Calcium Signaling: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.Calcium Channels: Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.Calcium, Dietary: Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.Calcium Carbonate: Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.Calcium Phosphates: Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.Calcium Isotopes: Stable calcium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element calcium, but differ in atomic weight. Ca-42-44, 46, and 48 are stable calcium isotopes.Calcium Chloride: A salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.Calcium Channels, L-Type: Long-lasting voltage-gated CALCIUM CHANNELS found in both excitable and nonexcitable tissue. They are responsible for normal myocardial and vascular smooth muscle contractility. Five subunits (alpha-1, alpha-2, beta, gamma, and delta) make up the L-type channel. The alpha-1 subunit is the binding site for calcium-based antagonists. Dihydropyridine-based calcium antagonists are used as markers for these binding sites.Calcium Oxalate: The calcium salt of oxalic acid, occurring in the urine as crystals and in certain calculi.Calcium Gluconate: The calcium salt of gluconic acid. The compound has a variety of uses, including its use as a calcium replenisher in hypocalcemic states.Calcium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of calcium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ca atoms with atomic weights 39, 41, 45, 47, 49, and 50 are radioactive calcium isotopes.Calcium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain calcium as an integral part of the molecule.Calcium Channels, N-Type: CALCIUM CHANNELS that are concentrated in neural tissue. Omega toxins inhibit the actions of these channels by altering their voltage dependence.Egtazic Acid: A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.Calcium Channel Agonists: Agents that increase calcium influx into calcium channels of excitable tissues. This causes vasoconstriction in VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE and/or CARDIAC MUSCLE cells as well as stimulation of insulin release from pancreatic islets. Therefore, tissue-selective calcium agonists have the potential to combat cardiac failure and endocrinological disorders. They have been used primarily in experimental studies in cell and tissue culture.Calcimycin: An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.Calcium Hydroxide: A white powder prepared from lime that has many medical and industrial uses. It is in many dental formulations, especially for root canal filling.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Nifedipine: A potent vasodilator agent with calcium antagonistic action. It is a useful anti-anginal agent that also lowers blood pressure.Calcium Sulfate: A calcium salt that is used for a variety of purposes including: building materials, as a desiccant, in dentistry as an impression material, cast, or die, and in medicine for immobilizing casts and as a tablet excipient. It exists in various forms and states of hydration. Plaster of Paris is a mixture of powdered and heat-treated gypsum.Parathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Chelating Agents: Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.Fura-2: A fluorescent calcium chelating agent which is used to study intracellular calcium in tissues.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Calcium Citrate: A colorless crystalline or white powdery organic, tricarboxylic acid occurring in plants, especially citrus fruits, and used as a flavoring agent, as an antioxidant in foods, and as a sequestrating agent. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Thapsigargin: A sesquiterpene lactone found in roots of THAPSIA. It inhibits CA(2+)-TRANSPORTING ATPASE mediated uptake of CALCIUM into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.S100 Calcium Binding Protein G: A calbindin protein found in many mammalian tissues, including the UTERUS, PLACENTA, BONE, PITUITARY GLAND, and KIDNEYS. In intestinal ENTEROCYTES it mediates intracellular calcium transport from apical to basolateral membranes via calcium binding at two EF-HAND MOTIFS. Expression is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel: A tetrameric calcium release channel in the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM membrane of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, acting oppositely to SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES. It is important in skeletal and cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and studied by using RYANODINE. Abnormalities are implicated in CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS and MUSCULAR DISEASES.Calcium Pyrophosphate: An inorganic pyrophosphate which affects calcium metabolism in mammals. Abnormalities in its metabolism occur in some human diseases, notably HYPOPHOSPHATASIA and pseudogout (CHONDROCALCINOSIS).Calcium Metabolism Disorders: Disorders in the processing of calcium in the body: its absorption, transport, storage, and utilization.Verapamil: A calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent.Calcium-Binding Proteins: Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.Dihydropyridines: Pyridine moieties which are partially saturated by the addition of two hydrogen atoms in any position.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Lanthanum: Lanthanum. The prototypical element in the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol La, atomic number 57, and atomic weight 138.91. Lanthanide ion is used in experimental biology as a calcium antagonist; lanthanum oxide improves the optical properties of glass.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Calcium Channels, P-Type: CALCIUM CHANNELS located within the PURKINJE CELLS of the cerebellum. They are involved in stimulation-secretion coupling of neurons.Diltiazem: A benzothiazepine derivative with vasodilating action due to its antagonism of the actions of CALCIUM ion on membrane functions.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Kidney Calculi: Stones in the KIDNEY, usually formed in the urine-collecting area of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS). Their sizes vary and most contains CALCIUM OXALATE.Hypocalcemia: Reduction of the blood calcium below normal. Manifestations include hyperactive deep tendon reflexes, Chvostek's sign, muscle and abdominal cramps, and carpopedal spasm. (Dorland, 27th ed)Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Aequorin: A photoprotein isolated from the bioluminescent jellyfish Aequorea. It emits visible light by an intramolecular reaction when a trace amount of calcium ion is added. The light-emitting moiety in the bioluminescence reaction is believed to be 2-amino-3-benzyl-5-(p-hydroxyphenyl)pyrazine (AF-350).Intracellular Fluid: The fluid inside CELLS.Calmodulin: A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.Receptors, Calcium-Sensing: A class of G-protein-coupled receptors that react to varying extracellular CALCIUM levels. Calcium-sensing receptors in the PARATHYROID GLANDS play an important role in the maintenance of calcium HOMEOSTASIS by regulating the release of PARATHYROID HORMONE. They differ from INTRACELLULAR CALCIUM-SENSING PROTEINS which sense intracellular calcium levels.Calcium Channels, Q-Type: CALCIUM CHANNELS located in the neurons of the brain.Strontium: An element of the alkaline earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sr, atomic number 38, and atomic weight 87.62.Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptors: Intracellular receptors that bind to INOSITOL 1,4,5-TRISPHOSPHATE and play an important role in its intracellular signaling. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors are calcium channels that release CALCIUM in response to increased levels of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in the CYTOPLASM.Hypercalcemia: Abnormally high level of calcium in the blood.Ionophores: Chemical agents that increase the permeability of biological or artificial lipid membranes to specific ions. Most ionophores are relatively small organic molecules that act as mobile carriers within membranes or coalesce to form ion permeable channels across membranes. Many are antibiotics, and many act as uncoupling agents by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.Vitamin D: A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Ionomycin: A divalent calcium ionophore that is widely used as a tool to investigate the role of intracellular calcium in cellular processes.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Calcium Channels, R-Type: CALCIUM CHANNELS located in the neurons of the brain. They are inhibited by the marine snail toxin, omega conotoxin MVIIC.Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate: Intracellular messenger formed by the action of phospholipase C on phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, which is one of the phospholipids that make up the cell membrane. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate is released into the cytoplasm where it releases calcium ions from internal stores within the cell's endoplasmic reticulum. These calcium ions stimulate the activity of B kinase or calmodulin.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Caffeine: A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.omega-Conotoxin GVIA: A neurotoxic peptide, which is a cleavage product (VIa) of the omega-Conotoxin precursor protein contained in venom from the marine snail, CONUS geographus. It is an antagonist of CALCIUM CHANNELS, N-TYPE.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Calcinosis: Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Nitrendipine: A calcium channel blocker with marked vasodilator action. It is an effective antihypertensive agent and differs from other calcium channel blockers in that it does not reduce glomerular filtration rate and is mildly natriuretic, rather than sodium retentive.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Calcitriol: The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Ryanodine: A methylpyrrole-carboxylate from RYANIA that disrupts the RYANODINE RECEPTOR CALCIUM RELEASE CHANNEL to modify CALCIUM release from SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM resulting in alteration of MUSCLE CONTRACTION. It was previously used in INSECTICIDES. It is used experimentally in conjunction with THAPSIGARGIN and other inhibitors of CALCIUM ATPASE uptake of calcium into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Nimodipine: A calcium channel blockader with preferential cerebrovascular activity. It has marked cerebrovascular dilating effects and lowers blood pressure.Ion Transport: The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.Ion Channel Gating: The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.Parathyroid Glands: Two pairs of small oval-shaped glands located in the front and the base of the NECK and adjacent to the two lobes of THYROID GLAND. They secrete PARATHYROID HORMONE that regulates the balance of CALCIUM; PHOSPHORUS; and MAGNESIUM in the body.omega-Conotoxins: A family of structurally related neurotoxic peptides from mollusk venom that inhibit voltage-activated entry of calcium into the presynaptic membrane. They selectively inhibit N-, P-, and Q-type calcium channels.Oxalates: Derivatives of OXALIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are derived from the ethanedioic acid structure.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Isradipine: A potent antagonist of CALCIUM CHANNELS that is highly selective for VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE. It is effective in the treatment of chronic stable angina pectoris, hypertension, and congestive cardiac failure.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Minerals: Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium-Transporting ATPases: Calcium-transporting ATPases that catalyze the active transport of CALCIUM into the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM vesicles from the CYTOPLASM. They are primarily found in MUSCLE CELLS and play a role in the relaxation of MUSCLES.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Calbindins: Calcium-binding proteins that are found in DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES, INTESTINES, BRAIN, and other tissues where they bind, buffer and transport cytoplasmic calcium. Calbindins possess a variable number of EF-HAND MOTIFS which contain calcium-binding sites. Some isoforms are regulated by VITAMIN D.Cholecalciferol: Derivative of 7-dehydroxycholesterol formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. It differs from ERGOCALCIFEROL in having a single bond between C22 and C23 and lacking a methyl group at C24.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Xanthenes: Compounds with three aromatic rings in linear arrangement with an OXYGEN in the center ring.Nicardipine: A potent calcium channel blockader with marked vasodilator action. It has antihypertensive properties and is effective in the treatment of angina and coronary spasms without showing cardiodepressant effects. It has also been used in the treatment of asthma and enhances the action of specific antineoplastic agents.Extracellular Space: Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Aniline CompoundsAmino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Potassium Chloride: A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Calcium Dobesilate: A drug used to reduce hemorrhage in diabetic retinopathy.Mibefradil: A benzimidazoyl-substituted tetraline that selectively binds and inhibits CALCIUM CHANNELS, T-TYPE.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Plasma Membrane Calcium-Transporting ATPases: Calcium-transporting ATPases found on the PLASMA MEMBRANE that catalyze the active transport of CALCIUM from the CYTOPLASM into the extracellular space. They play a role in maintaining a CALCIUM gradient across plasma membrane.Electron Probe Microanalysis: Identification and measurement of ELEMENTS and their location based on the fact that X-RAYS emitted by an element excited by an electron beam have a wavelength characteristic of that element and an intensity related to its concentration. It is performed with an electron microscope fitted with an x-ray spectrometer, in scanning or transmission mode.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Buffers: A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.Electric Conductivity: The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Arsenazo III: Metallochrome indicator that changes color when complexed to the calcium ion under physiological conditions. It is used to measure local calcium ion concentrations in vivo.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2: A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.Terpenes: A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.Aminoquinolines: Quinolines substituted in any position by one or more amino groups.Cations, Divalent: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Ruthenium Red: An inorganic dye used in microscopy for differential staining and as a diagnostic reagent. In research this compound is used to study changes in cytoplasmic concentrations of calcium. Ruthenium red inhibits calcium transport through membrane channels.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Benzofurans: Compounds that contain a BENZENE ring fused to a furan ring.Dantrolene: Skeletal muscle relaxant that acts by interfering with excitation-contraction coupling in the muscle fiber. It is used in spasticity and other neuromuscular abnormalities. Although the mechanism of action is probably not central, dantrolene is usually grouped with the central muscle relaxants.Calcification, Physiologic: Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.Dairy Products: Raw and processed or manufactured milk and milk-derived products. These are usually from cows (bovine) but are also from goats, sheep, reindeer, and water buffalo.Sodium-Calcium Exchanger: An electrogenic ion exchange protein that maintains a steady level of calcium by removing an amount of calcium equal to that which enters the cells. It is widely distributed in most excitable membranes, including the brain and heart.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Edetic Acid: A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Type C Phospholipases: A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC 18.104.22.168), it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Neuronal Calcium-Sensor Proteins: A family of intracellular calcium-sensing proteins found predominately in NEURONS and PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They contain EF HAND MOTIFS and undergo conformational changes upon calcium-binding. Neuronal calcium-sensor proteins interact with other regulatory proteins to mediate physiological responses to a change in intracellular calcium concentration.Urinary Calculi: Low-density crystals or stones in any part of the URINARY TRACT. Their chemical compositions often include CALCIUM OXALATE, magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite), CYSTINE, or URIC ACID.Spider Venoms: Venoms of arthropods of the order Araneida of the ARACHNIDA. The venoms usually contain several protein fractions, including ENZYMES, hemolytic, neurolytic, and other TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL.omega-Agatoxin IVA: A neuropeptide toxin from the venom of the funnel web spider, Agelenopsis aperta. It inhibits CALCIUM CHANNELS, P-TYPE by altering the voltage-dependent gating so that very large depolarizations are needed for channel opening. It also inhibits CALCIUM CHANNELS, Q-TYPE.Gallopamil: Coronary vasodilator that is an analog of iproveratril (VERAPAMIL) with one more methoxy group on the benzene ring.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Calcium Ionophores: Chemical agents that increase the permeability of CELL MEMBRANES to CALCIUM ions.Flunarizine: Flunarizine is a selective calcium entry blocker with calmodulin binding properties and histamine H1 blocking activity. It is effective in the prophylaxis of migraine, occlusive peripheral vascular disease, vertigo of central and peripheral origin, and as an adjuvant in the therapy of epilepsy.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Hyperparathyroidism: A condition of abnormally elevated output of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH) triggering responses that increase blood CALCIUM. It is characterized by HYPERCALCEMIA and BONE RESORPTION, eventually leading to bone diseases. PRIMARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is caused by parathyroid HYPERPLASIA or PARATHYROID NEOPLASMS. SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is increased PTH secretion in response to HYPOCALCEMIA, usually caused by chronic KIDNEY DISEASES.Myocytes, Cardiac: Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Gallic Acid: A colorless or slightly yellow crystalline compound obtained from nutgalls. It is used in photography, pharmaceuticals, and as an analytical reagent.Exocytosis: Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Hypoparathyroidism: A condition caused by a deficiency of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH). It is characterized by HYPOCALCEMIA and hyperphosphatemia. Hypocalcemia leads to TETANY. The acquired form is due to removal or injuries to the PARATHYROID GLANDS. The congenital form is due to mutations of genes, such as TBX1; (see DIGEORGE SYNDROME); CASR encoding CALCIUM-SENSING RECEPTOR; or PTH encoding parathyroid hormone.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Hypercalciuria: Excretion of abnormally high level of CALCIUM in the URINE, greater than 4 mg/kg/day.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Calbindin 1: A calcium-binding protein that mediates calcium HOMEOSTASIS in KIDNEYS, BRAIN, and other tissues. It is found in well-defined populations of NEURONS and is involved in CALCIUM SIGNALING and NEURONAL PLASTICITY. It is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 22.214.171.124.Ions: An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.Carbachol: A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Trifluoperazine: A phenothiazine with actions similar to CHLORPROMAZINE. It is used as an antipsychotic and an antiemetic.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Tetrodotoxin: An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Inositol Phosphates: Phosphoric acid esters of inositol. They include mono- and polyphosphoric acid esters, with the exception of inositol hexaphosphate which is PHYTIC ACID.Presynaptic Terminals: The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.Osteoporosis: Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Neurotransmitter Agents: Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.Lasalocid: Cationic ionophore antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces lasaliensis that, among other effects, dissociates the calcium fluxes in muscle fibers. It is used as a coccidiostat, especially in poultry.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Cadmium: An element with atomic symbol Cd, atomic number 48, and atomic weight 114. It is a metal and ingestion will lead to CADMIUM POISONING.Durapatite: The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.Second Messenger Systems: Systems in which an intracellular signal is generated in response to an intercellular primary messenger such as a hormone or neurotransmitter. They are intermediate signals in cellular processes such as metabolism, secretion, contraction, phototransduction, and cell growth. Examples of second messenger systems are the adenyl cyclase-cyclic AMP system, the phosphatidylinositol diphosphate-inositol triphosphate system, and the cyclic GMP system.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Phosphorus, Dietary: Phosphorus used in foods or obtained from food. This element is a major intracellular component which plays an important role in many biochemical pathways relating to normal physiological functions. High concentrations of dietary phosphorus can cause nephrocalcinosis which is associated with impaired kidney function. Low concentrations of dietary phosphorus cause an increase in calcitriol in the blood and osteoporosis.Oxalic Acid: A strong dicarboxylic acid occurring in many plants and vegetables. It is produced in the body by metabolism of glyoxylic acid or ascorbic acid. It is not metabolized but excreted in the urine. It is used as an analytical reagent and general reducing agent.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Calcitonin: A peptide hormone that lowers calcium concentration in the blood. In humans, it is released by thyroid cells and acts to decrease the formation and absorptive activity of osteoclasts. Its role in regulating plasma calcium is much greater in children and in certain diseases than in normal adults.Nickel: A trace element with the atomic symbol Ni, atomic number 28, and atomic weight 58.69. It is a cofactor of the enzyme UREASE.Nephrolithiasis: Formation of stones in the KIDNEY.EF Hand Motifs: Calcium-binding motifs composed of two helices (E and F) joined by a loop. Calcium is bound by the loop region. These motifs are found in many proteins that are regulated by calcium.Apatites: A group of phosphate minerals that includes ten mineral species and has the general formula X5(YO4)3Z, where X is usually calcium or lead, Y is phosphorus or arsenic, and Z is chlorine, fluorine, or OH-. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Boron Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain boron as an integral part of the molecule.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Calcineurin: A CALCIUM and CALMODULIN-dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase that is composed of the calcineurin A catalytic subunit and the calcineurin B regulatory subunit. Calcineurin has been shown to dephosphorylate a number of phosphoproteins including HISTONES; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAIN; and the regulatory subunits of CAMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. It is involved in the regulation of signal transduction and is the target of an important class of immunophilin-immunosuppressive drug complexes.Indoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.CitratesHydroxycholecalciferols: Hydroxy analogs of vitamin D 3; (CHOLECALCIFEROL); including CALCIFEDIOL; CALCITRIOL; and 24,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D 3.Crystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Stimulation, Chemical: The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
Further evidence that prostaglandins inhibit the release of noradrenaline from adrenergic nerve terminals by restriction of availability of calcium. (1/62881)1 Guinea-pig vasa deferentia were continuously superfused after labelling the transmitter stores with [3H](-)-noradrenaline. Release of [3H]-(-)-noradrenaline was induced by transmural nerve stimulation. 2 Prostglandin E2 (14 nM) drastically reduced the release of [3H]-(-)-noradrenaline, while tetraethylammonium (2 mM), rubidium (6 mM), phenoxybenzamine (3 muM) each in the presence or absence of Uptake 1 or 2 blockade, and prolonged pulse duration (from 0.5 to 2.0 ms) all significantly increased the release of [3H]-(-)-noradrenaline per nerve impulse. 3 The inhibitory effect of prostaglandin E2 on evoked release of [3H]-(-)-noradrenaline was significantly reduced by tetraethylammonium, rubidium and prolonged pulse duration, whilst it was actually enhanced by phenoxybenzamine. This indicates that increased release of noradrenaline per nerve impulse does not per se counteract the inhibitory effect of prostaglandin E2. 4 It is concluded that tetraethylammonium, rubidium and prolonged pulse duration counteracted the inhibitory effect of prostaglandin E2 on T3H]-(-)-noradrenaline release by promoting calcium influx during the nerve action potential. The results are consistent with, and add more weight to the view that prostaglandins inhibit the release of noradrenaline by restriction of calcium availability. (+info)
Abnormal calcium metabolism in normocalcaemic sarcoidosis. (2/62881)In studies of calcium metabolism in 13 unselected patients with untreated sarcoidosis all were normocalcaemic but five had hypercalcuria. All had normal renal function. Calcium absorption was indexed by a double isotope test. 45Ca hyperabsorption occurred in six patients. Ten kinetic studies were carried out with 47Ca and in six bone turnover was increased. 45Ca absorption correlated well with the calculated bone uptake rate of calcium, and with urine calcium excretion. These results suggest that in sarcoidosis abnormalities in calcium metabolism are fairly common although they rarely result in sustained hypercalcaemia. (+info)
Automatic activity in depolarized guinea pig ventricular myocardium. Characteristics and mechanisms. (3/62881)Membrane potential was changed uniformly in segments, 0.7-1.0 mm long, of guinea pig papillary muscles excised from the right ventricle by using extracellular polarizing current pulses applied across two electrically insulated cf preparations superfused with Tyrode's solution at maximum diastolic membrane potentials ranging from-35.2+/-7.5 (threshold) to +4.0+/-9.2 mV. The average maximum dV/dt of RAD ranged from 17.1 to 18.0 V/sec within a membrane potential range of -40 to +20 mV. Raising extracellular Ca2+ concentration [Ca2+]0 from 1.8 to 6.8 mM, or application of isoproterenol (10(-6)g/ml) enhanced the rate of RAD, but lowering [Ca2+]0 to 0.4 mM or exposure to MnCl2 (6 mM) abolished RAD. RAD were enhanced by lowering extracellular K+ concentration [K+]0 from 5.4 to 1.5 mM. RAD were suppressed in 40% of fibers by raising [K+]0 to 15.4 mM, and in all fibers by raising [K+]0 to 40.4 mM. This suppression was due to increased [K+]0 and not to K-induced depolarization because it persisted when membrane potential was held by means of a conditioning hyperpolarizing puled gradually after maximum repolarization. These observations suggest that the development of RAD in depolarized myocardium is associated with a time-dependent decrease in outward current (probably K current) and with increase in the background inward current, presumably flowing through the slow cha-nel carrying Ca or Na ions, or both. (+info)
Intrarenal site of action of calcium on renin secretion in dogs. (4/62881)We studied the effects of intrarenal calcium infusion on renin secretion in sodium-depleted dogs in an attempt to elucidate the major site of calcium-induced inhibition of renin release. Both calcium chloride and calcium gluconate reduced renal blood flow and renin secretion while renal perfusion pressure was unchanged. These data indicate that calcium inhibition of renin secretion did not occur primarily at the renal vascular receptor; decreased renal blood flow is usually associated with increased renin secretion. Calcium chloride infusion increased urinary chloride excretion without affecting sodium excretion, and calcium gluconate failed to increase either sodium or chloride excretion. Also, the filtered loads of sodium and chloride were unchanged during the calcium infusions. These results give no indication that calcium inhibited renin secretion by increasing the sodium or chloride load at the macula densa. The effects of intrarenal calcium infusion on renin release were also assessed in dogs with a nonfiltering kidney in which renal tubular mechanisms could not influence renin secretion. The observation that calcium still suppressed renin release in these dogs provides additional evidence that the the major effect of calcium involved nontubular mechanisms. Thus, it appears likely that calcium acted directly on the juxtaglomerular cells to inhibit renin secretion. (+info)
Structural and functional changes in acute liver injury. (5/62881)Carbon tetrachloride produces liver cell injury in a variety of animal species. The first structurally recognizable changes occur in the endoplasmic reticulum, with alteration in ribosome-membrane interactions. Later there is an increase in intracellular fat, and the formation of tangled nets of the ergastoplasm. At no time are there changes in mitochondria or single membrane limited bodies in cells with intact plasmalemma, although a relative increase in cell sap may appear. In dead cells (those with plasmalemma discontinuties) crystalline deposits of calcium phosphatase may be noted. Functional changes are related to the endoplasmic reticulum and the plasma membrane. An early decrease in protein synthesis takes place; an accumulation of neutral lipid is related to this change. Later alterations in the ergastoplasmic functions (e.g., mixed function oxidation) occurs. Carbon tetrachloride is not the active agent; rather, a product of its metabolism, probably the CC1, free radical, is. The mechanisms of injury include macromolecular adduction and peroxide propagation. A third possibility includes a cascade effect with the production of secondary and tertiary products, also toxic in nature, with the ability to produce more widespread damage to intracellular structures. (+info)
Nonbehavioral selection for pawns, mutants of Paramecium aurelia with decreased excitability. (6/62881)The reversal response in Paramecium aurelia is mediated by calcium which carries the inward current during excitation. Electrophysiological studies indicate that strontium and barium can also carry the inward current. Exposure to high concentrations of barium rapidly paralyzes and later kills wild-type paramecia. Following mutagenesis with nitrosoguanidine, seven mutants which continued to swim in the ;high-barium' solution were selected. All of the mutants show decreased reversal behavior, with phenotypes ranging from extremely non-reversing (;extreme' pawns) to nearly wild-type reversal behavior (;partial' pawns). The mutations fall into three complementation groups, identical to the pwA, pwB, and pwC genes of Kunget al. (1975). All of the pwA and pwB mutants withstand longer exposure to barium, the pwB mutants surviving longer than the pwA mutants. Among mutants of each gene, survival is correlated with loss of reversal behavior. Double mutants (A-B, A-C, B-C), identified in the exautogamous progeny of crosses between ;partial' mutants, exhibited a more extreme non-reversing phenotype than either of their single-mutant (;partial' pawn) parents.---Inability to reverse could be expected from an alteration in the calcium-activated reversal mechanism or in excitation. A normal calcium-activated structure was demonstrated in all pawns by chlorpromazine treatment. In a separate report (Schein, Bennett and Katz 1976) the results of electrophysiological investigations directly demonstrate decreased excitability in all of the mutants, a decrease due to an altered calcium activation. The studies of the genetics, the survival in barium and the electro-physiology of the pawns demonstrate that the pwA and pwB genes have different effects on calcium activation. (+info)
Dopamine stimulates salivary duct cells in the cockroach Periplaneta americana. (7/62881)This study examines whether the salivary duct cells of the cockroach Periplaneta americana can be stimulated by the neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin. We have carried out digital Ca2+-imaging experiments using the Ca2+-sensitive dye fura-2 and conventional intracellular recordings from isolated salivary glands. Dopamine evokes a slow, almost tonic, and reversible dose-dependent elevation in [Ca2+]i in the duct cells. Upon stimulation with 10(-)6 mol l-1 dopamine, [Ca2+]i rises from 48+/-4 nmol l-1 to 311+/-43 nmol l-1 (mean +/- s.e.m., N=18) within 200-300 s. The dopamine-induced elevation in [Ca2+]i is absent in Ca2+-free saline and is blocked by 10(-)4 mol l-1 La3+, indicating that dopamine induces an influx of Ca2+ across the basolateral membrane of the duct cells. Stimulation with 10(-)6 mol l-1 dopamine causes the basolateral membrane to depolarize from -67+/-1 to -41+/-2 mV (N=10). This depolarization is also blocked by La3+ and is abolished when Na+ in the bath solution is reduced to 10 mmol l-1. Serotonin affects neither [Ca2+]i nor the basolateral membrane potential of the duct cells. These data indicate that the neurotransmitter dopamine, which has previously been shown to stimulate fluid secretion from the glands, also stimulates the salivary duct cells, suggesting that dopamine controls their most probable function, the modification of primary saliva. (+info)
PKCdelta acts as a growth and tumor suppressor in rat colonic epithelial cells. (8/62881)We have analysed the expression of three calcium-independent isoforms of protein kinase C (PKC), PKCdelta, PKCepsilon and PKCzeta, in an in vitro model of colon carcinogenesis consisting of the nontumorigenic rat colonic epithelial cell line D/WT, and a derivative src-transformed line D/src. While PKCzeta and PKCepsilon showed similar protein levels, PKCdelta was markedly decreased in D/src cells when compared to the D/WT line. To assess whether down-regulation of PKCdelta was causally involved in the neoplastic phenotype in D/src cells, we prepared a kinase-defective mutant of PKCdelta. Stable transfection of this sequence caused morphological and growth changes characteristic of partial transformation in D/WT cells. Moreover, to test whether PKCdelta was involved in growth control and transformation in this model, we overexpressed PKCdelta in D/src cells. Transfected cells underwent marked growth and morphological modifications toward the D/WT phenotype. In a late stage in culture, transfected cells ceased to proliferate, rounded up and degenerated into multinucleated, giant-like cells. We conclude that PKCdelta can reverse the transformed phenotype and act as a suppressor of cell growth in D/src cells. Moreover, our data show that downregulation of this isoenzyme of PKC may cooperate in the neoplastic transformation induced by the src oncogene in D/WT cells. (+info)
AID 225394 - Percent increase in intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]i) using CHO cells, stably transfected with...
Histamine Elevates Free Intracellular Calcium in Mouse Retinal Dopaminergic Cells via H1-Receptors | IOVS | ARVO Journals
Purpose.: Previously, retinopetal axons containing histamine and dopaminergic neurons expressing histamine H1-receptor had been localized in mouse retinas using anatomic techniques. The goal of these experiments was to demonstrate that these receptors are functional. Methods.: Dopaminergic cells were acutely isolated from retinas of transgenic mice expressing red fluorescent protein under control of the tyrosine hydroxylase promoter and loaded with the calcium indicator Fura-2. Results.: Under control conditions, there were spontaneous oscillations in the levels of free intracellular calcium in dopaminergic cells. These oscillations were abolished in nominally calcium-free extracellular medium and in 1 μM tetrodotoxin, findings suggesting that the oscillations were mediated by calcium entry across the plasma membrane in response to sodium-dependent action potentials. Histamine increased the mean free intracellular calcium in the dopaminergic cells by increasing the frequency and/or amplitude of ...
Transmembrane Ca2+ gradient-mediated change of fluidity in the inner layer of phospholipids modulates Ca2+-ATPase of...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Transmembrane Ca2+ gradient-mediated change of fluidity in the inner layer of phospholipids modulates Ca2+-ATPase of sarcoplasmic reticulum. AU - Tu, Yaping. AU - Xu, H.. AU - Yang, F. Y.. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - Sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) vesicles with (1000 folds) or without transmembrane Ca2+ gradient have been prepared. Different fluorescence probes (DPH, TMA-DPH and n-AS), were used to determine the effect of transmembrane Ca2+ gradient on the lipid fluidity both in outer and inner layer of Ca2+-ATPase-containing SR vesicles. The results showed that transmembrane Ca2+ gradient could significantly decrease the fluidity of the inner layer of SR membrane, while no obvious change was monitored in the outer layer. This may be deduced that Ca2+-ATPase might be modulated mainly by the transmembrane Ca2+ gradient-mediated alteration of physical state of phospholipid in the inner layer of SR membrane.. AB - Sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) vesicles with (1000 folds) or without ...
Reactive oxygen metabolites increase mitochondrial calcium in endothelial cells: implication of the Ca2+/Na+ exchanger |...
In endothelial cells, a bolus of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or oxygen metabolites generated by hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase (HX-XO) increased the mitochondrial calcium concentration [Ca2+]m. Both agents caused a biphasic increase in [Ca2+]m which was preceded by a rise in cytosolic free calcium concentration [Ca2+]c (18 and 6 seconds for H2O2 and HX-XO, respectively). The peak and plateau elevations of [Ca2+] were consistently higher in the mitochondrial matrix than in the cytosol. In Ca2+-free/EGTA medium, the plateau phase of elevated [Ca2+] evoked by H2O2 due to capacitative Ca2+ influx was abolished in the cytosol, but was maintained in the mitochondria. In contrast to H2O2 and HX-XO, ATP which binds the P2Y purinoceptors induced an increase in [Ca2+]m that was similar to that of [Ca2+]c. When cells were first stimulated with inositol 1,4, 5-trisphosphate-generating agonists or the Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), subsequent addition of H2O2 did not affect [Ca2+]c, but still ...
Ornitalia Sali Minerali 1.1kg, (mineral powder with a high calcium concentration)
Implications of purinergic receptor-mediated intracellular calcium transients in neural differentiation | Cell Communication...
Among different pathways coordinating intracellular signaling, the most prominent is intracellular calcium signaling (ICS), controlling various cellular processes including proliferation, motility, apoptosis and differentiation . ICS is impressively diverse and consists of mechanisms that differ in frequency, amplitude and spatio-temporal patterning depending on an extensive molecular repertoire of signaling components. The free intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+i) of a resting cell is in the range of 10-100 nM. Following physiological stimulation, [Ca2+i levels can rise up to 1-2 μM concentrations. ICS is codified by the peak amplitude and frequency of [Ca2+i transients, promoted by the entry of external Ca2+ through Ca2+ channels or the release of Ca2+ from internal stores. These internal stores are deposited within internal membrane structures such as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Following activation of G-protein-coupled receptors, phospholipase C-β (PLC-β) cleaves ...
To examine the role of Ca2+ in early neuronal death, we studied the impact of free intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) on survivability in populations of cultured mouse spinal neurons. We asked whether early neurotoxicity was triggered by Ca2+ influx, whether elevated [Ca2+]i was a predictive indicator of impending neuronal death, and whether factors other than [Ca2+]i increases influenced Ca2+ neurotoxicity. We found that when neurons were lethally challenged with excitatory amino acids or high K+, they experienced a biphasic [Ca2+]i increase characterized by a primary [Ca2+]i transient that decayed within minutes, followed by a secondary, sustained, and irreversible [Ca2+]i rise that indicated imminent cell death. We showed that in the case of glutamate-triggered neurotoxicity, processes triggering eventual cell death required Ca2+ influx, and that neurotoxicity was a function of the transmembrane Ca2+ gradient. Fura-2 Ca2+ imaging revealed a "ceiling" on measurable changes in ...
"Ryanogate" | Circulation...
The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) is the major intracellular calcium storage depot in cardiac muscle. Cycling of calcium between the lumen of the SR and the myoplasmic space occurs repetitively during each heart beat. Excitation-contraction coupling in the heart begins when calcium entry through voltage-gated L-type calcium channels in the sarcolemma induces the opening of calcium release channels (also known as ryanodine receptors, or RyR) in the adjacent SR. The majority of the calcium that enters the cytosol during the early portion of each cycle is then resequestered into the SR lumen via the actions of the calcium uptake protein, (sarco)endoplasmic reticulum calcium adenosine triphosphatase (SERCA). Tight regulation of the timing and quantity of these intracellular calcium fluxes is critical to achieve graded contractility and relaxation of the heart muscle. Such control allows optimal matching of cardiac function to heart rate and metabolic needs of the body. The mechanisms of ...
Calcium signalling in granule neurones studied in cerebellar slices. - Semantic Scholar
The cytoplasmic free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) was studied in Fura-2/AM loaded granule neurones in acutely prepared cerebellar slices isolated from neonatal (6 days old) and adult (30 days old) mice. Bath application of elevated (10-50 mM) KCl-containing extracellular solutions evoked [Ca2+]i rise which was dependent on extracellular Ca2+. The K(+)-induced [Ca2+]i elevation was inhibited to different extends by verapamil, nickel and omega-conotoxin suggesting the coexpression of different subtypes of plasmalemmal voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. Bath application of caffeine (10-40 mM) elevated [Ca2+]i by release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. Caffeine-induced [Ca2+]i elevation was inhibited by 100 microM ryanodine and 500 nM thapsigargin. Depletion of internal Ca2+ stores by caffeine, or blockade of Ca2+ release channels by ryanodine, did not affect depolarization-induced [Ca2+]i transients, suggesting negligible involvement of Ca(2+)-induced Ca2+ release in [Ca2+]i signal generation following
AID 270304 - Activity at human recombinant iGluR2 flip expressed in HEK293 cells measured as change in intracellular calcium...
Calcium release in HSY cells conforms to a steady-state mechanism involving regulation of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate...
In many cell types, low concentrations of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) release only a portion of the intracellular IP3-sensitive Ca2+ store, a phenomenon known as "quantal" Ca2+ release. It has been suggested that this effect is a result of reduced activity of the IP3-dependent Ca2+ channel with decreasing calcium concentration within the IP3-sensitive store ([Ca2+]s). To test this hypothesis, the properties of IP3-dependent Ca2+ release in single saponin-permeabilized HSY cells were studied by monitoring [Ca2+]s using the Ca(2+)-sensitive fluorescent dye mag-fura-2. In permeabilized cells, blockade of the sarco/ER Ca(2+)-ATPase pump in stores partially depleted by IP3 induced further Ca2+ release via an IP3-dependent route, indicating that Ca2+ entry via the sarco/ER Ca(2+)-ATPase pump had been balanced by Ca2+ loss via the IP3-sensitive channel before pump inhibition. IP3-dependent Mn2+ entry, monitored via quenching of luminal mag-fura-2 fluorescence, was readily apparent in filled ...
Assessment of Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium Reserve and Intracellular Diastolic Calcium Removal in Isolated Ventricular...
pH-dependent effect of mitochondria on calcium influx into Jurkat cells; a novel mechanism of cell protection against calcium...
Loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential results in a significant inhibition of calcium influx through calcium release-activated channels (CRAC) in Jurkat cells suspended in the medium of pH lower than 7.4. This effect disappears when the medium pH increases. Alkalinisation of the cytosol achieved by the addition of NH(4)Cl to the cells pretreated with thapsigargin, CCCP and CaCl(2), suspended in the medium of pH 7.2, does not affect CRAC activity, while alkalisation of the extracellular milieu by NaOH results in a strong stimulation of calcium entry. Thus, the mitochondrial effect on CRAC is exclusively related to the extracellular pH. Coupled mitochondria are able to take up Ca(2+) accumulated in the close proximity of CRAC. This protects these channels against feedback inhibition exerted by high [Ca(2+)](c). We conclude that CRAC may exist in two conformations: inhibitable and not inhibitable by cytosolic Ca(2+). Lower extracellular pH promotes the former one. This explains a much higher
NewYork-Presbyterian Queens - Disorders Affecting Calcium Metabolism
Calcium plays an important role in several body functions, including muscle contractions, enzyme function, and nerve conduction. Calcium is stored in the bones.. Disorders affecting calcium metabolism require clinical care by a physician or other health care professional. Listed in the directory below are some of the disorders that affect calcium metabolism, for which we have provided a brief overview.. If you cannot find the information in which you are interested, please visit the Diabetes & Other Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders Online Resources page in this website for an Internet address that may contain additional information on that topic.. ...
GFP-Aequorin Protein Sensor for Ex Vivo and In Vivo Imaging of Ca2+ Dynamics in High-Ca2+ Organelles
Proper functioning of organelles such as the ER or the Golgi apparatus requires luminal accumulation of Ca2+ at high concentrations. Here we describe a ratiometric low-affinity Ca2+ sensor of the GFP-aequorin protein (GAP) family optimized for measurements in high-Ca2+ concentration environments. Transgenic animals expressing the ER-targeted sensor allowed monitoring of Ca2+ signals inside the organelle. The use of the sensor was demonstrated under three experimental paradigms: (1) ER Ca2+ oscillations in cultured astrocytes, (2) ex vivo functional mapping of cholinergic receptors triggering ER Ca2+ release in acute hippocampal slices from transgenic mice, and (3) in vivo sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ dynamics in the muscle of transgenic flies. Our results provide proof of the suitability of the new biosensors to monitor Ca2+ dynamics inside intracellular organelles under physiological conditions and open an avenue to explore complex Ca2+ signaling in animal models of health and disease ...
Activation of the Ca2+ "receptor" on the osteoclast by Ni2+ elicits cytosolic Ca2+ signals: evidence for receptor activation...
Earlier studies have demonstrated that a high (mM) extracellular Ca2+ concentration triggers intracellular [Ca2+] signals with a consequent inhibition of bone resorptive activity. We now report that micromolar concentrations of the divalent cation, Ni2+, elicited rapid and concentration-dependent elevations of cytosolic [Ca2+]. The peak change in cytosolic [Ca2+] increased monotonically with the application of [Ni2+] in the 50-5,000 microM range in solutions containing 1.25 mM-[Ca2+] and 0.8 mM-[Mg2+]. The resulting concentration-response function suggested Ni(2+)-induced activation of a single class of binding site (Hill coefficient = 1). The triggering process also exhibited a concentration-dependent inactivation in which conditioning Ni2+ applications in the range 5-1,500 microM-[Ni2+] inhibited subsequent responses to a maximally effective [Ni2+] of 5,000 microM. Ni(2+)-induced cytosolic [Ca2+] responses were not dependent on extracellular [Ca2+]. Thus, when 5,000 microM-[Ni2+] was applied to
PTH INTACT GROUP - GBMC Test Dictionary
PTH, together with vitamin D and calcitonin, brings about mobilization of calcium and phosphate from the skeletal system and increases the uptake of calcium in the intestine and the excretion of phosphate via the kidneys. The constancy of the blood calcium level is ensured by the interaction of PTH and calcitonin. The secretion of PTH is inhibited by high calcium concentrations and promoted by low calcium concentrations ...
A patient has a total serum calcium level of 13.3 mg/dL (3.3 mmol/L). The nurse will anticipate the need to teach the patient...
A patient has a total serum calcium level of 13.3 mg/dL (3.3 mmol/L). The nurse will anticipate the need to teach the patient...
Figure 1 | Study of Cellular Uptake of Modified Oligonucleotides by Using Time-Resolved Microspectrofluorimetry and Florescence...
Sweeter When It's Hot | Science Signaling
Sugar solutions taste sweeter when warm. Talavera et al. now provide a molecular mechanism for this phenomenon. They identified the transient receptor potential (TRP) family members TRPM5 and TRPM4 as thermally activated, calcium-dependent cation channels. TRPM5 and the related protein TRP4 are calcium-impermeable cation channels. When expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells, these proteins exhibited a shift in voltage dependence in response to increased temperature in the range of 15°C to 35°C, such that at higher temperatures the channels were more active. Activation of the channels by heat required the presence of intracellular calcium, despite the fact that these channels do not conduct calcium ions. Therefore, they are poised to serve as coincidence detectors, sensing a stimulus that increases intracellular calcium concentrations, such as the presence of a taste ligand that activates a taste receptor, as well as temperature. Indeed, knockout mice lacking TRPM5 did not show any ...
Key Mechanism In Calcium Regulation Found - Redorbit
Important element in road towards development of new drugs for neurodegenerative diseases All living cells keep their cellular calcium concentration at a very low level. Since a small increase in calcium can affect many critical cellular functions (an elevated calcium concentration over an extended period can induce cell death), powerful cellular mechanisms ensure that calcium concentration quickly returns to its low level.. It is known that impairments of cellular calcium regulation underlie almost all neurodegenerative diseases. For example, age-related loss of calcium regulation was shown to promote cell vulnerability in Alzheimers disease.. In a study recently published in the Journal of Neuroscience, Hebrew University of Jerusalem researchers, along with others from Israel and the US, presented their findings of a previously undescribed cellular mechanism which is essential for keeping cellular calcium concentration low. This mechanism operates together with other already characterized ...
Channel to the Nucleus? | Science Signaling
Gomez-Ospina et al. provide evidence for an intriguing mechanism whereby voltage-dependent calcium channels modulate gene transcription. Calcium entry through voltage-gated channels in the plasma membrane provides a link between electrical activity and changes in gene expression. Gomez-Ospina et al. found that, whereas an antibody that recognized the full-length Cav1.2 calcium channel localized to membrane and cytosolic fractions of rat brain cortex, an antibody that recognized the C-terminal fragment, which is proteolytically cleaved, appeared in the nucleus. The C-terminal fragment was abundant in nuclei of GABAergic neurons; moreover, nuclear fluorescence was apparent in neurons or glioblastoma cells expressing a construct in which the Cav1.2 C terminus was fluorescently labeled. Treatments aimed at lowering cytoplasmic calcium increased nuclear abundance of the Cav1.2 fragment, whereas treatments that increase intracellular calcium decreased it. The Cav1.2 fragment immunoprecipitated with ...
We found a doubling of risk for fatal prostate cancer among men in the highest tertile of total serum calcium and a tripling of risk for men in the highest tertile of ionized serum calcium. The results for total serum calcium are consistent with our previous findings for prostate cancer mortality in NHANES I in which we observed a multivariable-adjusted RR of 2.68 (5). This is the first study to examine prostate cancer risk in relation to prediagnostic levels of ionized serum calcium.. Each individual is believed to have his or her own set point for serum calcium that is under genetic control (9). The concentration of ionized serum calcium in a given individual normally does not deviate by ,2% from its set point (10). Conversely, there is considerable variation in calcium levels between individuals, with normal levels of total serum calcium ranging from 8.5 to 10.5 mg/dL (2.1-2.6 mmol/L; ref. 11).. This study has several strengths. It is hypothesis testing, is prospective, and uses a population ...
Blinking neurons give thoughts away - Healthcanal.com : Healthcanal.com
Fig.: Fibre-optic recording of YC3.60 signals in barrel cortex. Schematics of a setup (left) and functional signals in a freely-moving mouse (right).. Image: Mazahir T. Hasan. Neurons communicate with one another via so-called action potentials. During an action potential, voltage-gated calcium channels are opened resulting in rapid calcium ion influx. Because of this tight coupling, fluorescent calcium indicator proteins can visualize action potentials. These proteins have two fluorescent subunits, one of which radiates yellow light and the other blue. When the proteins bind calcium, the proportion of yellow to blue light changes. Colour variation from blue light towards yellow thus reports different calcium levels - which is why the protein has been dubbed a "cameleon".. Measuring action potentials optically. With the cameleon protein YC3.60, a fairly new variant, the scientists succeeded in recording the reaction of nerve cells to sensory stimuli in the intact brain of mice: every time the ...
In addition to transmitting involving extracellular free of charge contaminants, a - Gremlin is a Key Pro-fibrogenic Factor in...
In addition to transmitting involving extracellular free of charge contaminants, a generally accepted super model tiffany livingston of pathogen distribution is one wherein pathogen replicates in one cell, producing infectious contaminants that transmit to the following cell via cell junctions or induced polarized connections. outside the group had been bad for pathogen immediate-early phrase generally. We further display, using separated monolayer assays spatially, that at least one element of this activated migration is certainly the paracrine pleasure of a cytotactic response from contaminated cells to uninfected cells. The lifetime of this procedure adjustments our concept of pathogen transmitting and the potential features, pathogen, and web host elements included. Launch The systems included in the transmitting of contagious infections between cells are of fundamental importance for our general understanding of computer virus duplication, virulence, and pathogenesis and for long lasting ...
CXCL10-induced cell death in neurons: Role of calcium dysregulation<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - CXCL10-induced cell death in neurons. T2 - Role of calcium dysregulation. AU - Sui, Yongjun. AU - Stehno-Bittel, Lisa. AU - Li, Shanping. AU - Loganathan, Rajprasad. AU - Dhillon, Navneet K.. AU - Pinson, David. AU - Nath, Avindra. AU - Kolson, Dennis. AU - Narayan, Opendra. AU - Buch, Shilpa. PY - 2006/2. Y1 - 2006/2. N2 - Chemokines play a key role in the regulation of central nervous system disease. CXCL10 over-expression has been observed in several neurodegenerative diseases, including multiple sclerosis, Alzheimers disease and HIV-associated dementia. More recent studies by others and us have shown that CXCL10 elicits apoptosis in fetal neurons. The mechanism of CXCL10-mediated neurotoxicity, however, remains unclear. In this study, we provide evidence for the direct role of Ca2+ dysregulation in CXCL10-mediated apoptosis. We demonstrate that treatment of fetal neuronal cultures with exogenous CXCL10 produced elevations in intracellular Ca2+ and that this effect was ...
Submicromolar levels of calcium control the balance of beating between the two flagella in demembranated models of...
When detergent-extracted, demembranated cell models of Chlamydomonas were resuspended in reactivation solutions containing less than 10(-8) M Ca++, many models initially swam in helical paths similar to those of intact cells; others swam in circles against the surface of the slide or coverslip. With increasing time after reactivation, fewer models swam in helices and more swam in circles. This transition from helical to circular swimming was the result of a progressive inactivation of one of the axonemes; in the extreme case, one axoneme was completely inactive whereas the other beat with a normal waveform. At these low Ca++ concentrations, the inactivated axoneme was the trans-axoneme (the one farthest from the eyespot) in 70-100% of the models. At 10(-7) or 10(-6) M Ca++, cell models also proceeded from helical to circular swimming as a result of inactivation of one of the axonemes; however, under these conditions the cis-axoneme was usually the one that was inactivated. At 10(-8) M Ca++, most ...
Calcium control of macrophage cytoplasmic gelation: evidence for the involvement of the 70,000 Mr actin-bundling protein |...
Under appropriate conditions macrophage cytosolic extracts can form a three-dimensional gel network of cross-linked actin filaments. These cytoplasmic gels are mainly composed of actin, filamin, alpha-actinin, and two new proteins of about 70,000 and 55,000 Mr (70 and 55 K). The behaviour of 70 K protein was found to be remarkably affected by Ca2+. Ca2+ treatment of isolated cytoplasmic gels led to the selective solubilization of the 70 K protein along with a 17 K polypeptide. Half-maximal recovery in the supernatant fraction was obtained from about 0.15 microM free Ca2+. The cytoplasmic gel constituents solubilized in high ionic strength buffer were able to re-assemble into an insoluble actin network when returned to near physiological ionic conditions. However, the inclusion of micromolar Ca2+ prevented the re-association of 70 K protein with actin in these complexes. As compared to the 70 K protein, alpha-actinin was fully resistant to any variations in Ca2+ concentrations. On the other hand, ...
From the Clinic: Natural Tips & Articles | Health Shop
By: Andy De Santis, RD and Dr. Kathleen Regan, ND. Andy De Santis is a Registered Dietician practicing at Innate Wellness High Park. He focuses on creating diet plans for patients of Innate Wellness. If you are interested in having a customized nutrition program created for you, please call the High Park Clinic. Calcium is one of the most abundant minerals found in the human body. Most calcium is stored either in our bones or our teeth, leaving a small amount found in other tissues or circulating through our blood. The way our bodies use and absorb calcium depends on the presence of specific nutrients, such as Vitamin D, and specific hormones, such as parathyroid hormone and calcitonin. Calcium levels are also influenced by specific female hormones such as estrogen (which increases calcium absorption).. Declining levels of estrogen as women age, through menopause, after hysterectomy, or via estrogen reducing drugs such as Tamoxifen (post-breast cancer treatment) can dramatically affect calcium ...
The present study reports a potentiating effect of glibenclamide on quantal catecholamine secretion evoked from individual PC-12 cells by exposure to solutions containing either 50 mmK+ or 30 mm caffeine. Using either stimulus, this secretion is Ca2+-dependent. For K+-evoked release, Ca2+ influx through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels is a prerequisite for exocytosis, and of the different channel types present in PC-12 cells (Liu et al., 1996), the N-type appear to be most closely coupled to depolarization-mediated release because ω-conotoxin GVIA causes profound inhibition of such release (Taylor and Peers, 1998). Caffeine has recently been demonstrated to evoke secretion from PC-12 cells (Koizume and Inoue, 1998), and the present study indicates that this release is quantal (i.e., because of exocytosis) (Fig. 6). Caffeine causes release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores (presumably via activation of ryanodine receptors), and this store depletion in turn activates CCE. Koizume and Inoue (1998) ...
Activator CA Super Glue
CHAPTER 26 - Calcium (RSC Publishing)
Cells have developed a variety of mechanisms to keep free calcium ion concentrations at very low levels in the cytosol. These mechanisms allow transient increases in cell calcium concentrations to be used as signals to trigger a variety of cellular processes, gene expression being one of them. Skeletal muscle relies on nerve activity both for contraction and also for the expression of genes related to pathways that include survival and the plastic changes required for adaptation to exercise. A particular pathway that involves Cav1.1 as a voltage sensor for nerve activity, pannexin-1 channels to release ATP to the extracellular milieu, purinergic P2Y receptors to link the signal ...
'inositol 1 4 5 trisphosphate' Protocols and Video...
Video articles in JoVE about inositol 1 4 5 trisphosphate include Imaging Local Ca2+ Signals in Cultured Mammalian Cells, Direct Imaging of ER Calcium with Targeted-Esterase Induced Dye Loading (TED), Monitoring ER/SR Calcium Release with the Targeted Ca2+ Sensor CatchER+, PIP-on-a-chip: A Label-free Study of Protein-phosphoinositide Interactions, Radiolabeling and Quantification of Cellular Levels of Phosphoinositides by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-coupled Flow Scintillation, Preparation of Quality Inositol Pyrophosphates, Characterization of G Protein-coupled Receptors by a Fluorescence-based Calcium Mobilization Assay, Cytosolic Calcium Measurements in Renal Epithelial Cells by Flow Cytometry, Targeting Cysteine Thiols for in Vitro Site-specific Glycosylation of Recombinant Proteins, A Cell Culture Model of Resistance Arteries , Preparation of Pancreatic Acinar Cells for the Purpose of Calcium Imaging, Cell Injury Measurements, and Adenoviral Infection, Lignin Down
How does estrogen affect calcium levels in bones? | Reference.com
Natural Vitality Natural Calm Plus Calcium at Netrition.com.
In the present study we showed increased TRPV1 activity after prestimulation of TRPA1, both in HEK cells and DRG neurons. This was dependent on calcium, AC, and PKA. Mutation of the putative phosphorylation site serine 116 in TRPV1 also abolished increased TRPV1 activity after TRPA1 stimulation. Together, our findings suggest that TRPA1 activation causes an influx of calcium and increases calcium-sensitive AC activity, cAMP accumulation, and subsequent PKA activation. This results in phosphorylation and sensitization of TRPV1.. Although some studies showed direct activation of TRPV1 by MO at high concentrations (Ohta et al., 2007; Everaerts et al., 2011; Gees et al., 2013), our control experiments and other studies showed that MO at a concentration of 20 µM did not directly activate TRPV1 (Fig. 2D; Jordt et al., 2004; Everaerts et al., 2011).. Approximately 30% to 50% of TRPV1-expressing small- to medium-sized peripheral sensory neurons coexpress TRPA1, and almost all TRPA1-positive neurons ...
Wade Regehr : Map (The Full Wiki)
Regehrs laboratory studies the implication of calcium Ca2+ as it affects synaptic strength. Neurons communicate with one another via synapses. Regehr was one of the first to use fluorescent imaging to see the synaptic activity occurring in the brain. A dye alters the fluorenscence properties when attached to calcium, and changes in intracellular calcium are associated with neuronal activity (firing of action potentials). Using fluorescence-microscopy techniques, calcium levels are detected, and therefore the influx of calcium in the presynaptic neuron ...
Calculating free Ca2++ with EGTA buffers
MAIL VIA INTERNET FROM BIOSCI-REQUEST at genbank.bio.net THURSDAY 09/10/92 6:15:03 A.M. , , Received: from CU.NIH.GOV by NIHCU (Mailer) id 9613; , Thu, 10 Sep 92 06:15:03 EDT , Received: from GENBANK.BIO.NET by CU.NIH.GOV , with TCP; Thu, 10 Sep 92 6:15:00 EDT , Received: by genbank.bio.net (5.65/IG-2.0) , id AA05730; Thu, 10 Sep 92 03:15:24 -0700 , Received: by genbank.bio.net (5.65/IG-2.0) , id AA05723; Thu, 10 Sep 92 03:15:22 -0700 , Message-Id: ,9209101015.AA05723 at genbank.bio.net, , To: bio-soft at genbank.bio.net , From: Fergus_Doherty at vme.ccc.nottingham.ac.uk , Subject: Calculating free Ca2++ with EGTA buffers , Date: 10 Sep 92 10:00:35 GMT , Sender: list-admin at daresbury.ac.uk , Original-To: BIO-SOFT at uk.ac.daresbury , , Can anyone help me to calculate free Ca2++ in EGTA/CA buffers? Basically , I want to determine the effect of Ca on enzyme activity, and relatedly , translocation of an enzyme to membranes-which is Ca -dependent. I need , to include EGTA to completely inhibit the ...
Contrasting effects of ischemia on the kinetics of membrane voltage and intracellular calcium transient underlie electrical...
Repolarization alternans has been considered a strong marker of electrical instability. The objective of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that ischemia-induced contrasting effects on the kinetics of membrane voltage and intracellular calcium transient (Ca(i)T) can explain the vulnerability of the ischemic heart to repolarization alternans. Ischemia-induced changes in action potential (AP) and Ca(i)T resulting in alternans were investigated in perfused Langendorff guinea pig hearts subjected to 10-15 min of global no-flow ischemia followed by 10-15 min of reperfusion. The heart was stained with 100 microl of rhod-2 AM and 25 microl of RH-237, and AP and Ca(i)T were simultaneously recorded with an optical mapping system of two 16 x 16 photodiode arrays. Ischemia was associated with shortening of AP duration (D) but delayed upstroke, broadening of peak, and slowed decay of Ca(i)T resulting in a significant increase of Ca(i)T-D. The changes in APD were spatially heterogeneous in contrast to a
DiVA - Search result
Phospholipase C (PLC) regulates various cellular processes by catalyzing the formation of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol from phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2). Here, we have investigated the influence of Ca2+ on receptor-triggered PLC activity in individual insulin-secreting β-cells. Evanescent wave microscopy was used to record PLC activity using green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged PIP2/IP3-binding pleckstrin homology domain from PLCδ1, and the cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) was simultaneously measured using the indicator Fura Red. Stimulation of MIN6 β-cells with the muscarinic-receptor agonist carbachol induced rapid and sustained PLC activation. By contrast, only transient activation was observed after stimulation in the absence of extracellular Ca2+ or in the presence of the non-selective Ca2+ channel inhibitor La3+. The Ca2+-dependent sustained phase of PLC activity did not require voltage-gated Ca2+ influx, as hyperpolarization with ...
Physio I Block 4
A: 1. by increasing open time of the calcium channels, and more calcium rush into the cardiac muscle cell. From the extracellular fluid. 2. Phosphorylate (activate) phospholamban, whch increases Calcium ATPase in the sarcoplasmic reticulum. This increases calcium stores in the SR, so more is released when needed, leading to forceful contractions. Calcium is also removed from the cytosol faster, shortening the calcium-troponin binding time, which causes shorter duration of contraction.. Q: What is the isovolumic systole ...
A γ-Secretase Independent Role for Presenilin in Calcium Homeostasis Impacts Mitochondrial Function and Morphology in...
In this study, we provide in vivo evidence that SEL-12, a C. elegans PSEN homolog, is involved in regulating calcium homeostasis and impacts mitochondrial morphology and function. In addition, we have found that the calcium dysregulation observed in SEL-12-deficient animals arises from ER stores and that this defect leads to increased mitochondrial uptake of calcium, which drives the mitochondrial defects observed in sel-12 mutants. Furthermore, we show that the role of SEL-12 in regulating mitochondrial function is independent of its role in γ-secretase function and that the mitochondrial defects observed in sel-12 mutants are caused in part by the opening of the mPTP and elevated DRP-1-dependent mitochondrial fission.. Although the role of PSEN in AD progression remains unclear (Sherrington et al. 1995), similar to our findings, calcium dysregulation has been observed in various models of mutant PSEN function as well as tissue samples from AD patients (Ito et al. 1994; Leissring et al. 1999; ...
EMG - Force Relationship Signal Processing.3 - ppt video online download
Mechanism of biphasic contractions in strontium-treated ventricular muscle. | Circulation Research
Biphasic contractions were produced in dog trabeculae by replacing 90-95% of the calcium in the bathing solution with strontium. These conditions produced prolonged action potentials accompanied by contractions with two distinct phasic components. The early component disappeared slowly when the remaining Ca++ was removed, whereas the late component was eliminated quickly when Sr++ was removed. Manganese ion (0.25 mM) preferentially decreased the late component without changing the action potential, whereas caffeine and ryanodine decreased or eliminated the early component. Ryanodine did not alter the action potential. Isoproterenol rapidly increased the early component and, more slowly and to a lesser degree, increased the late component. The results suggest that the early component is caused by intracellular release of activator cation, probably from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, whereas the late component is the result of Sr++ entry across the sarcolemma, possibly by way of the slow inward ...
What Are Considered Normal Calcium Levels - OsteoporosisInstitute.org
Natures Plus - Nature's Plus - Calcium Van Malted Milk Balls Chew 180
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Search of: 18541590 [PUBMED-IDS] - List Results - ClinicalTrials.gov
Vitamin D does not increase calcium absorption in young women: A randomized clinical trial<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Vitamin D does not increase calcium absorption in young women. T2 - A randomized clinical trial. AU - Gallagher, J. Christopher. AU - Jindal, Prachi S.. AU - Smith, Lynette M.. PY - 2014/5. Y1 - 2014/5. N2 - It is commonly said that vitamin D should be used to increase calcium absorption. We tested this statement in a dose-response study of vitamin D on calcium absorption. A total of 198 white and African American women, aged 25 to 45 years, with vitamin D insufficiency, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) 2D) amongst the lowest groups. Vitamin D doses up to 2400 IU daily did not increase calcium absorption. No threshold level of serum 25OHD for calcium absorption was found at baseline or in the longitudinal study, suggesting that active transport of calcium is saturated at very low serum 25OHD levels AB - It is commonly said that vitamin D should be used to increase calcium absorption. We tested this statement in a dose-response study of vitamin D on calcium absorption. A total of ...
Indian Medical Association: Common symptoms that may indicate calcium deficiency: HCFI
New Delhi: June 18, 2016: Calcium is important for maintaining strong bones. It also helps in blood clotting, early developmental growth and muscle contraction and relaxation. Calcium can be easily obtained from natural food sources like leafy vegetables, yoghurt, nuts and cheese. However, the majority of the Indians, specifically in the age group of 14-20 years suffer from calcium deficiency due to lack of efficient absorption. "Calcium deficiency disease, also known as hypocalcemia, occurs when you dont get enough calcium. It is crucial that people are educated about the effects of calcium deficiency on the overall health and wellbeing of people in the long run. Those suspected of suffering from calcium deficiency should not self-diagnose and treat themselves by consuming large amounts of calcium supplements. Instead, it is important that they consult their doctor and together devise a healthy eating plan supported by supplementation," said Padma Shri Awardee Dr KK Aggarwal - Honorary ...
Changes in Intracellular Free Calcium Concentration during Illumination of Invertebrate Photoreceptors | JGP
Aequorin, which luminesces in the presence of calcium, was injected into photoreceptor cells of Limulus ventral eye. A bright light stimulus elicited a large increase in aequorin luminescence, the aequorin response, indicating a rise of intracellular calcium ion concentration, Cai. The aequorin response reached a maximum after the peak of the electrical response of the photoreceptor, decayed during a prolonged stimulus, and returned to an undetectable level in the dark. Reduction of Cao reduced the amplitude of the aequorin response by a factor no greater than 3. Raising Cao increased the amplitude of the aequorin response. The aequorin response became smaller when membrane voltage was clamped to successively more positive values. These results indicate that the stimulus-induced rise of Cai may be due in part to a light-induced influx of Ca and in part to release of Ca from an intracellular store. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that a rise in Cai is a step in the sequence of ...
Mathematical Modeling of Inositol Trisphosphate Receptor and Calcium Oscillations in Airway Smooth Muscle Cells
Oscillations in cytoplasmic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in airway smooth muscle cells (ASMC), primarily mediated by repetitive openings and closings of inositol trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) channels situated in the sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane, have been found to be important in generating and maintaining airway contractile force. However, it has been unclear about the mechanisms accounting for such oscillations, especially how the IP3R behaves in living cells to perform its function. In light of the extensive existence of calcium oscillations in many other cell types, although this thesis focuses on modeling calcium oscillations in ASMC due to their importance for the study of pathology of asthma, it also aims to solve some major questions in a wider context: • What is the mechanism for the formation of the repetitive calcium releases? How is the mechanism connected to the dynamics of the IP3R? • How best (or simply) should the IP3R be modeled for performing its function? • Should ...
Microdomains with high Ca2+ close to IP3-sensitive channels that are sensed by neighboring mitochondria | Science
Microdomains of high intracellular calcium ion concentration, [Ca2+]i, have been hypothesized to occur in living cells exposed to stimuli that generate inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3). Mitochondrially targeted recombinant aequorin was used to show that IP3-induced Ca2+ mobilization from intracellular stores caused increases of mitochondrial Ca2+ concentration, [Ca2+]m, the speed and amplitude of which are not accounted for by the relatively small increases in mean [Ca2+]i. A similar response was obtained by the addition of IP3 to permeabilized cells but not by perfusion of cells with Ca2+ at concentrations similar to those measured in intact cells. It is concluded that in vivo, domains of high [Ca2+]i are transiently generated close to IP3-gated channels and sensed by nearby mitochondria; this may provide an efficient mechanism for optimizing mitochondrial activity upon cell stimulation. ...
Intracellular free calcium increases in cultured cortical neurons deprived of oxygen and glucose.<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Intracellular free calcium increases in cultured cortical neurons deprived of oxygen and glucose.. AU - Goldberg, M. P.. AU - Choi, D. W.. PY - 1990/11/1. Y1 - 1990/11/1. N2 - Dissociated neocortical cultures from fetal mice exposed transiently to a medium lacking both glucose and oxygen developed neuronal degeneration without glial degeneration. We have found that this injury depends on extracellular calcium and is associated with uptake of calcium from the culture medium. We measured free cytoplasmic calcium in individual neurons using the fluorescent calcium indicator fluo-3 and provide evidence that oxygen and glucose deprivation injury increases the intracellular calcium signal. Both intracellular calcium elevation and subsequent neuronal loss could be blocked by the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist dextrorphan.. AB - Dissociated neocortical cultures from fetal mice exposed transiently to a medium lacking both glucose and oxygen developed neuronal degeneration ...
Calcium accumulation by the sarcoplasmic reticulum in two populations of chemically skinned human muscle fibers. Effects of...
In previous efforts to characterize sarcoplasmic reticulum function in human muscles, it has not been possible to distinguish the relative contributions of fast-twitch and slow-twitch fibers. In this study, we have used light scattering and 45Ca to monitor Ca accumulation by the sarcoplasmic reticulum of isolated, chemically skinned human muscle fibers in the presence and absence of oxalate. Oxalate (5 mM) increased the capacity for Ca accumulation by a factor of 35 and made it possible to assess both rate of Ca uptake and relative sarcoplasmic reticulum volume in individual fibers. At a fixed ionized Ca concentration, the rate and maximal capacity (an index of sarcoplasmic reticulum volume) both varied over a wide range, but fibers fell into two distinct groups (fast and slow). Between the two groups, there was a 2- to 2.5-fold difference in oxalate-supported Ca uptake rates, but no difference in average sarcoplasmic reticulum volumes. Intrinsic differences in sarcoplasmic reticulum function ...
Calcium Deficiency in Guinea Pigs | PetMD
Calcium is an essential mineral for several important functions in the body of an animal. Calcium is needed for the development of the fetal skeleton as well as for the secretion of milk in lactating females, making pregnant and nursing guinea pigs more prone to calcium deficiency if their increased nutritional needs are not being met. This related type of calcium deficiency usually develops in the one to two weeks before, or shortly after, giving birth. Also at higher risk of calcium deficiency are obese or stressed guinea pigs, or guinea pigs that have already been pregnant several times.
Stimulation of d2 dopamine receptors decreases intracellular calcium levels in rat anterior pituitary cells but not striatal...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Stimulation of d2 dopamine receptors decreases intracellular calcium levels in rat anterior pituitary cells but not striatal synaptosomes. T2 - A flow cytometric study using indo‐1. AU - Wolf, Marina E.. AU - Kapatos, Gregory. PY - 1989. Y1 - 1989. N2 - An important question is whether all D2 dopamine (DA) receptors employ the same signal transduction mechanisms. Anterior pituitary cells and striatal synaptosomes, which possess pharmacologically similar D2 DA receptors, were compared with respect to the effect of D2 DA receptor stimulation on free intracellular Ca2+ levels ([Ca2+]i). Flow cytometry, in combination with either the fluorescent calcium indicator indo‐1 or fluorescent voltage‐sensitive dyes, was used to measure [Ca2+]i and to detect changes in membrane potential. In subpopulations of anterior pituitary cells, increases in [Ca2+]i were produced by elevated K+, veratridine, thyrotropin‐releasing hormone, and BAY K 8644. These increases were blocked by ...
Modulation of intracellular calcium homeostasis blocks autophagosome formation. - Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences
Cellular stress responses often involve elevation of cytosolic calcium levels, and this has been suggested to stimulate autophagy. Here, however, we demonstrated that agents that alter intracellular calcium ion homeostasis and induce ER stress-the calcium ionophore A23187 and the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca (2+)-ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin (TG)-potently inhibit autophagy. This anti-autophagic effect occurred under both nutrient-rich and amino acid starvation conditions, and was reflected by a strong reduction in autophagic degradation of long-lived proteins. Furthermore, we found that the calcium-modulating agents inhibited autophagosome biogenesis at a step after the acquisition of WIPI1, but prior to the closure of the autophagosome. The latter was evident from the virtually complete inability of A23187- or TG-treated cells to sequester cytosolic lactate dehydrogenase. Moreover, we observed a decrease in both the number and size of starvation-induced EGFP-LC3 puncta as well as reduced numbers of
Intracellular Ca2+ signalling in secretory cells. | Journal of Experimental Biology
The secretion of ions and fluid plays a critical role in a variety of physiological activities that are vital to homeostatic mechanisms in animals. Control of such secretory activity is achieved by a range of neurotransmitters and hormones many of which act intracellularly by generating the second messenger inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) and increasing cytosolic free calcium ion concentrations ([Ca2+]i). These increases are achieved by a combination of the InsP3-induced release of Ca2+ from specific intracellular stores and the activation of Ca2+ entry from the extracellular environment. The [Ca2+]i signal represents a balance between the adequate activation of components of the secretory mechanism and the avoidance of [Ca2+]i levels that are toxic to the cell. Resting [Ca2+]i is maintained low by the action of Ca2+ pumps on the intracellular stores and plasma membrane, with the result that gradients for Ca2+ movement into the cytosol from either of these two sources are very large and ...
Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptors in Hypertension.
Chronic hypertension remains a major cause of global mortality and morbidity. It is a complex disease that is the clinical manifestation of multiple genetic, environmental, nutritional, hormonal, and aging-related disorders. Evidence supports a role for vascular aging in the development of hypertension involving an impairment in endothelial function together with an alteration in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) calcium homeostasis leading to increased myogenic tone. Changes in free intracellular calcium levels ([Ca] ) are mediated either by the influx of Ca from the extracellular space or release of Ca from intracellular stores, mainly the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). The influx of extracellular Ca occurs primarily through voltage-gated Ca channels (VGCCs), store-operated Ca channels (SOC), and Ca release-activated channels (CRAC), whereas SR-Ca release occurs through inositol trisphosphate receptor (IPR) and ryanodine receptors (RyRs). IPR-mediated SR-Ca release, in the form of Ca waves, ...
A 3D diffusional-compartmental model of the calcium dynamics in cytosol, sarcoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria of murine...
Variations of free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]) are powerful intracellular signals, controlling contraction as well as metabolism in muscle cells. To fully understand the role of calcium redistribution upon excitation and contraction in skeletal muscle cells, the local [Ca2+] in different compartments needs to be taken into consideration. Fluorescent probes allow the determination of [Ca2+] in the cytosol where myofibrils are embedded, the lumen of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and the mitochondrial matrix. Previously, models have been developed describing intracellular calcium handling in skeletal and cardiac muscle cells. However, a comprehensive model describing the kinetics of the changes in free calcium concentration in these three compartments is lacking. We designed a new 3D compartmental model of the half sarcomere with radial symmetry, which accounts for diffusion of Ca2+ into the three compartments and simulates its dynamics at rest and at various rates of stimulation in mice ...
Tests Useful in Differential Diagnosis of Hypercalcemia - Articles on Medical Diseases and Conditions
Serum calcium. Routine serum calcium assay measures the total serum calcium value. Total serum calcium contains about 50% bound calcium (literature range, 35%-55%) and about 50% nonbound calcium (literature range, 35%-65%). (Traditionally, nonbound calcium was called "ionized" calcium and is also known as "free" or "dialyzable" calcium.) Bound calcium is subdivided into calcium bound to protein and calcium complexed to nonprotein compounds. About 45% of total calcium (30%-50%) is protein-bound, of which 70%-80% is bound to albumin. The remaining 5% (5%-15%) of total calcium is complexed to ions such as citrate, phosphate, sulfate, and bicarbonate, which are not part of the serum proteins. Ionized calcium levels can be measured directly by ion-selective electrode techniques or less accurately can be estimated from total serum calcium and albumin or total protein values using certain formulas. The most commonly used calcium correction formula is that of R.B. Payne:. Adjusted calcium = (measured ...
Susan A. Keirstead, PhD | Medical School - University of Minnesota
Education. Dr. Keirstead received her Ph.D. in neurophysiology from Queens University, Kingston, Canada, where she studied the role of neck muscle motoneurons and sensory afferents in the control of head movement in the laboratory of Dr. P. Ken Rose. As a post-doctoral fellow in the laboratories of Dr. M. Rasminsky and Dr. A.J. Aguayo at McGill University, Dr. Keirstead examined the capabilities of retinal neurons to regenerate axons and form functional synaptic connections with central nervous system neurons. Dr. Keirstead came to the University of Minnesota as a research associate in the Department of Physiology where she used calcium imaging techniques to study the regulation of intracellular calcium ion concentration in glial cells by neurotransmitters in the laboratory of Dr. Robert Miller. She continued these studies as an assistant professor in the Department of Ophthalmology.. Dr. Keirstead is an assistant professor in the Department of Integrative Biology and Physiology, and the ...
Natural Vitality - Calm Plus Calcium 16 Oz
Peter Gillham Natural Vitality - Calm Plus Calcium Calcium is an important nutrient essential for maintaining total body health. Your body needs it every day-not just to keep your bones and teeth strong, but to ensure proper functioning of muscles and nerves. It even helps your blood to clot. But can too much calcium be a problem? Yes, it can. Excess calcium can deplete its vital sister mineral, magnesium, from the body and, as a result, can bring about symptoms of magnesium depletion, listed on the green page of this brochure. Calcium acts to excite nerves and is necessary for muscle contraction. Magnesium, on the other hand, calms nerves and is needed for muscle relaxation. Calcium makes bones stiff and hard, but magnesium is needed to avoid their becoming brittle. An excess of unabsorbed calcium may result in kidney stones and deposits in soft tissues such as arteries and heart cells, where it can calcify or harden into insoluble calcium. You experience the tensing (calcium)
Protamine augments stretch induced calcium increase in vascular endothelium<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Protamine augments stretch induced calcium increase in vascular endothelium. AU - Murase, Kichiro. AU - Naruse, Keiji. AU - Kimura, Akira. AU - Okumura, Kenji. AU - Hayakawa, Tetsuo. AU - Sokabe, Masahiro. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - Human umbilical vein endothelial cells cultured on a transparent silicone chamber were subjected to a short stretch pulse (ca. 1 s, 5 - 25% stretch) of their substrate and following increases in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) were measured by fluorescence intensity ratiometry using fura-2. In response to mechanical stretch, the cells in HEPES buffered saline exhibited a Ca2+ transient in a dose dependent way. The response was completely dependent on external Ca2+ and inhibited by gadolinium (Gd3+), suggesting that ir was mediated by the activation of a stretch activated cation channel (SACatC). Interestingly, the stretch induced Ca2+ transient was significantly augmented in the presence of basic polypeptide, protamine. This augmented Ca2+ ...
Bending the MDCK Cell Primary Cilium Increases Intracellular Calcium, The Journal of Membrane Biology | 10.1007/s00232-001-0075...
Calcium buffering - Wikipedia
Calcium buffering describes the processes which help stabilise the concentration of free calcium ions within cells, in a similar manner to how pH buffers maintain a stable concentration of hydrogen ions. The majority of calcium ions within the cell are bound to intracellular proteins, leaving a minority freely dissociated. When calcium is added to or removed from the cytoplasm by transport across the cell membrane or sarcoplasmic reticulum, calcium buffers minimise the effect on changes in cytoplasmic free calcium concentration by binding calcium to or releasing calcium from intracellular proteins. As a result, 99% of the calcium added to the cytosol of a cardiomyocyte during each cardiac cycle becomes bound to calcium buffers, creating a relatively small change in free calcium. The regulation of free calcium is of particular importance in excitable cells like cardiomyocytes and neurons. Within these cells, many intracellular proteins can act as calcium buffers. In cardiac muscle cells, the most ...
Intracellular calcium homeostasis in cardiac myocytes. | Circulation
Calcium homeostasis in cardiac myocytes results from the integrated function of transsarcolemmal Ca2+ influx and efflux pathways modulated by membrane potential and from intracellular Ca2+ uptake and release caused predominantly by SR function. These processes can be importantly altered in different disease states as well as by pharmacological agents, and the resulting changes in systolic and diastolic [Ca2+]i can cause clinically significant alterations in contraction and relaxation of the heart. It may be anticipated that a rapid increase in our understanding of the pathophysiology of Ca2+ homeostasis in cardiac myocytes will be forthcoming as the powerful new tools of molecular and structural biology are used to investigate the regulation of Ca2+ transport systems. ...
Cal-C-Fresh Oral Calcium Supplement for Dairy Cows Vets Plus - Calcium Gels | Dairy | Farm
Free Shipping on most orders over $60. Great Low Price. Oral calcium & B-vitamin gel with buffer, for hypocalcemic fresh cows. Elevates serum calcium levels. Helps maintain normal calcium levels during freshening and post partum periods. Give one tube at first sign of freshening, then another tube 6-12 hrs. post calving. Repeat every 12 hrs. as needed. Requires 3-tab dosing gun for administration.Cal-C-Fresh Oral Calcium Supplement for Dairy Cows Vets Plus Calcium Gels | Dairy | Farm
Frequency-dependent depression of exocytosis and the role of voltage-gated calcium channels
Synaptic vesicle exocytosis in primary cultures of baroreceptor neurons is reduced during high-frequency stimulation. Calcium influx through voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC) is a key step in neurotransmitter release. With the help of FM2-10, a marker of synaptic vesicle recycling, the present s …
Mitochondrial calcium uniporter MCU supports cytoplasmic Ca2+ oscillations, store-operated Ca2+ entry and Ca2+-dependent gene...
Ca2+ flux into mitochondria is an important regulator of cytoplasmic Ca2+ signals, energy production and cell death pathways. Ca2+ uptake can occur through the recently discovered mitochondrial uniporter channel (MCU) but whether the MCU is involved in shaping Ca2+ signals and downstream responses to physiological levels of receptor stimulation is unknown. Here, we show that modest stimulation of leukotriene receptors with the pro-inflammatory signal LTC4 evokes a series of cytoplasmic Ca2+ oscillations that are rapidly and faithfully propagated into mitochondrial matrix. Knockdown of MCU or mitochondrial depolarisation, to reduce the driving force for Ca2+ entry into the matrix, prevents the mitochondrial Ca2+ rise and accelerates run down of the oscillations. The loss of cytoplasmic Ca2+ oscillations appeared to be a consequence of enhanced Ca2+-dependent inactivation of InsP3 receptors, which arose from the loss of mitochondrial Ca2+ buffering. Ca2+ dependent gene expression in response to
Wait, don't pop in that calcium supplement? It may be dangerous - themedguru
Weakness in bones? Grab a calcium supplement, advice the doctors. But have you thought about the way intake of extra calcium can affect your body. This important nutrient that is essential for healthy bones may become a reason for heart disease and other complications if taken in excess quantities.. Calcium and bone health. Bone health is dependent on calcium intake but research has indicated that large amounts of calcium consumed by older women may expose the women to heart disorders and even other complications like death.. The Swedish research study. A sample of women who were born in the period from 1914-1948 was collected, and a research study was done on them by Swedish Researchers. The follow-up research was carried out on almost 61,433 women for about 19 years. The researchers prepared a questionnaire to keep an account of the diet taken by the ladies and the intake of the calcium supplements they took. The study confirmed the reasons for death recorded by the Swedish government ...
Electrophysiological Instabilities and Arrhythmia Onset - Christini Lab
One example of such an instability is "alternans", which at the cellular level, is characterized by a beat-to-beat alternation in membrane potential and intracellular calcium dynamics. Alternans, which manifests on the surface electrocardiogram as T-wave alternans, is a putative trigger of some types of reentrant arrhythmias. Two possible mechanisms have been proposed for alternans - either transmembrane ionic currents or intracellular calcium dynamics fail to cycle completely during one beat, due to insufficient time, leading to the beat-to-beat alternations characteristic of alternans. Importantly, because the voltage and intracellular calcium dynamics are bidirectionally coupled, alternans in one system will lead to secondary alternans in the other. Because of this coupling it is difficult to determine which mechanism is the main source of the instability. In our laboratory, we attempt to disentangle the contributions of voltage and calcium dynamics leading to cellular alternans via a hybrid ...
"Differential regulation of calcium homeostasis in adenocarcinoma cell " by Shanthala Pader, Cornelis Van Breeman et al.
Drug resistance is a fundamental problem in cancer chemotherapy. Intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+](i)) may play a role in the development of chemoresistance. We investigated the regulatory role of [Ca2+](i) in Taxol resistance in the non-small-cell lung cancer cell line A549 and its chemoresistant subclone A549-T24. Measurement of cytosolic calcium ([Ca2+](c)) in single cells and cell populations revealed similar levels of basal calcium in the two cell lines. However, a reduced response to thapsigargin (a sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) inhibitor) in A549-T24 cells compared to the parent cell line suggested a lower ER Ca2+ content in these cells. mRNA expression of SERCA2b and SERCA3, major Ca2+ pumps involved in ER Ca2+ homeostasis, did not significantly differ between the two cell lines, as revealed by RT-PCR. An altered calcium influx pathway in the Taxol-resistant cell line was observed. Modulation of the ER calcium pools using CMC (4-chloro-m-cresol) and ATP
Glucagon-like peptide-1 induces a cAMP-dependent increase of [Na+]i associated with insulin secretion in pancreatic beta-cells.
Download Programming Languages And Systems 18Th European Symposium On Programming Esop 2009 Held As Part Of The Joint European...
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11 Tips to Prevent Calcium Deficiency
Eye twitching calcium deficiency - Things You Didn't Know
Malignant Hyperthermia | Patient Education | MAC, LLP
Malignant hyperthermia is a life-threatening disorder, usually triggered by medications given during a general anesthetic. These medications include succinyl choline (a muscle relaxant) and inhaled anesthetics (gases). Only certain individuals are susceptible to malignant hyperthermia. This is thought to be due to a genetic mutation and is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. It is described as a mutation on the ryanodine receptor and affects calcium distribution in the muscle cells.
Dopamine Treatment of Postischemic Contractile Dysfunction Rapidly Induces Calcium-Dependent Pro-Apoptotic Signaling |...
In our model of contractile dysfunction following global ischemia with cardioplegic arrest, there was no detectable induction of pro-apoptotic signaling cascades within the first 2 hours of reperfusion. However, when dopamine was used to treat postischemic contractile dysfunction, caspase-9 and caspase-3 fragmentation/activation occurred and Bax expression increased, resulting in nuclear protein (PARP) cleavage and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. This pro-apoptotic state was associated with elevated cytosolic calcium concentration, and occurred even when the dopamine-induced positive inotropy and increased myocardial oxygen consumption were suppressed (BDM). On the other hand, improving left ventricular contractility by increasing contractile protein calcium sensitivity without further elevating cytosolic calcium appeared to prevent caspase activation and nuclear protein breakdown or DNA fragmentation.. There is some evidence that myocardial ischemia-reperfusion may be associated with activation of ...
Risks of developing kidney failure, calcium deficiency from zoledronic acid are extremely rare
The risks of developing kidney failure and a calcium deficiency from the popular osteoporosis drug zoledronic acid are extremely rare, according to researchers at Loyola University Health System. These findings were presented earlier this month at the American Society for Bone and Mineral Researchs annual meeting.
Effects of Foliage Application of Calcium on Fruit Firmness Quality Indexes in Korla Fragrant Pear--《Xinjiang Agricultural...
【Objective】The study aims to clarify the effects of calcium application on fruit quality of Korla fragrant pear.【Method】Calcium solution of different kinds was sprayed on the foliage of Korla fragrant pear during the fruit development in definite interval to analyze the quality related indexes of ripened fruit.【Result】Compared with the CK,the foliar-spraying of COMPO liquid calcium on Korla fragrant pear in the young stage,the effect of weight per fruit was better than other treatments,which increased fruit weight by 12.04%.At different times,four kinds of calcium solution were sprayed on Korla fragrant pear.Fruit shape index of each calcium treatment was reduced,but the effect of COMPO liquid calcium treatment was the best,which reduced the index by 6.09%.At young stage,four kinds of calcium solution were sprayed on Korla fragrant pear,and the fruit firmness of each treatment was increased.Only CAL-MAX treatment had significant difference,which increased the firmness by 19.65%.In addition
Slow kinetics of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-induced Ca2+ release: is the release 'quantal' or 'non-quantal'? | Biochemical...
Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3)-induced Ca2+ release from intracellular stores is generally assumed to be a quantal process because low InsP3 concentrations mobilize less Ca2+ than high concentrations and a submaximal concentration does not release all the InsP3-mobilizable Ca2+. However, some recent reports questioned the generally accepted view that a low dose of InsP3 is unable to empty the whole store. We have now challenged the stores of permeabilized A7r5 cells in InsP3 for much longer periods than previously reported, to assess directly whether the slow phase of the release would empty the whole store (a non-quantal response) or only a fraction of it (a quantal response). Addition of a maximal [InsP3] at the end of a prolonged (92 min) stimulation with a submaximal [InsP3] resulted in additional Ca2+ release. Experiments in which the stores were challenged with different submaximal InsP3 concentrations for long time periods revealed that a lower [InsP3] never released the same ...
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Calcium ions in the Cell - Biology-Online
Calcimycin incorporates into the cell membranes : first into plasma membrane and then very slowly into other intracellular membranes i.e. the membranes of mitochondria, nucleus, ER, Lysosomes, Golgi etc. It has to diffuse through the aqueous cytoplasm to reach the latter membranes OR through the continuities of plasma membrane with these membranes. So, the main action of calcimycin will be through its incorporation in the plasma membrane. The result will be a lot of sudden influx of calcium ions into the cytoplasm and resultant dramatic rise of cytoplasmic calcium ion conc. This happens only when the extracellular Calcium ion conc. is much higher than the intracellular conc. This generally is the case. The intracellular Ca ion conc. are less than micromolar (most cells have 0.1 micromolar or less) and extracellular conc. are above millimolar; so the gradient is nearly 10,000 times ...
Calcium ions in the Cell - Biology-Online
Calcimycin incorporates into the cell membranes : first into plasma membrane and then very slowly into other intracellular membranes i.e. the membranes of mitochondria, nucleus, ER, Lysosomes, Golgi etc. It has to diffuse through the aqueous cytoplasm to reach the latter membranes OR through the continuities of plasma membrane with these membranes. So, the main action of calcimycin will be through its incorporation in the plasma membrane. The result will be a lot of sudden influx of calcium ions into the cytoplasm and resultant dramatic rise of cytoplasmic calcium ion conc. This happens only when the extracellular Calcium ion conc. is much higher than the intracellular conc. This generally is the case. The intracellular Ca ion conc. are less than micromolar (most cells have 0.1 micromolar or less) and extracellular conc. are above millimolar; so the gradient is nearly 10,000 times ...
Periodic Table of Elements: Calcium - Ca (EnvironmentalChemistry.com)
... & U.S. Foggia. Foundation and early years. The club was founded in 1920 as Foggia Calcio. The club ... "Foggia Calcio 1920. Retrieved 31 January 2018.. *^ the Guardian. (2016). Meet 90-year-old Foggia fan, Nonno Ciccio, the oldest ... However, Foggia Calcio went bankrupted in 2004 and was replaced by U.S. Foggia, which itself was declared bankrupt in 2012. ... In the summer 2012 a new company named A.C.D. Foggia Calcio was founded to continue the football history of the city of ...
The skeleton acts as an extremely large calcium store (about 1 kg) compared with the plasma calcium store (about 180 mg). ... releases free calcium ions into the plasma ionized calcium pool. PTH has a second action on the kidneys. It stimulates the ... The plasma ionized calcium (Ca2+) concentration is very tightly controlled by a pair of homeostatic mechanisms. The sensor ... The plasma ionized calcium homeostat can be disrupted by the constant, unchanging, over-production of parathyroid hormone by a ...
... calcium stearoyl-2-lactylate; calcium stearyl-2-lactylate; calcium stelate; stearoyl-2-lactylic acid, calcium salt; calcium ... "Calcium Stearoyl Lactylate". Food Chemical Codex (7 ed.). pp. 157-159.. *^ a b c d e Ash, M.; Ash, I. (2004). Handbook of Green ... calcium salt; stearic acid ester with lactic acid bimol. ester calcium salt; calcium bis(2-(1-carboxylatoethoxy)-1-methyl-2- ... Calcium stearoyl-2-lactylate (calcium stearoyl lactylate or CSL) or E482 is a versatile, FDA approved food additive. It is one ...
"Calcium Fact Sheet". Retrieved April 29, 2014.. *^ a b c Mangels, Reed. "Calcium in the Vegan Diet". Retrieved April 29, 2014. ... the absorption of the calcium into the body is higher. Other foods that contain calcium include calcium-set tofu, ... Calcium. Calcium intake in vegetarians and vegans can be similar to non-vegetarians, as long as the diet is properly ... The calcium found in broccoli, bok choy, and kale have also been found to have calcium that is well absorbed in the body.[ ...
Calcium. Calcium ion levels have a great impact on heart rate and contractility: increased calcium levels cause an ... High levels of calcium ions result in hypercalcemia and excessive levels can induce cardiac arrest. Drugs known as calcium ... It opens chemical or ligand-gated sodium and calcium ion channels, allowing an influx of positively charged ions. ... These include hormones, notably epinephrine, norepinephrine, and thyroid hormones; levels of various ions including calcium, ...
Calcium-sparing diuretics. The term "calcium-sparing diuretic" is sometimes used to identify agents that result in a ... The reduced concentration of calcium in the urine can lead to an increased rate of calcium in serum. The sparing effect on ... calcium chloride, ammonium chloride 1. Arginine vasopressin. receptor 2 antagonists amphotericin B, lithium Inhibits ... The potassium-sparing diuretics cause a net increase in calcium lost in urine, but the increase is much smaller than the ...
... , sometimes abbreviated CDG and also called calcium glutamate, is a compound with formula Ca(C5H8NO4)2. It ... is a calcium acid salt of glutamic acid. CDG is a flavor enhancer (E number E623) - it is the calcium analog of monosodium ... Ball, P.; Woodward, D.; Beard, T.; Shoobridge, A.; Ferrier, M. (Jun 2002). "Calcium diglutamate improves taste characteristics ... As a soluble source of calcium ions, this chemical is also used as a first-aid treatment for exposure to hydrofluoric acid. ...
Calcium monosilicate. Calcium hydrosilicate. Calcium metasilicate, Calcium orthosilicate. Grammite. Micro-cell. Silene. ... it chemically reacts with calcium hydroxide or calcium carbonate to form calcium silicate hydrate, sealing micropores with a ... Calcium silicate, also known as slag, is produced when molten iron is made from iron ore, silicon dioxide and calcium carbonate ... Calcium silicate is the chemical compound Ca2SiO4, also known as calcium orthosilicate and is sometimes formulated as 2CaO·SiO2 ...
Calcium concentration. Keratinocyte differentiation throughout the epidermis is in part mediated by a calcium gradient, ... Elevation of extracellular calcium concentrations induces an increase in intracellular free calcium concentrations. Part of ... Tu, CL; Oda, Y; Bikle, DD (1999). "Effects of a calcium receptor activator on the cellular response to calcium in human ... Reiss, M; Lipsey, LR; Zhou, ZL (1991). "Extracellular calcium-dependent regulation of transmembrane calcium fluxes in murine ...
... which decomposes calcium hydroxide into calcium oxide and water. Ca(OH)2 → CaO + H2O. Structure, preparation, occurrence[ ... Calcium hydroxide (traditionally called slaked lime) is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ca(OH)2. It is a ... "MSDS Calcium hydroxide" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 March 2012. Retrieved 21 June 2011.. Cite uses deprecated ... Calcium hydroxide is produced commercially by treating lime with water: CaO + H2O → Ca(OH)2. In the laboratory it can be ...
Kidney stone disease
Calcium-containing stones. By far, the most common type of kidney stones worldwide contains calcium. For example, calcium ... Calcium is one component of the most common type of human kidney stones, calcium oxalate. Some studies[which?] suggest people ... Calcium and oxalate in the diet play a part but are not the only factors that affect the formation of calcium oxalate stones. ... Calcium oxalate stones in children are associated with high amounts of calcium, oxalate, and magnesium in acidic urine. ...
Alkaline earth metal
Calcium-48 is the lightest nuclide to undergo double beta decay. Calcium and barium are weakly radioactive: calcium ... Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine ... Calcium sulfate has been known to be able to set broken bones since the tenth century. Calcium itself, however, was not ... Beryllium-7, beryllium-10, and calcium-41 are trace radioisotopes; calcium-48 and barium-130 have very long half-lives and thus ...
Calcium carbonate. Carbon is also biologically fixed in the form of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) used as a protective ... Some plankton, (e.g. coccolithophores and foraminifera) combine calcium (Ca) and dissolved carbonates (carbonic acid and ... Trace metals such as magnesium, cadmium, iron, calcium, barium and copper are orders of magnitude less prevalent in ... The portion of carbon that makes it to the sea floor becomes part of the geologic record and in the case of the calcium ...
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In general, when calcium rises, the muscles contract and, when calcium falls, the muscles relax. Troponin, along with actin and ... Calcium. Main article: Osteopontin. Osteopontin is involved in mineralization in the extracellular matrices of bones and ... Pb2+ (lead) can replace Ca2+ (calcium) as, for example, with calmodulin or Zn2+ (zinc) as with metallocarboxypeptidases ... Chin D, Means AR (August 2000). "Calmodulin: a prototypical calcium sensor". Trends in Cell Biology. 10 (8): 322-8. doi:10.1016 ...
... (or calcium sulphate) is the inorganic compound with the formula CaSO4 and related hydrates. In the form of γ- ... Another calcium compound, calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2, portlandite) also exhibits a retrograde solubility for the same ... The main use of calcium sulfate is to produce plaster of Paris and stucco. These applications exploit the fact that calcium ... In the production of phosphoric acid from phosphate rock, calcium phosphate is treated with sulfuric acid and calcium sulfate ...
... is hypogeal, which means the cotyledons of the germinating seed stay in the ground and inside the seed coat. Therefore, it is less vulnerable to frost, wind erosion, or insect attack. The plant is a diploid, annual, bushy herb of erect, semierect, or spreading and compact growth and normally varies from 30 to 50 cm (10 to 20 in) in height. It has many hairy branches and its stem is slender and angular. The rachis bears 10 to 15 leaflets in five to eight pairs. The leaves are alternate, of oblong-linear and obtuse shape and from yellowish green to dark bluish green in colour. In general, the upper leaves are converted into tendrils, whereas the lower leaves are mucronate. If stipules are present, they are small. The flowers, one to four in number, are small, white, pink, purple, pale purple, or pale blue in colour. They arise from the axils of the leaves, on a slender footstalk almost as long as the leaves. The pods are oblong, slightly inflated, and about 1.5 cm long. Normally, each of ...
... such as calcium (as calcium carbonate, calcium citrate, etc.) or magnesium (as magnesium oxide, etc.), or iron (as ferrous ... Strontium has been found to be involved in the utilization of calcium in the body. It has promoting action on calcium uptake ... Calcium 01200.0001200 2500; 2500 Quantity Needed for muscle, heart and digestive system health, builds bone, supports synthesis ... Institute of Medicine (1997). "Fluoride". Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D and Fluoride ...
Broad beans (Amharic: baqella) are one of the most popular legumes in Ethiopia. They are tightly coupled with every aspect of Ethiopian life. They are mainly used as an alternative to peas to prepare a flour called shiro, which is used to make shiro wot (a stew almost ubiquitous in Ethiopian dishes). During the fasting period in the Ethiopian Orthodox Church tradition called Tsome Filliseta, Tsome arbeå, Tsome Tahsas, and Tsome Hawaria (which are in August, end of February-April, mid-November-beginning of January and June-July), two uncooked spicy vegetable dishes are made using broad beans. The first is Hilibet, a thin, white paste of broad bean flour mixed with pieces of onion, green pepper, garlic, and other spices based on personal taste. The second is siljo, a fermented, sour, spicy thin yellow paste of broad bean flour. Both are served with other stews and injera (a pancake-like bread) during lunch and dinner. Baqella nifro (boiled broad beans) are eaten as a snack during some holidays ...
In Indian cuisine, ginger is a key ingredient, especially in thicker gravies, as well as in many other dishes, both vegetarian and meat-based. Ginger has a role in traditional Ayurvedic medicine. It is an ingredient in traditional Indian drinks, both cold and hot, including spiced masala chai. Fresh ginger is one of the main spices used for making pulse and lentil curries and other vegetable preparations. Fresh ginger together with peeled garlic cloves is crushed or ground to form ginger garlic masala. Fresh, as well as dried, ginger is used to spice tea and coffee, especially in winter. In south India, "sambharam" is a summer yogurt drink made with ginger as a key ingredient, along with green chillies, salt and curry leaves. Ginger powder is used in food preparations intended primarily for pregnant or nursing women, the most popular one being katlu, which is a mixture of gum resin, ghee, nuts, and sugar. Ginger is also consumed in candied and pickled form. In Japan, ginger is pickled to make ...
Persillade is a mixture of chopped garlic and chopped parsley in French cuisine. Parsley is the main ingredient in Italian salsa verde, which is a mixed condiment of parsley, capers, anchovies, garlic, and sometimes bread, soaked in vinegar. It is an Italian custom to serve it with bollito misto or fish. Gremolata, a mixture of parsley, garlic, and lemon zest, is a traditional accompaniment to the Italian veal stew, ossobuco alla milanese. In England, parsley sauce is a roux-based sauce, commonly served over fish or gammon. Root parsley is very common in Central, Eastern, and Southern European cuisines, where it is used as a snack or a vegetable in many soups, stews, and casseroles, and as ingredient for broth. In Brazil, freshly chopped parsley (salsa) and freshly chopped scallion (cebolinha) are the main ingredients in the herb seasoning called cheiro-verde (literally "green aroma"), which is used as key seasoning for major Brazilian dishes, including meat, chicken, fish, rice, beans, stews, ...
Bitter melon is generally consumed cooked in the green or early yellowing stage. The young shoots and leaves of the bitter melon may also be eaten as greens. In Chinese cuisine, bitter melon (苦瓜, pinyin: kǔguā, POJ: khó͘-koe) is valued for its bitter flavor, typically in stir-fries (often with pork and douchi), soups, dim sum, and herbal teas (gohyah tea). It has also been used in place of hops as the bittering ingredient in some beers in China and Okinawa. Bitter melon is commonly eaten throughout India. In North Indian cuisine, it is often served with yogurt on the side to offset the bitterness, used in curry such as sabzi or stuffed with spices and then cooked in oil. In South Indian cuisine, it is used in the dishes thoran/thuvaran (mixed with grated coconut), mezhukkupuratti (stir-fried with spices), theeyal (cooked with roasted coconut) and pachadi (which is considered a medicinal food for diabetics). Other popular recipes include preparations with curry, deep-frying with ...
Usually the deep purple roots of beetroot are eaten boiled, roasted or raw, and either alone or combined with any salad vegetable. A large proportion of the commercial production is processed into boiled and sterilized beets or into pickles. In Eastern Europe, beet soup, such as borscht, is a popular dish. In Indian cuisine, chopped, cooked, spiced beet is a common side dish. Yellow-coloured beetroots are grown on a very small scale for home consumption.. The green, leafy portion of the beet is also edible. The young leaves can be added raw to salads, whilst the adult leaves are most commonly served boiled or steamed, in which case they have a taste and texture similar to spinach. Those greens selected should be from bulbs that are unmarked, instead of those with overly limp leaves or wrinkled skins, both of which are signs of dehydration. The domestication of beets can be traced to the emergence of an allele which enables biennial harvesting of leaves and taproot.. Beetroot can be boiled ...
Forerunners to modern Brussels sprouts were probably cultivated in Ancient Rome. Brussels sprouts as they are now known were grown possibly as early as the 13th century in what is now Belgium. The first written reference dates to 1587. During the 16th century, they enjoyed a popularity in the southern Netherlands that eventually spread throughout the cooler parts of Northern Europe. Brussels sprouts grow in temperature ranges of 7-24 °C (45-75 °F), with highest yields at 15-18 °C (59-64 °F). Fields are ready for harvest 90 to 180 days after planting. The edible sprouts grow like buds in helical patterns along the side of long, thick stalks of about 60 to 120 cm (24 to 47 in) in height, maturing over several weeks from the lower to the upper part of the stalk. Sprouts may be picked by hand into baskets, in which case several harvests are made of five to 15 sprouts at a time, or by cutting the entire stalk at once for processing, or by mechanical harvester, depending on ...
As a cross promotion with the Canadian Football League, the Baconator has been named the official burger of the league. They held a promotion running from April-May 2009 in which special scratch tickets shaped like bacon were given out with each purchase. In addition to being able to enter a draw to win an Xbox 360 by texting the number, the person could enter the numbers online to win a chance to compete in a halftime CFL contest to build a giant Baconator, with the winner getting $25,000. This was termed the 'Baconator Boot Camp'. During the promotion, the store workers wore T-shirts advertising the contest. On August 14, 2009, Pete Richardson from Halifax, Nova Scotia won the contest and the prize of $25,000, in front of a capacity crowd of 24,754 at the Rogers Centre. ...
Key Mechanism In Calcium Regulation Found - Redorbit
All living cells keep their cellular calcium concentration at a very low level. Since a small increase in calcium can affect ... They found that a protein-designated calphotin (a calcium buffer) operates by sequestering elevated calcium concentration. ... Genetic elimination of calphotin led to a light-induced rise in cellular calcium for an abnormally extended time, leading to ... It is known that impairments of cellular calcium regulation underlie almost all neurodegenerative diseases. For example, age- ...
CHAPTER 26 - Calcium (RSC Publishing)
Intracellular Calcium Modulation of Gene Expression. Mariana Casas and Enrique Jaimovich Cells have developed a variety of ... G protein to PI3 kinase and phospholipase C, will finally give rise to slow, long-lasting calcium transients in the nuclear ... These mechanisms allow transient increases in cell calcium concentrations to be used as signals to trigger a variety of ... mechanisms to keep free calcium ion concentrations at very low levels in the cytosol. ...
Calcium (Ca) in Urine
Calcium is the most common mineral in the body and one of the most important. The body needs it to build and fix bones and ... A test for calcium in urine is a 24-hour test that checks the amount of calcium that is passed from the body in the urine. ... Calcium (Ca) in Urine. Test Overview. A test for calcium in urine is a 24-hour test that checks the amount of calcium that is ... It is important to get the right amount of calcium in your food because the body loses calcium every day. Foods rich in calcium ...
Association of Long-Term Proton Pump Inhibitor Therapy with Bone Fractures and Effects on Absorption of Calcium, Vitamin B12,...
Recker RR: Calcium absorption and achlorhydria. N Engl J Med 1985, 313:70-73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Heaney RP, Smith KT, Recker RR, Hinders SM: Meal effects on calcium absorption. Am J Clin Nutr 1989, 49:372-376.PubMedGoogle ... Chonan O, Takahashi R, Yasui H, Watanuki M: Effect of L-lactic acid on calcium absorption in rats fed omeprazole. J Nutr Sci ... Knox TA, Kassarjian Z, Dawson-Hughes B, et al.: Calcium absorption in elderly subjects on high- and low-fiber diets: effect of ...
The best calcium-rich foods | BBC Good Food
... how much calcium you should be eating each day and the best non-dairy and vegan sources of this vital mineral. ... Discover which foods are high in calcium, how much calcium you should be eating each day and the best non-dairy and vegan ... soya milk or bread with added calcium. Check the label on the packet to see how much calcium has been added to each portion. ... 200ml soya milk (calcium fortified). 240mg. Drink milk on its own or paired with low-sugar cereal or muesli. Milk-based drinks ...
Calcium - Wikipedia
For example, calcium and phosphorus are supplemented in foods through the addition of calcium lactate, calcium diphosphate, and ... Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine ... All four dihalides of calcium are known. Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and calcium sulfate (CaSO4) are particularly abundant ... Main article: Calcium in biology. Age-adjusted daily calcium recommendations (from U.S. Institute of Medicine RDAs) Age ...
Its loaded with calcium, a mineral vital for building strong bones and teeth. ... Although its best to get the calcium you need through a calcium-rich diet, sometimes it may not be possible. Discuss calcium ... Working Calcium Into Your Diet. Looking for ways to up your dietary calcium intake? Here are some easy ones:. *Put some cheddar ... Why Do I Need Calcium?. Bones grow rapidly during adolescence, and teens need enough calcium to build strong bones and fight ...
But most kids and teens dont get enough calcium. Heres how to make sure that yours do. ... Milk and other calcium-rich foods help build strong, healthy bones. ... What Is Calcium? Calcium is a nutrient that builds strong bones. It helps the body in lots of other ways too. Calcium keeps the ... Where Does Calcium Come From?. Calcium is found in food. Some foods are very high in calcium. Dairy foods like these are among ...
Calcium sulfate - Wikipedia
Calcium sulfate (or calcium sulphate) is the inorganic compound with the formula CaSO4 and related hydrates. In the form of γ- ... Another calcium compound, calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2, portlandite) also exhibits a retrograde solubility for the same ... The main use of calcium sulfate is to produce plaster of Paris and stucco. These applications exploit the fact that calcium ... In the production of phosphoric acid from phosphate rock, calcium phosphate is treated with sulfuric acid and calcium sulfate ...
Calcium | MedlinePlus
Learn what foods are high in calcium and how much calcium you need in a healthy diet. ... Calcium Blood Test (National Library of Medicine) Also in Spanish * Calcium in Urine Test (National Library of Medicine) Also ... Calcium supplements (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish * Calcium, vitamin D, and your bones (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in ... Calcium has many important jobs. The body stores more than 99 percent of its calcium in the bones and teeth to help make and ...
Calcium - opinions
Is this calcium the type of calcium that is good for my health & will reduce SCA? Reply ﹗ Alert a moderator This opinion has ... Opinions on: Low calcium may raise cardiac arrest risk by twofold. Calcium. Posted by jai cee on 9 Oct 2017 at 2:10 am I live ... Low Blood Calcium And Sudden Cardiac Arrest Posted by Denis OMalley on 9 Oct 2017 at 8:56 pm This is another article worth ... Cell Calcium is critical and highly regulated by the cells. It is also used all over the body for many reasons, including ...
Calcium Physiology - Google Books
Biol biological Biophys bone disease bone resorption Bronner calcitonin calcium concentration calcium metabolism calcium ... serum calcium skeletal sodium stimulation studies suggested syndrome therapy tion tissue tubule tumor uptake urinary calcium ... Calcium Physiology: An Advanced Treatise. C. L. Comar,Felix Bronner. Limited preview - 2014. ... 2....https://books.google.com/books/about/Calcium_Physiology.html?id=H_lqAAAAMAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareCalcium Physiology. ...
Philadelphia & Calcium Primary Libraries
Calcium - healthfinder.gov
Calcium: Quick Facts Calcium is a mineral found in many foods. The body needs calcium to maintain strong bones and to carry out ... Calcium: Shopping List Use this list to shop for calcium-rich food to help build strong bones and prevent bone loss. ... Get Enough Calcium Your body needs calcium to build strong bones. Many people are at risk for osteoporosis, or weak bones, ... Calcium and Vitamin D: Important at Every Age Calcium and vitamin D help build and maintain strong bones. Learn more about ...
calcium oxide - Wiktionary
calcium hydroxide | Infoplease
It is prepared by reacting calcium oxide (lime) with water, a process called slaking, and is also known as hydrated lime or ... calcium hydroxide. calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH) 2, colorless crystal or white powder. It is prepared by reacting calcium oxide ( ... Because calcium hydroxide readily reacts with carbon dioxide, CO 2, to form calcium carbonate, a mixture of gases can be tested ... Limewater is a clear, saturated water solution of calcium hydroxide. It is used in medicine to treat acid burns and as an ...
calcium oxide | Infoplease
calcium oxide. calcium oxide, chemical compound, CaO, a colorless, cubic crystalline or white amorphous substance. It is also ... Calcium oxide is a basic anhydride, reacting with water to form calcium hydroxide during the reaction (slaking) much heat is ... calcium carbide, and calcium cyanamide in water softeners and in mortars and cements. In agriculture it is used for treating ... Calcium oxide is widely used in industry, e.g., in making porcelain and glass in purifying sugar in preparing bleaching powder ...
... so that when calcium in is equal or greater than calcium out, your balance stays in the black. But when calcium loss exceeds ... When our dietary calcium levels are too low, we pull calcium from the bones to keep the blood levels close to constant. As long ... Calcium content of foods is remarkably stable. Calcium does not degrade or leech out of foods as they are stored, and there ... Because dairy calcium is absorbed at about 30% of total calcium (with most vegetable sources close behind in the low-to-mid-20 ...
CONSIDERING CALCIUM - The Washington Post
Old antacid pills have suddenly become new successful calcium pills. Calcium fortification of food and direct calcium ... Thus, calcium is actually lost from the body.. When a woman reaches menopause, calcium begins to be lost much more rapidly ... If you do, calcium carbonate or citrate (500 to 1,000 milligrams of calcium per day) are the best sources. ... To be sure, if your diet is deficient in calcium it will aggravate the situation. Thus, a dietary calcium deficiency in a post- ...
Calcium Protein Signaling | SpringerLink
The Sixth International Symposium on Calcium-Binding Proteins in Health and Disease was held in Nagoya, Japan, July 24-28, 1988 ... Calcium Signaling in Molecular Cell Biology. * Roles of Calcium in the Regulation of Tyrosine Hydroxylase ... Cytoskeleton and Calcium Signaling. * Calcium and Polyphosphoinositide Regulation of Actin Network Structure by Gelsolin ... Molecular Regulation of Calcium Channels. * Molecular Properties of Voltage-Sensitive Calcium Channels ...
calcium | Channels - McGill University
Taking a calcium supplement of up to 1,000 mg per day can help women live longer, according to a study whose lead author was ... Calcium supplements linked to longer lifespans in women Published: 22May2013 ... McGill research team studies how calcium compounds accumulate in the arteries Published: 31Jan2018 ... UAlberta and McGill scientists uncover a hidden calcium cholesterol connection Published: 27Jul2017 ...
calcium oxide (CHEBI:31344)
Calcium - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus
Health Information on Calcium: MedlinePlus Multiple Languages Collection ... Calcium and Vitamin D: Important at Every Age - English HTML Calcium and Vitamin D: Important at Every Age - español (Spanish) ... Calcium and Vitamin D: Important at Every Age - English HTML Calcium and Vitamin D: Important at Every Age - 简体中文 (Chinese, ... Calcium: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English Calcio: Tema de salud de MedlinePlus - español (Spanish) ...
Calcium Carbonate | Encyclopedia.com
calcium carbonate, CaCO3, white chemical compound that is the most common nonsiliceous mineral. It occurs in two crystal forms ... Calcium carbonate decomposes to calcium oxide in the heat of the furnace, and the calcium oxide reacts with the silica to form ... the calcium carbonate decomposes to calcium oxide in the heat of the furnace, and the calcium oxide reacts with the silica to ... Calcium carbonate. Calcium carbonate, CaCO3, is one of the most common compounds on Earth, making up about 7% of Earths crust ...
Grow calcium in your garden with collards, kale, and parsley. Suggestions are given for including these crops in your meals. ... Did you know that there is more calcium in a cup of collards than there is in a cup of milk? Parsley has just as much calcium ... Kale is a good producer of calcium, also. You can grow these things right in your garden for much of the year. Of course, most ... Tags: collards, kale, parsley, companion planting, growing calcium, solar food drying, Cindy Conner, ...
calcium | FactMonster
1.55 at 20°C; valence +2. Calcium is a malleable, ductile, silver-white, relatively soft metal with ... Today, calcium metal is usually prepared by electrolysis of fused calcium chloride to which a little calcium fluoride has been ... Calcium bicarbonate causes temporary hardness in water; calcium sulfate causes permanent hardness. Generally, calcium compounds ... Calcium carbide reacts with water to form acetylene gas; it is also used to prepare calcium cyanamide, which is used as a ...
Calcium - SourceWatch
Pure calcium does not occur in nature; instead, calcium binds with other elements to form calcium compounds like limestone, ... Calcium carbonate is the basis of cement. In the Environment. Calcium is an important nutrient in the soil as plants need it ... WebElements: Calcium, Accessed August 30, 2010. *↑ John E. Sawyer, "Soil calcium:magnesium ratios", Integrated Crop Management ... Humans have more calcium in their bodies than any other mineral, and over 99 percent of the bodys calcium is stored in the ...
The calcium topic is huge and complex; let me try to make it concise and simple. ... Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the human body and one of the most important. ... But low dietary calcium is only one factor in the huge and complex topic of calcium bio-availability from foods, calcium ... such as calcium aspartate or calcium citrate, are used. Some clinical studies need to be done to see which calcium supplements ...
When you take calcium supplements, your blood calcium level goes up over the following four to six hours and goes up to the top ... Excessive calcium can cause harm 06/02/2010 1:31:02 PM PDT · by James C. Bennett · 9 replies · 656+ views The Times of India ^ ... To Get Calcium, Navajos Burn Juniper Branches To Eat The Ash. 08/21/2017 9:30:09 PM PDT · by nickcarraway · 23 replies NPR ^ , ... Calcium supplements may raise risk of heart attack. 07/30/2010 4:24:36 AM PDT · by FBD · 33 replies · 1+ views Reuters ^ , Thu ...
Calcium | Ohioline
Why is calcium important?. Calcium is needed for achieving optimal bone health. Calcium also keeps the heart pumping, muscles ... What is calcium?. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body, making up 1 to 2 percent of your body weight. Ninety-nine ... How much calcium should we consume?. Our bodies absorption of calcium from food and drink varies across time and people. Age, ... A calcium rich food will include "calcium" within its list of vitamins and minerals. The label will show the percentage of ...
The 15-minute Calcium Reactor
I do not intend this document to teach you how to use a calcium reactor. From here on out all of the standard reactor usage ... I prefer to premix the aquarium water and the CO2 using a bubble counter designed for that purpose, so my calcium reactors need ... My FishRoom friend Rod Andrews told me about a single-pass (non-recirculating) calcium reactor that he made from one of those ... Premixing the CO2 and aquarium water lowers the pH of the mixture to about 5.8, and ensures that calcium carbonate is highly ...
Which two mechanisms control calcium?
Calcium is controlled by 2 mechanisms. These are (1) controlling or major regulatory hormones and (2) influencing hormones. ... In the kidney, vitamin D and PTH stimulate the activity of the epithelial calcium channel and the calcium-binding protein (ie, ... encoded search term (Which two mechanisms control calcium?) and Which two mechanisms control calcium? What to Read Next on ... Which two mechanisms control calcium?. Updated: Oct 03, 2018 * Author: Mahendra Agraharkar, MD, MBBS, FACP, FASN; Chief Editor ...
Calcium: Shopping list - healthfinder.gov
Share these tips to help people shop for foods with calcium. ... Everyone needs calcium to build strong bones, especially women ... Calcium: Shopping list Many Americans dont get enough calcium. Your body needs calcium to build strong bones and help prevent ... Foods with Added Calcium. Check the Nutrition Facts label to make sure these foods have 10% or more DV of calcium:. *Breakfast ... The best way to get enough calcium is to add dairy products and dark green vegetables to your diet. Foods with added calcium ...
PhosphateMagnesiumIonsDeficiencyBoneSupplementsVitaminBonesBody'sLevels of calciumAmount of calciumMineralSupplemental calciumUrineIntakeEnough calciumMilligramsMilkSources of calciumOxideAbsorption of CalciumSupplementTofuCompoundsStrong bonesHydroxideBones and teethNutrientsCitrateSupplementationFoodsAnhydrous2018Bone Health1,000LimestoneCarbon dioxideContain calciumElemental calciumBlood CalciumBroccoliGypsumSardinesAbsorb calciumRich in calciumMineralsDietPhosphorusCrystallineConsumeCOMPOUNDTeeth1,300Sulfate causes permanent hardnessAlkaline earthCarbideKaleParathyroid glandsFracturesReactsAntacidHttpsNutrient
- Calcium and vitamin D your intestines absorb. (billingsclinic.com)
- Vitamin D and these hormones help control the amount of calcium in the body. (billingsclinic.com)
- Bottles of calcium pills, either as an isolated mineral or combined with other minerals or vitamin D, line store shelves with a dazzling array of choices. (perfectformuladiet.com)
- When blood calcium levels get low ( hypocalcemia ), the bones release calcium to bring it back to a good blood level. (billingsclinic.com)
- When blood calcium levels get high ( hypercalcemia ), the extra calcium is stored in the bones or passed out of the body in urine and stool. (billingsclinic.com)
- Look for problems that cause your bones to lose calcium. (billingsclinic.com)
Levels of calcium1
- Most people who have low or high levels of calcium do not have any symptoms. (billingsclinic.com)
Amount of calcium4
- A test for calcium in urine is a 24-hour test that checks the amount of calcium that is passed from the body in the urine. (billingsclinic.com)
- They also control the amount of calcium you absorb from food and the amount passed from the body in urine. (billingsclinic.com)
- It is important to get the right amount of calcium in your food because the body loses calcium every day. (billingsclinic.com)
- Test results may be affected by the amount of calcium in the diet. (billingsclinic.com)
- Calcium is the most common mineral in the body and one of the most important. (billingsclinic.com)
- Whole foods are dense with calcium because plants need this mineral to survive. (perfectformuladiet.com)
- Nowhere in the constant repetitive message of "calcium, calcium, calcium" will you hear about the hazards of consuming too much of this mineral. (perfectformuladiet.com)
- High calcium levels in the urine can cause kidney stones. (billingsclinic.com)
- See whether a kidney stone has developed because of high amounts of calcium in the urine. (billingsclinic.com)
- Urine calcium is measured in a sample taken from all the urine made in a 24-hour period. (billingsclinic.com)
- In some cases, calcium in the urine may be high for other reasons. (billingsclinic.com)
- Most people should be able to get enough calcium through healthy eating. (bbcgoodfood.com)
- Bones grow rapidly during adolescence, and teens need enough calcium to build strong bones and fight bone loss later in life. (kidshealth.org)
- If people aren't getting enough calcium in their diet, the body takes calcium from the bones to ensure normal cell function, which can lead to weakened bones. (kidshealth.org)
- If you got enough calcium and physical activity when you were a kid and continue to do so as a teen, you'll enter your adult years with the strongest bones possible. (kidshealth.org)
- It can be a challenge to get enough calcium in a vegetarian diet that does not include dairy, but you can enjoy good sources of calcium such as dark green, leafy vegetables, broccoli, chickpeas, and calcium-fortified products, including orange juice, soy and rice drinks, and cereals. (kidshealth.org)
- Children who get enough calcium start their adult lives with the strongest bones possible. (kidshealth.org)
- How Can I Help My Child Get Enough Calcium? (kidshealth.org)
- Kids who can't eat dairy may not get enough calcium. (kidshealth.org)
- Dairy Dilemma: Are You Getting Enough Calcium? (medlineplus.gov)
- Getting enough calcium each day will help prevent osteoporosis. (healthfinder.gov)
- But because roughly 90% of American girls and women and almost three-quarters of American men do not get enough calcium in their diet, supplements -- which derive calcium from sources as diverse as oyster shells and limestone deposits -- have become big business in recent years. (latimes.com)
- If there is not enough calcium in the diet to maintain sufficient amounts of calcium in the blood, the parathyroid glands will be activated to release more parathyroid hormone (PTH), which will then draw calcium out of the bones as well as increase intestinal absorption of available calcium. (healthy.net)
- When we don't consume enough calcium, it is salvaged from bones. (osu.edu)
- While calcium consumption is a concern across all U.S. populations, there are certain groups at high risk for not obtaining enough calcium in their diets. (osu.edu)
- Many Americans don't get enough calcium. (healthfinder.gov)
- The best way to get enough calcium is to add dairy products and dark green vegetables to your diet. (healthfinder.gov)
- The National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence (Nice) also recommends them for women who need treatment for osteoporosis, unless they already get enough calcium from their diet. (telegraph.co.uk)
- Supplementation may be warranted if you are unable to get enough calcium in your diet, but it needs to be done with consideration. (telegraph.co.uk)
- Here's why we should get enough calcium -- and all the unexpected ways to get enough of it. (huffingtonpost.com)
- According to one survey, only 16 percent of females ages 20 to 29 females get enough calcium . (huffingtonpost.com)
- Getting enough calcium during pregnancy might help keep moms-to-be and their babies healthy. (foxnews.com)
- Throughout our teenage years whilst our bones continue to grow and strengthen, we need to ensure we are consuming enough calcium to support us in later life when we suffer bone loss. (waitrose.com)
- It is essential that children get enough calcium daily to ensure their bones grow bigger and stronger. (waitrose.com)
- If getting enough calcium is a concern for you, calcium carbonate and calcium citrate are likely your best options. (healthline.com)
- Some adolescent girls may not get quite enough calcium, and some elderly may fall short of the necessary amounts of calcium and vitamin D. These individuals should increase their intake of foods containing these nutrients. (cnn.com)
- Calcium is measured in milligrams (mg). (kidshealth.org)
- 3.2 ounces of sardines contains more than 340 milligrams of calcium, about 2.5 times that of 4 ounces of cow's milk. (whfoods.com)
- 4 ounces of tofu, 2 TBS of sesame seeds, 1.5 cups of steamed collard greens, and 4 ounces of scallops provide you with 1,100 milligrams of calcium, or 110% DV. (whfoods.com)
- Most adults aged 19-50 require 1,000 milligrams (mg) of calcium per day, according to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the United States. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- There is more than 100 milligrams of calcium in a plate of baked beans. (pcrm.org)
- If you are looking for a very concentrated calcium source, calcium-fortified orange or apple juices contain 300 milligrams or more of calcium per cup in a highly absorbable form. (pcrm.org)
- Adults should consume about 1,000 milligrams of calcium per day , (which you can get easily in 24 hours from one glass of skim milk, one thick slice of cheddar cheese and one cup of plain yogurt), yet most Americans still miss the mark. (huffingtonpost.com)
- 232 milligrams (23 percent DV) in 1/2 can with bones (which provides the calcium ! (huffingtonpost.com)
- The researchers gave participants chewable tablets containing 1,500 daily milligrams of calcium carbonate or a placebo that looked and tasted like the real thing. (foxnews.com)
- In general, both men and women need about 1,000 milligrams (mg) of calcium per day. (healthline.com)
- The agency's calcium recommendations vary based on age and pregnancy, and range from 700 to 1,300 milligrams per day. (cnn.com)
- One cup of whole milk, for instance, contains around 300 milligrams of calcium. (cnn.com)
- Make smoothies with fresh fruit and low-fat milk or calcium-fortified soy or almond milk. (kidshealth.org)
- One of the reasons for tofu's rich calcium content involves the tofu production process itself since calcium is often used to help cause precipitation of the soy milk (i.e., conversion of the soy milk into a more solid form). (whfoods.com)
- Did you know that there is more calcium in a cup of collards than there is in a cup of milk? (motherearthnews.com)
- Lactose helps calcium absorption, and because of this as well as the protein-fat combination, the calcium content of milk is a reliable source of easily assimilated calcium. (healthy.net)
- Drinking too much milk (several pints a day) or having an excessive amount of antacid medicines containing calcium can tip the balance. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- The main sources of calcium in the diet are milk, dairy products and other calcium-rich foods such as fish with edible bones (e.g sardines and anchovies), beans, tofu, spinach, watercress and broccoli. (news-medical.net)
- Usually, calcium requirements can be met in the diet, for example from milk and dairy products, as well as green leafy vegetables, nuts and sardines. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- Good sources of calcium include milk and dairy foods, fortified dairy food alternatives, e.g. soya drink, and green leafy vegetables. (bbc.co.uk)
- Milk, cheese, and yogurt are the best sources of calcium, but many nondairy foods are also rich in the mineral. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Chia seeds and soy milk are plant-based sources of calcium. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Without a steady supply of this important mineral from foods like fortified orange juice, salmon, kale, nonfat milk, cheese, and tofu, your babies will pull calcium from your body, which could leave your bones deprived. (webmd.com)
- Calcium is present in milk and dairy products (cheese and yoghurt), leafy green vegetables (but not spinach), bread and foods containing white or brown flour, nuts, sesame seeds, tofu, pulses, fortified soya drinks and tap water in hard water areas. (vegsoc.org)
- What has more calcium than milk, eight-times more omega 3s than salmon and has more antioxidants than berries? (beliefnet.com)
- Campaigns pushing milk rich in calcium as the answer to strong bones are notorious. (unh.edu)
- The main calcium contenders are milk, yogurt and cheese, but dairy shouldn't be the only dietary pit stop to fill up on this nutrient. (huffingtonpost.com)
- Her doctor said she should eat more foods that are high in calcium , such as milk and cheese. (merriam-webster.com)
- Milk and dairy products are major sources of calcium. (waitrose.com)
- Milk is one of the best providers of calcium in the diet - semi-skimmed and skimmed milk contain similar amounts of calcium to whole milk. (waitrose.com)
- A 200ml glass of milk provides a six-year-old child with 55 per cent of the calcium he or she needs every day. (waitrose.com)
- So, for example, a cup of calcium-fortified soy milk containing 200 mg calcium per serving would have 20% of the daily value (DV) for calcium. (healthcastle.com)
- Using the same example, the cup of calcium-fortified soy milk containing 200 mg calcium would be labeled as containing 18% DV. (healthcastle.com)
Sources of calcium5
- gypsum , anhydrite , fluorite , and apatite are also sources of calcium. (wikipedia.org)
- What are non-dairy sources of calcium? (osu.edu)
- In this article, we describe 18 plant-based sources of calcium. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Cheeses and yogurts are also good sources of calcium and The Dairy Council recommends three dairy products a day to meet the daily requirement. (waitrose.com)
- But many other foods are good sources of calcium , too. (healthline.com)
- An alkaline earth metal , calcium is a reactive metal that forms a dark oxide-nitride layer when exposed to air. (wikipedia.org)
- Pure calcium was isolated in 1808 via electrolysis of its oxide by Humphry Davy , who named the element. (wikipedia.org)
- It is prepared by reacting calcium oxide (lime) with water, a process called slaking, and is also known as hydrated lime or slaked lime. (infoplease.com)
- It is prepared by heating calcium carbonate (e.g., limestone ) in a special lime kiln to about 500°C to 600°C, decomposing it into the oxide and carbon dioxide. (infoplease.com)
- Calcium oxide is widely used in industry, e.g., in making porcelain and glass in purifying sugar in preparing bleaching powder , calcium carbide, and calcium cyanamide in water softeners and in mortars and cements. (infoplease.com)
- Calcium oxide is a basic anhydride, reacting with water to form calcium hydroxide during the reaction (slaking) much heat is given off and the solid nearly doubles its volume. (infoplease.com)
- When heated, it decomposes into calcium oxide (CaO) and carbon dioxide gas (CO 2 ). (encyclopedia.com)
- Calcium carbonate decomposes to calcium oxide in the heat of the furnace, and the calcium oxide reacts with the silica to form calcium silicates (slag), which float on the molten iron and can be skimmed off. (encyclopedia.com)
- Although lime (calcium oxide) has been known since ancient times, elemental calcium was first isolated by Sir Humphry Davy in 1808. (factmonster.com)
- Calcium hydroxide , also called slaked lime, Ca(OH) 2 , is obtained by the action of water on calcium oxide. (britannica.com)
- If calcium carbonate is heated strongly, it breaks down to form calcium oxide and carbon dioxide. (bbc.co.uk)
- Calcium oxide is yellow when hot, but white when cold. (bbc.co.uk)
- Calcium oxide reacts with water to form calcium hydroxide, which is an alkali. (bbc.co.uk)
- It also reacts with the oxygen and nitrogen in the air to form a mixture of calcium oxide and calcium nitride. (wikipedia.org)
Absorption of Calcium2
- If that's not possible, health care providers might suggest a calcium supplement. (kidshealth.org)
- People who do not eat enough high-calcium foods should take a calcium supplement. (medlineplus.gov)
- Consider how much calcium you are consuming in your diet - main sources include dairy products and calcium-fortified foods - before deciding how much to supplement. (breastcancer.org)
- Taking a calcium supplement of up to 1,000 mg per day can help women live longer, according to a study whose lead author was Lisa Langsetmo, a Ph.D. Research Associate at McGill University, and. (mcgill.ca)
- In late June, U.S. marshals, operating at the behest of the Food and Drug Administration, seized about $2.6 million worth of Coral Calcium Supreme, a dietary supplement hawked by entrepreneurs Kevin Trudeau and Robert Barefoot in paid advertising that aired until midsummer on cable channels including Discovery Channel, Bravo and the Comedy Channel. (latimes.com)
- The Federal Trade Commission also has warned at least 18 firms that operate Web sites selling coral calcium that they should stop making unsubstantiated health claims for the popular calcium supplement or they too will be hauled into court. (latimes.com)
- Although other dietary supplement companies offer coral calcium, the federal actions focused specifically on Coral Calcium Supreme and its makers and distributors. (latimes.com)
- Calls for the FDA and FTC to clamp down on the marketing of Coral Calcium Supreme came from the dietary supplement industry itself. (latimes.com)
- In a letter sent in May to the agencies, the Washington, D.C.-based Council for Responsible Nutrition, a trade group representing the dietary-supplement industry, appealed to the government to "take action against outrageous marketing claims for the dietary supplement product, Coral Calcium. (latimes.com)
- Many doctors do not consider this important absorption issue and prescribe an oyster shell or a dolomite or bone-meal source as a calcium supplement. (healthy.net)
- but if you look down below the 'Supplement Facts' box, in very fine print, all crammed together with any & all of the other ingredients, you will find the forms like Calcium 'CARBONATE' listed. (rense.com)
- Calcium can also be taken as a supplement and may be prescribed to lactating women or growing children, for example, to prevent deficiencies. (news-medical.net)
- However, you should check with your doctor or midwife if it's necessary for you to take a calcium supplement during your pregnancy. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- The majority of people do not need to take a calcium supplement," she said. (bbc.co.uk)
- If you get all of the calcium that you need from your diet then a supplement will not be necessary," she said. (telegraph.co.uk)
- Walgreens also offers calcium combined with a dietary fiber supplement, as well as calcium softchews, flavored with caramel or chocolate, that are ideal for people who find it difficult to swallow pills. (walgreens.com)
- A calcium supplement can help. (waitrose.com)
- So, even if you take a daily supplement, you can still do your body a favor by consuming more calcium-rich foods like cheese, almonds, oranges, and broccoli and related green veggies like kale. (womansday.com)
- So calcium phosphate may be a more appropriate supplement in someone with phosphate deficiency. (healthline.com)
- The two most common supplement forms of calcium are calcium carbonate and calcium citrate. (healthcastle.com)
- Calcium-enriched foods such as breakfast cereals, fruit juices, soy and rice drinks, and tofu. (medlineplus.gov)
- Tofu tends to be an excellent source of calcium. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- To receive the benefits of the calcium, read labeling carefully and only select tofu that contains calcium salt , which manufacturers use as a coagulant. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- If you prefer chickpeas, tofu, or other bean or bean products, you will find plenty of calcium there, as well. (pcrm.org)
- Tofu made with calcium sulfate will contain more calcium than nigari-style tofu. (healthcastle.com)
- Some calcium compounds were known to the ancients, though their chemistry was unknown until the seventeenth century. (wikipedia.org)
- Calcium compounds are widely used in many industries: in foods and pharmaceuticals for calcium supplementation, in the paper industry as bleaches, as components in cement and electrical insulators, and in the manufacture of soaps. (wikipedia.org)
- Hence, calcium is almost always divalent in its compounds, which are usually ionic . (wikipedia.org)
- Calcium carbonate, CaCO 3 , is one of the most common compounds on Earth , making up about 7% of Earth ' s crust. (encyclopedia.com)
- Generally, calcium compounds show an orange or yellow-red color when held in the Bunsen burner flame. (factmonster.com)
- instead, calcium binds with other elements to form calcium compounds like limestone, gypsum, fluorite, and calcium carbonate (CaCO3). (sourcewatch.org)
- important of these compounds is calcium carbide, CaC 2 . (britannica.com)
- When released to air, sodium and calcium hypochlorite are broken down by sunlight and compounds commonly found in the air. (cdc.gov)
- When one of these calcium compounds is digested, it returns to its elemental state, and your body reaps the benefits. (healthline.com)
- Calcium is a nutrient that builds strong bones . (kidshealth.org)
- Without it, calcium can't get where it needs to go to build strong bones. (kidshealth.org)
- Use this list to shop for calcium-rich food to help build strong bones and prevent bone loss. (healthfinder.gov)
- Your body needs calcium to build strong bones. (healthfinder.gov)
- The body needs calcium to maintain strong bones and to carry out many important functions. (healthfinder.gov)
- It's no secret that calcium is vital for strong bones and teeth , but it goes beyond that. (huffingtonpost.com)
- Calcium is essential for building strong bones and teeth. (waitrose.com)
- Calcium does more than build strong bones and healthy teeth . (healthline.com)
- calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH) 2 , colorless crystal or white powder. (infoplease.com)
- Limewater is a clear, saturated water solution of calcium hydroxide. (infoplease.com)
- Because calcium hydroxide readily reacts with carbon dioxide, CO 2 , to form calcium carbonate, a mixture of gases can be tested for the presence of CO 2 by shaking it with limewater in a clear container if CO 2 is present, a cloudy calcium carbonate precipitate will form. (infoplease.com)
- 2SiO 2 · 3H 2 O) and calcium hydroxide (Ca[OH] 2 ). (britannica.com)
- a saturated water solution of calcium hydroxide into the matrix of a calcium-based stone (such as limestone or marble). (britannica.com)
- Once the calcium hydroxide is deposited, its eventual interaction with atmospheric carbon dioxide forms a network of calcium carbonate, similar to that which makes up the stone itself. (britannica.com)
- treated with slaked lime (calcium hydroxide), is made into a thick paste. (britannica.com)
- Colourless when pure (though technical grades are typically grayish brown), this solid decomposes in water, forming flammable acetylene gas and calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH) 2 . (britannica.com)
- For your exam, you need to know how calcium hydroxide is obtained from calcium carbonate. (bbc.co.uk)
Bones and teeth10
- The body stores more than 99 percent of its calcium in the bones and teeth to help make and keep them strong. (medlineplus.gov)
- At any given time, about 99% of our total body calcium stores are found in bones and teeth. (whfoods.com)
- Calcium is needed for healthy bones and teeth, and to make your heart work properly. (vegsoc.org)
- 99% of calcium is deposited in bones and teeth, constantly being withdrawn and re-deposited at controlled rates. (vegsoc.org)
- Approximately ninety nine percent of the body's calcium reserve is stored in our bones and teeth to support their structure and function. (unh.edu)
- Most of us know that our bones and teeth are made primarily of calcium. (healthline.com)
- Ninety-nine percent of it is stored within our bones and teeth, with 1% circulating as serum calcium in the blood. (healthcastle.com)
- The metabolism of calcium in the body is very tightly regulated, and the body uses the bones and teeth as both the source and the reserve of calcium to maintain serum calcium levels. (healthcastle.com)
- Calcium is important in the maintenance of healthy bones and teeth, as many of us know, but it is also involved in ensuring proper muscle function, nerve transmission, cellular signaling, vascular contraction and dilation, and hormone secretion. (healthcastle.com)
- Phosphorus is needed alongside calcium in the maintenance of healthy bones and teeth. (healthcastle.com)
- While calcium is the most critical nutrient to skeletal health, other nutrients provide important support to help absorb and use calcium in the bones. (whfoods.com)
- A healthy balanced diet will provide all the nutrients, including calcium, that they need. (bbc.co.uk)
- Recent Examples on the Web Kale, spinach, and Swiss chard contain essential prenatal nutrients like calcium , iron, and folate (which also helps protect against birth defects), not to mention tons of vital daily dietary fiber, says Williams. (merriam-webster.com)
- Calcium carbonate, calcium citrate. (breastcancer.org)
- This was taken through two tablets of calcium citrate before breakfast and three in the evening. (www.nhs.uk)
- This is just a fraction below calcium carbonate ( 40 percent ), but well above calcium citrate (21 percent), calcium lactate (13 percent), and calcium gluconate (9 percent). (healthline.com)
- There is a difference: calcium citrate - such as in Citracal and Solgar - is the "acidic" form and can therefore be taken on an empty stomach, whereas calcium carbonate - such as in Tums and Caltrate - is the "alkaline" form, which should be taken with a meal. (healthcastle.com)
- Calcium fortification of food and direct calcium supplementation in tablet form have become a multimillion-dollar business. (washingtonpost.com)
- It brings to light a potentially serious adverse effect associated with calcium supplementation. (www.nhs.uk)
- The authors had already published the results of their main trial, which looked at the preventive effects of calcium supplementation on bone density and fracture rates in healthy women after the menopause. (www.nhs.uk)
- The researchers conclude, "Calcium supplementation in healthy postmenopausal women is associated with upward trends in cardiovascular event rates. (www.nhs.uk)
- Effects of calcium supplementation on bone density in healthy children: meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. (abc.net.au)
- For patients who are at risk for heart disease, with multiple risk factors, or a strong family history, perhaps calcium supplementation should not be considered," she said. (go.com)
- Reid and his colleagues analyzed 11 different trials that evaluated the use of calcium supplementation (at least 500 mg/day). (go.com)
- Noting the limitations of the review, Dr. Stephen Richardson, an endocrinologist at NYU Langone Medical Center, said that more research is needed to definitively assess the cardiovascular risk with calcium supplementation. (go.com)
- Which foods contain calcium and how much is in an average portion? (bbcgoodfood.com)
- Calcium-fortified foods. (kidshealth.org)
- Some foods are very high in calcium. (kidshealth.org)
- Because calcium is so important, food companies often add it to cereal, bread, juice, and other kid-friendly foods. (kidshealth.org)
- But preteens and teens may need to add more calcium-rich foods to their diet. (kidshealth.org)
- It is important to get plenty of calcium in the foods you eat. (medlineplus.gov)
- From this very simple description, you can see how calcium-rich foods can play a role in many aspects of your health that extend far beyond the specific area of bone health. (whfoods.com)
- There is still some debate about how much of a problem this is for the average adult, but at this time, most nutrition experts agree that excess dietary calcium is very unlikely, and probably the result of a diet that is largely dependent upon dairy foods. (whfoods.com)
- Contrary to popular belief, you do not need to eat dairy foods to get the calcium you need in your meal plan. (whfoods.com)
- However, if you want to avoid dairy foods altogether, it is definitely possible for you to do so while obtaining all of the calcium you need from other foods. (whfoods.com)
- Of course, most likely you won't be sitting down to a dish of parsley, as you would collards or kale, but just knowing how loaded with calcium it is, maybe you'll be adding it to more foods. (motherearthnews.com)
- Use the Nutrition Facts label to find foods with at least 20% DV (Daily Value) of calcium. (healthfinder.gov)
- Also include foods with less than 20% DV of calcium to help you meet your daily goal. (healthfinder.gov)
- The calcium calculator provides a list of calcium-rich foods and links to bone-healthy recipes. (apple.com)
- It also helps you see which foods are more calcium rich per serving compared to others. (apple.com)
- Plenty of foods are rich in calcium, and many do not contain dairy. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The following foods are rich in calcium and contain no animal-based products. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- If these findings are correct then it calls into question the push to increase the consumption of dairy foods in childhood and the assumption that calcium is the important factor in creating a bigger personal bone bank for the future. (abc.net.au)
- 1. Get calcium from greens, beans, or fortified foods. (pcrm.org)
- Beans are humble foods, and you might not know that they are loaded with calcium. (pcrm.org)
- Sodium (salt) in the foods you eat can greatly increase calcium loss through the kidneys. (pcrm.org)
- Here's a list of foods and beverages filled with calcium (no cows required), along with recipes to help make them an everyday occurrence in a variety of meals. (huffingtonpost.com)
- As our bodies cannot make calcium, we must get it from the foods we eat and drink. (waitrose.com)
- Foods containing 20% or more of the DV is considered to provide a high level of calcium. (healthcastle.com)
- https://www.pr.uni-freiburg.de/pm-en/press-releases-2018/overdosing-on-calcium?s. (innovations-report.com)
- Calcium carbonate deposits can be formed in sea-water when calcium ions dissolved from other minerals react with dissolved carbon dioxide ( carbonic acid , H 2 CO 3 ). (encyclopedia.com)
- They manufactured shells and skeletons of calcium carbonate using the calcium ions and carbon dioxide in the oceans, just as clams, oysters, and corals do today. (encyclopedia.com)
- Said subterfuge regards the amount of actual, usable calcium, called 'Elemental Calcium' (E.Cal. (rense.com)
- 1000mg**, you might logically assume that you are getting 1000mg of usable, Elemental Calcium - but you would be wrong! (rense.com)
- In the experimental group, the women received 1gram (0.03oz) of elemental calcium daily. (www.nhs.uk)
- There is no such thing as a nugget of pure, elemental calcium. (healthline.com)
- Low Blood Calcium And Sudden Cardiac Arrest Posted by Denis OMalley on 9 Oct 2017 at 8:56 pm This is another article worth dismissing as irrelevant, curiously following one, last week, on low Potassium, just as worthless. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Usually, low or high blood calcium is the result of some other underlying medical problem, and either one can cause heart rhythm failures, for one thing. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Maintaining a balanced blood calcium level is essential to life, especially for cardiac function. (healthy.net)
- A normal blood calcium level is about 10 mg. percent-that is, about 10 mg. per 100 milliliters (ml.) of blood. (healthy.net)
- In the blood, calcium is either free or bound to the protein albumin. (encyclopedia.com)
- When blood calcium levels are low, the parathyroid glands are stimulated to produce and release parathyroid hormone. (encyclopedia.com)
- The test may also be useful if the patient has signs of too much blood calcium (hypercalcemia) or low blood calcium (hypocalcemia). (encyclopedia.com)
- Hypercalcemia- High levels of blood calcium. (encyclopedia.com)
- Hypocalcemia- Low levels of blood calcium. (encyclopedia.com)
- Basic blood tests, such as blood calcium levels, do not carry any significant risks, other than slight bruising and the chance of brief dizziness. (encyclopedia.com)
Rich in calcium1
- All calcium carbonate minerals are conglomerations of various-sized crystals of these two forms, packed together in different ways and containing various impurities. (encyclopedia.com)
- Moreover, this labeling slight of hand applies to all minerals, remember, but Calcium is the one most flagrant. (rense.com)
- To start, Calcium and all minerals actually, are inorganic! (rense.com)
- To convert this into strong, solid bone, calcium must be deposited into it, along with other minerals. (waitrose.com)
- To be sure, if your diet is deficient in calcium it will aggravate the situation. (washingtonpost.com)
- If you don't consume dairy for health reasons (e.g., lactose intolerance) or other personal reasons (e.g., dietary restrictions due to religious beliefs), it is still possible to obtain necessary levels of calcium in your diet through non-dairy food sources. (osu.edu)
- Too much calcium can sometimes be a result of taking too much in the diet. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- Calcium needs to be obtained from the diet as it is not manufactured by the body. (news-medical.net)
- Supplementing calcium in the diet when requirements are higher than normal, for example during childhood, pregnancy, breastfeeding or in old age. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- Experts say promoting a balanced diet including calcium would be a better strategy. (bbc.co.uk)
- We should return to seeing calcium as an important component of a balanced diet and not as a low cost panacea to the universal problem of postmenopausal bone loss. (bbc.co.uk)
- Although many people think of calcium in the diet as good protection for their bones, this is not at all the whole story. (pcrm.org)
- To protect your bones you do need calcium in your diet, but you also need to keep calcium in your bones. (pcrm.org)
- Their health clinics treated patients including women falling short on calcium in their diet -- by about 50 percent -- during pregnancy. (foxnews.com)
- You should be able to get all the calcium you need by eating a varied and balanced diet. (waitrose.com)
- The Government's National Diet and Nutrition Survey has identified calcium as generally lacking in the British diet, particularly among young children and women. (waitrose.com)
- These applications exploit the fact that calcium sulfate which has been powdered and calcined forms a moldable paste upon hydration and hardens as crystalline calcium sulfate dihydrate. (wikipedia.org)
- As the disk cooled, the first solids condensed out like frost on a windowpane: crystalline clumps of aluminium and calcium as big as poppy seeds. (merriam-webster.com)
- How much calcium should we be aiming to consume each day? (bbcgoodfood.com)
- Many men and some women consume calcium to lower their blood pressure or to prevent it from getting higher than normal. (washingtonpost.com)
- Humans consume calcium in their diets, particularly in diary products and leafy green vegetables. (sourcewatch.org)
- How much calcium should we consume? (osu.edu)
- Calcium is essential for strong teeth and bones because it gives them strength and rigidity. (bbcgoodfood.com)
- Almost all (98 percent) of our approximately three pounds of calcium is contained in our bones, about 1 percent in our teeth, and the rest in the other tissues and the circulation. (healthy.net)
- Ninety-nine percent of calcium is in teeth and bones. (osu.edu)
- Calcium is an important component of the blood, that helps to form teeth and bones, but is also essential for helping to regulate muscle contraction and transmit impulses along our nerves. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- Almost all of this calcium is found in the skeleton and the rest is found in the teeth, the blood plasma, the body's soft tissues and the extracellular fluid. (news-medical.net)
- You need extra calcium while you're pregnant, because it helps build your babies' teeth and bones -- and keeps your own bones strong. (webmd.com)
Sulfate causes permanent hardness1
- from a completely different source, calcium carbide. (britannica.com)
- material in the production of calcium carbide, CaC 2 , also known simply as carbide, or calcium acetylide. (britannica.com)
- The primary use for calcium carbide is as a source of acetylene for use in the chemical industry. (britannica.com)
- Today, calcium has become the "in" nutrient. (washingtonpost.com)
- Is calcium the new wonder nutrient? (washingtonpost.com)
- Calcium is an important nutrient in the soil as plants need it to grow. (sourcewatch.org)
- Let me tackle both the calcium/other nutrient subject and the dairy issue. (marksdailyapple.com)