Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide: Calcitonin gene-related peptide. A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the calcitonin gene. It occurs as a result of alternative processing of mRNA from the calcitonin gene. The neuropeptide is widely distributed in neural tissue of the brain, gut, perivascular nerves, and other tissue. The peptide produces multiple biological effects and has both circulatory and neurotransmitter modes of action. In particular, it is a potent endogenous vasodilator.Calcitonin: A peptide hormone that lowers calcium concentration in the blood. In humans, it is released by thyroid cells and acts to decrease the formation and absorptive activity of osteoclasts. Its role in regulating plasma calcium is much greater in children and in certain diseases than in normal adults.Bethanechol CompoundsBethanechol: A slowly hydrolyzing muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects. Bethanechol is generally used to increase smooth muscle tone, as in the GI tract following abdominal surgery or in urinary retention in the absence of obstruction. It may cause hypotension, HEART RATE changes, and BRONCHIAL SPASM.Substance P: An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.Neuropeptide Y: A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.Neuropeptides: Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.Capsaicin: An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide: A highly basic, 28 amino acid neuropeptide released from intestinal mucosa. It has a wide range of biological actions affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems and is neuroprotective. It binds special receptors (RECEPTORS, VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE).Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Receptors, Calcitonin: Cell surface proteins that bind calcitonin and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Calcitonin receptors outside the nervous system mediate the role of calcitonin in calcium homeostasis. The role of calcitonin receptors in the brain is not well understood.Receptors, Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide: Cell surface proteins that bind CALCITONIN GENE-RELATED PEPTIDE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. CGRP receptors are present in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and the periphery. They are formed via the heterodimerization of the CALCITONIN RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN and RECEPTOR ACTIVITY-MODIFYING PROTEIN 1.Thyroid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Calcitonin Receptor-Like Protein: A receptor protein that is associated with RECEPTOR ACTIVITY-MODIFYING PROTEINS. When bound to RECEPTOR ACTIVITY-MODIFYING PROTEIN 1 it forms the CALCITONIN GENE-RELATED RECEPTOR. When bound to RECEPTOR ACTIVITY-MODIFYING PROTEIN 2 or RECEPTOR ACTIVITY-MODIFYING PROTEIN 3 it forms the ADRENOMEDULLIN RECEPTOR.FMRFamide: A molluscan neuroactive peptide which induces a fast excitatory depolarizing response due to direct activation of amiloride-sensitive SODIUM CHANNELS. (From Nature 1995; 378(6558): 730-3)Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Carnosine: A naturally occurring dipeptide neuropeptide found in muscles.Peptide Library: A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein: A ubiquitously expressed, secreted protein with bone resorption and renal calcium reabsorption activities that are similar to PARATHYROID HORMONE. It does not circulate in appreciable amounts in normal subjects, but rather exerts its biological actions locally. Overexpression of parathyroid hormone-related protein by tumor cells results in humoral calcemia of malignancy.Peptide PHI: A 27-amino acid peptide with histidine at the N-terminal and isoleucine amide at the C-terminal. The exact amino acid composition of the peptide is species dependent. The peptide is secreted in the intestine, but is found in the nervous system, many organs, and in the majority of peripheral tissues. It has a wide range of biological actions, affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and central nervous systems.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Bombesin: A tetradecapeptide originally obtained from the skins of toads Bombina bombina and B. variegata. It is also an endogenous neurotransmitter in many animals including mammals. Bombesin affects vascular and other smooth muscle, gastric secretion, and renal circulation and function.Receptors, Cholinergic: Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Myasthenia Gravis: A disorder of neuromuscular transmission characterized by weakness of cranial and skeletal muscles. Autoantibodies directed against acetylcholine receptors damage the motor endplate portion of the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION, impairing the transmission of impulses to skeletal muscles. Clinical manifestations may include diplopia, ptosis, and weakness of facial, bulbar, respiratory, and proximal limb muscles. The disease may remain limited to the ocular muscles. THYMOMA is commonly associated with this condition. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1459)Sterilization, Tubal: Procedures that render the female sterile by interrupting the flow in the FALLOPIAN TUBE. These procedures generally are surgical, and may also use chemicals or physical means.Migraine Disorders: A class of disabling primary headache disorders, characterized by recurrent unilateral pulsatile headaches. The two major subtypes are common migraine (without aura) and classic migraine (with aura or neurological symptoms). (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)Ethinyl Estradiol: A semisynthetic alkylated ESTRADIOL with a 17-alpha-ethinyl substitution. It has high estrogenic potency when administered orally, and is often used as the estrogenic component in ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.Intrauterine Devices: Contraceptive devices placed high in the uterine fundus.Levonorgestrel: A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE and about twice as potent as its racemic or (+-)-isomer (NORGESTREL). It is used for contraception, control of menstrual disorders, and treatment of endometriosis.Methylergonovine: A homolog of ERGONOVINE containing one more CH2 group. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Anaphylaxis: An acute hypersensitivity reaction due to exposure to a previously encountered ANTIGEN. The reaction may include rapidly progressing URTICARIA, respiratory distress, vascular collapse, systemic SHOCK, and death.Receptor Activity-Modifying Proteins: A family of proteins that bind to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and alter their specificity, signaling mechanism, or mode of intracellular transport.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Islet Amyloid Polypeptide: A pancreatic beta-cell hormone that is co-secreted with INSULIN. It displays an anorectic effect on nutrient metabolism by inhibiting gastric acid secretion, gastric emptying and postprandial GLUCAGON secretion. Islet amyloid polypeptide can fold into AMYLOID FIBRILS that have been found as a major constituent of pancreatic AMYLOID DEPOSITS.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Electronic Mail: Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.Receptors, Formyl Peptide: A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that was originally identified by its ability to bind N-formyl peptides such as N-FORMYLMETHIONINE LEUCYL-PHENYLALANINE. Since N-formyl peptides are found in MITOCHONDRIA and BACTERIA, this class of receptors is believed to play a role in mediating cellular responses to cellular damage and bacterial invasion. However, non-formylated peptide ligands have also been found for this receptor class.Accounts Payable and Receivable: Short-term debt obligations and assets occurring in the regular course of operational transactions.Receptors, Peptide: Cell surface receptors that bind peptide messengers with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the behavior of cells.Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act: Public Law 104-91 enacted in 1996, was designed to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the healthcare system, protect health insurance coverage for workers and their families, and to protect individual personal health information.

Calcitonin gene-related peptide decreases expression of acetylcholinesterase in mammalian myotubes. (1/1567)

Nerve-derived trophic factors are known to modulate expression of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in skeletal muscle fibers, yet the precise identity of these factors remains elusive. In the present study, we treated mouse C2 myotubes with calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Compared to non-treated myotubes, cell-associated AChE activity levels were decreased by approximately 60% after 48 h of treatment. A parallel reduction in AChE total protein levels was also observed as determined by Western blot analysis. The reduction in AChE activity was due to a decrease in the levels of the G1 molecular form and to an elimination of G1. By contrast, levels of secreted AChE remained unchanged following CGRP treatment. Finally, the overall decrease in AChE activity was accompanied by a reduction in AChE transcripts which could not be attributed to changes in the transcriptional rate of the ACHE gene.  (+info)

Interaction of amylin with calcitonin gene-related peptide receptors in the microvasculature of the hamster cheek pouch in vivo. (2/1567)

1. This study used intravital microscopy to investigate the receptors stimulated by amylin which shares around 50% sequence homology with the vasodilator calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the hamster cheek pouch microvasculature in vivo. 2. Receptor agonists dilated arterioles (diameters 20-40 microm). The -log of the concentrations (+/- s.e.mean; n = 8) causing 50% increase in arteriole diameter were: human betaCGRP (10.8 +/- 0.3), human alphaCGRP (10.8 +/- 0.4), rat alphaCGRP (10.4 +/- 0.3). Rat amylin and the CGRP2 receptor selective agonist [Cys(ACM2,7]-human alphaCGRP were 100 fold less potent (estimates were 8.5 +/- 0.4 and 8.2 +/- 0.3 respectively). 3. The GCRP1 receptor antagonist, CGRP8-37 (300 nmol kg(-1); i.v.) reversibly inhibited the increase in diameter evoked by human alphaCGRP (0.3 nM) from 178 +/- 22% to 59 +/- 12% (n = 8; P < 0.05) and by rat amylin (100 nM) from 138 +/- 23% to 68 +/- 24% (n = 6; P < 0.05). CGRP8-37 did not inhibit vasodilation evoked by substance P (10 nM; n = 4: P > 0.05). 4. The amylin receptor antagonist, amylin8-37 (300 nmol kg(-1); i.v.) did not significantly inhibit the increase in diameter evoked by human alphaCGRP (0.3 nM) which was 112 +/- 26% in the absence, and 90 +/- 29% in the presence of antagonist (n = 4; P < 0.05); nor that evoked by rat amylin (100 nM) which was 146 +/- 23% in the absence and 144 +/- 32% in the presence of antagonist (n = 4; P > 0.05). 5. The agonist profile for vasodilatation and the inhibition of this dilatation by CGRP8-37, although not the amylin8-37 indicates that amylin causes vasodilatation through interaction with CGRP1 receptors in the hamster cheek pouch.  (+info)

Neurogenic origin of articular hyperemia in early degenerative joint disease. (3/1567)

It has been speculated that joint instability resulting from anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture could be exacerbated by changes in vasomotor activity in the remaining supporting structures. In this study, the effect of ACL transection on medial collateral ligament (MCL) basal perfusion and its responsiveness to calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and sympathetic adrenergic influences was examined. Using urethan-anesthetized rabbits, we tested the effects of CGRP and its antagonist CGRP-(8-37) by topical application of these agents to the exposed knee while sympathetic influences were tested by electrically stimulating the saphenous nerve. It was found that MCL basal perfusion was elevated in ACL-sectioned joints; however, this effect was abrogated by prior resection of the articular nerve supply. At the doses tested, the normal vasodilator response to CGRP was abolished in ACL-sectioned joints, whereas the response to CGRP-(8-37) was attenuated. Even under the influence of increased constrictor tone, MCL and capsule blood vessels still showed substantially reduced responses to exogenous CGRP administration. By contrast, nerve-mediated constrictor responses were mostly unaffected by joint instability. This study suggests that posttraumatic knee joint hyperemia is neurogenically mediated, possibly by increased secretion of CGRP.  (+info)

Attenuation of myocardial injury due to oxygen free radicals (OFR) by pretreatment with OFR or calcitonin gene-related peptide. (4/1567)

AIM: To study the cardioprotective effects of oxygen free radicals (OFR) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (OGRP) pretreatment on myocardial damages due to OFR in isolated perfused rat heart. METHODS: The hearts were perfused in a Langendorff mode. OFR were generated by electrolysis of Krebs-Henseleit (K-H) solution. RESULTS: OFR pretreatment reduced the impairment of cardiac contractile function, the decrease of coronary flow and the increase of creatinine kinase (CK) release due to OFR, and the effect exhibited period dependence and cycle-dependence. 1-(5-isoquinolinylsulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine (H-7), an inhibitor of protein kinase C, abolished the protection of OFR pretreatment (CK release = 110 +/- 7, 215 +/- 23, 169 +/- 14, 240 +/- 30, and 113 +/- 19 kU.L-1 for control, OFR, OFR pretreatment, OFR pretreatment plus H-7, and H-7, respectively). CGRP pretreatment also protected the myocardium damages elicited by OFR in isolated perfused rat heart. CONCLUSIONS: OFR or CGRP pretreatment protected myocardium against injury elicited by OFR, and the effect of OFR pretreatment was related to the activation of PKC.  (+info)

Trigeminal nerve ganglion stimulation-induced neurovascular reflexes in the anaesthetized cat: role of endothelin(B) receptors in carotid vasodilatation. (5/1567)

1. The effects of intravenous administration of endothelin (ET) receptor antagonists SB-209670 (0.001-10.0 mg kg(-1)), SB-217242, SB-234551 (0.01-10.0 mg kg(-1)) and BQ-788 (0.001-1.0 mg kg(-1)) were investigated on trigeminal nerve ganglion stimulation-induced neurovascular reflexes in the carotid vasculature of the anaesthetized cat. Comparisons were made with sumatriptan (0.003-3.0 mg kg(-1)) and alpha-CGRP8-37 (0.001-0.1 mg kg(-1)). 2. Trigeminal nerve ganglion stimulation produced frequency related increases in carotid blood flow, reductions in carotid vascular resistance and non-frequency related increases in blood pressure. Guanethidine (3 mg kg(-1), i.v.) blocked trigeminal nerve ganglion-induced increases in blood pressure but had no effect on changes in carotid flow or resistance. Maximal reductions in carotid vascular resistance was observed at 10 Hz, and this frequency was selected to investigate the effects of drugs on trigeminal nerve ganglion stimulation-induced responses in guanethidine treated cats. 3. Saline, alpha-CGRP8-37 SB-209670 and BQ-788 had little or no effect on resting haemodynamic parameters. SB-217242 (10 mg kg(-1), n=3) produced a 56% reduction in arterial blood pressure whereas SB-233451 (10 mg kg(-1), n=3) produced a 30% reduction in carotid vascular resistance. Sumatriptan produced dose-related reductions in resting carotid flow and increases (max. 104% at 0.3 mg kg(-1), n = 5) in vascular resistance. 4. SB-209670 (n=6-7), SB-217242 (n=3) and BQ-788 (n=3) produced inhibition of trigeminal nerve ganglion stimulation-induced reductions in carotid vascular resistance. Saline, SB-234551, alpha-CGRP8-37 and sumatriptan had no effect. 5. These data demonstrate ET(B) receptor blockade attenuates the vasodilator effects of trigeminal nerve ganglion stimulation in the carotid vascular bed of guanethidine pretreated anaesthetized cats.  (+info)

Depletion of cutaneous peptidergic innervation in HIV-associated xerosis. (6/1567)

Severe xerosis occurs in approximately 20% of human immunodeficiency virus seropositive patients. Changes in cutaneous innervation have been found in various inflammatory skin diseases and in xerotic skin in familial amyloid. We have therefore carried out a quantitative examination of the cutaneous peptidergic innervation in human immunodeficiency virus-associated xerosis. Immunohistochemistry and image analysis quantitation were used to compare total cutaneous innervation (protein gene product 9.5), calcitonin gene-related peptide, substance P, and vasoactive intestinal peptide peptidergic fibers, at two sites in the skin of human immunodeficiency virus-associated xerosis patients (upper arm, n = 12; upper leg, n = 11) and site-matched seronegative controls (upper arm, n = 10; upper leg, n = 10). Measurement of lengths of fibers of each type was carried out for each subject in the epidermis and papillary dermis, and around the sweat glands. Immunostained mast cells in these areas were counted. Epidermal integrity and maturation were assessed by immunostaining for involucrin. There were significant (Mann-Whitney U test; p < 0.02) decreases in total lengths of protein gene product 9.5 fibers in both epidermis/papillary dermis and sweat gland fields; of calcitonin gene-related peptide innervation in the epidermis/papillary dermis; and of substance P innervation of the sweat glands. There were no differences in the distribution of mast cells, or in the epidermal expression of involucrin. Depletion of the calcitonin gene-related peptide innervation may affect the nutrient blood supply of the upper dermis, and the integrity and function of basal epidermis and Langerhans cells. Diminished substance P innervation of the sweat glands may affect their secretory activity. Both of these changes may be implicated in the development of xerosis.  (+info)

Decreased CGRP, but preserved Trk A immunoreactivity in nerve fibres in inflamed human superficial temporal arteries. (7/1567)

The peptidergic sensory innervation of cranial blood vessels may play an important part in vascular head pain. The neuropeptides calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P in sensory fibres are dependent on nerve growth factor (NGF) produced by the blood vessels, and when released from nerve terminals mediate neurogenic inflammation. NGF is increased in inflamed tissues, and acts via its high affinity receptor trk A on nociceptor fibres to produce hyperalgesia. CGRP and trk A immunoreactive nerve fibres have therefore been studied, for the first time, in inflamed (n=7) and non-inflamed (n=10) temporal arteries biopsied from patients with headache and suspected giant cell arteritis. CGRP immunoreactivity was markedly decreased to absent in adventitial nerve fibres in inflamed regions of vessels, which may reflect secretion from nerve terminals, as CGRP immunoreactivity could still be seen in nerve trunks in periadventitial tissue. Trk A immunoreactive nerve fibres were found in a similar distribution to CGRP containing nerve fibres in non-inflamed vessels, and the trk A immunoreactivity was virtually unchanged in inflamed vessels. The evidence supports a role for NGF related mechanisms in inflammatory vascular head pain. Anti-NGF or anti-trk A agents may represent novel analgesics in this condition.  (+info)

Calcitonin gene-related peptide rapidly downregulates nicotinic receptor function and slowly raises intracellular Ca2+ in rat chromaffin cells in vitro. (8/1567)

Although calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) modulates muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) via intracellular second messenger-mediated phosphorylation, the action of this peptide on neuronal-type nAChRs remains unknown. Using neuronal nAChRs of rat chromaffin cells in vitro we studied the effect of CGRP, which is physiologically present in adrenal medulla, on membrane currents and [Ca2+]i transients elicited by nicotine. Our main novel observation was that CGRP (either bath-applied or focally applied for a few seconds or even co-applied with nicotine for a few milliseconds) selectively and rapidly blocked nAChRs (a phenomenon unlikely caused by intracellular messengers in view of its speed) without affecting GABA receptors. The inhibitory effect of CGRP was independent of [Ca2+]i or membrane potential and not accompanied by baseline current changes. Like the competitive antagonist N,N,N-trimethyl-1-(4-trans-stilbenoxy)-2-propilammonium, CGRP induced a rightward, parallel shift of the nicotine dose-response curve; during co-application of these blockers the nicotine dose-ratio value was the sum of the values obtained with each antagonist alone. The block by CGRP was insensitive to the receptor antagonist hCGRP8-37 but mimicked by CGRP1-7. Persistent application of CGRP slowly increased [Ca2+]i, a phenomenon independent from external Ca2+, thus implying Ca2+ release from internal stores, and suppressed by hCGRP8-37. CGRP1-7 had no significant effect on [Ca2+]i. We propose that the 1-7 amino acid sequence of CGRP was responsible for the direct, rapid block of nAChRs, whereas the full-length peptide molecule was necessary for the delayed rise in internal Ca2+ potentially able to trigger phosphorylation-dependent modulation of nicotinic receptor function.  (+info)

*S100A12

Maayan C, Becker Y, Gesundheit B, Girgis SI (2002). "Calcitonin gene related peptide in familial dysautonomia". Neuropeptides. ... 1996). "Human CAAF1 gene--molecular cloning, gene structure, and chromosome mapping". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 221 (2): ... gene, a new member of the S100 gene cluster on chromosome 1q21". Cell Calcium. 20 (6): 459-64. doi:10.1016/S0143-4160(96)90087- ... S100 genes include at least 13 members which are located as a cluster on chromosome 1q21. This protein is proposed to be ...

*Neurotransmission

ACh-vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) co-release. ACh-calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) co-release. Glutamate-dynorphin ... For example, striatal "GABAergic neurons" utilize opioid peptides or substance P as their primary cotransmitter. Some neurons ...

*RCP9

"Entrez Gene: RCP9 calcitonin gene-related peptide-receptor component protein". Yallampalli C, Chauhan M, Thota CS, et al. (2003 ... 2002). "Characterization of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptors and their receptor-activity-modifying proteins ( ... Balkan W, Oates EL, Howard GA, Roos BA (Mar 1999). "Testes exhibit elevated expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide ... 2000). "CGRP-RCP, a novel protein required for signal transduction at calcitonin gene-related peptide and adrenomedullin ...

*Debbie Lucy Hay

"Regulation of signal transduction by calcitonin gene-related peptide receptors." Trends in pharmacological sciences 31, no. 10 ... "Pharmacological discrimination of calcitonin receptor: receptor activity-modifying protein complexes." Molecular pharmacology ... Investigation of the calcitonin receptor-like receptor and receptor activity modifying proteins' at Imperial College London. ...

*Rimegepant

... is a calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonist. "Drug Profile: Rimegepant". Adis Insight. " ...

*AKTIP

"A cDNA encoding the calcitonin gene-related peptide type 1 receptor". J Biol Chem. 271 (19): 11325-9. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.19. ... Lesche R, Peetz A, van der Hoeven F, Rüther U (1998). "Ft1, a novel gene related to ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, is deleted ... AKT-interacting protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AKTIP gene. The mouse homolog of this gene produces fused ... This gene may play a role in apoptosis as these morphological abnormalities are caused by altered patterns of programmed cell ...

*Neurogenic inflammation

In turn, histamine evokes the release of substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide; thus, a bidirectional link between ... Durham, PL; Vause, CV (2010). "Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonists in the treatment of migraine". CNS ... Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide (CGRP), neurokinin A (NKA), and endothelin-3 (ET-3). TRPA1 channels stimulated by ... "decrease expression of the proinflammatory neuropeptides calcitonin gene-related peptide and substance P in sensory neurons," ...

*Development of the endocrine system

This stage is regulated by androgens, the genitofemoral nerve, and calcitonin gene-related peptide. During the second and third ... Studies of gene expression show that a specific complement of genes, such as follistatin and multiple cyclin kinase inhibitors ... Studies in mice have shown that interfering with the HOX15 gene can cause parathyroid gland aplasia, which suggests the gene ... Malformations in the GCM2 gene have resulted in hypoparathyroidism. Studies on SOX3 gene mutations have demonstrated that it ...

*Telcagepant

... acts as a calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor (CRLR) antagonist and blocks this peptide. It is believed to ... The calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a strong vasodilator primarily found in nervous tissue. Since vasodilation in the ... Telcagepant (INN) (code name MK-0974) is a calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonist which was an investigational ... December 2008). "Efficacy and tolerability of MK-0974 (telcagepant), a new oral antagonist of calcitonin gene-related peptide ...

*Parafollicular cell

Kameda Y (1987). "Localization of immunoreactive calcitonin gene-related peptide in thyroid C dells from various mammalian ... Calcitonin lowers blood levels of calcium by inhibiting the resorption of bone by osteoclasts, and its secretion is increased ... Parafollicular cells secrete calcitonin, a hormone that participates in the regulation of calcium metabolism. It is important ... Gkonos, PJ; Tavianini, MA; Liu, CC; Roos, BA (December 1989). "Thyrotropin-releasing hormone gene expression in normal thyroid ...

*EMA401

AgnII co-localization with substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide implies its role in nociception. AT2R, the receptor ... 26 (8): 1401-9. doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2005.03.010. PMID 16042980. Alterman M. (2010). "Development of selective non-peptide ... Peptides. 26 (8): 1401-9. doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2005.03.010. PMID 16042980. Sumners C, Horiuchi M, Widdop RE, McCarthy C, ... 26 (8): 1401-9. doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2005.03.010. PMID 16042980. Maree T. Smith, P. & P. Bruce D. Wyse, P. Stephen R. Edwards ...

*Sankar Ghosh

Inhibition of NF-kappaB activity and enhancement of apoptosis by the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide. J Biol Chem ... Budde, L.M. and S. Ghosh, Cloning and characterisation of the gene encoding mouse IkappaBbeta. Gene, 2000. 247(1-2): p. 279-86 ... Genes Dev. 2005 Nov 15 Jimi, E. and S. Ghosh. Role of nuclear factor-kappaB in the immune system and bone. Immunol Rev. 2005 ... Genes Dev, 2004. 18(18): p. 2195-224. Zhang, D., et al., A toll-like receptor that prevents infection by uropathogenic bacteria ...

*Alternative splicing

... calcitonin gene related peptide). Examples of alternative splicing in immunoglobin gene transcripts in mammals were also ... The gene encoding the thyroid hormone calcitonin was found to be alternatively spliced in mammalian cells. The primary ... 1982). "Calcitonin mRNA polymorphism: peptide switching associated with alternative RNA splicing events". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ... Rosenfeld MG, Amara SG, Roos BA, Ong ES, Evans RM (1981). "Altered expression of the calcitonin gene associated with RNA ...

*RAMP3

2004). "Intermedin is a calcitonin/calcitonin gene-related peptide family peptide acting through the calcitonin receptor-like ... CRLR, a receptor with seven transmembrane domains, can function as either a calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor or ... 2008). "Identification of N-terminal receptor activity-modifying protein residues important for calcitonin gene-related peptide ... 2004). "Characterization of the human calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor subtypes associated with receptor activity- ...

*RAMP2

CRLR, a receptor with seven transmembrane domains, can function as either a calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor or ... 2008). "Identification of N-terminal receptor activity-modifying protein residues important for calcitonin gene-related peptide ... 2004). "Characterization of the human calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor subtypes associated with receptor activity- ... of the cytoplasmic tails of the human receptor activity-modifying protein components of calcitonin gene-related peptide and ...

*Amylin

1991). "Solution structures of calcitonin-gene-related-peptide analogues of calcitonin-gene-related peptide and amylin". ... Amylin also acts in bone metabolism, along with the related peptides calcitonin and calcitonin gene related peptide. Rodent ... Westermark P, Wernstedt C, Wilander E, Sletten K (1986). "A novel peptide in the calcitonin gene related peptide family as an ... A non-fibril forming peptide (1-19 residues of human amylin) is toxic like the full-length peptide but the respective segment ...

*Veterinary acupuncture

These neuropeptides include calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), nerve growth factor, substance P, and vasoactive intestinal ... Gene Bruno and John Ottaviano. In the process of treating thousands of small animals and several hundred horses, Bruno and ... there are several related methods which do not use these, or may use a modified type of needle or stimulator. ... immune-related dysfunction and visceral dysfunction. In 2015, the American Animal Hospital Association (AAHA) and American ...

*Circumventricular organs

... peptide histidine isoleucine, calcitonin gene-related peptide, substance P and somastotin. However, these probably accumulate ... Peptides. 31 (4): 757-76. doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2010.01.003. PMID 20093161. Morita S.; Miyata S. (2012). "Different vascular ... Other peptides aside from melatonin have been detected in the pineal. They are most likely associated with a type of ... The lack of a blood brain barrier allows the CVOs to act as an alternative route for peptides and hormones in the neural tissue ...

*RAMP1

"Functional calcitonin gene-related peptide receptors are formed by the asymmetric assembly of a calcitonin receptor-like ... CALCRL, a receptor with seven transmembrane domains, can function as either a calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor ... 2008). "Identification of N-terminal receptor activity-modifying protein residues important for calcitonin gene-related peptide ... 2004). "Characterization of the human calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor subtypes associated with receptor activity- ...

*Parabrachial nuclei

"Calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactivity in the visceral sensory cortex, thalamus, and related pathways in the rat". ... of neurons in the external lateral parabrachial subnucleus that contain the neurotransmitter calcitonin gene-related peptide ( ... Peptides. 8 (2): 267-283. ISSN 0196-9781. PMID 2884646. Kaur, Satvinder; Pedersen, Nigel P.; Yokota, Shigefumi; Hur, Elizabeth ... "Respiratory-related outputs of glutamatergic, hypercapnia-responsive parabrachial neurons in mice". The Journal of Comparative ...

*Capsinolol

It is the first beta blocker with an associated calcitonin gene-related peptide releasing activity in the heart. Chen IJ, Yeh ... the first beta-adrenoceptor blocker with an associated calcitonin gene-related peptide releasing activity in the heart". Br J ...

*Hair cell

... terminal bouton is filled with vesicles containing acetylcholine and a neuropeptide called calcitonin gene-related peptide. The ... Not only do hair cells in a culture dish regenerate when the Rb1 gene is deleted, but mice bred to be missing the gene grow ... The Rb1 gene encodes the retinoblastoma protein, which is a tumor suppressor. Rb stops cells from dividing by encouraging their ... Henderson M (2005-01-15). "Gene that may no longer turn a deaf ear to old age". Times Online. Sage, Cyrille; Huang, Mingqian; ...

*Eptinezumab

It is a monoclonal antibody that targets calcitonin gene-related peptides (CGRP) alpha and beta. It is in Phase III clinical ... an antibody to calcitonin gene-related peptide, for the prevention of frequent episodic migraine: A randomised, double-blind, ...

*Glucagon receptor

"Receptor activity modifying protein-directed G protein signaling specificity for the calcitonin gene-related peptide family of ... "Tissue-specific and glucose-dependent expression of receptor genes for glucagon and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)". Hormone ... "The human glucagon receptor encoding gene: structure, cDNA sequence and chromosomal localization". Gene. 140 (2): 203-9. doi: ... Shiota D, Kasamatsu T, Dib SA, Chacra AR, Moisés RS (May 2002). "Role of the Gly40Ser mutation in the glucagon receptor gene in ...

*FZD5

This transmembrane receptor-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... Gene ontology. Molecular function. • amyloid-beta binding. • signal transducer activity. • Wnt-protein binding. • protein ... Frizzled-5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FZD5 gene.[5][6][7] ... 2000). "LDL-receptor-related proteins in Wnt signal transduction". Nature. 407 (6803): 530-5. doi:10.1038/35035117. PMID ...
1. Binding sites for calcitonin-gene-related peptide were localized and characterized in porcine coronary arteries using quantitative autoradiography, and the density of binding sites was compared between large epicardial and small intramyocardial coronary arteries.. 2. A single class of binding sites for calcitonin-gene-related peptide with a dissociation constant of 2.1 ± 0.2 nmol/l was detected in both the large and small coronary arteries. The density of specific binding sites was higher (maximum binding site density 231 ± 14 fmol/mg of protein) in the small coronary arteries than in the large epicardial coronary arteries (maximum binding site density 108 ± 5 fmol/mg of protein). β-Human calcitonin-gene-related peptide showed higher affinity than α-human calcitonin-gene-related peptide for the binding sites. Most of the specific binding sites for both peptides in the large coronary artery were localized in the intima and media.. 3. In coronary artery from patients with coronary heart ...
article{09c0a925-e49d-4f96-88c5-8518027b9c58, abstract = {An aggregation of substance P (SP)- and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-containing nerve cells (internal carotid mini-ganglion) is described at the junction between the greater superficial petrosal nerve and the internal carotid nerve close to the internal carotid artery. A retrograde tracer dye technique demonstrates that this ganglion and the trigeminal and superior vagal ganglia supply the internal carotid artery with SP/CGRP fibers at, above and below this level, respectively. Implications of this finding for cranial painful syndromes in man are discussed.}, author = {Hardebo, Jan Erik and Suzuki, Norihiro and Owman, Christer}, issn = {0304-3940}, language = {eng}, number = {1}, pages = {39--45}, publisher = {Elsevier}, series = {Neuroscience Letters}, title = {Origins of substance P- and calcitonin gene-related peptide-containing nerves in the internal carotid artery of rat}, url = ...
Using a double labeling indirect immunofluorescent technique, we studied the guinea pig trigeminal ganglion and eye for co-localization of substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide. In the trigeminal ganglion, the number of neurons immunoreactive for calcitonin gene-related peptide significantly outnumber those immunoreactive for substance P, but virtually all substance P positive neurons are immunoreactive for calcitonin gene-related peptide. In the eye, a complex pattern of co-localization is present; both peptides co-localize in most immunoreactive nerve fibers. Nerve fibers immunoreactive only for calcitonin gene-related peptide tend to be concentrated in the cornea and posterior ciliary body. Nerve fibers immunoreactive only for substance P are present in relation to both iris muscles. Sensory denervation by intracranial transection of the ophthalmic and maxillary nerves fails to eliminate these substance P positive but CGRP negative iris nerve fibers. These findings indicate an ...
article{1857c827-237f-4c9c-bdcf-df90e3a1106c, abstract = {In patients with severe hypertension and in age and sex matched controls the circulating levels of calcitonin gene-related peptide-like immunoreactivity (CGRP-LI) and substance P-LI were measured. Samples were taken before medication, after 2-4 weeks and 2-12 months of pharmacological treatment to normotension. In the control group CGRP-LI levels were significantly higher for females than for males. No such relation was seen for substance P-LI. There were no correlations between CGRP-LI, substance P-LI or blood pressure. In the untreated acute hypertensive group there was a significant correlation between circulating levels of CGRP-LI and both diastolic and systolic blood pressure. No such relationship was seen for substance P-LI. The plasma levels of substance P-LI were significantly elevated (2.8 +/- 4.0) compared to controls (1.3 +/- 1.3, pmol/l, mean +/- S.D., p < 0.01). The levels of CGRP-LI did not differ from the control group. ...
TOPICAL CALCITONIN GENE-RELATED PEPTIDE INCREASES WOUND CLOSURE IN SECOND DEGREE CUTANEOUS BURNSBiologyMissouri State University, August 2012Master of ScienceDarin Thomas DieckhoffABSTRACTCutaneous thermal wounds result in significant tissue damage with loss of epidermis, nerve fibers, and vascular tissue, which increases healing time. Neuropeptides released by sensory neurons are implicated in the wound healing process. The 37-amino acid neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a multifunctional protein that promotes vasodilation and proliferation of keratinocytes and endothelial cells. Based on the distribution of CGRP and its receptor in adult CD Hairless rats, we hypothesized that topical administration of CGRP to a cutaneous thermal wound would increase the rate of wound closure. Two 1.5 cm partial-thickness thermal wounds were created on the upper dorsal region of hairless rats (n = 6) by exposing tissues to 70o C water for 10 seconds. Each wound was covered with standard medical
TY - JOUR. T1 - Calcitonin gene-related peptide enhances release of native brain-derived neurotrophic factor from trigeminal ganglion neurons. AU - Buldyrev, Ilya. AU - Tanner, Nathan M.. AU - Hsieh, Hui Ya. AU - Dodd, Emily G.. AU - Nguyen, Loi T.. AU - Balkowiec, Agnieszka. PY - 2006/12/1. Y1 - 2006/12/1. N2 - Activity-dependent plasticity in nociceptive pathways has been implicated in pathomechanisms of chronic pain syndromes. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), which is expressed by trigeminal nociceptors, has recently been identified as a key player in the mechanism of migraine headaches. Here we show that CGRP is coexpressed with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in a large subset of adult rat trigeminal ganglion neurons in vivo. Using ELISA in situ, we show that CGRP (1-1000 nm) potently enhances BDNF release from cultured trigeminal neurons. The effect of CGRP is dose-dependent and abolished by pretreatment with CGRP receptor antagonist, CGRP(8-37). Intriguingly, CGRP-mediated ...
Release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) from trigeminal sensory nerves is implicated in the underlying pathology of migraine. While the therapeutic benefits of grape seed extract (GSE) to inhibit pathophysiological mechanisms associated with cardiovascular disease are well known, the potential benefit of GSE to decrease neurogenic inflammation has not been investigated. The goal of my study was to determine whether GSE could inhibit CGRP expression in primary cultures of trigeminal ganglion neurons as well as a human cell line, DMS 153 cells. CGRP was significantly increased in primary rat trigeminal ganglia cultures in response to a depolarizing stimulus by KCl or capsaicin. Pretreatment with GSE repressed stimulated release of CGRP from trigeminal ganglion neurons. Similarly, GSE repressed stimulated human CGRP promoter activity and mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) reporter genes in DMS 153 cells. Moreover, overnight treatment with GSE suppressed basal human CGRP promoter activity.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Calcitonin gene-related peptide in experimental ischemia. Implication of an endogenous anti-ischemic effect. AU - Gherardini, Giulio. AU - Evans, Gregory R D. AU - Theodorsson, Elvar. AU - Gurlek, Ali. AU - Milner, Stephen M.. AU - Palmer, Björn. AU - Lundeberg, Thomas. PY - 1996. Y1 - 1996. N2 - Ischemia resulting from flap harvesting and vascular manipulation during microsurgery may be responsible for flap ischemic sufferance and, ultimately, necrosis. Recently, the regulatory role of the sensory nervous system in ischemia has attracted much interest. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a neuropeptide, is a naturally occurring vasodilator with no constrictive effects. In the present study, we developed a model of partial, chronic ischemia in the rat epigastric flap and investigated the effects of ischemia on concentrations of CGRP-like immunoreactivity (-LI) in ischemic skin and in different regions of the rat brain (striatum, hippocampus, pituitary, hypothalamus, and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Engineering ex vivo-expanded marrow stromal cells to secrete calcitonin gene-related peptide using adenoviral vector. AU - Deng, Weiwen. AU - Bivalacqua, Trinity. AU - Chattergoon, Natasha N.. AU - Jeter, James R.. AU - Kadowitz, Philip J.. PY - 2004. Y1 - 2004. N2 - Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a target for cardiovascular gene therapy. Marrow stromal cells (MSCs) hold promise for use in adult stem cell-based cell and gene therapy. To determine the feasibility of adenoviral-mediated CGRP gene transfer into ex vivo-expanded MSCs, rat MSCs were isolated, ex vivo expanded, and transduced with adenoviruses. Adprepro-CGRP and AdntlacZ, adenoviral vectors containing prepro-CGRP or nuclear-targeted β-galactosidase reporter gene ntlacZ under the control of Rous sarcoma virus promoter, were used. In this study, it can be shown that transduction efficiency of adenoviral-mediated gene transfer into ex vivo-expanded MSCs is dose dependent, transgene expression persists for more ...
Over the last decades MRI has proved to be very useful in the field of drug development and discovery. Pharmacological MRI (phMRI) explores the interaction between brain physiology, neuronal activity and drugs[1]. The BOLD-signal is an indirect method to investigate brain activity by way of measuring task-related hemodynamic changes. Pharmacological substances that induce hemodynamic changes can therefore potentially alter the BOLD-signal that in turn falsely can be interpreted as changes in neuronal activity. It is therefore important to characterize possible effects of a pharmacological substance on the BOLD-response per see before that substance can be used in an fMRI experiment. Furthermore MR-angiography is useful in determining the vascular site-of-action of vasoactive substances ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Biochemical Society Transactions.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a sensory neurotransmitter that is widely distributed in cardiovascular tissues, may help to counteract coronary artery vasoconstriction during anaphylaxis. CGR... more
The sensory neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) plays a role in primary headaches and CGRP receptor antagonists are effective in migraine treatment. CGRP is a potent vasodilator raising the possibility that antagonism of its receptor could have cardiovascular effects. We therefore investigated the effects of the anti-migraine CGRP receptor antagonist telcagepant (MK-0974) on human isolated coronary arteries. Arteries with different internal diameters (ID) were studied to assess the potential for differential effects across the coronary vascular bed. The concentration-dependent relaxation responses to human αCGRP were greater in distal (ID: 600-1000 μm, Emax=83±7%) than proximal coronary arteries (ID: 2-3 mm, Emax=23±9%), coronary arteries from explanted hearts (ID 3-5 mm, Emax=11±3%) and coronary arterioles (ID: 200-300 μm, Emax=15±7%). Telcagepant alone did not induce contraction or relaxation of these coronary blood vessels. Pre-treatment with telcagepant (10 nM to 1 ...
Muscle inflammation and hyperalgesia induced by adjuvant injection into skeletal muscle are associated with an increase in calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) labeling in skeletal muscle and dorsal root ganglia (DRG). This increased expression of CGRP may contribute to the maintenance of pain in these models. However, it is not known if inflammation induced by repetitive exposure to stretch-sho
Calcitonin was discovered by C opp et al. (1961) as a hypocalcemic hormone and the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) recognized through analysis of the calcitonin gene structure (A...
Title:Role of CGRP-Receptor Component Protein (RCP) in CLR/RAMP Function. VOLUME: 14 ISSUE: 5. Author(s):Ian M. Dickerson. Affiliation:University of Rochester, Department of Neurobiology & Anatomy, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Box 603, Rochester, NY 14642, USA.. Keywords:Calcitonin gene-related peptide, adrenomedullin, calcitonin-like receptor, receptor activity modifying protein, CGRP-receptor component protein, signal transduction, trafficking.. Abstract:The receptor for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and adrenomedullin (AM) requires an intracellular peripheral membrane protein named CGRP-receptor component protein (RCP) for signaling. RCP is required for CGRP and AM receptor signaling, and it has recently been discovered that RCP enables signaling by binding directly to the receptor. RCP is present in most immortalized cell lines, but in vivo RCP expression is limited to specific subsets of cells, usually co-localizing with CGRP-containing neurons. RCP protein expression correlates with CGRP ...
... , ge11 peptide definition, human myostatin inhibitor pro peptide protein powder, copper peptide eye cream, tb4 peptide bond, 999 protein peptide interaction, peptide hormone and steroid biosynthesis, hydrolyzed whey peptide, peptide synthesis ninhydrin test, hydrolysis of peptide bonds found in food occur prokaryotes cell, signal peptide peptidase like 2bet38, atx 101 peptide, peptide 2 0 msdsonline, phosphagenics aod 9604 peptide, peptide mass fingerprinting methods of communication, mechanism of peptide bond, antifungal peptide review, isoelectric point of a peptide, nu skin tru face peptide gel
Migraine is among the most common types of pain, but its mechanisms are poorly understood. A growing body of evidence points to a critical role of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the pathophysiology of migraine headache. During migraine, CGRP is thought to be released from peripheral endings of perivascular meningeal nociceptors primary and to promote vasodilatation. A current hypothesis suggests that peripheral CGRP and its related meningeal vasodilatation results in activation and sensitization, leading to the generation of migraine headache. However, direct evidence supporting this idea is lacking. Here, using electrophysiological, extracellular, single-unit recording combined with laser-Doppler flowmetry measurements of dural blood flow (DBF), we examined whether CGRP and meningeal vasodilatation promote activation or sensitization of meningeal nociceptors. Changes in (DBF), ongoing discharge, and responsiveness to mechanical stimulation of the dura were studied after either ...
Understanding of the neuropathology leading to migraine pain has centered on either a vascular or neuronal origin. Sildenafil, a specific inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5), induces migraine-like headache in a human headache model without concomitant artery dilation. The presence and activity of PDE3 and PDE5 is known in cerebral arteries. However, the presence in the neuronal part of the trigeminovascular pathway, i.e. the trigeminal ganglion and the possible co-localization with calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), is not known ...
Buy CGRP elisa kit, Fish Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide ELISA Kit-NP_001095943.1 (MBS029789) product datasheet at MyBioSource, ELISA Kits
In cultured chicken myotubes, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a peptide present in spinal cord motoneurons, increased by 1.5-fold the number of surface acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) and by threefold AChR alpha-subunit mRNA level without affecting the level of muscular alpha-actin mRNA. Cholera toxin (CT), an activator of adenylate cyclase, produced a similar effect, which did not add up with that of CGRP. In contrast, tetrodotoxin, a blocker of voltage-sensitive Na+ channels, elevated the level of AChR alpha-subunit mRNA on top of the increase caused by either CGRP or CT. 12-O-Tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA), an activator of protein kinase C, markedly decreased the cell surface and total content of [125I]alpha BGT-binding sites and reduced the rate of appearance of AChR at the surface of the myotubes without reducing the level of AChR alpha-subunit mRNA. Moreover, TPA inhibited the increase of AChR alpha-subunit mRNA caused by tetrodotoxin without affecting that produced by CGRP ...
Severn Biotech, Limited : Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide - Electrophoresis Products PBS & Saline Solutions Hybridisation Reagents Biological Buffers & SDS Sodium Azide Solutions General Bio-chemical Products Fingerprinting Chemical Product Forensic Dyes & Chemicals HPLC Laboratory Solvents DNA / RNA Extraction Specialist Pure Water Products Protein Linker Conjugates Peptide Synthesis Reagents Alcohol Sprays Hand Sanitiser Products Customised Services Comet Assay Products Protein Antibody Reagents Scientific Plastics Catalogue Peptides Affinity Purification Materials Cytology Screening Antibodies Specials severn, biotech
We previously found that capsaicin can dilate third-order arterioles in striated muscle by a mechanism that appears to involve release of endogenous calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Experiments were done to determine 1) whether capsaicin has similar effects on larger arterioles and venules and 2) whether relaxation involves endogenous CGRP and synthesis of endothelium-derived relaxing factor. In male Sprague-Dawley rats anesthetized with pentobarbital (50 mg/kg, i.p.), we examined responses of first- and second-order microvessels in the cremaster muscle using video microscopy. Addition of capsaicin (0.1 microgram/ml) to vessels constricted by norepinephrine (10(-7) M) dilated 1As by 91% +/- 28%, 2As by 113% +/- 18% 1Vs by 11% +/- 6% and 2Vs by 42% +/- 18%. Capsaicin in the presence of the specific CGRP receptor antagonist CGRP (8-37) caused an attenuated arteriolar dilation but had no significant venodilatory effect (1As 29% +/- 18%, 2As 55% +/- 14%, 1Vs 7% +/- 3%, 2Vs 16% +/- ...
Depletion of substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide in sciatic nerve of rats with experimental diabetes; effects of insulin and aldose reductase ...
Calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP), a 37 amino acid neuropeptide, is the most potent vasodilator known. Participation of CGRP in hypertension and related diseases, such as preeclampsia or vasospasm after subarachnoid haemorrage, is one of the most studied topics. In this review we summarize the published roles of CGRP in pathophysiology of hypertension in humans and in experimental models. We also discuss the effects of direct administration of CGRP in the treatment of hypertension and of anti-hypertensive drugs that enhance the release or response of endogenous calcitonin gene-related peptide: angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, selective antagonists for the angiotensin II receptor, beta-blockers, magnesium sulphate for preeclampsia and rutaecarpine, as well as the possibilities using CGRP in gene therapy for prevention of vasospasm after subarachnoid haemorrage ...
Our laboratory studies the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Originally discovered as an alternatively-spliced variant of the calcitonin mRNA, CGRP is one of the most potent vasodilators known. As a vasodilator, CGRP has both peripheral and central effects. One of the most notable effects of CGRP is its causative effect of migraine on the cerebral vasculature, and stable synthetic antagonists have been recently developed and are in Stage III clinical trials for migraine treatment. CGRP also suppresses immune function, is involved in pain perception, and has further central role in the development of tolerance to opiates ...
After a long illness borne with much grace and dignity, Iain MacIntyre died in London on 18 September 2008. He had led a most distinguished career over five decades as a major figure in the field of calcium-regulating hormones and bone metabolism, with his many scientific achievements marked by originality as well as biological and medical importance. Among his many accomplishments were the co-discovery with Harold Copp of the hormone calcitonin, whose glandular origin, structure and biological and medical functions he defined. Iain also was the first to isolate and sequence, with colleagues, the novel human neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide, demonstrating its role as a potent vasodilator. Subsequently Iain defined the multiple phenotypic consequences attributable to nitric oxide production by different enzymes in a tissue-specific fashion. A major educational contribution was in conceiving and organizing an important biennial series of international endocrine meetings held between ...
J Med Chem. 2008 Aug 28;51(16):4858-61. Epub 2008 Jul 30.Discovery of (R)-4-(8-fluoro-2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinazolin-3(4H)-yl)-N-(3-(7-methyl-1H-indazol-5-yl)-1-oxo-1-(4-(piperidin-1-yl)piperidin-1-yl)propan-2-yl)piperidine-1-carboxamide (BMS-694153): a potent antagonist of the human calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor for migraine with rapid and efficient intranasal exposure. To Reference ...
Background: Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a neuropeptide with broad salutary cardiovascular effects. Mechanisms underlying cardiac CGRP regulation are poorly understood. The intrinsic cardiac adrenergic (ICA) cell is a novel cardiac neuroendocrine cell that expresses the δ-opioid receptor. We have shown that δ-opioid stimulation of ICA cells induces epinephrine liberation exerting an infarct-size limiting effect via β2-adrenoreceptor (β2-AR) stimulation. In this study we hypothesize that ICA cells synthesize and release CGRP which is involved in myocardial function and that CGRP gene expression can be autoregulated by epinephrine released from the ICA cell or regulated exogenously via β2-AR agonist.. Methods and Results: In situ hybridization coupled with immunofluorescent double labeling localized CGRP mRNA expression exclusively to ICA cells in explanted human left ventricular tissue. To determine whether δ-opioid-enhanced epinephrine release from ICA cells autoregulates CGRP ...
Abstract We have compared the density of nerve fibres in the synovium in club foot with that of specimens obtained from the synovium of the hip at operations for developmental dysplasia. The study focused on the sensory neuropeptides substance P; calcitonin gene-related peptide; protein gene product 9.5, a general marker for mature peripheral nerve fibres; and growth associated protein 43, a neuronal marker for new or regenerating nerve fibres. In order to establish whether there might be any inherent difference we analysed the density of calcitonin gene-related peptide-positive nerve fibres in the hip and ankle joints in young rats. Semi-quantitative analysis showed a significant reduction in the number of sensory and mature nerve fibres in the synovium in club foot compared with the control hips. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) positive fibres were reduced by 28%, substance P-positive fibres by 36% and protein gene product 9.5-positive fibres by 52% in club foot. The growth associated protein
Schuler, B; Rieger, G; Gubser, M; Arras, M; Gianella, M; Vogel, O; Jirkof, P; Cesarovic, N; Klohs, J; Jakob, P; Brock, M; Gorr, T A; Baum, O; Hoppeler, H; Samillan-Soto, V; Gassmann, M; Fischer, J A; Born, W; Vogel, J (2014). Endogenous α-calcitonin-gene-related peptide promotes exercise-induced, physiological heart hypertrophy in mice. Acta Physiologica, 211(1):107-121.. Hlushchuk, R; Ehrbar, M; Reichmuth, P; Heinimann, N; Styp-Rekowska, B; Escher, R; Baum, O; Lienemann, P; Makanya, A; Keshet, E; Djonov, V (2011). Decrease in VEGF expression induces intussusceptive vascular pruning. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, 31(12):2836-2844.. Richter, V; Savery, M D; Gassmann, M; Baum, O; Damiano, E; Pries, A R (2011). Excessive erythrocytosis compromises the blood-endothelium interface in erythropoietin-overexpressing mice. Journal of Physiology, 589(21):5181-5192.. Picard, N; Baum, O; Vogetseder, A; Kaissling, B; Le Hir, M (2008). Origin of renal myofibroblasts in the model of ...
The goals of this study were to evaluate the influence of CGRP within the BNST on anxiety and on neural activation patterns. We found that intra-BNST CGRP infusions produced an anxiogenic behavioral profile and enhanced neural activation in a number of anxiety-related brain areas, and that antagonism of these receptors prevented anxiety-like responses to TMT odor. CGRP infused bilaterally into the BNST enhanced the acoustic startle response in a dose-dependent manner (experiment 1). This increase was attenuated by prior administration of the CGRP antagonist, αCGRP8-37, at a dose that did not significantly affect startle when given alone (experiment 2). This suggests that the effects on startle were indeed mediated by activation of CGRP receptors. Intra-BNST CGRP infusions (800 ng/side) also decreased the percentage of time spent on the open arms and the percentage of total entries into the open arms of the elevated plus maze (experiment 6). These anxiety-like behavioral results are consistent ...
Background and purpose: Long-term morphine treatment enhances pain neurotransmitter (such as calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)) levels in the spinal cord. It has been suggested previously that increased spinal CGRP may contribute to sustained morphine-mediated paradoxical pain sensitization and antinociceptive tolerance. Previous in vitro studies from our group indicated that Raf-1 kinase-mediated adenylyl cyclase superactivation played a crucial role in sustained morphine-mediated augmentation of basal and evoked CGRP release from cultured primary sensory neurons. The present study was aimed to evaluate the physiological significance of this molecular mechanism in vivo, in rats ...
The present study demonstrated for the first time that neonatal degeneration of capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves in rats leads to a significant increase in blood pressure when a high sodium diet is given. This observation is important because it has been shown that (1) substantial decreases in CGRP-containing sensory nerves in the mesenteric arterial bed occur in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR),6 7 indicating that there are inherited abnormalities in either generation or maintenance of sensory nerves in SHR; (2) the plasma CGRP concentration is lower in adult SHR than in age-matched normotensive control rats, indicating that release of CGRP from sensory nerves is decreased in SHR21 ; and (3) vasodilator responses to exogenous CGRP increase with age in SHR, suggesting that sensitivity of receptors to CGRP is increased due to the decreased release of CGRP from sensory nerves.6 7 The defect in sensory vasodilator function may produce an imbalance that could contribute to the development and ...
in Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics (The) (1994), 270(1), 30-6. The effects of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) (6 x 10(-8) M) on hemodynamics and on pulmonary microvascular permeability were investigated in isolated, perfused rabbit lungs by measuring the ... [more ▼]. The effects of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) (6 x 10(-8) M) on hemodynamics and on pulmonary microvascular permeability were investigated in isolated, perfused rabbit lungs by measuring the arterial, capillary and venous pressures and the capillary filtration coefficient (Kf,c). CGRP was administered alone or in combination with capsaicin (10(-4) M), acetylcholine (ACh) (10(-11) M to 10(-7) M), substance P (SP) (10(-10) M to 10(-6) M) and serotonin (10(-4) M). The influence of a specific antagonist of CGRP receptors, CGRP8-37 (10(-8) M), on the pulmonary edema induced by these mediators was also considered. CGRP had no direct effect on the vascular pressures or on Kf,c. Capsaicin and ...
Die bakterielle Meningitis (BM) ist trotz antibiotischer Therapie eine Erkrankung mit einer hohen Mortalität und Morbidität. Kopfschmerzen und Meningismus sind Hauptsymtome und ein klinischer Hinweis für die Aktivierung trigeminaler Fasern. Ziel dieser Arbeit war es zu prüfen ob die freigesetzten Neuropeptide einen proinflammatorischen Effekt auf zerebrale Endothelzellen, einen wesentlichem Bestandteil der Blut-Hirn-Schranke haben. Wir verwendeten primär kultivierte zerebrale Kapillarendothelzellen (BMEC) der Ratte und als Stimulus Neuropeptide und/oder Pneumokokkenzellwände (PCW). Beide Neuropeptide, CGRP mehr als SP, verstärken den Effekt von PCW auf die mRNA Expression und Freisetzung von TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-10 und MIP-2 aus den BMEC. CGRP und SP haben nur eine geringe Wirkung. PCW regulieren die Dichte der CRLR (CGRP1-R) bzw. NK-1 Rezeptoren und erklären damit die kostimulatorische Wirkung. Zudem untersuchten wir den Effekt von PCW und/oder CGRP auf die Adrenomedullin (AM)- ...
This gene encodes the peptide hormones calcitonin, calcitonin gene-related peptide and katacalcin by tissue-specific alternative RNA splicing of the gene transcripts and cleavage of inactive precursor proteins. Calcitonin is involved in calcium regulation and acts to regulate phosphorus metabolism. Calcitonin gene-related peptide functions as a vasodilator while katacalcin is a calcium-lowering peptide. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene ...
Maintenance of the gastric mucosal barrier is important in terms of protection from harmful substances such as hydrogen ions that are secreted from the mucosa and are capable of producing cell injury.38 Little is known of whether or not gastric neurones contribute towards gastric mucosal protection from injury, although the vagus nerve has long been regarded as a permissive factor in peptic ulcer disease. Recently, extrinsic afferent neurones were found to operate as a neural emergency system in the digestive tract.1 Released neuropeptides from their peripheral endings are known to regulate a variety of physiological functions, including an increase in resistance of the tissue to injury and enhancement of repair of damaged tissues. To study the roles of these sensory neurones, capsaicin, which can act on certain primary afferent neurones and can release neuropeptides selectively, is widely used.39. The pathophysiological involvement of prostaglandins in the nervous systems, including the ...
|p|AQP1 is a polypeptide hormone produced in pancreatic beta-cells that belongs to the family of calcitonin gene-related peptides. There is a 20% sequence homology between AQP1 and calcitonin and 44% homology with calcitonin gene-related peptide. AQP1 and its fragments stimulate the proliferation of osteoblasts, inhibit bone resorption, and increase bone density and the amount of bone mass.Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence suggested that CHIP28 protein contains 6 bilayer-spanning domains, 2 exofacial potential N-glycosylation sites, and intracellular N and C termini. The sequence showed strong homology with the major intrinsic protein of bovine lens (MIP26), which is the prototype of an ancient family of membrane channels.|/p|
Please Note, The ebooks are not always PDF format, you might receive epub/kindle formats after purchase. This is Digital Version of (Ebook) 978-9
ラット腰椎後縦靭帯における侵害受容神経と交感神経の関わりーCalcitonin gene-related peptide とtyrosine hydroxylase の免疫組織化学と免疫電顕による考察ー ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
The neurotransmitter calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is enriched in the adult rat trigeminal visceral projection to the cerebral arteries compared both to other neurotransmitters in this projection and to the percentage of CGRP-positive trigeminal cells projecting to cutaneous targets. In colchicine-treated ganglia approximately 30% of adult trigeminal ganglion cells projecting to the middle cerebral artery contain CGRP. Several possible developmental mechanisms underlying this enrichment were investigated. Some of this enrichment is accounted for by a prenatal selection of CGRP cells in the cerebrovascular projection. The remainder of the enrichment can be explained by a late (postnatal days 55--90)target-induced expression of CGRP in some trigeminal neurons innervating cerebral arteries. Most surprisingly, the massive postnatal regression in the trigeminal projection to the cerebral arteries (between postnatal days 5 and 55, cell death and axon retraction delete 3/4 of the neurons that ...
Dear sir: I am urgently need human beta calcitonin gene related peptide gene for my method. Please tell me where to get or buy the gene. Thanks Sincerely Huaichun Wang Institute of Medical Information 27 Taiping Road Beijing 100850 China Fax: 8610 8213044 ...
Throughout my academic career, I have been focusing on the regulation of vascular tone in health and disease (diabetes type I and II, stroke, hypertension, congestive Heart Failure and age-related changes).. Coronary arteries are densely innervated by sensory nerve endings containing calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). CGRP is a potent naturally occuring 37 amino acid vasodilatory neuropeptide which is released from the perivascular sensory nerve endings in the wall of flow regulating intramural coronary arteries during hypoxia and by low pH levels in the myocardium, thus suggesting a vasodilatory role under ischemic conditions.. Receptor subtypes for CGRP, the intracellular signalling pathways and the mechanism behind CGRP-induced desensitization are still under investigation in both resistance and conductance arteries of different species including human. So far, these studies clearly demonstrate a larger CGRP receptor density in resistance arteries (internal lumen diameter < 200 µm) ...
Numerous studies have demonstrated that the calcitonin receptor (CALCR) is a specific marker of osteoclast differentiation and that calcitonin can inhibit bone resorption in vitro and in vivo. Mice lacking calcitonin and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) have a high bone mass phenotype due to an increase in bone formation parameters. Expression of calcitonin (CT) and its receptor (CTR) generate survival, adhesion, pro-inflammatory, and pro-metastatic pathways. Moreover, data indicate a pivotal role for CT-CTR axis in advanced prostate cancer PC metastasis and may serve as a potential therapeutic target for advanced PC.
Creative Peptides offers Fucilin gene-related peptide 4 for your research. We also provide custom peptide synthesis, process development, GMP manufacturing.
TY - JOUR. T1 - A quantitative analysis of the sensory and sympathetic innervation of the mouse pancreas. AU - Lindsay, T. H.. AU - Halvorson, K. G.. AU - Peters, C. M.. AU - Ghilardi, J. R.. AU - Kuskowski, M. A.. AU - Wong, G. Y.. AU - Mantyh, Patrick W. PY - 2006. Y1 - 2006. N2 - Pain from pancreatitis or pancreatic cancer can be both chronic and severe although little is known about the mechanisms that generate and maintain this pain. To define the peripheral sensory and sympathetic fibers involved in transmitting and modulating pancreatic pain, immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy were used to examine the sensory and sympathetic innervation of the head, body and tail of the normal mouse pancreas. Myelinated sensory fibers were labeled with an antibody raised against 200 kD neurofilament H (clone RT97), thinly myelinated and unmyelinated peptidergic sensory fibers were labeled with antibodies raised against calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and post-ganglionic sympathetic fibers ...
During hyperinsulinemic glucose-clamp studies, intravenous infusion of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in rats antagonized the ability of insulin to stimulate peripheral glucose disposal by 52% (196 ± 7.2 vs. 105 ± 10.5 μmol · kg−1 · min−1, P , 0.05) and to inhibit hepatic glucose output by 54% (P , 0.01). CGRP also inhibited the in vitro effects of insulin to stimulate hexose uptake in cultured BC3H1 myocytes at all insulin concentrations studied. Amylin is a peptide isolated from amyloid deposits in pancreatic islets of type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic subjects, is present in normal β-cells, and bears a striking homology to CGRP. When synethetic human amylin was infused during clamp studies, it inhibited the ability of insulin to stimulate glucose disposal by 56% (96.9 ± 9.4 vs. 42.4 ± 5.0 μmol · kg−1 · min−1, P , 0.05) and to suppress hepatic glucose output by 64%. Therefore, amylin and CGRP can cause insulin resistance in vivo and may be implicated in ...
Gastrointestinal symptoms are the first signs of fluoride (F) toxicity. In the present study, the jejunum of rats chronically exposed to F was evaluated by proteomics, as well as by morphological analysis. Wistarrats received water containing 0, 10 or 50 mgF/L during 30 days. HuC/D, neuronal Nitric Oxide (nNOS), Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP), Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide (CGRP), and Substance P (SP) were detected in the myenteric plexus of the jejunum by immunofluorescence. The density of nNOS-IR neurons was significantly decreased (compared to both control and 10 mgF/L groups), while the VIP-IR varicosities were significantly increased (compared to control) in the group treated with the highest F concentration. Significant morphological changes were seen observed in the density of HUC/D-IR neurons and in the area of SP-IR varicosities for F-treated groups compared to control. Changes in the abundance of various proteins correlated with relevant biological processes, such as protein ...
Gastrointestinal symptoms are the first signs of fluoride (F) toxicity. In the present study, the jejunum of rats chronically exposed to F was evaluated by proteomics, as well as by morphological analysis. Wistar rats received water containing 0, 10 or 50 mgF/L during 30 days. HuC/D, neuronal Nitric Oxide (nNOS), Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP), Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide (CGRP), and Substance P (SP) were detected in the myenteric plexus of the jejunum by immunofluorescence. The density of nNOS-IR neurons was significantly decreased (compared to both control and 10 mgF/L groups), while the VIP-IR varicosities were significantly increased (compared to control) in the group treated with the highest F concentration ...
CGRP Antagonists - The search for more effective migraine prevention stems from greater recognition of the crippling impact migraines have on a significant portion of the global population.
Non-peptide receptors. Peptide receptors. Adenosine. A1 (h). Angiotensin-II. AT1 (h). A2A (h). AT2 (h). Bombesin. bb3 (h). A2B (h). B2 (h). A3 (h). Calcitonin gene-related peptide. CGRP (h). Adrenergic. alpha 1A (h). Chemokine. CCR1 (h). alpha 2A (h). Cholecystokinin. CCKA (h). Slideshow 3335775 by dorjan
TY - JOUR. T1 - Presynaptic localization of the carboxy-terminus epitopes of the μ opioid receptor splice variants MOR-1C and MOR-1D in the superficial laminae of the rat spinal cord. AU - Abbadie, C.. AU - Pasternak, G. W.. AU - Aicher, S. A.. PY - 2001/10/31. Y1 - 2001/10/31. N2 - Opioids inhibit nociceptive transmission at the level of the spinal cord, possibly through inhibition of neurotransmitter release by presynaptic μ opioid receptors (MORs) thus preventing the activation of ascending pathways and the perception of pain. Most nociceptive primary afferents are unmyelinated fibers containing peptides such as substance P and/or calcitonin gene-related peptide. However, few terminals contain both substance P and MOR. Recently, we identified new carboxy-terminal MOR splice variants that are localized in the superficial laminae of the dorsal horn. We now report the precise cellular distribution of two of these MOR-1 variants, MOR-1C (exon 7/8/9 epitope) and MOR-1D (exon 8/9 epitope), at the ...
Amgen and Novartis are developing erenumab, a calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonist human monoclonal antibody, for the prevention of
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Role of Humoral Factors in Producing the Cardioprotective Effect of Remote Ischemic Preconditioning. AU - Prokudina, E. S.. AU - Maslov, L. N.. AU - Jaggi, A. S.. AU - Pismennyi, D. S.. AU - Voronkov, N. S.. AU - Nesterov, E. A.. PY - 2019/3/15. Y1 - 2019/3/15. N2 - The humoral pathway mediating the cardioprotective effect of remote ischemic preconditioning has been demonstrated in various models: ischemia-reperfusion of the fore- and hindlimbs and liver and occlusion-reperfusion of the mesenteric and renal arteries. This review assesses humoral components in the formation and realization of the cardioprotective actions of remote ischemic preconditioning of the heart. Endogenous agonists of opioid receptors, arachidonic acid derivatives (prostanoids), agonists of cannabinoid and vanilloid receptors, calcitonin gene-related peptide, leukotrienes, and microRNA are all regarded as humoral components. Adenosine, which also has a role in mediating the cardioprotective effects of ...
The protein encoded by this gene is part of a complex located in the inner mitochondrial membrane that mediates the transport of transit peptide-containing proteins across the membrane. Multiple transcript variants, one protein-coding and others not protein-coding, have been found for this gene ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prevention of stress- or nitric oxide donor-induced medication overuse headache by a calcitonin gene-related peptide antibody in rodents. AU - Kopruszinski, Caroline Machado. AU - Xie, Jennifer Yanhua. AU - Eyde, Nathan Mackenzie. AU - Remeniuk, Bethany. AU - Walter, Sarah. AU - Stratton, Jennifer. AU - Bigal, Marcelo. AU - Chichorro, Juliana Geremias. AU - Dodick, David. AU - Porreca, Frank. PY - 2017/5/1. Y1 - 2017/5/1. N2 - Objective The objective of this study was the determination of the role of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the induction of medication overuse headache (MOH)-related migraine in an injury-free preclinical model. Methods Rats were primed by a 7-day period of exposure to acute migraine therapies including sumatriptan and morphine. After an additional 14-day drug-free period, rats were exposed to putative migraine triggers including bright light stress (BLS) or nitric oxide (NO) donor in the presence or absence of TEV48125, a fully humanized CGRP ...
Numerous studies have shown that severing the dorsal roots, ie, the afferent nerves proximal to the dorsal root ganglia, reduces the number of substance P- and calcitonin gene-related peptide-containing nerves in the dorsal horn.21 There are few studies examining the effects of DRX on peripheral afferent innervation. However, there are reports showing that DRX at T6-L2 and L6/S1 reduced the number of substance P- and calcitonin gene-related peptide-containing nerves around the hepatic artery and portal vein22 and in urinary bladder,23 respectively. Therefore, we examined whether the responsiveness of afferent renal nerves was altered by DRX. Three weeks after DRX, increasing renal pelvic pressure failed to increase ARNA. The lack of ARNA responses in DRX rats was even more conspicuous considering that the rats were fed the HNa diet. In agreement with our previous studies,5 increasing renal pelvic pressure resulted in marked increases in ARNA in the sham-DRX rats fed an HNa diet. Further studies ...
The main olfactory bulb (OB) is made up of several concentric layers, forming circuitries often involving dendro-dendritic synapses. Important interactions between OB neurons occur in the external plexiform layer (EPL), where dendrites of tufted and Van Gehuchten cells form synapses with dendrites of deeper lying mitral, tufted, and granule cells. OB neurons display a variety of neurotransmitters. Here, the focus is on calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a 37-amino acid neuropeptide transmitter that is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous system. In the OB, CGRP-immunoreactive (ir) cell bodies were mostly observed in the mitral cell layer (MCL) of normal mice, and their number increased following colchicine treatment. Sparsely distributed CGRP-ir cell bodies were also found in the EPL and granular cell layer. Double-immunofluorescence experiments revealed a lack of co-localization between CGRP-like immunoreactivity (LI) and corticotropin-releasing factor- or galanin-LI, ...
Migraine is a debilitating neurological condition involving the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). The overall objective of this project is to...
To the Editor: I read with interest the ESBY study (Electrical Stimulation versus coronary artery BYpass surgery in severe angina pectoris) by Mannheimer et al.1 They found that spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has antianginal and anti-ischemic effects in severe angina pectoris and concluded that CABG and SCS are equivalent methods in terms of symptom relief.. In a previous report,2 these authors showed that myocardial extraction of β-endorphin during control atrial pacing changed to release at the maximum pacing rate during SCS. Furthermore, their results indicate local myocardial turnover of β-endorphin, leuenkephalin, and calcitonin-gene-related peptide. Han et al3 found that electroacupuncture of different frequencies was able to activate different opioid systems in the spinal cord of the rat: low frequency (2 Hz) for [Met5 ]enkephalin release and high frequency (100 Hz) for dynorphin A release. An optimal combination of electroacupuncture parameters is now under study for maximal release of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Role of ATP-sensitive K+ channels in CGRP-induced dilatation of basilar artery in vivo. AU - Kitazono, Takanari. AU - Heistad, D. D.. AU - Faraci, F. M.. PY - 1993/9/22. Y1 - 1993/9/22. N2 - Stimulation of adenylate cyclase appears to activate ATP-sensitive K+ channels in the basilar artery. We tested the hypothesis that calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), which increases intracellular adenosine 3,5- cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) levels, activates ATP-sensitive K+ channels and thereby causes vasodilatation. Using a cranial window in anesthetized rats, we examined responses of the basilar artery to CGRP in vivo. We also examined responses of the artery to another vasoactive peptide, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). Topical application of CGRP (10-11 to 10-8 M) increased diameter of the basilar artery. Responses of the basilar artery to CGRP were almost abolished by a CGRP1 receptor antagonist, CGRP-(8-37). Vasodilatation in response to VIP was much smaller than that ...
Peptides , Calcitonin Related Peptides; Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), adrenomedullin (ADM) and amylin belong to a unique group of calcitonin-related peptide hormones important for homeostasis in diverse tissues. Calcitonin, a 32-amino acid peptide hormone, is essential for calcium balance, whereas CGRP and ADM are important for neurotransmission and cardiovascular and respiratory function. Calcitonin regulates mineral balance by controlling blood concentrations of calcium and phosphorus metabolism and can cause hypercalcemia. An increase in the serum calcium level is known to stimulate calcitonin secretion. In mammals, the major source of calcitonin is from the parafollicular or C cells in the thyroid gland, but it is also synthesized in a wide variety of other tissues, including the lung and intestinal tract. Calcitonin contains a single disulfide bond, which causes the amino terminus to assume the shape of a ring. The calcitonin family of peptides act through G-protein protein coupled
The calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor is a heterodimer of a family B G-protein-coupled receptor, calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR), and the accessory protein receptor activity modifying protein 1. It couples to Gs, but it is not known which intracellular loops mediate this. We have identified the boundaries of this loop based on the relative position and length of the juxtamembrane transmembrane regions 3 and 4. The loop has been analyzed by systematic mutagenesis of all residues to alanine, measuring cAMP accumulation, CGRP affinity, and receptor expression. Unlike rhodopsin, ICL2 of the CGRP receptor plays a part in the conformational switch after agonist interaction. His-216 and Lys-227 were essential for a functional CGRP-induced cAMP response. The effect of (H216A)CLR is due to a disruption to the cell surface transport or surface stability of the mutant receptor. In contrast, (K227A)CLR had wild-type expression and agonist affinity, suggesting a direct disruption to the ...
Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are a class of oral anti-diabetic drugs, implicated in pleiotropic secondary cardioprotective effects. The aim of the study was to unveil the unknown and possible cardioprotective targets that can be exerted by sitagliptin (Sitg) against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Male wistar rats received 2 weeks’ Sitg oral treatment of different doses (25, 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg/day), or saline as a Control. Hearts were then isolated and subjected to two different I/R injury protocols: 10 min perfusion, 45 min regional ischemia, and 120 min reperfusion for infarct size (IS) measurement, or: 10 min perfusion, 45 min regional ischemia and 10 min reperfusion for biochemical analysis: nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) and DPP-4 activity, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), Calcium, transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV)-1 and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) levels, transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC)-1 and e-NOS protein expression. NOS inhibitor (l
Calcitonin is a circulating polypeptide that inhibits bone resorption by inducing both quiescence (Q effect) and retraction (R effect) in osteoclasts. Two structurally related members of the calcitonin gene peptide family, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and amylin, inhibit osteoclastic bone resorption selectively via the Q effect. In the present study, we have made measurements of cell spread area in response to the application of amylin, CGRP and a peptide fragment of CGRP, CGRP-(Val8Phe37). We found that, over a wide concentration range (50 pmol/l to 2.5 mumol/l), the selective Q effect agonists did not produce an R effect. Furthermore, the peptides, when used at a 50-fold higher molar concentration than calcitonin, did not antagonize calcitonin-induced cell retraction. Additionally, experiments designed to measure changes in the intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in single osteoclasts revealed that, unlike calcitonin, the non-calcitonin Q effect agonists did not produce a rise
PRF readers can get free access to a selected Journal of Pain paper each month, thanks to the American Pain Society. Get the free full text of the selection from the December 2017 issue here.. ...
Human APP PicoKine™ ELISA Kit (Amyloid beta A4 protein)...: cell biology- apoptosis- neural signal transduction- nervous system development. Bazı Hormon Belirteçleri için Yeni Çıkan ELISA Kitleri: -Alpha (aCGRP) Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide ELISA Kit. -Beta(bCGRP) Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide ELISA Kit. -Bradykinin ELISA Kit. -Caerulein ELISA Kit. -Dynorphin ELISA Kit. -ELABELA ELISA kit. -Enkephalin ELISA Kit. -Exendin-4 ELISA Kit. -Galanin ELISA Kit. -Hepsidin 25 ELISA Kit. -LHRH ELISA Kit. -Liraglutide ELISA Kit. -Pancreastatin ELISA Kit. -Secretin ELISA Kit. -TIP39(Tuberoinfundibular peptide39) ELISA Kit. -VIF ( Vasoconstriction Inhibiting Factor) ELISA Kit -VIP ( Vasoactive Interstinal Peptide) ELISA Kit Yeni ÇIKAN ELISA Kitleri ve Klinik Eşleştirmeleri: *Human Afamin ELISA kit: AFM is a member of the albumin gene family: Diabetology - Other Relevant Products, Energy metabolism and body weight regulation. *Human Cystatin B ELISA: Autoimmunity, Oncolog. *Human Cysteine-Rich ...
A female is considered of childbearing potential unless she is post menopausal for at least 12 months prior to administration of study drug, without a uterus and/or both ovaries or has been surgically sterilized for at least 6 months prior to study drug administration.. Reliable methods of contraception are: Complete abstinence from intercourse from 2 weeks prior to administration of the investigational product, throughout the study, and for a time interval (5 days) after completion or premature discontinuation from the study; or, History of bilateral tubal ligation; or, Sterilization of male partner; or, Implants of levonorgestrel; or, Injectable progestogen; or, Oral contraceptive (combination therapy with ethinyl estradiol plus a progestin) with a placebo week every 1-3 months; or, Any intrauterine device (IUD) with published data showing that the highest expected failure rate is less than 1% per year (not all IUDs meet this criterion) in use at least 30 days prior to study drug ...
It has been proposed that substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) are up-regulated in low-threshold myelinated primary afferents following certain types of nerve injury, and that release of substance P from these afferents contributes to the resulting tactile allodynia. To test this hypothesis, we looked for neuropeptides in Aβ primary afferent terminals in the ipsilateral gracile nucleus and spinal dorsal horn in three nerve injury models: sciatic nerve transection (SNT), spinal nerve ligation (SNL) and chronic constriction injury (CCI). We also looked for evidence of neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor internalisation in the dorsal horn following electrical stimulation of Aβ afferents. We found no evidence of either substance P or CGRP expression in injured Aβ terminals in the spinal cord in any of the models. Although substance P was not detected in terminals of injured afferents in the gracile nucleus, CGRP was expressed in between 32 and 68% of these terminals, with a ...
It has been proposed that substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) are upregulated in low-threshold myelinated primary afferents after certain types of nerve injury, and that release of substance P from these afferents contributes to the resulting tactile allodynia. To test this hypothesis, we looked for neuropeptides in Aβ primary afferent terminals in the ipsilateral gracile nucleus and spinal dorsal horn in three nerve injury models: sciatic nerve transection (SNT), spinal nerve ligation (SNL), and chronic constriction injury (CCI). We also looked for evidence of neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor internalization in the dorsal horn after electrical stimulation of Aβ afferents. We found no evidence of either substance P or CGRP expression in injured Aβ terminals in the spinal cord in any of the models. Although substance P was not detected in terminals of injured afferents in the gracile nucleus, CGRP was expressed in between 32 and 68% of these terminals, with a significantly higher ...
CGRP (Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide) is a neuropeptide which is released into the blood stream during a migraine attack and it has a central role in the underlying mechanisms of a migraine attack.. Recent results from clinical trials targeting CGRP are encouraging and the drugs are now entering phase 3 late stage clinical trials to further evaluate the benefits and safety of these new therapies.. In this video clip at the European Academy of Neurology Congress 2016, Prof. Peter Goadsby discusses the rationale for using CGRP antibodies in the treatment of migraine and the study findings so far ...
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptors were solubilized from rat cerebellum membranes in an active, stable, and guanine nucleotide-sensitive form by using digitonin. Nearly 90% of membrane CGRP receptors and 50% of membrane protein were solubilized by digitonin treatment of cerebellum membranes. Binding of 125ICGRP to soluble receptors was specific, saturable, of high affinity, and reversible. Scatchard analysis of the saturation binding data revealed a homogeneous population of binding sites with a Kd of 178 +/- 42 pM and a Bmax of 201 +/- 17 fmol/mg of protein. Binding of 125ICGRP to soluble receptors was inhibited nearly 60% by guanosine-5-O-(3-thio)triphosphate (GTP gamma S) (100 microM), suggesting coupling of receptors with guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) to form high affinity binding sites. Antiserum against the amino-terminal region of Gs alpha immunoprecipitated a significant portion of soluble CGRP receptors, indicating association of receptors with Gs ...
Definition of vasodilator nerve in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is vasodilator nerve? Meaning of vasodilator nerve as a legal term. What does vasodilator nerve mean in law?
Background. Electrophysiological studies in the mammalian kidney have identified two major classes of sensory receptors of the afferent renal nerves; chemoreceptors (CR) and mechanoreceptors (MR). The localization of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP) in these renal pelvic sensory neurons provides an anatomical basis for a possible functional interaction between the two neuropeptides and SP receptor. The present study was performed to examine the possible changes in the responsiveness of renal sensory SP and CGRP receptors in rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes mellitus. Due to the crucial role of renal pelvic SP and CGRP receptors in the activation of renal sensory neurons by various stimuli, we examined whether the responsiveness of MR or CR activation and the dorsal root ganglia content of neuropeptides and neurokinin 1 receptors (NK(1)R) were altered in diabetic rats compared with non-diabetic rats. Methods. Afferent renal nerve activity (ARNA) was ...
This book contains reviews by a renowned group of clinicians and scientists, which consider in great depth the potential involvement of neurogenic inflammation in the pathogenesis of migraine and inhibition of this putative mechanism as a possible mode of action of antimigraine medications. The authors carefully consider current and future potential therapeutic approaches for the abortive as well as preventive treatment of migraine. The pioneering work by Professor Michael A. Moskowitzs group at Harvard gave rise to the neurogenic hypothesis of migraine pathogenesis and to an intel- lectual framework for many aspects of migraine research through a detailed phar- macological characterization of the trigeminovascular system. This knowledge then spurred detailed research worldwide into the roles of the dural vasculature, trigem- inal nerve fibers, and sensory neuropeptides, such as substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide, in migraine. Similar in-depth investigations have not been made of the
Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals olcegepant (BIBN 4096) is a selective Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide (CGRP) antagonist, a new class of drugs in development for the treatment of acute migraine attacks. Olcegepant is undergoing phase II trials in Europe and the US, with preliminary results suggesting that CGRP antagonists may represent a potential new approach to the treatment of migraine.
Images. Sensory nerve fiber sprouting and formation of neuroma-like structures in the painful geriatric arthritic knee joint. Schematic of a frontal view of a cross-sectioned mouse knee joint (A). The red square illustrates the synovial region from which the confocal images were obtained. Representative confocal images of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP+), neurofilament 200 kDa (NF200+) sensory nerve fibers (yellow/orange) and growth associated protein (GAP43; marker of fibers undergo regeneration, yellow/orange) and DAPI labeled nuclei (blue) in knee joint sections (20 μm thick) of vehicle-injected (B,D,F) and CFA-injected (C,E,G ) mice. In vehicle-injected mice, a low level, regular pattern of innervation by CGRP+ and NF200+ fibers is observed in the synovial space of the knee joint. Twenty-eight days following the initial CFA injection, a significant number of CGRP+ and NF200+ nerve fibers have sprouted and have a disorganized appearance as compared to vehicle-injected mice. Note that, ...
Images. Sensory nerve fiber sprouting and formation of neuroma-like structures in the painful geriatric arthritic knee joint. Schematic of a frontal view of a cross-sectioned mouse knee joint (A). The red square illustrates the synovial region from which the confocal images were obtained. Representative confocal images of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP+), neurofilament 200 kDa (NF200+) sensory nerve fibers (yellow/orange) and growth associated protein (GAP43; marker of fibers undergo regeneration, yellow/orange) and DAPI labeled nuclei (blue) in knee joint sections (20 μm thick) of vehicle-injected (B,D,F) and CFA-injected (C,E,G ) mice. In vehicle-injected mice, a low level, regular pattern of innervation by CGRP+ and NF200+ fibers is observed in the synovial space of the knee joint. Twenty-eight days following the initial CFA injection, a significant number of CGRP+ and NF200+ nerve fibers have sprouted and have a disorganized appearance as compared to vehicle-injected mice. Note that, ...
Dorsal root ganglia taken from animals with CCI were analyzed for alterations in mRNA levels encoding growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), galanin (GAL), neuropeptide Y (NPY), substance P (SP), and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP ...
in Neuroscience (1992), 51(2), 401-10. In a previous work we have shown that culturing adult rat dorsal root ganglia neurons modifies their neurotransmitter phenotype in such a way that cultured neurons synthesize transmitters that are not ... [more ▼]. In a previous work we have shown that culturing adult rat dorsal root ganglia neurons modifies their neurotransmitter phenotype in such a way that cultured neurons synthesize transmitters that are not found in situ, while several other transmitters are expressed in a much higher percentage of neurons in culture than in situ [Schoenen J. et al. (1989) J. Neurosci. Res. 22, 473-487]. The aim of the present study was to investigate the origin and the nature of the relevant environmental signals that allow this plasticity to be expressed, focusing on three neurotransmitters: 5-hydroxytryptamine, thyrotropin-releasing hormone and calcitonin-gene related peptide. The main results can be summarized as follows: (1) culturing cells in fetal calf serum ...
The transient receptor potential cationic channel type A1 (TRPA1), belonging to a superfamily of cationic membrane channels, has been suggested to act as mechano- and pain sensor and, thus, to play a role in neurotransmission in the human body, including the urogenital tract While the expression of TRPA1 has been investigated in a variety of tissues, up until today no Study has addressed the expression and distribution in the female genital tract. The present study aimed to investigate the expression and distribution of TRPA1 protein in human vaginal tissue, Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) Was applied in order to identify messenger ribonuleic acid specifically encoding for TAPA/A1. The distribution of TRPA1 in relation to the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and the signaling peptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) was examined by means of imnnunohistocheitical methods (double-antibody technique, laser fluorescence microscopy). RT-PCR analysis revealed the expression of mRNA ...
Heterotopic ossification, defined as the formation of bone in abnormal anatomic locations, can be clinically insignificant or devastating and debilitating, depending on the site and duration of new bone formation. There are many causes of heterotopic ossification (HO), including soft tissue trauma, central nervous system injury, vasculopathies, arthropathies, and inheritance. One of the least understood components of HO is the interaction of the peripheral nervous system with the induction of this process. Recent work has shown that, upon traumatic injury, a cascade of events termed neurogenic inflammation is initiated, which involves the release of neuropeptides, such as substance P and calcitonin gene related peptide. Release of these peptides ultimately leads to the recruitment of activated platelets, mast cells, and neutrophils to the injury site. These cells appear to be involved with both remodeling of the nerve, as well as potentially recruiting additional cells from the bone marrow to ...
Antibodies blocking a specific neurotransmitter involved in migraines appear to relieve migraine headaches. Two studies presented at the annual meeting of the American Academy of Neurology reported on the use of antibodies to CGRP (calcitonin gene-related peptide) for the treatment of migraine headaches. These were relatively small, but highly scientific (randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled) studies.…
Analysts took a look at the data on Amgens latest Phase III for CGRP migraine drug erenumab (AMG334) and came away reassured, but perhaps a bit unimpressed. Heres Leerinks Geoffrey Porges: "The data confirm the ample evidence from phase 2 trials that suggested that calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor blockade will provide the first-ever migraine targeted prevention pharmaceutical treatment. Both trials demonstrated the superiority of AMG334 to placebo on both the primary and secondary endpoints, as well as showing excellent safety and tolerability. While the data were not overwhelmingly positive (i.e., 60% of patients with 50% reduction in migraine days), they were consistent and durable, which should ensure widespread adoption by patients (provide pricing and payer processing allow it). Amgens erenumab appears to have shown a similar placebo adjusted effect as Alders (OP) Eptinezumab in phase 2 trials (1 day improvement of monthly migraines at week 12). The effect is lower than ...
Cyclophosphamide- (CYP-) induced cystitis increases calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the urinary bladder and cystometric fluid and the antioxidant, Tem
A low or a high dose of tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) injected in the lateral rectus muscle of the cat causes respectively, functional block of inhibitory synapses only or of both inhibitory and excitatory synapses simultaneously in abducens neurons (González-Forero et al. [2003] J. Neurophysiol. 89:1878-1890). As a consequence, neuronal firing activity increases (at low dose) or decreases (at high dose). We investigated possible structural modifications of inhibitory synapses in response to these activity alterations induced by TeNT. We used immunofluorescence against postsynaptic (gephyrin) and presynaptic (vesicular γ-aminobutyric acid [GABA] transporter [VGAT]) markers of inhibitory synapses in combination with cell type markers for abducens motoneurons (calcitonin gene-related peptide or choline acetyltransferase) or internuclear neurons (calretinin). Seven days after high-dose treatment, the number of gephyrin-immunoreactive (IR) clusters per 100 μm of membrane perimeter was reduced on the soma of
electromechanical responses of cardiomyocytes to individual and combined components of ischemia. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol, 80: 1145-1157 2003.- Schaeffer, C., D. Vandroux, L. Thomassin, P. Athias, L. Rochette and J. L. Connat. Calcitonin gene-related peptide partly protects cultured smooth muscle cells from apoptosis induced by an oxidative stress via activation of ERK1/2 MAPK. Biochim Biophys Acta 1643(1-3): 65-73. 2004.- Chantome, A., A. Pance, N. Gauthier, D. Vandroux, J. Chenu, E. Solary, J. F. Jeannin and S. Reveneau. Casein kinase II-mediated phosphorylation of NF-kB p65 subunit enhances inducible nitric oxide synthase gene transcription in vivo. J Biol Chem. 279(23): 23953-60. 2004.- Gambert, S., S. Bes-Houtmann, D. Vandroux, C. Tissier, C. Vergely-Vandriesse, L. Rochette and P. Athias. Deep hypothermia during ischemia improves functional recovery and reduces free-radical generation in isolated reperfused rat heart. J Heart Lung Transplant 23(4): 487-91. 2004.- Vandroux, D., C. ...
Inotropic and lusitropic effects of calcitonin gene-related peptide in the heart. American. Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology, 2013, Published online before print Apr 12, 2013. Mustafa Al-Rubaiee, Pandu R.R. Gangula, Richard M Millis, Robin K Walker, Nsini A Umoh, Valerie M. Cousins, Miara A Jeffress, Georges E. Haddad.. ...
Inotropic and lusitropic effects of calcitonin gene-related peptide in the heart. American. Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology, 2013, Published online before print Apr 12, 2013. Mustafa Al-Rubaiee, Pandu R.R. Gangula, Richard M Millis, Robin K Walker, Nsini A Umoh, Valerie M. Cousins, Miara A Jeffress, Georges E. Haddad.. ...
Dear Huaichun Wang, The Human Genome Database has information on the calcitonin-related polypeptide, beta gene (symbol CALCB). There is a cDNA clone and a genomic clone for this gene that are publicly available. For the cDNA (pCGRP-4),which contains exons 3, 5 and 6, the contact person is J. Hoppener(phone 31-30-532-577) in the Netherlands. For the genomic clone (MGL23), which contains exons 3-5, the contact person is Steve Legon, Dept of Clinical Pathology, Royal Postgraduate Medical School, Hammersmith Hospital, Ducane Rd., London UK, W12 0HS. You can view this information by accessing a new interface for GDB at http://gdbdev.gdb.org/gdb/lite/docs/home.html Search by *calcitonin* as the gene name to return all calcitonin genes in GDB, select your gene of interest from the list and search for Reagents for Gene Analysis - cDNA and genomic clones. Please let me know if you have any trouble locating this information, or any further questions. Sincerely, Amy Voltz avoltz at gdb.org hcwang at ...
A statistically significant (p=0.0039) increase in IL6 was shown in the blood plasma of the cisplatin animals (131.9±31.91 pg/ml) compared to the vehicle animals (38.00±6.748 pg/ml). There were no significant differences between cisplatin and vehicle animals in dorsal horn neurones or astrocytes at either time point. Microglia cell counts in the dorsal horn were significantly decreased at the juvenile time point in the Cisplatin treatment group. Cisplatin induced significant increases in dorsal horn expression of Aβ-fibre and non-peptidergic C-fibre terminations at both time-points, in the Cisplatin treatment group. TrkA expression in dorsal horn peptidetgic C-fibre terminations was increased at both time-points, however, CGRP expression was only initially increased at the juvenile time-point but showed no difference to the veh at the adult time-point. Interneuron expression was increased at both time-points ...
... ,Calcitonin is synthesized in the parafollicular C-cells of the thyroid gland and is packaged in secretory granules. The major action of calcitonin is to lower plasma calcium concentrations, by inhibiting osteoclast activity, resulting in decreased mobilization of calcium from bone [1]. This effect,medicine,medical supply,medical supplies,medical product
Calcitonin drug-oligomer conjugates that include a calcitonin drug coupled to an oligomer including a single polyalkylene glycol moiety consisting of between 4 and 10 polyalkylene glycol subunits are disclosed. Pharmaceutical compositions including such conjugates and methods of treating bone disorders by administering such conjugates are also disclosed.
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Patient information for CALCITONIN 50 IU/ML SOLUTION FOR INJECTION AND INFUSION Including dosage instructions and possible side effects.
Calcitonin injection is currently not approved for the treatment of osteoporosis but is sometimes prescribed for people who have fractures of the vertebrae, mainly to relieve pain.. If your doctor recommends an injection, he or she will give you a test dose first to check for an allergic reaction to the medication.. Treatment usually includes injections for three to five days in a row, initially, followed by maintenance therapy three times a week, for up to about six months. Long-term use may decrease the medications effectiveness.. Side- ...
We use cookies to enhance your experience on our website. By continuing to use our website, you are agreeing to our use of cookies. You can change your cookie settings at any time.Find out more ...
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE High-altitude headache is the primary symptom associated with acute mountain sickness, which may be caused by nitric oxide-mediated activation of the trigeminovascular system. Therefore, the present study examined the effects of inspiratory hypoxia on the transcerebral exchange kinetics of the vasoactive molecules, nitrite (NO(2)(*)), and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). METHODS Ten males were examined in normoxia and after 9-hour exposure to hypoxia (12.9% O(2)). Global cerebral blood flow was measured by the Kety-Schmidt technique with paired samples obtained from the radial artery and jugular venous bulb. Plasma CGRP and NO(2)(*) were analyzed via radioimmunoassay and ozone-based chemiluminescence. Net cerebral exchange was calculated by the Fick principle and acute mountain sickness/headache scores assessed via clinically validated questionnaires. RESULTS Hypoxia increased cerebral blood flow with a corresponding increase in acute mountain sickness and headache
This article reviews the anti-inflammatory relative and anti-infectious effects of Evodia rutaecarpa and its major bioactive components and the involvement of the nitric oxide synthases, cyclooxygenase, NADPH oxidase, nuclear factor kappa B, hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha, reactive oxygen species, prostaglandins, tumor necrosis factor, LIGHT, amyloid protein and orexigenic neuropeptides. Their potential applications for the treatment of endotoxaemia, obesity, diabetes, Alzheimers disease and their uses as cardiovascular and gastrointestinal protective agents, analgesics, anti-oxidant, anti-atherosclerosis agents, dermatological agents and anti-infectious agents are highlighted. Stimulation of calcitonin gene-related peptide release may partially explain the analgesic, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal protective, anti-obese activities of Evodia rutaecarpa and its major bioactive components.
PMID: 9610308 To study the role of the nervous system in temporomandibular joint arthritis, substance P-, calcitonin gene-related peptide-, and neuropeptide Y-like immunoreactivity in the trigeminal ganglia and temporomandibular joint of rats was examined. Arthritis was induced in female Lewis rats through bilateral injection of a suspension of heat-killed Mycobacterium butyricum in paraffin oil into the temporomandibular joint. Control rats received paraffin oil via the same route. Tissues were collected for neuropeptide extraction 28 days after injection and analyzed by radioimmunoassay and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatogrpahy. Calcitonin gene-related peptide was significantly increased in the arthritic trigeminal ganglia. Substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide, and neuropeptide Y in the arthritic temporomandibular joint were significantly increased as compared to controls. The results of this study show that sensory and sympathetic neuropeptides may possibly be ...
Background: Secretagogin (Scgn), a member of the EF-hand calcium-binding protein (CaBP) superfamily, has recently been found in subsets of developing and adult neurons. Here, we have analyzed the expression of Scgn in dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) and trigeminal ganglia (TGs), and in spinal cord of mouse at the mRNA and protein levels, and in comparison to the well-known CaBPs, calbindin D-28k, parvalbumin and calretinin. Rat DRGs, TGs and spinal cord, as well as human DRGs and spinal cord were used to reveal phylogenetic variations. Results: We found Scgn mRNA expressed in mouse and human DRGs and in mouse ventral spinal cord. Our immunohistochemical data showed a complementary distribution of Scgn and the three CaBPs in mouse DRG neurons and spinal cord. Scgn was expressed in similar to 7% of all mouse DRG neuron profiles, mainly small ones and almost exclusively co-localized with calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). This co-localization was also seen in human, but not in rat DRGs. Scgn could ...
Headaches are a common chief complaint of patients seeking advice from a pharmacist. The three main categories of primary headache disorder are migraine, tension-type, and cluster headaches. The pathophysiologic and etiologic mechanisms of migraine are not known. The sensory sensitivity may be due to a dysfunction of monoaminergic sensory control systems of the brainstem and thalamus. It is speculated that the trigeminovascular input from the meningeal vessels is a pathway for pain recognized in migraine headaches. There is a release of vasoactive neuropeptides, specifically calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), when the cells in the trigeminal nucleus are activated. There is a deficiency of serotonin levels in the plasma during a migraine attack. The use of serotonin agonists, triptans, in migraine therapy has demonstrated the role of serotonin in treatment, being potent agonists of 5-HT1B, 5-HT1D, and 5-HT1F. Dopamine may also play a role in migraine headaches as dopamine receptor ...
HOT peppers have been used for centuries as a remedy for various ailments. Modern clinicians use the active ingredient capsaicin most commonly to relieve pain. Topical application of capsaicin to skin or mucus membranes and intrathecal administration causes the release and ultimate depletion of substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide. 1-5 This response is thought to be the antecedent to pain relief when used for pain reduction. Capsaicin (trans -8-methyl-N -vanillyl-6-nonenamide) is a specific excitant of unmyelinated afferent fibers (C fibers). Because most C fibers conduct nociceptive impulses and produce acute symptoms that mimic some chronic pain syndromes, such as complex regional pain syndrome types I and II, capsaicin has been used as a probe to study the mechanisms of pain generation. An intradermal injection of a small amount of capsaicin evokes an intensely painful, burning sensation. The skin overlying the bleb raised by the injection is insensitive to noxious stimuli, but ...
Both calcitonin and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) stimulate adenylate cyclase activity in the human breast cancer cell line (T 47D). The maximum cyclic AMP response to calcitonin exceeds that of PGE2. When maximal concentrations of the two hormones were added simultaneously to the cells, the amount of cyclic AMP generated was less than that seen with calcitonin alone. When cells were treated with the protein toxin of Bordetella pertussis (islet-activating protein; IAP) which inactivates the inhibitory regulatory component (Ni) of adenylate cyclase, there was no change in basal or calcitonin-responsive adenylate cyclase in intact cells. However, the PGE2 response was augmented at all dose levels, and this effect was dependent on the concentration of IAP. Moreover, in cells pretreated with IAP, simultaneous addition of PGE2 and calcitonin resulted in additivity rather than in inhibition of cyclic AMP production. The additivity of the response to calcitonin and PGE2 after IAP treatment implies activation ...
Looking for online definition of calcitonin receptor-like receptor activity modifying protein 3 in the Medical Dictionary? calcitonin receptor-like receptor activity modifying protein 3 explanation free. What is calcitonin receptor-like receptor activity modifying protein 3? Meaning of calcitonin receptor-like receptor activity modifying protein 3 medical term. What does calcitonin receptor-like receptor activity modifying protein 3 mean?

Quantitative autoradiography reveals higher densities of specific calcitonin-gene-related peptide receptors in small...Quantitative autoradiography reveals higher densities of specific calcitonin-gene-related peptide receptors in small...

... β-Human calcitonin-gene-related peptide showed higher affinity than α-human calcitonin-gene-related peptide for the binding ... 2. A single class of binding sites for calcitonin-gene-related peptide with a dissociation constant of 2.1 ± 0.2 nmol/l was ... 1. Binding sites for calcitonin-gene-related peptide were localized and characterized in porcine coronary arteries using ... Quantitative autoradiography reveals higher densities of specific calcitonin-gene-related peptide receptors in small ...
more infohttp://www.clinsci.org/content/84/1/55

calcitonin gene-related peptide | Modern medicinecalcitonin gene-related peptide | Modern medicine

calcitonin gene-related peptide. Migraine Pipeline and Impact Updates: What Health Execs Should Know. March 13, 2018By David ...
more infohttp://www.modernmedicine.com/tag/calcitonin-gene-related-peptide

Calcitonin gene-related peptide regulates muscle acetylcholine receptor synthesis.  - PubMed - NCBICalcitonin gene-related peptide regulates muscle acetylcholine receptor synthesis. - PubMed - NCBI

A molecule immunologically related to calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP-I) has been found in motoneurones in a variety of ... Calcitonin gene-related peptide regulates muscle acetylcholine receptor synthesis.. New HV, Mudge AW. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3490625?dopt=Abstract

Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide
     Summary Report | CureHunterCalcitonin Gene-Related Peptide Summary Report | CureHunter

Calcitonin gene-related peptide. A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the calcitonin gene. It occurs as a result of alternative ... The peptide produces multiple biological effects and has both circulatory and neurotransmitter modes of action. In particular, ... processing of mRNA from the calcitonin gene. The neuropeptide is widely distributed in neural tissue of the brain, gut, ... Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide; Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide I; Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide II; Gene-Related Peptide, ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryD015740-Calcitonin-Gene-Related-Peptide.do

calcitonin gene related peptide Protocols and Video...'calcitonin gene related peptide' Protocols and Video...

... calcitonin gene related peptide include Primer-Free Aptamer Selection Using A Random DNA Library, Assessment of Vascular ... Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide: Calcitonin gene-related peptide. A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the calcitonin gene. It ... The peptide produces multiple biological effects and has both circulatory and neurotransmitter modes of action. In particular, ... occurs as a result of alternative processing of mRNA from the calcitonin gene. The neuropeptide is widely distributed in neural ...
more infohttps://www.jove.com/keyword/calcitonin+gene+related+peptide

α-Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide, α-CGRP, ratα-Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide, α-CGRP, rat

Cardiovascular Related Peptides , α-Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide, α-CGRP, rat; α-CGRP is preferentially expressed in sensory ... Peptides , Cardiovascular Related Peptides ,, α-Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide, α-CGRP, rat. ... α - Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide, α - CGRP, rat. SCNTATCVTHRLAGLLSRSGGVVKDNFVPTNVGSEAF - NH2 (Disulfide bridge: 2 - 7). ...
more infohttps://anaspec.com/products/product.asp?id=58858

Calcitonin Gene-related Peptide Levels in Chronic Migraine - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govCalcitonin Gene-related Peptide Levels in Chronic Migraine - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Calcitonin. Salmon calcitonin. Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide. Botulinum Toxins, Type A. abobotulinumtoxinA. Katacalcin. ... Calcitonin Gene-related Peptide Levels in Chronic Migraine. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... Elevated saliva calcitonin gene-related peptide levels during acute migraine predict therapeutic response to rizatriptan. ... Durham PL, Cady R, Cady R. Regulation of calcitonin gene-related peptide secretion from trigeminal nerve cells by botulinum ...
more infohttps://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01071096

Amylin, calcitonin gene-related peptide, calcitonin, and adrenomedullin: a peptide superfamily.  - PubMed - NCBIAmylin, calcitonin gene-related peptide, calcitonin, and adrenomedullin: a peptide superfamily. - PubMed - NCBI

The calcitonin gene peptide superfamily consists of calcitonin (CT), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), and amylin. CT and ... Amylin, calcitonin gene-related peptide, calcitonin, and adrenomedullin: a peptide superfamily.. Wimalawansa SJ1. ... Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide/chemistry. *Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide/genetics. *Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide/ ... and amylin are related to the insulin gene superfamily of peptides, which may all have diverged from a common ancestral gene ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9209829?dopt=Abstract

Calcb - Calcitonin gene-related peptide 2 - Mus musculus (Mouse) - Calcb gene & proteinCalcb - Calcitonin gene-related peptide 2 - Mus musculus (Mouse) - Calcb gene & protein

Calcitonin gene-related peptide 2. Calcitonin gene-related peptide 2 (Beta-type CGRP) (Calcitonin gene-related peptide II, CGRP ... IPR021117 Calcitonin-like. IPR021116 Calcitonin/adrenomedullin. IPR018360 Calcitonin_CS. IPR015476 Calcitonin_gene-rel_peptide ... IPR021117 Calcitonin-like. IPR021116 Calcitonin/adrenomedullin. IPR018360 Calcitonin_CS. IPR015476 Calcitonin_gene-rel_peptide ... Calcitonin gene-related peptide 2Imported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q3UW96

What is the role of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the pathogenesis of anaphylaxis?What is the role of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the pathogenesis of anaphylaxis?

Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a sensory neurotransmitter that is widely distributed in cardiovascular tissues, may ... What is the role of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the pathogenesis of anaphylaxis?. Updated: May 16, 2018 ... Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a sensory neurotransmitter that is widely distributed in cardiovascular tissues, may ... Anaphylaxis syndromes related to a new mammalian cross-reactive carbohydrate determinant. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009 Oct. 124 ...
more infohttps://www.medscape.com/answers/135065-52856/what-is-the-role-of-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-cgrp-in-the-pathogenesis-of-anaphylaxis

What is the role of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the pathogenesis of anaphylaxis?What is the role of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the pathogenesis of anaphylaxis?

Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a sensory neurotransmitter that is widely distributed in cardiovascular tissues, may ... What is the role of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the pathogenesis of anaphylaxis?. Updated: May 16, 2018 ... Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a sensory neurotransmitter that is widely distributed in cardiovascular tissues, may ... encoded search term (What is the role of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the pathogenesis of anaphylaxis?) and What ...
more infohttps://www.medscape.com/answers/135065-52856/886641-overview

Calcitonin gene-related peptide - WikipediaCalcitonin gene-related peptide - Wikipedia

Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a member of the calcitonin family of peptides, which in humans exists in two forms, α ... Regulation of the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) gene is in part controlled by the expression of the mitogen-activated ... The mammalian calcitonin gene-related peptides, adrenomedullin, amylin, and calcitonin receptors". Pharmacol Rev. 54 (2): 233- ... 1992). "Calcitonin gene-related peptide in the regulation of cardiac function". Ann NY Acad Sci. 657: 194-203. doi:10.1111/j. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calcitonin_gene-related_peptide

Frontiers | Protective Role of α-Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide in Cardiovascular Diseases | PhysiologyFrontiers | Protective Role of α-Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide in Cardiovascular Diseases | Physiology

"α-calcitonin gene related peptide (α-CGRP) is a regulatory neuropeptide of 37-amino acids. It is widely distributed in the ... "α-calcitonin gene related peptide (α-CGRP) is a regulatory neuropeptide of 37-amino acids. It is widely distributed in the ... α-Calcitonin gene-related peptide (α-CGRP) is a regulatory neuropeptide that belongs to the calcitonin/CGRP peptide family that ... 2000). Increased blood pressure in alpha-calcitonin gene-related peptide/calcitonin gene knockout mice. Hypertension 35, 470- ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphys.2019.00821/full

CALCB - Calcitonin gene-related peptide 2 precursor - Homo sapiens (Human) - CALCB gene & proteinCALCB - Calcitonin gene-related peptide 2 precursor - Homo sapiens (Human) - CALCB gene & protein

... help/peptide target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>PeptideiPRO_0000004087. 82 - 118. Calcitonin gene-related peptide 2Add BLAST. 37. ... IPR021117 Calcitonin-like. IPR021116 Calcitonin/adrenomedullin. IPR018360 Calcitonin_CS. IPR015476 Calcitonin_gene-rel_peptide ... IPR021117 Calcitonin-like. IPR021116 Calcitonin/adrenomedullin. IPR018360 Calcitonin_CS. IPR015476 Calcitonin_gene-rel_peptide ... sp,P10092,CALCB_HUMAN Calcitonin gene-related peptide 2 OS=Homo sapiens OX=9606 GN=CALCB PE=1 SV=1 ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P10092

Role of calcitonin gene-related peptide and brain natriuretic peptide  | JRLCRRole of calcitonin gene-related peptide and brain natriuretic peptide | JRLCR

Using calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) as examples, this review addresses the ... For either peptide, the key target appears to be the ATP-gated P2X3 receptor that, widely expressed by trigeminal sensory ... The fine balance between the activities of these peptides is suggested to ultimately determine whether nociception is perceived ... to sequester this peptide or to directly inhibit its receptor) is currently considered a novel approach for migraine ...
more infohttps://www.dovepress.com/role-of-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-and-brain-natriuretic-peptide--peer-reviewed-article-JRLCR

calcitonin gene-related peptidecalcitonin gene-related peptide

Category: Meds & Supplements, News & Research, Treatment Tags: calcitonin gene-related peptide, clinical trials, GCRP 3 ... are the first to test monoclonal antibodies for migraine prevention and both target the protein calcitonin gene-related peptide ...
more infohttp://www.thedailyheadache.com/tag/calcitonin-gene-related-peptide

Induction of Insulin Resistance In Vivo by Amylin and Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide | DiabetesInduction of Insulin Resistance In Vivo by Amylin and Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide | Diabetes

During hyperinsulinemic glucose-clamp studies, intravenous infusion of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in rats ... Induction of Insulin Resistance In Vivo by Amylin and Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide. ... Induction of Insulin Resistance In Vivo by Amylin and Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide ... Induction of Insulin Resistance In Vivo by Amylin and Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide ...
more infohttp://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/39/2/260

Receptors, Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide | Profiles RNSReceptors, Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide | Profiles RNS

Receptors, Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide*Receptors, Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide. *Receptors, Calcitonin Gene Related ... Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide" by people in this website by year, and whether "Receptors, Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide" ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is related to "Receptors, Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide". ... "Receptors, Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary ...
more infohttps://profiles.umassmed.edu/display/120175

Calcitonin gene-related peptide - Biology-Online Dictionary | Biology-Online DictionaryCalcitonin gene-related peptide - Biology-Online Dictionary | Biology-Online Dictionary

Calcitonin gene-related peptide (Science: protein) a second product transcribed from the calcitonin gene. Calcitonin gene ... Retrieved from "https://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/index.php?title=Calcitonin_gene-related_peptide&oldid=64605" ... It occurs as a result of alternative processing of mrna from the calcitonin gene. ... related peptide is found in a number of tissues including nervous Tissue. It is a vasodilator that may participate in the ...
more infohttps://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/Calcitonin_gene-related_peptide

Dural Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide Produces Female-Specific Responses in Rodent Migraine Models | Journal of NeuroscienceDural Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide Produces Female-Specific Responses in Rodent Migraine Models | Journal of Neuroscience

Dural Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide Produces Female-Specific Responses in Rodent Migraine Models. Amanda Avona, Carolina ... Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) has been implicated in the pathology of migraine for several decades. CGRP is elevated ... SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) has long been implicated in the pathophysiology of migraine, and ... 2017) The role of calcitonin gene-related peptide in peripheral and central pain mechanisms including migraine. Pain 158:543- ...
more infohttps://www.jneurosci.org/content/39/22/4323

Distribution of substance P and the calcitonin gene-related peptide in the human tensor tympani muscle | SpringerLinkDistribution of substance P and the calcitonin gene-related peptide in the human tensor tympani muscle | SpringerLink

... and calcitonin gene-related peptide-immunoreactive nerve fiber (CGRP-IR NF) are important mediators of neurogenic inflammation ... Corcoran BM, Mayhew IG, Hahn CN, Prince DR (2000) Expression of vasoactive intestinal peptide, calcitonin gene-related peptide ... The distribution of nerve fibres immunoreactive for vasoactive intestinal peptide, calcitonin gene-related peptide, substance P ... The distribution of Calcitonin gene-related peptide-immunoreactive nerve fibers (CGRP-IR NFs) in the inner surface region of ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00405-013-2469-1

Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide (Cgrp), Adrenomedullin (Am), Amylin, And Calcitonin (Ct) Receptors And Overlapping Biological...Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide (Cgrp), Adrenomedullin (Am), Amylin, And Calcitonin (Ct) Receptors And Overlapping Biological...

Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide (Cgrp), Adrenomedullin (Am), Amylin, And Calcitonin (Ct) Receptors And Overlapping Biological ... J.A. Fischer, W. Born, and R. Muff, "Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide (Cgrp), Adrenomedullin (Am), Amylin, And Calcitonin (Ct) ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2001/646807/cta/

Calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonist - WikipediaCalcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonist - Wikipedia

Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonists are a class of drugs that act as antagonists of the calcitonin gene ... Mitsikostas, DD; Reuter, U. "Calcitonin gene-related peptide monoclonal antibodies for migraine prevention: comparisons across ... an Oral Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide Receptor Antagonist". British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 79 (5): 831-7. doi: ... Nakasa, T; Ishikawa, M; Takada, T; Miyaki, S; Ochi, M (2015). "Attenuation of cartilage degeneration by calcitonin gene-related ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calcitonin_gene-related_peptide_receptor_antagonist

Characterization of the human calcitonin-gene-related peptide receptor | Biochemical Society TransactionsCharacterization of the human calcitonin-gene-related peptide receptor | Biochemical Society Transactions

Characterization of the human calcitonin-gene-related peptide receptor. STEVEN M. FOORD, ROGER K. CRAIG ... Characterization of the human calcitonin-gene-related peptide receptor Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ... Characterization of the human calcitonin-gene-related peptide receptor. STEVEN M. FOORD, ROGER K. CRAIG ...
more infohttp://www.biochemsoctrans.org/content/15/4/714
  • Reviewing this growing literature, we have suggested that the BNST participates preferentially in sustained but not phasic threat responses-a pattern complementary to that of the closely related medial division of the central amygdala nucleus. (jneurosci.org)
  • p>A type of phylogenetic evidence whereby an aspect of a descendent is inferred through the characterization of an aspect of a ancestral gene. (uniprot.org)
  • CT (a 32-amino-acid peptide) is, however, a hormone primarily involved in protecting the skeleton during periods of "calcium stress" such as growth, pregnancy, and lactation. (nih.gov)