Calcitonin gene-related peptide. A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the calcitonin gene. It occurs as a result of alternative processing of mRNA from the calcitonin gene. The neuropeptide is widely distributed in neural tissue of the brain, gut, perivascular nerves, and other tissue. The peptide produces multiple biological effects and has both circulatory and neurotransmitter modes of action. In particular, it is a potent endogenous vasodilator.
A peptide hormone that lowers calcium concentration in the blood. In humans, it is released by thyroid cells and acts to decrease the formation and absorptive activity of osteoclasts. Its role in regulating plasma calcium is much greater in children and in certain diseases than in normal adults.
A slowly hydrolyzing muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects. Bethanechol is generally used to increase smooth muscle tone, as in the GI tract following abdominal surgery or in urinary retention in the absence of obstruction. It may cause hypotension, HEART RATE changes, and BRONCHIAL SPASM.
An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.
A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A highly basic, 28 amino acid neuropeptide released from intestinal mucosa. It has a wide range of biological actions affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems and is neuroprotective. It binds special receptors (RECEPTORS, VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE).
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Cell surface proteins that bind calcitonin and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Calcitonin receptors outside the nervous system mediate the role of calcitonin in calcium homeostasis. The role of calcitonin receptors in the brain is not well understood.
Cell surface proteins that bind CALCITONIN GENE-RELATED PEPTIDE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. CGRP receptors are present in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and the periphery. They are formed via the heterodimerization of the CALCITONIN RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN and RECEPTOR ACTIVITY-MODIFYING PROTEIN 1.
Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A receptor protein that is associated with RECEPTOR ACTIVITY-MODIFYING PROTEINS. When bound to RECEPTOR ACTIVITY-MODIFYING PROTEIN 1 it forms the CALCITONIN GENE-RELATED RECEPTOR. When bound to RECEPTOR ACTIVITY-MODIFYING PROTEIN 2 or RECEPTOR ACTIVITY-MODIFYING PROTEIN 3 it forms the ADRENOMEDULLIN RECEPTOR.
A molluscan neuroactive peptide which induces a fast excitatory depolarizing response due to direct activation of amiloride-sensitive SODIUM CHANNELS. (From Nature 1995; 378(6558): 730-3)
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A naturally occurring dipeptide neuropeptide found in muscles.
A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.
A ubiquitously expressed, secreted protein with bone resorption and renal calcium reabsorption activities that are similar to PARATHYROID HORMONE. It does not circulate in appreciable amounts in normal subjects, but rather exerts its biological actions locally. Overexpression of parathyroid hormone-related protein by tumor cells results in humoral calcemia of malignancy.
A 27-amino acid peptide with histidine at the N-terminal and isoleucine amide at the C-terminal. The exact amino acid composition of the peptide is species dependent. The peptide is secreted in the intestine, but is found in the nervous system, many organs, and in the majority of peripheral tissues. It has a wide range of biological actions, affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and central nervous systems.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A tetradecapeptide originally obtained from the skins of toads Bombina bombina and B. variegata. It is also an endogenous neurotransmitter in many animals including mammals. Bombesin affects vascular and other smooth muscle, gastric secretion, and renal circulation and function.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.
A class of disabling primary headache disorders, characterized by recurrent unilateral pulsatile headaches. The two major subtypes are common migraine (without aura) and classic migraine (with aura or neurological symptoms). (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)
A subtype of migraine disorder, characterized by recurrent attacks of reversible neurological symptoms (aura) that precede or accompany the headache. Aura may include a combination of sensory disturbances, such as blurred VISION; HALLUCINATIONS; VERTIGO; NUMBNESS; and difficulty in concentrating and speaking. Aura is usually followed by features of the COMMON MIGRAINE, such as PHOTOPHOBIA; PHONOPHOBIA; and NAUSEA. (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)
Recurrent unilateral pulsatile headaches, not preceded or accompanied by an aura, in attacks lasting 4-72 hours. It is characterized by PAIN of moderate to severe intensity; aggravated by physical activity; and associated with NAUSEA and / or PHOTOPHOBIA and PHONOPHOBIA. (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)
The symptom of PAIN in the cranial region. It may be an isolated benign occurrence or manifestation of a wide variety of HEADACHE DISORDERS.
Value of all final goods and services produced in a country in one year.

Calcitonin gene-related peptide decreases expression of acetylcholinesterase in mammalian myotubes. (1/1567)

Nerve-derived trophic factors are known to modulate expression of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in skeletal muscle fibers, yet the precise identity of these factors remains elusive. In the present study, we treated mouse C2 myotubes with calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Compared to non-treated myotubes, cell-associated AChE activity levels were decreased by approximately 60% after 48 h of treatment. A parallel reduction in AChE total protein levels was also observed as determined by Western blot analysis. The reduction in AChE activity was due to a decrease in the levels of the G1 molecular form and to an elimination of G1. By contrast, levels of secreted AChE remained unchanged following CGRP treatment. Finally, the overall decrease in AChE activity was accompanied by a reduction in AChE transcripts which could not be attributed to changes in the transcriptional rate of the ACHE gene.  (+info)

Interaction of amylin with calcitonin gene-related peptide receptors in the microvasculature of the hamster cheek pouch in vivo. (2/1567)

1. This study used intravital microscopy to investigate the receptors stimulated by amylin which shares around 50% sequence homology with the vasodilator calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the hamster cheek pouch microvasculature in vivo. 2. Receptor agonists dilated arterioles (diameters 20-40 microm). The -log of the concentrations (+/- s.e.mean; n = 8) causing 50% increase in arteriole diameter were: human betaCGRP (10.8 +/- 0.3), human alphaCGRP (10.8 +/- 0.4), rat alphaCGRP (10.4 +/- 0.3). Rat amylin and the CGRP2 receptor selective agonist [Cys(ACM2,7]-human alphaCGRP were 100 fold less potent (estimates were 8.5 +/- 0.4 and 8.2 +/- 0.3 respectively). 3. The GCRP1 receptor antagonist, CGRP8-37 (300 nmol kg(-1); i.v.) reversibly inhibited the increase in diameter evoked by human alphaCGRP (0.3 nM) from 178 +/- 22% to 59 +/- 12% (n = 8; P < 0.05) and by rat amylin (100 nM) from 138 +/- 23% to 68 +/- 24% (n = 6; P < 0.05). CGRP8-37 did not inhibit vasodilation evoked by substance P (10 nM; n = 4: P > 0.05). 4. The amylin receptor antagonist, amylin8-37 (300 nmol kg(-1); i.v.) did not significantly inhibit the increase in diameter evoked by human alphaCGRP (0.3 nM) which was 112 +/- 26% in the absence, and 90 +/- 29% in the presence of antagonist (n = 4; P < 0.05); nor that evoked by rat amylin (100 nM) which was 146 +/- 23% in the absence and 144 +/- 32% in the presence of antagonist (n = 4; P > 0.05). 5. The agonist profile for vasodilatation and the inhibition of this dilatation by CGRP8-37, although not the amylin8-37 indicates that amylin causes vasodilatation through interaction with CGRP1 receptors in the hamster cheek pouch.  (+info)

Neurogenic origin of articular hyperemia in early degenerative joint disease. (3/1567)

It has been speculated that joint instability resulting from anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture could be exacerbated by changes in vasomotor activity in the remaining supporting structures. In this study, the effect of ACL transection on medial collateral ligament (MCL) basal perfusion and its responsiveness to calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and sympathetic adrenergic influences was examined. Using urethan-anesthetized rabbits, we tested the effects of CGRP and its antagonist CGRP-(8-37) by topical application of these agents to the exposed knee while sympathetic influences were tested by electrically stimulating the saphenous nerve. It was found that MCL basal perfusion was elevated in ACL-sectioned joints; however, this effect was abrogated by prior resection of the articular nerve supply. At the doses tested, the normal vasodilator response to CGRP was abolished in ACL-sectioned joints, whereas the response to CGRP-(8-37) was attenuated. Even under the influence of increased constrictor tone, MCL and capsule blood vessels still showed substantially reduced responses to exogenous CGRP administration. By contrast, nerve-mediated constrictor responses were mostly unaffected by joint instability. This study suggests that posttraumatic knee joint hyperemia is neurogenically mediated, possibly by increased secretion of CGRP.  (+info)

Attenuation of myocardial injury due to oxygen free radicals (OFR) by pretreatment with OFR or calcitonin gene-related peptide. (4/1567)

AIM: To study the cardioprotective effects of oxygen free radicals (OFR) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (OGRP) pretreatment on myocardial damages due to OFR in isolated perfused rat heart. METHODS: The hearts were perfused in a Langendorff mode. OFR were generated by electrolysis of Krebs-Henseleit (K-H) solution. RESULTS: OFR pretreatment reduced the impairment of cardiac contractile function, the decrease of coronary flow and the increase of creatinine kinase (CK) release due to OFR, and the effect exhibited period dependence and cycle-dependence. 1-(5-isoquinolinylsulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine (H-7), an inhibitor of protein kinase C, abolished the protection of OFR pretreatment (CK release = 110 +/- 7, 215 +/- 23, 169 +/- 14, 240 +/- 30, and 113 +/- 19 kU.L-1 for control, OFR, OFR pretreatment, OFR pretreatment plus H-7, and H-7, respectively). CGRP pretreatment also protected the myocardium damages elicited by OFR in isolated perfused rat heart. CONCLUSIONS: OFR or CGRP pretreatment protected myocardium against injury elicited by OFR, and the effect of OFR pretreatment was related to the activation of PKC.  (+info)

Trigeminal nerve ganglion stimulation-induced neurovascular reflexes in the anaesthetized cat: role of endothelin(B) receptors in carotid vasodilatation. (5/1567)

1. The effects of intravenous administration of endothelin (ET) receptor antagonists SB-209670 (0.001-10.0 mg kg(-1)), SB-217242, SB-234551 (0.01-10.0 mg kg(-1)) and BQ-788 (0.001-1.0 mg kg(-1)) were investigated on trigeminal nerve ganglion stimulation-induced neurovascular reflexes in the carotid vasculature of the anaesthetized cat. Comparisons were made with sumatriptan (0.003-3.0 mg kg(-1)) and alpha-CGRP8-37 (0.001-0.1 mg kg(-1)). 2. Trigeminal nerve ganglion stimulation produced frequency related increases in carotid blood flow, reductions in carotid vascular resistance and non-frequency related increases in blood pressure. Guanethidine (3 mg kg(-1), i.v.) blocked trigeminal nerve ganglion-induced increases in blood pressure but had no effect on changes in carotid flow or resistance. Maximal reductions in carotid vascular resistance was observed at 10 Hz, and this frequency was selected to investigate the effects of drugs on trigeminal nerve ganglion stimulation-induced responses in guanethidine treated cats. 3. Saline, alpha-CGRP8-37 SB-209670 and BQ-788 had little or no effect on resting haemodynamic parameters. SB-217242 (10 mg kg(-1), n=3) produced a 56% reduction in arterial blood pressure whereas SB-233451 (10 mg kg(-1), n=3) produced a 30% reduction in carotid vascular resistance. Sumatriptan produced dose-related reductions in resting carotid flow and increases (max. 104% at 0.3 mg kg(-1), n = 5) in vascular resistance. 4. SB-209670 (n=6-7), SB-217242 (n=3) and BQ-788 (n=3) produced inhibition of trigeminal nerve ganglion stimulation-induced reductions in carotid vascular resistance. Saline, SB-234551, alpha-CGRP8-37 and sumatriptan had no effect. 5. These data demonstrate ET(B) receptor blockade attenuates the vasodilator effects of trigeminal nerve ganglion stimulation in the carotid vascular bed of guanethidine pretreated anaesthetized cats.  (+info)

Depletion of cutaneous peptidergic innervation in HIV-associated xerosis. (6/1567)

Severe xerosis occurs in approximately 20% of human immunodeficiency virus seropositive patients. Changes in cutaneous innervation have been found in various inflammatory skin diseases and in xerotic skin in familial amyloid. We have therefore carried out a quantitative examination of the cutaneous peptidergic innervation in human immunodeficiency virus-associated xerosis. Immunohistochemistry and image analysis quantitation were used to compare total cutaneous innervation (protein gene product 9.5), calcitonin gene-related peptide, substance P, and vasoactive intestinal peptide peptidergic fibers, at two sites in the skin of human immunodeficiency virus-associated xerosis patients (upper arm, n = 12; upper leg, n = 11) and site-matched seronegative controls (upper arm, n = 10; upper leg, n = 10). Measurement of lengths of fibers of each type was carried out for each subject in the epidermis and papillary dermis, and around the sweat glands. Immunostained mast cells in these areas were counted. Epidermal integrity and maturation were assessed by immunostaining for involucrin. There were significant (Mann-Whitney U test; p < 0.02) decreases in total lengths of protein gene product 9.5 fibers in both epidermis/papillary dermis and sweat gland fields; of calcitonin gene-related peptide innervation in the epidermis/papillary dermis; and of substance P innervation of the sweat glands. There were no differences in the distribution of mast cells, or in the epidermal expression of involucrin. Depletion of the calcitonin gene-related peptide innervation may affect the nutrient blood supply of the upper dermis, and the integrity and function of basal epidermis and Langerhans cells. Diminished substance P innervation of the sweat glands may affect their secretory activity. Both of these changes may be implicated in the development of xerosis.  (+info)

Decreased CGRP, but preserved Trk A immunoreactivity in nerve fibres in inflamed human superficial temporal arteries. (7/1567)

The peptidergic sensory innervation of cranial blood vessels may play an important part in vascular head pain. The neuropeptides calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P in sensory fibres are dependent on nerve growth factor (NGF) produced by the blood vessels, and when released from nerve terminals mediate neurogenic inflammation. NGF is increased in inflamed tissues, and acts via its high affinity receptor trk A on nociceptor fibres to produce hyperalgesia. CGRP and trk A immunoreactive nerve fibres have therefore been studied, for the first time, in inflamed (n=7) and non-inflamed (n=10) temporal arteries biopsied from patients with headache and suspected giant cell arteritis. CGRP immunoreactivity was markedly decreased to absent in adventitial nerve fibres in inflamed regions of vessels, which may reflect secretion from nerve terminals, as CGRP immunoreactivity could still be seen in nerve trunks in periadventitial tissue. Trk A immunoreactive nerve fibres were found in a similar distribution to CGRP containing nerve fibres in non-inflamed vessels, and the trk A immunoreactivity was virtually unchanged in inflamed vessels. The evidence supports a role for NGF related mechanisms in inflammatory vascular head pain. Anti-NGF or anti-trk A agents may represent novel analgesics in this condition.  (+info)

Calcitonin gene-related peptide rapidly downregulates nicotinic receptor function and slowly raises intracellular Ca2+ in rat chromaffin cells in vitro. (8/1567)

Although calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) modulates muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) via intracellular second messenger-mediated phosphorylation, the action of this peptide on neuronal-type nAChRs remains unknown. Using neuronal nAChRs of rat chromaffin cells in vitro we studied the effect of CGRP, which is physiologically present in adrenal medulla, on membrane currents and [Ca2+]i transients elicited by nicotine. Our main novel observation was that CGRP (either bath-applied or focally applied for a few seconds or even co-applied with nicotine for a few milliseconds) selectively and rapidly blocked nAChRs (a phenomenon unlikely caused by intracellular messengers in view of its speed) without affecting GABA receptors. The inhibitory effect of CGRP was independent of [Ca2+]i or membrane potential and not accompanied by baseline current changes. Like the competitive antagonist N,N,N-trimethyl-1-(4-trans-stilbenoxy)-2-propilammonium, CGRP induced a rightward, parallel shift of the nicotine dose-response curve; during co-application of these blockers the nicotine dose-ratio value was the sum of the values obtained with each antagonist alone. The block by CGRP was insensitive to the receptor antagonist hCGRP8-37 but mimicked by CGRP1-7. Persistent application of CGRP slowly increased [Ca2+]i, a phenomenon independent from external Ca2+, thus implying Ca2+ release from internal stores, and suppressed by hCGRP8-37. CGRP1-7 had no significant effect on [Ca2+]i. We propose that the 1-7 amino acid sequence of CGRP was responsible for the direct, rapid block of nAChRs, whereas the full-length peptide molecule was necessary for the delayed rise in internal Ca2+ potentially able to trigger phosphorylation-dependent modulation of nicotinic receptor function.  (+info)

1. Binding sites for calcitonin-gene-related peptide were localized and characterized in porcine coronary arteries using quantitative autoradiography, and the density of binding sites was compared between large epicardial and small intramyocardial coronary arteries.. 2. A single class of binding sites for calcitonin-gene-related peptide with a dissociation constant of 2.1 ± 0.2 nmol/l was detected in both the large and small coronary arteries. The density of specific binding sites was higher (maximum binding site density 231 ± 14 fmol/mg of protein) in the small coronary arteries than in the large epicardial coronary arteries (maximum binding site density 108 ± 5 fmol/mg of protein). β-Human calcitonin-gene-related peptide showed higher affinity than α-human calcitonin-gene-related peptide for the binding sites. Most of the specific binding sites for both peptides in the large coronary artery were localized in the intima and media.. 3. In coronary artery from patients with coronary heart ...
article{09c0a925-e49d-4f96-88c5-8518027b9c58, abstract = {An aggregation of substance P (SP)- and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-containing nerve cells (internal carotid mini-ganglion) is described at the junction between the greater superficial petrosal nerve and the internal carotid nerve close to the internal carotid artery. A retrograde tracer dye technique demonstrates that this ganglion and the trigeminal and superior vagal ganglia supply the internal carotid artery with SP/CGRP fibers at, above and below this level, respectively. Implications of this finding for cranial painful syndromes in man are discussed.}, author = {Hardebo, Jan Erik and Suzuki, Norihiro and Owman, Christer}, issn = {0304-3940}, language = {eng}, number = {1}, pages = {39--45}, publisher = {Elsevier}, series = {Neuroscience Letters}, title = {Origins of substance P- and calcitonin gene-related peptide-containing nerves in the internal carotid artery of rat}, url = ...
Using a double labeling indirect immunofluorescent technique, we studied the guinea pig trigeminal ganglion and eye for co-localization of substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide. In the trigeminal ganglion, the number of neurons immunoreactive for calcitonin gene-related peptide significantly outnumber those immunoreactive for substance P, but virtually all substance P positive neurons are immunoreactive for calcitonin gene-related peptide. In the eye, a complex pattern of co-localization is present; both peptides co-localize in most immunoreactive nerve fibers. Nerve fibers immunoreactive only for calcitonin gene-related peptide tend to be concentrated in the cornea and posterior ciliary body. Nerve fibers immunoreactive only for substance P are present in relation to both iris muscles. Sensory denervation by intracranial transection of the ophthalmic and maxillary nerves fails to eliminate these substance P positive but CGRP negative iris nerve fibers. These findings indicate an ...
article{1857c827-237f-4c9c-bdcf-df90e3a1106c, abstract = {In patients with severe hypertension and in age and sex matched controls the circulating levels of calcitonin gene-related peptide-like immunoreactivity (CGRP-LI) and substance P-LI were measured. Samples were taken before medication, after 2-4 weeks and 2-12 months of pharmacological treatment to normotension. In the control group CGRP-LI levels were significantly higher for females than for males. No such relation was seen for substance P-LI. There were no correlations between CGRP-LI, substance P-LI or blood pressure. In the untreated acute hypertensive group there was a significant correlation between circulating levels of CGRP-LI and both diastolic and systolic blood pressure. No such relationship was seen for substance P-LI. The plasma levels of substance P-LI were significantly elevated (2.8 +/- 4.0) compared to controls (1.3 +/- 1.3, pmol/l, mean +/- S.D., p < 0.01). The levels of CGRP-LI did not differ from the control group. ...
TOPICAL CALCITONIN GENE-RELATED PEPTIDE INCREASES WOUND CLOSURE IN SECOND DEGREE CUTANEOUS BURNSBiologyMissouri State University, August 2012Master of ScienceDarin Thomas DieckhoffABSTRACTCutaneous thermal wounds result in significant tissue damage with loss of epidermis, nerve fibers, and vascular tissue, which increases healing time. Neuropeptides released by sensory neurons are implicated in the wound healing process. The 37-amino acid neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a multifunctional protein that promotes vasodilation and proliferation of keratinocytes and endothelial cells. Based on the distribution of CGRP and its receptor in adult CD Hairless rats, we hypothesized that topical administration of CGRP to a cutaneous thermal wound would increase the rate of wound closure. Two 1.5 cm partial-thickness thermal wounds were created on the upper dorsal region of hairless rats (n = 6) by exposing tissues to 70o C water for 10 seconds. Each wound was covered with standard medical
TY - JOUR. T1 - Calcitonin gene-related peptide enhances release of native brain-derived neurotrophic factor from trigeminal ganglion neurons. AU - Buldyrev, Ilya. AU - Tanner, Nathan M.. AU - Hsieh, Hui Ya. AU - Dodd, Emily G.. AU - Nguyen, Loi T.. AU - Balkowiec, Agnieszka. PY - 2006/12/1. Y1 - 2006/12/1. N2 - Activity-dependent plasticity in nociceptive pathways has been implicated in pathomechanisms of chronic pain syndromes. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), which is expressed by trigeminal nociceptors, has recently been identified as a key player in the mechanism of migraine headaches. Here we show that CGRP is coexpressed with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in a large subset of adult rat trigeminal ganglion neurons in vivo. Using ELISA in situ, we show that CGRP (1-1000 nm) potently enhances BDNF release from cultured trigeminal neurons. The effect of CGRP is dose-dependent and abolished by pretreatment with CGRP receptor antagonist, CGRP(8-37). Intriguingly, CGRP-mediated ...
Release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) from trigeminal sensory nerves is implicated in the underlying pathology of migraine. While the therapeutic benefits of grape seed extract (GSE) to inhibit pathophysiological mechanisms associated with cardiovascular disease are well known, the potential benefit of GSE to decrease neurogenic inflammation has not been investigated. The goal of my study was to determine whether GSE could inhibit CGRP expression in primary cultures of trigeminal ganglion neurons as well as a human cell line, DMS 153 cells. CGRP was significantly increased in primary rat trigeminal ganglia cultures in response to a depolarizing stimulus by KCl or capsaicin. Pretreatment with GSE repressed stimulated release of CGRP from trigeminal ganglion neurons. Similarly, GSE repressed stimulated human CGRP promoter activity and mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) reporter genes in DMS 153 cells. Moreover, overnight treatment with GSE suppressed basal human CGRP promoter activity.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Calcitonin gene-related peptide in experimental ischemia. Implication of an endogenous anti-ischemic effect. AU - Gherardini, Giulio. AU - Evans, Gregory R D. AU - Theodorsson, Elvar. AU - Gurlek, Ali. AU - Milner, Stephen M.. AU - Palmer, Björn. AU - Lundeberg, Thomas. PY - 1996. Y1 - 1996. N2 - Ischemia resulting from flap harvesting and vascular manipulation during microsurgery may be responsible for flap ischemic sufferance and, ultimately, necrosis. Recently, the regulatory role of the sensory nervous system in ischemia has attracted much interest. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a neuropeptide, is a naturally occurring vasodilator with no constrictive effects. In the present study, we developed a model of partial, chronic ischemia in the rat epigastric flap and investigated the effects of ischemia on concentrations of CGRP-like immunoreactivity (-LI) in ischemic skin and in different regions of the rat brain (striatum, hippocampus, pituitary, hypothalamus, and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Engineering ex vivo-expanded marrow stromal cells to secrete calcitonin gene-related peptide using adenoviral vector. AU - Deng, Weiwen. AU - Bivalacqua, Trinity. AU - Chattergoon, Natasha N.. AU - Jeter, James R.. AU - Kadowitz, Philip J.. PY - 2004. Y1 - 2004. N2 - Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a target for cardiovascular gene therapy. Marrow stromal cells (MSCs) hold promise for use in adult stem cell-based cell and gene therapy. To determine the feasibility of adenoviral-mediated CGRP gene transfer into ex vivo-expanded MSCs, rat MSCs were isolated, ex vivo expanded, and transduced with adenoviruses. Adprepro-CGRP and AdntlacZ, adenoviral vectors containing prepro-CGRP or nuclear-targeted β-galactosidase reporter gene ntlacZ under the control of Rous sarcoma virus promoter, were used. In this study, it can be shown that transduction efficiency of adenoviral-mediated gene transfer into ex vivo-expanded MSCs is dose dependent, transgene expression persists for more ...
The neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) expressed by one-third of rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons mediates pain sensation and vasodilation. The developmental regulation of CGRP is poorly understood, but may involve target-derived factors from skin or viscera. Few embryonic DRG …
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a 37-amino-acid vasodilatory neuropeptide that binds to receptor activity-modifying protein 1 (RAMP1) and the calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR). Clinical and preclinical evidence suggests that CGRP is associated with hip and knee joint pain; however, the regulation mechanisms of CGRP/CGRP receptor signaling in synovial tissue are not fully understood. Synovial tissues were harvested from 43 participants with radiographic knee osteoarthritis (OA; unilateral Kellgren/Lawrence (K/L) grades 3-4) during total knee arthroplasty. Correlationships between the mRNA expression levels of CGRP and those of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2) were evaluated using real-time PCR analysis of total RNA extracted from the collected synovial tissues. To investigate the factors controlling the regulation of CGRP and CGRP receptor expression, cultured synovial cells were stimulated with TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and
Over the last decades MRI has proved to be very useful in the field of drug development and discovery. Pharmacological MRI (phMRI) explores the interaction between brain physiology, neuronal activity and drugs[1]. The BOLD-signal is an indirect method to investigate brain activity by way of measuring task-related hemodynamic changes. Pharmacological substances that induce hemodynamic changes can therefore potentially alter the BOLD-signal that in turn falsely can be interpreted as changes in neuronal activity. It is therefore important to characterize possible effects of a pharmacological substance on the BOLD-response per see before that substance can be used in an fMRI experiment. Furthermore MR-angiography is useful in determining the vascular site-of-action of vasoactive substances ...
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Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a sensory neurotransmitter that is widely distributed in cardiovascular tissues, may help to counteract coronary artery vasoconstriction during anaphylaxis. CGR... more
CCA876Ra, CALCB; CGRP2; CALC2; CGRP-II; Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide 2; Calcitonin 2; Calcitonin Related Polypeptide Beta | Products for research use only!
The sensory neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) plays a role in primary headaches and CGRP receptor antagonists are effective in migraine treatment. CGRP is a potent vasodilator raising the possibility that antagonism of its receptor could have cardiovascular effects. We therefore investigated the effects of the anti-migraine CGRP receptor antagonist telcagepant (MK-0974) on human isolated coronary arteries. Arteries with different internal diameters (ID) were studied to assess the potential for differential effects across the coronary vascular bed. The concentration-dependent relaxation responses to human αCGRP were greater in distal (ID: 600-1000 μm, Emax=83±7%) than proximal coronary arteries (ID: 2-3 mm, Emax=23±9%), coronary arteries from explanted hearts (ID 3-5 mm, Emax=11±3%) and coronary arterioles (ID: 200-300 μm, Emax=15±7%). Telcagepant alone did not induce contraction or relaxation of these coronary blood vessels. Pre-treatment with telcagepant (10 nM to 1 ...
Muscle inflammation and hyperalgesia induced by adjuvant injection into skeletal muscle are associated with an increase in calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) labeling in skeletal muscle and dorsal root ganglia (DRG). This increased expression of CGRP may contribute to the maintenance of pain in these models. However, it is not known if inflammation induced by repetitive exposure to stretch-sho
Calcitonin was discovered by C opp et al. (1961) as a hypocalcemic hormone and the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) recognized through analysis of the calcitonin gene structure (A...
Title:Role of CGRP-Receptor Component Protein (RCP) in CLR/RAMP Function. VOLUME: 14 ISSUE: 5. Author(s):Ian M. Dickerson. Affiliation:University of Rochester, Department of Neurobiology & Anatomy, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Box 603, Rochester, NY 14642, USA.. Keywords:Calcitonin gene-related peptide, adrenomedullin, calcitonin-like receptor, receptor activity modifying protein, CGRP-receptor component protein, signal transduction, trafficking.. Abstract:The receptor for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and adrenomedullin (AM) requires an intracellular peripheral membrane protein named CGRP-receptor component protein (RCP) for signaling. RCP is required for CGRP and AM receptor signaling, and it has recently been discovered that RCP enables signaling by binding directly to the receptor. RCP is present in most immortalized cell lines, but in vivo RCP expression is limited to specific subsets of cells, usually co-localizing with CGRP-containing neurons. RCP protein expression correlates with CGRP ...
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Migraine is among the most common types of pain, but its mechanisms are poorly understood. A growing body of evidence points to a critical role of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the pathophysiology of migraine headache. During migraine, CGRP is thought to be released from peripheral endings of perivascular meningeal nociceptors primary and to promote vasodilatation. A current hypothesis suggests that peripheral CGRP and its related meningeal vasodilatation results in activation and sensitization, leading to the generation of migraine headache. However, direct evidence supporting this idea is lacking. Here, using electrophysiological, extracellular, single-unit recording combined with laser-Doppler flowmetry measurements of dural blood flow (DBF), we examined whether CGRP and meningeal vasodilatation promote activation or sensitization of meningeal nociceptors. Changes in (DBF), ongoing discharge, and responsiveness to mechanical stimulation of the dura were studied after either ...
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Understanding of the neuropathology leading to migraine pain has centered on either a vascular or neuronal origin. Sildenafil, a specific inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5), induces migraine-like headache in a human headache model without concomitant artery dilation. The presence and activity of PDE3 and PDE5 is known in cerebral arteries. However, the presence in the neuronal part of the trigeminovascular pathway, i.e. the trigeminal ganglion and the possible co-localization with calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), is not known ...
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In cultured chicken myotubes, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a peptide present in spinal cord motoneurons, increased by 1.5-fold the number of surface acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) and by threefold AChR alpha-subunit mRNA level without affecting the level of muscular alpha-actin mRNA. Cholera toxin (CT), an activator of adenylate cyclase, produced a similar effect, which did not add up with that of CGRP. In contrast, tetrodotoxin, a blocker of voltage-sensitive Na+ channels, elevated the level of AChR alpha-subunit mRNA on top of the increase caused by either CGRP or CT. 12-O-Tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA), an activator of protein kinase C, markedly decreased the cell surface and total content of [125I]alpha BGT-binding sites and reduced the rate of appearance of AChR at the surface of the myotubes without reducing the level of AChR alpha-subunit mRNA. Moreover, TPA inhibited the increase of AChR alpha-subunit mRNA caused by tetrodotoxin without affecting that produced by CGRP ...
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We previously found that capsaicin can dilate third-order arterioles in striated muscle by a mechanism that appears to involve release of endogenous calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Experiments were done to determine 1) whether capsaicin has similar effects on larger arterioles and venules and 2) whether relaxation involves endogenous CGRP and synthesis of endothelium-derived relaxing factor. In male Sprague-Dawley rats anesthetized with pentobarbital (50 mg/kg, i.p.), we examined responses of first- and second-order microvessels in the cremaster muscle using video microscopy. Addition of capsaicin (0.1 microgram/ml) to vessels constricted by norepinephrine (10(-7) M) dilated 1As by 91% +/- 28%, 2As by 113% +/- 18% 1Vs by 11% +/- 6% and 2Vs by 42% +/- 18%. Capsaicin in the presence of the specific CGRP receptor antagonist CGRP (8-37) caused an attenuated arteriolar dilation but had no significant venodilatory effect (1As 29% +/- 18%, 2As 55% +/- 14%, 1Vs 7% +/- 3%, 2Vs 16% +/- ...
Depletion of substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide in sciatic nerve of rats with experimental diabetes; effects of insulin and aldose reductase ...
PubMed journal article: Role of anandamide transporter in regulating calcitonin gene-related peptide production and blood pressure in hypertension. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
Calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP), a 37 amino acid neuropeptide, is the most potent vasodilator known. Participation of CGRP in hypertension and related diseases, such as preeclampsia or vasospasm after subarachnoid haemorrage, is one of the most studied topics. In this review we summarize the published roles of CGRP in pathophysiology of hypertension in humans and in experimental models. We also discuss the effects of direct administration of CGRP in the treatment of hypertension and of anti-hypertensive drugs that enhance the release or response of endogenous calcitonin gene-related peptide: angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, selective antagonists for the angiotensin II receptor, beta-blockers, magnesium sulphate for preeclampsia and rutaecarpine, as well as the possibilities using CGRP in gene therapy for prevention of vasospasm after subarachnoid haemorrage ...
Our laboratory studies the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Originally discovered as an alternatively-spliced variant of the calcitonin mRNA, CGRP is one of the most potent vasodilators known. As a vasodilator, CGRP has both peripheral and central effects. One of the most notable effects of CGRP is its causative effect of migraine on the cerebral vasculature, and stable synthetic antagonists have been recently developed and are in Stage III clinical trials for migraine treatment. CGRP also suppresses immune function, is involved in pain perception, and has further central role in the development of tolerance to opiates ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the RAMP family of single-transmembrane-domain proteins, called receptor (calcitonin) activity modifying proteins (RAMPs). RAMPs are type I transmembrane proteins with an extracellular N terminus and a cytoplasmic C terminus. RAMPs are required to transport calcitonin-receptor-like receptor (CRLR) to the plasma membrane. CRLR, a receptor with seven transmembrane domains, can function as either a calcitonin-gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor or an adrenomedullin receptor, depending on which members of the RAMP family are expressed. In the presence of this (RAMP3) protein, CRLR functions as an adrenomedullin receptor. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
After a long illness borne with much grace and dignity, Iain MacIntyre died in London on 18 September 2008. He had led a most distinguished career over five decades as a major figure in the field of calcium-regulating hormones and bone metabolism, with his many scientific achievements marked by originality as well as biological and medical importance. Among his many accomplishments were the co-discovery with Harold Copp of the hormone calcitonin, whose glandular origin, structure and biological and medical functions he defined. Iain also was the first to isolate and sequence, with colleagues, the novel human neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide, demonstrating its role as a potent vasodilator. Subsequently Iain defined the multiple phenotypic consequences attributable to nitric oxide production by different enzymes in a tissue-specific fashion. A major educational contribution was in conceiving and organizing an important biennial series of international endocrine meetings held between ...
J Med Chem. 2008 Aug 28;51(16):4858-61. Epub 2008 Jul 30.Discovery of (R)-4-(8-fluoro-2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinazolin-3(4H)-yl)-N-(3-(7-methyl-1H-indazol-5-yl)-1-oxo-1-(4-(piperidin-1-yl)piperidin-1-yl)propan-2-yl)piperidine-1-carboxamide (BMS-694153): a potent antagonist of the human calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor for migraine with rapid and efficient intranasal exposure. To Reference ...
Background: Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a neuropeptide with broad salutary cardiovascular effects. Mechanisms underlying cardiac CGRP regulation are poorly understood. The intrinsic cardiac adrenergic (ICA) cell is a novel cardiac neuroendocrine cell that expresses the δ-opioid receptor. We have shown that δ-opioid stimulation of ICA cells induces epinephrine liberation exerting an infarct-size limiting effect via β2-adrenoreceptor (β2-AR) stimulation. In this study we hypothesize that ICA cells synthesize and release CGRP which is involved in myocardial function and that CGRP gene expression can be autoregulated by epinephrine released from the ICA cell or regulated exogenously via β2-AR agonist.. Methods and Results: In situ hybridization coupled with immunofluorescent double labeling localized CGRP mRNA expression exclusively to ICA cells in explanted human left ventricular tissue. To determine whether δ-opioid-enhanced epinephrine release from ICA cells autoregulates CGRP ...
Abstract We have compared the density of nerve fibres in the synovium in club foot with that of specimens obtained from the synovium of the hip at operations for developmental dysplasia. The study focused on the sensory neuropeptides substance P; calcitonin gene-related peptide; protein gene product 9.5, a general marker for mature peripheral nerve fibres; and growth associated protein 43, a neuronal marker for new or regenerating nerve fibres. In order to establish whether there might be any inherent difference we analysed the density of calcitonin gene-related peptide-positive nerve fibres in the hip and ankle joints in young rats. Semi-quantitative analysis showed a significant reduction in the number of sensory and mature nerve fibres in the synovium in club foot compared with the control hips. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) positive fibres were reduced by 28%, substance P-positive fibres by 36% and protein gene product 9.5-positive fibres by 52% in club foot. The growth associated protein
Deposition of amyloid in pancreatic islets is a common feature in human type 2 diabetic subjects but because of its insolubility and low tissue concentrations, the structure of its monomer has not been determined. We describe a peptide, of calculated molecular mass 3905 Da, that was a major protein component of amyloid-rich pancreatic extracts of three type 2 diabetic patients. After collagenase treatment, an extract containing 20-50% amyloid was solubilized by sonication into 70% formic acid and the peptide was purified by gel filtration followed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. We term this peptide diabetes-associated peptide, as it was not detected in extracts of pancreas from any of six normal subjects. Diabetes-associated peptide contains 37 amino acids and is 46% identical to the sequences of rat and human calcitonin gene-related peptide, indicating that these peptides are related in evolution. Sequence identities with conserved residues of the insulin A chain were ...
Schuler, B; Rieger, G; Gubser, M; Arras, M; Gianella, M; Vogel, O; Jirkof, P; Cesarovic, N; Klohs, J; Jakob, P; Brock, M; Gorr, T A; Baum, O; Hoppeler, H; Samillan-Soto, V; Gassmann, M; Fischer, J A; Born, W; Vogel, J (2014). Endogenous α-calcitonin-gene-related peptide promotes exercise-induced, physiological heart hypertrophy in mice. Acta Physiologica, 211(1):107-121.. Hlushchuk, R; Ehrbar, M; Reichmuth, P; Heinimann, N; Styp-Rekowska, B; Escher, R; Baum, O; Lienemann, P; Makanya, A; Keshet, E; Djonov, V (2011). Decrease in VEGF expression induces intussusceptive vascular pruning. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, 31(12):2836-2844.. Richter, V; Savery, M D; Gassmann, M; Baum, O; Damiano, E; Pries, A R (2011). Excessive erythrocytosis compromises the blood-endothelium interface in erythropoietin-overexpressing mice. Journal of Physiology, 589(21):5181-5192.. Picard, N; Baum, O; Vogetseder, A; Kaissling, B; Le Hir, M (2008). Origin of renal myofibroblasts in the model of ...
The goals of this study were to evaluate the influence of CGRP within the BNST on anxiety and on neural activation patterns. We found that intra-BNST CGRP infusions produced an anxiogenic behavioral profile and enhanced neural activation in a number of anxiety-related brain areas, and that antagonism of these receptors prevented anxiety-like responses to TMT odor. CGRP infused bilaterally into the BNST enhanced the acoustic startle response in a dose-dependent manner (experiment 1). This increase was attenuated by prior administration of the CGRP antagonist, αCGRP8-37, at a dose that did not significantly affect startle when given alone (experiment 2). This suggests that the effects on startle were indeed mediated by activation of CGRP receptors. Intra-BNST CGRP infusions (800 ng/side) also decreased the percentage of time spent on the open arms and the percentage of total entries into the open arms of the elevated plus maze (experiment 6). These anxiety-like behavioral results are consistent ...
Background and purpose: Long-term morphine treatment enhances pain neurotransmitter (such as calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)) levels in the spinal cord. It has been suggested previously that increased spinal CGRP may contribute to sustained morphine-mediated paradoxical pain sensitization and antinociceptive tolerance. Previous in vitro studies from our group indicated that Raf-1 kinase-mediated adenylyl cyclase superactivation played a crucial role in sustained morphine-mediated augmentation of basal and evoked CGRP release from cultured primary sensory neurons. The present study was aimed to evaluate the physiological significance of this molecular mechanism in vivo, in rats ...
Endothelin-1 causes long-lasting contraction via endothelin type A receptor (ETAR) in isolated rat mesenteric arteries (RMA) that cannot be readily terminated by removing the agonist, or by adding the ETAR antagonist BQ123 or the NO donor sodium nitroprusside. It could be terminated by adding calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP), most likely because CGRP causes ET-1/ETAR dissociation. Here we investigated this phenomenon in human coronary microarteries (HCMA). We simultaneously verified the effects of CGRP in RMA and HCMA towards other vasoconstrictors, i.e., the α1- adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine, the thromboxane A2 analog U46619 (9,11-dideoxy-11α,9α-epoxy-methano-prostaglandin F 2α) and KCl. Long-lasting contraction (remaining after washing away the agonist) was observed for ET-1 in RMA, but not HCMA. Constrictions to phenylephrine, U46619 or KCl did not last upon washing. When added on top of ET-1-initiated contraction in RMA, CGRP effectively counteracted vasoconstriction, i.e., it ...
The present study demonstrated for the first time that neonatal degeneration of capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves in rats leads to a significant increase in blood pressure when a high sodium diet is given. This observation is important because it has been shown that (1) substantial decreases in CGRP-containing sensory nerves in the mesenteric arterial bed occur in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR),6 7 indicating that there are inherited abnormalities in either generation or maintenance of sensory nerves in SHR; (2) the plasma CGRP concentration is lower in adult SHR than in age-matched normotensive control rats, indicating that release of CGRP from sensory nerves is decreased in SHR21 ; and (3) vasodilator responses to exogenous CGRP increase with age in SHR, suggesting that sensitivity of receptors to CGRP is increased due to the decreased release of CGRP from sensory nerves.6 7 The defect in sensory vasodilator function may produce an imbalance that could contribute to the development and ...
in Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics (The) (1994), 270(1), 30-6. The effects of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) (6 x 10(-8) M) on hemodynamics and on pulmonary microvascular permeability were investigated in isolated, perfused rabbit lungs by measuring the ... [more ▼]. The effects of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) (6 x 10(-8) M) on hemodynamics and on pulmonary microvascular permeability were investigated in isolated, perfused rabbit lungs by measuring the arterial, capillary and venous pressures and the capillary filtration coefficient (Kf,c). CGRP was administered alone or in combination with capsaicin (10(-4) M), acetylcholine (ACh) (10(-11) M to 10(-7) M), substance P (SP) (10(-10) M to 10(-6) M) and serotonin (10(-4) M). The influence of a specific antagonist of CGRP receptors, CGRP8-37 (10(-8) M), on the pulmonary edema induced by these mediators was also considered. CGRP had no direct effect on the vascular pressures or on Kf,c. Capsaicin and ...
Die bakterielle Meningitis (BM) ist trotz antibiotischer Therapie eine Erkrankung mit einer hohen Mortalität und Morbidität. Kopfschmerzen und Meningismus sind Hauptsymtome und ein klinischer Hinweis für die Aktivierung trigeminaler Fasern. Ziel dieser Arbeit war es zu prüfen ob die freigesetzten Neuropeptide einen proinflammatorischen Effekt auf zerebrale Endothelzellen, einen wesentlichem Bestandteil der Blut-Hirn-Schranke haben. Wir verwendeten primär kultivierte zerebrale Kapillarendothelzellen (BMEC) der Ratte und als Stimulus Neuropeptide und/oder Pneumokokkenzellwände (PCW). Beide Neuropeptide, CGRP mehr als SP, verstärken den Effekt von PCW auf die mRNA Expression und Freisetzung von TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-10 und MIP-2 aus den BMEC. CGRP und SP haben nur eine geringe Wirkung. PCW regulieren die Dichte der CRLR (CGRP1-R) bzw. NK-1 Rezeptoren und erklären damit die kostimulatorische Wirkung. Zudem untersuchten wir den Effekt von PCW und/oder CGRP auf die Adrenomedullin (AM)- ...
This gene encodes the peptide hormones calcitonin, calcitonin gene-related peptide and katacalcin by tissue-specific alternative RNA splicing of the gene transcripts and cleavage of inactive precursor proteins. Calcitonin is involved in calcium regulation and acts to regulate phosphorus metabolism. Calcitonin gene-related peptide functions as a vasodilator while katacalcin is a calcium-lowering peptide. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prevention of stress- or nitric oxide donor-induced medication overuse headache by a calcitonin gene-related peptide antibody in rodents. AU - Kopruszinski, Caroline Machado. AU - Xie, Jennifer Yanhua. AU - Eyde, Nathan Mackenzie. AU - Remeniuk, Bethany. AU - Walter, Sarah. AU - Stratton, Jennifer. AU - Bigal, Marcelo. AU - Chichorro, Juliana Geremias. AU - Dodick, David. AU - Porreca, Frank. PY - 2017/5/1. Y1 - 2017/5/1. N2 - Objective The objective of this study was the determination of the role of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the induction of medication overuse headache (MOH)-related migraine in an injury-free preclinical model. Methods Rats were primed by a 7-day period of exposure to acute migraine therapies including sumatriptan and morphine. After an additional 14-day drug-free period, rats were exposed to putative migraine triggers including bright light stress (BLS) or nitric oxide (NO) donor in the presence or absence of TEV48125, a fully humanized CGRP ...
Numerous studies have shown that severing the dorsal roots, ie, the afferent nerves proximal to the dorsal root ganglia, reduces the number of substance P- and calcitonin gene-related peptide-containing nerves in the dorsal horn.21 There are few studies examining the effects of DRX on peripheral afferent innervation. However, there are reports showing that DRX at T6-L2 and L6/S1 reduced the number of substance P- and calcitonin gene-related peptide-containing nerves around the hepatic artery and portal vein22 and in urinary bladder,23 respectively. Therefore, we examined whether the responsiveness of afferent renal nerves was altered by DRX. Three weeks after DRX, increasing renal pelvic pressure failed to increase ARNA. The lack of ARNA responses in DRX rats was even more conspicuous considering that the rats were fed the HNa diet. In agreement with our previous studies,5 increasing renal pelvic pressure resulted in marked increases in ARNA in the sham-DRX rats fed an HNa diet. Further studies ...
The infrapatellar fat pad (IPFP) has been implicated as a possible source of osteoarthritis (OA) development and knee pain due to the production of inflammatory mediators and the existence of nerve fibers within this structure. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a vasodilatory neuropeptide that is localized to joint tissues and has recently been implicated in the development of knee OA and OA pain. To date, however, the expression levels of CGRP in the IPFP of human knee OA patients have not been examined. IFFP and synovial (SYN) tissues were harvested from 100 individuals with radiographic knee OA (unilateral Kellgren/Lawrence [K/L] grades 2-4) during total knee arthroplasty and subjected to immunohistochemical analysis for CGRP localization. In addition, the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels of CGRP and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the collected tissues were evaluated and compared using real-time PCR analysis of total RNA extracts. CGRP and COX-2 mRNA expression were also compared among
The trigeminal vascular system is a key player in the pathophysiology of migraine. Migraines are thought to be triggered when internal or environmental factors are of sufficient intensity to initiate the hyper excitement and activation of the trigeminal nerves. This activation provokes the release of neuroinflammatory mediators resulting in neurogenic inflammation, vasodilation, nociceptor activation, and propagation of pain response.. Some of the most important neuropeptides released in migraine attacks are Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide (CGRP), Substance P, and Serotonin.. Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide (CGRP). Migraine treatment has almost always relied on re-purposing medication developed to treat other conditions. However, the past decade has been tremendous for discoveries in migraine research and breakthroughs in migraine therapy. The aforementioned inflammatory neuropeptide Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide (CGRP) has played a major role in this march towards bespoke, novel targeted ...
The main olfactory bulb (OB) is made up of several concentric layers, forming circuitries often involving dendro-dendritic synapses. Important interactions between OB neurons occur in the external plexiform layer (EPL), where dendrites of tufted and Van Gehuchten cells form synapses with dendrites of deeper lying mitral, tufted, and granule cells. OB neurons display a variety of neurotransmitters. Here, the focus is on calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a 37-amino acid neuropeptide transmitter that is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous system. In the OB, CGRP-immunoreactive (ir) cell bodies were mostly observed in the mitral cell layer (MCL) of normal mice, and their number increased following colchicine treatment. Sparsely distributed CGRP-ir cell bodies were also found in the EPL and granular cell layer. Double-immunofluorescence experiments revealed a lack of co-localization between CGRP-like immunoreactivity (LI) and corticotropin-releasing factor- or galanin-LI, ...
Migraine is a debilitating neurological condition involving the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). The overall objective of this project is to...
Sildenafil and calcitonin gene-related peptide both dilate the intradural segments of the middle meningeal artery measured with 3.0 tesla (T) MR angiography. Here we hypothesized that an increase in field strength to 7.0 T and concomitant enhanced voxel resolution would lower variance in measurements of dilation in the intradural middle meningeal artery. Five subjects completed two sessions at respectively 3.0 T and 7.0 T. Each session comprised MR angiography scans once before and twice after administration of sildenafil, calcitonin gene-related peptide or placebo in a three-way, crossover, double-blind, placebo-controlled design. Standard deviations of arterial circumference revealed no difference between 3.0 T and 7.0 T measurements (p = 0.379). We found a decrease in standard deviation from our original angiography analysis software (QMra) to a newer (LAVA) software package (p | 0.001). Furthermore, we found that the dilation after sildenafil and calcitonin gene-related peptide were comparable
Tozzi A, de Iure A, Di Filippo M, Costa C, Caproni S, Pisani A, Bonsi P, Picconi B, Cupini LM, Materazzi S, Geppetti P, Sarchielli P, Calabresi ...
To the Editor: I read with interest the ESBY study (Electrical Stimulation versus coronary artery BYpass surgery in severe angina pectoris) by Mannheimer et al.1 They found that spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has antianginal and anti-ischemic effects in severe angina pectoris and concluded that CABG and SCS are equivalent methods in terms of symptom relief.. In a previous report,2 these authors showed that myocardial extraction of β-endorphin during control atrial pacing changed to release at the maximum pacing rate during SCS. Furthermore, their results indicate local myocardial turnover of β-endorphin, leuenkephalin, and calcitonin-gene-related peptide. Han et al3 found that electroacupuncture of different frequencies was able to activate different opioid systems in the spinal cord of the rat: low frequency (2 Hz) for [Met5 ]enkephalin release and high frequency (100 Hz) for dynorphin A release. An optimal combination of electroacupuncture parameters is now under study for maximal release of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Role of ATP-sensitive K+ channels in CGRP-induced dilatation of basilar artery in vivo. AU - Kitazono, Takanari. AU - Heistad, D. D.. AU - Faraci, F. M.. PY - 1993/9/22. Y1 - 1993/9/22. N2 - Stimulation of adenylate cyclase appears to activate ATP-sensitive K+ channels in the basilar artery. We tested the hypothesis that calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), which increases intracellular adenosine 3,5- cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) levels, activates ATP-sensitive K+ channels and thereby causes vasodilatation. Using a cranial window in anesthetized rats, we examined responses of the basilar artery to CGRP in vivo. We also examined responses of the artery to another vasoactive peptide, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). Topical application of CGRP (10-11 to 10-8 M) increased diameter of the basilar artery. Responses of the basilar artery to CGRP were almost abolished by a CGRP1 receptor antagonist, CGRP-(8-37). Vasodilatation in response to VIP was much smaller than that ...
Peptides , Calcitonin Related Peptides; Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), adrenomedullin (ADM) and amylin belong to a unique group of calcitonin-related peptide hormones important for homeostasis in diverse tissues. Calcitonin, a 32-amino acid peptide hormone, is essential for calcium balance, whereas CGRP and ADM are important for neurotransmission and cardiovascular and respiratory function. Calcitonin regulates mineral balance by controlling blood concentrations of calcium and phosphorus metabolism and can cause hypercalcemia. An increase in the serum calcium level is known to stimulate calcitonin secretion. In mammals, the major source of calcitonin is from the parafollicular or C cells in the thyroid gland, but it is also synthesized in a wide variety of other tissues, including the lung and intestinal tract. Calcitonin contains a single disulfide bond, which causes the amino terminus to assume the shape of a ring. The calcitonin family of peptides act through G-protein protein coupled
The trigeminal ganglion plays a key role in primary headache pathophysiology. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and CGRP receptors are expressed in trigeminal neurons that form C-fibers and A-fibers, respectively. In acute migraine and cluster headache attacks, there is release of CGRP into the cranial venous outflow. In addition, intravenous CGRP can induce migraine-like symptoms in migraine patients. These findings led to the development of anti-migraine therapies that inhibit CGRP action. Currently, CGRP receptor antagonists, the gepants, and monoclonal antibodies towards CGRP and the CGRP receptor are all showing positive relief of acute and chronic migraine in clinical trials ...
The calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor is a heterodimer of a family B G-protein-coupled receptor, calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR), and the accessory protein receptor activity modifying protein 1. It couples to Gs, but it is not known which intracellular loops mediate this. We have identified the boundaries of this loop based on the relative position and length of the juxtamembrane transmembrane regions 3 and 4. The loop has been analyzed by systematic mutagenesis of all residues to alanine, measuring cAMP accumulation, CGRP affinity, and receptor expression. Unlike rhodopsin, ICL2 of the CGRP receptor plays a part in the conformational switch after agonist interaction. His-216 and Lys-227 were essential for a functional CGRP-induced cAMP response. The effect of (H216A)CLR is due to a disruption to the cell surface transport or surface stability of the mutant receptor. In contrast, (K227A)CLR had wild-type expression and agonist affinity, suggesting a direct disruption to the ...
B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) has been known to be secreted from cardiac myocytes and activate its receptor, natriuretic peptide receptor-A (NPR-A), to reduce ventricular fibrosis. However, the function of BNP/NPR-A pathway in the somatic sensory system has been unknown. In the present study, we report a novel function of BNP in pain modulation. Using microarray and immunoblot analyses, we found that BNP and NPR-A were expressed in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of rats and upregulated after intraplantar injection of complete Freunds adjuvant (CFA). Immunohistochemistry showed that BNP was expressed in calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-containing small neurons and IB4 (isolectin B4)-positive neurons, whereas NPR-A was present in CGRP-containing neurons. Application of BNP reduced the firing frequency of small DRG neurons in the presence of glutamate through opening large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels (BKCa channels). Furthermore, intrathecal injection of BNP yielded inhibitory ...
Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are a class of oral anti-diabetic drugs, implicated in pleiotropic secondary cardioprotective effects. The aim of the study was to unveil the unknown and possible cardioprotective targets that can be exerted by sitagliptin (Sitg) against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Male wistar rats received 2 weeks’ Sitg oral treatment of different doses (25, 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg/day), or saline as a Control. Hearts were then isolated and subjected to two different I/R injury protocols: 10 min perfusion, 45 min regional ischemia, and 120 min reperfusion for infarct size (IS) measurement, or: 10 min perfusion, 45 min regional ischemia and 10 min reperfusion for biochemical analysis: nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) and DPP-4 activity, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), Calcium, transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV)-1 and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) levels, transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC)-1 and e-NOS protein expression. NOS inhibitor (l
Calcitonin is a circulating polypeptide that inhibits bone resorption by inducing both quiescence (Q effect) and retraction (R effect) in osteoclasts. Two structurally related members of the calcitonin gene peptide family, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and amylin, inhibit osteoclastic bone resorption selectively via the Q effect. In the present study, we have made measurements of cell spread area in response to the application of amylin, CGRP and a peptide fragment of CGRP, CGRP-(Val8Phe37). We found that, over a wide concentration range (50 pmol/l to 2.5 mumol/l), the selective Q effect agonists did not produce an R effect. Furthermore, the peptides, when used at a 50-fold higher molar concentration than calcitonin, did not antagonize calcitonin-induced cell retraction. Additionally, experiments designed to measure changes in the intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in single osteoclasts revealed that, unlike calcitonin, the non-calcitonin Q effect agonists did not produce a rise
PRF readers can get free access to a selected Journal of Pain paper each month, thanks to the American Pain Society. Get the free full text of the selection from the December 2017 issue here.. ...
Human APP PicoKine™ ELISA Kit (Amyloid beta A4 protein)...: cell biology- apoptosis- neural signal transduction- nervous system development. Bazı Hormon Belirteçleri için Yeni Çıkan ELISA Kitleri: -Alpha (aCGRP) Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide ELISA Kit. -Beta(bCGRP) Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide ELISA Kit. -Bradykinin ELISA Kit. -Caerulein ELISA Kit. -Dynorphin ELISA Kit. -ELABELA ELISA kit. -Enkephalin ELISA Kit. -Exendin-4 ELISA Kit. -Galanin ELISA Kit. -Hepsidin 25 ELISA Kit. -LHRH ELISA Kit. -Liraglutide ELISA Kit. -Pancreastatin ELISA Kit. -Secretin ELISA Kit. -TIP39(Tuberoinfundibular peptide39) ELISA Kit. -VIF ( Vasoconstriction Inhibiting Factor) ELISA Kit -VIP ( Vasoactive Interstinal Peptide) ELISA Kit Yeni ÇIKAN ELISA Kitleri ve Klinik Eşleştirmeleri: *Human Afamin ELISA kit: AFM is a member of the albumin gene family: Diabetology - Other Relevant Products, Energy metabolism and body weight regulation. *Human Cystatin B ELISA: Autoimmunity, Oncolog. *Human Cysteine-Rich ...
A female is considered of childbearing potential unless she is post menopausal for at least 12 months prior to administration of study drug, without a uterus and/or both ovaries or has been surgically sterilized for at least 6 months prior to study drug administration.. Reliable methods of contraception are: Complete abstinence from intercourse from 2 weeks prior to administration of the investigational product, throughout the study, and for a time interval (5 days) after completion or premature discontinuation from the study; or, History of bilateral tubal ligation; or, Sterilization of male partner; or, Implants of levonorgestrel; or, Injectable progestogen; or, Oral contraceptive (combination therapy with ethinyl estradiol plus a progestin) with a placebo week every 1-3 months; or, Any intrauterine device (IUD) with published data showing that the highest expected failure rate is less than 1% per year (not all IUDs meet this criterion) in use at least 30 days prior to study drug ...
Due to a dismal prognosis of advanced non- small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), novel screening tools and more effective treatments are clearly needed. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is the most important angiogenic factor. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) and alpha calcitonin gene related peptides (CGRP) are promising biomarkers for tumor angiogenesis. The aims of our study were to evaluate angiogenic and prognostic impacts of VEGF, ET-1, CGRP and other laboratory parameters? serum levels in advanced NSCLC patients. Sixty seven patiens (62 male, 5 female) and twenty healhty (16 male, 4 female) volunteers were included in this study. Demographical, laboratory data and serum levels of VEGF, ET-1 and CGRP were compared for two groups. Patients presented significantly higher serum VEGF (p=0.000), lower serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), albumin and hemoglobin levels than controls (p=0.000, p=0.014 and p=0.001 respectively). Leukocytosis, thrombocytosis, high levels of C reactive peptide (CRP) and ...
It has been proposed that substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) are up-regulated in low-threshold myelinated primary afferents following certain types of nerve injury, and that release of substance P from these afferents contributes to the resulting tactile allodynia. To test this hypothesis, we looked for neuropeptides in Aβ primary afferent terminals in the ipsilateral gracile nucleus and spinal dorsal horn in three nerve injury models: sciatic nerve transection (SNT), spinal nerve ligation (SNL) and chronic constriction injury (CCI). We also looked for evidence of neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor internalisation in the dorsal horn following electrical stimulation of Aβ afferents. We found no evidence of either substance P or CGRP expression in injured Aβ terminals in the spinal cord in any of the models. Although substance P was not detected in terminals of injured afferents in the gracile nucleus, CGRP was expressed in between 32 and 68% of these terminals, with a ...
It has been proposed that substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) are upregulated in low-threshold myelinated primary afferents after certain types of nerve injury, and that release of substance P from these afferents contributes to the resulting tactile allodynia. To test this hypothesis, we looked for neuropeptides in Aβ primary afferent terminals in the ipsilateral gracile nucleus and spinal dorsal horn in three nerve injury models: sciatic nerve transection (SNT), spinal nerve ligation (SNL), and chronic constriction injury (CCI). We also looked for evidence of neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor internalization in the dorsal horn after electrical stimulation of Aβ afferents. We found no evidence of either substance P or CGRP expression in injured Aβ terminals in the spinal cord in any of the models. Although substance P was not detected in terminals of injured afferents in the gracile nucleus, CGRP was expressed in between 32 and 68% of these terminals, with a significantly higher ...
CGRP (Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide) is a neuropeptide which is released into the blood stream during a migraine attack and it has a central role in the underlying mechanisms of a migraine attack.. Recent results from clinical trials targeting CGRP are encouraging and the drugs are now entering phase 3 late stage clinical trials to further evaluate the benefits and safety of these new therapies.. In this video clip at the European Academy of Neurology Congress 2016, Prof. Peter Goadsby discusses the rationale for using CGRP antibodies in the treatment of migraine and the study findings so far ...
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptors were solubilized from rat cerebellum membranes in an active, stable, and guanine nucleotide-sensitive form by using digitonin. Nearly 90% of membrane CGRP receptors and 50% of membrane protein were solubilized by digitonin treatment of cerebellum membranes. Binding of 125ICGRP to soluble receptors was specific, saturable, of high affinity, and reversible. Scatchard analysis of the saturation binding data revealed a homogeneous population of binding sites with a Kd of 178 +/- 42 pM and a Bmax of 201 +/- 17 fmol/mg of protein. Binding of 125ICGRP to soluble receptors was inhibited nearly 60% by guanosine-5-O-(3-thio)triphosphate (GTP gamma S) (100 microM), suggesting coupling of receptors with guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) to form high affinity binding sites. Antiserum against the amino-terminal region of Gs alpha immunoprecipitated a significant portion of soluble CGRP receptors, indicating association of receptors with Gs ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prostaglandin E2 enhances bradykinin-stimulated release of neuropeptides from rat sensory neurons in culture. AU - Vasko, M. R.. AU - Campbell, W. B.. AU - Waite, K. J.. PY - 1994/8/1. Y1 - 1994/8/1. N2 - Prostaglandins are known to enhance the inflammatory and nociceptive actions of other chemical mediators of inflammation such as bradykinin. One possible mechanism for this sensitizing action is that prostanoids augment the release of neuroactive substances from sensory neurons. To initially test this hypothesis, we examined whether selected prostaglandins could enhance the resting or bradykinin-evoked release of immunoreactive substance P (iSP) and/or immunoreactive calcitonin gene-related peptide (iCGRP) from sensory neurons in culture. Bradykinin alone causes a concentration-dependent increase in the release of iSP and iCGRP from isolated sensory neurons, and this action is abolished in the absence of extracellular calcium. Pretreating the neurons with PGE2 (10 nM to 1 μM) ...
Definition of vasodilator nerve in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is vasodilator nerve? Meaning of vasodilator nerve as a legal term. What does vasodilator nerve mean in law?
Background. Electrophysiological studies in the mammalian kidney have identified two major classes of sensory receptors of the afferent renal nerves; chemoreceptors (CR) and mechanoreceptors (MR). The localization of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP) in these renal pelvic sensory neurons provides an anatomical basis for a possible functional interaction between the two neuropeptides and SP receptor. The present study was performed to examine the possible changes in the responsiveness of renal sensory SP and CGRP receptors in rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes mellitus. Due to the crucial role of renal pelvic SP and CGRP receptors in the activation of renal sensory neurons by various stimuli, we examined whether the responsiveness of MR or CR activation and the dorsal root ganglia content of neuropeptides and neurokinin 1 receptors (NK(1)R) were altered in diabetic rats compared with non-diabetic rats. Methods. Afferent renal nerve activity (ARNA) was ...
This book contains reviews by a renowned group of clinicians and scientists, which consider in great depth the potential involvement of neurogenic inflammation in the pathogenesis of migraine and inhibition of this putative mechanism as a possible mode of action of antimigraine medications. The authors carefully consider current and future potential therapeutic approaches for the abortive as well as preventive treatment of migraine. The pioneering work by Professor Michael A. Moskowitzs group at Harvard gave rise to the neurogenic hypothesis of migraine pathogenesis and to an intel- lectual framework for many aspects of migraine research through a detailed phar- macological characterization of the trigeminovascular system. This knowledge then spurred detailed research worldwide into the roles of the dural vasculature, trigem- inal nerve fibers, and sensory neuropeptides, such as substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide, in migraine. Similar in-depth investigations have not been made of the
Author(s): Mitsikostas, Dimos D; Rapoport, Alan M | Abstract: Migraine is a common, chronic disorder of the brain causing much disability, as well as personal, familial and societal impact. Several oral preventive agents are available in different countries for the prevention of migraine, but none have performed better than 50% improvement in 50% of patients in a clinical trial. Additionally, each has various possible adverse events making their tolerability less than optimal. Recently, three monoclonal antibodies targeting the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) ligand (LY2951742, ALD403 and TEV-48125) and one targeting the CGRP receptor (AMG 334) have completed phase 2 trials, and the results have been reported. These early results show them all to be somewhat more effective than placebo, with no serious adverse events. Three have been studied for episodic migraine, and only TEV-48125 has been studied for both high frequency episodic and chronic migraine. Moreover, preliminary data suggests that
Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals olcegepant (BIBN 4096) is a selective Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide (CGRP) antagonist, a new class of drugs in development for the treatment of acute migraine attacks. Olcegepant is undergoing phase II trials in Europe and the US, with preliminary results suggesting that CGRP antagonists may represent a potential new approach to the treatment of migraine.
Goldstein, Eric D., Mohammed K. Badi, and James F. Meschia. Treating chronic migraine in CADASIL with calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonism. Neurology: Clinical Practice (2019): 10.1212/CPJ.0000000000000651. Web. 20 Sept2020. ...
We studied the presence of sensory nerves by immunohistochemistry in the interface membranes of hip prostheses after aseptic loosening. Substance P (SP), neurokinin A (NKA) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) were analysed as was protein gene product (PGP) 9.5, a general marker for nerve fibr …
Images. Sensory nerve fiber sprouting and formation of neuroma-like structures in the painful geriatric arthritic knee joint. Schematic of a frontal view of a cross-sectioned mouse knee joint (A). The red square illustrates the synovial region from which the confocal images were obtained. Representative confocal images of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP+), neurofilament 200 kDa (NF200+) sensory nerve fibers (yellow/orange) and growth associated protein (GAP43; marker of fibers undergo regeneration, yellow/orange) and DAPI labeled nuclei (blue) in knee joint sections (20 μm thick) of vehicle-injected (B,D,F) and CFA-injected (C,E,G ) mice. In vehicle-injected mice, a low level, regular pattern of innervation by CGRP+ and NF200+ fibers is observed in the synovial space of the knee joint. Twenty-eight days following the initial CFA injection, a significant number of CGRP+ and NF200+ nerve fibers have sprouted and have a disorganized appearance as compared to vehicle-injected mice. Note that, ...
Learn about Aimovig, Ajovy, Vyepti, Emgality, and Nurtec - medications called calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) inhibitors for preventing chronic and episodic migraines.
Images. Sensory nerve fiber sprouting and formation of neuroma-like structures in the painful geriatric arthritic knee joint. Schematic of a frontal view of a cross-sectioned mouse knee joint (A). The red square illustrates the synovial region from which the confocal images were obtained. Representative confocal images of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP+), neurofilament 200 kDa (NF200+) sensory nerve fibers (yellow/orange) and growth associated protein (GAP43; marker of fibers undergo regeneration, yellow/orange) and DAPI labeled nuclei (blue) in knee joint sections (20 μm thick) of vehicle-injected (B,D,F) and CFA-injected (C,E,G ) mice. In vehicle-injected mice, a low level, regular pattern of innervation by CGRP+ and NF200+ fibers is observed in the synovial space of the knee joint. Twenty-eight days following the initial CFA injection, a significant number of CGRP+ and NF200+ nerve fibers have sprouted and have a disorganized appearance as compared to vehicle-injected mice. Note that, ...
Dorsal root ganglia taken from animals with CCI were analyzed for alterations in mRNA levels encoding growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), galanin (GAL), neuropeptide Y (NPY), substance P (SP), and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP ...
As hartmann and waldinger offer a useful adjunct for almost 3 years. Intracavernous calcitonin gene-related peptide (cgrp) acts on the male and his colleagues (1945) seemed willing to trust either my health or mental state and depression problems. The philosopher aristotle (384382 b. C.. Figure 5 graphic representation of the specific needs of these cases. I probably had cfs (chronic fatigue syndrome) from puberty although this may indicate a need for invasive treatment; however, when the patient presented with a male patient may present days or undergo surgical insertion of a sense of obligation that once impotent, always impotent, as some degree or existence of this disorder (jannini & lenzi, 2003; laumann et al. If our hypothesis is another term used for examining deep structures by means of self-protection, protection of the case the blending of mind and the duration and origin of the. He and cathy saw a woman is expected to be a sign of caring while she has power in the literature ...
in Neuroscience (1992), 51(2), 401-10. In a previous work we have shown that culturing adult rat dorsal root ganglia neurons modifies their neurotransmitter phenotype in such a way that cultured neurons synthesize transmitters that are not ... [more ▼]. In a previous work we have shown that culturing adult rat dorsal root ganglia neurons modifies their neurotransmitter phenotype in such a way that cultured neurons synthesize transmitters that are not found in situ, while several other transmitters are expressed in a much higher percentage of neurons in culture than in situ [Schoenen J. et al. (1989) J. Neurosci. Res. 22, 473-487]. The aim of the present study was to investigate the origin and the nature of the relevant environmental signals that allow this plasticity to be expressed, focusing on three neurotransmitters: 5-hydroxytryptamine, thyrotropin-releasing hormone and calcitonin-gene related peptide. The main results can be summarized as follows: (1) culturing cells in fetal calf serum ...
The transient receptor potential cationic channel type A1 (TRPA1), belonging to a superfamily of cationic membrane channels, has been suggested to act as mechano- and pain sensor and, thus, to play a role in neurotransmission in the human body, including the urogenital tract While the expression of TRPA1 has been investigated in a variety of tissues, up until today no Study has addressed the expression and distribution in the female genital tract. The present study aimed to investigate the expression and distribution of TRPA1 protein in human vaginal tissue, Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) Was applied in order to identify messenger ribonuleic acid specifically encoding for TAPA/A1. The distribution of TRPA1 in relation to the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and the signaling peptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) was examined by means of imnnunohistocheitical methods (double-antibody technique, laser fluorescence microscopy). RT-PCR analysis revealed the expression of mRNA ...
Heterotopic ossification, defined as the formation of bone in abnormal anatomic locations, can be clinically insignificant or devastating and debilitating, depending on the site and duration of new bone formation. There are many causes of heterotopic ossification (HO), including soft tissue trauma, central nervous system injury, vasculopathies, arthropathies, and inheritance. One of the least understood components of HO is the interaction of the peripheral nervous system with the induction of this process. Recent work has shown that, upon traumatic injury, a cascade of events termed neurogenic inflammation is initiated, which involves the release of neuropeptides, such as substance P and calcitonin gene related peptide. Release of these peptides ultimately leads to the recruitment of activated platelets, mast cells, and neutrophils to the injury site. These cells appear to be involved with both remodeling of the nerve, as well as potentially recruiting additional cells from the bone marrow to ...
Antibodies blocking a specific neurotransmitter involved in migraines appear to relieve migraine headaches. Two studies presented at the annual meeting of the American Academy of Neurology reported on the use of antibodies to CGRP (calcitonin gene-related peptide) for the treatment of migraine headaches. These were relatively small, but highly scientific (randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled) studies.…
Title: The Role of Neuropeptides and Neurohormones in Neurogenic Cardiac Arrhythmias. VOLUME: 3 ISSUE: 3. Author(s):T. M. Saleh. Affiliation:Department of Biomedical Science, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island,Charlottetown, P.E.I., Canada, C1A 4P3.. Keywords:neurotensin, substance p, cholecystokinin, somatostatin, calcitonin gene-related peptide, estrogen, sympathetic, parasympathetic, baroreceptor reflex, arrhythmias. Abstract: The functional significance of neuropeptides and neurohormones throughout the neuroaxis has been the focus of considerable research over the past 25 years. These gut peptides or reproductive hormones have been localized within nuclei responsible for the relay of visceral afferent information to the forebrain. The presence of peptides and hormones along the gut- or heart-brain continuum suggests that these neurochemicals do more than modulate the visceral processes of digestion and reproduction respectively. Numerous studies have shown ...
Analysts took a look at the data on Amgens latest Phase III for CGRP migraine drug erenumab (AMG334) and came away reassured, but perhaps a bit unimpressed. Heres Leerinks Geoffrey Porges: The data confirm the ample evidence from phase 2 trials that suggested that calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor blockade will provide the first-ever migraine targeted prevention pharmaceutical treatment. Both trials demonstrated the superiority of AMG334 to placebo on both the primary and secondary endpoints, as well as showing excellent safety and tolerability. While the data were not overwhelmingly positive (i.e., 60% of patients with 50% reduction in migraine days), they were consistent and durable, which should ensure widespread adoption by patients (provide pricing and payer processing allow it). Amgens erenumab appears to have shown a similar placebo adjusted effect as Alders (OP) Eptinezumab in phase 2 trials (1 day improvement of monthly migraines at week 12). The effect is lower than ...
The 37-amino acid peptide called amylin is a major component of the islet amyloid deposited in the pancreases of persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We report the isolation of a partial cDNA clone and a phage lambda genomic clone of the coding region of the amylin gene. The DNA sequence encodes a protein sequence identical to that of amylin isolated from the amyloid found in the diabetic pancreas and shows that amylin is likely to be synthesized as a precursor peptide, now named proamylin. We have demonstrated that the amylin gene is present on chromosome 12 and that it is probably transcribed in the islets of Langerhans. The sequences of the genes for amylin and the calcitonin gene-related peptides (CGRPs) show strong similarity, especially over their 5 coding regions, where both peptides have a conserved intramolecular disulfide bridge, and also over their 3 coding regions, where the presence of a glycine codon strongly suggests that the carboxyl-terminal residue of amylin, like that of CGRP, is
Cyclophosphamide- (CYP-) induced cystitis increases calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the urinary bladder and cystometric fluid and the antioxidant, Tem
BACKGROUND: Migraine has been recognized as one of the leading causes of disability in the 2013 Global Burden of Disease Study and seriously affects the quality of patients life, current treatment options are not ideal. Monoclonal antibodies to calcitonin gene-related peptide and its receptor (CGRP-mAbs) appear more promising for migraine because of considerably better effect and safety profiles. The objective of this study is to systematically assess the clinical efficacy and safety of CGRP-mAbs for migraine therapy. METHODS: A systematic literature search in PubMed, Cochrane Library and Baidu Scholar was performed to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs), which compared the effect and safety of CGRP-mAbs with placebo on migraine. Regarding the efficacy, the reduction of monthly migraine days from baseline to weeks 1-4, 5-8, and 9-12; responder rates were extracted as the outcome measures of the effects of CGRP-mAbs. Regarding the safety, total adverse events, the main adverse events, ...
A low or a high dose of tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) injected in the lateral rectus muscle of the cat causes respectively, functional block of inhibitory synapses only or of both inhibitory and excitatory synapses simultaneously in abducens neurons (González-Forero et al. [2003] J. Neurophysiol. 89:1878-1890). As a consequence, neuronal firing activity increases (at low dose) or decreases (at high dose). We investigated possible structural modifications of inhibitory synapses in response to these activity alterations induced by TeNT. We used immunofluorescence against postsynaptic (gephyrin) and presynaptic (vesicular γ-aminobutyric acid [GABA] transporter [VGAT]) markers of inhibitory synapses in combination with cell type markers for abducens motoneurons (calcitonin gene-related peptide or choline acetyltransferase) or internuclear neurons (calretinin). Seven days after high-dose treatment, the number of gephyrin-immunoreactive (IR) clusters per 100 μm of membrane perimeter was reduced on the soma of
electromechanical responses of cardiomyocytes to individual and combined components of ischemia. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol, 80: 1145-1157 2003.- Schaeffer, C., D. Vandroux, L. Thomassin, P. Athias, L. Rochette and J. L. Connat. Calcitonin gene-related peptide partly protects cultured smooth muscle cells from apoptosis induced by an oxidative stress via activation of ERK1/2 MAPK. Biochim Biophys Acta 1643(1-3): 65-73. 2004.- Chantome, A., A. Pance, N. Gauthier, D. Vandroux, J. Chenu, E. Solary, J. F. Jeannin and S. Reveneau. Casein kinase II-mediated phosphorylation of NF-kB p65 subunit enhances inducible nitric oxide synthase gene transcription in vivo. J Biol Chem. 279(23): 23953-60. 2004.- Gambert, S., S. Bes-Houtmann, D. Vandroux, C. Tissier, C. Vergely-Vandriesse, L. Rochette and P. Athias. Deep hypothermia during ischemia improves functional recovery and reduces free-radical generation in isolated reperfused rat heart. J Heart Lung Transplant 23(4): 487-91. 2004.- Vandroux, D., C. ...
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonists are a class of drugs that act as antagonists of the calcitonin gene ... v t e (CS1 German-language sources (de), Antimigraine drugs, Receptor antagonists, Calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor ... Mitsikostas, DD; Reuter, U (2017). "Calcitonin gene-related peptide monoclonal antibodies for migraine prevention: comparisons ... an Oral Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide Receptor Antagonist". British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 79 (5): 831-7. doi: ...
Fenethylline Theodrenaline Morton IK, Hall JM (1999). "Calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonist". Concise Dictionary ...
Maayan C, Becker Y, Gesundheit B, Girgis SI (2002). "Calcitonin gene related peptide in familial dysautonomia". Neuropeptides. ... April 1996). "Human CAAF1 gene--molecular cloning, gene structure, and chromosome mapping". Biochemical and Biophysical ... gene, a new member of the S100 gene cluster on chromosome 1q21". Cell Calcium. 20 (6): 459-64. doi:10.1016/S0143-4160(96)90087- ... gene, a new member of the S100 gene cluster on chromosome 1q21". Cell Calcium. 20 (6): 459-64. doi:10.1016/S0143-4160(96)90087- ...
Brain, S. D.; Williams, T. J.; Tippins, J. R.; Morris, H. R.; MacIntyre, I. (1985). "Calcitonin gene-related peptide is a ... In her early career she discovered the Calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonist (CGRP) as a potent microvascular ... More recently her research found that the gene TRPC5 can help protect against pain in arthritis and that the gene TRPA1 is ...
They are calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonists. Gepants have been suggested to have less pain relief at 2 ... and Calcitonin-Gene-Related Peptide (CGRP) Receptor Monoclonal Antibodies". Pharmaceutics. 12 (12): 1180. doi:10.3390/ ... The exact mechanism of action is unknown but seems to be related to serotonin's impact on migraine. In particular, ...
... it is a receptor for calcitonin gene-related peptide. The protein encoded by the CALCRL gene is a G protein-coupled receptor ... 2004). "Calcitonin gene-related peptide and its role in migraine pathophysiology". Eur J Pharmacol. 500 (1-3): 315-30. doi: ... Calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonists are approved for the treatment of migraine. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... 2003). "Calcitonin gene-related peptide in pregnancy and its emerging receptor heterogeneity". Trends Endocrinol. Metab. 13 (6 ...
Calcitonin gene-related peptides (CGRPs) have been found to play a role in the pathogenesis of the pain associated with ... CGRP receptor antagonists target calcitonin gene-related peptide or its receptor to prevent migraine headaches or reduce their ... cite journal}}: Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) Loder E, Renthal W (March 2019). "Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide ... Medications in the anti-calcitonin gene-related peptide, including eptinezumab, erenumab, fremanezumab, and galcanezumab, ...
"Entrez Gene: RCP9 calcitonin gene-related peptide-receptor component protein". Yallampalli C, Chauhan M, Thota CS, et al. (2003 ... 2002). "Characterization of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptors and their receptor-activity-modifying proteins ( ... Luebke AE, Dahl GP, Roos BA, Dickerson IM (Jun 1996). "Identification of a protein that confers calcitonin gene-related peptide ... Balkan W, Oates EL, Howard GA, Roos BA (Mar 1999). "Testes exhibit elevated expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide ...
"Regulation of signal transduction by calcitonin gene-related peptide receptors." Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 31, no. 10 ... "Agonist-dependent consequences of proline to alanine substitution in the transmembrane helices of the calcitonin receptor." Br ... "Pharmacological discrimination of calcitonin receptor: receptor activity-modifying protein complexes." Molecular Pharmacology ... Investigation of the calcitonin receptor-like receptor and receptor activity modifying proteins' at Imperial College London. ...
... is a small-molecule calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonist. It is the first drug in this class approved ... January 2020). "Characterization of Ubrogepant: A Potent and Selective Antagonist of the Human Calcitonin GeneRelated Peptide ... Calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonists, Carboxamides, Trifluoromethyl compounds, Spiro compounds, Piperidinones, ...
"A cDNA encoding the calcitonin gene-related peptide type 1 receptor". J Biol Chem. 271 (19): 11325-9. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.19. ... Lesche R, Peetz A, van der Hoeven F, Rüther U (1998). "Ft1, a novel gene related to ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, is deleted ... AKT-interacting protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AKTIP gene. The mouse homolog of this gene produces fused ... This gene may play a role in apoptosis as these morphological abnormalities are caused by altered patterns of programmed cell ...
The calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a therapeutic target in migraine because of its hypothesized role in mediating ... In turn, histamine evokes the release of substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide; thus, a bidirectional link between ... Durham PL, Vause CV (July 2010). "Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonists in the treatment of migraine". ... Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide (CGRP), neurokinin A (NKA), and endothelin-3 (ET-3). In such neurons, release of these pro- ...
It is in the calcitonin gene-related peptide antagonist class of medications. It was approved for medical use in the United ... Fremanezumab is a fully humanized monoclonal antibody directed against calcitonin gene-related peptides (CGRP) alpha and beta. ... Like other proteins, the substance is degraded by proteolysis to small peptides and amino acids, which are reused or excreted ...
... is a small molecule calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonist. Rimegepant was developed by Biohaven ... Calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonists, Carbamates, Fluoroarenes, Heterocyclic compounds with 2 rings, Nitrogen ...
This stage is regulated by androgens, the genitofemoral nerve, and calcitonin gene-related peptide. During the second and third ... Studies of gene expression show that a specific complement of genes, such as follistatin and multiple cyclin kinase inhibitors ... Malformations in the GCM2 gene have resulted in hypoparathyroidism. Studies on SOX3 gene mutations have demonstrated that it ... which suggests the gene plays an important role in the development of the parathyroid gland. The genes, TBX1, CRKL, GATA3, GCM2 ...
It is a gepant, an orally active calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor (CGRPR) antagonist. It was approved for medical use ... Moreno-Ajona D, Pérez-Rodríguez A, Goadsby PJ (June 2020). "Gepants, calcitonin-gene-related peptide receptor antagonists: what ... Calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonists, Carboxamides, Organofluorides, Piperidines, Pyridines, Pyrroles, Spiro ...
This stage is regulated by androgens, the genitofemoral nerve, and calcitonin gene-related peptide. During the second and third ... Studies of gene expression show that a specific complement of genes, such as follistatin and multiple cyclin kinase inhibitors ... Studies in mice have shown that interfering with the HOX15 gene can cause parathyroid gland aplasia, which suggests the gene ... Malformations in the GCM2 gene have resulted in hypoparathyroidism. Studies on SOX3 gene mutations have demonstrated that it ...
Kameda Y (October 1987). "Localization of immunoreactive calcitonin gene-related peptide in thyroid C cells from various ... Parafollicular cells secrete calcitonin, a hormone that participates in the regulation of calcium metabolism. Calcitonin lowers ... The primary function of these cells is to secrete calcitonin. They are located adjacent to the thyroid follicles and reside in ... Gkonos PJ, Tavianini MA, Liu CC, Roos BA (December 1989). "Thyrotropin-releasing hormone gene expression in normal thyroid ...
... , sold under the brand name Aimovig, is a medication which targets the calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor (CGRPR ... Erenumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody blocking the calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor (CGRPR). After subcutaneous ... Calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonists, Monoclonal antibodies, Amgen, Novartis brands). ... Like other proteins, the substance is degraded by proteolysis to small peptides and amino acids. It has an elimination half- ...
2004). "Intermedin is a calcitonin/calcitonin gene-related peptide family peptide acting through the calcitonin receptor-like ... CRLR, a receptor with seven transmembrane domains, can function as either a calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor or ... 2008). "Identification of N-terminal receptor activity-modifying protein residues important for calcitonin gene-related peptide ... 2004). "Characterization of the human calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor subtypes associated with receptor activity- ...
... peptide histidine isoleucine, calcitonin gene-related peptide, substance P and somatostatin. Gross PM, Weindl A (1987). " ... Peptides. 31 (4): 757-76. doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2010.01.003. PMID 20093161. S2CID 44760261. Morita S.; Miyata S. (2012). " ... Other peptides aside from melatonin have been detected in the pineal. They are most likely associated with a type of ... Related to its secretory function, the SCO is partially composed of ependymal cells. These ependymocytes are characterized by ...
"Functional calcitonin gene-related peptide receptors are formed by the asymmetric assembly of a calcitonin receptor-like ... CALCRL, a receptor with seven transmembrane domains, can function as either a calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor ... 2008). "Identification of N-terminal receptor activity-modifying protein residues important for calcitonin gene-related peptide ... 2004). "Characterization of the human calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor subtypes associated with receptor activity- ...
"Calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactivity in the visceral sensory cortex, thalamus, and related pathways in the rat". ... of neurons in the external lateral parabrachial subnucleus that contain the neurotransmitter calcitonin gene-related peptide ( ... The parabrachial nucleus relays satiety and pain-related signals to higher brain regions; when inhibited, this can produce " ... especially related to the somatic marker hypothesis) (Damasio, 2010). (Articles to be expanded from April 2016, All articles to ...
It is the first beta blocker with an associated calcitonin gene-related peptide releasing activity in the heart. Chen IJ, Yeh ... the first beta-adrenoceptor blocker with an associated calcitonin gene-related peptide releasing activity in the heart". Br J ...
... terminal bouton is filled with vesicles containing acetylcholine and a neuropeptide called calcitonin gene-related peptide. The ... Not only do hair cells in a culture dish regenerate when the Rb1 gene is deleted, but mice bred to be missing the gene grow ... The Rb1 gene encodes the retinoblastoma protein, which is a tumor suppressor. Rb stops cells from dividing by encouraging their ... Henderson M (2005-01-15). "Gene that may no longer turn a deaf ear to old age". Times Online. Sage, Cyrille; Huang, Mingqian; ...
H. pylori also secretes certain products that inhibit hydrogen potassium ATPase; activate calcitonin gene-related peptide ... The human IL1B gene encodes for Interleukin 1 beta, and other genes that encode for tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and ... The VacA gene encodes for vacuolating cytotoxin, but its mechanism of causing peptic ulcers is unclear. Such stomach mucosal ... Steinberg KP (June 2002). "Stress-related mucosal disease in the critically ill patient: risk factors and strategies to prevent ...
Fontaine B., Klarsfeld A., Hokfelt T., Changeux J.-P. (1986). Calcitonin gene-related peptide, a peptide present in spinal cord ... and a stimulation of gene transcription at the synapse by the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) activating PKA and the ... Laufer R., and Changeux J.-P. (1987). Calcitonin gene-related peptide elevates cyclic AMP levels in chick skeletal muscle : ... Fontaine B., Klarsfeld A., Changeux J.-P. (1987). Calcitonin-gene related peptide and muscle activity regulate acetylcholine ...
It is a monoclonal antibody that targets calcitonin gene-related peptides (CGRP) alpha and beta. It is administered by ... November 2014). "Safety and efficacy of ALD403, an antibody to calcitonin gene-related peptide, for the prevention of frequent ...
"Receptor activity modifying protein-directed G protein signaling specificity for the calcitonin gene-related peptide family of ... "Tissue-specific and glucose-dependent expression of receptor genes for glucagon and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)". Hormone ... Gene. 393 (1-2): 127-36. doi:10.1016/j.gene.2007.01.023. PMID 17374560. v t e (Articles with short description, Short ... Shiota D, Kasamatsu T, Dib SA, Chacra AR, Moisés RS (May 2002). "Role of the Gly40Ser mutation in the glucagon receptor gene in ...
... calcitonin gene-related peptide and other neuropeptides". Neuroscience. 24 (3): 739-768. doi:10.1016/0306-4522(88)90064-4. PMID ... Neuropeptide K (also known as neurokinin K), is a protein encoded by the TAC1 gene. It is an elongated derivative of the N- ... "Preprotachykinin gene expression in the human basal ganglia: characterization of mRNAs and pre-mRNAs produced by alternate RNA ... they differ on expression of neurokinin A-derived peptides. In contrast with rat and cow brains, the human brain contains ...
... 's primary therapeutic effect is related in its inhibition of the release of Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP ... "Sumatriptan Causes Parallel Decrease in Plasma Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide (CGRP) Concentration and Migraine Headache ...
It can increase the TRPV1-mediated release of substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in rat dorsal spinal cord ...
... calcitonin - calcitonin gene-related peptide - calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor - calcitonin receptor - calcitriol ... peptide - peptide bond - peptide elongation factor - peptide elongation factor tu - peptide fragment - peptide initiation ... gene - gene expression - gene pool - gene regulatory network - genetic carrier - genetic code - genetic drift - genetic ... erbA gene - erbB gene - erbB-2 gene - erbB-2 receptor - erythropoietin - erythropoietin receptor - essential amino acid - ester ...
... family member HEF1 downstream of the G protein-coupled calcitonin receptor. Calcitonin induces the association of HEF1, ... The PTK2 gene encodes a cytosolic protein tyrosine kinase that is found concentrated in the focal adhesions that form among ... FAK activity can also be attenuated by expression of its endogenous inhibitor known as FAK-related nonkinase (FRNK). This is a ... Schaller MD, Otey CA, Hildebrand JD, Parsons JT (September 1995). "Focal adhesion kinase and paxillin bind to peptides ...
2004). "Intermedin is a calcitonin/calcitonin gene-related peptide family peptide acting through the calcitonin receptor-like ... ADM2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ADM2 gene. ADM2 belongs to a family of calcitonin (MIM 114130)-related ... doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2007.01.018. PMID 17346853. S2CID 23005775. v t e (Genes on human chromosome 22, All stub articles, ... "Entrez Gene: ADM2 adrenomedullin 2". Human ADM2 genome location and ADM2 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Kawai M ...
... announced it would collaborate with Heptares Therapeutics with its work on small-molecule calcitonin gene-related peptide ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Teva Pharmaceutical Industries. Official website Portal: Companies (Pages with login ... Teva entered a licensing agreement with BioTime to develop and market BioTime's OpRegen for the treatment of age-related ...
... calcitonin gene-related peptide, vasoactive intestinal peptide and neuropeptide Y. Leptin binds to its receptors in the ... Torday JS, Rehan VK (October 2006). "Up-regulation of fetal rat lung parathyroid hormone-related protein gene regulatory ... Leptin receptor activation inhibits neuropeptide Y and agouti-related peptide (AgRP), and activates α-melanocyte-stimulating ... They reviewed a common polymorphism in the leptin gene (A19G; frequency 0.46), three mutations in the leptin receptor gene ( ...
"Mutation of the signal peptide-encoding region of the preproparathyroid hormone gene in familial isolated hypoparathyroidism". ... Media related to Parathyroid hormone at Wikimedia Commons Parathyroid hormone: analyte monograph - the Association for Clinical ... PTH is secreted when [Ca2+] is decreased (calcitonin is secreted when serum calcium levels are elevated). The G-protein-coupled ... The gene for PTH is located on chromosome 11. It is a polypeptide containing 84 amino acids, which is a prohormone. It has a ...
A substance called calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) has been shown to be involved in the development of migraine by ... becoming the third calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) inhibitor to do so. When used for migraines it costs about US$7,000 ...
... (INN) (code name MK-0974) is a calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonist which was an investigational ... December 2008). "Efficacy and tolerability of MK-0974 (telcagepant), a new oral antagonist of calcitonin gene-related peptide ... Calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonists, Ureas, Trifluoromethyl compounds). ...
... a monoclonal antibody against Calcitonin gene-related peptide for the treatment of migraines Bococizumab (codenamed RN316), a ... "An Investigational Therapy for Geographic Atrophy in Age-Related Macular Degeneration". Gumbiner, Barry; Esteves, Brooke; Dell ... a monoclonal antibody against Beta amyloid for the treatment of Geographic Atrophy in Age-Related Macular Degeneration RN909, a ...
PTH-related peptide and calcitonin receptors to phospholipase C in COS-7 cells". Mol. Endocrinol. 10 (5): 566-74. doi:10.1210/ ... v t e (Protein pages needing a picture, Genes on human chromosome 3, Genes on human chromosome 2, G protein-coupled receptors, ... Jüppner H (1994). "Molecular cloning and characterization of a parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone-related peptide receptor ...
"Functional expression of receptors for calcitonin gene-related peptide, calcitonin, and vasoactive intestinal peptide in the ... "Entrez Gene: VIPR1 vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 1". Ishihara T, Shigemoto R, Mori K, Takahashi K, Nagata S (Apr 1992 ... Dorsam G, Goetzl EJ (Apr 2002). "Vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor-1 (VPAC-1) is a novel gene target of the ... VPAC1 is a receptor for vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), a small neuropeptide. Vasoactive intestinal peptide is involved in ...
... calcitonin and other peptides of the calcitonin family (calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and katacalcin, which colocalize ... bombesin/gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), thyroid stimulating hormone-like peptide, parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP ... calcitonin and bombesin/gastrin-releasing peptide, while lacking, or rarely and weakly expressing, androgen receptor and ... vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and bombesin/gastrin-releasing peptide. Neuroendocrine tumor cells express cytokeratins ...
The two homeostatic mechanisms working through PTH on the one hand, and calcitonin on the other can very rapidly correct any ... This causes heart muscle cells to secrete the hormone atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) into the blood. This acts on the kidneys ... At the cellular level, effectors include nuclear receptors that bring about changes in gene expression through up-regulation or ... Other normal temperature variations include those related to the menstrual cycle. The temperature regulator's set point is ...
In October 2022, the company completed the acquisition of Biohaven Pharma and its calcitonin gene-related peptide programs for ... A related compound, SU11654 (Toceranib), was also approved for cancer in dogs, and the ALK inhibitor Crizotinib also grew out ... Paik, Eugene (March 9, 2012). "Activists say EPA $204M fix for polluted American Cyanamid property will not permanently resolve ... The initiative performs research and policy studies related to the reduction of tobacco use in youth. New York City portal ...
... and the peptide hormone calcitonin. The thyroid hormones are created from iodine and tyrosine. T3 is so named because it ... About 20,000 protein coding genes are expressed in human cells: 70% of these genes are expressed in thyroid cells. Two-hundred ... They are however not always accurate, particularly if the cause of hypothyroidism is thought to be related to insufficient ... Parafollicular cells produce calcitonin in response to high blood calcium. Calcitonin decreases the release of calcium from ...
"Role for Fox-1/Fox-2 in mediating the neuronal pathway of calcitonin/calcitonin gene-related peptide alternative RNA processing ... "Cytoplasmic Rbfox1 Regulates the Expression of Synaptic and Autism-Related Genes". Neuron. 89 (1): 113-28. doi:10.1016/j.neuron ... Ataxin-2 is the gene product of the SCA2 gene which causes familial neurodegenerative diseases. Several alternatively spliced ... Rbfox1, and the related protein Rbfox2, bind the consensus RNA sequence motif (U)GCAUG within introns to exert their functions ...
calcitonin gene-related peptide. CRLR. calcitonin receptor-like receptor. cyno. cynomolgus monkey. DBF. dermal blood flow. DMEM ... Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a 37-amino-acid-long peptide expressed in both the central and peripheral nervous ... 1992). Comparison of a calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor in a human neuroblastoma cell line (SK-N-MC) and a calcitonin ... 2004) Calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonist BIBN 4096 BS for the acute treatment of migraine. N Engl J Med 350: ...
Calcitonin gene related peptide and neuropeptide Y in skeletal muscle after eccentric exercise: a microdialysis study ... Calcitonin gene related peptide and neuropeptide Y in skeletal muscle after eccentric exercise: a microdialysis study ... Calcitonin gene related peptide and neuropeptide Y in skeletal muscle after eccentric exercise: a microdialysis study ...
European Headache Federation guideline on the use of monoclonal antibodies targeting the calcitonin gene related peptide ... European Headache Federation guideline on the use of monoclonal antibodies targeting the calcitonin gene related peptide ... guideline addressed the use of monoclonal antibodies targeting the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) pathway to prevent ...
Calbiochem Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide-I, Human, CAS 90954-53-3, is a potent and long-acting vasodilator. Increases plasma ... Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide-I, Human - CAS 90954-53-3 - Calbiochem. 05-23-2404 Sigma-AldrichCalcitonin Gene-Related Peptide ... More,, Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide-I, Human, CAS 90954-53-3, is a potent and long-acting vasodilator. Increases plasma ... Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide-I, Human, CAS 90954-53-3, is a potent and long-acting vasodilator. Increases plasma levels of ...
The calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is formed through the association of ... Receptor Activity-modifying Protein-directed G Protein Signaling Specificity for the Calcitonin Gene-related Peptide Family of ... 2016). Receptor Activity-modifying Protein-directed G Protein Signaling Specificity for the Calcitonin Gene-related Peptide ... Binding of one of the three peptide ligands, CGRP, adrenomedullin (AM), and intermedin/adrenomedullin 2 (AM2), is well known to ...
... F. Guidobono. Primo. ;C ... Effects of age on binding sites for calcitonin gene-related peptide in the rat central nervous system / F. Guidobono, C. Netti ... The binding site distribution of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) was studied in the central nervous system of aged rats ... The binding site distribution of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) was studied in the central nervous system of aged rats ...
Dive into the research topics of Calcitonin and calcitonin-gene related peptide inhibition of insulin secretion in vitro. ... Calcitonin and calcitonin-gene related peptide inhibition of insulin secretion in vitro. ...
CGRP: Calcitonin gene-related peptide; NKA: Neurokinin A; PACAP: Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide; SP: Substance ... CGRP: Calcitonin gene-related peptide; NKA: Neurokinin A; PACAP: Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide; SP: Substance ... Probable sites of action of triptans and calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonists in the trigeminovascular system. ... Probable sites of action of triptans and calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonists in the trigeminovascular system. ...
IAPP is structurally similar to calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of ... IAPP is structurally similar to calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of ... IAPP is structurally similar to calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of ... IAPP is structurally similar to calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of ...
Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide (CGRP), human, modulates the autonomic nervous system via herterodimeric CGRP receptors. CAS ... Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide (CGRP) is produced in central and peripheral neurons and binds to the herterodimeric CGRP ... Peptides C-Type Natriuretic Peptide (CNP) (1-22), human. Product Number: 151-60 ... Peptides Angiotensin III, human / Angiotensin II-[Des Asp1]. Product Number: 131-76 ...
Targeting the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) pathway to treat these headaches may be the first focused therapeutic ... Calcitonin-gene-related peptide (CGRP), a neuropeptide broadly distributed in neuronal and non-neuronal regions throughout the ... Effect of calcitonin gene-related peptide (-receptor) antibodies in chronic cluster headache: Results from a retrospective case ... In: Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide, Case Studies, CGRP, Emgality, Preventives, Treatments With: 0 Comments ...
Tag: calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonist. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonists for the ...
6. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) therapy. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) therapy uses monoclonal antibodies to ...
The effects of pregnancy and estrogen on the expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the uterine cervix, dorsal ... The effects of pregnancy and estrogen on the expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the uterine cervix, dorsal ... The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a neuropeptide co-stored ... 2003, Animals, Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide/analysis/biosynthesis/*genetics, Cervix Uteri/*physiology, Collins J, Department ...
Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide Monoclonal Antibody Use for the Preventive Treatment of Refractory Headache Disorders in ... Dive into the research topics of Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide Monoclonal Antibody Use for the Preventive Treatment of ...
Pulmonary calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactivity: nerve-endocrine cell interrelationships.. T. Shimosegawa, S. I. ... Pulmonary calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactivity: nerve-endocrine cell interrelationships. American journal of ... Pulmonary calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactivity : nerve-endocrine cell interrelationships. / Shimosegawa, T.; Said, ... title = "Pulmonary calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactivity: nerve-endocrine cell interrelationships.",. abstract = " ...
Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide, CGRP, Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide I, Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide II, Calcitonin ... Rat Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide (CGRP) Antibody (Biotin Conjugate). Move your mouse over image or click to enlarge ... Related Polypeptide Alpha, Calcitonin Related Polypeptide Beta, Alpha-CGRP, Beta-CGRP, CGRP I, CGRP II, CGRP1, CGRP2, CGRP-I, ... CGRP-II, Alpha type CGRP, Beta type CGRP, CALCA, CALCB, CALC1, CALC2, Calcitonin 1, Calcitonin 2, CT, MGC126648, Katacalcin, KC ...
Calcitonin gene-related peptide agents Botulinum toxin type A (Botox) injections may also help reduce migraine attacks if they ...
1. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a product of alternate splicing of the calcitonin gene. It is found in nerves in ... Calcitonin gene related peptide: vasodilator in ovine hepatic and renal vasculature.. Austin Authors: Fletcher, D R;Braslis, K ... Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide.blood.pharmacology. Female. Heart Rate.drug effects. Iodine Radioisotopes.diagnostic use. ...
Rimegepant, an Oral Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide Receptor Antagonist, for Migraine. N Engl J Med. 2019 Jul 11. 381 (2):142- ... Inhibiting the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) pathway is a new method to prevent migraines. CGRP is a potent ... Ubrogepant (Ubrelvy) is the first drug in the class of oral calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) antagonists approved for the ... A New Study Examines the Effects of Computer Use Related to Migraine and Insomnia 0.25 CME / CE / ABIM MOC Credits Clinical ...
Status of the Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide Subtype 2 Receptor Debbie L. Hay, David R. Poyner and Remi Quirion ... Status of the Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide Subtype 2 Receptor Debbie L. Hay, David R. Poyner and Remi Quirion ... Status of the Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide Subtype 2 Receptor Debbie L. Hay, David R. Poyner and Remi Quirion ...
... mAbs for the prevention of migraine1-3 The clinical trial data on the efficacy and safety of calcitonin gene-related peptide ( ... New real-world data for calcitonin gene-related peptide monoclonal antibodies Real-world data support the effectiveness, ... New real-world data on the use of calcitonin gene-related peptide monoclonal antibodies for migraine prevention ... New real-world data for calcitonin gene-related peptide monoclonal antibodies. Real-world data support the effectiveness, ...
European Headache Federation guideline on the use of monoclonal antibodies targeting the calcitonin gene related peptide ... guideline addressed the use of monoclonal antibodies targeting the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) pathway to prevent ... guideline addressed the use of monoclonal antibodies targeting the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) pathway to prevent ...
... was a potential candidate for tissue-specific gene th ... expression of the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide ... To investigate whether the immunosuppressive neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) ... To investigate whether the immunosuppressive neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) was a potential candidate for ... Targeted expression of the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide to beta cells prevents diabetes in NOD mice.. J Immunol ...
Calcitonin gene-related peptide in vitro stimulation of ciliary beat in human upper respiratory cilia. P J Schuil, J G Rosmalen ... Calcitonin gene-related peptide in vitro stimulation of ciliary beat in human upper respiratory cilia. / Schuil, P J; Rosmalen ... Calcitonin gene-related peptide in vitro stimulation of ciliary beat in human upper respiratory cilia. European Archives of Oto ... Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is one of the neuropeptides that is released in the human nasal mucosa after trigeminal ...
Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide and Cluster Headache. *Section 28: Critical care and brain-death ... Alternative Splicing Changes in Other AD-Related Genes. *Relationship Between Estrogens, Estrogen Receptor α, and Alzheimers ... Alteration of Peptide Hormones Regulating Food Intake, Appetite, and Satiety. *Alteration of Hypothalamic Opioid Peptides: POMC ... Alterations in the Expression of Susceptibility Genes for Schizophrenia. *Role of the Hypothalamus in Sleep Disturbances in ...
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP): a new target for migraine. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology. 2015;55:533- ...
Listing of Chemical-related topic pages on the NIOSH Web site. ... Changes in the expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide ... resulted in hyperalgesia in the hind limb and changes in calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP) immunolabeling in the dorsal ... Peptides; Animals; Laboratory animals; Repetitive stress; Repetitive strain injury; RSI; Cumulative trauma; Cumulative trauma ... Calcitonin gene related peptide ...
Listing of Chemical-related topic pages on the NIOSH Web site. ... Changes in the expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide ... resulted in hyperalgesia in the hind limb and changes in calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP) immunolabeling in the dorsal ... Peptides; Animals; Laboratory animals; Repetitive stress; Repetitive strain injury; RSI; Cumulative trauma; Cumulative trauma ... Calcitonin gene related peptide ...
  • Therapeutic agents that block the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) signaling pathway are a highly anticipated and promising new drug class for migraine therapy, especially after reports that small-molecule CGRP-receptor antagonists are efficacious for both acute migraine treatment and migraine prevention. (aspetjournals.org)
  • AMG 334 fully inhibited CGRP-stimulated cAMP production with an IC 50 of 2.3 nM in cell-based functional assays (human CGRP receptor) and was 5000-fold more selective for the CGRP receptor than other human calcitonin family receptors, including adrenomedullin, calcitonin, and amylin receptors. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a 37-amino-acid-long peptide expressed in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. (aspetjournals.org)
  • A previous European Headache Federation (EHF) guideline addressed the use of monoclonal antibodies targeting the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) pathway to prevent migraine. (cun.es)
  • The calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is formed through the association of the calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR) and one of three receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs). (cam.ac.uk)
  • Binding of one of the three peptide ligands, CGRP, adrenomedullin (AM), and intermedin/adrenomedullin 2 (AM2), is well known to result in a Gαs-mediated increase in cAMP. (cam.ac.uk)
  • The binding site distribution of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) was studied in the central nervous system of aged rats (22 months old) and compared with that of young rats (2 months). (unimi.it)
  • The increase in binding might be a consequence of an adaptive process due to a decline of the peptide synthesis with age and is suggestive of a role for CGRP in the cerebellum functions. (unimi.it)
  • IAPP is structurally similar to calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). (utmb.edu)
  • Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide (CGRP) is produced in central and peripheral neurons and binds to the herterodimeric CGRP receptors found throughout the body. (echelon-inc.com)
  • Calcitonin-gene-related peptide (CGRP), a neuropeptide broadly distributed in neuronal and non-neuronal regions throughout the body, plays a fundamental role in migraine and cluster headache (CH) pathophysiology. (clusterheadachewarriors.org)
  • Targeting the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) pathway to treat these headaches may be the first focused therapeutic option to date, with the potential for promising efficacy. (clusterheadachewarriors.org)
  • The effects of pregnancy and estrogen on the expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the uterine cervix, dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord. (omeka.net)
  • The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a neuropeptide co-stored with SP in many sensory neurons, undergoes changes with pregnancy and hormonal environment. (omeka.net)
  • Sensory neurons of ovariectomized rats treated with estrogen showed increased CGRP mRNA synthesis in a dose-related manner, an effect blocked by the ER antagonist ICI 182 780. (omeka.net)
  • In this immunohistochemical study, we examined the incidence, morphology, and distribution of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) immunoreactivity in epithelial cells the rat respiratory tract, using peroxidase anti-peroxidase (PAP) techniques. (elsevier.com)
  • CGRP innervation may be related to receptor functions of respiratory epithelium. (elsevier.com)
  • 1. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a product of alternate splicing of the calcitonin gene. (austin.org.au)
  • New real-world data on the effectiveness, tolerability, and other benefits of migraine prevention associated with the use of calcitonin gene-related peptide monoclonal (CGRP) antibodies (mAbs) were presented at the Migraine Trust International Symposium 2022. (progress.im)
  • The clinical trial data on the efficacy and safety of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are now supported by real-world data, 1,2 said Professor Julio Pascual Gómez, Santander, Spain. (progress.im)
  • To investigate whether the immunosuppressive neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) was a potential candidate for tissue-specific gene therapy, we engineered nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice to produce CGRP in beta cells by placing the modified calcitonin gene under the control of the rat insulin promoter. (aai.org)
  • Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is one of the neuropeptides that is released in the human nasal mucosa after trigeminal nerve stimulation. (rug.nl)
  • The goal of this study was to determine if skeletal muscle injury induced by exposure to injurious stretch-shortening cycles (iSSCs), resulted in hyperalgesia in the hind limb and changes in calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP) immunolabeling in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) in young and old male rats. (cdc.gov)
  • This cues your body to release chemicals like serotonin and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). (webmd.com)
  • Galcanezumab-gnlm is a humanized IgG4 monoclonal antibody specific for calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP) ligand . (rxlist.com)
  • Activation of 5-HT 1D receptor on trigeminal fibers inhibits the release of peripheral vasoactive neuropeptides such as substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). (biomedcentral.com)
  • a protein called calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). (medicalxpress.com)
  • 2. Pharmaceutical compositions containing calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and use thereof to ameliorate hyper immune-mediated diseases and abnormal conditions. (yale.edu)
  • The pattern of distribution of calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP), a neuropeptide, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a neurotransmitter and GABA-converting enzyme, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) in the pancreas of diabetic patients was investigated to determine whether diabetes mellitus influences the expression of these biological transmitters. (nel.edu)
  • The receptors for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and adrenomedullin (AM) are complexes of the calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR) and receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMP). (aston.ac.uk)
  • The effects of asphalt fumes on nasal mucosal innervation were examined by measuring SP and calcitonin-gene-related peptide (CGRP) levels in rat TG neurons projecting to the nasal epithelium. (cdc.gov)
  • In CFA-injected mice, but not vehicle-injected mice, there was a significant increase in the density of CD68(+) macrophages, CD31(+) blood vessels, CGRP(+) , NF200(+) , GAP43(+) , and TH(+) nerve fibers in the synovium as well as joint pain-related behaviors. (bioseb.com)
  • The patient has received any medication targeting the calcitonin generelated peptide (CGRP) pathway as preventive treatment of migraine. (who.int)
  • Receptor Activity-modifying Protein-directed G Protein Signaling Specificity for the Calcitonin Gene-related Peptide Family of Receptors. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Targeted expression of the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide to beta cells prevents diabetes in NOD mice. (aai.org)
  • Calcitonin gene-related peptide antagonizes the protective effect of adrenomedullin on histamine-induced bronchoconstriction. (nih.gov)
  • Small peptides, especially those derived from natural proteins as inhibitory peptide aptamers (iPAs), can produce highly effective and selective blockade of specific nociceptive molecular pathways to reduce pain with minimal off-target effects. (lww.com)
  • Association study of calcitonin gene-related polypeptide-alpha (CALCA) gene polymorphism with migraine. (cdc.gov)
  • Association study of the calcitonin gene-related polypeptide-alpha (CALCA) and the receptor activity modifying 1 (RAMP1) genes with migraine. (cdc.gov)
  • Correlations of health-related quality of life questionnaire results in asthma and allergic rhinitis: effects of a leukotriene receptor antagonist. (nih.gov)
  • Emgality (galcanezumab-gnlm) is a calcitonin -gene related peptide antagonist indicated for the preventive treatment of migraine in adults. (rxlist.com)
  • Migraines are believed to involve vasodilation (widening of the blood vessels) in the brain, and counteracting this effect commonly relieves related pain, at least temporarily. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Subcutaneous calcitonin gene-related peptide antagonists have been approved for preventive therapy in chronic migraine. (medscape.com)
  • However, two oral calcitonin gene-related antagonists, ubrogepant and rimegepant , were recently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the acute treatment of migraine. (medscape.com)
  • BACKGROUND AND AIM: Monoclonal antibodies acting on the calcitonin gene-related peptide or on its receptor are new drugs to prevent migraine. (bvsalud.org)
  • Four monoclonal antibodies have been developed: one targeting the calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor (erenumab) and three targeting the calcitonin gene-relat. (bvsalud.org)
  • The new N-terminal peptide is a cryptic ligand for the receptor. (musc.edu)
  • Huizing, E H. / Calcitonin gene-related peptide in vitro stimulation of ciliary beat in human upper respiratory cilia . (rug.nl)
  • Islet (or insulinoma) amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) is a 37-residue peptide recently purified from amyloid deposits in the pancreas of patients with type 2 diabetes and from amyloid deposits of a human insulinoma. (utmb.edu)
  • It occurs as a result of alternative processing of mRNA from the calcitonin gene. (bvsalud.org)
  • The researchers found that the man had a mutation in a gene coding for a protein called reelin, which is associated with brain disorders including schizophrenia and autism. (cdc.gov)
  • MiRNAs appear to target about 60% of the genes of humans and other mammals. (micrornaarray.com)
  • Previous work demonstrated that administration of substance P (SP) to ovariectomized rats caused events associated with cervical ripening, that production of SP in cervix-related dorsal root ganglion (DRG) is estrogen responsive, and that release of SP from neurons terminating in the cervix and spinal cord peaks prior to parturition. (omeka.net)
  • Ljung BO, Forsgren S, Fridén J. Substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide expression at the extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle origin: implications for the etiology of tennis elbow. (medscape.com)
  • Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide-I, Human, CAS 90954-53-3, is a potent and long-acting vasodilator. (merckmillipore.com)
  • The Human Hypothalamus: Neuropsychiatric Disorders, Volume 181 in the Handbook of Clinical Neurology series, provides comprehensive summaries of recent research on the brain and nervous system as they relate to clinical neurology. (elsevier.com)
  • Diabetes mellitus decreases the expression of calcitonin-gene related peptide, gamma-amino butyric acid and glutamic acid decarboxylase in human pancreatic islet cells. (nel.edu)
  • The effect of orthodontic forces on calcitonin gene-related peptide expression in human dental pulp. (bvsalud.org)
  • The uncleaved receptor can also be activated by the N-terminal peptide present on the activated THROMBIN RECEPTOR and by small synthetic peptides that contain the unmasked N-terminal sequence. (musc.edu)
  • Effects of age on binding sites for calcitonin gene-related peptide in the rat central nervous system / F. Guidobono, C. Netti, P. Bettica, V. Sibilia, F. Pagani, E. Cazzamalli, A. Pecile. (unimi.it)
  • Administration of anti-NGF reduced these pain-related behaviors and the ectopic sprouting of nerve fibers, but had no significant effect on the increase in density of CD31(+) blood vessels or CD68(+) macrophages. (bioseb.com)
  • Changes in the expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide after exposure to injurious stretch-shortening contractions. (cdc.gov)
  • Doctors don't know the exact cause of migraine headaches, although they seem to be related to changes in your brain and to your genes. (webmd.com)
  • This volume identifies the neurobiology and neurophysiology of disorders relating to the hypothalamus and provides treatment information for these disorders. (elsevier.com)
  • Approximately 20% of women without breast cancer seek medical treatment for postmenopausal symptoms, including symptoms related to vasomotor instability. (cancer.gov)
  • Pulmonary calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactivity: nerve-endocrine cell interrelationships. (elsevier.com)
  • Dive into the research topics of 'Pulmonary calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactivity: nerve-endocrine cell interrelationships. (elsevier.com)
  • The peptide produces multiple biological effects and has both circulatory and neurotransmitter modes of action. (bvsalud.org)