Cell surface proteins that bind calcitonin and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Calcitonin receptors outside the nervous system mediate the role of calcitonin in calcium homeostasis. The role of calcitonin receptors in the brain is not well understood.
A peptide hormone that lowers calcium concentration in the blood. In humans, it is released by thyroid cells and acts to decrease the formation and absorptive activity of osteoclasts. Its role in regulating plasma calcium is much greater in children and in certain diseases than in normal adults.
G-protein coupled receptors that are formed through the dimerization of the CALCITONIN RECEPTOR with a RECEPTOR ACTIVITY-MODIFYING PROTEIN. Their affinity for ISLET AMYLOID POLYPEPTIDE is dependent upon which of several receptor activity-modifying protein subtypes they are bound to.
Calcitonin gene-related peptide. A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the calcitonin gene. It occurs as a result of alternative processing of mRNA from the calcitonin gene. The neuropeptide is widely distributed in neural tissue of the brain, gut, perivascular nerves, and other tissue. The peptide produces multiple biological effects and has both circulatory and neurotransmitter modes of action. In particular, it is a potent endogenous vasodilator.
A family of proteins that bind to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and alter their specificity, signaling mechanism, or mode of intracellular transport.
A receptor activity-modifying protein that is a subunit of specific G-PROTEIN COUPLED RECEPTORS. The CALCITONIN GENE-RELATED PEPTIDE RECEPTOR is formed from a dimer of this protein and CALCITONIN RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN, while an isoform of the ISLET AMYLOID POLYPEPTIDE RECEPTOR is formed from this protein dimerizing with the CALCITONIN RECEPTOR.
Cell surface proteins that bind CALCITONIN GENE-RELATED PEPTIDE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. CGRP receptors are present in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and the periphery. They are formed via the heterodimerization of the CALCITONIN RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN and RECEPTOR ACTIVITY-MODIFYING PROTEIN 1.
A receptor protein that is associated with RECEPTOR ACTIVITY-MODIFYING PROTEINS. When bound to RECEPTOR ACTIVITY-MODIFYING PROTEIN 1 it forms the CALCITONIN GENE-RELATED RECEPTOR. When bound to RECEPTOR ACTIVITY-MODIFYING PROTEIN 2 or RECEPTOR ACTIVITY-MODIFYING PROTEIN 3 it forms the ADRENOMEDULLIN RECEPTOR.
A receptor activity-modifying protein that heterodimerizes with CALCITONIN RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN to form the ADRENOMEDULLIN RECEPTOR. In addition, an isoform of the ISLET AMYLOID POLYPEPTIDE RECEPTOR is formed from this protein dimerizing with the CALCITONIN RECEPTOR.
Fish of the genera ONCORHYNCHUS and Salmo in the family SALMONIDAE. They are anadromous game fish, frequenting the coastal waters of both the North Atlantic and Pacific. They are known for their gameness as a sport fish and for the quality of their flesh as a table fish. (Webster, 3d ed).
A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.
A receptor activity-modifying protein that heterodimerizes with CALCITONIN RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN to form the ADRENOMEDULLIN RECEPTOR. In addition, an isoform of the ISLET AMYLOID POLYPEPTIDE RECEPTOR is formed from this protein dimerizing with the CALCITONIN RECEPTOR.
A pancreatic beta-cell hormone that is co-secreted with INSULIN. It displays an anorectic effect on nutrient metabolism by inhibiting gastric acid secretion, gastric emptying and postprandial GLUCAGON secretion. Islet amyloid polypeptide can fold into AMYLOID FIBRILS that have been found as a major constituent of pancreatic AMYLOID DEPOSITS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Cell surface receptors that bind peptide messengers with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the behavior of cells.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.2.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B and OSTEOPROTEGERIN. It plays an important role in regulating OSTEOCLAST differentiation and activation.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A fibrous protein complex that consists of proteins folded into a specific cross beta-pleated sheet structure. This fibrillar structure has been found as an alternative folding pattern for a variety of functional proteins. Deposits of amyloid in the form of AMYLOID PLAQUES are associated with a variety of degenerative diseases. The amyloid structure has also been found in a number of functional proteins that are unrelated to disease.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor family member that is specific for RANK LIGAND and plays a role in bone homeostasis by regulating osteoclastogenesis. It is also expressed on DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in regulating dendritic cell survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
One of the virulence factors produced by virulent BORDETELLA organisms. It is a bifunctional protein with both ADENYLYL CYCLASES and hemolysin components.

Co-expression of prepro-adrenomedullin with a putative adrenomedullin receptor gene in vascular smooth muscle. (1/119)

The prepro-adrenomedullin (prepro-AM) gene encodes several biologically active peptides, including the potent vasodilator AM. At least part of the vasodilator action of AM appears to be mediated via interactions with receptors on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC); however, the specific receptors involved are not known. The aim of the present study was to identify putative AM receptor genes that are co-expressed with AM in cultured rat aortic VSMC that may mediate the actions of AM. AM mRNA was shown to be expressed in rat aortic VSMC cultures. In acute (4 h) secretion studies, only 20% of the total immunoreactive AM was intracellular, with the majority (80%) found in the medium, indicating active release of AM peptide from VSMC. Using highly specific ribonuclease protection analysis, mRNAs encoding three putative AM receptors [L1, calcitonin-receptor-like receptor (CRLR) and RDC1] were shown to be present at high concentrations in RNA extracts from lung. In cultured VSMC, however, whereas RDC1 mRNA was expressed at relatively high concentrations, transcripts encoding CRLR and L1 were not detected. The co-expression of prepro-AM mRNA with the RDC1 receptor implies that AM may act in a localized manner via this receptor to modulate VSMC function.  (+info)

The RAMP2/CRLR complex is a functional adrenomedullin receptor in human endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells. (2/119)

Adrenomedullin, a potently hypotensive peptide isolated from human pheochromocytoma, is known to elicit a rise in cAMP levels within mammalian endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Until now, however, little has been known about the adrenomedullin receptor. Recently, a group called receptor activity-modifying proteins that complex with the calcitonin receptor-like receptor, and thereby regulate its transport and ligand specificity, were identified. Here we show that mRNA for both the calcitonin receptor-like receptor and the receptor activity-modifying protein 2, but not the receptor activity-modifying protein 1 or receptor activity-modifying protein 3, are expressed in human endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells. We also found that adrenomedullin increased cAMP levels in HeLa EBNA and 293 EBNA cells, expressing both the receptor activity-modifying protein 2 and calcitonin receptor-like receptor proteins. Thus, the receptor activity-modifying protein 2/calcitonin receptor-like receptor complex apparently serves as a functional adrenomedullin receptor in human endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells.  (+info)

The amino terminus of receptor activity modifying proteins is a critical determinant of glycosylation state and ligand binding of calcitonin receptor-like receptor. (3/119)

The calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR) can function as either a receptor for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) or for adrenomedullin (ADM), depending upon the coexpression of a novel family of single transmembrane proteins, which we have called receptor activity modifying proteins or RAMPs. RAMPs 1, 2, and 3 transport CRLR to the plasma membrane with similar efficiencies, however RAMP1 presents CRLR as a terminally glycosylated, mature glycoprotein and a CGRP receptor, whereas RAMPs 2 and 3 present CRLR as an immature, core glycosylated ADM receptor. Characterization of the RAMP2/CRLR and RAMP3/CRLR receptors in HEK293T cells by radioligand binding (125I-ADM as radioligand), functional assay (cAMP measurement), or biochemical analysis (SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) revealed them to be indistinguishable, even though RAMPs 2 and 3 share only 30% identity. Chimeric proteins were created with the transmembrane and cytosolic portions of RAMP1 associated with the amino terminus of RAMP2 (RAMP2/1) and vice versa (RAMP1/2). Coexpression of RAMP2/1 with CRLR formed a core glycosylated ADM receptor, whereas the RAMP1/2 chimera generated both core glycosylated and mature forms of CRLR and enabled both ADM and CGRP receptor binding. Hence, the glycosylation state of CRLR appears to correlate with its pharmacology.  (+info)

Mammalian calcitonin receptor-like receptor/receptor activity modifying protein complexes define calcitonin gene-related peptide and adrenomedullin receptors in Drosophila Schneider 2 cells. (4/119)

Differential glycosylation of human and rat (r) calcitonin (CT) receptor-like receptors (CRLR) as a result of interactions with accessory receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMP)1 or -2 was considered to define CT gene-related peptide (CGRP) or adrenomedullin (ADM) receptors in mammalian cells. Here, Drosophila Schneider (S2) cells stably co-expressed rCRLR and RAMP1 or -2 as functional CGRP or ADM receptors. Different from mammalian cells, rCRLR expressed in S2 cells are uniformly glycosylated proteins independent of RAMP1 or RAMP2. Bis(sulfosuccinimidyl)suberate cross-linking revealed receptor components with the size of rCRLR, increased by the molecular weights of the corresponding RAMPs and [(125)I]CGRP or [(125)I]ADM. In conclusion, [(125)I]CGRP/rCRLR/RAMP1 and [(125)I]ADM/rCRLR/RAMP2 complexes have been recognized in Drosophila S2 cells.  (+info)

CGRP and adrenomedullin binding correlates with transcript levels for calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR) and receptor activity modifying proteins (RAMPs) in rat tissues. (5/119)

1. Putative receptors for CGRP and adrenomedullin have been investigated in the rat. Calcitonin Receptor-Like Receptor (CRLR), in combination with Receptor Activity Modifying Proteins (RAMPs) is hypothesized to bind either CGRP or adrenomedullin. The receptors known as RDC1 and L1 have also been shown to bind CGRP and adrenomedullin respectively. 2. In this study it is shown that rat CRLR cDNA specifies a CGRP receptor when co-transfected with RAMP-1 cDNA and an adrenomedullin receptor when co-transfected with either RAMP-2 or RAMP-3 cDNA in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. 3. CRLR, RAMP, RCD1 and L1 mRNA levels and CGRP and adrenomedullin receptor densities have been measured and correlated with each other in eight rat tissues selected for their distinctive patterns of CGRP and adrenomedullin binding. 4. The data are consistent with the predictions of the CRLR/RAMP model. CGRP binding correlates well with RAMP-1 mRNA levels (R=1.0, P=0.007), adrenomedullin binding shows a tendency to vary with RAMP-2 mRNA levels (R=0.85, P=0.14) and total binding is correlated with CRLR mRNA levels (R=0.94, P=0.03). The data do not support the hypothesis that RDC1 and L1 account for the majority of CGRP and adrenomedullin binding respectively.  (+info)

Visualization of the calcitonin receptor-like receptor and its receptor activity-modifying proteins during internalization and recycling. (6/119)

Expression of the calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR) and its receptor activity modifying proteins (RAMPs) can produce calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptors (CRLR/RAMP1) and adrenomedullin (AM) receptors (CRLR/RAMP2 or -3). A chimera of the CRLR and green fluorescent protein (CRLR-GFP) was used to study receptor localization and trafficking in stably transduced HEK 293 cells, with or without co-transfection of RAMPs. CRLR-GFP failed to generate responses to CGRP or AM without RAMPs. Furthermore, CRLR-GFP was not found in the plasma membrane and its localization was unchanged after agonist exposure. When stably coexpressed with RAMPs, CRLR-GFP appeared on the cell surface and was fully active in intracellular cAMP production and calcium mobilization. Agonist-mediated internalization of CRLR-GFP was observed in RAMP1/CGRP or AM, RAMP2/AM, and RAMP3/AM, which occurred with similar kinetics, indicating the existence of ligand-specific regulation of CRLR internalization by RAMPs. This internalization was strongly inhibited by hypertonic medium (0.45 m sucrose) and paralleled localization of rhodamine-labeled transferrin, suggesting that CRLR endocytosis occurred predominantly through a clathrin-dependent pathway. A significant proportion of CRLR was targeted to lysosomes upon binding of the ligands, and recycling of the internalized CRLR was not efficient. In HEK 293 cells stably expressing CRLR-GFP and Myc-RAMPs, these rhodamine-labeled RAMPs were co-localized with CRLR-GFP in the presence and absence of the ligands. Thus, the CRLR is endocytosed together with RAMPs via clathrin-coated vesicles, and both the internalized molecules are targeted to the degradative pathway.  (+info)

Adrenomedullin inhibits spontaneous and bradykinin-induced but not oxytocin- or prostaglandin F(2alpha)-induced periodic contraction of rat uterus. (7/119)

In isolated rat uterine strips, adrenomedullin (AM) inhibited the spontaneous periodic contraction in a concentration-dependent manner (IC(50)=22.3+/-0.7 nM). The inhibitory effect of AM was prevented by either AM(22-52), a putative antagonist for AM receptors, or calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)(8-37), a putative antagonist for CGRP receptors. AM also attenuated bradykinin (BK)-induced periodic uterine contraction, which was blocked by AM(22-52) or CGRP(8-37), whereas AM had no effect on the periodic contraction caused by oxytocin or prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha)). RT-PCR analysis showed that mRNAs for calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR), receptor-activity-modifying protein (RAMP)1, RAMP2 and RAMP3 were expressed in the rat uterus. These results demonstrate that AM selectively inhibits spontaneous and BK-induced periodic contraction via activating receptors for AM and CGRP.  (+info)

Glycosylation of the calcitonin receptor-like receptor at Asn(60) or Asn(112) is important for cell surface expression. (8/119)

The human calcitonin (CT) receptor-like receptor (hCRLR) of the B family of G protein-coupled receptors is N-glycosylated and associates with receptor-activity-modifying proteins for functional interaction with CT gene-related peptide (CGRP) or adrenomedullin (ADM), respectively. Three putative N-glycosylation sites Asn(60), Asn(112) and Asn(117) are present in the amino-terminal extracellular domain of the hCRLR. Tunicamycin dose-dependently inhibited the glycosylation of a myc-tagged hCRLR and in parallel specific [(125)I]CGRP and -ADM binding. Similarly, the double mutant myc-hCRLR(N60,112T) exhibited minimal N-glycosidase F sensitive glycosylation, presumably at the third Asn(117), and the cell surface expression and specific radioligand binding were impaired. Substitution of the Asn(117) by Thr abolished CGRP and ADM binding in the face of intact N-glycosylation and cell surface expression.  (+info)

Calcitonin receptors (CTRs) are a type of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that bind and respond to the hormone calcitonin. Calcitonin is a peptide hormone secreted by the parafollicular cells (C cells) of the thyroid gland, and plays a crucial role in regulating calcium homeostasis in the body.

CTRs are widely expressed in various tissues and organs, including bone, kidney, intestine, and brain. In bone, CTR activation inhibits osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, thereby increasing bone density and reducing the risk of fractures. In the kidney, CTR activation promotes calcium reabsorption and phosphate excretion, helping to maintain normal serum calcium and phosphate levels.

CTRs are also involved in various physiological processes, such as nociception (pain perception), neuroprotection, and cell proliferation and differentiation. Dysregulation of CTR signaling has been implicated in several diseases, including osteoporosis, hypercalcemia, and cancer.

The medical definition of "Receptors, Calcitonin" refers to the specific proteins that bind calcitonin hormone and mediate its effects on target cells and tissues.

Calcitonin is a hormone that is produced and released by the parafollicular cells (also known as C cells) of the thyroid gland. It plays a crucial role in regulating calcium homeostasis in the body. Specifically, it helps to lower elevated levels of calcium in the blood by inhibiting the activity of osteoclasts, which are bone cells that break down bone tissue and release calcium into the bloodstream. Calcitonin also promotes the uptake of calcium in the bones and increases the excretion of calcium in the urine.

Calcitonin is typically released in response to high levels of calcium in the blood, and its effects help to bring calcium levels back into balance. In addition to its role in calcium regulation, calcitonin may also have other functions in the body, such as modulating immune function and reducing inflammation.

Clinically, synthetic forms of calcitonin are sometimes used as a medication to treat conditions related to abnormal calcium levels, such as hypercalcemia (high blood calcium) or osteoporosis. Calcitonin can be administered as an injection, nasal spray, or oral tablet, depending on the specific formulation and intended use.

Islet amyloid polypeptide receptors (IAPRs) are a type of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that play a role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and energy balance. They are activated by the hormone islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP), also known as amylin, which is co-secreted with insulin from pancreatic beta cells in response to meals.

There are two subtypes of IAPRs, named RCS3 (or IA PR1) andRAMP2 (or IA PR2). These receptors can form heterodimers with other GPCRs, such as the calcitonin receptor (CTR), to form functional complexes that bind IAPP with high affinity. Activation of IAPRs by IAPP has been shown to inhibit gastric emptying, reduce food intake, and lower blood glucose levels, suggesting a role in the regulation of satiety and glucose metabolism.

Mutations in the genes encoding IAPP and IAPRs have been associated with the development of type 2 diabetes, suggesting that dysfunction of the IAPP/IAPR system may contribute to the pathogenesis of this disease. Additionally, the accumulation of misfolded IAPP in pancreatic islets can lead to the formation of amyloid deposits, which are a characteristic feature of type 2 diabetes and have been implicated in the destruction of beta cells and the development of insulin resistance.

Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a neurotransmitter and vasodilator peptide that is widely distributed in the nervous system. It is encoded by the calcitonin gene, which also encodes calcitonin and catestatin. CGRP is produced and released by sensory nerves and plays important roles in pain transmission, modulation of inflammation, and regulation of blood flow.

CGRP exists as two forms, α-CGRP and β-CGRP, which differ slightly in their amino acid sequences but have similar biological activities. α-CGRP is found primarily in the central and peripheral nervous systems, while β-CGRP is expressed mainly in the gastrointestinal tract.

CGRP exerts its effects by binding to specific G protein-coupled receptors, which are widely distributed in various tissues, including blood vessels, smooth muscles, and sensory neurons. Activation of CGRP receptors leads to increased intracellular cyclic AMP levels, activation of protein kinase A, and subsequent relaxation of vascular smooth muscle, resulting in vasodilation.

CGRP has been implicated in several clinical conditions, including migraine, cluster headache, and inflammatory pain. Inhibition of CGRP signaling has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of these disorders.

Receptor Activity-Modifying Proteins (RAMPs) are a family of single-pass transmembrane proteins that play a crucial role in modulating the function of certain G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). RAMPs were first identified in 1998, and since then, they have been shown to interact with and alter the pharmacological properties, ligand specificity, trafficking, and signal transduction of class II GPCRs, including calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptors and adrenomedullin receptors.

There are three known isoforms of RAMPs: RAMP1, RAMP2, and RAMP3. These isoforms can form heterodimers with class II GPCRs, leading to the formation of distinct receptor complexes with unique functional properties. The interaction between RAMPs and GPCRs can result in the generation of novel signaling pathways, which may have implications for various physiological processes and diseases.

RAMPs are involved in several biological functions, such as regulating vasodilation, inflammation, nociception, and cell proliferation. Dysregulation of RAMP-mediated signaling has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various disorders, including migraine, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying RAMP function is essential for developing novel therapeutic strategies targeting these diseases.

Receptor Activity-Modifying Protein 1 (RAMP1) is not a medical term per se, but rather a scientific term used in the field of molecular biology and pharmacology. RAMP1 is a single-pass type I membrane protein that plays a crucial role in the function of certain G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), particularly the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor and adrenomedullin receptors.

RAMP1 forms complexes with specific GPCRs, thereby modifying their ligand specificity, trafficking, and signaling properties. It is involved in the transportation of these receptors to the cell surface and influences their binding affinity for different ligands. RAMP1-containing receptors are implicated in various physiological processes, including vasodilation, nociception (pain perception), neurogenic inflammation, and bone homeostasis. Dysregulation of RAMP1 and its associated receptors has been linked to several diseases, such as migraine, hypertension, and cancer.

While not a medical definition, understanding the role of RAMP1 in modulating GPCR activity is essential for researchers working on drug development and therapeutic strategies targeting these receptor systems.

Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptors are a type of cell surface receptor found in various tissues and cells, including the nervous system and blood vessels. CGRP is a neuropeptide that plays a role in regulating vasodilation, inflammation, and nociception (the sensation of pain).

The CGRP receptor is a complex of two proteins: calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR) and receptor activity-modifying protein 1 (RAMP1). When CGRP binds to the CLR-RAMP1 complex, it activates a signaling pathway that leads to vasodilation and increased pain sensitivity.

CGRP receptors have been identified as important targets for the treatment of migraine headaches, as CGRP levels are known to increase during migraine attacks. Several drugs that target CGRP receptors have been developed and approved for the prevention and acute treatment of migraines.

Calcitonin receptor-like protein (CRLR) is a gene that encodes for a protein involved in the regulation of various physiological functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. CRLR itself does not bind to calcitonin or any other ligands, but it serves as a necessary component for the formation of functional receptors for certain peptide hormones, such as calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and adrenomedullin.

These hormones play important roles in regulating blood pressure, inflammation, and nociception (the perception of pain). CRLR forms a complex with receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs) to create functional receptors for CGRP and adrenomedullin. The specific combination of CRLR and RAMPs determines the type of receptor formed, which in turn dictates the ligand specificity and downstream signaling pathways activated.

Mutations in the CRLR gene have been associated with various diseases, including familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) type 3, a rare inherited disorder characterized by elevated serum calcium levels and decreased urinary calcium excretion. Additionally, dysregulation of CRLR-mediated signaling pathways has been implicated in the development and progression of several types of cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and cardiovascular diseases.

Receptor Activity-Modifying Protein 3 (RAMP3) is a protein that plays a role in modulating the activity of certain G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). RAMP3 combines with specific GPCRs to form complexes, which then alter the binding properties and signaling capabilities of those receptors.

RAMP3 is primarily associated with calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptors and adrenomedullin receptors. By forming a complex with these GPCRs, RAMP3 helps to regulate their activity and plays a role in various physiological processes, including neurotransmission, vasodilation, and inflammation.

It is important to note that the study of RAMP3 and its functions is still an active area of research, and new findings may continue to expand our understanding of this protein and its role in health and disease.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Salmon" is not a medical term. It is a common name for various species of fish that belong to the family Salmonidae and are known for their distinctive pink or red flesh. They are an important source of food and are popular in many cuisines around the world. If you have any questions about medical terminology, I'd be happy to help with those instead!

Osteoclasts are large, multinucleated cells that are primarily responsible for bone resorption, a process in which they break down and dissolve the mineralized matrix of bones. They are derived from monocyte-macrophage precursor cells of hematopoietic origin and play a crucial role in maintaining bone homeostasis by balancing bone formation and bone resorption.

Osteoclasts adhere to the bone surface and create an isolated microenvironment, called the "resorption lacuna," between their cell membrane and the bone surface. Here, they release hydrogen ions into the lacuna through a process called proton pumping, which lowers the pH and dissolves the mineral component of the bone matrix. Additionally, osteoclasts secrete proteolytic enzymes, such as cathepsin K, that degrade the organic components, like collagen, in the bone matrix.

An imbalance in osteoclast activity can lead to various bone diseases, including osteoporosis and Paget's disease, where excessive bone resorption results in weakened and fragile bones.

Receptor Activity-Modifying Protein 2 (RAMP2) is a protein that plays a role in modulating the function of certain G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). RAMP2 combines with specific GPCRs to form complexes that alter their ligand binding, trafficking, and signaling properties.

These GPCRs include calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CALCRL) and calcitonin receptor (CTR), which bind to peptide hormones such as calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and adrenomedullin. RAMP2-containing complexes have been implicated in various physiological processes, including vasodilation, nociception, and neurotransmission.

Mutations in the RAMP2 gene can lead to several genetic disorders, such as familial migraine with aura and autosomal dominant osteoporosis type II. Additionally, RAMP2 has been targeted for drug development in conditions like migraine and cardiovascular diseases.

Islet Amyloid Polypeptide (IAPP), also known as amylin, is a 37-amino acid peptide co-secreted with insulin from pancreatic beta-cells in response to meals. It plays crucial roles in regulating glucose homeostasis by suppressing glucagon secretion, slowing gastric emptying, and promoting satiety. In type 2 diabetes, IAPP can form amyloid fibrils, which deposit in pancreatic islets, contributing to beta-cell dysfunction and death. This contributes to the progressive nature of type 2 diabetes.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is a key secondary messenger in many biological processes, including the regulation of metabolism, gene expression, and cellular excitability. It is synthesized from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by the enzyme adenylyl cyclase and is degraded by the enzyme phosphodiesterase.

In the body, cAMP plays a crucial role in mediating the effects of hormones and neurotransmitters on target cells. For example, when a hormone binds to its receptor on the surface of a cell, it can activate a G protein, which in turn activates adenylyl cyclase to produce cAMP. The increased levels of cAMP then activate various effector proteins, such as protein kinases, which go on to regulate various cellular processes.

Overall, the regulation of cAMP levels is critical for maintaining proper cellular function and homeostasis, and abnormalities in cAMP signaling have been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Peptide receptors are a type of cell surface receptor that bind to peptide hormones and neurotransmitters. These receptors play crucial roles in various physiological processes, including regulation of appetite, pain perception, immune function, and cardiovascular homeostasis. Peptide receptors belong to the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily or the tyrosine kinase receptor family. Upon binding of a peptide ligand, these receptors activate intracellular signaling cascades that ultimately lead to changes in cell behavior and communication with other cells.

Peptide receptors can be classified into two main categories: metabotropic and ionotropic. Metabotropic peptide receptors are GPCRs, which activate intracellular signaling pathways through coupling with heterotrimeric G proteins. These receptors typically have seven transmembrane domains and undergo conformational changes upon ligand binding, leading to the activation of downstream effectors such as adenylyl cyclase, phospholipase C, or ion channels.

Ionotropic peptide receptors are ligand-gated ion channels that directly modulate ion fluxes across the cell membrane upon ligand binding. These receptors contain four or five subunits arranged around a central pore and undergo conformational changes to allow ion flow through the channel.

Examples of peptide receptors include:

1. Opioid receptors (μ, δ, κ) - bind endogenous opioid peptides such as enkephalins, endorphins, and dynorphins to modulate pain perception and reward processing.
2. Somatostatin receptors (SSTR1-5) - bind somatostatin and cortistatin to regulate hormone secretion, cell proliferation, and angiogenesis.
3. Neuropeptide Y receptors (Y1-Y5) - bind neuropeptide Y to modulate feeding behavior, energy metabolism, and cardiovascular function.
4. Calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor (CGRP-R) - binds calcitonin gene-related peptide to mediate vasodilation and neurogenic inflammation.
5. Bradykinin B2 receptor (B2R) - binds bradykinin to induce pain, inflammation, and vasodilation.
6. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide receptors (VPAC1, VPAC2) - bind vasoactive intestinal peptide to regulate neurotransmission, hormone secretion, and smooth muscle contraction.
7. Oxytocin receptor (OXTR) - binds oxytocin to mediate social bonding, maternal behavior, and uterine contractions during childbirth.
8. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) - binds angiotensin II to regulate blood pressure, fluid balance, and cell growth.

Acid phosphatase is a type of enzyme that is found in various tissues and organs throughout the body, including the prostate gland, red blood cells, bone, liver, spleen, and kidneys. This enzyme plays a role in several biological processes, such as bone metabolism and the breakdown of molecules like nucleotides and proteins.

Acid phosphatase is classified based on its optimum pH level for activity. Acid phosphatases have an optimal activity at acidic pH levels (below 7.0), while alkaline phosphatases have an optimal activity at basic or alkaline pH levels (above 7.0).

In clinical settings, measuring the level of acid phosphatase in the blood can be useful as a tumor marker for prostate cancer. Elevated acid phosphatase levels may indicate the presence of metastatic prostate cancer or disease progression. However, it is important to note that acid phosphatase is not specific to prostate cancer and can also be elevated in other conditions, such as bone diseases, liver disorders, and some benign conditions. Therefore, acid phosphatase should be interpreted in conjunction with other diagnostic tests and clinical findings for a more accurate diagnosis.

COS cells are a type of cell line that are commonly used in molecular biology and genetic research. The name "COS" is an acronym for "CV-1 in Origin," as these cells were originally derived from the African green monkey kidney cell line CV-1. COS cells have been modified through genetic engineering to express high levels of a protein called SV40 large T antigen, which allows them to efficiently take up and replicate exogenous DNA.

There are several different types of COS cells that are commonly used in research, including COS-1, COS-3, and COS-7 cells. These cells are widely used for the production of recombinant proteins, as well as for studies of gene expression, protein localization, and signal transduction.

It is important to note that while COS cells have been a valuable tool in scientific research, they are not without their limitations. For example, because they are derived from monkey kidney cells, there may be differences in the way that human genes are expressed or regulated in these cells compared to human cells. Additionally, because COS cells express SV40 large T antigen, they may have altered cell cycle regulation and other phenotypic changes that could affect experimental results. Therefore, it is important to carefully consider the choice of cell line when designing experiments and interpreting results.

Bone resorption is the process by which bone tissue is broken down and absorbed into the body. It is a normal part of bone remodeling, in which old or damaged bone tissue is removed and new tissue is formed. However, excessive bone resorption can lead to conditions such as osteoporosis, in which bones become weak and fragile due to a loss of density. This process is carried out by cells called osteoclasts, which break down the bone tissue and release minerals such as calcium into the bloodstream.

REceptor Activator of NF-kB (RANK) Ligand is a type of protein that plays a crucial role in the immune system and bone metabolism. It belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily and is primarily produced by osteoblasts, which are cells responsible for bone formation.

RANK Ligand binds to its receptor RANK, which is found on the surface of osteoclasts, a type of cell involved in bone resorption or breakdown. The binding of RANK Ligand to RANK activates signaling pathways that promote the differentiation, activation, and survival of osteoclasts, thereby increasing bone resorption.

Abnormalities in the RANKL-RANK signaling pathway have been implicated in various bone diseases, such as osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and certain types of cancer that metastasize to bones. Therefore, targeting this pathway with therapeutic agents has emerged as a promising approach for the treatment of these conditions.

Sequence homology, amino acid, refers to the similarity in the order of amino acids in a protein or a portion of a protein between two or more species. This similarity can be used to infer evolutionary relationships and functional similarities between proteins. The higher the degree of sequence homology, the more likely it is that the proteins are related and have similar functions. Sequence homology can be determined through various methods such as pairwise alignment or multiple sequence alignment, which compare the sequences and calculate a score based on the number and type of matching amino acids.

Amyloid is a term used in medicine to describe abnormally folded protein deposits that can accumulate in various tissues and organs of the body. These misfolded proteins can form aggregates known as amyloid fibrils, which have a characteristic beta-pleated sheet structure. Amyloid deposits can be composed of different types of proteins, depending on the specific disease associated with the deposit.

In some cases, amyloid deposits can cause damage to organs and tissues, leading to various clinical symptoms. Some examples of diseases associated with amyloidosis include Alzheimer's disease (where amyloid-beta protein accumulates in the brain), systemic amyloidosis (where amyloid fibrils deposit in various organs such as the heart, kidneys, and liver), and type 2 diabetes (where amyloid deposits form in the pancreas).

It's important to note that not all amyloid deposits are harmful or associated with disease. However, when they do cause problems, treatment typically involves managing the underlying condition that is leading to the abnormal protein accumulation.

Intracellular signaling peptides and proteins are molecules that play a crucial role in transmitting signals within cells, which ultimately lead to changes in cell behavior or function. These signals can originate from outside the cell (extracellular) or within the cell itself. Intracellular signaling molecules include various types of peptides and proteins, such as:

1. G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs): These are seven-transmembrane domain receptors that bind to extracellular signaling molecules like hormones, neurotransmitters, or chemokines. Upon activation, they initiate a cascade of intracellular signals through G proteins and secondary messengers.
2. Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs): These are transmembrane receptors that bind to growth factors, cytokines, or hormones. Activation of RTKs leads to autophosphorylation of specific tyrosine residues, creating binding sites for intracellular signaling proteins such as adapter proteins, phosphatases, and enzymes like Ras, PI3K, and Src family kinases.
3. Second messenger systems: Intracellular second messengers are small molecules that amplify and propagate signals within the cell. Examples include cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), diacylglycerol (DAG), inositol triphosphate (IP3), calcium ions (Ca2+), and nitric oxide (NO). These second messengers activate or inhibit various downstream effectors, leading to changes in cellular responses.
4. Signal transduction cascades: Intracellular signaling proteins often form complex networks of interacting molecules that relay signals from the plasma membrane to the nucleus. These cascades involve kinases (protein kinases A, B, C, etc.), phosphatases, and adapter proteins, which ultimately regulate gene expression, cell cycle progression, metabolism, and other cellular processes.
5. Ubiquitination and proteasome degradation: Intracellular signaling pathways can also control protein stability by modulating ubiquitin-proteasome degradation. E3 ubiquitin ligases recognize specific substrates and conjugate them with ubiquitin molecules, targeting them for proteasomal degradation. This process regulates the abundance of key signaling proteins and contributes to signal termination or amplification.

In summary, intracellular signaling pathways involve a complex network of interacting proteins that relay signals from the plasma membrane to various cellular compartments, ultimately regulating gene expression, metabolism, and other cellular processes. Dysregulation of these pathways can contribute to disease development and progression, making them attractive targets for therapeutic intervention.

'Cercopithecus aethiops' is the scientific name for the monkey species more commonly known as the green monkey. It belongs to the family Cercopithecidae and is native to western Africa. The green monkey is omnivorous, with a diet that includes fruits, nuts, seeds, insects, and small vertebrates. They are known for their distinctive greenish-brown fur and long tail. Green monkeys are also important animal models in biomedical research due to their susceptibility to certain diseases, such as SIV (simian immunodeficiency virus), which is closely related to HIV.

Molecular cloning is a laboratory technique used to create multiple copies of a specific DNA sequence. This process involves several steps:

1. Isolation: The first step in molecular cloning is to isolate the DNA sequence of interest from the rest of the genomic DNA. This can be done using various methods such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, or hybridization.
2. Vector construction: Once the DNA sequence of interest has been isolated, it must be inserted into a vector, which is a small circular DNA molecule that can replicate independently in a host cell. Common vectors used in molecular cloning include plasmids and phages.
3. Transformation: The constructed vector is then introduced into a host cell, usually a bacterial or yeast cell, through a process called transformation. This can be done using various methods such as electroporation or chemical transformation.
4. Selection: After transformation, the host cells are grown in selective media that allow only those cells containing the vector to grow. This ensures that the DNA sequence of interest has been successfully cloned into the vector.
5. Amplification: Once the host cells have been selected, they can be grown in large quantities to amplify the number of copies of the cloned DNA sequence.

Molecular cloning is a powerful tool in molecular biology and has numerous applications, including the production of recombinant proteins, gene therapy, functional analysis of genes, and genetic engineering.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

Cell surface receptors, also known as membrane receptors, are proteins located on the cell membrane that bind to specific molecules outside the cell, known as ligands. These receptors play a crucial role in signal transduction, which is the process of converting an extracellular signal into an intracellular response.

Cell surface receptors can be classified into several categories based on their structure and mechanism of action, including:

1. Ion channel receptors: These receptors contain a pore that opens to allow ions to flow across the cell membrane when they bind to their ligands. This ion flux can directly activate or inhibit various cellular processes.
2. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs): These receptors consist of seven transmembrane domains and are associated with heterotrimeric G proteins that modulate intracellular signaling pathways upon ligand binding.
3. Enzyme-linked receptors: These receptors possess an intrinsic enzymatic activity or are linked to an enzyme, which becomes activated when the receptor binds to its ligand. This activation can lead to the initiation of various signaling cascades within the cell.
4. Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs): These receptors contain intracellular tyrosine kinase domains that become activated upon ligand binding, leading to the phosphorylation and activation of downstream signaling molecules.
5. Integrins: These receptors are transmembrane proteins that mediate cell-cell or cell-matrix interactions by binding to extracellular matrix proteins or counter-receptors on adjacent cells. They play essential roles in cell adhesion, migration, and survival.

Cell surface receptors are involved in various physiological processes, including neurotransmission, hormone signaling, immune response, and cell growth and differentiation. Dysregulation of these receptors can contribute to the development of numerous diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Membrane proteins are a type of protein that are embedded in the lipid bilayer of biological membranes, such as the plasma membrane of cells or the inner membrane of mitochondria. These proteins play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including:

1. Cell-cell recognition and signaling
2. Transport of molecules across the membrane (selective permeability)
3. Enzymatic reactions at the membrane surface
4. Energy transduction and conversion
5. Mechanosensation and signal transduction

Membrane proteins can be classified into two main categories: integral membrane proteins, which are permanently associated with the lipid bilayer, and peripheral membrane proteins, which are temporarily or loosely attached to the membrane surface. Integral membrane proteins can further be divided into three subcategories based on their topology:

1. Transmembrane proteins, which span the entire width of the lipid bilayer with one or more alpha-helices or beta-barrels.
2. Lipid-anchored proteins, which are covalently attached to lipids in the membrane via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor or other lipid modifications.
3. Monotopic proteins, which are partially embedded in the membrane and have one or more domains exposed to either side of the bilayer.

Membrane proteins are essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis and are targets for various therapeutic interventions, including drug development and gene therapy. However, their structural complexity and hydrophobicity make them challenging to study using traditional biochemical methods, requiring specialized techniques such as X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM).

Peptides are short chains of amino acid residues linked by covalent bonds, known as peptide bonds. They are formed when two or more amino acids are joined together through a condensation reaction, which results in the elimination of a water molecule and the formation of an amide bond between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another.

Peptides can vary in length from two to about fifty amino acids, and they are often classified based on their size. For example, dipeptides contain two amino acids, tripeptides contain three, and so on. Oligopeptides typically contain up to ten amino acids, while polypeptides can contain dozens or even hundreds of amino acids.

Peptides play many important roles in the body, including serving as hormones, neurotransmitters, enzymes, and antibiotics. They are also used in medical research and therapeutic applications, such as drug delivery and tissue engineering.

Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B (RANK) is a type I transmembrane protein and a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily. It plays a crucial role in the regulation of bone metabolism through the activation of osteoclasts, which are cells responsible for bone resorption.

When RANK binds to its ligand, RANKL (Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B Ligand), it triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that lead to the activation and differentiation of osteoclast precursors into mature osteoclasts. This process is essential for maintaining bone homeostasis, as excessive osteoclast activity can result in bone loss and diseases such as osteoporosis.

In addition to its role in bone metabolism, RANK has also been implicated in the regulation of immune responses, as it is involved in the activation and differentiation of dendritic cells and T cells. Dysregulation of RANK signaling has been associated with various pathological conditions, including autoimmune diseases and cancer.

"Competitive binding" is a term used in pharmacology and biochemistry to describe the behavior of two or more molecules (ligands) competing for the same binding site on a target protein or receptor. In this context, "binding" refers to the physical interaction between a ligand and its target.

When a ligand binds to a receptor, it can alter the receptor's function, either activating or inhibiting it. If multiple ligands compete for the same binding site, they will compete to bind to the receptor. The ability of each ligand to bind to the receptor is influenced by its affinity for the receptor, which is a measure of how strongly and specifically the ligand binds to the receptor.

In competitive binding, if one ligand is present in high concentrations, it can prevent other ligands with lower affinity from binding to the receptor. This is because the higher-affinity ligand will have a greater probability of occupying the binding site and blocking access to the other ligands. The competition between ligands can be described mathematically using equations such as the Langmuir isotherm, which describes the relationship between the concentration of ligand and the fraction of receptors that are occupied by the ligand.

Competitive binding is an important concept in drug development, as it can be used to predict how different drugs will interact with their targets and how they may affect each other's activity. By understanding the competitive binding properties of a drug, researchers can optimize its dosage and delivery to maximize its therapeutic effect while minimizing unwanted side effects.

Transfection is a term used in molecular biology that refers to the process of deliberately introducing foreign genetic material (DNA, RNA or artificial gene constructs) into cells. This is typically done using chemical or physical methods, such as lipofection or electroporation. Transfection is widely used in research and medical settings for various purposes, including studying gene function, producing proteins, developing gene therapies, and creating genetically modified organisms. It's important to note that transfection is different from transduction, which is the process of introducing genetic material into cells using viruses as vectors.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

Protein binding, in the context of medical and biological sciences, refers to the interaction between a protein and another molecule (known as the ligand) that results in a stable complex. This process is often reversible and can be influenced by various factors such as pH, temperature, and concentration of the involved molecules.

In clinical chemistry, protein binding is particularly important when it comes to drugs, as many of them bind to proteins (especially albumin) in the bloodstream. The degree of protein binding can affect a drug's distribution, metabolism, and excretion, which in turn influence its therapeutic effectiveness and potential side effects.

Protein-bound drugs may be less available for interaction with their target tissues, as only the unbound or "free" fraction of the drug is active. Therefore, understanding protein binding can help optimize dosing regimens and minimize adverse reactions.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Adenylate cyclase toxin is a type of exotoxin produced by certain bacteria, including Bordetella pertussis (the causative agent of whooping cough) and Vibrio cholerae. This toxin functions by entering host cells and catalyzing the conversion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), leading to increased intracellular cAMP levels.

The elevated cAMP levels can disrupt various cellular processes, such as signal transduction and ion transport, resulting in a range of physiological effects that contribute to the pathogenesis of the bacterial infection. For example, in the case of Bordetella pertussis, adenylate cyclase toxin impairs the function of immune cells, allowing the bacteria to evade host defenses and establish a successful infection.

In summary, adenylate cyclase toxin is a virulence factor produced by certain pathogenic bacteria that increases intracellular cAMP levels in host cells, leading to disrupted cellular processes and contributing to bacterial pathogenesis.

The calcitonin receptor (CT) is a G protein-coupled receptor that binds the peptide hormone calcitonin and is involved in ... "Multiple amylin receptors arise from receptor activity-modifying protein interaction with the calcitonin receptor gene product ... The function of the CT receptor protein is modified through its interaction with Receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs), ... "Calcitonin Receptors". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. ...
When associated with the Calcitonin receptor (CTR) or Calcitonin receptor-like (CALCRL) (below), RAMPs can change the ... Association of RAMPs with either the CT or CALCRL proteins forms 6 different receptors from the calcitonin receptor family: ... Receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs) are a class of protein that interact with and modulate the activities of several ... Class B G protein-coupled receptors including the receptors for secretin, calcitonin (CT), glucagon, and vasoactive intestinal ...
Calcitonin receptor-like (CALCRL), also known as the calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR), is a human protein; it is a ... "Mammalian calcitonin receptor-like receptor/receptor activity modifying protein complexes define calcitonin gene-related ... The protein encoded by the CALCRL gene is a G protein-coupled receptor related to the calcitonin receptor. CALCRL is linked to ... Sams A, Jansen-Olesen I (1999). "Expression of calcitonin receptor-like receptor and receptor-activity-modifying proteins in ...
Investigation of the calcitonin receptor-like receptor and receptor activity modifying proteins' at Imperial College London. ... "Pharmacological discrimination of calcitonin receptor: receptor activity-modifying protein complexes." Molecular Pharmacology ... "Agonist-dependent consequences of proline to alanine substitution in the transmembrane helices of the calcitonin receptor." Br ... "Regulation of signal transduction by calcitonin gene-related peptide receptors." Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 31, no. 10 ...
2002). "Characterization of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptors and their receptor-activity-modifying proteins ( ... "Entrez Gene: RCP9 calcitonin gene-related peptide-receptor component protein". Yallampalli C, Chauhan M, Thota CS, et al. (2003 ... a novel protein required for signal transduction at calcitonin gene-related peptide and adrenomedullin receptors". J. Biol. ... "Testes exhibit elevated expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor component protein". Endocrinology. 140 (3): 1459 ...
The calcitonin receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor localized to osteoclasts as well kidney and brain cells. It is coupled ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Calcitonin. The Calcitonin Protein Calcitonin at the U.S. National Library of Medicine ... Osteoblasts do not have calcitonin receptors and are therefore not directly affected by calcitonin levels. However, since bone ... It belongs to the calcitonin-like protein family. Historically calcitonin has also been called thyrocalcitonin.[citation needed ...
2007). "Post-endocytic sorting of calcitonin receptor-like receptor and receptor activity-modifying protein 1". J. Biol. Chem. ... protein, where heteromerisation of RAMP1 with CT converts CT from a calcitonin receptor to the amylin receptor AMY1 Receptor ... sensitive adrenomedullin receptors derived from co-expression of calcitonin receptor with receptor activity-modifying proteins ... "The extracellular domain of receptor activity-modifying protein 1 is sufficient for calcitonin receptor-like receptor function ...
2002). "Immunohistochemical localization of calcitonin receptor-like receptor and receptor activity-modifying proteins in the ... sensitive adrenomedullin receptors derived from co-expression of calcitonin receptor with receptor activity-modifying proteins ... 2006). "Distinct receptor activity-modifying protein domains differentially modulate interaction with calcitonin receptors". ... RAMPs are required to transport calcitonin-receptor-like receptor (CRLR) to the plasma membrane. CRLR, a receptor with seven ...
... peptide family peptide acting through the calcitonin receptor-like receptor/receptor activity-modifying protein receptor ... sensitive adrenomedullin receptors derived from co-expression of calcitonin receptor with receptor activity-modifying proteins ... RAMPs are required to transport calcitonin-receptor-like receptor (CRLR) to the plasma membrane. CRLR, a receptor with seven ... called receptor (calcitonin) activity modifying proteins (RAMPs). RAMPs are type I transmembrane proteins with an extracellular ...
... with lipoprotein receptors. It is the dominant ApoB protein in the small intestine of most mammals. It is a key protein in the ... ApoB has been shown to interact with apo(a), PPIB, Calcitonin receptor and HSP90B1. Interaction of ApoB with proteoglycans, ... receptors. The net result is the shunting of LDL particles to these scavenger receptors. Scavenger receptors typically are ... editing results in a protein lacking this LDL-R binding region of the protein. This alters the function of the protein and the ...
... , sold under the brand name Aimovig, is a medication which targets the calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor (CGRPR ... Like other proteins, the substance is degraded by proteolysis to small peptides and amino acids. It has an elimination half- ... Erenumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody blocking the calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor (CGRPR). After subcutaneous ... Calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonists, Monoclonal antibodies, Amgen, Novartis brands). ...
... exerts its actions through combinations of the calcitonin receptor like receptor (CALCRL) or CLR; and either (Receptor activity ... Dackor R, Fritz-Six K, Smithies O, Caron K (June 2007). "Receptor activity-modifying proteins 2 and 3 have distinct ... "RAMPs regulate the transport and ligand specificity of the calcitonin-receptor-like receptor". Nature. 393 (6683): 333-9. ... Before the discovery of the RAMPs and the identification of heteromeric receptors for the calcitonin family of peptides, a ...
... family member HEF1 downstream of the G protein-coupled calcitonin receptor. Calcitonin induces the association of HEF1, ... FAK is a highly conserved, non-receptor tyrosine kinase originally identified as a substrate for the oncogene protein tyrosine ... PTK2 protein tyrosine kinase 2 (PTK2), also known as focal adhesion kinase (FAK), is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by ... The encoded protein is a member of the FAK subfamily of protein tyrosine kinases that included PYK2, but lacks significant ...
It also interacts with the protein. As of February 2020, eptinezumab (Vyepti) was approved by the FDA for the treatment of ... Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonists are a class of drugs that act as antagonists of the calcitonin gene ... v t e (CS1 German-language sources (de), Antimigraine drugs, Receptor antagonists, Calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor ... an Oral Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide Receptor Antagonist". British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 79 (5): 831-7. doi: ...
All three complexes contain the calcitonin receptor at the core, plus one of three receptor activity-modifying proteins, RAMP1 ... Amylin also acts in bone metabolism, along with the related peptides calcitonin and calcitonin gene related peptide. Rodent ... 1991). "Solution structures of calcitonin-gene-related-peptide analogues of calcitonin-gene-related peptide and amylin". ... "A novel peptide in the calcitonin gene related peptide family as an amyloid fibril protein in the endocrine pancreas". Biochem ...
... and receptor component protein (RCP). The complex central receptor is the G protein-coupled receptor calcitonin receptor-like ... The CGRP receptor has three subunits: receptor activity-modifying protein 1 (RAMP1), calcitonin-like receptor (CLR) ... CGRP mediates its effects through a heteromeric receptor composed of a G protein-coupled receptor called calcitonin receptor- ... like receptor (CALCRL) and a receptor activity-modifying protein (RAMP1). CGRP receptors are found throughout all the body, ...
... peptide family peptide acting through the calcitonin receptor-like receptor/receptor activity-modifying protein receptor ... ADM2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ADM2 gene. ADM2 belongs to a family of calcitonin (MIM 114130)-related ... 2004). "Intermedin is a calcitonin/calcitonin gene-related ...
This gene belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family. G protein-coupled receptors contain 7 transmembrane domains and ... 2005). "A key role for transmembrane prolines in calcitonin receptor-like receptor agonist binding and signalling: implications ... Probable G-protein coupled receptor 61 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GPR61 gene. ... Cikos S, Gregor P, Koppel J (Nov 2001). "Cloning of a novel biogenic amine receptor-like G protein-coupled receptor expressed ...
... modifying protein-directed G protein signaling specificity for the calcitonin gene-related peptide family of receptors receptor ... The glucagon receptor is a 62 kDa protein that is activated by glucagon and is a member of the class B G-protein coupled family ... Brubaker PL, Drucker DJ (2002). "Structure-function of the glucagon receptor family of G protein-coupled receptors: the ... the Receptor activity-modifying protein, and the G-protein C-terminus has been determined using a computational and ...
... calcitonin receptor - calcitriol receptor - calcium channel - calcium signaling - calcium-binding protein - calmodulin - ... prostaglandin receptor - protein - protein biosynthesis - Protein Data Bank - protein design - protein expression - protein ... fusion oncogene protein G protein - G protein-coupled receptor - G3P - GABA - GABA receptor - GABA-A receptor - gag-onc fusion ... protein P16 - protein P34cdc2 - protein precursor - protein structure prediction - protein subunit - protein synthesis - ...
Calcitonin - Decreases blood calcium levels (via the calcitonin receptor in the intestines, bones, kidneys, and brain) Glucagon ... 5 Gβ proteins, and 12 Gγ proteins. G protein can refer to two distinct families of proteins. Heterotrimeric G proteins, ... Whereas G proteins are activated by G protein-coupled receptors, they are inactivated by RGS proteins (for "Regulator of G ... These include receptor antagonists, neurotransmitters, neurotransmitter reuptake, G protein-coupled receptors, G proteins, ...
Protein pages needing a picture, Protein domains, Protein families, G protein-coupled receptors). ... The secretin-receptor family of GPCRs include vasoactive intestinal peptide receptors and receptors for secretin, calcitonin ... Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide type 1 receptor InterPro: IPR002285 PACAPR (ADCYAP1R1) Calcitonin receptor ... Diuretic hormone receptor InterPro: IPR002001 HCTR-5; HCTR-6; KPG 006; KPG 008 Harmar AJ (2001). "Family-B G-protein-coupled ...
... calcitonin, C5a anaphylatoxin, follicle-stimulating hormone [FSH], gonadotropin-releasing hormone [GnRH], neurokinin, ... transmembrane domain receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptors, and G protein-linked receptors ( ... G-protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) are key modulators of G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling. They constitute a ... G protein-coupled receptors database List of MeSH codes (D12.776) Metabotropic receptor Orphan receptor Pepducins, a class of ...
... adrenergic receptors Calcitonin receptors H1 histamine receptors Metabotropic glutamate receptors, Group I M1, M3, and M5 ... Receptors that activate this pathway are mainly G protein-coupled receptors coupled to the Gαq subunit, including: 5-HT2 ... Activators of each PLC vary, but typically include heterotrimeric G protein subunits, protein tyrosine kinases, small G ... Cannabinoid receptors Small molecule U73122: aminosteroid, putative PLC inhibitor. However, the specificity of U73122 has been ...
Calcitonin, a hormone of thyroid gland, suppresses the osteoclastic activity. The osteoclasts do not have receptors for ... The osteoclast disassembles and digests the composite of hydrated protein and mineral at a molecular level by secreting acid ... M-CSF acts through its receptor on the osteoclast, c-fms (colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor), a transmembrane tyrosine ... Attachment to the bone matrix is facilitated by integrin receptors, such as αvβ3, via the specific amino acid motif Arg-Gly-Asp ...
Its action is opposed by the hormone calcitonin. There are two types of PTH receptors. Parathyroid hormone 1 receptors, ... PTH is secreted when [Ca2+] is decreased (calcitonin is secreted when serum calcium levels are elevated). The G-protein-coupled ... Free OPG competitively binds to RANKL as a decoy receptor, preventing RANKL from interacting with RANK, a receptor for RANKL. ... Parathyroid hormone 2 receptors are present at high levels on the cells of central nervous system, pancreas, testes, and ...
Fluhmann B, Muff R, Hunziker W, Fischer JA, Born W (Feb 1995). "A human orphan calcitonin receptor-like structure". Biochem ... AKT-interacting protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AKTIP gene. The mouse homolog of this gene produces fused ... This protein interacts directly with serine/threonine kinase protein kinase B (PKB)/Akt and modulates PKB activity by enhancing ... Remy I, Michnick SW (2004). "Regulation of apoptosis by the Ft1 protein, a new modulator of protein kinase B/Akt". Mol. Cell. ...
... calcitonin, and parathyroid hormone-related protein analogues (e.g., abaloparatide, teriparatide). These drugs are not without ... Other medications include selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) (e.g., raloxifene), estrogens (e.g., estradiol), ...
... is a type of receptor which binds one or more signaling peptides or signaling proteins. An example ... PHI PHM PHV Endogenous Adrenomedullin Apelin Asprosin Bombesin Calcitonin Carnosine CART CLIP DSIP Enteroglucagon Formyl ... Neuropeptide receptor Neurotransmitter receptor Peptide+receptor at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject ... is the tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB), which is bound and activated by the neurotrophic protein brain-derived ...
1A and 1B Angiotensin II receptor type 1 Calcitonin receptor Histamine H1 receptor Metabotropic glutamate receptor, Group I M1 ... The following G protein-coupled receptors couple to Gq subunits: 5-HT2 serotonergic receptors Alpha-1 adrenergic receptor ... Second messenger system G protein-coupled receptor Heterotrimeric G protein Phospholipase C Calcium signaling Protein kinase C ... Gq proteins couple to G protein-coupled receptors to activate beta-type phospholipase C (PLC-β) enzymes. PLC-β in turn ...
Novel protein interaction network of human calcitonin receptor-like receptor revealed by label-free quantitative proteomics ... Novel protein interaction network of human calcitonin receptor-like receptor revealed by label-free quantitative proteomics ...
The calcitonin receptor (CT) is a G protein-coupled receptor that binds the peptide hormone calcitonin and is involved in ... "Multiple amylin receptors arise from receptor activity-modifying protein interaction with the calcitonin receptor gene product ... The function of the CT receptor protein is modified through its interaction with Receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs), ... "Calcitonin Receptors". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. ...
... of three single transmembrane proteins that have been identified as accessory proteins to some G-protein-coupled receptors ( ... The receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs) are a family ... Amylin receptor subtypes are formed from calcitonin receptor ( ... The association of RAMP1 with the calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CL) constitutes the calcitonin gene-related peptide ... The receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs) are a family of three single transmembrane proteins that have been identified ...
... these receptors comprise a distinct family of G protein-coupled seven transmembrane domain receptors. Interestingly, the hCTR ... A human ovarian small cell carcinoma line (BIN-67) expresses abundant calcitonin (CT) receptors (CTR) (143,000 per cell) that ... Cloning, characterization, and expression of a human calcitonin receptor from an ovarian carcinoma cell line.. ... Cloning, characterization, and expression of a human calcitonin receptor from an ovarian carcinoma cell line.. ...
... receptors are heteromers of the calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR), a class B G protein-coupled receptor, and one of three ... Receptor activity-modifying protein dependent and independent activation mechanisms in the coupling of calcitonin gene-related ... Adrenomedullin; Calcitonin gene-related peptide; GPCR; Receptor activity-modifying protein; Molecular modeling; Molecular ... Receptor activity-modifying protein dependent and independent activation mechanisms in the coupling of calcitonin gene-related ...
Conversely, mice lacking SP, CGRP or the SP receptor (neurokinin 1 receptor) show reduced pathology in both models of caecal ... TcdB stimulates the secretion of the neuropeptides substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) from neurons and ... including the Frizzled receptors (FZD1, FZD2 and FZD7) in neurons and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4) in ... into peptidergic sensory neurons that express exogeneous diphtheria toxin receptor (an approach we term toxogenetics) is ...
Name: receptor (calcitonin) activity modifying protein 2. Type: Gene. Species: Mus musculus (mouse) ...
... with receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs). The GPCR, the calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR), forms a CGRP receptor ... with receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs). The GPCR, the calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR), forms a CGRP receptor ... with receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs). The GPCR, the calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR), forms a CGRP receptor ... with receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs). The GPCR, the calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR), forms a CGRP receptor ...
Gepants stop head pain by blocking the receptor for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a small protein that the body ... What are serotonin receptor agonists?. Serotonin receptor agonists help to activate serotonin receptors in the central nervous ... Triptans work by activating serotonin receptors, an effect that lowers inflammation and tightens blood vessels. As they ...
CGRP and receptor activity modifying protein 1 (RAMP1), a subunit of the functional CGRP receptor, in the TG. Results: CB1 was ... CGRP and receptor activity modifying protein 1 (RAMP1), a subunit of the functional CGRP receptor, in the TG. Results: CB1 was ... Dual action of the cannabinoid receptor 1 ligand arachidonyl-2′-chloroethylamide on calcitonin gene-related peptide release. * ... Dual action of the cannabinoid receptor 1 ligand arachidonyl-2′-chloroethylamide on calcitonin gene-related peptide release}}, ...
G-protein-coupled receptors are biological targets for drug discovery. Developments in cryo-electron microscopy have enabled ... Volta phase-plate cryo-electron microscopy reveals the structure of the full-length calcitonin receptor in complex with its ... The ABC-F protein EttA gates ribosome entry into the translation elongation cycle Although ABC-F proteins represent a ... The structures of AMPA receptors in complex with auxiliary proteins are resolved by cryo-electron microscopy, and reveal ...
Gepants are a newer class of medicines that work by blocking the receptor for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a pain ... signal-carrying protein released during migraine. These treatments, which include rimegep-ant (Nurtec ODT) and ubrogepant ( ...
CGRP and receptor activity modifying protein 1 (RAMP1), a subunit of the functional CGRP receptor, in the TG. Results: CB1 was ... Dual action of the cannabinoid receptor 1 ligand arachidonyl-2′-chloroethylamide on calcitonin gene-related peptide release. ... on calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) release in the dura and trigeminal ganglion (TG), as cannabinoids are known to ... for transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) -induced stimulation) and measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent ...
Kalafateli, A. L., Satir, T. M., Vallöf, D., Zetterberg, H., & Jerlhag, E. (2021). An amylin and calcitonin receptor agonist ... "Applying Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation to Screen and Purify Aquaporin Protein:Protein Complexes." Protein Sci (Sep ... In vivo Studies on the Roles of Tic55-Related Proteins in Chloroplast Protein Import in Arabidopsis thaliana. Boij P, Patel R, ... Novel protein-protein interactions and their functions. 2010. Supervisor: Stina Simonsson. Ravindra Naraine. Microbial ...
Calcitonin Receptor-Like Receptor and Receptor Activity-Modifying Protein 1, in Rat Uterine Artery Smooth Muscle Cells Exposed ... and ADM2/intermedin play critical roles in vascular adaptation during pregnancy through calcitonin receptor-like receptor ( ... Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide Rescues Proximity Associations of Its Receptor Components, ... The unfolded protein response (UPR) senses the accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and ...
Antibodies, ELISA kits, proteins, reagents. Order quickly and easily at antikoerper-online.de ... calcitonin receptor-like receptor activity modifying protein 1. *calcitonin-receptor-like receptor activity-modifying protein 1 ... receptor activity modifying protein 1 (RAMP1), receptor (G protein-coupled) activity modifying protein 1 (ramp1), receptor ( ... RAMPs are required to transport calcitonin-receptor-like receptor (CRLR) to the plasma membrane. CRLR, a receptor with seven ...
... signaling is insufficient to promote MuSC proliferation and instead depends on prior downregulation of the Calcitonin receptor ... Mechanistically, transcriptional activation of Yes-associated protein 1 (Yap1)/transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding ...
... calcitonin receptor (CTR), insulin-like growth factor binding protein 5 and RUNX2. IGF-I replacement therapy normalized CTR ... Several proteins involved in osteoblastic/osteocyte and osteoclastic differentiation and activity were studied in the three ... constituted a real replacement therapy that normalized IGF-I serum levels improving the expression of most of these proteins ... Calcitonin receptor, RUNX2 and IGFBP-5 expressions. A. Bone gene and protein expression of calcitonin receptor (CTR). B. Gene ...
RAMP1/calcitonin receptor-like receptor/Calcitonin-gene-related peptide receptor, CALCRL/RAMP1 in Human (target type: PROTEIN ... RAMP1/calcitonin receptor-like receptor/Calcitonin-gene-related peptide receptor, CALCRL/RAMP1 in Human [ChEMBL: CHEMBL2107838 ... CGRP receptor in Human [GtoPdb: 48] ChEMBL data shown on this page come from version 32:. Mendez D, Gaulton A, Bento AP, ... Piperidinone carboxamide azaindane CGRP receptor antagonists (2013) ChEMBL Antagonist activity at human CLR/RAMP1 B 10.17 pKi ...
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonist; binds to CGRP receptor, which is thought to be causally involved in ... Serious - Use Alternative (1)momelotinib increases toxicity of rimegepant by plasma protein binding competition. Avoid or Use ... momelotinib increases toxicity of rimegepant by plasma protein binding competition. Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. Momelotinib ( ...
CGRP mediates its effects via G protein-coupled receptor called calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CALCRL). ... Purine receptors in NMJ.. Purine receptors are divided into 2 large groups: adenosine or P1 receptors and P2 receptors, which ... are G protein-coupled receptors, while P2 receptors are consist of two distinct families: P2X receptors, which are ligand-gated ... which are G protein-coupled receptors. Seven mammalian P2X receptor subtypes (P2X1-7) and eight mammalian P2Y receptor subtypes ...
Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide Receptors 100% * Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide 78% * Receptor Activity-Modifying Protein 1 67 ... Evidence for decreased calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptors and compromised responsiveness to CGRP of fetoplacental ... Dive into the research topics of Evidence for decreased calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptors and compromised ...
Categories Calcitonin and Related Receptors 3 (A) Schematic summary of the incorporation of Fc-fusion protein in DNA ... Categories Calcitonin and Related Receptors A focus on gene of EIF2 is and (S1 Desk). A focus on gene of EIF2 is and (S1 Desk ... Categories Calcitonin and Related Receptors heat treatment using a water bath at 100 C. heat treatment using a water bath at ... Categories Calcitonin and Related Receptors HF; **P?. HF; **P?. Bnip3 sclerosis are connected with hypertension and ...
... fewer bone marrow TRAP-positive osteoclasts and less expression of calcitonin receptor in bone than that in PBS-injected mice. ... Technical Abstract: Alpha-1antitrypsin (AAT) is a multifunctional protein with proteinase inhibitor and anti-inflammatory ... Interpretive Summary: We investigated whether alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT), a multifunctional protein with proteinase inhibitor ...
Hedgehog signaling via a calcitonin receptor-like receptor can induce arterial differentiation independently of VEGF signaling ... HMG box proteins in early T cell differentiation. Oosterwegel, M., Wetering, M. V. D. & Clevers, J. C., 1993, In: Thymus. 22, ... Highly expressed loci are vulnerable to misleading ChIP localization of multiple unrelated proteins. Teytelman, L., Thurtle, D ...
... receptor antagonist, procalcitonin and C-reactive protein offer a better sensitivity and specificity in predicting serious bact ... Procalcitonin, IL-6, IL-8, IL-1 receptor antagonist and C-reactive protein as identificators of serious bacterial infections in ... C-Reactive Protein / metabolism* * Calcitonin / metabolism* * Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide * Humans * Infant ... receptor antagonist, procalcitonin and C-reactive protein offer a better sensitivity and specificity in predicting serious ...
2. On human SK-N-MC cells (expressing human calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR) and receptor activity modifying protein 1 ... 2. On human SK-N-MC cells (expressing human calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR) and receptor activity modifying protein 1 ... 2. On human SK-N-MC cells (expressing human calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR) and receptor activity modifying protein 1 ... 2. On human SK-N-MC cells (expressing human calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR) and receptor activity modifying protein 1 ...
Role of the calcium-sensing receptor. The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is a G protein-coupled receptor, which allows the ... Calcitonin secretion and renal tubular calcium reabsorption also are directly regulated by the action of Ca++ on the calcium ... The CaSR gene is located on band 3q13-q21 and encodes a 1078 amino acid protein. CaSR is expressed in many tissues. Three ... Calcium-Sensing Receptor (CASR) Mutations in Hypercalcemic States: Studies from a Single Endocrine Clinic Over Three Years. J ...
... calcitonin-like receptor]/RAMP1 [receptor activity-modifying protein]); with no effect of an antagonist (AC187) of a second ... calcitonin-like receptor]/RAMP1 [receptor activity-modifying protein]); with no effect of an antagonist (AC187) of a second ... calcitonin-like receptor]/RAMP1 [receptor activity-modifying protein]); with no effect of an antagonist (AC187) of a second ... calcitonin-like receptor]/RAMP1 [receptor activity-modifying protein]); with no effect of an antagonist (AC187) of a second ...
... recognizes human calcitonin, a peptide hormone that lowers blood calcium concentrations. Released by C cells, within the ... strong,Mouse anti Human calcitonin antibody, clone Cn11,/strong, ... calcitonin receptor binding GO:0032147 activation of protein ... Mouse anti Human calcitonin antibody, clone Cn11 recognizes human calcitonin, a peptide hormone that lowers blood calcium ... Mouse anti Human Calcitonin. Product Type. Monoclonal Antibody. Clone. Cn11 (BGN/1199/11). Isotype. IgG2a. Specificity. ...
  • We also report the structures of CLR/RAMP1 in complex with the clinical receptor antagonists olcegepant (BIBN4096BS) and telcagepant (MK0974). (nih.gov)
  • These structures illustrate, for the first time, how small molecules bind to and modulate the activity of a class B GPCR, and highlight the challenges of designing potent receptor antagonists for the treatment of migraine and other class B GPCR-related diseases. (nih.gov)
  • 11. Identification and pharmacological characterization of domains involved in binding of CGRP receptor antagonists to the calcitonin-like receptor. (nih.gov)
  • 13. Novel peptide antagonists of adrenomedullin and calcitonin gene-related peptide receptors: identification, pharmacological characterization, and interactions with position 74 in receptor activity-modifying protein 1/3. (nih.gov)
  • Calcitonin gene-related peptide (cGRP) receptor antagonists effectively treat migraine through reducing neuroinflammation, vasoconstriction and possibly neurogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • However, the main focus of the lab is now on development of small molecule antagonists of the AM2 adrenomedullin receptor. (sheffield.ac.uk)
  • Developments of the Wellcome research programme have led to pilot data that provided proof of concept for the development of small molecule antagonists of the AM1 adrenomedullin receptor, and at reversing the catastrophic low blood pressure in septic shock. (sheffield.ac.uk)
  • There are several approved drugs that target this receptor family, such as pramlintide, erenumab, and the "gepant" class of CGRP receptor antagonists. (tansobio.com)
  • Current understanding of migraine pathophysiology continues to evolve and expand and with that new knowledge has come new therapies including the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) antagonists. (eyewiki.org)
  • The function of the CT receptor protein is modified through its interaction with Receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs), forming the multimeric amylin receptors AMY1 (CT + RAMP1), AMY2 (CT + RAMP2), and AMY3 (CT+ RAMP3). (wikipedia.org)
  • 4. The effects of C-terminal truncation of receptor activity modifying proteins on the induction of amylin receptor phenotype from human CTb receptors. (nih.gov)
  • 9. Flow cytometric analysis of the calcitonin receptor-like receptor domains responsible for cell-surface translocation of receptor activity-modifying proteins. (nih.gov)
  • 10. Aspartate(69) of the calcitonin-like receptor is required for its functional expression together with receptor-activity-modifying proteins 1 and -2. (nih.gov)
  • 16. Receptor activity-modifying proteins differentially modulate the G protein-coupling efficiency of amylin receptors. (nih.gov)
  • All three complexes contain the calcitonin receptor at the core, plus one of three Receptor activity-modifying proteins, RAMP1, RAMP2, or RAMP3. (bionity.com)
  • Interest in the calcitonin family of hormones and receptors led to a project on understanding the roles of so-called receptor activity modifying proteins in bone (RAMPs). (sheffield.ac.uk)
  • A receptor protein that is associated with RECEPTOR ACTIVITY-MODIFYING PROTEINS. (bvsalud.org)
  • CLR is a 7-transmembrane G protein associated with 1 of 3 single membrane-spanning receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs), namely, RAMP-1, RAMP-2, or RAMP-3. (heightquest.com)
  • They activate a cAMP-dependent pathway via complexes of calcitonin receptor or calcitonin receptor-like receptor and receptor activity-modifying proteins. (nii.ac.jp)
  • 8. The role of peptides and receptors of the calcitonin family in the regulation of bone metabolism. (nih.gov)
  • Amylin and adrenomedullin are related peptides with some homology to both calcitonin and calcitonin gene-related peptide. (heightquest.com)
  • This receptor family comprises a group of receptors for the calcitonin/CGRP family of peptides. (tansobio.com)
  • The endogenous agonists are the peptides calcitonin, α-CGRP (formerly known as CGRP-I), β-CGRP (formerly known as CGRP-II), amylin (occasionally called islet-amyloid polypeptide, diabetes-associated polypeptide), adrenomedullin and adrenomedullin 2/intermedin. (tansobio.com)
  • Here we report the crystal structure of the transmembrane domain of the human corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 1 in complex with the small-molecule antagonist CP-376395. (nature.com)
  • Since neuroinflammation is also involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's diseases (AD), we hypothesized and tested if a cGRP receptor antagonist, BIBN 4096 BS (BIBN), has effects on AD pathology. (nih.gov)
  • The success of the Wellcome funded programme has led to the identification of a candidate AM receptor antagonist molecule (and backup) suitable for development in oncology applications. (sheffield.ac.uk)
  • CGRP 8-37 (human) is a peptide antagonist for CGRP 1 receptors. (bio-techne.com)
  • ZAVZPRET is a calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonist indicated for the acute treatment of migraine with or without aura in adults. (nih.gov)
  • Atogepant is a calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonist specifically developed for the preventive treatment of migraine in adults who have four or more migraine days per month. (thip.media)
  • Reporter cells were transfected with either the expression plasmid for human calcitonin receptor (CALCR) or the mock plasmid and treated with various concentrations of calcitonin. (tansobio.com)
  • ... [read more] by the genes CALCR (which codes for the CT receptor) and CALCRL (which codes for the calcitonin receptor-like receptor, CLR, previously known as CRLR). (tansobio.com)
  • CGRP binds to and signals through the CGRP receptor (CGRP-R), a heterodimer containing the calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR), a class B GPCR, and RAMP1, a receptor activity-modifying protein. (nih.gov)
  • Similarly, the calcitonin like-receptor (CLR) which is an orphan becomes a CGRP receptor with RAMP1 and either an adrenomedullin 1 or 2 receptor with RAMPs 2 and 3 respectively. (sheffield.ac.uk)
  • Exploration of the role of RAMPs with other receptors where there is no change in ligand selectivity but a role in trafficking the receptors to the cell surface resulted in a paper on the need for RAMP1 for trafficking of the calcium sensing-receptor in a cell line not engineered to overexpress the proteins. (sheffield.ac.uk)
  • However, as assessed by cAMP accumulation assay, only one of the studied cell lines expressed functional CTR, while the other cell lines have functional CGRP (CLR/RAMP1) receptors. (monash.edu)
  • Single-cell RNA-sequencing is used to identify cell types in the cancer microenvironment expressing the CGRP receptor components, receptor activity modifying protein 1 Ramp1 and calcitonin receptor like receptor (CLR, encoded by Calcrl). (bvsalud.org)
  • However, we have shown that the physiological roles of AM are maintained predominantly by the AM1 receptor (CLR+RAMP2) while the AM2 receptor (CLR+RAMP3) can be blocked without significant deleterious effects. (sheffield.ac.uk)
  • The calcitonin receptor (CT) is a G protein-coupled receptor that binds the peptide hormone calcitonin and is involved in maintenance of calcium homeostasis, particularly with respect to bone formation and metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Atomic details of the interactions of the receptor with the non-peptide ligand that binds deep within the receptor are described. (nature.com)
  • For example a calcitonin receptor (CTR) alone binds and responds primarily to the hormone calcitonin. (sheffield.ac.uk)
  • CLR (calcitonin receptor-like receptor) by itself binds no known endogenous ligand, but in the presence of RAMPs it gives receptors for CGRP, adrenomedullin and adrenomedullin 2/intermedin. (tansobio.com)
  • Atogepant binds to the CGRP receptor on the brain's trigeminal nerve and blocks the activation of the migraine. (thip.media)
  • 12. Receptor pharmacology. (nih.gov)
  • Calcitonin receptor-stimulating peptide, a new member of the calcitonin gene-related peptide family. (tansobio.com)
  • Intermedin (IMD) is a novel member of the calcitonin/calcitonin gene-related peptide (CT/CGRP) family identified from human and other vertebrate tissues. (phoenixpeptide.com)
  • Based on phylogenetic analysis, we identified intermedin as a novel member of the calcitonin/CGRP peptide family. (phoenixpeptide.com)
  • Dysregulation of the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a potent vasodilator, is directly implicated in the pathogenesis of migraine. (nih.gov)
  • 2. Identification of N-terminal receptor activity-modifying protein residues important for calcitonin gene-related peptide, adrenomedullin, and amylin receptor function. (nih.gov)
  • 3. Multiple ramp domains are required for generation of amylin receptor phenotype from the calcitonin receptor gene product. (nih.gov)
  • 14. Studies on the effects of the N-terminal domain antibodies of calcitonin receptor-like receptor and receptor activity-modifying protein 1 on calcitonin gene-related peptide-induced vasorelaxation in rat uterine artery. (nih.gov)
  • 17. Refolding and characterization of a soluble ectodomain complex of the calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor. (nih.gov)
  • When bound to RECEPTOR ACTIVITY-MODIFYING PROTEIN 1 it forms the CALCITONIN GENE-RELATED RECEPTOR. (bvsalud.org)
  • Phenol treatment markedly reduced densities of both calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-like immunoreactivity (LI) and neuropeptide Y (NPY)-LI-containing fibers. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Haplotype-based, case-control study of the receptor (calcitonin) activity-modifying protein (RAMP) 1 gene in essential hypertension. (cdc.gov)
  • The protein encoded by the CALCRL gene is a G protein-coupled receptor related to the calcitonin receptor. (cgrpreceptor.com)
  • Accessory protein for the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor. (nih.gov)
  • This gene encodes a membrane protein that functions as part of a receptor complex for a small neuropeptide that increases intracellular cAMP levels. (nih.gov)
  • Description of the protein which includes the UniProt Function and the NCBI Gene Summary. (nih.gov)
  • Calcitonin gene related polypeptide (CGRP), a neuropeptide expressed by a subset of primary afferent neurons, promotes oral cancer growth. (bvsalud.org)
  • Trigeminal vascular activation and release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of migraine. (bvsalud.org)
  • with Pubmed ID, gene symbol/accession number and parasite interacting protein. (polygenicpathways.co.uk)
  • Methods Oxytocin receptor expression and co-localization with calcitonin gene-related peptide was investigated in rat trigeminal ganglion using immunohistochemistry. (uni-luebeck.de)
  • Finally, the effects of oxytocin on capsaicin-induced calcitonin gene-related peptide release from dural nociceptors were investigated using isolated rat dura mater. (uni-luebeck.de)
  • The vast majority of oxytocin receptor immunoreactive neurons co-expressed calcitonin gene-related peptide. (uni-luebeck.de)
  • Oxytocin significantly and dose-dependently decreased capsaicin-induced calcitonin gene-related peptide release from dural nociceptors. (uni-luebeck.de)
  • Conclusion Oxytocin receptor expression in calcitonin gene-related peptide containing trigeminal ganglion neurons, and the blockade of calcitonin gene-related peptide release from trigeminal dural afferents suggests that activation of these receptors may provide therapeutic benefit in patients with migraine and other primary headache disorders. (uni-luebeck.de)
  • The calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) family is composed of CGRP, adrenomedullin (AM), AM2 (identical to intermedin), AM5 and amylin. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Scientists have found that during a migraine attack, your body's levels of the pain-related protein CGRP (calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor) increase. (essentialsupplements.ph)
  • Calcitonin, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), adrenomedullin (ADM), and amylin belong to a unique group of peptide hormones important for homeostasis in diverse tissues. (phoenixpeptide.com)
  • Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a 37-amino acid neuropeptide produced by tissue specific processing of the calcitonin gene and is the major product in neural tissues. (mobitec.com)
  • Results: In this study we tested expression and performed pharmacological characterization of the calcitonin receptor (CTR) as well as other members of the calcitonin family of receptors in high-grade glioma (HGG) cell lines derived from individual patient tumours, cultured in defined conditions. (monash.edu)
  • The G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute a large and ancient superfamily of integral cell membrane proteins that play a central role in signal transduction and are activated by an equally diverse array of ligands. (rupress.org)
  • Confirming that A147T polymorphism of the TSPO might confer loss of function, we found that one of the identified interactors of WT TSPO, 14-3-3 theta (YWHAQ), a protein involved in regulating mitochondrial membrane proteins, interacts much less with A147T TSPO. (biorxiv.org)
  • The program begins with the induction of genes involved in transcriptional regulation and signal transduction and is followed, sequentially, by the regulation of genes involved in protein biosynthesis, cell proliferation, and epithelial cell differentiation. (nih.gov)
  • 15. Deletions of genes encoding calcitonin/alpha-CGRP, amylin and calcitonin receptor have given new and unexpected insights into the function of calcitonin receptors and calcitonin receptor-like receptors in bone. (nih.gov)
  • We have identified 100 genes in the Drosophila genome that code for putative neurotransmitter and hormone GPCRs and atypical seven-transmembrane domain (7 TM) proteins, 68 of which are described here for the first time ( Fig. 1 , red). (rupress.org)
  • Host genes and proteins used by the Toxoplama gondii during its life cycle. (polygenicpathways.co.uk)
  • Structural analysis of class B G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), cell-surface proteins that respond to peptide hormones, has been restricted to the amino-terminal extracellular domain, thus providing little understanding of the membrane-spanning signal transduction domain. (nature.com)
  • GPCRs share a seven hydrophobic α-helical domain structure and transduce signals through coupling to guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins (G proteins). (rupress.org)
  • Despite the greater number and diversity of GPCRs in vertebrates and C. elegans as compared with Drosophila , the data point to conservation of hormone and neurotransmitter receptors across phyla, suggesting ancient evolutionary origins. (rupress.org)
  • RAMPs are interesting accessory proteins that control the ligand selectivity of a small number of receptors. (sheffield.ac.uk)
  • However, co-expression of the CTR with any of the 3 human RAMPs leads to the heteromeric receptor complex becoming a one of 3 distinct receptors for the hormone amylin. (sheffield.ac.uk)
  • We measured the extent to which genetic polymorphisms in the adrenomedullin signaling pathway are associated with birth weight, glycemic regulation, and preeclampsia risk.We genotyped 1,353 women in the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Postpartum Study for 37 ancestry-informative markers and for single-nucleotide polymorphisms in adrenomedullin (ADM), complement factor H variant (CFH), and calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CALCRL). (nih.gov)
  • ADM is thought to act through the G protein-coupled receptor calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR), with specificity being conferred by the receptor associated modifying protein 2 (RAMP2). (ox.ac.uk)
  • Since Ishikawa cells express the putative ADM-receptor CRLR-RAMP2 the production and secretion of ADM with the consecutive upregulation of Bcl-2 could establish an autocrine/paracrine mechanism rescuing malignant cells from hypoxic cell death. (ox.ac.uk)
  • 19. Amylin receptor phenotypes derived from human calcitonin receptor/RAMP coexpression exhibit pharmacological differences dependent on receptor isoform and host cell environment. (nih.gov)
  • Unexpectedly, infection of bipotential osteoclast-macrophage precursor cell lines with retroviruses expressing Fra-1 but not c-Fos caused a 10-100- fold increase in the number of precursors that developed calcitonin receptors associated with an increase in bone resorption. (elsevierpure.com)
  • RECEPTORS AND SIGNALING IN BONE IN HEALTH AND DISEASE Release Date: December 2, 1999 PA NUMBER: PA-00-017 National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research National Institute on Aging National Institute of Child Health and Human Development THIS PA USES THE "MODULAR GRANT" AND "JUST-IN-TIME" CONCEPTS. (nih.gov)
  • PURPOSE The objective of this initiative is to elicit grant submissions that focus on systemic hormones, local growth factors, and bone-active cytokines, their receptors and mechanisms of signaling in bone. (nih.gov)
  • This PA, Receptors and Signaling in Bone in Health and Disease, fits the criteria of Chronic Disabling Diseases. (nih.gov)
  • CGRP is a neuropeptide with an N-terminal disulfide bond and an amidated C-terminus that allows it to bind to its corresponding receptor. (eyewiki.org)
  • There appears to be at least three distinct receptor complexes that bind with high affinity to amylin . (bionity.com)
  • protein complexes: Computational chemistry at a PUI. (phys-acs.org)
  • Intermedin is a calcitonin/CGRP family peptide acting through the CRLR/RAMP receptor complexes. (phoenixpeptide.com)
  • Adrenomedullin receptors are composed of the calcitonin-like receptor (CLR). (heightquest.com)
  • It works by blocking the receptor that CGRP (a protein that can cause migraine headaches) uses to react with the body. (mymigraineteam.com)
  • Further studies are needed on these alternative therapies in non-responders of CGRP(-receptor) targeted therapies with the ultimate aim to pave the way towards a headache-free future for all migraine patients. (bvsalud.org)
  • Recent advancements in migraine treatment development consist of antibodies against CGRP and CGRP receptors, which aim to block trigeminal nociceptive signaling and might treat both acute migraine symptoms and provide prophylactic protection [1] . (eyewiki.org)
  • Studies have shown that the concentration of CGRP protein in the brain increases during migraine attacks or episodes of headaches, initiating migraines, and worsen the pain or prolong the attack. (thip.media)
  • 18. Role of the N-terminal domain of the calcitonin receptor-like receptor in ligand binding. (nih.gov)
  • There are several subtypes of melanocortin receptors, each having a distinct ligand specificity profile and tissue localization. (harvard.edu)
  • This knowledge has led to the development of CGRP(-receptor) therapies. (bvsalud.org)
  • The CGRP receptor is a G-protein coupled receptor and consists of a calcitonin-like receptor, receptor activity-modifying protein 1, and receptor component protein [2] . (eyewiki.org)
  • Erenumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that acts as a competitive, reversible inhibitor by binding directly to the CGRP receptor. (eyewiki.org)
  • Melanocortin Receptor Agonists Facilitate Oxytocin-Dependent Partner Preference Formation in the Prairie Vole. (harvard.edu)
  • AN - traumatic kidney injury: index KIDNEY/ inj HN - 2011 MH - Adenosine A1 Receptor Agonists UI - D058907 MN - D27.505.519.625.725.200.100.100 MN - D27.505.696.577.725.200.100.100 MS - Compounds that bind to and stimulate ADENOSINE A1 RECEPTORS. (nih.gov)
  • NMR structure and peptide hormone binding site of the first extracellular domain of a type B1 G protein-coupled receptor. (nature.com)
  • 6. The N-terminal extracellular domain 23-60 of the calcitonin receptor-like receptor in chimeras with the parathyroid hormone receptor mediates association with receptor activity-modifying protein 1. (nih.gov)
  • The corresponding neurons of the TVS express CGRP, while the intracranial vascular tissues express the CGRP receptors. (eyewiki.org)
  • Calcitonin is essential for calcium balance whereas CGRP and ADM are important for neurotransmission, and cardiovascular and respiratory regulation. (phoenixpeptide.com)
  • Region-specific differences in brain melanocortin receptors in rats of the lean phenotype. (harvard.edu)
  • Expression of adrenomedullin and its receptor by chondrocyte phenotype cells. (heightquest.com)
  • Chondrocyte phenotype cells expressed AM and the AM receptor, and secreted high concentration of AM into the culture medium. (heightquest.com)
  • Pioszak, A. A. & Xu, H. E. Molecular recognition of parathyroid hormone by its G protein-coupled receptor. (nature.com)
  • 1. Distinct receptor activity-modifying protein domains differentially modulate interaction with calcitonin receptors. (nih.gov)
  • The corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 1 is a class B receptor which mediates the response to stress and has been considered a drug target for depression and anxiety. (nature.com)
  • Gether, U. Uncovering molecular mechanisms involved in activation of G protein-coupled receptors. (nature.com)
  • Molecular signatures of G-protein-coupled receptors. (nature.com)
  • G-protein-coupled cell surface receptors for ADRENOMEDULLIN . (nih.gov)
  • The only CTR-expressing cell line (SB2b) showed modest coupling to the cAMP pathway and no activation of other known CTR signaling pathways, including ERK 1/2 and p38 MAP kinases, and Ca 2+ mobilization, supportive of low cell surface receptor expression. (monash.edu)
  • Contribution of regional brain melanocortin receptor subtypes to elevated activity energy expenditure in lean, active rats. (harvard.edu)
  • CGRP acts through G protein-coupled receptors whose presence and changes in function modulate the peptide's effects in various tissues. (mobitec.com)
  • We sought to examine the intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling pathway in odontoblasts via the activation of Gs protein-coupled receptors and intercellular trigeminal ganglion (TG) neuron-odontoblast communication following direct mechanical stimulation of TG neurons. (bvsalud.org)
  • Structure of the human smoothened receptor bound to an antitumour agent. (nature.com)
  • Our data presents a network of mitochondrial interactions of TSPO and its A147T polymorphism variant in human glial cells and indicate functional relevance of A147T in mitochondrial protein networks. (biorxiv.org)
  • CT works by activating the G-proteins Gs and Gq often found on osteoclasts, on cells in the kidney, and on cells in a number of regions of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exome sequencing data failed to account for the discrepancy between functional data and expression on the cell lines that do not respond to calcitonin(s) with no deleterious non-synonymous polymorphisms detected, suggesting that other factors may be at play, such as alternative splicing or rapid constitutive receptor internalisation. (monash.edu)
  • Constitutive activity of neural melanocortin receptors. (harvard.edu)
  • The AT2 receptor protein expression detected in DRG was markedly increased by NGF. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Adrenomedullin receptor binding and transcriptional adrenomedullin receptor expression were markedly increased in joints from controls, whereas adrenomedullin receptor binding was considerably decreased in treated animals. (heightquest.com)
  • Using an AD mouse model, 5XFAD, with different ages, here we report that the BIBN treatment significantly increased the brain expression of PSD95, a postsynaptic protein, in both young and old AD mice. (nih.gov)
  • After phenol treatment, animals were subjected to immunohistochemistry of the third branch of small arteries, Western blot analysis of AT2 receptor protein expression in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and studies of mesenteric neurogenic vasoresponsiveness. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine the effects of facial electrocutaneous stimulation and adjuvant-induced inflammation of the temporomandibular joint on oxytocin receptor expression in the trigeminal ganglion. (uni-luebeck.de)
  • Both electrocutaneous stimulation and adjuvant-induced inflammation led to a rapid upregulation of oxytocin receptor protein expression in trigeminal ganglion neurons. (uni-luebeck.de)