100 calcium binding protein P". Koltzscher M, Neumann C, König S, Gerke V (Jun 2003). "Ca2+-dependent binding and ... binding protein from human placenta. cDNA cloning, recombinant protein expression and Ca2+ binding properties". Eur. J. Biochem ...
The encoded protein is a secreted calcium-binding protein which is found in the cytoplasm. It is related to calbindin D-28K and ... calcium ion binding. • metal ion binding. Cellular component. • cytoplasm. • extracellular region. • neuron projection. • ... This protein is thought to be involved in potassium chloride-stimulated calcium flux and cell proliferation.[6] This protein ... SCGN, CALBL, DJ501N12.8, SECRET, SEGN, setagin, secretagogin, EF-hand calcium binding protein. ...
calcium ion binding. • extracellular matrix constituent conferring elasticity. • protein complex binding. • extracellular ... integrin binding. • protein binding. • hormone activity. • heparin binding. • identical protein binding. • macromolecular ... ß protein binds with latency associated protein (LAP) at the N-terminal propertied and one of three latent TGF-ß binding ... Handford PA (December 2000). "Fibrillin-1, a calcium binding protein of extracellular matrix". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. ...
The protein has two approximately symmetrical domains, separated by a flexible "hinge" region. Binding of calcium causes a ... Troponin, along with actin and tropomyosin, is the protein complex to which calcium binds to trigger the production of muscular ... For instance, at least 1000 human proteins (out of ~20,000) contain zinc-binding protein domains[3] although there may be up to ... Lead(II) Binding in Natural and Artificial Proteins". In Astrid S, Helmut S, Sigel RK. Lead: Its Effects on Environment and ...
Does the visual system of the flying fox resemble that of primates? The distribution of calcium-binding proteins in the primary ... A molecular perspective on mammalian evolution from the gene encoding interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein, with ...
... is a calcium binding protein. Calponin tonically inhibits the ATPase activity of myosin in smooth muscle. ... Phosphorylation of calponin by a protein kinase, which is dependent upon calcium binding to calmodulin, releases the calponin's ... Calmodulin, when activated by calcium may bind weakly to the CH domain and inhibit calponin binding with α-actin. Calponin is ... It is a binding protein and is made up of three domains. These domains in order of appearance are Calponin Homology (CH), ...
Celio, Marco R.; Pauls, Thomas; Schwaller, Beat (1996). Guidebook to the calcium-binding proteins. Oxford: Sambrook & Tooze ... and calprotectin is able to bind a total of four calcium ions per dimer or eight calcium ions per tetramer. Calcium binding ... Zinc can bind at two sites within the calprotectin dimer, and this can occur in the absence of calcium. Calcium, however, ... A calprotectin dimer can bind only one manganese ion with high affinity, and it can do this only in the presence of calcium. ...
... refers to several calcium-binding proteins. They were originally described as vitamin D-dependent calcium-binding ... Calbindin-D9k is a member of the S100 family of calcium-binding proteins. It has two EF-hands sequences which bind Ca2+ with ... Calbindin-D28k contains 4 active calcium-binding domains, and 2 modified domains that have lost their calcium-binding capacity ... Vitamin D-dependent calcium-binding protein Calretinin S100G PDB: 2G9B​; Kojetin DJ, Venters RA, Kordys DR, Thompson RJ, Kumar ...
Calcium-binding protein 39 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CAB39 gene. The protein encoded by this gene ... CAB39 calcium binding protein 39". Boudeau J, Baas AF, Deak M, Morrice NA, Kieloch A, Schutkowski M, Prescott AR, Clevers HC, ... 2007). "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Mol. Syst. Biol. 3 (1): 89. doi: ... 2004). "Comprehensive proteomic analysis of human Par protein complexes reveals an interconnected protein network". J. Biol. ...
"Entrez Gene: S100 calcium binding protein A7A". Wolf, R; Voscopoulos, CJ; FitzGerald, PC; Goldsmith, P; Cataisson, C; Gunsior, ... The S100 calcium-binding protein mS100a7a15 is the murine ortholog of human S100A7 (Psoriasin) and human S100A15 (Koebnerisin ... S100 proteins are a diverse calcium-binding family that mediate fundamental cellular and extracellular processes including cell ... motifs corresponding to the for S100 proteins typical conserved C-terminal and a variant N-terminal EF-hand calcium binding ...
S100 calcium binding protein A14 (S100A14) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the S100A14 gene. This gene encodes a ... S100 calcium binding protein A14". Wang HY, Zhang JY, Cui JT, Tan XH, Li WM, Gu J, Lu YY (Jan 2010). "Expression status of ... rationale for a new nomenclature of the S100 calcium-binding protein family". Genomics. 25 (3): 638-43. doi:10.1016/0888-7543( ... member of the S100 protein family which contains an EF-hand motif and binds calcium. The gene is located in a cluster of S100 ...
Not just another calcium-binding protein". Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry. 135 (1): 71-8. doi:10.1007/BF00925962. PMID ... Modular Protein Domains. Wiley. pp. 5-36. ISBN 978-3-527-60589-7. Pawson, Tony; Nash, Piers (2011). "Modular Protein ... As a scientist, he investigates protein-protein interactions involved in signal transduction, and the molecular mechanisms by ... Pawson, Tony; Nash, Piers (2000). "Protein-protein interactions define specificity in signal transduction". Genes & Development ...
S100 calcium-binding protein A15 (S100A15), also known as koebnerisin and S100 calcium-binding protein A7A (S100A7A), is a ... S100 proteins are a diverse calcium-binding family that regulate fundamental cellular and extracellular processes including ... "Entrez Gene: S100a7a S100 calcium binding protein". Briso EM, Guinea-Viniegra J, Bakiri L, Rogon Z, Petzelbauer P, Eils R, Wolf ... S100 calcium binding protein A7A". Wolf R, Mirmohammadsadegh A, Walz M, Lysa B, Tartler U, Remus R, Hengge U, Michel G, Ruzicka ...
... where positive calcium ions bind to the negative phosphate groups. Phosphate and citrate anions can then bind to the protein ... More specially, chelating salts bind calcium ions to hydrate proteins and create a more uniform spread. Water also provides the ... Easy Cheese contains milk, water, whey protein concentrate, canola oil, milk protein concentrate, sodium citrate, sodium ... The hydrophilic portion of sodium phosphate removes calcium from the calcium paracaseinate from ion exchange reactions.[8] This ...
S100 calcium-binding protein A16 (S100A16) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the S100A16 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release ... "Entrez Gene: S100A16 S100 calcium binding protein A16". Gregory SG, Barlow KF, McLay KE, et al. (2006). "The DNA sequence and ... 2005). "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. doi:10.1038 ... Marenholz I, Heizmann CW (2004). "S100A16, a ubiquitously expressed EF-hand protein which is up-regulated in tumors". Biochem. ...
... S100 calcium binding protein A2". Schäfer BW, Heizmann CW (1996). "The S100 family of EF-hand calcium-binding proteins: ... S100 calcium-binding protein A2 (S100A2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the S100A2 gene. The protein encoded by this ... Groves P, Finn BE, Kuźnicki J, Forsén S (1998). "A model for target protein binding to calcium-activated S100 dimers". FEBS ... gene is a member of the S100 family of proteins containing 2 EF-hand calcium-binding motifs. S100 proteins are localized in the ...
"Profilaggrin is a major epidermal calcium-binding protein". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 13 (1): 613-25. doi:10.1128/MCB. ... Filaggrin (filament aggregating protein) is a filament-associated protein that binds to keratin fibers in epithelial cells. Ten ... In humans, profilaggrin is encoded by the FLG gene, which is part of the S100 fused-type protein (SFTP) family within the ... Alternatively, these proteins can interact with keratin intermediate filaments. Filaggrin undergoes further processing in the ...
S100 calcium-binding protein A11 (S100A11) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the S100A11 gene. The protein encoded by ... "Entrez Gene: S100A11 S100 calcium binding protein A11". He H, Li J, Weng S, Li M, Yu Y (2009). "S100A11: diverse function and ... this gene is a member of the S100 family of proteins containing 2 EF-hand calcium-binding motifs. S100 proteins are localized ... "Increased expression of calcium-binding protein S100 in human uterine smooth muscle tumours". Molecular Human Reproduction. 10 ...
"Calcium-binding protein S100A7 and epidermal-type fatty acid-binding protein are associated in the cytosol of human ... This protein differs from the other S100 proteins of known structure in its lack of calcium binding ability in one EF-hand at ... S100 calcium-binding protein A7 (S100A7), also known as psoriasin, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the S100A7 gene. ... S100A7 is a member of the S100 family of proteins containing 2 EF-hand calcium-binding motifs. S100 proteins are localized in ...
Calcium-binding protein 39-like is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CAB39L gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... CAB39L calcium binding protein 39-like". Human CAB39L genome location and CAB39L gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. ... "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Molecular Systems Biology. 3 (1): 89. doi: ...
S100 calcium-binding protein A13 (S100A13) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the S100A13 gene. The protein encoded by ... "Entrez Gene: S100A13 S100 calcium binding protein A13". Mouta Carreira C, LaVallee TM, Tarantini F, Jackson A, Lathrop JT, ... this gene is a member of the S100 family of proteins containing 2 EF-hand calcium-binding motifs. S100 proteins are localized ... rationale for a new nomenclature of the S100 calcium-binding protein family". Genomics. 25 (3): 638-43. doi:10.1016/0888-7543( ...
... S100 calcium binding protein A8". Schäfer BW, Heizmann CW (1996). "The S100 family of EF-hand calcium-binding proteins: ... S100 calcium-binding protein A8 (S100A8) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the S100A8 gene. It is also known as ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the S100 family of proteins containing 2 EF-hand calcium-binding motifs. S100 ... Dorin JR, Emslie E, van Heyningen V (1991). "Related calcium-binding proteins map to the same subregion of chromosome 1q and to ...
Zhou W, Resh MD (1997). "Differential membrane binding of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 matrix protein". J. Virol. 70 ... Kobayashi M, Takamatsu K, Saitoh S, Noguchi T (1993). "Myristoylation of hippocalcin is linked to its calcium-dependent ... 1985). "Amino terminal myristylation of the protein kinase p60src, a retroviral transforming protein". Science. 227 (4685): 427 ... "Identification of a membrane-binding domain within the amino-terminal region of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag protein ...
S100 calcium-binding protein A9 (S100A9) also known as migration inhibitory factor-related protein 14 (MRP14) or calgranulin B ... S100-A9 is a member of the S100 family of proteins containing 2 EF hand calcium-binding motifs. S100 proteins are localized in ... Dorin JR, Emslie E, van Heyningen V (1991). "Related calcium-binding proteins map to the same subregion of chromosome 1q and to ... 1987). "Two calcium-binding proteins in infiltrate macrophages of rheumatoid arthritis". Nature. 330 (6143): 80-2. doi:10.1038/ ...
The-Calmodulin-like-Calcium-Binding-Protein-EhCaBP3-of-Entamoeba-histolytica-Regulates-Phagocytosis-ppat.1003055.s006.ogv 4 min ...
... meeting in the splendid environment of Crans-Montana in Switzerland a limited number of people around the subject of calcium an ... Calcium Binding Proteins in Non-Muscle Tissues. * Front Matter Pages 91-91 ... the other sessions were devoted to calmodulin-related calcium binding proteins in muscle and non- muscle tissues and to some ... Calcium Binding to Troponin C and the Regulation of Muscle Contraction: a Comparative Approach ...
calcium-binding protein [Brassica rapa] calcium-binding protein [Brassica rapa]. gi,1255540,dbj,BAA09634.1, ... RefSeq protein See the reference protein sequence for PREDICTED: polcalcin Bra r 1 (XP_009126190.1). ... MODBASE, Database of Comparative Protein Structure Models (Sali Lab/UCSF) [MODBASE, Database of Comparat...] MODBASE, Database ... The tool works with standard single letter nucleotide or protein codes including ambiguities and can match Prosite patterns in ...
If you are a society or association member and require assistance with obtaining online access instructions please contact our Journal Customer Services team ...
calcium-dependent membrane binding protein annexin I, partial [Gallus gallus] calcium-dependent membrane binding protein ... calcium-dependent membrane binding protein annexin I, partial [Gallus gallus]. GenBank: AAB28036.2 ... Transcript/Protein Information [PANTHER Classification System] Transcript/Protein Information. PANTHER Classification System ... RefSeq protein isoforms See 2 reference sequence protein isoforms for the ANXA1 gene. ...
CalPred is a "tool for EF-hand calcium binding protein prediction and calcium binding region identification" using machine ...
... is a powerful tool for examining the metal coordination of the side chain COO groups of Glu and Asp on Ca-binding... ... Calcium-binding Proteins. Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or ... Calcium-binding proteins that are found in DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES, INTESTINES, BRAIN, and other tissues where they bind, buffer ... They contain EF HAND MOTIFS and undergo conformational changes upon calcium-binding. Neuronal calcium-sensor proteins interact ...
"Announcement: Third European Symposium on Calcium Binding Proteins in Normal and Transformed Cells," Metal-Based Drugs, vol. 1 ... Announcement: Third European Symposium on Calcium Binding Proteins in Normal and Transformed Cells. ...
Calcium Binding Protein Modulator Agonists Calcium Binding Protein Modulator Antagonists Calcium Binding Protein Modulator ... Calcium-binding proteins are proteins that participate in calcium cell signalling pathways by binding to Ca2+, the calcium ion ... low-affinity calcium-binding protein calsequestrin. Calretinin is another type of Calcium binding protein weighing 29kD. It is ... Calcium binding proteins have specific domains that bind to calcium and are known to be heterogenous. One of the functions of ...
Role of the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin in short-term synaptic plasticity. Olivier Caillard, Herman Moreno, Beat ... Calcium-binding proteins such as parvalbumin (PV), calretinin, and calbindin D28k are important modulators of intracellular ... Role of the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin in short-term synaptic plasticity ... Role of the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin in short-term synaptic plasticity ...
Calcium binding protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CABP1 gene. Calcium-binding protein 1 is a calcium- ... Calcium binding protein 1". McCue HV, Haynes LP, Burgoyne RD (August 2010). "The diversity of calcium sensor proteins in the ... Calcium binding proteins are an important component of calcium mediated cellular signal transduction. This gene encodes a ... protein that belongs to a subfamily of calcium binding proteins which share similarity to calmodulin. The protein encoded by ...
In addition, the group of proteins isolated includes another calcium-binding protein of 20 kd, as well as GTP-binding proteins ... The two major proteins isolated (32.5 kd and 67 kd) are calcium-binding proteins and have been identified as annexins V and VI ... Annexins V and VI: major calcium-dependent atrial secretory granule-binding proteins.. A F Doubell, A J Bester, G Thibault ... We have isolated a group of atrial proteins by affinity chromatography that bind to atrial specific granules in a calcium- ...
Ab125667 is a full length protein produced in Escherichia coli and has been validated in SDS-PAGE… ... Buy our Recombinant Human S100 Calcium Binding Protein A13. ... S100 calcium binding protein A13. *S100 calcium-binding protein ... Recombinant Human S100 Calcium Binding Protein A13 See all S100 Calcium Binding Protein A13 proteins and peptides. ... Binds two calcium ions per subunit. Binds one copper ion. Binding of one copper ion does not interfere with calcium binding. ...
Ab101041 is a full length protein produced in Escherichia coli and has been validated in WB… ... Buy our Recombinant Human S100 calcium binding protein A14. ... S100 calcium binding protein A14. *S100 calcium-binding protein ... Recombinant Human S100 calcium binding protein A14 See all S100 calcium binding protein A14 proteins and peptides. ... Store lyophilized protein at -20°C. Lyophilized protein remains stable until the expiry date when stored at -20°C. Aliquot ...
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They ... Calcium-Binding Proteins. Subscribe to New Research on Calcium-Binding Proteins Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They ... Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins*Proteins: 90489*Carrier Proteins: 11456*Calcium-Binding Proteins: 268*S100 Proteins: 2374 ... or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.. Also Known As: Calcium Binding Proteins; Binding Proteins, ...
Now, Boston scientists have found that thisoccurs because mutations in the LDL receptor prevent the protein from folding into ... Protein Folding And Calcium Binding Defects Account For Errors In Familial Hypercholesterolemia. Whitehead Institute for ... Protein Folding And Calcium Binding Defects Account For Errors In Familial Hypercholesterolemia ... All proteins are strings of amino acids that must fold into a unique shape to perform their function. 3Knowing that a protein ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... This protein in other organisms (by gene name): Q9H9S4 - Homo sapiens 1 * Q9DB16 - Mus musculus no matching PDB entries ... Protein disorder predictions are based on JRONN (Troshin, P. and Barton, G. J. unpublished), a Java implementation of RONN * ... The Protein Feature View requires a browser that supports SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics). Mouse over tracks and labels for more ...
... likely via inhibition of the inactivation of voltage-gated calcium channel of type 1.3 (Cav1.3) in the IHCs (PubMed:28183797). ... of the calcium-binding region(s) within the protein. One common calcium-binding motif is the EF-hand, but other calcium-binding ... Calcium-binding protein 2Add BLAST. 219. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. Graphical view ... calcium channel regulator activity Source: UniProtKB. *calcium ion binding Source: ProtInc ,p>Traceable Author Statement,/p> ,p ...
Browse our Calcium-binding-protein-P22 RNAi catalog backed by our Guarantee+. ... Calcium-binding-protein-P22 RNAi available through Novus Biologicals. ... calcium binding protein P22 RNAi, Calcium-binding protein CHP RNAi, calcium-binding protein p22 RNAi, SLC9A1 binding protein ... We offer Calcium-binding-protein-P22 RNAi for use in common research applications. Each Calcium-binding-protein-P22 RNAi is ...
Mitochondrial and calcium-binding carrier that catalyzes the calcium-dependent exchange of cytoplasmic glutamate with ... of the calcium-binding region(s) within the protein. One common calcium-binding motif is the EF-hand, but other calcium-binding ... of the calcium-binding region(s) within the protein. One common calcium-binding motif is the EF-hand, but other calcium-binding ... Mitochondrial and calcium-binding carrier that catalyzes the calcium-dependent exchange of cytoplasmic glutamate with ...
The results suggest a role for vitamin D--dependent calcium binding protein in intracellular calcium metabolism rather than a ... cells in these tubular segments were negative for the calcium binding protein. Subcellularly, the protein was found in the ... Vitamin D--dependent calcium binding protein: immunocytochemical localization in chick kidney. By J Roth, B Thorens, W Hunziker ... Vitamin D--dependent calcium binding protein: immunocytochemical localization in chick kidney. By J Roth, B Thorens, W Hunziker ...
Expression of calcium-binding proteins in pathways from the nucleus of the basal optic root to the cerebellum in pigeons - ... 2002). New functions for old proteins: The role of the calcium-binding proteins calbindin D-28k, calretinin and parvalbumin ... 1991). Calretinin, a neuronal calcium binding protein, inhibits phosphorylation of a 39 kDa synaptic membrane protein from rat ... Expression of calcium-binding proteins in pathways from the nucleus of the basal optic root to the cerebellum in pigeons. * ...
Calcium binding proteins (CaBPs) such as calbindin D28-k, parvalbumin, and calretinin are able to bind Ca2+ with high affinity ... K. G. Baimbridge, M. R. Celio, and J. H. Rogers, "Calcium-binding proteins in the nervous system," Trends in Neurosciences, vol ... Co-existence with other calcium binding proteins and GABA," Neuroscience, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 29-43, 1992. View at Publisher · ... O. Caillard, H. Moreno, B. Schwaller, I. Llano, M. R. Celio, and A. Marty, "Role of the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin in ...
Calcium-binding proteins play an important role in a variety of vital biological processes, ranging from blood clotting and ... signal transduction in cells, to attaching proteins to membranes and serving ... calcium-binding properties, and biological activity of calcium-binding proteins in general.. Comprehensive and highly practical ... to attaching proteins to membranes and serving as an integral source of calcium. In Calcium-Binding Protocols-Volume 1: Reviews ...
Molecule model of the calcium-binding protein calmodulin (CaM). This protein is found in all eukaryotic cells, where it ... regulates and modifies the activities of many calcium-binding enzymes. Cellular processes that CaM affects include muscle ... Caption: Calcium-binding protein. Molecule model of the calcium-binding protein calmodulin (CaM). This protein is found in all ... Keywords: artwork, biochemical, biochemistry, biological, biology, black background, calcium-binding, calmodulin, cam, ...
  • The heterodimer is definitely identified by the E210 antibody [6 7 S100A8/A9 heterodimerization is not dependent on calcium but formation of heterotetramers is definitely calcium dependent. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • If you cannot find the target and/or product is not available in our catalog, please click here to contact us and request the product or submit your request for custom elisa kit production , custom recombinant protein production or custom antibody production . (mybiosource.com)
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  • The related protein neuronal calcium sensor-1did not get affected on the [Ca2+] responses to agonist stimulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies of the involvement of CacyBP/SIP in rearrangement of neuronal cytoskeleton, studies of the binding of CacyBP/SIP to tubulin and to other cytoskeletal proteins by means of chemical cross-linking, co-immunoprecipitation, immunocytochemistry etc. (gov.pl)
  • We have studied the regulation, by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 (1,25-(OH) 2 D 3 ), of vitamin D-dependent calcium-binding protein (28-kDa CaBP) mRNA in chick tissues in vivo. (elsevier.com)
  • E) The mRNA and (F) protein levels of ATF4, Grp78 and α-SMA in LX-2 cells treated with 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA). (biologists.org)
  • Among the calcium channel blockers tested, aranidipine and efonidipine increased ABCA1 protein expression without an increase in ABCA1 mRNA expression, whereas other calcium channel blockers (eg, nifedipine, amlodipine, and nicardipine) or T-type calcium channel blockers (eg, mibefradil and nickel chloride) failed to upregulate ABCA1 expression. (elsevier.com)
  • abstract = "RasGRP, a guanyl nucleotide-releasing protein for the small guanosine triphosphatase Ras, was characterized. (elsevier.com)
  • abstract = "Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are widely used in clinical practice, and have been reported to be effective in preventing the progression of atherosclerosis. (elsevier.com)
  • abstract = "It is widely believed that proteins rich in Asp, Glu or Gla (γ carboxyglutamic acid) interact strongly with calcium oxalate surfaces and inhibit calcium oxalate crystal growth. (elsevier.com)
  • H. Hidaka, T. Yamaki, M. Naka, T. Tanaka, H. Haigawara, and R. Kobayashi, Calcium-regulated modulator protein interacting agents inhibit muscle calcium-stimulated protein kinase and ATPase. (springer.com)
  • CREB phosphorylation was accompanied by gene expression, because we observed the upregulation of c-fos expression, which was also not affected by preincubation with BAPTA-AM. Finally, BDNF caused phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and because the treatment with the MAPK inhibitor U0126 completely abolished CREB activation and c-fos upregulation, it is likely that both processes depend mainly on the MAP kinase pathway. (jneurosci.org)
  • ZoCDPK1 ( Zingiber officinale Calcium-dependent protein kinase 1) is a salinity and drought-inducible CDPK gene isolated from ginger and undergoes dynamic subcellular localization during stress conditions. (frontiersin.org)
  • Furthermore, observation of the intracellular movement of secretory granules in the living pancreatic B-cell under a phase-contrast microscope revealed that myosin light chain kinase and CaM kinase II,two calmodulin-dependent protein kinases, are involved in the control of the insulin granules via phosphorylating their common substrate, myosin regulatory light chain. (nii.ac.jp)
  • CAB39 protein and STE20-related adaptor-alpha pseudo kinase, form a regulatory complex that is able of stimulating the activity of the LKB1 tumor suppressor protein kinase. (creativebiomart.net)
  • HSPA2 (HSP70-1), HSPA5 (Bip), HYOU1 (ORP150), serum amyloid P-component (SAP) and protein kinase C substrate 80K-H (80K-H) were found to be accessible to Iodo-Bead catalyzed 125I-labelling on the surface of intact human sperm. (biomedcentral.com)
  • H89, a protein kinase A inhibitor inhibited the aranidipine-induced ABCA1 protein expression, whereas genistein (a tyrosine kinase inhibitor), or AG490 (a JAK-2 inhibitor) had no effects. (elsevier.com)
  • protein kinase A is involved in the aranidipine-induced ABCA1 upregulation. (elsevier.com)
  • One of the functions of Calcium binding proteins is to regulate the amount of free (unbound) Ca2+ in the cytosol of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • due: Historical perspective of calcium binding protein The historical understanding of the application of calcium in biology forms the basis understanding of the core functions of calcium binding proteins. (lightingresearch.org)
  • MBS725160 is a ready-to-use microwell, strip plate Competitive or Sandwich ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) Kit for analyzing the presence of the S100 Calcium Binding Protein A6 (S100A6) ELISA Kit target analytes in biological samples. (mybiosource.com)
  • The binding is calcium dependent and the interaction correlates with calcium concentration. (wikipedia.org)
  • This interaction occurs in calcium dependent manner after the Synaptic NMDA receptor stimulation and thus this prevents nuclear import of NSMF. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calcium binding induces a conformational change in S100B that allows the interaction with a variety of target proteins. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • These compounds selectively inhibit the process of interaction of the calcium-calmodulin complex with target proteins. (springer.com)
  • Other divalent cations are less effective (Ba2+, Mn2+, and Sr2+) or ineffective (Mg2+ and Cd2+) in mediating the binding interaction. (rupress.org)
  • Furthermore, the direct interaction of ZoCDPK1 and ZoIMPα proteins was studied by the yeast 2-hybrid (Y2H) system, which confirmed that junction domain (JD) is an important interaction module required for ZoCDPK1 and ZoIMPα binding. (frontiersin.org)
  • Preliminary characterization of this interaction indicated that the region in p53 involved with binding to S100A2 is located at the C terminus of p53. (uzh.ch)
  • Cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTL), natural killer cells, and lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells are cytolytic cells known to release the cytolytic protein perforin and a family of proteases, named granzymes, from cytoplasmic stores upon interaction with target cells. (unige.ch)
  • Upon binding to calcium there is a conformational switch whereby helix 3 rotates therefore exposing a hydrophobic cleft that is postulated to serve as an anchoring point for macromolecular relationships (Number 1) . (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • It may be that the conformational alterations actuated by calcium at different concentrations could render actin cross-linking reversible. (clicktocurecancer.info)
  • T. C. Theoharides, W. Sieghart, P. Greengard, and T. C. Douglas, Antiallergic drug cromolyn may inhibit histamine secretion by regulating phosphorylation of a mast cell protein. (springer.com)
  • Activation of ligand-gated channels, G-protein-coupled and growth factor receptors in OP cells causes CREB phosphorylation with a different temporal pattern. (jneurosci.org)
  • We investigated whether CREB phosphorylation and calcium changes are elicited by acute BDNF presentation in postnatal visual cortical slices and cultures. (jneurosci.org)
  • In agreement with the imaging experiments, we verified that calcium changes were not necessary for CREB activation because preincubation with BAPTA-AM did not diminish the level of CREB phosphorylation induced by BDNF stimulation. (jneurosci.org)
  • These include p53 tumour suppressor, the microtubule-associated protein tau , the cytoskeletal protein tubulin (and its prokaryotic ancestor FtsZ), the scaffold protein IQGAP1, the intermediate filament protein glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP),the actin capping protein CapZ and the giant phosphoprotein AHNAK. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • (FR) La présente invention concerne un composé fluorescent présentant une grande affinité avec les protéines liant le calcium (CaBP). (wipo.int)
  • The properties of the proteins described here, and their ability to bind to atrial specific granules in a calcium-dependent manner, make them likely candidates in the search for regulatory proteins mediating atrial natriuretic peptide secretion. (ahajournals.org)
  • Calcyclin, was another calcium-binding proteins found to participate in the control of insulin secretion by ourselves. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In the low calcium environment of the bacterial cytosol, Apo-RD is an elongated disordered coil appropriately sized for transport through the narrow secretion machinery. (pasteur.fr)
  • The protein comprises three distinct regions: the N-terminal N domain, the C-terminal C domain, and the central P domain, reflecting the functional diversity of calreticulin. (lu.se)
  • In the proteomic study a protein (~44KDa) showed its distinct appearance when screened, the seeds from high elevation to low elevation. (ijpsr.com)
  • p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the 'basket' to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later. (uniprot.org)
  • Since the roles of calcyclin will be better understood if we can visualize the localization of this calcyclin-binding protein in a living cell, we are now attempting to let insulinoma cells express the fusion protein between calcyclin and green fluorescent protein as a fluorescent marker. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Antiserum directed against calcium-binding protein isolated from human kidneys was used for the immunofluorescent localization of calcium-binding protein in human intestine and kidney. (bmj.com)
  • Subtractive hybridization of tumorigenic versus normal tumor-derived mammary epithelial cells has previously identified the S100A2 protein as potential tumor suppressor. (uzh.ch)
  • For instance, an increase in cytosolic calcium is a necessary step for the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) at hippocampal and cortical synapses ( Bear and Malenka, 1994 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Nucleotide transport is inactive when cytosolic calcium levels are low, and is activated by an increase in cytosolic calcium levels. (mybiosource.com)