Calcium Signaling: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.Calcium Channels: Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.Calcium, Dietary: Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.Calcium Carbonate: Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.Calcium Phosphates: Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.Calcium Isotopes: Stable calcium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element calcium, but differ in atomic weight. Ca-42-44, 46, and 48 are stable calcium isotopes.Calcium Chloride: A salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.Calcium Channels, L-Type: Long-lasting voltage-gated CALCIUM CHANNELS found in both excitable and nonexcitable tissue. They are responsible for normal myocardial and vascular smooth muscle contractility. Five subunits (alpha-1, alpha-2, beta, gamma, and delta) make up the L-type channel. The alpha-1 subunit is the binding site for calcium-based antagonists. Dihydropyridine-based calcium antagonists are used as markers for these binding sites.Calcium Oxalate: The calcium salt of oxalic acid, occurring in the urine as crystals and in certain calculi.Calcium Gluconate: The calcium salt of gluconic acid. The compound has a variety of uses, including its use as a calcium replenisher in hypocalcemic states.Calcium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of calcium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ca atoms with atomic weights 39, 41, 45, 47, 49, and 50 are radioactive calcium isotopes.Calcium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain calcium as an integral part of the molecule.Calcium Channels, N-Type: CALCIUM CHANNELS that are concentrated in neural tissue. Omega toxins inhibit the actions of these channels by altering their voltage dependence.Egtazic Acid: A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.Calcium Channel Agonists: Agents that increase calcium influx into calcium channels of excitable tissues. This causes vasoconstriction in VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE and/or CARDIAC MUSCLE cells as well as stimulation of insulin release from pancreatic islets. Therefore, tissue-selective calcium agonists have the potential to combat cardiac failure and endocrinological disorders. They have been used primarily in experimental studies in cell and tissue culture.Calcimycin: An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.Calcium Hydroxide: A white powder prepared from lime that has many medical and industrial uses. It is in many dental formulations, especially for root canal filling.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Nifedipine: A potent vasodilator agent with calcium antagonistic action. It is a useful anti-anginal agent that also lowers blood pressure.Calcium Sulfate: A calcium salt that is used for a variety of purposes including: building materials, as a desiccant, in dentistry as an impression material, cast, or die, and in medicine for immobilizing casts and as a tablet excipient. It exists in various forms and states of hydration. Plaster of Paris is a mixture of powdered and heat-treated gypsum.Parathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Chelating Agents: Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.Fura-2: A fluorescent calcium chelating agent which is used to study intracellular calcium in tissues.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Calcium Citrate: A colorless crystalline or white powdery organic, tricarboxylic acid occurring in plants, especially citrus fruits, and used as a flavoring agent, as an antioxidant in foods, and as a sequestrating agent. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Thapsigargin: A sesquiterpene lactone found in roots of THAPSIA. It inhibits CA(2+)-TRANSPORTING ATPASE mediated uptake of CALCIUM into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.S100 Calcium Binding Protein G: A calbindin protein found in many mammalian tissues, including the UTERUS, PLACENTA, BONE, PITUITARY GLAND, and KIDNEYS. In intestinal ENTEROCYTES it mediates intracellular calcium transport from apical to basolateral membranes via calcium binding at two EF-HAND MOTIFS. Expression is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel: A tetrameric calcium release channel in the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM membrane of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, acting oppositely to SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES. It is important in skeletal and cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and studied by using RYANODINE. Abnormalities are implicated in CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS and MUSCULAR DISEASES.Calcium Pyrophosphate: An inorganic pyrophosphate which affects calcium metabolism in mammals. Abnormalities in its metabolism occur in some human diseases, notably HYPOPHOSPHATASIA and pseudogout (CHONDROCALCINOSIS).Calcium Metabolism Disorders: Disorders in the processing of calcium in the body: its absorption, transport, storage, and utilization.Verapamil: A calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent.Calcium-Binding Proteins: Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.Dihydropyridines: Pyridine moieties which are partially saturated by the addition of two hydrogen atoms in any position.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Lanthanum: Lanthanum. The prototypical element in the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol La, atomic number 57, and atomic weight 138.91. Lanthanide ion is used in experimental biology as a calcium antagonist; lanthanum oxide improves the optical properties of glass.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Calcium Channels, P-Type: CALCIUM CHANNELS located within the PURKINJE CELLS of the cerebellum. They are involved in stimulation-secretion coupling of neurons.Diltiazem: A benzothiazepine derivative with vasodilating action due to its antagonism of the actions of CALCIUM ion on membrane functions.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Kidney Calculi: Stones in the KIDNEY, usually formed in the urine-collecting area of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS). Their sizes vary and most contains CALCIUM OXALATE.Hypocalcemia: Reduction of the blood calcium below normal. Manifestations include hyperactive deep tendon reflexes, Chvostek's sign, muscle and abdominal cramps, and carpopedal spasm. (Dorland, 27th ed)Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Aequorin: A photoprotein isolated from the bioluminescent jellyfish Aequorea. It emits visible light by an intramolecular reaction when a trace amount of calcium ion is added. The light-emitting moiety in the bioluminescence reaction is believed to be 2-amino-3-benzyl-5-(p-hydroxyphenyl)pyrazine (AF-350).Intracellular Fluid: The fluid inside CELLS.Calmodulin: A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.Receptors, Calcium-Sensing: A class of G-protein-coupled receptors that react to varying extracellular CALCIUM levels. Calcium-sensing receptors in the PARATHYROID GLANDS play an important role in the maintenance of calcium HOMEOSTASIS by regulating the release of PARATHYROID HORMONE. They differ from INTRACELLULAR CALCIUM-SENSING PROTEINS which sense intracellular calcium levels.Calcium Channels, Q-Type: CALCIUM CHANNELS located in the neurons of the brain.Strontium: An element of the alkaline earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sr, atomic number 38, and atomic weight 87.62.Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptors: Intracellular receptors that bind to INOSITOL 1,4,5-TRISPHOSPHATE and play an important role in its intracellular signaling. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors are calcium channels that release CALCIUM in response to increased levels of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in the CYTOPLASM.Hypercalcemia: Abnormally high level of calcium in the blood.Ionophores: Chemical agents that increase the permeability of biological or artificial lipid membranes to specific ions. Most ionophores are relatively small organic molecules that act as mobile carriers within membranes or coalesce to form ion permeable channels across membranes. Many are antibiotics, and many act as uncoupling agents by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.Vitamin D: A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Ionomycin: A divalent calcium ionophore that is widely used as a tool to investigate the role of intracellular calcium in cellular processes.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Calcium Channels, R-Type: CALCIUM CHANNELS located in the neurons of the brain. They are inhibited by the marine snail toxin, omega conotoxin MVIIC.Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate: Intracellular messenger formed by the action of phospholipase C on phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, which is one of the phospholipids that make up the cell membrane. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate is released into the cytoplasm where it releases calcium ions from internal stores within the cell's endoplasmic reticulum. These calcium ions stimulate the activity of B kinase or calmodulin.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Caffeine: A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.omega-Conotoxin GVIA: A neurotoxic peptide, which is a cleavage product (VIa) of the omega-Conotoxin precursor protein contained in venom from the marine snail, CONUS geographus. It is an antagonist of CALCIUM CHANNELS, N-TYPE.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Calcinosis: Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Nitrendipine: A calcium channel blocker with marked vasodilator action. It is an effective antihypertensive agent and differs from other calcium channel blockers in that it does not reduce glomerular filtration rate and is mildly natriuretic, rather than sodium retentive.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Calcitriol: The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Ryanodine: A methylpyrrole-carboxylate from RYANIA that disrupts the RYANODINE RECEPTOR CALCIUM RELEASE CHANNEL to modify CALCIUM release from SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM resulting in alteration of MUSCLE CONTRACTION. It was previously used in INSECTICIDES. It is used experimentally in conjunction with THAPSIGARGIN and other inhibitors of CALCIUM ATPASE uptake of calcium into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Nimodipine: A calcium channel blockader with preferential cerebrovascular activity. It has marked cerebrovascular dilating effects and lowers blood pressure.Ion Transport: The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.Ion Channel Gating: The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.Parathyroid Glands: Two pairs of small oval-shaped glands located in the front and the base of the NECK and adjacent to the two lobes of THYROID GLAND. They secrete PARATHYROID HORMONE that regulates the balance of CALCIUM; PHOSPHORUS; and MAGNESIUM in the body.omega-Conotoxins: A family of structurally related neurotoxic peptides from mollusk venom that inhibit voltage-activated entry of calcium into the presynaptic membrane. They selectively inhibit N-, P-, and Q-type calcium channels.Oxalates: Derivatives of OXALIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are derived from the ethanedioic acid structure.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Isradipine: A potent antagonist of CALCIUM CHANNELS that is highly selective for VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE. It is effective in the treatment of chronic stable angina pectoris, hypertension, and congestive cardiac failure.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Minerals: Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium-Transporting ATPases: Calcium-transporting ATPases that catalyze the active transport of CALCIUM into the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM vesicles from the CYTOPLASM. They are primarily found in MUSCLE CELLS and play a role in the relaxation of MUSCLES.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Calbindins: Calcium-binding proteins that are found in DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES, INTESTINES, BRAIN, and other tissues where they bind, buffer and transport cytoplasmic calcium. Calbindins possess a variable number of EF-HAND MOTIFS which contain calcium-binding sites. Some isoforms are regulated by VITAMIN D.Cholecalciferol: Derivative of 7-dehydroxycholesterol formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. It differs from ERGOCALCIFEROL in having a single bond between C22 and C23 and lacking a methyl group at C24.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Xanthenes: Compounds with three aromatic rings in linear arrangement with an OXYGEN in the center ring.Nicardipine: A potent calcium channel blockader with marked vasodilator action. It has antihypertensive properties and is effective in the treatment of angina and coronary spasms without showing cardiodepressant effects. It has also been used in the treatment of asthma and enhances the action of specific antineoplastic agents.Extracellular Space: Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Aniline CompoundsAmino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Potassium Chloride: A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Calcium Dobesilate: A drug used to reduce hemorrhage in diabetic retinopathy.Mibefradil: A benzimidazoyl-substituted tetraline that selectively binds and inhibits CALCIUM CHANNELS, T-TYPE.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Plasma Membrane Calcium-Transporting ATPases: Calcium-transporting ATPases found on the PLASMA MEMBRANE that catalyze the active transport of CALCIUM from the CYTOPLASM into the extracellular space. They play a role in maintaining a CALCIUM gradient across plasma membrane.Electron Probe Microanalysis: Identification and measurement of ELEMENTS and their location based on the fact that X-RAYS emitted by an element excited by an electron beam have a wavelength characteristic of that element and an intensity related to its concentration. It is performed with an electron microscope fitted with an x-ray spectrometer, in scanning or transmission mode.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Buffers: A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.Electric Conductivity: The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Arsenazo III: Metallochrome indicator that changes color when complexed to the calcium ion under physiological conditions. It is used to measure local calcium ion concentrations in vivo.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2: A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.Terpenes: A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.Aminoquinolines: Quinolines substituted in any position by one or more amino groups.Cations, Divalent: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Ruthenium Red: An inorganic dye used in microscopy for differential staining and as a diagnostic reagent. In research this compound is used to study changes in cytoplasmic concentrations of calcium. Ruthenium red inhibits calcium transport through membrane channels.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Benzofurans: Compounds that contain a BENZENE ring fused to a furan ring.Dantrolene: Skeletal muscle relaxant that acts by interfering with excitation-contraction coupling in the muscle fiber. It is used in spasticity and other neuromuscular abnormalities. Although the mechanism of action is probably not central, dantrolene is usually grouped with the central muscle relaxants.Calcification, Physiologic: Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.Dairy Products: Raw and processed or manufactured milk and milk-derived products. These are usually from cows (bovine) but are also from goats, sheep, reindeer, and water buffalo.Sodium-Calcium Exchanger: An electrogenic ion exchange protein that maintains a steady level of calcium by removing an amount of calcium equal to that which enters the cells. It is widely distributed in most excitable membranes, including the brain and heart.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Edetic Acid: A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Type C Phospholipases: A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC 3.1.4.3), it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Neuronal Calcium-Sensor Proteins: A family of intracellular calcium-sensing proteins found predominately in NEURONS and PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They contain EF HAND MOTIFS and undergo conformational changes upon calcium-binding. Neuronal calcium-sensor proteins interact with other regulatory proteins to mediate physiological responses to a change in intracellular calcium concentration.Urinary Calculi: Low-density crystals or stones in any part of the URINARY TRACT. Their chemical compositions often include CALCIUM OXALATE, magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite), CYSTINE, or URIC ACID.Spider Venoms: Venoms of arthropods of the order Araneida of the ARACHNIDA. The venoms usually contain several protein fractions, including ENZYMES, hemolytic, neurolytic, and other TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL.omega-Agatoxin IVA: A neuropeptide toxin from the venom of the funnel web spider, Agelenopsis aperta. It inhibits CALCIUM CHANNELS, P-TYPE by altering the voltage-dependent gating so that very large depolarizations are needed for channel opening. It also inhibits CALCIUM CHANNELS, Q-TYPE.Gallopamil: Coronary vasodilator that is an analog of iproveratril (VERAPAMIL) with one more methoxy group on the benzene ring.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Calcium Ionophores: Chemical agents that increase the permeability of CELL MEMBRANES to CALCIUM ions.Flunarizine: Flunarizine is a selective calcium entry blocker with calmodulin binding properties and histamine H1 blocking activity. It is effective in the prophylaxis of migraine, occlusive peripheral vascular disease, vertigo of central and peripheral origin, and as an adjuvant in the therapy of epilepsy.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Hyperparathyroidism: A condition of abnormally elevated output of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH) triggering responses that increase blood CALCIUM. It is characterized by HYPERCALCEMIA and BONE RESORPTION, eventually leading to bone diseases. PRIMARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is caused by parathyroid HYPERPLASIA or PARATHYROID NEOPLASMS. SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is increased PTH secretion in response to HYPOCALCEMIA, usually caused by chronic KIDNEY DISEASES.Myocytes, Cardiac: Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Gallic Acid: A colorless or slightly yellow crystalline compound obtained from nutgalls. It is used in photography, pharmaceuticals, and as an analytical reagent.Exocytosis: Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Hypoparathyroidism: A condition caused by a deficiency of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH). It is characterized by HYPOCALCEMIA and hyperphosphatemia. Hypocalcemia leads to TETANY. The acquired form is due to removal or injuries to the PARATHYROID GLANDS. The congenital form is due to mutations of genes, such as TBX1; (see DIGEORGE SYNDROME); CASR encoding CALCIUM-SENSING RECEPTOR; or PTH encoding parathyroid hormone.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Hypercalciuria: Excretion of abnormally high level of CALCIUM in the URINE, greater than 4 mg/kg/day.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Calbindin 1: A calcium-binding protein that mediates calcium HOMEOSTASIS in KIDNEYS, BRAIN, and other tissues. It is found in well-defined populations of NEURONS and is involved in CALCIUM SIGNALING and NEURONAL PLASTICITY. It is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Ions: An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.Carbachol: A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Trifluoperazine: A phenothiazine with actions similar to CHLORPROMAZINE. It is used as an antipsychotic and an antiemetic.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Tetrodotoxin: An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Inositol Phosphates: Phosphoric acid esters of inositol. They include mono- and polyphosphoric acid esters, with the exception of inositol hexaphosphate which is PHYTIC ACID.Presynaptic Terminals: The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.Osteoporosis: Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Neurotransmitter Agents: Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.Lasalocid: Cationic ionophore antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces lasaliensis that, among other effects, dissociates the calcium fluxes in muscle fibers. It is used as a coccidiostat, especially in poultry.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Cadmium: An element with atomic symbol Cd, atomic number 48, and atomic weight 114. It is a metal and ingestion will lead to CADMIUM POISONING.Durapatite: The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.Second Messenger Systems: Systems in which an intracellular signal is generated in response to an intercellular primary messenger such as a hormone or neurotransmitter. They are intermediate signals in cellular processes such as metabolism, secretion, contraction, phototransduction, and cell growth. Examples of second messenger systems are the adenyl cyclase-cyclic AMP system, the phosphatidylinositol diphosphate-inositol triphosphate system, and the cyclic GMP system.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Phosphorus, Dietary: Phosphorus used in foods or obtained from food. This element is a major intracellular component which plays an important role in many biochemical pathways relating to normal physiological functions. High concentrations of dietary phosphorus can cause nephrocalcinosis which is associated with impaired kidney function. Low concentrations of dietary phosphorus cause an increase in calcitriol in the blood and osteoporosis.Oxalic Acid: A strong dicarboxylic acid occurring in many plants and vegetables. It is produced in the body by metabolism of glyoxylic acid or ascorbic acid. It is not metabolized but excreted in the urine. It is used as an analytical reagent and general reducing agent.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Calcitonin: A peptide hormone that lowers calcium concentration in the blood. In humans, it is released by thyroid cells and acts to decrease the formation and absorptive activity of osteoclasts. Its role in regulating plasma calcium is much greater in children and in certain diseases than in normal adults.Nickel: A trace element with the atomic symbol Ni, atomic number 28, and atomic weight 58.69. It is a cofactor of the enzyme UREASE.Nephrolithiasis: Formation of stones in the KIDNEY.EF Hand Motifs: Calcium-binding motifs composed of two helices (E and F) joined by a loop. Calcium is bound by the loop region. These motifs are found in many proteins that are regulated by calcium.Apatites: A group of phosphate minerals that includes ten mineral species and has the general formula X5(YO4)3Z, where X is usually calcium or lead, Y is phosphorus or arsenic, and Z is chlorine, fluorine, or OH-. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Boron Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain boron as an integral part of the molecule.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Calcineurin: A CALCIUM and CALMODULIN-dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase that is composed of the calcineurin A catalytic subunit and the calcineurin B regulatory subunit. Calcineurin has been shown to dephosphorylate a number of phosphoproteins including HISTONES; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAIN; and the regulatory subunits of CAMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. It is involved in the regulation of signal transduction and is the target of an important class of immunophilin-immunosuppressive drug complexes.Indoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.CitratesHydroxycholecalciferols: Hydroxy analogs of vitamin D 3; (CHOLECALCIFEROL); including CALCIFEDIOL; CALCITRIOL; and 24,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D 3.Crystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Stimulation, Chemical: The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.

Further evidence that prostaglandins inhibit the release of noradrenaline from adrenergic nerve terminals by restriction of availability of calcium. (1/62881)

1 Guinea-pig vasa deferentia were continuously superfused after labelling the transmitter stores with [3H](-)-noradrenaline. Release of [3H]-(-)-noradrenaline was induced by transmural nerve stimulation. 2 Prostglandin E2 (14 nM) drastically reduced the release of [3H]-(-)-noradrenaline, while tetraethylammonium (2 mM), rubidium (6 mM), phenoxybenzamine (3 muM) each in the presence or absence of Uptake 1 or 2 blockade, and prolonged pulse duration (from 0.5 to 2.0 ms) all significantly increased the release of [3H]-(-)-noradrenaline per nerve impulse. 3 The inhibitory effect of prostaglandin E2 on evoked release of [3H]-(-)-noradrenaline was significantly reduced by tetraethylammonium, rubidium and prolonged pulse duration, whilst it was actually enhanced by phenoxybenzamine. This indicates that increased release of noradrenaline per nerve impulse does not per se counteract the inhibitory effect of prostaglandin E2. 4 It is concluded that tetraethylammonium, rubidium and prolonged pulse duration counteracted the inhibitory effect of prostaglandin E2 on T3H]-(-)-noradrenaline release by promoting calcium influx during the nerve action potential. The results are consistent with, and add more weight to the view that prostaglandins inhibit the release of noradrenaline by restriction of calcium availability.  (+info)

Abnormal calcium metabolism in normocalcaemic sarcoidosis. (2/62881)

In studies of calcium metabolism in 13 unselected patients with untreated sarcoidosis all were normocalcaemic but five had hypercalcuria. All had normal renal function. Calcium absorption was indexed by a double isotope test. 45Ca hyperabsorption occurred in six patients. Ten kinetic studies were carried out with 47Ca and in six bone turnover was increased. 45Ca absorption correlated well with the calculated bone uptake rate of calcium, and with urine calcium excretion. These results suggest that in sarcoidosis abnormalities in calcium metabolism are fairly common although they rarely result in sustained hypercalcaemia.  (+info)

Automatic activity in depolarized guinea pig ventricular myocardium. Characteristics and mechanisms. (3/62881)

Membrane potential was changed uniformly in segments, 0.7-1.0 mm long, of guinea pig papillary muscles excised from the right ventricle by using extracellular polarizing current pulses applied across two electrically insulated cf preparations superfused with Tyrode's solution at maximum diastolic membrane potentials ranging from-35.2+/-7.5 (threshold) to +4.0+/-9.2 mV. The average maximum dV/dt of RAD ranged from 17.1 to 18.0 V/sec within a membrane potential range of -40 to +20 mV. Raising extracellular Ca2+ concentration [Ca2+]0 from 1.8 to 6.8 mM, or application of isoproterenol (10(-6)g/ml) enhanced the rate of RAD, but lowering [Ca2+]0 to 0.4 mM or exposure to MnCl2 (6 mM) abolished RAD. RAD were enhanced by lowering extracellular K+ concentration [K+]0 from 5.4 to 1.5 mM. RAD were suppressed in 40% of fibers by raising [K+]0 to 15.4 mM, and in all fibers by raising [K+]0 to 40.4 mM. This suppression was due to increased [K+]0 and not to K-induced depolarization because it persisted when membrane potential was held by means of a conditioning hyperpolarizing puled gradually after maximum repolarization. These observations suggest that the development of RAD in depolarized myocardium is associated with a time-dependent decrease in outward current (probably K current) and with increase in the background inward current, presumably flowing through the slow cha-nel carrying Ca or Na ions, or both.  (+info)

Intrarenal site of action of calcium on renin secretion in dogs. (4/62881)

We studied the effects of intrarenal calcium infusion on renin secretion in sodium-depleted dogs in an attempt to elucidate the major site of calcium-induced inhibition of renin release. Both calcium chloride and calcium gluconate reduced renal blood flow and renin secretion while renal perfusion pressure was unchanged. These data indicate that calcium inhibition of renin secretion did not occur primarily at the renal vascular receptor; decreased renal blood flow is usually associated with increased renin secretion. Calcium chloride infusion increased urinary chloride excretion without affecting sodium excretion, and calcium gluconate failed to increase either sodium or chloride excretion. Also, the filtered loads of sodium and chloride were unchanged during the calcium infusions. These results give no indication that calcium inhibited renin secretion by increasing the sodium or chloride load at the macula densa. The effects of intrarenal calcium infusion on renin release were also assessed in dogs with a nonfiltering kidney in which renal tubular mechanisms could not influence renin secretion. The observation that calcium still suppressed renin release in these dogs provides additional evidence that the the major effect of calcium involved nontubular mechanisms. Thus, it appears likely that calcium acted directly on the juxtaglomerular cells to inhibit renin secretion.  (+info)

Structural and functional changes in acute liver injury. (5/62881)

Carbon tetrachloride produces liver cell injury in a variety of animal species. The first structurally recognizable changes occur in the endoplasmic reticulum, with alteration in ribosome-membrane interactions. Later there is an increase in intracellular fat, and the formation of tangled nets of the ergastoplasm. At no time are there changes in mitochondria or single membrane limited bodies in cells with intact plasmalemma, although a relative increase in cell sap may appear. In dead cells (those with plasmalemma discontinuties) crystalline deposits of calcium phosphatase may be noted. Functional changes are related to the endoplasmic reticulum and the plasma membrane. An early decrease in protein synthesis takes place; an accumulation of neutral lipid is related to this change. Later alterations in the ergastoplasmic functions (e.g., mixed function oxidation) occurs. Carbon tetrachloride is not the active agent; rather, a product of its metabolism, probably the CC1, free radical, is. The mechanisms of injury include macromolecular adduction and peroxide propagation. A third possibility includes a cascade effect with the production of secondary and tertiary products, also toxic in nature, with the ability to produce more widespread damage to intracellular structures.  (+info)

Nonbehavioral selection for pawns, mutants of Paramecium aurelia with decreased excitability. (6/62881)

The reversal response in Paramecium aurelia is mediated by calcium which carries the inward current during excitation. Electrophysiological studies indicate that strontium and barium can also carry the inward current. Exposure to high concentrations of barium rapidly paralyzes and later kills wild-type paramecia. Following mutagenesis with nitrosoguanidine, seven mutants which continued to swim in the ;high-barium' solution were selected. All of the mutants show decreased reversal behavior, with phenotypes ranging from extremely non-reversing (;extreme' pawns) to nearly wild-type reversal behavior (;partial' pawns). The mutations fall into three complementation groups, identical to the pwA, pwB, and pwC genes of Kunget al. (1975). All of the pwA and pwB mutants withstand longer exposure to barium, the pwB mutants surviving longer than the pwA mutants. Among mutants of each gene, survival is correlated with loss of reversal behavior. Double mutants (A-B, A-C, B-C), identified in the exautogamous progeny of crosses between ;partial' mutants, exhibited a more extreme non-reversing phenotype than either of their single-mutant (;partial' pawn) parents.---Inability to reverse could be expected from an alteration in the calcium-activated reversal mechanism or in excitation. A normal calcium-activated structure was demonstrated in all pawns by chlorpromazine treatment. In a separate report (Schein, Bennett and Katz 1976) the results of electrophysiological investigations directly demonstrate decreased excitability in all of the mutants, a decrease due to an altered calcium activation. The studies of the genetics, the survival in barium and the electro-physiology of the pawns demonstrate that the pwA and pwB genes have different effects on calcium activation.  (+info)

Dopamine stimulates salivary duct cells in the cockroach Periplaneta americana. (7/62881)

This study examines whether the salivary duct cells of the cockroach Periplaneta americana can be stimulated by the neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin. We have carried out digital Ca2+-imaging experiments using the Ca2+-sensitive dye fura-2 and conventional intracellular recordings from isolated salivary glands. Dopamine evokes a slow, almost tonic, and reversible dose-dependent elevation in [Ca2+]i in the duct cells. Upon stimulation with 10(-)6 mol l-1 dopamine, [Ca2+]i rises from 48+/-4 nmol l-1 to 311+/-43 nmol l-1 (mean +/- s.e.m., N=18) within 200-300 s. The dopamine-induced elevation in [Ca2+]i is absent in Ca2+-free saline and is blocked by 10(-)4 mol l-1 La3+, indicating that dopamine induces an influx of Ca2+ across the basolateral membrane of the duct cells. Stimulation with 10(-)6 mol l-1 dopamine causes the basolateral membrane to depolarize from -67+/-1 to -41+/-2 mV (N=10). This depolarization is also blocked by La3+ and is abolished when Na+ in the bath solution is reduced to 10 mmol l-1. Serotonin affects neither [Ca2+]i nor the basolateral membrane potential of the duct cells. These data indicate that the neurotransmitter dopamine, which has previously been shown to stimulate fluid secretion from the glands, also stimulates the salivary duct cells, suggesting that dopamine controls their most probable function, the modification of primary saliva.  (+info)

PKCdelta acts as a growth and tumor suppressor in rat colonic epithelial cells. (8/62881)

We have analysed the expression of three calcium-independent isoforms of protein kinase C (PKC), PKCdelta, PKCepsilon and PKCzeta, in an in vitro model of colon carcinogenesis consisting of the nontumorigenic rat colonic epithelial cell line D/WT, and a derivative src-transformed line D/src. While PKCzeta and PKCepsilon showed similar protein levels, PKCdelta was markedly decreased in D/src cells when compared to the D/WT line. To assess whether down-regulation of PKCdelta was causally involved in the neoplastic phenotype in D/src cells, we prepared a kinase-defective mutant of PKCdelta. Stable transfection of this sequence caused morphological and growth changes characteristic of partial transformation in D/WT cells. Moreover, to test whether PKCdelta was involved in growth control and transformation in this model, we overexpressed PKCdelta in D/src cells. Transfected cells underwent marked growth and morphological modifications toward the D/WT phenotype. In a late stage in culture, transfected cells ceased to proliferate, rounded up and degenerated into multinucleated, giant-like cells. We conclude that PKCdelta can reverse the transformed phenotype and act as a suppressor of cell growth in D/src cells. Moreover, our data show that downregulation of this isoenzyme of PKC may cooperate in the neoplastic transformation induced by the src oncogene in D/WT cells.  (+info)

*Calcium

For example, calcium and phosphorus are supplemented in foods through the addition of calcium lactate, calcium diphosphate, and ... All four dihalides of calcium are known. Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and calcium sulfate (CaSO4) are particularly abundant ... Calcium is the fifth most abundant element in the human body and the most abundant metal. Calcium ions play a vital role in the ... Calcium can be cut with a knife with effort, although it is still harder than lead. While calcium is a poorer conductor of ...

*Calcium iodate

... can be produced by the anodic oxidation of calcium iodide or by passing chlorine into a hot solution of lime in ... Calcium iodate can also be used as an iodine supplement in chicken feed. Calcium iodate is used in the manufacture of ... Calcium iodates are inorganic compound composed of calcium and iodate anion. Two forms are known, anhydrous Ca(IO3)2 and the ... "Calcium Iodate". chemicalland21.com. Calcium iodate[dead link] from the Online Medical Dictionary. ...

*Calcium phosphide

... (CP) is the inorganic compound with the formula Ca3P2. It is one of several phosphides of calcium, being ... Calcium phosphide is a common impurity in calcium carbide, which may cause the resulting phosphine-contaminated acetylene to ... During the 1920s and 1930s, Charles Kingsford Smith used separate buoyant canisters of calcium carbide and calcium phosphide as ... Other pesticides similar to calcium phosphide are zinc phosphide and aluminium phosphide. Calcium phosphide is also used in ...

*Cell Calcium

... has a 2012 impact factor of 4.327. "Cell Calcium". 2012 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed.). ... Cell Calcium is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Elsevier that covers the field of cell biology and ... focuses mainly on calcium signalling and metabolism in living organisms. The journal is abstracted and indexed in: BIOSIS ...

*Calcium cyanide

... can be prepared by treating powdered calcium oxide with boiling anhydrous hydrocyanic acid in the presence of ... It may also be prepared by reacting liquid hydrocyanic acid with calcium carbide. Alternatively calcium cyanide may be prepared ... Calcium cyanide also known as black cyanide, is an inorganic compound with the formula Ca(CN)2. It is a white solid, although ... Calcium cyanide's high toxicity to touch, inhale, or ingest makes it useful as a rodenticide. For example, it has been used in ...

*Calcium borate

... binders. (PDF) . Retrieved on 2010-02-08. Calcium borate infused foam building materials and the like and method ... It can be prepared by reacting calcium metal with boric acid. The resulting precipitate is calcium borate. A hydrated form ... Calcium borate (Ca3(BO3)2), also called Gerstley borate[citation needed], is a bluish white crystal with a very defined ...

*Calcium caseinate

... is a protein produced from casein in skim and sometimes 1% milk. At neutral or acid pH, casein is relatively ... Calcium caseinate is soluble and does not clot in the stomach. It is believed to neutralize capsaicin, the active (hot) ... After their removal, the casein is solubilized at a high pH with calcium hydroxide; the solution is then dried (usually spray ... dried). Calcium caseinate contains about 17% glutamic acid. Its main food uses are for powders requiring rapid dispersion into ...

*Calcium pyrophosphate

... (Ca2P2O7) is a chemical compound, an insoluble calcium salt containing the pyrophosphate anion. There are ... "Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition Disease". Medscape. Ropp, R.C. (2013). "Chapter 4 - Group 15 (N, P, As, Sb and Bi) Alkaline ... Crystals of the tetrahydrate can be prepared by reacting sodium pyrophosphate, Na4P2O7 with calcium nitrate, Ca(NO3)2, at ... The high temperature form α- is monoclinic, with 8 coordinate calcium, the lower temperature form β- is tetragonal, with ...

*Calcium azide

... is sensitive to impact, in which it may detonate and ignite. Calcium azide at Chemister. ... Calcium azide is a chemical compound with the formula CaN6. It can be obtained from a distilled reaction between hydrazoic acid ...

*Calcium arsenate

... is commonly prepared from disodium hydrogen arsenate and calcium chloride: 2 Na2H[AsO4] + 3 CaCl2 → 4 NaCl + ... 2 a basic arsenate probably with a composition of 4CaO.As2O5 together with calcium hydroxide and calcium carbonate. It was once ... Calcium arsenate use is now banned in the UK, and its use is strictly regulated in the United States. It is currently the ... Calcium arsenate is the inorganic compound with the formula Ca3(AsO4)2. A colourless solid, it was originally used as a ...

*Calcium sulfite

... , or calcium sulphite, is a chemical compound, the calcium salt of sulfite with the formula CaSO3.x(H2O). Two ... H2O In the laboratory calcium sulfite can be produced by reaction of aqueous solutions of calcium chloride and sodium sulfite. ... Calcium sulfite can be used in the production of wood pulp through the sulfite process, as an alternative to the Kraft process ... Calcium sulfite is generated as the intermediate in the production of gypsum, which is the main component of drywall. A typical ...

*Calcium bromide

It is produced by the reaction of calcium oxide, calcium carbonate with hydrobromic acid or the reaction of calcium metal with ... When strongly heated in air, calcium bromide will react with oxygen to produce calcium oxide and bromine: 2 CaBr2 + O2 → 2 CaO ... Calcium bromide is the name for compounds with the chemical formula CaBr2(H2O)x. Individual compounds include the anhydrous ...

*Calcium silicate

... it chemically reacts with calcium hydroxide or calcium carbonate to form calcium silicate hydrate, sealing micropores with a ... Calcium silicate is the chemical compound Ca2SiO4, also known as calcium orthosilicate and is sometimes formulated as 2CaO·SiO2 ... Calcium silicate, also known as slag, is produced when molten iron is made from iron ore, silicon dioxide and calcium carbonate ... Calcium silicate is a white free-flowing powder. It can be derived from naturally occurring limestone and diatomaceous earth, a ...

*Calcium ATPase

Ca2+ ATPase is a form of P-ATPase that transfers calcium after a muscle has contracted. The two kinds of calcium ATPase are: ... Calcium ATPase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) EC 3.6.3.8 Overview at utoronto.ca Cation ... Since it transports Ca2+ into the extracellular space, the PMCA is also an important regulator of the calcium concentration in ... Active transport#Counter-transport PDB Molecule of the Month Calcium pump nlm.nih.gov Jensen, TP; Buckby LE; Empson RM (2004 ...

*Calcium erythorbate

... is a food additive. Chemically, it is the calcium salt of erythorbic acid, with the chemical formula Ca( ...

*Calcium hydride

... is prepared from its elements by direct combination of calcium and hydrogen at 300 to 400 °C. CaH2 is a ... During the Battle of the Atlantic, German submarines used calcium hydride as a sonar decoy called bold. Calcium monohydride ... Calcium hydride is widely used as a desiccant for basic solvents such as amines and pyridine. It is also used to dry alcohols. ... Calcium hydride is the chemical compound with the formula CaH2, and is therefore an alkaline earth hydride. This grey powder ( ...

*Calcium formate

... , Ca(HCO2)2 (or. Ca(HCOO)2), is the calcium salt of formic acid, HCOOH. It is also known as food additive E238 ... It may be produced synthetically by reacting calcium oxide or calcium hydroxide with formic acid. Lide, David R. (1998), ...

*Calcium pump

... s play a crucial role in proper cell signalling by keeping the intracellular calcium concentration roughly 10,000 ... "Structural changes in the calcium pump accompanying the dissociation of calcium". Nature. 418 (6898): 605-611. doi:10.1038/ ... Calcium pumps are a family of ion transporters found in the cell membrane of all animal cells. They are responsible for the ... The structure of calcium pumps found in the sarcoplasmic reticulum of skeletal muscle was elucidated in 2000 by Toyoshima, et ...

*Calcium lactate

... can be prepared by the reaction of lactic acid with calcium carbonate or calcium hydroxide. Since the 19th ... Calcium lactate gluconate Calcium gluconate Calcium citrate Martina Vavrusova, Merete Bøgelund Munk, and Leif H. Skibsted (2013 ... "Aqueous Solubility of Calcium l-Lactate, Calcium d-Gluconate, and Calcium d-Lactobionate: Importance of Complex Formation for ... Calcium lactate is used in medicine, mainly to treat calcium deficiencies; and as a food additive with E number of E327. Some ...

*Calcium monohydride

... can be formed by laser ablation of calcium dihydride in a helium atmosphere. Gaseous calcium reacts with ... Calcium monohydride is a molecule composed of calcium and hydrogen with formula CaH. It can be found in stars as a gas formed ... Calcium monohydride can be formed by exposing metallic calcium to an electric discharge in a hydrogen atmosphere above 750 °C. ... Calcium monohydride is the first molecular gas that was cooled by a cold buffer gas and then trapped by a magnetic field. This ...

*Calcium chromate

... loses water at 200 °C. It reacts with organic matter or reducing agents to form chromium(III). The solid will ... Calcium chromate (CaCrO4) is a bright yellow solid. It normally occurs as the dihydrate, although the very rarely natural ( ... If mixed with boron and ignited, calcium chromate will burn violently. It is used as a pigment, a corrosion inhibitor, and in ... www.mindat.org Occupational Safety And Health Guideline For Calcium Chromate Archived August 8, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.. ...

*Calcium propanoate

... or calcium propionate has the formula Ca(C2H5COO)2. It is the calcium salt of propanoic acid. As a food ... Calcium propanoate can be used as a fungicide on fruit. Merck Index, 11th Edition, 1705. Codex Alimentarius data for calcium ... Calcium propanoate is used in bakery products as a mold inhibitor, typically at 0.1-0.4% (though animal feed may contain up to ... Calcium propanoate is used as a preservative in a wide variety of products, including but not limited to: bread, other baked ...

*Calcium chloride

Calcium hydroxide (kalkwasser mix) or a calcium reactor can also be used. As a firming agent, calcium chloride is used in ... In marine aquariums, calcium chloride is one way to introduce bioavailable calcium for calcium carbonate-shelled animals such ... If calcium is used calcium chloride is generally the recommended form. Aqueous calcium chloride is used in genetic ... potassium calcium chloride, KCaCl3) and tachyhydrite (calcium magnesium chloride, CaMg2Cl6·12H2O) are also very rare. Calcium(I ...

*Calcium looping

In the calcium looping process, the two species are calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and calcium oxide (CaO). The captured carbon ... Calcium oxide is often referred to as the sorbent. Calcium looping is being developed as it is a more efficient, less toxic ... Calcium oxide is friable, that is, quite brittle. In fluidised beds, the calcium oxide particles can break apart upon collision ... Calcium looping (CaL), or the regenerative calcium cycle (RCC), is a second-generation carbon capture technology. It is the ...

*Calcium gluconate

... is made by mixing gluconic acid with calcium carbonate or calcium hydroxide. Calcium gluconate came into ... This form of calcium is not as well absorbed as calcium lactate, and it only contains 0.93% (930 mg/dl) calcium ion (defined by ... If calcium is used calcium chloride is generally the recommended form. Calcium gluconate side effects include nausea, ... Spencer, H.; Scheck, J.; Lewin, I.; Samachson, J. (1966). "Comparative absorption of calcium from calcium gluconate and calcium ...
BioAssay record AID 225394 submitted by ChEMBL: Percent increase in intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]i) using CHO cells, stably transfected with human muscarinic m3 acetylcholine receptor (AChR); nd=Not determined.
Purpose.: Previously, retinopetal axons containing histamine and dopaminergic neurons expressing histamine H1-receptor had been localized in mouse retinas using anatomic techniques. The goal of these experiments was to demonstrate that these receptors are functional. Methods.: Dopaminergic cells were acutely isolated from retinas of transgenic mice expressing red fluorescent protein under control of the tyrosine hydroxylase promoter and loaded with the calcium indicator Fura-2. Results.: Under control conditions, there were spontaneous oscillations in the levels of free intracellular calcium in dopaminergic cells. These oscillations were abolished in nominally calcium-free extracellular medium and in 1 μM tetrodotoxin, findings suggesting that the oscillations were mediated by calcium entry across the plasma membrane in response to sodium-dependent action potentials. Histamine increased the mean free intracellular calcium in the dopaminergic cells by increasing the frequency and/or amplitude of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Transmembrane Ca2+ gradient-mediated change of fluidity in the inner layer of phospholipids modulates Ca2+-ATPase of sarcoplasmic reticulum. AU - Tu, Yaping. AU - Xu, H.. AU - Yang, F. Y.. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - Sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) vesicles with (1000 folds) or without transmembrane Ca2+ gradient have been prepared. Different fluorescence probes (DPH, TMA-DPH and n-AS), were used to determine the effect of transmembrane Ca2+ gradient on the lipid fluidity both in outer and inner layer of Ca2+-ATPase-containing SR vesicles. The results showed that transmembrane Ca2+ gradient could significantly decrease the fluidity of the inner layer of SR membrane, while no obvious change was monitored in the outer layer. This may be deduced that Ca2+-ATPase might be modulated mainly by the transmembrane Ca2+ gradient-mediated alteration of physical state of phospholipid in the inner layer of SR membrane.. AB - Sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) vesicles with (1000 folds) or without ...
In endothelial cells, a bolus of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or oxygen metabolites generated by hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase (HX-XO) increased the mitochondrial calcium concentration [Ca2+]m. Both agents caused a biphasic increase in [Ca2+]m which was preceded by a rise in cytosolic free calcium concentration [Ca2+]c (18 and 6 seconds for H2O2 and HX-XO, respectively). The peak and plateau elevations of [Ca2+] were consistently higher in the mitochondrial matrix than in the cytosol. In Ca2+-free/EGTA medium, the plateau phase of elevated [Ca2+] evoked by H2O2 due to capacitative Ca2+ influx was abolished in the cytosol, but was maintained in the mitochondria. In contrast to H2O2 and HX-XO, ATP which binds the P2Y purinoceptors induced an increase in [Ca2+]m that was similar to that of [Ca2+]c. When cells were first stimulated with inositol 1,4, 5-trisphosphate-generating agonists or the Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), subsequent addition of H2O2 did not affect [Ca2+]c, but still ...
- Easily soluble in water - With a high calcium concentration - Easily assimilated by the digestive system - Strengthens bones - Improved egg quality
Among different pathways coordinating intracellular signaling, the most prominent is intracellular calcium signaling (ICS), controlling various cellular processes including proliferation, motility, apoptosis and differentiation [1]. ICS is impressively diverse and consists of mechanisms that differ in frequency, amplitude and spatio-temporal patterning depending on an extensive molecular repertoire of signaling components. The free intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+i) of a resting cell is in the range of 10-100 nM. Following physiological stimulation, [Ca2+i levels can rise up to 1-2 μM concentrations. ICS is codified by the peak amplitude and frequency of [Ca2+i transients, promoted by the entry of external Ca2+ through Ca2+ channels or the release of Ca2+ from internal stores. These internal stores are deposited within internal membrane structures such as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Following activation of G-protein-coupled receptors, phospholipase C-β (PLC-β) cleaves ...
To examine the role of Ca2+ in early neuronal death, we studied the impact of free intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) on survivability in populations of cultured mouse spinal neurons. We asked whether early neurotoxicity was triggered by Ca2+ influx, whether elevated [Ca2+]i was a predictive indicator of impending neuronal death, and whether factors other than [Ca2+]i increases influenced Ca2+ neurotoxicity. We found that when neurons were lethally challenged with excitatory amino acids or high K+, they experienced a biphasic [Ca2+]i increase characterized by a primary [Ca2+]i transient that decayed within minutes, followed by a secondary, sustained, and irreversible [Ca2+]i rise that indicated imminent cell death. We showed that in the case of glutamate-triggered neurotoxicity, processes triggering eventual cell death required Ca2+ influx, and that neurotoxicity was a function of the transmembrane Ca2+ gradient. Fura-2 Ca2+ imaging revealed a "ceiling" on measurable changes in ...
The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) is the major intracellular calcium storage depot in cardiac muscle. Cycling of calcium between the lumen of the SR and the myoplasmic space occurs repetitively during each heart beat. Excitation-contraction coupling in the heart begins when calcium entry through voltage-gated L-type calcium channels in the sarcolemma induces the opening of calcium release channels (also known as ryanodine receptors, or RyR) in the adjacent SR. The majority of the calcium that enters the cytosol during the early portion of each cycle is then resequestered into the SR lumen via the actions of the calcium uptake protein, (sarco)endoplasmic reticulum calcium adenosine triphosphatase (SERCA). Tight regulation of the timing and quantity of these intracellular calcium fluxes is critical to achieve graded contractility and relaxation of the heart muscle. Such control allows optimal matching of cardiac function to heart rate and metabolic needs of the body. The mechanisms of ...
The cytoplasmic free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) was studied in Fura-2/AM loaded granule neurones in acutely prepared cerebellar slices isolated from neonatal (6 days old) and adult (30 days old) mice. Bath application of elevated (10-50 mM) KCl-containing extracellular solutions evoked [Ca2+]i rise which was dependent on extracellular Ca2+. The K(+)-induced [Ca2+]i elevation was inhibited to different extends by verapamil, nickel and omega-conotoxin suggesting the coexpression of different subtypes of plasmalemmal voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. Bath application of caffeine (10-40 mM) elevated [Ca2+]i by release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. Caffeine-induced [Ca2+]i elevation was inhibited by 100 microM ryanodine and 500 nM thapsigargin. Depletion of internal Ca2+ stores by caffeine, or blockade of Ca2+ release channels by ryanodine, did not affect depolarization-induced [Ca2+]i transients, suggesting negligible involvement of Ca(2+)-induced Ca2+ release in [Ca2+]i signal generation following
BioAssay record AID 270304 submitted by ChEMBL: Activity at human recombinant iGluR2 flip expressed in HEK293 cells measured as change in intracellular calcium ion concentration in presence of glutamate by FLIPR assay.
Loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential results in a significant inhibition of calcium influx through calcium release-activated channels (CRAC) in Jurkat cells suspended in the medium of pH lower than 7.4. This effect disappears when the medium pH increases. Alkalinisation of the cytosol achieved by the addition of NH(4)Cl to the cells pretreated with thapsigargin, CCCP and CaCl(2), suspended in the medium of pH 7.2, does not affect CRAC activity, while alkalisation of the extracellular milieu by NaOH results in a strong stimulation of calcium entry. Thus, the mitochondrial effect on CRAC is exclusively related to the extracellular pH. Coupled mitochondria are able to take up Ca(2+) accumulated in the close proximity of CRAC. This protects these channels against feedback inhibition exerted by high [Ca(2+)](c). We conclude that CRAC may exist in two conformations: inhibitable and not inhibitable by cytosolic Ca(2+). Lower extracellular pH promotes the former one. This explains a much higher
Calcium plays an important role in several body functions, including muscle contractions, enzyme function, and nerve conduction. Calcium is stored in the bones.. Disorders affecting calcium metabolism require clinical care by a physician or other health care professional. Listed in the directory below are some of the disorders that affect calcium metabolism, for which we have provided a brief overview.. If you cannot find the information in which you are interested, please visit the Diabetes & Other Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders Online Resources page in this website for an Internet address that may contain additional information on that topic.. ...
Proper functioning of organelles such as the ER or the Golgi apparatus requires luminal accumulation of Ca2+ at high concentrations. Here we describe a ratiometric low-affinity Ca2+ sensor of the GFP-aequorin protein (GAP) family optimized for measurements in high-Ca2+ concentration environments. Transgenic animals expressing the ER-targeted sensor allowed monitoring of Ca2+ signals inside the organelle. The use of the sensor was demonstrated under three experimental paradigms: (1) ER Ca2+ oscillations in cultured astrocytes, (2) ex vivo functional mapping of cholinergic receptors triggering ER Ca2+ release in acute hippocampal slices from transgenic mice, and (3) in vivo sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ dynamics in the muscle of transgenic flies. Our results provide proof of the suitability of the new biosensors to monitor Ca2+ dynamics inside intracellular organelles under physiological conditions and open an avenue to explore complex Ca2+ signaling in animal models of health and disease ...
PTH, together with vitamin D and calcitonin, brings about mobilization of calcium and phosphate from the skeletal system and increases the uptake of calcium in the intestine and the excretion of phosphate via the kidneys. The constancy of the blood calcium level is ensured by the interaction of PTH and calcitonin. The secretion of PTH is inhibited by high calcium concentrations and promoted by low calcium concentrations ...
A patient has a total serum calcium level of 13.3 mg/dL (3.3 mmol/L). The nurse will anticipate the need to teach the patient about testing for
A patient has a total serum calcium level of 13.3 mg/dL (3.3 mmol/L). The nurse will anticipate the need to teach the patient about testing for
Sugar solutions taste sweeter when warm. Talavera et al. now provide a molecular mechanism for this phenomenon. They identified the transient receptor potential (TRP) family members TRPM5 and TRPM4 as thermally activated, calcium-dependent cation channels. TRPM5 and the related protein TRP4 are calcium-impermeable cation channels. When expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells, these proteins exhibited a shift in voltage dependence in response to increased temperature in the range of 15°C to 35°C, such that at higher temperatures the channels were more active. Activation of the channels by heat required the presence of intracellular calcium, despite the fact that these channels do not conduct calcium ions. Therefore, they are poised to serve as coincidence detectors, sensing a stimulus that increases intracellular calcium concentrations, such as the presence of a taste ligand that activates a taste receptor, as well as temperature. Indeed, knockout mice lacking TRPM5 did not show any ...
Important element in road towards development of new drugs for neurodegenerative diseases All living cells keep their cellular calcium concentration at a very low level. Since a small increase in calcium can affect many critical cellular functions (an elevated calcium concentration over an extended period can induce cell death), powerful cellular mechanisms ensure that calcium concentration quickly returns to its low level.. It is known that impairments of cellular calcium regulation underlie almost all neurodegenerative diseases. For example, age-related loss of calcium regulation was shown to promote cell vulnerability in Alzheimers disease.. In a study recently published in the Journal of Neuroscience, Hebrew University of Jerusalem researchers, along with others from Israel and the US, presented their findings of a previously undescribed cellular mechanism which is essential for keeping cellular calcium concentration low. This mechanism operates together with other already characterized ...
Gomez-Ospina et al. provide evidence for an intriguing mechanism whereby voltage-dependent calcium channels modulate gene transcription. Calcium entry through voltage-gated channels in the plasma membrane provides a link between electrical activity and changes in gene expression. Gomez-Ospina et al. found that, whereas an antibody that recognized the full-length Cav1.2 calcium channel localized to membrane and cytosolic fractions of rat brain cortex, an antibody that recognized the C-terminal fragment, which is proteolytically cleaved, appeared in the nucleus. The C-terminal fragment was abundant in nuclei of GABAergic neurons; moreover, nuclear fluorescence was apparent in neurons or glioblastoma cells expressing a construct in which the Cav1.2 C terminus was fluorescently labeled. Treatments aimed at lowering cytoplasmic calcium increased nuclear abundance of the Cav1.2 fragment, whereas treatments that increase intracellular calcium decreased it. The Cav1.2 fragment immunoprecipitated with ...
We found a doubling of risk for fatal prostate cancer among men in the highest tertile of total serum calcium and a tripling of risk for men in the highest tertile of ionized serum calcium. The results for total serum calcium are consistent with our previous findings for prostate cancer mortality in NHANES I in which we observed a multivariable-adjusted RR of 2.68 (5). This is the first study to examine prostate cancer risk in relation to prediagnostic levels of ionized serum calcium.. Each individual is believed to have his or her own set point for serum calcium that is under genetic control (9). The concentration of ionized serum calcium in a given individual normally does not deviate by ,2% from its set point (10). Conversely, there is considerable variation in calcium levels between individuals, with normal levels of total serum calcium ranging from 8.5 to 10.5 mg/dL (2.1-2.6 mmol/L; ref. 11).. This study has several strengths. It is hypothesis testing, is prospective, and uses a population ...
Fig.: Fibre-optic recording of YC3.60 signals in barrel cortex. Schematics of a setup (left) and functional signals in a freely-moving mouse (right).. Image: Mazahir T. Hasan. Neurons communicate with one another via so-called action potentials. During an action potential, voltage-gated calcium channels are opened resulting in rapid calcium ion influx. Because of this tight coupling, fluorescent calcium indicator proteins can visualize action potentials. These proteins have two fluorescent subunits, one of which radiates yellow light and the other blue. When the proteins bind calcium, the proportion of yellow to blue light changes. Colour variation from blue light towards yellow thus reports different calcium levels - which is why the protein has been dubbed a "cameleon".. Measuring action potentials optically. With the cameleon protein YC3.60, a fairly new variant, the scientists succeeded in recording the reaction of nerve cells to sensory stimuli in the intact brain of mice: every time the ...
In addition to transmitting involving extracellular free of charge contaminants, a generally accepted super model tiffany livingston of pathogen distribution is one wherein pathogen replicates in one cell, producing infectious contaminants that transmit to the following cell via cell junctions or induced polarized connections. outside the group had been bad for pathogen immediate-early phrase generally. We further display, using separated monolayer assays spatially, that at least one element of this activated migration is certainly the paracrine pleasure of a cytotactic response from contaminated cells to uninfected cells. The lifetime of this procedure adjustments our concept of pathogen transmitting and the potential features, pathogen, and web host elements included. Launch The systems included in the transmitting of contagious infections between cells are of fundamental importance for our general understanding of computer virus duplication, virulence, and pathogenesis and for long lasting ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - CXCL10-induced cell death in neurons. T2 - Role of calcium dysregulation. AU - Sui, Yongjun. AU - Stehno-Bittel, Lisa. AU - Li, Shanping. AU - Loganathan, Rajprasad. AU - Dhillon, Navneet K.. AU - Pinson, David. AU - Nath, Avindra. AU - Kolson, Dennis. AU - Narayan, Opendra. AU - Buch, Shilpa. PY - 2006/2. Y1 - 2006/2. N2 - Chemokines play a key role in the regulation of central nervous system disease. CXCL10 over-expression has been observed in several neurodegenerative diseases, including multiple sclerosis, Alzheimers disease and HIV-associated dementia. More recent studies by others and us have shown that CXCL10 elicits apoptosis in fetal neurons. The mechanism of CXCL10-mediated neurotoxicity, however, remains unclear. In this study, we provide evidence for the direct role of Ca2+ dysregulation in CXCL10-mediated apoptosis. We demonstrate that treatment of fetal neuronal cultures with exogenous CXCL10 produced elevations in intracellular Ca2+ and that this effect was ...
Under appropriate conditions macrophage cytosolic extracts can form a three-dimensional gel network of cross-linked actin filaments. These cytoplasmic gels are mainly composed of actin, filamin, alpha-actinin, and two new proteins of about 70,000 and 55,000 Mr (70 and 55 K). The behaviour of 70 K protein was found to be remarkably affected by Ca2+. Ca2+ treatment of isolated cytoplasmic gels led to the selective solubilization of the 70 K protein along with a 17 K polypeptide. Half-maximal recovery in the supernatant fraction was obtained from about 0.15 microM free Ca2+. The cytoplasmic gel constituents solubilized in high ionic strength buffer were able to re-assemble into an insoluble actin network when returned to near physiological ionic conditions. However, the inclusion of micromolar Ca2+ prevented the re-association of 70 K protein with actin in these complexes. As compared to the 70 K protein, alpha-actinin was fully resistant to any variations in Ca2+ concentrations. On the other hand, ...
By: Andy De Santis, RD and Dr. Kathleen Regan, ND. Andy De Santis is a Registered Dietician practicing at Innate Wellness High Park. He focuses on creating diet plans for patients of Innate Wellness. If you are interested in having a customized nutrition program created for you, please call the High Park Clinic. Calcium is one of the most abundant minerals found in the human body. Most calcium is stored either in our bones or our teeth, leaving a small amount found in other tissues or circulating through our blood. The way our bodies use and absorb calcium depends on the presence of specific nutrients, such as Vitamin D, and specific hormones, such as parathyroid hormone and calcitonin. Calcium levels are also influenced by specific female hormones such as estrogen (which increases calcium absorption).. Declining levels of estrogen as women age, through menopause, after hysterectomy, or via estrogen reducing drugs such as Tamoxifen (post-breast cancer treatment) can dramatically affect calcium ...
The present study reports a potentiating effect of glibenclamide on quantal catecholamine secretion evoked from individual PC-12 cells by exposure to solutions containing either 50 mmK+ or 30 mm caffeine. Using either stimulus, this secretion is Ca2+-dependent. For K+-evoked release, Ca2+ influx through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels is a prerequisite for exocytosis, and of the different channel types present in PC-12 cells (Liu et al., 1996), the N-type appear to be most closely coupled to depolarization-mediated release because ω-conotoxin GVIA causes profound inhibition of such release (Taylor and Peers, 1998). Caffeine has recently been demonstrated to evoke secretion from PC-12 cells (Koizume and Inoue, 1998), and the present study indicates that this release is quantal (i.e., because of exocytosis) (Fig. 6). Caffeine causes release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores (presumably via activation of ryanodine receptors), and this store depletion in turn activates CCE. Koizume and Inoue (1998) ...
Cells have developed a variety of mechanisms to keep free calcium ion concentrations at very low levels in the cytosol. These mechanisms allow transient increases in cell calcium concentrations to be used as signals to trigger a variety of cellular processes, gene expression being one of them. Skeletal muscle relies on nerve activity both for contraction and also for the expression of genes related to pathways that include survival and the plastic changes required for adaptation to exercise. A particular pathway that involves Cav1.1 as a voltage sensor for nerve activity, pannexin-1 channels to release ATP to the extracellular milieu, purinergic P2Y receptors to link the signal ...
Video articles in JoVE about inositol 1 4 5 trisphosphate include Imaging Local Ca2+ Signals in Cultured Mammalian Cells, Direct Imaging of ER Calcium with Targeted-Esterase Induced Dye Loading (TED), Monitoring ER/SR Calcium Release with the Targeted Ca2+ Sensor CatchER+, PIP-on-a-chip: A Label-free Study of Protein-phosphoinositide Interactions, Radiolabeling and Quantification of Cellular Levels of Phosphoinositides by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-coupled Flow Scintillation, Preparation of Quality Inositol Pyrophosphates, Characterization of G Protein-coupled Receptors by a Fluorescence-based Calcium Mobilization Assay, Cytosolic Calcium Measurements in Renal Epithelial Cells by Flow Cytometry, Targeting Cysteine Thiols for in Vitro Site-specific Glycosylation of Recombinant Proteins, A Cell Culture Model of Resistance Arteries , Preparation of Pancreatic Acinar Cells for the Purpose of Calcium Imaging, Cell Injury Measurements, and Adenoviral Infection, Lignin Down
When the estrogen produced by the body is reduced, the bones inadequately absorb and utilize calcium. This resulting drop in calcium levels can lead to decreased bone mass and osteoporosis later in...
Natural Vitality Natural Calm Plus Calcium balances a highly soluble and bioavailable form of calcium with Natural Calm the best-selling, award-winning ionic magnesium that mixes easily in water to restore healthy magnesium levels quickly and effectively.
In the present study we showed increased TRPV1 activity after prestimulation of TRPA1, both in HEK cells and DRG neurons. This was dependent on calcium, AC, and PKA. Mutation of the putative phosphorylation site serine 116 in TRPV1 also abolished increased TRPV1 activity after TRPA1 stimulation. Together, our findings suggest that TRPA1 activation causes an influx of calcium and increases calcium-sensitive AC activity, cAMP accumulation, and subsequent PKA activation. This results in phosphorylation and sensitization of TRPV1.. Although some studies showed direct activation of TRPV1 by MO at high concentrations (Ohta et al., 2007; Everaerts et al., 2011; Gees et al., 2013), our control experiments and other studies showed that MO at a concentration of 20 µM did not directly activate TRPV1 (Fig. 2D; Jordt et al., 2004; Everaerts et al., 2011).. Approximately 30% to 50% of TRPV1-expressing small- to medium-sized peripheral sensory neurons coexpress TRPA1, and almost all TRPA1-positive neurons ...
Regehrs laboratory studies the implication of calcium Ca2+ as it affects synaptic strength. Neurons communicate with one another via synapses. Regehr was one of the first to use fluorescent imaging to see the synaptic activity occurring in the brain. A dye alters the fluorenscence properties when attached to calcium, and changes in intracellular calcium are associated with neuronal activity (firing of action potentials). Using fluorescence-microscopy techniques, calcium levels are detected, and therefore the influx of calcium in the presynaptic neuron ...
MAIL VIA INTERNET FROM BIOSCI-REQUEST at genbank.bio.net THURSDAY 09/10/92 6:15:03 A.M. , , Received: from CU.NIH.GOV by NIHCU (Mailer) id 9613; , Thu, 10 Sep 92 06:15:03 EDT , Received: from GENBANK.BIO.NET by CU.NIH.GOV , with TCP; Thu, 10 Sep 92 6:15:00 EDT , Received: by genbank.bio.net (5.65/IG-2.0) , id AA05730; Thu, 10 Sep 92 03:15:24 -0700 , Received: by genbank.bio.net (5.65/IG-2.0) , id AA05723; Thu, 10 Sep 92 03:15:22 -0700 , Message-Id: ,9209101015.AA05723 at genbank.bio.net, , To: bio-soft at genbank.bio.net , From: Fergus_Doherty at vme.ccc.nottingham.ac.uk , Subject: Calculating free Ca2++ with EGTA buffers , Date: 10 Sep 92 10:00:35 GMT , Sender: list-admin at daresbury.ac.uk , Original-To: BIO-SOFT at uk.ac.daresbury , , Can anyone help me to calculate free Ca2++ in EGTA/CA buffers? Basically , I want to determine the effect of Ca on enzyme activity, and relatedly , translocation of an enzyme to membranes-which is Ca -dependent. I need , to include EGTA to completely inhibit the ...
Repolarization alternans has been considered a strong marker of electrical instability. The objective of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that ischemia-induced contrasting effects on the kinetics of membrane voltage and intracellular calcium transient (Ca(i)T) can explain the vulnerability of the ischemic heart to repolarization alternans. Ischemia-induced changes in action potential (AP) and Ca(i)T resulting in alternans were investigated in perfused Langendorff guinea pig hearts subjected to 10-15 min of global no-flow ischemia followed by 10-15 min of reperfusion. The heart was stained with 100 microl of rhod-2 AM and 25 microl of RH-237, and AP and Ca(i)T were simultaneously recorded with an optical mapping system of two 16 x 16 photodiode arrays. Ischemia was associated with shortening of AP duration (D) but delayed upstroke, broadening of peak, and slowed decay of Ca(i)T resulting in a significant increase of Ca(i)T-D. The changes in APD were spatially heterogeneous in contrast to a
Phospholipase C (PLC) regulates various cellular processes by catalyzing the formation of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol from phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2). Here, we have investigated the influence of Ca2+ on receptor-triggered PLC activity in individual insulin-secreting β-cells. Evanescent wave microscopy was used to record PLC activity using green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged PIP2/IP3-binding pleckstrin homology domain from PLCδ1, and the cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) was simultaneously measured using the indicator Fura Red. Stimulation of MIN6 β-cells with the muscarinic-receptor agonist carbachol induced rapid and sustained PLC activation. By contrast, only transient activation was observed after stimulation in the absence of extracellular Ca2+ or in the presence of the non-selective Ca2+ channel inhibitor La3+. The Ca2+-dependent sustained phase of PLC activity did not require voltage-gated Ca2+ influx, as hyperpolarization with ...
A: 1. by increasing open time of the calcium channels, and more calcium rush into the cardiac muscle cell. From the extracellular fluid. 2. Phosphorylate (activate) phospholamban, whch increases Calcium ATPase in the sarcoplasmic reticulum. This increases calcium stores in the SR, so more is released when needed, leading to forceful contractions. Calcium is also removed from the cytosol faster, shortening the calcium-troponin binding time, which causes shorter duration of contraction.. Q: What is the isovolumic systole ...
In this study, we provide in vivo evidence that SEL-12, a C. elegans PSEN homolog, is involved in regulating calcium homeostasis and impacts mitochondrial morphology and function. In addition, we have found that the calcium dysregulation observed in SEL-12-deficient animals arises from ER stores and that this defect leads to increased mitochondrial uptake of calcium, which drives the mitochondrial defects observed in sel-12 mutants. Furthermore, we show that the role of SEL-12 in regulating mitochondrial function is independent of its role in γ-secretase function and that the mitochondrial defects observed in sel-12 mutants are caused in part by the opening of the mPTP and elevated DRP-1-dependent mitochondrial fission.. Although the role of PSEN in AD progression remains unclear (Sherrington et al. 1995), similar to our findings, calcium dysregulation has been observed in various models of mutant PSEN function as well as tissue samples from AD patients (Ito et al. 1994; Leissring et al. 1999; ...
EMG - Force Relationship An EMG signal will not necessarily reflect the total amount of force (or torque) a muscle can generate The number of motor units recorded by electrodes will be less than the total number of motor units that are firing - electrodes cant pick-up all motor units
Biphasic contractions were produced in dog trabeculae by replacing 90-95% of the calcium in the bathing solution with strontium. These conditions produced prolonged action potentials accompanied by contractions with two distinct phasic components. The early component disappeared slowly when the remaining Ca++ was removed, whereas the late component was eliminated quickly when Sr++ was removed. Manganese ion (0.25 mM) preferentially decreased the late component without changing the action potential, whereas caffeine and ryanodine decreased or eliminated the early component. Ryanodine did not alter the action potential. Isoproterenol rapidly increased the early component and, more slowly and to a lesser degree, increased the late component. The results suggest that the early component is caused by intracellular release of activator cation, probably from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, whereas the late component is the result of Sr++ entry across the sarcolemma, possibly by way of the slow inward ...
This delicious and crunchy, convenient and enjoyable chewable Calcium supplement with Vitamin D is a treat your entire family will enjoy. Natures Plus Calcium Malted Milk Balls are an exciting innovation in mineral supplementation. Natures Plus is committed to offering the best supplements available anywhere. Look for the Natures Plus logo as your guarantee of quality.
Blood collections analyzed for measurements of PTH(1-34), PTH(1-84), 25-OH vitamin D, 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D, markers of bone metabolism, and fractional excretion of calcium measurements ...
Laboratory technical support services. 1. Vascular endothelial tube formation:an in vitro matrigel angiogenesis assay.. 2. Agiogenesis in vivo within a Matrigel plug in mice. 3. Endothelial cell (human and mouse) transfection with siRNA and cDNA. 4. Endothelial cell expressing GFP (high efficient electroporation transfection). 5. Endothelial Cell transendothelial electrical resistance (TER). 6. Cell treatment. 7. Imaging. 8. PCR/RT-PCR. 9. ELISA. 10. FACS. 11. Immunoprecipitiation. 12. Immunoblotting. 13. Calcium measurement assay. 14. ROS measurement assay. 15. Animal in vivo studies, including perfused mouse lung preparation (liquid and protein permeability). And More….. ...
This thesis documents the exploration of tools and techniques which were used to determine the existence of patterns within and relationships between the voltage and calcium measurements from individual bacterial cells. The research lies in the broad domain of bacterial electro-physiology.
Increasing evidence supports the idea that calcium levels are altered in plant cells in response to abiotic stress. The stress-induced perturbation in cytosolic calcium ion (Ca2+) levels is sensed by calcium-binding proteins (Ca2+ sensors). In plants, the Ca2+-dependent protein kinase (CPKs or CDPKs) family represents a unique group of calcium sensors. Within a single polypeptide, CPKs contain a catalytic Ser/Thr kinase domain fused to a calmodulin domain. This unique structure allows the CPKs to recognize specific calcium signatures and transduce the signal into phosphorylation cascades. CPKs have been identified throughout the plant kingdom and in some protozoans, but not in animals. The available information on plant CPKs indicates that CPKs are encoded by multigene families consisting of 31 genes in rice (Oryza sativa) and 34 genes in Arabidopsis. Although some of the CPK genes are ubiquitously expressed, others show a tissue-specific pattern of expression or are regulated by stress ...
3.4g of powder in 8oz liquid, or 2 wafers or 5 caps with 8oz liquid 1-3 times daily, or 5 caps plus calcium with 8oz liquid up to 4 times daily. Drink 8 more ounces of liquid after powder. Results in 12-72 hours.. ...
Liquids that have a pH of 7 are neutral. Those with lower numbers are considered acidic and those with a pH over 7 are alkaline.. Your bodys preferred pH is 7.4, and survival does not allow much leeway. The full pH scale for all liquids runs from zero to 14. For people, a pH of less than 7.35 or more than 7.45 can lead to health problems. This is a swing of less than 1% of the full pH range. In other words, you cannot be in optimal health in 99% of the possible pH range found in nature.. A pH of less than 6.8 or more than 7.8 is deadly. This is a variation of 7% of the full pH range. In other words, you cant even survive in 93% of the possible pH range found in nature.. Your lungs and kidneys are the primary defenses to keep your pH in the optimal zone, with bones and intestines also important. However, your bodys ability to buffer a pH that is too high or too low can be overwhelmed. Symptoms of being too alkaline include heart dysrhythmias, lightheadedness, confusion, irritability, headache, ...
Researchers studying the remarkable health of the islanders have found that their diets are far superior to that of most Americans (see The Okinawa Program, Clarkson Potter, 2001). Traditional Okinawans consume at least seven servings of vegetables and fruits daily, an equal number of grains, two daily servings of soy products, green tea every day and fish rich in omega-3s (several times a week) Meat, poultry and eggs account for only three percent of the Okinawan diet.. Elderly Okinawans are more physically active than elderly Americans and also enjoy strong social networks and community support. I believe their good health has much more to do with diet, with their physically active lifestyle, and with community support than with their drinking water.. Furthermore, the notion that you can enhance health by making the body more alkaline has no scientific basis. Nor is there evidence that drinking alkaline water does anyone any good. Alkaline or "hard" water (due to high calcium concentrations) ...
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Retinal waves are bursts of activity occurring spontaneously in the developing retina of vertebrate species, contributing to the shaping of the visual system organization and disappear short after birth. Waves during development are a transient process which evolves dynamically exhibiting different features. Based on our previous modelling work [1,2], we now propose a classification of stage II retinal waves patterns as a function of acetylcholine coupling strength and a possible mechanism for waves generation. Our model predicts that spatiotemporal patterns evolve upon maturation or pharmacological manipulation and that waves emerge from a complete homogeneous state without the need of the variability of a neural population. Context & Motivation SACs dynamically change their synaptic coupling upon maturation Coupled cholinergic SACs [3] Cholinergic current evolution upon maturation [4]-70 mV 60mV 0 0.8 88 nM 300 nM 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.2 Bursting sAHP Increase of Calcium load during bursting Calcium controls
These different types of calcium are used for their own special properties. The use of these calcium is safe, and most likely a healthy choice. By choosing to use these you are enabling your body to function properly and correctly. The three different types of calcium all have an important function and are used to boost the natural calcium in your body. These types of calcium can be found in the foods you eat, the drinks you drink, and the dietary supplements you use. Each of these has been found to improve your blood system, your muscles your bones, and your teeth. These are in the simplest form, the same as calcium with the exception that these actually help calcium do it what it needs to do in the body ...
The association of L-type Ca(2+) channels to the secretory granules and its functional significance to secretion was investigated in mouse pancreatic B cells. Nonstationary fluctuation analysis showed that the B cell is equipped with ,500 alpha1(C) L-type Ca(2+) channels, corresponding to a Ca(2+) channel density of 0.9 channels per microm(2). Analysis of the kinetics of exocytosis during voltage-clamp depolarizations revealed an early component that reached a peak rate of 1.1 pFs(-1) (approximately 650 granules/s) 25 ms after onset of the pulse and is completed within approximately 100 ms. This component represents a subset of approximately 60 granules situated in the immediate vicinity of the L-type Ca(2+) channels, corresponding to approximately 10% of the readily releasable pool of granules. Experiments involving photorelease of caged Ca(2+) revealed that the rate of exocytosis was half-maximal at a cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration of 17 microM, and concentrations ,25 microM are required to ...
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Crude Protein (Min.)… 14.0%. Lysine (Min.) … 0.75%. Methionine (Min.)… 0.22%. Methionine and Cystine (Min.)… 0.50%. Threonine (Min.) … 0.50%. Crude Fat (Min.) …8.0%. Crude Fiber (Max.) … 20.0%. Calcium (Ca) (Min.) … 0.8%. Calcium (Ca) (Max.) … 1.3%. Phosphorus (P) (Min.) … 0.60%. Copper (Cu) (Min.) …65 ppm. Zinc (Zn) (Min.) … 200 ppm. Selenium (Se) (Min.) … 0.6 ppm. Potassium (K) (Min.)… 1.0%. Magnesium (Mg) (Min.) … 0.35%. Manganese (Mn) (Min.)… 160 ppm. Cobalt (Co) (Min.) … 1.3 ppm. Iron (Fe) (Min.)… 440 ppm. Iodine (I) (Min.)… 1.1 ppm. Salt (NaCI) (Min.) … 0.5%. Salt (NaCI)(Max.) … 1.0%. Vitamin A (Min.) … 5,500 IU/lb.. Vitamin D (Min.) … 500 IU/lb.. Vitamin E (Min.) … 200 IU/lb.. Vitamin C (Min.) … 25 mg/lb.. Biotin (Min.) …0.7 mcg/lb.. Thiamine (Min.) … 8.5 mg/lb.. Riboflavin (Min.) … 4.5 mg/lb.. Omega 6 Fatty Acids (Min.)… 2.8%. Omega 3 Fatty Acids (Min.)… 0.3%. ...
Motivated by the analysis of glomerular time series extracted from calcium-imaging data, asymptotic theory for piecewise polynomial and spline regression with partially free knots and residuals...
We got an assignment to find such three dependent events that satisfy this equation: P(A*B*C)=P(A)*P(B)*P(C). I was thinking to solve this with use of
This is a throwback puzzle to the early days of Foldit. This protein, which inhibits muscle contraction in the absence of calcium ions, changes conformation in the presence of calcium to allow muscle contraction. We are revisiting old Foldit puzzles so we can see how useful the recent additions to the game have been ...
This is a throwback puzzle to the early days of Foldit. This protein, which inhibits muscle contraction in the absence of calcium ions, changes conformation in the presence of calcium to allow muscle contraction. We are revisiting old Foldit puzzles so we can see how useful the recent additions to the game have been ...
Calcium Indicators are small molecules that can chelate calcium ions. All these molecules are based on an EGTA homologue called BAPTA (with exception of coelenterazines), with high selectivity for calcium (Ca) ions versus magnesium (Mg) ions. This group of indicators includes fura-2, indo-1, fluo-3, BTC, Rhod-2, etc. These dyes are generally used with the chelator carboxyl groups masked as acetoxymethyl esters, in order to render the molecule lipophilic and to allow easy entrance into the cell. Once the indicator is in the cell, cellular esterases will free the carboxyl and the indicator will be able to bind calcium.. Fluorescent Chloride Indicators ...
As I was speaking of the dangers of too much Calcium (Ca) in my last post and as excess Ca is lethal, I want to give you an idea of where Ca can land up in our bodies. If it is NOT laid down in our bones as most of it should be, this is what can happen. The following images give an idea of the effects of a Ca overload on your heart and the rest of your body. 99% of Ca should be in your bones with just 1% in your cells, soft tissue and bloodstream. To start, here is a three dimensional CTA data set showing calcifications in coronary arteries. Continue reading Calcium Supplements = Heart Disease →. ...
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For a proper work of the bodily functions, we need to take in proper amounts of electrolytes. When dissolved in water, electrolytes produce electrically-c
- You might have noticed that working out or sweating excessively may leave you feeling tired and dehydrated even when you drink plenty of water. This is bec
A test for calcium in urine is a 24-hour test that checks the amount of calcium that is passed from the body in the urine. Calcium is the most common mineral in the body and one of the most important. The body needs it to build and fix bones and teeth, help nerves work, make muscles squeeze together, help blood clot...
Predicted to have calcium ion binding activity. Predicted to localize to the endoplasmic reticulum. Is expressed in several structures, including axial mesoderm; chordo neural hinge; epidermis; head; ... Predicted to have calcium ion binding activity. Predicted to localize to the endoplasmic reticulum. Is expressed in several structures, including axial mesoderm; chordo neural hinge; epidermis; head; and pectoral fin. Orthologous to human RCN1 (reticulocalbin 1). ...
TITLE decay of internal calcium concentration : : Internal calcium concentration due to calcium currents and pump. : Differential equations. : : Simple model of ATPase pump with 3 kinetic constants (Destexhe 92) : Cai + P ,-, CaP -, Cao + P (k1,k2,k3) : A Michaelis-Menten approximation is assumed, which reduces the complexity : of the system to 2 parameters: : kt = ,tot enzyme concentration, * k3 -, TIME CONSTANT OF THE PUMP : kd = k2/k1 (dissociation constant) -, EQUILIBRIUM CALCIUM VALUE : The values of these parameters are chosen assuming a high affinity of : the pump to calcium and a low transport capacity (cfr. Blaustein, : TINS, 11: 438, 1988, and references therein). : : Units checked using modlunit -, factor 10000 needed in ca entry : : VERSION OF PUMP + DECAY (decay can be viewed as simplified buffering) : : All variables are range variables : : : This mechanism was published in: Destexhe, A. Babloyantz, A. and : Sejnowski, TJ. Ionic mechanisms for intrinsic slow oscillations in : ...
TITLE decay of internal calcium concentration : : Internal calcium concentration due to calcium currents and pump. : Differential equations. : : Simple model of ATPase pump with 3 kinetic constants (Destexhe 92) : Cai + P ,-, CaP -, Cao + P (k1,k2,k3) : A Michaelis-Menten approximation is assumed, which reduces the complexity : of the system to 2 parameters: : kt = ,tot enzyme concentration, * k3 -, TIME CONSTANT OF THE PUMP : kd = k2/k1 (dissociation constant) -, EQUILIBRIUM CALCIUM VALUE : The values of these parameters are chosen assuming a high affinity of : the pump to calcium and a low transport capacity (cfr. Blaustein, : TINS, 11: 438, 1988, and references therein). : : Units checked using modlunit -, factor 10000 needed in ca entry : : VERSION OF PUMP + DECAY (decay can be viewed as simplified buffering) : : All variables are range variables : : : This mechanism was published in: Destexhe, A. Babloyantz, A. and : Sejnowski, TJ. Ionic mechanisms for intrinsic slow oscillations in : ...
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Impairment of GABA release due to reduction of VGAT in μ3B−/−ΔNeo mice. (A and B) Measurement of glutamate (A) and GABA (B) release was performed as descr
Yes, too much protein is bad for your body just like consuming too many carbs or fats. But instead of giving you extra calories for fat gains, the bad portion is actually worse than you think.. When we have too much protein in our body it decreases the absorption of calcium, which in the end could cause calcium deficiency. If you dont know what that means simply think weaker or even fragile bones.. This is one of the reasons why bodybuilders and other athletes are precise with their nutrient intake. Surely a little extra protein isnt going to do much harm, but LOTS of people get carried away with their protein supplements.. (NOTE: If you need help with this I offer affordable monthly online meal programs). Add the extra protein if you need more calories for muscle gains, but dont get carried away with it for extended duration.. Our thoughts on Protein Supplements. Protein supplements only aid in your quest for proper nutrient intake, but should not be consumed to replace a meal more than once ...
Minerals: magnesium and calcium are essential for healthy heart. Calcium triggers the contraction and relaxation of the heart (all muscles) while Mg is important to be in the right ratio as calcium for calcium to work or else irregular heartbeats (sign of Mg deficiencies). Try using EPSOM GEL daily as your "skin is a mouth" to absorb the magnesium directly into the skin ...
Metamucil Multihealth Fiber Capsules with Calcium - Metamucil® Multihealth Fiber Capsules Plus Calcium give you healthy fiber and are an exce
The 5th European Seminar in Virology (EuSeV) will be held in Bertinoro from 16 to 18 june. These are short meetings, organized by the European Society for Virology (ESV) (http://www.eusv.eu), dedicate
Calcium is good for your bones and teeth as well as essential to the workings of your nervous system, muscle contractions, and blood vessel expansion. Determining how to eat more calcium can allow you to lead the healthy lifestyle you have always wanted.
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1GJY: The Crystal Structure of the Sorcin Calcium Binding Domain Provides a Model of Ca(2+)-Dependent Processes in the Full-Length Protein
I was wondering why would RHEL use swap , when there are Free buffers (shown in free command) In our case when we see free memory in top command getting exhausted, The server is using SWAP even...
Not having enough calcium can cause many health problems. Calcium insufficiency also causes weak bones and tooth decay. This is because almost all calcium is stored in bones and teeth.
Can you find Nitroblastx in stores? The answer is yes, in some stores. When you first encounter Nitroblastx in stores, you will think it couldnt do all it
Asher is recovering well so far but is not out of the woods yet. He still needs to recover from the surgery and its in the recovery phase that they expect the most amount of complications. His edema/swelling has come back (this is expected after major surgery) and his urine output has slowed down a bit. His blood pressure has been running a bit high. He is doing pretty good but still is in need of your prayers for him to fully recover. His calcium levels are low and they say that this is not only expected during this type of surgery but could also be attributed to the possible Chromosome Syndrome he has. We need to continue to pray that no infection would take place. They are talking about closing his chest tomorrow as long as he looses a bit more edema and everything is functioning right with his heart. The incision has been open since yesterday and looks really intense. It makes Erika and I woozy after a few minutes being around him. Its covered by a semi-see through material and you can see ...
Hi folks. Just had full panel of bloods done. Total serum calcium is just slightly high and corrected calcium slightly low. B12 is 1083. Vitamin d 38, and ferretin 13. Having headaches fatigue...
Humorous views on interesting, bizarre and amusing articles, submitted by a community of millions of news junkies, with regular Photoshop contests.
I dont have all your data to make an appropriate conclusion. It would be helpful to have the CD4 absolute count and percentages for all your tests to see what the trend is. The CD4 percent is a...
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Specifies one of three states for the widget: normal, readonly, or disabled. If the widget is disabled then the value may not be changed and the arrow button wont activate. If the widget is readonly, the entry may not be edited, but it may be changed by choosing a value from the popup listbox. normal is the default.. ...
The Sanjay Dutt, Bipasha Basu, Kunal Kapoor starrer Lamhaa, which is directed by Rahul Dholakia and produced by Bunty Walia, is ready for release.
There are quite a few limited releases on this weeks list, include a few that are opening in dozens of theaters. Freakonomics is generating the most
New Delhi: June 18, 2016: Calcium is important for maintaining strong bones. It also helps in blood clotting, early developmental growth and muscle contraction and relaxation. Calcium can be easily obtained from natural food sources like leafy vegetables, yoghurt, nuts and cheese. However, the majority of the Indians, specifically in the age group of 14-20 years suffer from calcium deficiency due to lack of efficient absorption. "Calcium deficiency disease, also known as hypocalcemia, occurs when you dont get enough calcium. It is crucial that people are educated about the effects of calcium deficiency on the overall health and wellbeing of people in the long run. Those suspected of suffering from calcium deficiency should not self-diagnose and treat themselves by consuming large amounts of calcium supplements. Instead, it is important that they consult their doctor and together devise a healthy eating plan supported by supplementation," said Padma Shri Awardee Dr KK Aggarwal - Honorary ...
Aequorin, which luminesces in the presence of calcium, was injected into photoreceptor cells of Limulus ventral eye. A bright light stimulus elicited a large increase in aequorin luminescence, the aequorin response, indicating a rise of intracellular calcium ion concentration, Cai. The aequorin response reached a maximum after the peak of the electrical response of the photoreceptor, decayed during a prolonged stimulus, and returned to an undetectable level in the dark. Reduction of Cao reduced the amplitude of the aequorin response by a factor no greater than 3. Raising Cao increased the amplitude of the aequorin response. The aequorin response became smaller when membrane voltage was clamped to successively more positive values. These results indicate that the stimulus-induced rise of Cai may be due in part to a light-induced influx of Ca and in part to release of Ca from an intracellular store. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that a rise in Cai is a step in the sequence of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Intracellular free calcium increases in cultured cortical neurons deprived of oxygen and glucose.. AU - Goldberg, M. P.. AU - Choi, D. W.. PY - 1990/11/1. Y1 - 1990/11/1. N2 - Dissociated neocortical cultures from fetal mice exposed transiently to a medium lacking both glucose and oxygen developed neuronal degeneration without glial degeneration. We have found that this injury depends on extracellular calcium and is associated with uptake of calcium from the culture medium. We measured free cytoplasmic calcium in individual neurons using the fluorescent calcium indicator fluo-3 and provide evidence that oxygen and glucose deprivation injury increases the intracellular calcium signal. Both intracellular calcium elevation and subsequent neuronal loss could be blocked by the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist dextrorphan.. AB - Dissociated neocortical cultures from fetal mice exposed transiently to a medium lacking both glucose and oxygen developed neuronal degeneration ...
In previous efforts to characterize sarcoplasmic reticulum function in human muscles, it has not been possible to distinguish the relative contributions of fast-twitch and slow-twitch fibers. In this study, we have used light scattering and 45Ca to monitor Ca accumulation by the sarcoplasmic reticulum of isolated, chemically skinned human muscle fibers in the presence and absence of oxalate. Oxalate (5 mM) increased the capacity for Ca accumulation by a factor of 35 and made it possible to assess both rate of Ca uptake and relative sarcoplasmic reticulum volume in individual fibers. At a fixed ionized Ca concentration, the rate and maximal capacity (an index of sarcoplasmic reticulum volume) both varied over a wide range, but fibers fell into two distinct groups (fast and slow). Between the two groups, there was a 2- to 2.5-fold difference in oxalate-supported Ca uptake rates, but no difference in average sarcoplasmic reticulum volumes. Intrinsic differences in sarcoplasmic reticulum function ...
Calcium is an essential mineral for several important functions in the body of an animal. Calcium is needed for the development of the fetal skeleton as well as for the secretion of milk in lactating females, making pregnant and nursing guinea pigs more prone to calcium deficiency if their increased nutritional needs are not being met. This related type of calcium deficiency usually develops in the one to two weeks before, or shortly after, giving birth. Also at higher risk of calcium deficiency are obese or stressed guinea pigs, or guinea pigs that have already been pregnant several times.
Cellular stress responses often involve elevation of cytosolic calcium levels, and this has been suggested to stimulate autophagy. Here, however, we demonstrated that agents that alter intracellular calcium ion homeostasis and induce ER stress-the calcium ionophore A23187 and the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca (2+)-ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin (TG)-potently inhibit autophagy. This anti-autophagic effect occurred under both nutrient-rich and amino acid starvation conditions, and was reflected by a strong reduction in autophagic degradation of long-lived proteins. Furthermore, we found that the calcium-modulating agents inhibited autophagosome biogenesis at a step after the acquisition of WIPI1, but prior to the closure of the autophagosome. The latter was evident from the virtually complete inability of A23187- or TG-treated cells to sequester cytosolic lactate dehydrogenase. Moreover, we observed a decrease in both the number and size of starvation-induced EGFP-LC3 puncta as well as reduced numbers of
The secretion of ions and fluid plays a critical role in a variety of physiological activities that are vital to homeostatic mechanisms in animals. Control of such secretory activity is achieved by a range of neurotransmitters and hormones many of which act intracellularly by generating the second messenger inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) and increasing cytosolic free calcium ion concentrations ([Ca2+]i). These increases are achieved by a combination of the InsP3-induced release of Ca2+ from specific intracellular stores and the activation of Ca2+ entry from the extracellular environment. The [Ca2+]i signal represents a balance between the adequate activation of components of the secretory mechanism and the avoidance of [Ca2+]i levels that are toxic to the cell. Resting [Ca2+]i is maintained low by the action of Ca2+ pumps on the intracellular stores and plasma membrane, with the result that gradients for Ca2+ movement into the cytosol from either of these two sources are very large and ...
Serum calcium. Routine serum calcium assay measures the total serum calcium value. Total serum calcium contains about 50% bound calcium (literature range, 35%-55%) and about 50% nonbound calcium (literature range, 35%-65%). (Traditionally, nonbound calcium was called "ionized" calcium and is also known as "free" or "dialyzable" calcium.) Bound calcium is subdivided into calcium bound to protein and calcium complexed to nonprotein compounds. About 45% of total calcium (30%-50%) is protein-bound, of which 70%-80% is bound to albumin. The remaining 5% (5%-15%) of total calcium is complexed to ions such as citrate, phosphate, sulfate, and bicarbonate, which are not part of the serum proteins. Ionized calcium levels can be measured directly by ion-selective electrode techniques or less accurately can be estimated from total serum calcium and albumin or total protein values using certain formulas. The most commonly used calcium correction formula is that of R.B. Payne:. Adjusted calcium = (measured ...
Peter Gillham Natural Vitality - Calm Plus Calcium Calcium is an important nutrient essential for maintaining total body health. Your body needs it every day-not just to keep your bones and teeth strong, but to ensure proper functioning of muscles and nerves. It even helps your blood to clot. But can too much calcium be a problem? Yes, it can. Excess calcium can deplete its vital sister mineral, magnesium, from the body and, as a result, can bring about symptoms of magnesium depletion, listed on the green page of this brochure. Calcium acts to excite nerves and is necessary for muscle contraction. Magnesium, on the other hand, calms nerves and is needed for muscle relaxation. Calcium makes bones stiff and hard, but magnesium is needed to avoid their becoming brittle. An excess of unabsorbed calcium may result in kidney stones and deposits in soft tissues such as arteries and heart cells, where it can calcify or harden into insoluble calcium. You experience the tensing (calcium)
Read "Bending the MDCK Cell Primary Cilium Increases Intracellular Calcium, The Journal of Membrane Biology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Calcium buffering describes the processes which help stabilise the concentration of free calcium ions within cells, in a similar manner to how pH buffers maintain a stable concentration of hydrogen ions. The majority of calcium ions within the cell are bound to intracellular proteins, leaving a minority freely dissociated. When calcium is added to or removed from the cytoplasm by transport across the cell membrane or sarcoplasmic reticulum, calcium buffers minimise the effect on changes in cytoplasmic free calcium concentration by binding calcium to or releasing calcium from intracellular proteins. As a result, 99% of the calcium added to the cytosol of a cardiomyocyte during each cardiac cycle becomes bound to calcium buffers, creating a relatively small change in free calcium. The regulation of free calcium is of particular importance in excitable cells like cardiomyocytes and neurons. Within these cells, many intracellular proteins can act as calcium buffers. In cardiac muscle cells, the most ...
A dysfunctioning of Ca2+ pump ATPase in the sarcoplasmic reticulum in vascular smooth muscle has been proposed as a contributing factor for the development of genetic hypertension. In this study, we determined whether in vitro inhibition of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ pump in vascular smooth muscle tissues and cultured cells isolated from aortas of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats would elicit the known alterations of contractile function and cell growth. We found the following common vascular effects of thapsigargin and cyclopiazonic acid, which are known to be selective inhibitors of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase in a number of tissues including smooth muscle: (1) Both sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ pump inhibitors diminished agonist-induced transient contraction in Ca(2+)-free medium (ie, contraction due to intracellular release of Ca2+) and enhanced nifedipine-sensitive contraction on readmission of Ca2+ (ie, Ca2+ influx via L-type channels); and (2) ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nitric oxide-dependent activation of CaMKII increases diastolic sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium release in cardiac myocytes in response to adrenergic stimulation. AU - Curran, Jerry. AU - Tang, Lifei. AU - Roof, Steve R.. AU - Velmurugan, Sathya. AU - Millard, Ashley. AU - Shonts, Stephen. AU - Wang, Honglan. AU - Santiago, Demetrio. AU - Ahmad, Usama. AU - Perryman, Matthew. AU - Bers, Donald M. AU - Mohler, Peter J.. AU - Ziolo, Mark T.. AU - Shannon, Thomas R.. PY - 2014/2/3. Y1 - 2014/2/3. N2 - Spontaneous calcium waves in cardiac myocytes are caused by diastolic sarcoplasmic reticulum release (SR Ca2+ leak) through ryanodine receptors. Beta-adrenergic (β-AR) tone is known to increase this leak through the activation of Ca-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMKII) and the subsequent phosphorylation of the ryanodine receptor. When b-AR drive is chronic, as observed in heart failure, this CaMKII-dependent effect is exaggerated and becomes potentially arrhythmogenic. Recent ...
Looking for online definition of Plasma membrane calcium pump isoform 4 in the Medical Dictionary? Plasma membrane calcium pump isoform 4 explanation free. What is Plasma membrane calcium pump isoform 4? Meaning of Plasma membrane calcium pump isoform 4 medical term. What does Plasma membrane calcium pump isoform 4 mean?
The major growth driver for the global active calcium silicate market is the recent recovery in the construction industry after the economic recession. Increasing spending on the residential and commercial construction projects have positively influenced the global active calcium silicate market. The increasing demand for the passive fire protection and acoustic insulation are expected to spur the application of active calcium silicate in the future. Regulatory standards implemented by various regulatory bodies such as OSHA and NIOSH demand addition of extra safety features to the building structures and are expected to augment the active calcium silicate market. Active calcium silicate are mainly used in the building walls, blast furnaces, electric arc furnaces and oil refineries. Thus, the growing high temperature insulation application scope in the steel, glass and petrochemical industries propel the market of active calcium silicates. In addition to this, the introduction of products that ...
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We have tested the periodate-oxidized ATP analogue 2′,3′-dialdehyde adenosine triphosphate (oATP) as a ligand for the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor/Ca(2+)-release channel. Ca2+ efflux from passively loaded heavy sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles of skeletal muscle is biphasic. oATP stimulates the initial phase of Ca2+ release in a concentration-dependent manner (EC50 160 microM), and the efflux proceeds with a half-time in the range 100-200 ms. This oATP-modulated initial rapid Ca2+ release was specifically inhibited by millimolar concentrations of Mg2+ and micromolar concentrations of Ruthenium Red, indicating that the effect of oATP was mediated via the ryanodine receptor. The purified Ca(2+)-release channel was incorporated into planar lipid bilayers, and single-channel recordings were carried out to verify a direct interaction of oATP with the ryanodine receptor. Addition of oATP to the cytoplasmic side activated the channel with an EC50 of 76 microM, which is roughly 30-fold higher ...
In the human erythroleukemia cell line, HEL, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and the stable prostacyclin analogue, iloprost, increase cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) via pertussis toxin-sensitive and -insensitive pathways. Unlike iloprost, the stable prostacyclin analogue cicaprost (ZK 96480), is devoid of agonistic properties at prostaglandin E2 receptors. We compared the effects of cicaprost, iloprost and PGE2 on [Ca2+]i in HEL cells. Cicaprost, iloprost and PGE2 were similarly potent to increase [Ca2+]i in HEL cells. However, unlike the effects of PGE2, those of the prostacyclin analogues were not inhibited by pertussis toxin. The prostaglandins studied increased [Ca2+]i through both mobilization from internal stores and Ca2+ influx from the extracellular space. Prostacyclin analogue- and PGE2-induced rises in [Ca2+]i were desensitized in a homologous manner. Additionally, there was cross-desensitization between cicaprost and iloprost, but not between the prostacyclin analogues and PGE2. Our ...
In bovine adrenal chromaffin cells, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) stimulates the formation of inositol phosphates and Ca2+ mobilization through its specific receptor [Yokohama, Tanaka, Ito, Negishi, Hayashi & Hayaishi (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263, 1119-1122]. Here we show that PGE2-induced phosphoinositide metabolism was blocked by pretreatment with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA). Using intact cells, we also examined the inhibitory effect of TPA on the individual steps of the activation process of phosphoinositide metabolism. The inhibition was observed within 1 min and complete by 10 min after addition of 1 microM-TPA, and half-maximal inhibition by TPA occurred at 20 nM. TPA prevented Ca2+ mobilization induced by PGE2, but not by the Ca2+ ionophore ionomycin. The inactive phorbol ester 4 alpha-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate did not inhibit the formation of inositol phosphates and Ca2+ mobilization by PGE2. TPA treatment affected neither the high-affinity binding of [3H]PGE2 to intact cells and ...

Calcium Gluconate - Drugs.comCalcium Gluconate - Drugs.com

A list of US medications equivalent to Calcium Gluconate is available on the Drugs.com website. ... Calcium Gluconate is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. ... Calcium Gluconicum Sopharma (Calcium Gluconate and Calcium Levulinate). Sopharma, Bulgaria. *Calcium Magnesium Infuus (Calcium ... Gluconate de Calcium B. Braun 10%. B. Braun, France. *Gluconate de Calcium Proamp 10% (Calcium Gluconate and Calcium ...
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Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition DiseaseCalcium Pyrophosphate Deposition Disease

Calcium deposition is often seen at the triangular fibrocartilage of the wrist. Subchondral sclerosis, joint space narrowing, ... Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystal deposition disease is slightly more prevalent in men. Chondrocalcinosis results ...
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Whats tagged with Calcium Gluconate | KontrabandWhat's tagged with Calcium Gluconate | Kontraband

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Patent US5614206 - Controlled dissolution pellet containing calcium sulfate - Google PatentsPatent US5614206 - Controlled dissolution pellet containing calcium sulfate - Google Patents

The dissolution rate of the calcium sulfate pellet is controlled by varying the weight ratio of the beta-calcium sulfate ... wherein said alpha-calcium sulfate hemihydrate and beta-calcium sulfate hemihydrate powders have specified properties such as ... The controlled release is achieved by a pellet comprising calcium sulfate. The pellet is prepared by the process comprising ... an additive and a powder consisting essentially of beta-calcium sulfate hemihydrate to form a mixture, and forming said mixture ...
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Calcium Pyrophosphate Dihydrate Deposition Disease | Medical City DallasCalcium Pyrophosphate Dihydrate Deposition Disease | Medical City Dallas

Learn more about Calcium Pyrophosphate Dihydrate Deposition Disease at Medical City Dallas DefinitionCausesRisk ... Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease (CPPD) is a build up of calcium crystals in the joints. These crystals cause ... It is not known what causes these calcium pyrophosphates to form. Genetics appear to play a role since it may run in families. ... Calcium pyrophosphate deposition (CPPD) (formerly called pseudogout). American College of Rheumatology website. Available at: ...
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calcium gluconate food grade list -   calcium gluconate food grade for salecalcium gluconate food grade list - calcium gluconate food grade for sale

... calcium gluconate food grade wholesalers & calcium gluconate food grade manufacturers from China manufacturers. ... calcium gluconate food grade. All calcium gluconate food grade wholesalers & calcium gluconate food grade manufacturers come ... 471-34-1 Light calcium carbonate also called Precipitate calcium carbonate. It is made of high quality calcium carbonate ( ... Calcium Gluconate (FCC/BP/USP, food grade) Calcium Gluconate (FCC/BP/USP, food grade): it is white granules or white ... ...
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Injectable calcium sulphate and calcium phosphate bone substitutesInjectable calcium sulphate and calcium phosphate bone substitutes

... Nilsson, Malin K LU (2003) *Mark ... The second biphasic injectable bone substitute formulation consists of a calcium deficient HA matrix with embedded calcium ... calcium phosphate,injectable,calcium sulphate}, language = {eng}, pages = {106}, publisher = {Department of Orthopaedics, Lund ... The second biphasic injectable bone substitute formulation consists of a calcium deficient HA matrix with embedded calcium ...
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Calcium dobesilate may alleviate diabetes‑induced endothelial dysfunction and inflammationCalcium dobesilate may alleviate diabetes‑induced endothelial dysfunction and inflammation

Calcium dobesilate (CaD, calcium 2,5-dihydroxybenzenesulfonate) is considered an angioprotective drug that can reduce blood ... Zhang X, Liu W, Wu S, Jin J, Li W and Wang N: Calcium dobesilate for diabetic retinopathy: A systematic review and meta- ... Calcium dobesilate may alleviate diabetes‑induced endothelial dysfunction and inflammation. *Authors: *Yijun Zhou ... Demirtas S, Caliskan A, Guclu O, Yazici S, Karahan O, Yavuz C and Mavitas B: Can calcium dobesilate be used safely for ...
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Maxillary Sinus Augmentation Using Prehardened Calcium Sulfate: A Case ReportMaxillary Sinus Augmentation Using Prehardened Calcium Sulfate: A Case Report

Prehardened medical-grade calcium sulfate hemihydrate was placed as a grafting material for sinus floor elevation in the left ... In both the grafted area and the previously existing area of sinus floor, the histology showed complete calcium sulfate ... This case report documented that medicalgrade calcium sulfate hemihydrate, when used as a grafting material for augmentation of ...
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calcium citrate and calcium carbonate - best calcium citrate and calcium carbonatecalcium citrate and calcium carbonate - best calcium citrate and calcium carbonate

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FAQ - Calcium Gluconate Gel - Attards MineralsFAQ - Calcium Gluconate Gel - Attard's Minerals

Calcium Gluconate gel works by stopping HF from taking calcium from tissues by providing alternative calcium so that HF takes ... Calcium Gluconate Gel is a cream that is to be kept close by for safety whenever one is working with Hydrofluoric acid (HF). ... Liberally apply Calcium Gluconate Gel to the area.. *One should seek medical attention without delay, even if the area of ... Every person that is likely to come in contact with Hydrofluoric Acid (HF) should have their own supply of Calcium Gluconate ...
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Laboratory Scale Study of Calcium Sulfate Hydration Forms by Sandeep Kumar Kuthadi"Laboratory Scale Study of Calcium Sulfate Hydration Forms" by Sandeep Kumar Kuthadi

... and the hydration of calcium sulfate hemihydrate as well as anhydrous calcium sulfate. The lab-scale kinetics of these ... The main goal of this research is to better understand the dehydration properties of calcium sulfate dihydrate, ... were investigated to determine their influence on the kinetics of dehydration/hydration of different hydration forms of calcium ... and the hydration of calcium sulfate hemihydrate as well as anhydrous calcium sulfate. The lab-scale kinetics of these ...
more infohttps://digitalcommons.wku.edu/theses/1467/

Calcium carbonate buyers in dubai, Calcium carbonate and chalk paintCalcium carbonate buyers in dubai, Calcium carbonate and chalk paint

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Intravenous Calcium Gluconate Injection Medication , 10ml /10 Calcium Gluconate Solution of finishedmedicineIntravenous Calcium Gluconate Injection Medication , 10ml /10 Calcium Gluconate Solution of finishedmedicine

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Basic Calcium Phosphate Crystals Induce Osteoarthritis-Associated Changes in Chondrocyte Phenotype through Activation of...Basic Calcium Phosphate Crystals Induce Osteoarthritis-Associated Changes in Chondrocyte Phenotype through Activation of...

Basic Calcium Phosphate Crystals Induce Osteoarthritis-Associated Changes in Chondrocyte Phenotype through Activation of ... Basic Calcium Phosphate Crystals Induce Osteoarthritis-Associated Changes in Chondrocyte Phenotype through Activation of ... Calcium/Calmodulin Kinase 2. Rong, Jing ; Pool, Bregtina ; Zhu, Mark ; Munro, Jacob ; McCarthy, Geraldine M ; Cornish, Jillian ...
more infohttps://researchspace.auckland.ac.nz/handle/2292/46680

ab32345: Review Calcium Gluconate 500mgab32345: Review Calcium Gluconate 500mg

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Calcium carbonate : Calcium carbonate market price per ton, Kinetics of calcium carbonate decompositionCalcium carbonate : Calcium carbonate market price per ton, Kinetics of calcium carbonate decomposition

... market price per ton calcium carbonate dose ckd calcium carbonate analytical grade calcium acetate vs calcium carbonate calcium ... carbonate benefits in urdu calcium carbonate precipitates out of water in a cave to form stalactites and stalagmites calcium ... carbonate solubility calculator calcium carbonate is used in the production of which metal ... Calcium carbonate market price per ton uses of calcium carbonate in hindi. Tegretol and other drugs like it work by preventing ...
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10% Calcium Gluconate Ampoule - Alfa Laboratories10% Calcium Gluconate Ampoule - Alfa Laboratories

10% Calcium Gluconate Ampoule. Calcium Gluconate Injection, USP is a sterile, nonpyrogenic supersaturated solution of calcium ... Specifications of 10% Calcium Gluconate Ampoule. D E S C R I P T I O N. CODE. SHELF LIFE. PACKAGING. ...
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Calcium Sulphate Raised Access FloorCalcium Sulphate Raised Access Floor

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Calcium Carbonate: MedlinePlus Drug InformationCalcium Carbonate: MedlinePlus Drug Information

Calcium Carbonate: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Calcium carbonate is a dietary supplement used when the amount of calcium taken in the diet is not enough. Calcium is needed by ... Before taking calcium carbonate,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to calcium carbonate or any other drugs. ... Do not take calcium carbonate within 1-2 hours of taking other medicines. Calcium may decrease the effectiveness of the other ...
more infohttps://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/meds/a601032.html

Calcium in Spanish | Translate English to Spanish | Spanish CentralCalcium in Spanish | Translate English to Spanish | Spanish Central

Translation of calcium at Merriam-Websters Spanish-English Dictionary. Audio pronunciations, verb conjugations, quizzes and ... What made you want to look up calcium? Please tell us where you read or heard it (including the quote, if possible). ...
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Association of Long-Term Proton Pump Inhibitor Therapy with Bone Fractures and Effects on Absorption of Calcium, Vitamin B12,...Association of Long-Term Proton Pump Inhibitor Therapy with Bone Fractures and Effects on Absorption of Calcium, Vitamin B12,...

Recker RR: Calcium absorption and achlorhydria. N Engl J Med 1985, 313:70-73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Heaney RP, Smith KT, Recker RR, Hinders SM: Meal effects on calcium absorption. Am J Clin Nutr 1989, 49:372-376.PubMedGoogle ... Chonan O, Takahashi R, Yasui H, Watanuki M: Effect of L-lactic acid on calcium absorption in rats fed omeprazole. J Nutr Sci ... Knox TA, Kassarjian Z, Dawson-Hughes B, et al.: Calcium absorption in elderly subjects on high- and low-fiber diets: effect of ...
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Calcium | MedlinePlusCalcium | MedlinePlus

Learn what foods are high in calcium and how much calcium you need in a healthy diet. ... Calcium Blood Test (National Library of Medicine) Also in Spanish * Calcium in Urine Test (National Library of Medicine) Also ... Calcium supplements (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish * Calcium, vitamin D, and your bones (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in ... Calcium has many important jobs. The body stores more than 99 percent of its calcium in the bones and teeth to help make and ...
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The best calcium-rich foods | BBC Good FoodThe best calcium-rich foods | BBC Good Food

... how much calcium you should be eating each day and the best non-dairy and vegan sources of this vital mineral. ... Discover which foods are high in calcium, how much calcium you should be eating each day and the best non-dairy and vegan ... soya milk or bread with added calcium. Check the label on the packet to see how much calcium has been added to each portion. ... 200ml soya milk (calcium fortified). 240mg. Drink milk on its own or paired with low-sugar cereal or muesli. Milk-based drinks ...
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Calcium - WikipediaCalcium - Wikipedia

For example, calcium and phosphorus are supplemented in foods through the addition of calcium lactate, calcium diphosphate, and ... Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine ... All four dihalides of calcium are known.[14] Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and calcium sulfate (CaSO4) are particularly abundant ... Main article: Calcium in biology. Age-adjusted daily calcium recommendations (from U.S. Institute of Medicine RDAs)[47] Age ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calcium
  • Interest in this area has led to examination of the effects of PPIs on calcium absorption/metabolism and numerous cohort, case-control, and prospective studies of their ability to affect bone density and cause bone fractures. (springer.com)
  • While the most common problem related to calcium metabolism is undoubtedly bone loss from getting too little calcium, there can be problems when intake of this nutrient gets too high as well. (whfoods.com)
  • Pitkin RM: Calcium metabolism in pregnancy: a review. (springer.com)
  • Calcium-enriched foods such as breakfast cereals, fruit juices, soy and rice drinks, and tofu. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you don't consume dairy for health reasons (e.g., lactose intolerance) or other personal reasons (e.g., dietary restrictions due to religious beliefs), it is still possible to obtain necessary levels of calcium in your diet through non-dairy food sources. (osu.edu)
  • While dairy products provide calcium, some are also high in saturated fat and calories. (osu.edu)
  • Parsley has just as much calcium per pound as collards. (motherearthnews.com)
  • Of course, most likely you won't be sitting down to a dish of parsley, as you would collards or kale, but just knowing how loaded with calcium it is, maybe you'll be adding it to more foods. (motherearthnews.com)
  • Find more information about kale and collards and about calcium and how your body uses it at http://homeplaceearth.wordpress.com/2012/11/13/growing-calcium/ . (motherearthnews.com)
  • While calcium is the most critical nutrient to skeletal health, other nutrients provide important support to help absorb and use calcium in the bones. (whfoods.com)
  • Calcium compounds are widely used in many industries: in foods and pharmaceuticals for calcium supplementation, in the paper industry as bleaches, as components in cement and electrical insulators, and in the manufacture of soaps. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research does show that calcium is important for good bone health. (breastcancer.org)
  • Now the U.S. Preventive Services Task Forces says there's no evidence that calcium helps, and a few studies show that calcium may raise the risk of heart disease. (wsj.com)
  • It is important to get plenty of calcium in the foods you eat. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Which foods contain calcium and how much is in an average portion? (bbcgoodfood.com)
  • Because calcium is so important, food companies often add it to cereal, bread, juice, and other kid-friendly foods. (kidshealth.org)
  • But preteens and teens may need to add more calcium-rich foods to their diet. (kidshealth.org)
  • From this very simple description, you can see how calcium-rich foods can play a role in many aspects of your health that extend far beyond the specific area of bone health. (whfoods.com)
  • There is still some debate about how much of a problem this is for the average adult, but at this time, most nutrition experts agree that excess dietary calcium is very unlikely, and probably the result of a diet that is largely dependent upon dairy foods. (whfoods.com)
  • Contrary to popular belief, you do not need to eat dairy foods to get the calcium you need in your meal plan. (whfoods.com)
  • However, if you want to avoid dairy foods altogether, it is definitely possible for you to do so while obtaining all of the calcium you need from other foods. (whfoods.com)
  • Calcium is essential for strong teeth and bones because it gives them strength and rigidity. (bbcgoodfood.com)
  • Ninety-nine percent of calcium is in teeth and bones. (osu.edu)
  • In addition to its widely known role in bone structure, calcium is used to help control muscle and nerve function, as well as to manage acid/base balance in our blood stream. (whfoods.com)
  • Low Blood Calcium And Sudden Cardiac Arrest Posted by Denis OMalley on 9 Oct 2017 at 8:56 pm This is another article worth dismissing as irrelevant, curiously following one, last week, on low Potassium, just as worthless. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Posted by Tony Walker on 30 Oct 2017 at 2:42 am Low calcium may raise cardiac arrest risk by twofold. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Maintaining a balanced blood calcium level is essential to life, especially for cardiac function. (healthy.net)
  • Excess calcium can deposit in places where it doesn't belong, including blood vessels and the kidneys (in the form of kidney stones). (whfoods.com)
  • The body stores more than 99 percent of its calcium in the bones and teeth to help make and keep them strong. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Calcium is the most abundant metal and the fifth-most abundant element in the human body . (wikipedia.org)
  • At any given time, about 99% of our total body calcium stores are found in bones and teeth. (whfoods.com)
  • During infancy and childhood, 50-70 percent of the calcium ingested may be absorbed, whereas an adult might use only 30-50 percent of dietary calcium in his or her body. (healthy.net)