Calcitriol: The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.Receptors, Calcitriol: Proteins, usually found in the cytoplasm, that specifically bind calcitriol, migrate to the nucleus, and regulate transcription of specific segments of DNA with the participation of D receptor interacting proteins (called DRIP). Vitamin D is converted in the liver and kidney to calcitriol and ultimately acts through these receptors.Calcium Channel Agonists: Agents that increase calcium influx into calcium channels of excitable tissues. This causes vasoconstriction in VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE and/or CARDIAC MUSCLE cells as well as stimulation of insulin release from pancreatic islets. Therefore, tissue-selective calcium agonists have the potential to combat cardiac failure and endocrinological disorders. They have been used primarily in experimental studies in cell and tissue culture.Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary: Abnormally elevated PARATHYROID HORMONE secretion as a response to HYPOCALCEMIA. It is caused by chronic KIDNEY FAILURE or other abnormalities in the controls of bone and mineral metabolism, leading to various BONE DISEASES, such as RENAL OSTEODYSTROPHY.Parathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.Ergocalciferols: Derivatives of ERGOSTEROL formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. They differ from CHOLECALCIFEROL in having a double bond between C22 and C23 and a methyl group at C24.Vitamins: Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.Parathyroid Glands: Two pairs of small oval-shaped glands located in the front and the base of the NECK and adjacent to the two lobes of THYROID GLAND. They secrete PARATHYROID HORMONE that regulates the balance of CALCIUM; PHOSPHORUS; and MAGNESIUM in the body.Hypercalcemia: Abnormally high level of calcium in the blood.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Vitamin D: A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.Hypocalcemia: Reduction of the blood calcium below normal. Manifestations include hyperactive deep tendon reflexes, Chvostek's sign, muscle and abdominal cramps, and carpopedal spasm. (Dorland, 27th ed)Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Renal Osteodystrophy: Decalcification of bone or abnormal bone development due to chronic KIDNEY DISEASES, in which 1,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D3 synthesis by the kidneys is impaired, leading to reduced negative feedback on PARATHYROID HORMONE. The resulting SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM eventually leads to bone disorders.Uremia: A clinical syndrome associated with the retention of renal waste products or uremic toxins in the blood. It is usually the result of RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. Most uremic toxins are end products of protein or nitrogen CATABOLISM, such as UREA or CREATININE. Severe uremia can lead to multiple organ dysfunctions with a constellation of symptoms.25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-Hydroxylase: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 1-alpha-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (also known as 25-hydroxycholecalciferol) in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP27B1 gene, converts 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 to 1-alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 which is the active form of VITAMIN D in regulating bone growth and calcium metabolism. This enzyme is also active on plant 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (ergocalciferol).Hyperparathyroidism: A condition of abnormally elevated output of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH) triggering responses that increase blood CALCIUM. It is characterized by HYPERCALCEMIA and BONE RESORPTION, eventually leading to bone diseases. PRIMARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is caused by parathyroid HYPERPLASIA or PARATHYROID NEOPLASMS. SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is increased PTH secretion in response to HYPOCALCEMIA, usually caused by chronic KIDNEY DISEASES.Steroid Hydroxylases: Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.Calcifediol: The major circulating metabolite of VITAMIN D3. It is produced in the LIVER and is the best indicator of the body's vitamin D stores. It is effective in the treatment of RICKETS and OSTEOMALACIA, both in azotemic and non-azotemic patients. Calcifediol also has mineralizing properties.Pacific States: The geographic designation for states bordering on or located in the Pacific Ocean. The states so designated are Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington. (U.S. Geologic Survey telephone communication)Vitamin D Response Element: A DNA sequence that is found in the promoter region of vitamin D regulated genes. Vitamin D receptor (RECEPTOR, CALCITRIOL) binds to and regulates the activity of genes containing this element.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Cholecalciferol: Derivative of 7-dehydroxycholesterol formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. It differs from ERGOCALCIFEROL in having a single bond between C22 and C23 and lacking a methyl group at C24.Hypoparathyroidism: A condition caused by a deficiency of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH). It is characterized by HYPOCALCEMIA and hyperphosphatemia. Hypocalcemia leads to TETANY. The acquired form is due to removal or injuries to the PARATHYROID GLANDS. The congenital form is due to mutations of genes, such as TBX1; (see DIGEORGE SYNDROME); CASR encoding CALCIUM-SENSING RECEPTOR; or PTH encoding parathyroid hormone.Osteomalacia: Disorder caused by an interruption of the mineralization of organic bone matrix leading to bone softening, bone pain, and weakness. It is the adult form of rickets resulting from disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis.Renal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.Parathyroidectomy: Excision of one or more of the parathyroid glands.Phosphorus, Dietary: Phosphorus used in foods or obtained from food. This element is a major intracellular component which plays an important role in many biochemical pathways relating to normal physiological functions. High concentrations of dietary phosphorus can cause nephrocalcinosis which is associated with impaired kidney function. Low concentrations of dietary phosphorus cause an increase in calcitriol in the blood and osteoporosis.Bone Density Conservation Agents: Agents that inhibit BONE RESORPTION and/or favor BONE MINERALIZATION and BONE REGENERATION. They are used to heal BONE FRACTURES and to treat METABOLIC BONE DISEASES such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Rickets: Disorders caused by interruption of BONE MINERALIZATION manifesting as OSTEOMALACIA in adults and characteristic deformities in infancy and childhood due to disturbances in normal BONE FORMATION. The mineralization process may be interrupted by disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis, resulting from dietary deficiencies, or acquired, or inherited metabolic, or hormonal disturbances.Hypophosphatemia, Familial: An inherited condition of abnormally low serum levels of PHOSPHATES (below 1 mg/liter) which can occur in a number of genetic diseases with defective reabsorption of inorganic phosphorus by the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. This leads to phosphaturia, HYPOPHOSPHATEMIA, and disturbances of cellular and organ functions such as those in X-LINKED HYPOPHOSPHATEMIC RICKETS; OSTEOMALACIA; and FANCONI SYNDROME.Hypophosphatemia: A condition of an abnormally low level of PHOSPHATES in the blood.Calcium Carbonate: Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Astemizole: Antihistamine drug now withdrawn from the market in many countries because of rare but potentially fatal side effects.Sulfadimethoxine: A sulfanilamide that is used as an anti-infective agent.Osteocalcin: Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Familial Hypophosphatemic Rickets: A hereditary disorder characterized by HYPOPHOSPHATEMIA; RICKETS; OSTEOMALACIA; renal defects in phosphate reabsorption and vitamin D metabolism; and growth retardation. Autosomal and X-linked dominant and recessive variants have been reported.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.S100 Calcium Binding Protein G: A calbindin protein found in many mammalian tissues, including the UTERUS, PLACENTA, BONE, PITUITARY GLAND, and KIDNEYS. In intestinal ENTEROCYTES it mediates intracellular calcium transport from apical to basolateral membranes via calcium binding at two EF-HAND MOTIFS. Expression is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.Cholestanetriol 26-Monooxygenase: An NAPH-dependent cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates such as the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol.Receptors, Calcium-Sensing: A class of G-protein-coupled receptors that react to varying extracellular CALCIUM levels. Calcium-sensing receptors in the PARATHYROID GLANDS play an important role in the maintenance of calcium HOMEOSTASIS by regulating the release of PARATHYROID HORMONE. They differ from INTRACELLULAR CALCIUM-SENSING PROTEINS which sense intracellular calcium levels.IdahoVitamin D Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN D in the diet, insufficient production of vitamin D in the skin, inadequate absorption of vitamin D from the diet, or abnormal conversion of vitamin D to its bioactive metabolites. It is manifested clinically as RICKETS in children and OSTEOMALACIA in adults. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1406)Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenases: Catalyzes reversibly the oxidation of hydroxyl groups of prostaglandins.25-Hydroxyvitamin D 2: 9,10-Secoergosta-5,7,10(19),22-tetraene-3,25-diol. Biologically active metabolite of vitamin D2 which is more active in curing rickets than its parent. The compound is believed to attach to the same receptor as vitamin D2 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3.Hydroxycholecalciferols: Hydroxy analogs of vitamin D 3; (CHOLECALCIFEROL); including CALCIFEDIOL; CALCITRIOL; and 24,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D 3.Dihydroxycholecalciferols: Cholecalciferols substituted with two hydroxy groups in any position.Pulse Therapy, Drug: Administration of high doses of pharmaceuticals over short periods of time.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Fibroblast Growth Factors: A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.Calcium Gluconate: The calcium salt of gluconic acid. The compound has a variety of uses, including its use as a calcium replenisher in hypocalcemic states.Phosphorus Metabolism Disorders: Disorders in the processing of phosphorus in the body: its absorption, transport, storage, and utilization.Calbindins: Calcium-binding proteins that are found in DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES, INTESTINES, BRAIN, and other tissues where they bind, buffer and transport cytoplasmic calcium. Calbindins possess a variable number of EF-HAND MOTIFS which contain calcium-binding sites. Some isoforms are regulated by VITAMIN D.Etidronic Acid: A diphosphonate which affects calcium metabolism. It inhibits ectopic calcification and slows down bone resorption and bone turnover.Kidneys, Artificial: Devices which can substitute for normally functioning KIDNEYS in removing components from the blood by DIALYSIS that are normally eliminated in the URINE.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Annexin A6: Protein of the annexin family with a probable role in exocytotic and endocytotic membrane events.Calcium, Dietary: Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.Bone Resorption: Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.Nephrectomy: Excision of kidney.Pharmaceutical Vehicles: A carrier or inert medium used as a solvent (or diluent) in which the medicinally active agent is formulated and or administered. (Dictionary of Pharmacy, 1986)Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Injections, Intralesional: Injections introduced directly into localized lesions.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Alendronate: A nonhormonal medication for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in women. This drug builds healthy bone, restoring some of the bone loss as a result of osteoporosis.Renal Insufficiency, Chronic: Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level for more than three months. Chronic kidney insufficiency is classified by five stages according to the decline in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA). The most severe form is the end-stage renal disease (CHRONIC KIDNEY FAILURE). (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002)Calcimimetic Agents: Small organic molecules that act as allosteric activators of the calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) in the PARATHYROID GLANDS and other tissues. They lower the threshold for CaSR activation by extracellular calcium ions and diminish PARATHYROID HORMONE (PTH) release from parathyroid cells.

Vitamin D regulates human ectocervical epithelial cell proliferation and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 level. (1/2474)

The differentiation status of the cervical epithelial cell has an important influence on responsiveness to estrogens and progestins. Several agents, including glucocorticoids and retinoids, are known to influence cervical cell differentiation. However, the effects of vitamin D have not been examined. Vitamin D is known to regulate cell proliferation and gene expression in a variety of epithelial cells. In the present study we investigated the ability of 1alpha25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (D3) to regulate cell proliferation and expression of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) in human ectocervical epithelial cells. ECE16-1, a non-tumorigenic cervical cell line, was growth inhibited by D3 with maximal inhibition at 1000 nM. IGFBP-3 levels increased in parallel with the growth inhibition. IGFBP-3 levels were half-maximally increased at approximately 10-100 nM and maximally increased (10- to 30-fold) at 1000 nM D3. These studies show that vitamin D regulates cervical epithelial cell gene regulation and cell proliferation and that IGFBP-3 may be an in vivo marker of vitamin D action in the cervix.  (+info)

22-oxacalcitriol suppresses secondary hyperparathyroidism without inducing low bone turnover in dogs with renal failure. (2/2474)

BACKGROUND: Calcitriol therapy suppresses serum levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in patients with renal failure but has several drawbacks, including hypercalcemia and/or marked suppression of bone turnover, which may lead to adynamic bone disease. A new vitamin D analogue, 22-oxacalcitriol (OCT), has been shown to have promising characteristics. This study was undertaken to determine the effects of OCT on serum PTH levels and bone turnover in states of normal or impaired renal function. METHODS: Sixty dogs were either nephrectomized (Nx, N = 38) or sham-operated (Sham, N = 22). The animals received supplemental phosphate to enhance PTH secretion. Fourteen weeks after the start of phosphate supplementation, half of the Nx and Sham dogs received doses of OCT (three times per week); the other half were given vehicle for 60 weeks. Thereafter, the treatment modalities for a subset of animals were crossed over for an additional eight months. Biochemical and hormonal indices of calcium and bone metabolism were measured throughout the study, and bone biopsies were done at baseline, 60 weeks after OCT or vehicle treatment, and at the end of the crossover period. RESULTS: In Nx dogs, OCT significantly decreased serum PTH levels soon after the induction of renal insufficiency. In long-standing secondary hyperparathyroidism, OCT (0.03 microg/kg) stabilized serum PTH levels during the first months. Serum PTH levels rose thereafter, but the rise was less pronounced compared with baseline than the rise seen in Nx control. These effects were accompanied by episodes of hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia. In animals with normal renal function, OCT induced a transient decrease in serum PTH levels at a dose of 0.1 microg/kg, which was not sustained with lowering of the doses. In Nx dogs, OCT reversed abnormal bone formation, such as woven osteoid and fibrosis, but did not significantly alter the level of bone turnover. In addition, OCT improved mineralization lag time, (that is, the rate at which osteoid mineralizes) in both Nx and Sham dogs. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that even though OCT does not completely prevent the occurrence of hypercalcemia in experimental dogs with renal insufficiency, it may be of use in the management of secondary hyperparathyroidism because it does not induce low bone turnover and, therefore, does not increase the risk of adynamic bone disease.  (+info)

Serum levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D in nondialyzed patients with chronic renal failure. (3/2474)

BACKGROUND: In patients with chronic renal failure (CRF), abnormalities in vitamin D metabolism are known to be present, and several factors could contribute to the abnormalities. METHODS: We measured serum levels of three vitamin D metabolites, 1,25(OH)2D, 24, 25(OH)2D and 25(OH)D, and analyzed factors affecting their levels in 76 nondialyzed patients with CRF (serum creatinine> 1.6 and < 9.0 mg/dl), 37 of whom had diabetes mellitus (DM-CRF) and 39 of whom were nondiabetic (nonDM-CRF). RESULTS: Serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D were positively correlated with estimated creatinine clearance (CCr; r = 0.429; P < 0.0001), and levels of 24,25(OH)2D were weakly correlated with CCr (r = 0.252, P < 0.05); no correlation was noted for 25(OH)D. Serum levels of all three vitamin D metabolites were significantly and positively correlated with serum albumin. Although there were no significant differences in age, sex, estimated CCr, calcium and phosphate between DM-CRF and nonDM-CRF, all three vitamin D metabolites were significantly lower in DM-CRF than in nonDM-CRF. To analyze factors influencing vitamin D metabolite levels, we performed multiple regression analyses. Serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly and independently associated with serum albumin, presence of DM and serum phosphate (R2 = 0.599; P < 0.0001). 24,25(OH)2D levels were significantly and strongly associated with 25(OH)D (beta = 0.772; R2 = 0.446; P < 0.0001). Serum 1,25(OH)2D levels were significantly associated only with estimated CCr (R2 = 0. 409; P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that hypoalbuminemia and the presence of DM independently affect serum 25(OH)D levels, probably via diabetic nephropathy and poor nutritional status associated with diabetes, and that 25(OH)D is actively catalyzed to 24,25(OH)2D in CRF, probably largely via extrarenal 24-hydroxylase. Serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D were significantly affected by the degree of renal failure. Thus, this study indicates that patients with CRF, particularly those with DM, should receive supplements containing the active form of vitamin D prior to dialysis.  (+info)

1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 enhances the susceptibility of breast cancer cells to doxorubicin-induced oxidative damage. (4/2474)

1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), the hormonal form of vitamin D, has anticancer activity in vivo and in vitro. Doxorubicin exerts its cytotoxic effect on tumor cells mainly by two mechanisms: (a) generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS); and (b) inhibition of topoisomerase II. We studied the combined cytotoxic action of 1,25(OH)2D3 and doxorubicin on MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Pretreatement with 1,25(OH)2D3 resulted in enhanced cytotoxicity of doxorubicin. The average enhancing effect after a 72-h pretreatment with 1,25(OH)2D3 (10 nM) followed by a 24-h treatment with 1 microg/ml doxorubicin was 74+/-9% (mean +/- SE). Under these experimental conditions, 1,25(OH)2D3 on its own did not affect cell number or viability. 1,25(OH)2D3 also enhanced the cytotoxic activity of another ROS generating quinone, menadione, but did not affect cytotoxicity induced by the topoisomerase inhibitor etoposide. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine slightly reduced the cytotoxic activity of doxorubicin but had a marked protective effect against the combined action of 1,25(OH)2D3 and doxorubicin. These results indicate that ROS are involved in the interaction between 1,25(OH)2D3 and doxorubicin. 1,25(OH)2D3 also increased doxorubicin cytotoxicity in primary cultures of rat cardiomyocytes. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with 1,25(OH)2D3 alone markedly reduced the activity, protein, and mRNA levels of the cytoplasmic antioxidant enzyme Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, which indicated that the hormone inhibits its biosynthesis. This reduction in the antioxidant capacity of the cells could account for the synergistic interaction between 1,25(OH)2D3 and doxorubicin and may also suggest increased efficacy of 1,25(OH)2D3 or its analogues in combination with other ROS-generating anticancer therapeutic modalities.  (+info)

Convergence of transforming growth factor-beta and vitamin D signaling pathways on SMAD transcriptional coactivators. (5/2474)

Cell proliferation and differentiation are regulated by growth regulatory factors such as transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and the liphophilic hormone vitamin D. TGF-beta causes activation of SMAD proteins acting as coactivators or transcription factors in the nucleus. Vitamin D controls transcription of target genes through the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Smad3, one of the SMAD proteins downstream in the TGF-beta signaling pathway, was found in mammalian cells to act as a coactivator specific for ligand-induced transactivation of VDR by forming a complex with a member of the steroid receptor coactivator-1 protein family in the nucleus. Thus, Smad3 may mediate cross-talk between vitamin D and TGF-beta signaling pathways.  (+info)

Regulation of PiT-1, a sodium-dependent phosphate co-transporter in rat parathyroid glands. (6/2474)

A cDNA encoding an Na+-Pi co-transporter, termed rat PiT-1, has now been isolated from rat parathyroid. Expression of rat PiT-1 in Xenopus oocytes revealed that it possesses Na+-dependent Pi co-transport activity. The amount of PiT-1 mRNA in the parathyroid of vitamin D-deficient rats was reduced compared with that in normal animals, and increased markedly after administration of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Furthermore, the abundance of PiT-1 mRNA in the parathyroid was much greater in rats fed a low-Pi diet than in those fed a high-Pi diet. Thus, rat PiT-1 may contribute to the effects of Pi and vitamin D on parathyroid function.  (+info)

Regulation of vitamin D action. (7/2474)

The control of gene transcription by vitamin D compounds is initiated by binding to the VDR, which enhances the receptor's ability to heterodimerize to RXR, interact with response elements in target genes and attract components of the transcriptional initiation complex. A number of factors are capable of influencing this process, including (i) the rate of uptake and catabolism of the ligand, (ii) the nature of the conformational change induced by a specific ligand, (iii) the cellular content of the VDR, (iv) post-translational modifications of the VDR and (v) the availability of other transcriptional components. Vitamin D analogues may affect these factors differently to 1,25(OH)2D3 to produce unique biological profiles that can be exploited for therapeutic use.  (+info)

Topical psoriasis therapy. (8/2474)

Psoriasis is a common dermatosis, affecting from 1 to 3 percent of the population. Until recently, the mainstays of topical therapy have been corticosteroids, tars, anthralins and keratolytics. Recently, however, vitamin D analogs, a new anthralin preparation and topical retinoids have expanded physicians' therapeutic armamentarium. These new topical therapies offer increased hope and convenience to the large patient population with psoriasis.  (+info)

*Calcitriol

Thus calcitriol also stimulates the intestinal absorption of phosphate. The observation that calcitriol stimulates the release ... PTH also stimulates the production of calcitriol (see below). Many of the effects of calcitriol are mediated by its interaction ... Calcitriol increases the level of calcium (Ca2+) in the blood by increasing the uptake of calcium from the gut into the blood, ... When calcitriol binds to the receptor, the ligand-receptor complex translocates to the cell nucleus, where it acts as a ...

*Calcitriol receptor

Calcitriol, the active form of vitamin D, binds to the VDR, which then forms a heterodimer with the retinoid-X receptor. This ... The calcitriol receptor, more commonly known as the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and also known as NR1I1 (nuclear receptor ... Calcitriol receptor has been shown to interact with BAG1, BAZ1B, CAV3, MED1, MED12, MED24, NCOR1, NCOR2, NCOA2, RXRA, RUNX1, ... Calcitriol Receptors at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Nuclear Receptor Resource Vitamin D ...

*Falecalcitriol

... (INN) is an analog of calcitriol. It has a higher potency both in vivo and in vitro systems, and longer duration ...

*Fibroblast growth factor 23

... inhibition of production of calcitriol, stimulation of breakdown of calcitriol, and inhibition of production/secretion of ... FGF23 is secreted by osteocytes in response to elevated calcitriol. FGF23 acts on the kidneys, where it decreases the ...

*Bone resorption

Calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol) is the active form of vitamin D3. It has numerous functions involved in blood ... Recent research indicates that calcitriol leads to a reduction in osteoclast formation, and bone resorption. It follows that an ... the precursor to calcitriol. Calcitonin is a hormone secreted by the thyroid in humans. Calcitonin decreases osteoclast ...

*Renal physiology

Secretion of the active form of vitamin D (calcitriol) and prostaglandins. The kidney in humans is capable of producing glucose ...

*Cyclooxygenase

Calcitriol (vitamin D) significantly inhibits the expression of the COX-2 gene. Caution should be exercised in combining low ...

*Osteopontin

Synthesis of osteopontin is stimulated by calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D3). Regulation of the osteopontin gene is ... Hypocalcemia and hypophosphatemia (instances that stimulate kidney proximal tubule cells to produce calcitriol (1α,25- ...

*Immune system

... calcitriol. Only after binding to calcitriol can T-cells perform their intended function. Other immune system cells that are ... the steroid hormone calcitriol. T-cells have a symbiotic relationship with vitamin D. Not only does the T-cell extend a vitamin ... D receptor, in essence asking to bind to the steroid hormone version of vitamin D, calcitriol, but the T-cell expresses the ...

*Calcitroic acid

... calcitriol). Its formation is catalyzed by the enzyme CYP24A1, also called calcitriol 24-hydroxylase. It is thought to be the ...

*Eldecalcitol

... calcitriol, performs its function through interactions with the calcitriol receptor. This nuclear hormone receptor is ... This greater affinity is 2.7-fold that of the active vitamin D form of calcitriol. Eldecalcitol is readily absorbed into the ... The chemistry of eldecalcitol allows for its binding 2.7-fold more potently than calcitriol. In addition, some vitamin D ... The eldecalcitol analog of calcitriol, contains a hydroxypropyl group in the lower cyclohexane ring. The synthesis of ...

*Naive T cell

Hence the activation of naïve T cells is crucially dependent on adequate calcitriol levels. In summary, activation of T cells ... However activated TCR signaling through p38 upregulates VDR expression and calcitriol activated VDR in turn upregulates PLC-γ1 ... the expression of PLC-γ1 is dependent on VDR activated by calcitriol. Naïve T cells have very low expression of VDR and PLC-γ1 ...

*Glutathione

Calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3), the active metabolite of vitamin D3, after being synthesized from calcifediol in the ... It takes about ten days for the body to process vitamin D3 into calcitriol. S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), a cosubstrate involved ...

*Cholecalciferol

The action of calcitriol is mediated by the vitamin D receptor, a nuclear receptor which regulates the synthesis of hundreds of ... It is converted into calcifediol (25-hydroxyvitamin D) by the liver and into calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D) by the kidney ... Hydroxylation in the kidneys of calcifediol to calcitriol by 1-alpha-hydroxylase is tightly regulated: it is stimulated by ... 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-Hydroxylase, a kidney enzyme that converts calcifediol to calcitriol. Coulston, Ann M.; Boushey, ...

*X-linked hypophosphatemia

Biochemically in blood, XLH is recognized by hypophosphatemia and an inappropriately low level of calcitriol (1,25-(OH)2 ... Glorieux FH, Marie PJ, Pettifor JM, Delvin EE (1980). "Bone response to phosphate salts, ergocalciferol, and calcitriol in ... while calcitriol levels are low or within the lower reference range. Most importantly, urinary loss of phosphate is above the ... calcitriol, 9; in the event of severe bowing, an osteotomy may be performed to correct the leg shape.[citation needed] ...

*Hypercalcaemia

These plants contain calcitriol or similar substances that cause rises in calcium ion levels. Hypercalcemia is most common in ... see calcitriol under Vitamin D) levels (e.g. sarcoidosis and other granulomatous diseases such as tuberculosis) Idiopathic ...

*Methamphetamine

It has been suggested, based on animal research, that Calcitriol, the active metabolite of vitamin D, can provide significant ... Cass WA, Smith MP, Peters LE (2006). "Calcitriol protects against the dopamine- and serotonin-depleting effects of neurotoxic ...

*Vitamin D-dependent calcium-binding protein

Expression could be induced by treating these animals with vitamin D metabolites such as calcitriol. They were found to exist ...

*Cathepsin D

Atkins KB, Troen BR (July 1995). "Regulation of cathepsin D gene expression in HL-60 cells by retinoic acid and calcitriol". ...

*Silicone-induced granuloma

... calcitriol-mediated hypercalcemia, reactive amyloidosis. Ellis, L. Z.; Cohen, J. L.; High, W (2012). "Granulomatous reaction to ... A rare entity of calcitriol-mediated hypercalcemia". Case Reports in Medicine. 2013: 807292. doi:10.1155/2013/807292. PMC ...

*Osteitis fibrosa cystica

ESRD occurs when the kidneys fail to produce calcitriol, a form of Vitamin D, which assists in the absorption of calcium into ... When calcitriol levels decrease, parathyroid hormone levels increase, halting the storage of calcium, and instead triggering ... Medical management of OFC consists of Vitamin D treatment, generally alfacalcidol or calcitriol, delivered intravenously. ...

*Chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder

... calcitriol), and other vitamin D metabolites, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23), and growth hormone. Beginning in CKD stage ...

*Michael F. Holick

Pèrez, A; Chen, TC; Turner, A; Raab, R; Bhawan, J; Poche, P; Holick, MF (1996). "Efficacy and safety of topical calcitriol (1, ... and calcitriol, the active form of vitamin D. His work has been the basis for diagnostic tests and therapies for vitamin D- ...

*Paracetamol poisoning

Calcitriol, the active metabolite of vitamin D3, appears to be a catalyst for glutathione production. Calcitriol was found to ... It has been proposed that co-administration of calcitriol, via injection, may improve treatment outcomes. Paracetamol ester ...

*Hypervitaminosis D

The levels of the active form of vitamin D, calcitriol, are inversely correlated with coronary calcification. Moreover, the ... Intake of vitamin D raises calcitriol concentrations in the plasma and cell Intake of vitamin D raises plasma calcifediol ... Intake of vitamin D raises the concentration of vitamin D metabolites which exceed DBP binding capacity and free calcitriol ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Direct inhibitory effect of calcitriol on parathyroid function (sigmoidal curve) in dialysis. AU - Dunlay, Robert W.. AU - Rodriguez, M.. AU - Felsenfeld, A. J.. AU - Llach, F.. PY - 1989. Y1 - 1989. N2 - The effect of intravenous calcitriol on parathyroid function was evaluated in nine chronic hemodialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. Two micrograms of calcitriol were administered intravenously after dialysis thrice weekly for ten weeks. Parathyroid function was assessed by inducing hypo- and hypercalcemia with low calcium (1.0 mEq/liter) and high calcium (4.0 mEq/liter) dialyses before and after ten weeks of intravenous calcitriol therapy. To avoid hypercalcemia during calcitriol administration, the dialysate calcium was reduced to 2.5 mEq/liter. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) values (pg/ml) from dialysis-induced hypo- and hypercalcemia were plotted against serum ionized calcium, and the sigmoidal relationship between PTH and calcium was evaluated. Basal PTH levels ...
Hostutler, R. A., DiBartola, S. P., Chew, D. J., Nagode, L. A., Schenck, P. A., Rajala-Schultz, P. J. and Drost, W. T. (2006), Comparison of the Effects of Daily and Intermittent-Dose Calcitriol on Serum Parathyroid Hormone and Ionized Calcium Concentrations in Normal Cats and Cats with Chronic Renal Failure. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 20: 1307-1313. doi: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.2006.tb00743.x ...
To clarify the effects of active vitamin D3 on pressor and vascular responses to vasoconstrictor substances, we studied pressor responses to the intravenous injection of norepinephrine or angiotensin II (Ang II) and vasoconstrictor responses to norepinephrine. Sprague-Dawley rats were given 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 subcutaneously (200 ng/kg per day) for 14 days. The administration of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 augmented the pressor responses to norepinephrine and Ang II in conscious rats and was associated with a significant increase in serum calcium concentration (11.0 +/- 0.2 mg/dl). To further clarify whether the increased pressor response to vasoconstrictors may be due to the calcemic or direct action of active vitamin D3, we studied the effect of its noncalcemic analogue, 22-oxacalcitriol, and its inactive analogue, 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, on the pressor response to vasoconstrictors in rats. The pressor responses to norepinephrine and Ang II were apparently augmented in ...
OUTLINE: This is a dose-escalation study of calcitriol.. In the first stage of the study, cohorts of 3-6 patients receive escalating doses of oral calcitriol on days 1-3. Dose escalation continues until the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) is determined.. In the second stage, patients receive escalating doses of oral calcitriol on days 1-3 and a fixed dose of oral dexamethasone on days 0-4. Treatment continues weekly in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Dose escalation continues until the MTD is determined.. Six additional patients may receive calcitriol and dexamethasone at one dose level below the MTD determined in the second stage, to confirm the MTD.. The MTD is defined as the dose preceding that at which 2 of 3 or 2 of 6 patients experience dose-limiting toxicity.. PROJECTED ACCRUAL: Approximately 40 patients will be accrued for this study. ...
To elucidate the biosynthesis of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-26,23-lactone, two known metabolites of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3--23,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and 25,26-dihydroxyvitamin D3--were incubated individually with kidney homogenate prepared from vitamin D-supplemented chickens, a preparation known to produce the lactone from 25-hydroxyvitamin D3. The 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-26,23-lactone produced in vitro was then separated, purified, identified, and quantitated by consecutive straight-phase and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. 23,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 is a far better substrate for production of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-26,23-lactone than is 25,26-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Production of lactone is highly selective for the natural 23(S)-hydroxy-23,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 while both epimers of 25,26-dihydroxyvitamin D3 resulted in small amounts of product comigrating with natural lactone. It appears that 23(S),25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, but not 25,26-dihydroxyvitamin D3, is a natural precursor in ...
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DN-101 is an investigational drug that has not been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). It is a newly formulated pill that contains high amounts of calcitriol, a naturally occurring hormone and the biologically active form of vitamin D. Administration of DN-101 results in much higher blood levels of calcitriol than the body can produce from dietary vitamin D or vitamin D supplements. These higher levels of calcitriol are associated with anti-cancer effects in laboratory models of human cancer. Laboratory models also indicate that calcitriol has synergy with many commonly used chemotherapeutic agents used to treat cancer.. Calcitriol, at very low doses, is currently approved for use in patients with chronic kidney failure. DN-101 was specifically designed for cancer and contains 30 times the amount of calcitriol found in the calcitriol pill commercially available today. In order to take an amount of calcitriol equivalent to 1 DN-101 pill, cancer patients would need to swallow ...
Calcitriol ,Calcitriol manufacturer,Calcitriol CAS No 32222-06-3,Calcitriol Molecular Formula C27H44O3,Calcitriol Synonyms (1R,3S)-5-[2-[(1R,3aR,7aS)-1-[(2R)-6-hydroxy-6-methyl-heptan-2-yl]-7a-methyl-2,3,3a,5,6,7-hexahydro-1H- inden-4-ylidene]ethylidene]-4-methylidene-cyclohexane-1,3-diol,Calcitriol Molecular weight 416.64 g/mol,Calcitriol manufacturing by A.S.Joshi & Company
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AbstractAfter the Second World War, infatuation with modern products has exponentially widened the spectrum of chemicals used. Some of them are capable of hijacking the endocrine system by blocking or imitating a hormone and are referred to as hormonally active chemicals or endocrine disruptors. These are chemicals that the body was not designed for evolutionarily and they are present in every matrix of the environment. We are living in a chemical world where the exposures are ubiquitous and take place in combinations that can interact with the endocrine system and some other metabolic activities in unexpected ways. The complexity of interaction of these compounds can be understood by the fact that they interfere with gene expression at extremely low levels, consequently harming an individual life form, its offspring or population. As the endocrine system plays a critical role in many biological or physiological functions, by interfering bodys endocrine system, endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs)
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Calcitriol or 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (abbreviated 1,25-(OH)2-D3) is the active form of vitamin D found in the body (vitamin D3). Calcitriol is marketed under various trade names including Rocaltrol (Roche), Calcijex (Abbott) and Decostriol (Mibe, Jesalis). It is produced in the kidneys via 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1 α-hydroxylase by conversion from 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (calcidiol). This is stimulated by a decrease in serum calcium, phosphate (PO43−) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels. It regulates calcium levels by increasing the absorption of calcium and phosphate from the gastrointestinal tract, increasing calcium and phosphate reabsorption in the kidneys and inhibiting the release of PTH. Calcitriol is also commonly used as a medication in the treatment of hypocalcemia and osteoporosis.
Calcitriol Receptors: Proteins, usually found in the cytoplasm, that specifically bind calcitriol, migrate to the nucleus, and regulate transcription of specific segments of DNA with the participation of D receptor interacting proteins (called DRIP). Vitamin D is converted in the liver and kidney to calcitriol and ultimately acts through these receptors.
Calcitriol will work only if you get the right amount of calcium from the foods you eat. If you get too much calcium from foods, you may experience serious side effects of calcitriol, and if you do not get enough calcium from foods, calcitriol will not control your condition. Your doctor will tell you which foods are good sources of these nutrients and how many servings you need each day. If you find it difficult to eat enough of these foods, tell your doctor. In that case, your doctor can prescribe or recommend a supplement.. If you are being treated with dialysis (process of cleaning the blood by passing it through a machine), your doctor may also prescribe a low-phosphate diet. Follow these directions carefully.. If you do not have kidney disease, you should drink plenty of fluids while taking calcitriol. If you have kidney disease, talk to your doctor about how much fluid you should drink each day.. ...
Calcitriol will work only if you get the right amount of calcium from the foods you eat. If you get too much calcium from foods, you may experience serious side effects of calcitriol, and if you do not get enough calcium from foods, calcitriol will not control your condition. Your doctor will tell you which foods are good sources of these nutrients and how many servings you need each day. If you find it difficult to eat enough of these foods, tell your doctor. In that case, your doctor can prescribe or recommend a supplement.. If you are being treated with dialysis (process of cleaning the blood by passing it through a machine), your doctor may also prescribe a low-phosphate diet. Follow these directions carefully.. If you do not have kidney disease, you should drink plenty of fluids while taking calcitriol. If you have kidney disease, talk to your doctor about how much fluid you should drink each day.. ...
Before Its News). Market Research Store has been recently published a fresh research report- Global Calcitriol (CAS 32222-06-3) Market by Manufacturers, Countries, Type and Application, Forecast to 2022 . This added to the companys collection of research reports. This report offers a deep examination of the Calcitriol market for the period 2013-2023. As per the report, the Calcitriol market is estimated to grow at elevated CAGR recorded in 2017. The towering competitive Calcitriol market has been observing huge and whooping investments in development and research from government as well as private firms.. This report divides the market on the basis of regions, manufacturers, application, and type. It also showcases the growing factors, reasons for decline in the market, segmentations, and openings and breaks expected to power the market expansion during this time span. The primary factors such as revenues, supply chain management, product valuation and other crucial factors are also examined ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Electromechanical effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D with antiatrial fibrillation activities. AU - Hanafy, Dicky A.. AU - Chang, Shih Lin. AU - Lu, Yen Yu. AU - Chen, Yao Chang. AU - Kao, Yu Hsun. AU - Huang, Jen Hung. AU - Chen, Shih Ann. AU - Chen, Yi Jen. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Electromechanical Effects of 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D on the LA Introduction Treatment with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25[OH]2D) has several cardiovascular benefits. 1,25[OH]2D has direct cellular effects, but its effects on the atrium are not clear. We evaluated the effects of 1,25[OH]2D on the atrial electrophysiology and atrial fibrillation (AF). Methods Conventional microelectrodes were used to record action potentials (APs) and contractility in isolated rabbit left atrium (LA) tissue preparations before and after the administration of 0.01, 0.1, and 1 nM 1,25[OH] 2D with and without rapid atrial pacing (RAP) and acetylcholine (5 mM)-induced AF. Surface ECG and intracardiac electrograms were ...
Herein, we describe a versatile and efficient total synthesis of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol). The synthetic strategy relies on an unprecedented Si-assisted SN2′-syn displacement of carbamates by cuprates to set the challenging pivotal quaternary methyl group at the fused-ring junction of the CD-tr
Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths among females and a leading cause of death of all middle age women in the United States. Epidemiologic evidence suggests a role for vitamin D deficiency in the development of breast cancer. Moreover, vitamin D receptors have been found in most breast cancers, and their presence appears to be a favorable prognostic sign. While much clinical focus has been given to the vitamin A related retinoids, little is known about the role for vitamin D in the development of breast cancer although vitamin D and its active metabolites and analogs represent a class of compounds which at the molecular and cellular level have strong similarities to the vitamin A metabolites and analogs. With the development of potent but non hypercalcemic analogs of vitamin D, the potential role of vitamin D in the etiology and treatment of breast cancer can now be tested both in vitro and in vivo. In the past decade, a number of tissues have been found to contain receptors for
Calcitriol (ergocalciferol, 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) is a synthetic form of vitamin D[1]. Calcitriol causes increased calcium absorption from the gut. This product is used for treatment of hypocalcemia associated with rickets and hypoparathyroidism[2]. Regular monitoring of blood calcium is important to avoid development of hypercalcemia. Recommended dose in dogs is 25,000 - 50,000 U/day given orally[3]. ...
We have examined the effects of the seco-steroid hormone 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] on membrane phosphoinositide metabolism, protein kinase C (PKC) activation and influx of extracellular Ca2+ in chick-embryo muscle-cell (myoblast) cultures. At physiological concentrations, the hormone induces a rapid (15 s) and transient release of inositol triphosphate (InsP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG). InsP3 release is maximal at 60 s (80% above controls) and then declines. The effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 on InsP3 production exhibited specificity, as 25-hydroxy-vitamin D3 and 24,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D3 did not alter myoblast InsP3 levels. The stimulation of DAG is biphasic, with peaks at 60 s (+105%) and 5 min (+700%). The second phase of DAG release is not associated with changes in InsP3. 1,25(OH)2D3 induces a rapid (within 60 s) accumulation of InsP2, and its effect on InsP is delayed (120 s). The hormone rapidly activates myoblast PKC, with maximal translocation of activity from the cytosol to the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phase I study of weekly DN-101, a new formulation of calcitriol, in patients with cancer. AU - Beer, Tomasz (Tom). AU - Javle, Milind M.. AU - Ryan, Christopher. AU - Garzotto, Mark. AU - Lam, Gilbert N.. AU - Wong, Alvin. AU - Henner, W. David. AU - Johnson, Candace S.. AU - Trump, Donald L.. PY - 2007/4. Y1 - 2007/4. N2 - Background: DN-101 is a new, high-dose, oral formulation of calcitriol under investigation for the treatment of cancer. We sought to evaluate the tolerability and pharmacokinetics (PK) of weekly doses of DN-101 in patients with advanced cancer. Methods: Patients who completed a previously reported single dose escalation study of DN-101 [Beer et al. (2005) Clin Cancer Res 11:7794-7799] were eligible for this continuation weekly dosing study. Cohorts of 3-10 patients were treated at doses of 15, 30, 45, 60, and 75 μg calcitriol. Once 45 μg was established as the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), this cohort was expanded to include 18 patients. Dose limiting ...
Because there are currently no effective drugs for liver fibrosis, we believe our findings would open a new door for treatment," says senior author Ronald M. Evans, a professor in Salks Gene Expression Laboratory and lead researcher in the Institutes new Helmsley Center for Genomic Medicine. The Salk study focused on a star-shaped "stellate" cell in the liver that serves as a beacon for damage. When called into action, stellate cells produce fibrotic proteins in an attempt to heal an injury. Under chronic stress, however, localized fibrosis expands, eventually leading to cirrhosis, increased risk of liver cancer, and the need for a liver transplant in advanced cases. The Evans lab discovered a genetic switch through which vitamin D-related ligands such as calcitriol, a hormonally active form of the vitamin, can put the brakes on fibrosis. "Preclinical results suggest the vitamin D brake is highly efficacious and led us to believe that the time is right to consider a trial in the context of ...
Calcitriol is vitamin D3. Vitamin D is important for the absorption of calcium from the stomach and for the functioning of calcium in the body. Calcitriol is used to treat hyperparathyroidism (overactive parathyroid glands) and metabolic bone disease in people who have chronic kidney failure and are not receiving...
Avet Pharmaceuticals Inc. announced the immediate availability of Calcitriol soft gel capsules in 0.25 and 0.5 mcg strengths. This product is the AB rated generic equivalent to the synthetic Vitamin D drug Rocaltrol®* and adds to Avets robust portfolio of generic oral soft gel products. According to IMS data for the twelve-months ended April 2013, the U.S. market for Calcitriol approximated $60 million. *Rocaltrol is a registered trademark of Hoff-mann LaRoche-Validus.. Download Press Release. ...
The active hormonal form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D) is an important modulator of the immune system, inhibiting cellular proliferation and regulating transcription of immune response genes. In order to characterize the genetic basis of variation in the immunomodulatory effects of 1,25D, we mapped quantitative traits of 1,25D response at both the cellular and the transcriptional level. We carried out a genome-wide association scan of percent inhibition of cell proliferation (Imax) induced by 1,25D treatment of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 88 healthy African-American individuals. Two genome-wide significant variants were identified: rs1893662 in a gene desert on chromosome 18 (p = 2.32 x 10−8) and rs6451692 on chromosome 5 (p = 2.55 x 10−8), which may influence the anti-proliferative activity of 1,25D by regulating the expression of nearby genes such as the chemokine gene, CCL28, and the translation initiation gene, PAIP1. We also identified 8 expression ...
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The differentiation and activation of monocytes (MO) and monocytic cells is modulated by 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (Vitamin D3). In order to investigate early effects on the differentiation process of MO, we used the mRNA Differential Display technology to identify genes that are induced in freshly isolated human blood MO cultured for 4 hours with Vitamin D3. A cDNA fragment was isolated and Northern analysis confirmed a low expression of this cDNA at about 1,4 kb in MO which was increased by the addition of Vitamin D3. Using the rapid amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE)-PCR we got a transcript (DDVit 1) of a length of 1251 bp containing an open reading frame that encodes a putative 16,5 kD protein. Database search revealed an identity with a possible enterocyte differentiation promoting factor with a length of 1177 bp that has not been further characterized. Therefore DDVit 1 may be a differentiation promoting factor for the monocytic lineage. Further investigations will clarify the role of ...
1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1α,25(OH) 2D3) has antitumor activity in addition to its classical action on calcium metabolism and bone tissue biology. It is thought to regulate the expression of multiple target genes and thus modulate processes critical for tumor growth and metastases. Here we show that 1α,25(OH) 2D3 differentially regulates the expression of Id1 and Id2 genes, members of a family of transcriptional regulators of cell proliferation and differentiation. 1α,25(OH)2D3 induced epithelial differentiation in SW480-ADH human colon carcinoma cell line by promoting expression of the proteins implicated in adherent junction formation, including E-cadherin, and by inhibiting β-catenin transcriptional activity. 1α,25(OH)2D3 activated the human Id1 gene promoter and rapidly induced Id1 RNA and protein. Ectopic overexpression of Id1 was not sufficient to induce E-cadherin, which was critical for the morphological changes induced by 1α,25(OH)2D3 in SW480-ADH cells. Conversely, Id2 ...
There is evidence that the active form of vitamin D, 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D), may lead to reduced tumor formation by inhibiting vascularization, and thus feeding the tumor (1). Vascularization is controlled in part by the release of proteins which can be stimulated by low oxygen (hypoxia) to increase the transcriptional activity of hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) (2). HIF-1α controls the level of an important protein, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which stimulates vascularization (2). The level of HIF-1α protein level is regulated both transcriptionally and by protein stability through the activity of prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) (2). The purpose of this study is to determine if 1,25(OH)2D alters the mRNA expression of HIF-1α in untransformed (normal) cells and cells that contain the ErbB2 oncogene, a mutated gene commonly found in cancers.
TY - JOUR. T1 - The metabolism of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3.. AU - Kumar, Rajiv. PY - 1980/6. Y1 - 1980/6. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0019030105&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0019030105&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 6894425. AN - SCOPUS:0019030105. VL - 1. SP - 258. EP - 267. JO - Endocrine Reviews. JF - Endocrine Reviews. SN - 0163-769X. IS - 3. ER - ...
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Kidney disease Therapies Dialysis Dialysis is primarily used to provide an artificial replacement for lost kidney function in people with renal failure. The death rate from cardiovascular disease for dialysis patients is much higher than the general population, regardless of age.vitamin D receptorVDRkidney diseaseVDRVDRkidney diseasevitamin D receptorvitamin D receptorVDRinflammationinflammationkidney diseasekidney disease1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D1,25-dihydroxyvitamin Dse…
Calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol), the active form of vitamin D is known to have anti-tumor activity both in vitro and in vivo in a wide variety of malignant cell types. Calcitriol is not only anti-proliferative ...
Citation: Nelson, C.D., Beitz, D.C., Reinhardt, T.A., Lippolis, J.D. 2009. Expression of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase is Up-Regulated by Production of 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 in Bovine Monocytes in Response to Toll-Like Receptor Signaling [abstract]. American Dairy Science Association. Paper No. 84. Interpretive Summary: Technical Abstract: In the endocrine pathway of vitamin D signaling 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] is produced from 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] by the enzyme CYP27B1 in the kidney. Production of 1,25(OH)2D3 in the kidney functions to regulate gene expression systemically. However, recent studies have shown that human monocytes express CYP27B1 and produce 1,25(OH)2D3 in response to toll-like receptor recognition of bacterial cell wall components. Activation of 25(OH)D3 by CYP27B1 in human monocytes improves antimicrobial activity via an autocrine pathway. The purpose of this study was to determine if 1,25(OH)2D3 is produced by CYP27B1 in bovine monocytes upon TLR ...
1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1α,25(OH)2D3) had earlier been regarded as the only active hormone. The newly identified actions of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) and 24R,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (24R,25(OH)2D3) broadened the ...
After doing some research, I have decided on adding/changing some vitamins to my daily regime to help with my migraines. • Riboflavin - 200 mg twice a day • Thiamine (vitamin B1) - 100 mg three ...
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Calcitriol-Odan: Calcitriol belongs to the group of medications called vitamin D3 metabolites. Calcitriol is a form of vitamin D that is active in the body. It helps to maintain the balance of calcium and phosphorus in the blood. It also helps bones absorb calcium.
Rocaltrol is a form of vitamin D. It is used in treatment of low calcium levels in blood in patients with chronic kidney dialysis. 0,25/mg.
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Chronic renal failure is almost always associated with secondary uraemic hyperparathyroidism. Action should be taken as early as possible to avoid it or reduce its severity in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Over the last decade, the most effective way of achieving this has been defined as therapy with active vitamin D derivatives. However, the so‐called non‐hypercalcaemic vitamin D derivatives, which are said to be superior, have not met our expectations so far. In contrast, calcimimetic agents, the new class of compounds that act specifically on the calcium‐sensing receptor, are very promising for the treatment and prevention of hyperparathyroidism. CKD is associated with disturbances in calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D metabolism that occur early in the course of renal disease. In most patients, these disturbances lead to secondary hyperparathyroidism and osteitis fibrosa or associated, more complex, skeletal lesions. Here, we focus on recent advances in the prevention ...
Antibodies to 1 alpha, 25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 25-hemisuccinate linked to albumin were produced and an immunoassay for 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D developed. Plasma 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D concentrations were compared using an immunoassay and cytosol radioreceptor assay. Both assays gave comparable results but the immunoassay was more reproducible, slightly more sensitive and had a lower detection limit. Using the immunoassay the plasma 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D was 110.5 pmol/l (S.D. 29.4) in normal subjects; there was no difference between males and premenopausal females. It was negatively related to plasma phosphate. In renal failure and primary hyperparathyroidism plasma 1,25(OH)2D was positively related to radiocalcium absorption. Following 1 and 2 microgram of 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 given orally the peak plasma concentration occurs within 12 h.
To the Editor:. We read with interest the paper by Hsia and colleagues1 in which the authors demonstrated that a daily vitamin D supplement of 400 IU (10 μg) in combination with 1000 mg calcium has no beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk. In our opinion, the data interpretation is complicated by the lack of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (calcitriol) measurements. It may be that the vitamin D dose was too low to influence circulating calcitriol concentrations. It may also be that baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations were already sufficient enough to produce adequate amounts of calcitriol. Calcitriol is the only vitamin D metabolite with known physiological actions. Experimental data demonstrate that calcitriol has important protective vascular effects such as suppression of renin activity, inhibition of vascular calcification, and reduction of thrombogenicity.2 Several retrospective studies already indicate that calcitriol and other active vitamin D analogs reduce ...
Vitamin D is a generic designation for a group of fat-soluble, structurally similar sterols including ergocalciferol D2 from plants and cholecalciferol D3 from animals. Vitamin D in the body is derived from 2 sources: exogenous (dietary: D2 and D3) and endogenous (biosynthesis: D3). Endogenous D3 is produced in the skin from 7-dehydrocholesterol, under the influence of ultraviolet light. Both forms of vitamin D are of similar biologic activity.. Vitamin D is rapidly metabolized in the liver to form 25-hydroxy (OH) vitamin D. Additional hydroxylation of 25-OH vitamin D takes place in the kidney by 1-alpha hydroxylase, under the control of parathyroid hormone, to yield 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D.. 1,25-Dihydroxy vitamin D is the most potent vitamin D metabolite. It stimulates calcium absorption in the intestine and its production is tightly regulated through concentrations of serum calcium, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone.. 1,25-Dihydroxy vitamin D levels may be high in primary ...
1 alpha,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25 D; also know as calcitriol), the hormonal form of vitamin D, can inhibit the proliferation and promote the differentiation of human prostate adenocarcinoma cells. However, little is known about the effects of 1,25 D on the invasive ability of prostate cancer cells. We used an in vitro bioassay of cell invasion (Amgel assay) to examine the effects of 1,25 D and a "noncalcemic" vitamin D analogue, 1,25-dihydroxy-16-ene-23-yne-cholecalciferol (16-23-D3), on the invasiveness of three well-characterized human prostate carcinoma cell lines: DU 145, PC-3, and LNCaP. PC-3 and LNCaP cells were poorly invasive in Amgel and were hardly affected by treatment with 1,25 D or 16-23-D3 (, 3%). Conversely, DU 145 cells were highly invasive in Amgel, and their invasion was markedly inhibited by 1,25 D and 16-23-D3 (maximally 66 and 59.4% respectively). This effect was both dose-dependent, with maximal inhibition at 1 x 10(-7) M and 72 h. Significant inhibition of invasion was ...
Absorption Calcitriol is rapidly absorbed from the intestine. Peak serum concentrations (above basal values) were reached within 3 to 6 hours following oral administration of single doses of 0.25 to 1.0 mcg of Rocaltrol. Following a single oral dose of 0.5 mcg, mean serum concentrations of calcitriol rose from a baseline value of 40.0±4.4 (SD) pg/mL to 60.0±4.4 pg/mL at 2 hours, and declined to 53.0±6.9 at 4 hours, 50±7.0 at 8 hours, 44±4.6 at 12 hours, and 41.5±5.1 at 24 hours. Following multiple-dose administration, serum calcitriol levels reached steady-state within 7 days. Distribution Calcitriol is approximately 99.9% bound in blood. Calcitriol and other vitamin D metabolites are transported in blood, by an alpha-globulin vitamin D binding protein. There is evidence that maternal calcitriol may enter the fetal circulation. Calcitriol is transferred into human breast milk at low levels (ie, 2.2±0.1 pg/mL). Metabolism In vivo and in vitro studies indicate the presence of two pathways ...
The Wnt-β-catenin pathway is aberrantly activated in most colon cancers. DICKKOPF-1 (DKK-1) gene encodes an extracellular Wnt inhibitor that blocks the formation of signalling receptor complexes at the plasma membrane. We report that 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3], the most active vitamin D metabolite, increases the level of DKK-1 RNA and protein in human SW480-ADH colon cancer cells. This effect is dose dependent, slow and depends on the presence of a transcription-competent nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR). Accordingly, 1,25(OH)2D3 activates a 2300 bp fragment of the human DKK-1 gene promoter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment induced a pattern of histone modifications which is compatible with transcriptionally active chromatin. DKK-1 is expressed at high level in colon cancer cell lines with a differentiated phenotype such as Caco-2 or HT-29. Exogenous expression of E-cadherin into SW480-ADH cells results in a strong adhesive phenotype and a ...
1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)), the biologically active metabolite of Vitamin D(3), not only regulates bone and calcium metabolism but also exerts other biological activities, including immunomodulation via the nuclear Vitamin D receptor expressed in antigen-presenting cells and activated T cells. This regulation is mediated through interference with nuclear transcription factors such as NF-AT and NF-kappaB or by direct interaction with Vitamin D responsive elements in the promoter regions of cytokine genes. Dendritic cells (DCs) are primary targets for the immunomodulatory activity of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3), as indicated by inhibited DC differentiation and maturation, leading to down-regulated expression of MHC-II, costimulatory molecules and IL-12. Moreover, 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) enhances IL-10 production and promotes DC apoptosis. Together, these effects of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) inhibit DC-dependent T cell activation. Immunomodulation by 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) and its analogs in vivo has been ...
In the first pilot trial with calcitriol, Walter et al. (5) reported no differences in fasting C-peptide, AUC C-peptide, and peak C-peptide after a mixed meal between treated and placebo groups at 9 and 18 months. A1C and insulin requirement were also similar between the groups. In the aforementioned study, no threshold of C-peptide level at study entry was defined. We designed a trial in which patients were younger at diagnosis, including also children, and should have had basal C-peptide levels at entry ,0.25 nmol/l so that a possible effect of calcitriol on disease progression could have been detected. We have shown that calcitriol does not affect residual β-cell function in such patients, even those of younger age. Similar to the German trial describing a mean C-peptide decrease of ∼40% at 18 months, in our study, decline of C-peptide after 24 months was 44.4% in the calcitriol group and 42.5% in the placebo group. These findings substantially confirm the data from combined studies ...
Genome- and transcriptome-wide data has significantly increased the amount of available information about primary 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) target genes in cancer cell models, such as human THP-1 myelomonocytic leukemia cells. In this study, we investigated the genes G0S2, CDKN1A and MYC as master examples of primary vitamin D receptor (VDR) targets being involved in the control of cellular proliferation. The chromosomal domains of G0S2 and CDKN1A are 140-170 kb in size and contain one and three VDR binding sites, respectively. This is rather compact compared to the MYC locus that is 15 times larger and accommodates four VDR binding sites. All eight VDR binding sites were studied by chromatin immunoprecipitation in THP-1 cells. Interestingly, the site closest to the transcription start site of the down-regulated MYC gene showed 1,25(OH)2D3-dependent reduction of VDR binding and is not associated with open chromatin. Four of the other seven VDR binding regions contain a typical DR3-type VDR
A new study published this month finds that the hormonally active form of vitamin D, Calcitriol 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3), inhibits the growth of many kinds of cancerous cells, including breast cancer, indicating that vitamin D3 can be useful in treating and even preventing a variety of cancers. Authors of the study said that caner cell growth is inhibited by "anticancer actions including cell cycle arrest, promotion of apoptosis and inhibition of invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis." Vitamin Ds anti-inflammatory properties and interference with estrogen synthesis further explains its anti-tumor properties. Two studies from 2007 used meta-analysis, which combines data from multiple reports, to find that therapeutic doses of vitamin D could prevent up to half of all cases of breast cancer, and two-thirds of all cases of colorectal cancer in the United States. The studies showed a direct correlation between blood levels of vitamin D and cancer. Those with the highest blood levels were found ...
en] Metastatic breast cancer cells are characterized by their high propensity to colonize the skeleton and form bone metastases, causing major morbidity and mortality. Identifying key proteins involved in the osteotropic phenotype would represent a major step toward the development of both new prognostic markers and new effective therapies. Cell surface proteins differentially expressed in cancer cells are preferred potential targets for antibody-based targeted therapies. In this study, using cell surface biotinylation and a mass spectrometric approach, we have compared the profile of accessible cell surface proteins between the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 and its highly osteotropic B02 subclone. This strategy allowed the identification of several proteins either up- or downregulated in the osteotropic cell line, and differential protein expressions were validated using antibody-based techniques. Class I HLAs were down-regulated in the bone metastatic variant, whereas ...
0006] In the research leading to the present invention, it was surprisingly found that certain three-component surfactant-solvent mixtures of a type which self-emulsifies in the presence of an excess of water to form microemulsions are suitable for inclusion in topical compositions for application on skin. The mixtures also exhibit a good solubilization capacity in dissolving sparingly water-soluble active ingredients such as vitamin D derivatives and analogues. The compositions are easily spreadable, and therefore likely to improve patient compliance, and exhibit an adequate physical and chemical stability. Compositions according to the invention comprising a vitamin D derivative or analogue have surprisingly been found to lead to a very high activation of the target gene cathelicidin in the biological assay described in Example 7 below, suggesting that the active ingredient is internalized by the keratinocytes on which the compositions are applied and activates the vitamin D receptor to a ...
and Thomasset M. (1990) Endocrinology 127:580-587). The bone-oriented assays include: 1) assessment of bone resorption as determined via the release of Ca2+ from bone in vivo (in animals fed a zero Ca2+diet) (Hibberd K.A. and Norman A.W. (1969) Biochem. Pharmacol 18:2347-2355; Hurwitz S. etal (1967)7. Nutr. 91:319-323), or from bone explants in vitro (Bouillon R. et al (1992) J. Biol Chem. 267:3044-3051), 2) measurement of serum osteocalcin levels [osteocalcin is an osteoblast-specific protein that after its synthesis is largely incorporated into the bone matrix, but partially released into the circulation (or tissue culture medium) and thus represents a good market of bone formation or turnover] (Bouillon R. et al (1992) Clin. Chem. 38:2055-2060), or 3) bone ash content (Norman A.W. and Wong R.G. (1972) J. Nutr. 102:1709-1718). Only one kidney-oriented assay has been employed. In this assay, urinary Ca2+ excretion is determined (Hartenbower D.L. et al (1977) Walter de Gruyter, Berlin pp ...
Hostutler RA, DiBartola SP, Chew DJ, Nagode LA, Schenck PA, Rajala-Schultz PJ, Drost WT: Comparison of the effects of daily and intermittent-dose calcitriol on serum parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium concentrations in normal cats and cats with chronic renal failure." J Vet Intern Med 20(6): 1307-1313, 2006 ...
The influence of vitamin D3 and its metabolites calcifediol (25(OH)D) and calcitriol on immune regulation and inflammation is well described, and raises the question of potential benefit against bacterial infections. In the current study, 25(OH)D was encapsulated in liposomes to enable aerosolisation, and tested for the ability to prevent pulmonary infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Prepared 25(OH)D-loaded liposomes were nanosized and monodisperse, with a negative surface charge and a 25(OH)D entrapment efficiency of approximately 23%. Jet nebulisation of liposomes was seen to yield an aerosol suitable for tracheo-bronchial deposition. Interestingly, 25(OH)D in either liposomes or ethanolic solution had no effect on the release of the proinflammatory cytokine KC from Pseudomonas-infected murine epithelial cells (LA-4); treatment of infected, human bronchial 16-HBE cells with 25(OH)D liposomes however resulted in a significant reduction in bacterial survival. Together with the importance of ...
The metabolite of vitamin D, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (also known as calcitriol), is a biologically active molecule required to maintain the physiological functions of several target tissues in the human body from conception to adulthood. Its molecular mode of action ranges from immediate nongenomic responses to longer term mechanisms that exert persistent genomic effects. The genomic mechanisms of vitamin D action rely on cross talk between 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 signaling pathways and that of other growth factors or hormones that collectively regulate cell proliferation, differentiation and cell survival. In vitro and in vivo studies demonstrate a role for vitamin D (calcitriol) in modulating cellular growth and development. Vitamin D (calcitriol) acts as an antiproliferative agent in many tissues and significantly slows malignant cellular growth. Moreover, epidemiological studies have suggested that ultraviolet-B exposure can help reduce cancer risk and prevalence, indicating a potential role
TY - JOUR. T1 - Maturation state determines the response of osteogenic cells to surface roughness and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. AU - Lohmann, C. H.. AU - Bonewald, L. F.. AU - Sisk, M. A.. AU - Sylvia, V. L.. AU - Cochran, D. L.. AU - Dean, D. D.. AU - Boyan, Barbara D.. AU - Schwartz, Z.. PY - 2000/1/1. Y1 - 2000/1/1. N2 - In this study we assessed whether osteogenic cells respond in a differential manner to changes in surface roughness depending on their maturation state. Previous studies using MG63 osteoblast-like cells, hypothesized to be at a relatively immature maturation state, showed that proliferation was inhibited and differentiation (osteocalcin production) was stimulated by culture on titanium (Ti) surfaces of increasing roughness. This effect was further enhanced by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3]. In the present study, we examined the response of three additional cell lines at three different maturation states: fetal rat calvarial (FRC) cells (a mixture of multipotent ...
5 µCi quantities of 1 a, 25-[26, 27-3H]-Dihydroxyvitamin D3, are available for your research. Application of [3H] Dihydroxyvitamin D3 can be found in: appearance of the rat testicular receptor during development in steroid biochemistry, in determination as a major intermediate in 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-26,23-lactone formation, receptors in the choroid plexus and ependyma in cellular neuroscience, etc.. ...
Maxacalcitol 22-Oxacalcitriol is a Vitamin D3 analog which is Non-calcemic as well as a VDR ligand. 22-Oxacalcitriol has been shown to decrease parathyroid hormone (PTH) mRNA expression in vitro. Additionally has been noted to exhibit similar effects to calcitriol in. ...
To the editor: We read with interest the recent report by Breslau and associates (1). We have recently studied the case of a patient with Hodgkins disease with hypercalcemia and increased calcitriol levels.. A 51-year-old white man was admitted to St. Josephs Hospital and Medical Center with polyuria, polydyspia, and constipation. The only abnormal findings on physical examination were hard 1- to 2-cm left inguinal lymphadenopathy and a spleen tip palpable on deep inspiration. Laboratory data included serum calcium, 11.7 mg/dL; inorganic phosphorus, 2.1 mg/dL; creatinine, 2.9 mg/dL; albumin, 4.3 mg/dL; magnesium, 2.1 mg/dL; and alkaline phosphatase, 0.52 IU/L. Thyroid ...
Depression has been linked to (lack of) sunlight exposure and raised intracellular calcium levels. In this pathway, the role of the vitamin D pathway in calcium signaling in depression is shown. Active 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D3 is formed from 7-dehydrocholesterol by multiple conversion steps. It associates with RXR and VDR in the nucleus, which stimulates transcription of VDR target genes, resulting in lower intracellular calcium levels. Less sunlight exposure results in lower 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 levels and therefore higher calcium levels ...
It may be more important than ever for older people to get enough vitamin D in their systems, either from the sun or through nutritional supplements. According to a new study, their lives may depend on it.... Full Story ...
Calcitriol Inhibits the Th1 and Promotes the Th2 Profile in Mice with TNBS Colitis. Th1 lymphocyte differentiation is known to be based on a sequence of cell-intrinsic and exogenous, DC-derived factors, including augmentation of the transcription factor T-bet following activation by DC-derived IL-12. The observed reduction of the Th1 mediators, especially after treatment with the combination of dexamethasone and calcitriol, was further confirmed by immunoblot analysis of the T-bet. The combined administration of calcitriol and dexamethasone led to a significant reduction of T-bet protein expression compared with dexamethasone monotherapy (P , 0.001 versus dexamethasone, Fig. 3, A and B). As a next step to assess a possible role of calcitriol and dexamethasone in promoting the Th2 subset, we analyzed IL-4 production as well as the relevant Th2 lineage commitment factor GATA3. Calcitriol significantly up-regulated IL-4, whereas dexamethasone alone did not cause any significant change in IL-4 ...
The active form of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] regulates calcium homeostasis, immunity, and other physiological processes while its effect in T-helper lymphocyte type 2 models is not very clear. The prevention effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 for allergic asthma in a rat asthma model was investigated. Healthy Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: control group, asthma group, drug prevention group, and treatment group. Asthma was induced in rats by sensitization and challenges with ovalbumin (OVA). The drug prevention group and treatment group were given 1,25(OH)2D3 or vitamin D3 on different schedules. The effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 on the development of asthma were analyzed. The airway hyperresponsiveness, the inflammatory cell infiltration in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, and histological changes of lung cells were examined. Nitric oxide production and the expression and activity of induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the lungs were examined also. Our study showed that ...
1 Answer - Posted in: calcitriol, cholecalciferol - Answer: No - the doses are not the same. One IU of Vitamin D (Cholecalciferol) ...
Hayes CE, Cantorna MT, DeLuca HF. Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison 53706, USA.. Recently, it has been clearly demonstrated that exogenous 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, the hormonal form of vitamin D3, can completely prevent experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a widely accepted mouse model of human multiple sclerosis (MS). This finding has focused attention on the possible relationship of this disease to vitamin D. Although genetic traits certainly contribute to MS susceptibility, an environmental factor is also clearly involved. It is our hypothesis that one crucial environmental factor is the degree of sunlight exposure catalyzing the production of vitamin D3 in skin, and, further, that the hormonal form of vitamin D3 is a selective immune system regulator inhibiting this autoimmune disease. Thus, under low-sunlight conditions, insufficient vitamin D3 is produced, limiting production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, providing a risk for MS. Although the evidence ...
The invention provides a new vitamin D2 compound, 1α-hydroxy-24-epi-vitamin D2 and certain hydroxy-protected derivatives thereof. The new compound exhibits a distinctive activity pattern comprising high potency in stimulating intestinal calcium transport and little or no activity in inducing bone calcium mobilization or the differentiation of undifferentiated cells in culture, thereby evincing utility in the treatment of diseases characterized by loss of bone mass.
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Introduction: Ether à go‐go 1 (Eag1) channels have oncogenic properties. This channel is widely expressed in human tumors. It has been shown that inhibition of its expression and/or activity reduces cellular proliferation. Some cancer‐associated factors up‐regulate Eag1 expression; including estradiol and the E6 and E7 human papilloma virus (HPV) oncogenes. On the other hand, calcitriol (the most active metabolite of vitamin D) has shown antiproliferative properties and it has been considered as a potential anticancer treatment. In this work, we studied Eag1 regulation by estradiol, tamoxifen, ICI 182 780, genistein and calcitriol in the cervical cancer cell line SiHa, that express E6 an E7 HPV oncogenes.. Methods: SiHa cells were cultivated with DMEM without phenol red and were treated with estradiol, tamoxifen, ICI 182 780, genistein or calcitriol during 48 hours. Total RNA was obtained with Trizol reagent, and cDNA was synthesized. Eag1 expression was evaluated by real time PCR. Eag1 ...
In animal studies of the effects of hormonally active agents, measurement of anogenital distance (AGD) is now routine, and serves as a bioassay of fetal androgen action. Although measurement of AGD in humans has been discussed in the literature, to o
One of the primary goals of this laboratory is to improve the treatment of breast cancer in order to prevent the disease from recurring and develop strategies t...
Duffy, MM,McNicholas, BA,Monaghan, DA,Hanley, SA,McMahon, JM,Pindjakova, J,Alagesan, S,Fearnhead, HO,Griffin, MD (2014) Mesenchymal stem cells and a vitamin D receptor agonist additively suppress T helper 17 cells and the related inflammatory response in the kidney. American Journal Of Physiology-Renal Physiology, 307 :1412-1426 [DOI] [Details] ...
AMSURG Partner Shekhar Challa, M.D., Endoscopy and Surgery Center of Topeka, was featured on Todays TMJ4, an NBC-affiliated TV station in Milwaukee, talking
By Jennifer S. Fryer, DVMOne of the most common diseases we treat as small animal veterinarians is renal failure and renal insufficiency in cats and dogs. We are desperate to do more for these patients - to keep them eating and comfortable with minimal intervention for as long as possible. In the past 10 years,…
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You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule (6alpha,17alpha)-19-norpregna-1(10),2,4-trien-20-yne-3,6,17-triol (C20H24O3) from the PQR.
한국 최고의 가격 Gummy Cuties 어린이 구미 칼슘 VIT의 D의 60ct 부터 eVitamins.com. 알다 Gummy Cuties Calcium with Vit D for Kids 리뷰, 부작용, 쿠폰 및 eVitamins에서 더. 한국에 빠르고 신뢰할 수있는 운송. Gummy Cuties Calcium with Vit D for Kids 다른 제품으로 Natural Dynamix 당신의 건강 요구에.
Feeling really well this morning. Took two pectaClear last night. New vitamins seem to have settled in well and no problems. No more movement from my leg and my hand remains relaxed. No problems from the Prescript-Assist. Still on 48,000iu. ...
I get chest pain and have been prescribed the following drugs: Atorvastatin, architol (injection), Simvofix, Citro Mecalvit, Citalo, Tryptomer, Calcitriol, Ostium and Escitalopram. What is the use of these drugs?
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Background: Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most predominant bone tumor in individuals between 10-25 yrs of age. Cisplatin is the most widely used chemotherapeutic agent for OS management, it significantly enhances the survival rate. Resistance to the drug, toxicities of high doses and metastasis are the major concerns in the treatment. Objective: Our primary objective is to investigate effects of calcitriol in combination with cisplatin on the osteosarcoma cell apoptosis, invasion and migration. Our hypothesis is pretreatment of OS cells with calcitriol would sensitize them for cisplatin therapy leading to decrease in concentration for IC50. Secondary objective was to evaluate the effect of calcitriol on migration and invasion of OS cell lines, and the role of matrix metalloproteins (MMPs) in migration/invasion. Design: Previous findings in our lab suggests, calcitriol act as differentiation agent in human osteosarcoma cell lines 143B and SaOS-2. The dose response of cisplatin with and without ...
We have synthesized 39 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] analogs having two side chains attached to carbon-20 (Gemini) with various modifications and compared their anticancer activities. Five structure-function rules emerged to identify analogs with enhanced anticancer activity. One of these active analogs, BXL-01-0126, was more potent than 1,25(OH)2D3 in mediating 50% clonal inhibition of cancer cell growth. Murine studies found that BXL-01-0126 and 1,25(OH)2D3 had nearly the same potency to raise serum calcium levels. Taken together, BXL-01-0126 when compared to 1,25(OH)2D3 has greater anticancer potency, but similar toxicity causing hypercalcemia. We focused on the effect of these compounds on the stimulation of expression of human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) whose gene has a vitamin D response element in its promoter. Expression of CAMP mRNA and protein increased in a dose-response fashion after exposure of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells to the Gemini analog, ...
In breast cancer, the presence of the ERα is considered as a good indicator of disease-free survival and prognosis since patients with ERα-positive tumors are candidates for hormonal therapy [3, 4, 6]. In contrast, tumors lacking this receptor have the poorest clinical prognosis [36]. In this study we demonstrated the ability of calcitriol to induce the expression of ERα in both primary and established ERα-negative breast cancer cell lines. This effect was mediated by a VDR-dependent mechanism. In addition, our results demonstrated a fully active calcitriol-induced ER by its ability to increase PRL gene expression. Interestingly, pretreatment of ER-negative breast tumor-derived cells with calcitriol and the further incubation with this secosteroid in combination with tamoxifen or ICI-182,780 resulted in a significantly lower cell growth proliferation.. It is noteworthy to mention that, to our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate the ability of calcitriol to induce the expression ...
Calcitriol Inhibits the Th1 and Promotes the Th2 Profile in Mice with TNBS Colitis. Th1 lymphocyte differentiation is known to be based on a sequence of cell-intrinsic and exogenous, DC-derived factors, including augmentation of the transcription factor T-bet following activation by DC-derived IL-12. The observed reduction of the Th1 mediators, especially after treatment with the combination of dexamethasone and calcitriol, was further confirmed by immunoblot analysis of the T-bet. The combined administration of calcitriol and dexamethasone led to a significant reduction of T-bet protein expression compared with dexamethasone monotherapy (P , 0.001 versus dexamethasone, Fig. 3, A and B). As a next step to assess a possible role of calcitriol and dexamethasone in promoting the Th2 subset, we analyzed IL-4 production as well as the relevant Th2 lineage commitment factor GATA3. Calcitriol significantly up-regulated IL-4, whereas dexamethasone alone did not cause any significant change in IL-4 ...
Vitamin D endocrine system and osteoblasts.: The interaction between vitamin D and osteoblasts is complex. In the current review we will give an overview of the
1,25-DHCC, 1,25-dihydroxy-22-ovavitamin D(3), 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin-D (1,25(OH)(2)D), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, 1,25-diOHC, 1,25(OH) 2D3, 1-alpha (OH) D3, 19-nor-1, 1-alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol, 1-alpha-hydroxyvitamin D2, 1-hydroxyvitamin D, 22-oxacalcitriol (OCT), 24,25(OH)(2)vitamin D(3), 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), 25-dihydroxyvitamin D2, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D2, 19-nor-1, 25-HCC, 25-hydroxycholecalciferol, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, 25-OHCC, 25-OHD3, activated 7-dehydrocholesterol, activated ergosterol, alfacalcidol, calcifediol, calcipotriene, calcipotriol, calcitriol, cholecalciferol, colecalciferol, cod liver oil, dichysterol, dihydrotachysterol, dihydrotachysterol 2, doxercalciferol, ecocalcidiol, ED-21 (vitamin D analog), ED-71 (vitamin D analog), ergocalciferol, ergocalciferolum, falecalcitrol, hexafluoro-1,25dihydroxyvitamin D3, irradiated ergosterol, maxacalcitol, MC903, Ostelin , paracalcin, paricalcitol, tacalcitol, Vi-delta ...
Dr. Cannell published his vitamin D and autism theory in 2008 in Med Hypotheses; his assertion is based on the following evidence:. 1) Animal studies show that severe vitamin D deficiency during gestation led to dysregulation of dozens of proteins involved in brain development - additionally, rat pups born to vitamin D deficient mothers tended to have increased brain size and enlarged ventricles and other abnormalities similar to those found in autistic children.. 2) Children with Williams Syndrome tend to have greatly elevated calcitriol levels in early infancy and they usually have phenotypes that are the opposite of autism.. 3) Children with rickets associated with vitamin D deficiency experience symptoms that can be treated with high doses of vitamin D.. 4) Estrogen and testosterone have different effects on vitamin Ds metabolism, which explains why boys are more likely than girls to suffer autism. (The current study found boys were more likely to have jaundice.). 5) Calcitriol, a ...
High-dose corticosteroids, used for many medical conditions, are associated with rapid bone loss from sites such as the vertebrae, and compression fractures can be observed within months. Recent trials suggest treatment with bisphosphonates or active vitamin D analogs can reduce bone loss and the risk of fracture associated with glucocorticoids, but few studies have directly compared such agents. We conducted a randomized, multicenter, open-label trial to compare the efficacy of alendronate, calcitriol, and simple vitamin D in prevention and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced bone loss. A total of 195 subjects (134 females and 61 males) commencing or already taking glucocorticoids were randomized to one of three groups: calcitriol, 0.5 to 0.75 microg/day; simple vitamin D (ergocalciferol, 30,000 IU weekly) plus calcium carbonate (600 mg daily); or alendronate, 10 mg/day plus calcium carbonate (600 mg daily). Over 2 years, mean lumbar bone mineral density change was +5.9% with alendronate, -0.5% with
Test Code 36736. CPT Code(s) 82310, 82330, 83970. Includes PTH Intact, Calcium, Ionized Calcium. Methodology PTH: Immunoassay (IA) • Calcium: Spectrophotometry (SP) • Ionized Calcium: Ion Specific Electrode (ISE). Reference Range(s) See Laboratory Report. PTH INTACT. Clinical Significance. The hormone Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) acts to increase serum calcium and 1-, 25- dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations, while decreasing phosphorus. Cross-reactivity with fragment 7-84 may occur in patients with renal insufficiency. The BioIntact PTH assay is considered the most reliable. Parathyroid function is related to the calcium concentration so both results should be interpreted together.. The assay is useful in making the diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and a differential diagnosis of hypercalcemia. The assay helps in distinguishing hypercalcemia caused by either primary hyperparathyroidism or malignant disease.. Additional names 3rd Generation PTH, ...
A number of studies have suggested a link between low levels of vitamin D and higher incidence of chronic pain There is a well-established link between low vitamin D and pain due toosteomalacia. There is no clear biological mechanism of how low We searched Medline (PubMed) using various search terms for vitamin D might be causally related to other types of chronic pain, vitamin D (vitamin D; vitamin D2; vitamin D3; 1-alpha-hydroxyvi- though vitamin D is thought to be involved in regulating inflamma- tamin D3; 1-alpha hydroxycalciferol; 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3; tory cytokine synthesis , and might be implicated in some hydroxyvitamin D; alfacalcidol; calcidiol; calcitriol; calcifediol; Associations of pain with latitude and season of the year offer calciferol; ergocalciferol; cholecalciferol; and spelling variations circumstantial evidence that vitamin D may be involved. These thereof) and pain*". The last search was conducted on 8 Septem- associations have been suggested for such diverse ...
1. Chromatography measurements indicated that adult rats converted 25-hydroxycholecalciferol into 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol at a lower rate than that reported earlier for young animals. In serum, less-polar metabolites were found which probably represented vitamin D esters and vitamin D3.. 2. A low dietary intake of calcium resulted in an evident increase in the fraction corresponding to 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol in the kidneys and also in the intestinal mucosa and serum.. 3. Inclusion of 0·67 mmol of cadmium/l of drinking water at a low dietary intake of calcium resulted in an increased accumulation of both cadmium and zinc in the kidneys and liver compared with values at a normal dietary calcium intake.. 4. At a normal dietary calcium intake, cadmium exposure caused inhibited production of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol by the kidneys and an increased accumulation of 24,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, vitamin D3 and vitamin D esters in the serum.. 5. The inhibitory effect of cadmium on ...

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  • Endogenous synthesis and catabolism of calcitriol, as well as physiological control mechanisms affecting these processes, play a critical role regulating the serum level of calcitriol. (nih.gov)
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  • Calcitriol is also commonly used as a medication in the treatment of hypocalcemia and osteoporosis. (drugbank.ca)
  • APO-Calcitriol is indicated for the:,- treatment of established osteoporosis diagnosed by objective measuring techniques, such as densitometry, or by radiographic evidence of a traumatic fracture . (healthdirect.gov.au)
  • One study showed that treatment with calcitriol can improve quality of life in patients with osteoporosis, although not to the same extent as bisphosphonates. (dovepress.com)
  • Thus calcitriol also stimulates the intestinal absorption of phosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some antacids can make it harder for your body to absorb calcitriol. (cigna.com)
  • Some medicines can affect how calcitriol works. (umm.edu)
  • Calcitriol is available as capsules containing 0.25 mcg or 0.5 mcg calcitriol All dosage forms contain butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) as antioxidants. (nih.gov)
  • Hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria, the most common side effects of calcitriol therapy, were not documented in the trials reviewed, and might have been the result of the low dosages used. (dovepress.com)
  • If you have an allergy to calcitriol or any other part of this drug. (mskcc.org)
  • Do not use more calcitriol than your doctor ordered. (umm.edu)
  • While you are taking calcitriol, it is important that you follow any dietary suggestions your doctor has provided. (medbroadcast.com)