Calcitonin: A peptide hormone that lowers calcium concentration in the blood. In humans, it is released by thyroid cells and acts to decrease the formation and absorptive activity of osteoclasts. Its role in regulating plasma calcium is much greater in children and in certain diseases than in normal adults.Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide: Calcitonin gene-related peptide. A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the calcitonin gene. It occurs as a result of alternative processing of mRNA from the calcitonin gene. The neuropeptide is widely distributed in neural tissue of the brain, gut, perivascular nerves, and other tissue. The peptide produces multiple biological effects and has both circulatory and neurotransmitter modes of action. In particular, it is a potent endogenous vasodilator.Receptors, Calcitonin: Cell surface proteins that bind calcitonin and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Calcitonin receptors outside the nervous system mediate the role of calcitonin in calcium homeostasis. The role of calcitonin receptors in the brain is not well understood.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Receptors, Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide: Cell surface proteins that bind CALCITONIN GENE-RELATED PEPTIDE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. CGRP receptors are present in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and the periphery. They are formed via the heterodimerization of the CALCITONIN RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN and RECEPTOR ACTIVITY-MODIFYING PROTEIN 1.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Calcitonin Receptor-Like Protein: A receptor protein that is associated with RECEPTOR ACTIVITY-MODIFYING PROTEINS. When bound to RECEPTOR ACTIVITY-MODIFYING PROTEIN 1 it forms the CALCITONIN GENE-RELATED RECEPTOR. When bound to RECEPTOR ACTIVITY-MODIFYING PROTEIN 2 or RECEPTOR ACTIVITY-MODIFYING PROTEIN 3 it forms the ADRENOMEDULLIN RECEPTOR.Carcinoma in Situ: A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.Carcinoma, Papillary: A malignant neoplasm characterized by the formation of numerous, irregular, finger-like projections of fibrous stroma that is covered with a surface layer of neoplastic epithelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Carcinoma, Medullary: A carcinoma composed mainly of epithelial elements with little or no stroma. Medullary carcinomas of the breast constitute 5%-7% of all mammary carcinomas; medullary carcinomas of the thyroid comprise 3%-10% of all thyroid malignancies. (From Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1141; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Receptor Activity-Modifying Proteins: A family of proteins that bind to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and alter their specificity, signaling mechanism, or mode of intracellular transport.Thyroid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast: An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.Carcinoma, Basal Cell: A malignant skin neoplasm that seldom metastasizes but has potentialities for local invasion and destruction. Clinically it is divided into types: nodular, cicatricial, morphaic, and erythematoid (pagetoid). They develop on hair-bearing skin, most commonly on sun-exposed areas. Approximately 85% are found on the head and neck area and the remaining 15% on the trunk and limbs. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1471)Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Receptor Activity-Modifying Protein 1: A receptor activity-modifying protein that is a subunit of specific G-PROTEIN COUPLED RECEPTORS. The CALCITONIN GENE-RELATED PEPTIDE RECEPTOR is formed from a dimer of this protein and CALCITONIN RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN, while an isoform of the ISLET AMYLOID POLYPEPTIDE RECEPTOR is formed from this protein dimerizing with the CALCITONIN RECEPTOR.Carcinoma, Transitional Cell: A malignant neoplasm derived from TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIAL CELLS, occurring chiefly in the URINARY BLADDER; URETERS; or RENAL PELVIS.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Carcinoma, Bronchogenic: Malignant neoplasm arising from the epithelium of the BRONCHI. It represents a large group of epithelial lung malignancies which can be divided into two clinical groups: SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER and NON-SMALL-CELL LUNG CARCINOMA.Carcinoma, Small Cell: An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating: A noninvasive (noninfiltrating) carcinoma of the breast characterized by a proliferation of malignant epithelial cells confined to the mammary ducts or lobules, without light-microscopy evidence of invasion through the basement membrane into the surrounding stroma.Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic: Carcinoma characterized by bands or cylinders of hyalinized or mucinous stroma separating or surrounded by nests or cords of small epithelial cells. When the cylinders occur within masses of epithelial cells, they give the tissue a perforated, sievelike, or cribriform appearance. Such tumors occur in the mammary glands, the mucous glands of the upper and lower respiratory tract, and the salivary glands. They are malignant but slow-growing, and tend to spread locally via the nerves. (Dorland, 27th ed)Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Carcinoma, Lobular: A infiltrating (invasive) breast cancer, relatively uncommon, accounting for only 5%-10% of breast tumors in most series. It is often an area of ill-defined thickening in the breast, in contrast to the dominant lump characteristic of ductal carcinoma. It is typically composed of small cells in a linear arrangement with a tendency to grow around ducts and lobules. There is likelihood of axillary nodal involvement with metastasis to meningeal and serosal surfaces. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1205)Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine: A group of carcinomas which share a characteristic morphology, often being composed of clusters and trabecular sheets of round "blue cells", granular chromatin, and an attenuated rim of poorly demarcated cytoplasm. Neuroendocrine tumors include carcinoids, small ("oat") cell carcinomas, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, Merkel cell tumor, cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma, pancreatic islet cell tumors, and pheochromocytoma. Neurosecretory granules are found within the tumor cells. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Adrenomedullin: A 52-amino acid peptide with multi-functions. It was originally isolated from PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA and ADRENAL MEDULLA but is widely distributed throughout the body including lung and kidney tissues. Besides controlling fluid-electrolyte homeostasis, adrenomedullin is a potent vasodilator and can inhibit pituitary ACTH secretion.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Salmon: Fish of the genera ONCORHYNCHUS and Salmo in the family SALMONIDAE. They are anadromous game fish, frequenting the coastal waters of both the North Atlantic and Pacific. They are known for their gameness as a sport fish and for the quality of their flesh as a table fish. (Webster, 3d ed).Receptor Activity-Modifying Protein 2: A receptor activity-modifying protein that heterodimerizes with CALCITONIN RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN to form the ADRENOMEDULLIN RECEPTOR. In addition, an isoform of the ISLET AMYLOID POLYPEPTIDE RECEPTOR is formed from this protein dimerizing with the CALCITONIN RECEPTOR.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Receptor Activity-Modifying Protein 3: A receptor activity-modifying protein that heterodimerizes with CALCITONIN RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN to form the ADRENOMEDULLIN RECEPTOR. In addition, an isoform of the ISLET AMYLOID POLYPEPTIDE RECEPTOR is formed from this protein dimerizing with the CALCITONIN RECEPTOR.Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the NASOPHARYNX.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Receptors, Islet Amyloid Polypeptide: G-protein coupled receptors that are formed through the dimerization of the CALCITONIN RECEPTOR with a RECEPTOR ACTIVITY-MODIFYING PROTEIN. Their affinity for ISLET AMYLOID POLYPEPTIDE is dependent upon which of several receptor activity-modifying protein subtypes they are bound to.Substance P: An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.Receptors, Adrenomedullin: G-protein-coupled cell surface receptors for ADRENOMEDULLIN. They are formed by the heterodimerization of CALCITONIN RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN and either RECEPTOR ACTIVITY-MODIFYING PROTEIN 2 or RECEPTOR ACTIVITY-MODIFYING PROTEIN 3.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid: A tumor of both low- and high-grade malignancy. The low-grade grow slowly, appear in any age group, and are readily cured by excision. The high-grade behave aggressively, widely infiltrate the salivary gland and produce lymph node and distant metastases. Mucoepidermoid carcinomas account for about 21% of the malignant tumors of the parotid gland and 10% of the sublingual gland. They are the most common malignant tumor of the parotid. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p575; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1240)Carcinoma, Adenosquamous: A mixed adenocarcinoma and squamous cell or epidermoid carcinoma.Thyroidectomy: Surgical removal of the thyroid gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)Carcinoma, Endometrioid: An adenocarcinoma characterized by the presence of cells resembling the glandular cells of the ENDOMETRIUM. It is a common histological type of ovarian CARCINOMA and ENDOMETRIAL CARCINOMA. There is a high frequency of co-occurrence of this form of adenocarcinoma in both tissues.Head and Neck Neoplasms: Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)Carcinoma, Embryonal: A highly malignant, primitive form of carcinoma, probably of germinal cell or teratomatous derivation, usually arising in a gonad and rarely in other sites. It is rare in the female ovary, but in the male it accounts for 20% of all testicular tumors. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1595)Esophageal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.Mouth Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.Carcinoma, Merkel Cell: A carcinoma arising from MERKEL CELLS located in the basal layer of the epidermis and occurring most commonly as a primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin. Merkel cells are tactile cells of neuroectodermal origin and histologically show neurosecretory granules. The skin of the head and neck are a common site of Merkel cell carcinoma, occurring generally in elderly patients. (Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1245)Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Carcinoma, Ductal: Malignant neoplasms involving the ductal systems of any of a number of organs, such as the MAMMARY GLANDS, the PANCREAS, the PROSTATE, or the LACRIMAL GLAND.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Adrenocortical Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. Adrenocortical carcinomas are unencapsulated anaplastic (ANAPLASIA) masses sometimes exceeding 20 cm or 200 g. They are more likely to be functional than nonfunctional, and produce ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES that may result in hypercortisolism (CUSHING SYNDROME); HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and/or VIRILISM.Capsaicin: An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Carcinoma, Verrucous: A variant of well-differentiated epidermoid carcinoma that is most common in the oral cavity, but also occurs in the larynx, nasal cavity, esophagus, penis, anorectal region, vulva, vagina, uterine cervix, and skin, especially on the sole of the foot. Most intraoral cases occur in elderly male abusers of smokeless tobacco. The treatment is surgical resection. Radiotherapy is not indicated, as up to 30% treated with radiation become highly aggressive within six months. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell: A poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma in which the nucleus is pressed to one side by a cytoplasmic droplet of mucus. It usually arises in the gastrointestinal system.Neuropeptides: Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Urinary Bladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Stomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Thyroid Gland: A highly vascularized endocrine gland consisting of two lobes joined by a thin band of tissue with one lobe on each side of the TRACHEA. It secretes THYROID HORMONES from the follicular cells and CALCITONIN from the parafollicular cells thereby regulating METABOLISM and CALCIUM level in blood, respectively.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Ultimobranchial Body: A diverticulum from the fourth pharyngeal pouch of an embryo, regarded by some as a rudimentary fifth pharyngeal pouch and by others as a lateral thyroid primordium. The ultimobranchial bodies of lower vertebrates contain large amounts of calcitonin. In mammals the bodies fuse with the thyroid gland and are thought to develop into the parafollicular cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Carcinoma, Large Cell: A tumor of undifferentiated (anaplastic) cells of large size. It is usually bronchogenic. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Osteitis Deformans: A disease marked by repeated episodes of increased bone resorption followed by excessive attempts at repair, resulting in weakened, deformed bones of increased mass. The resultant architecture of the bone assumes a mosaic pattern in which the fibers take on a haphazard pattern instead of the normal parallel symmetry.Laryngeal Neoplasms: Cancers or tumors of the LARYNX or any of its parts: the GLOTTIS; EPIGLOTTIS; LARYNGEAL CARTILAGES; LARYNGEAL MUSCLES; and VOCAL CORDS.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Eels: Common name for an order (Anguilliformes) of voracious, elongate, snakelike teleost fishes.Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Neoplasms, Multiple Primary: Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Adenocarcinoma, Follicular: An adenocarcinoma of the thyroid gland, in which the cells are arranged in the form of follicles. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous: An adenocarcinoma producing mucin in significant amounts. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Embryonal Carcinoma Stem Cells: The malignant stem cells of TERATOCARCINOMAS, which resemble pluripotent stem cells of the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS. The EC cells can be grown in vitro, and experimentally induced to differentiate. They are used as a model system for studying early embryonic cell differentiation.Bronchial Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the BRONCHI.Parathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.Precancerous Conditions: Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular: A thyroid neoplasm of mixed papillary and follicular arrangement. Its biological behavior and prognosis is the same as that of a papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1271)Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Gallbladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the gallbladder.Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung: A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.Pentagastrin: A synthetic pentapeptide that has effects like gastrin when given parenterally. It stimulates the secretion of gastric acid, pepsin, and intrinsic factor, and has been used as a diagnostic aid.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Endometrial Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of ENDOMETRIUM, the mucous lining of the UTERUS. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. Their classification and grading are based on the various cell types and the percent of undifferentiated cells.Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell: An adenocarcinoma characterized by the presence of varying combinations of clear and hobnail-shaped tumor cells. There are three predominant patterns described as tubulocystic, solid, and papillary. These tumors, usually located in the female reproductive organs, have been seen more frequently in young women since 1970 as a result of the association with intrauterine exposure to diethylstilbestrol. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed)Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.alpha-Fetoproteins: The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.Tongue Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the TONGUE.Receptors, Peptide: Cell surface receptors that bind peptide messengers with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the behavior of cells.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous: A malignant cystic or semicystic neoplasm. It often occurs in the ovary and usually bilaterally. The external surface is usually covered with papillary excrescences. Microscopically, the papillary patterns are predominantly epithelial overgrowths with differentiated and undifferentiated papillary serous cystadenocarcinoma cells. Psammoma bodies may be present. The tumor generally adheres to surrounding structures and produces ascites. (From Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972, p185)Carcinoma, Lewis Lung: A carcinoma discovered by Dr. Margaret R. Lewis of the Wistar Institute in 1951. This tumor originated spontaneously as a carcinoma of the lung of a C57BL mouse. The tumor does not appear to be grossly hemorrhagic and the majority of the tumor tissue is a semifirm homogeneous mass. (From Cancer Chemother Rep 2 1972 Nov;(3)1:325) It is also called 3LL and LLC and is used as a transplantable malignancy.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.RNA, Neoplasm: RNA present in neoplastic tissue.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Miotics: Agents causing contraction of the pupil of the eye. Some sources use the term miotics only for the parasympathomimetics but any drug used to induce miosis is included here.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Islet Amyloid Polypeptide: A pancreatic beta-cell hormone that is co-secreted with INSULIN. It displays an anorectic effect on nutrient metabolism by inhibiting gastric acid secretion, gastric emptying and postprandial GLUCAGON secretion. Islet amyloid polypeptide can fold into AMYLOID FIBRILS that have been found as a major constituent of pancreatic AMYLOID DEPOSITS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Bone Resorption: Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Salivary Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Tissue Array Analysis: The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Keratins: A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Hypocalcemia: Reduction of the blood calcium below normal. Manifestations include hyperactive deep tendon reflexes, Chvostek's sign, muscle and abdominal cramps, and carpopedal spasm. (Dorland, 27th ed)Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Hypercalcemia: Abnormally high level of calcium in the blood.Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret: Receptor protein-tyrosine kinases involved in the signaling of GLIAL CELL-LINE DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR ligands. They contain an extracellular cadherin domain and form a receptor complexes with GDNF RECEPTORS. Mutations in ret protein are responsible for HIRSCHSPRUNG DISEASE and MULTIPLE ENDOCRINE NEOPLASIA TYPE 2.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Osteoclasts: A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.Ki-67 Antigen: A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.Genes, p53: Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.Trigeminal Ganglion: The semilunar-shaped ganglion containing the cells of origin of most of the sensory fibers of the trigeminal nerve. It is situated within the dural cleft on the cerebral surface of the petrous portion of the temporal bone and gives off the ophthalmic, maxillary, and part of the mandibular nerves.Adenocarcinoma, Papillary: An adenocarcinoma containing finger-like processes of vascular connective tissue covered by neoplastic epithelium, projecting into cysts or the cavity of glands or follicles. It occurs most frequently in the ovary and thyroid gland. (Stedman, 25th ed)Chemoembolization, Therapeutic: Administration of antineoplastic agents together with an embolizing vehicle. This allows slow release of the agent as well as obstruction of the blood supply to the neoplasm.Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide: A highly basic, 28 amino acid neuropeptide released from intestinal mucosa. It has a wide range of biological actions affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems and is neuroprotective. It binds special receptors (RECEPTORS, VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE).Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Loss of Heterozygosity: The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Ganglia, Spinal: Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Carcinoma, Basosquamous: A skin carcinoma that histologically exhibits both basal and squamous elements. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Calcium Gluconate: The calcium salt of gluconic acid. The compound has a variety of uses, including its use as a calcium replenisher in hypocalcemic states.Receptor, erbB-2: A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Genes, Tumor Suppressor: Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.Mice, Inbred BALB CBreast: In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Cadherins: Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a: A form of multiple endocrine neoplasia characterized by the presence of medullary carcinoma (CARCINOMA, MEDULLARY) of the THYROID GLAND, and usually with the co-occurrence of PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA, producing CALCITONIN and ADRENALINE, respectively. Less frequently, it can occur with hyperplasia or adenoma of the PARATHYROID GLANDS. This disease is due to gain-of-function mutations of the MEN2 gene on CHROMOSOME 10 (Locus: 10q11.2), also known as the RET proto-oncogene that encodes a RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE. It is an autosomal dominant inherited disease.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Papillomaviridae: A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Rectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.Adenocarcinoma, Bronchiolo-Alveolar: A carcinoma thought to be derived from epithelium of terminal bronchioles, in which the neoplastic tissue extends along the alveolar walls and grows in small masses within the alveoli. Involvement may be uniformly diffuse and massive, or nodular, or lobular. The neoplastic cells are cuboidal or columnar and form papillary structures. Mucin may be demonstrated in some of the cells and in the material in the alveoli, which also includes denuded cells. Metastases in regional lymph nodes, and in even more distant sites, are known to occur, but are infrequent. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Nephrectomy: Excision of kidney.Bone Density Conservation Agents: Agents that inhibit BONE RESORPTION and/or favor BONE MINERALIZATION and BONE REGENERATION. They are used to heal BONE FRACTURES and to treat METABOLIC BONE DISEASES such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Liver Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal: Carcinoma that arises from the PANCREATIC DUCTS. It accounts for the majority of cancers derived from the PANCREAS.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the ADRENAL CORTEX.Urothelium: The epithelial lining of the URINARY TRACT.Vulvar Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the VULVA.Trigeminal Nerve: The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Hydroxyproline: A hydroxylated form of the imino acid proline. A deficiency in ASCORBIC ACID can result in impaired hydroxyproline formation.
When parafollicular cells become cancerous, they lead to medullary carcinoma of the thyroid. Yoko Kameda Y and associates(from ... Calcitonin lowers blood levels of calcium by inhibiting the resorption of bone by osteoclasts, and its secretion is increased ... Parafollicular cells secrete calcitonin, a hormone that participates in the regulation of calcium metabolism. It is important ... Kameda Y (1987). "Localization of immunoreactive calcitonin gene-related peptide in thyroid C dells from various mammalian ...
The pentagastrin-stimulated calcitonin test is a diagnostic test for medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MTC). MTC is a ... After a total thyroidectomy for medullary thyroid carcinoma, the pentagastrin-stimulated calcitonin release can be used to ... "Pentagastrin stimulation test and early diagnosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma using an immunoradiometric assay of calcitonin ... comparison with genetic screening in hereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & ...
... the finding of an elevated serum calcitonin is associated with the finding of a medullary thyroid carcinoma in as high as 20% ... "Prognostic Impact of Serum Calcitonin and Carcinoembryonic Antigen Doubling-Times in Patients with Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma ... Measurement of calcitonin is necessary to exclude the presence of medullary thyroid cancer. Finally, to achieve a definitive ... The European thyroid community has focused on prevention of metastasis from small medullary thyroid carcinomas; the North ...
Calcitonin levels remain a valuable marker to detect recurrence of medullary thyroid carcinoma after thyroidectomy. Luxol fast ... When medullary thyroid cancer is present, levels of the hormone calcitonin are elevated in serum and urine. Under the ... MEN2B should be entertained as a diagnosis whenever a person is found to have either medullary thyroid carcinoma or ... Schimke RN, Hartmann WH, Prout TE, Rimoin DL (1968). "Syndrome of bilateral pheochromocytoma, medullary thyroid carcinoma and ...
"Expression of a calcium-sensing receptor in a human medullary thyroid carcinoma cell line and its contribution to calcitonin ...
... receptor subtype 1-selective activation reduces cell growth and calcitonin secretion in a human medullary thyroid carcinoma ... "Somatostatin receptor subtypes 2 and 5 differentially affect proliferation in vitro of the human medullary thyroid carcinoma ...
... in Calcitonin Immunoradiometric Assay in Patients with Metastatic Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma: Case Report and Review of the ... Wechsel, HW; Petri, E; Bichler, KH; Feil, G (1999). "Marker for renal cell carcinoma (RCC): The dimeric form of pyruvate kinase ... as a tumor marker for cervical carcinoma". The journal of obstetrics and gynaecology research. 30 (3): 193-6. doi:10.1111/j. ... in patients with renal carcinoma". Anticancer research. 20 (6D): 5095-8. PMID 11326675. ...
Examples are Aβ, IAPP, Atrial natriuretic factor (in isolated atrial amyloidosis), and Calcitonin (in medullary carcinoma of ...
It is helpful in making an early diagnosis of medullary carcinoma of thyroid. A malignancy of the parafollicular cells, i.e. ... Cutoffs for calcitonin to distinguish cases with medullary thyroid cancer have been suggested to be as follows, with a higher ... It may be used diagnostically as a tumor marker for medullary thyroid cancer, in which high calcitonin levels may be present ... Calcitonin is secreted into the milk. Calcitonin was extracted from the ultimobranchial glands (thyroid-like glands) of fish, ...
"An isoform of the human calcitonin receptor is expressed in TT cells and in medullary carcinoma of the thyroid". FEBS Letters. ... The calcitonin receptor (CT) is a G protein-coupled receptor that binds the peptide hormone calcitonin and is involved in ... Pondel M (December 2000). "Calcitonin and calcitonin receptors: bone and beyond". International Journal of Experimental ... and expression of a human calcitonin receptor from an ovarian carcinoma cell line". The Journal of Clinical Investigation. 90 ( ...
1994). "An isoform of the human calcitonin receptor is expressed in TT cells and in medullary carcinoma of the thyroid". FEBS ... Pondel M (2001). "Calcitonin and calcitonin receptors: bone and beyond". International journal of experimental pathology 81 (6 ... and expression of a human calcitonin receptor from an ovarian carcinoma cell line". J. Clin. Invest. 90 (5): 1726-35. PMC ... "Calcitonin Receptors". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. ...
"Prognostic Impact of Serum Calcitonin and Carcinoembryonic Antigen Doubling-Times in Patients with Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma ... of all medullary thyroid carcinomas. Seventy-five percent of medullary thyroid carcinoma occurs in individuals without an ... Medullary thyroid carcinoma may also produce a thyroid nodule and enlarged cervical lymph nodes. Sites of spread of medullary ... These included 1 patient whose calcitonin was stable, and 11 patients who had decreasing calcitonin levels. The calcitonin ...
Done in cases of papillary or follicular carcinoma of thyroid, medullary carcinoma of thyroid. This is now also the most common ... The thyroid produces several hormones, such as thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), and calcitonin. After the removal of a ...
They can be distinguished by their profile of bioactive amines and peptides, namely serotonin, calcitonin, calcitonin gene- ... The adrenal medullary hormones are kept in vesicles much in the same way neurotransmitters are kept in neuronal vesicles. ... These cells can be the source of several types of lung cancer- most notably, small cell carcinoma of the lung, and bronchial ... The adrenal medullary cells are controlled by the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system. These cells are ...
Malignant nodules, which only occur in about 5% of nodules, include follicular, papillary, medullary carcinomas and metastases ... Parafollicular cells produce calcitonin in response to high blood calcium. Calcitonin decreases the release of calcium from ... of the thyroid gland and medullary thyroid carcinoma. A review". The American Journal of Pathology. 88 (1): 213-50. PMID 18012 ... These cells secrete calcitonin and so are also called C cells. In the development of the embryo, at 3-4 weeks gestational age, ...
Elevated calcitonin levels in the blood have been shown to be associated with the rare medullary thyroid cancer. However, the ... "Revised American Thyroid Association Guidelines for the Management of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma". Thyroid. 25 (6): 567-610. ... tool is currently controversial due to falsely high or low calcitonin levels in a variety of diseases other than medullary ... non-cancerous tumor Thyroid cancer Papillary Follicular Medullary Anaplastic Lymphomas and metastasis from elsewhere (rare) ...
... medullary breast carcinoma - medullary thyroid cancer - medulloblastoma - mega-voltage linear accelerator - megestrol - meiosis ... calcitonin - calcitriol - CAM - Campath-1H - camptothecin - camptothecin analog - cancer - cancer induction - Cancer ... ductal carcinoma - ductal carcinoma in situ - ductal lavage - Dukes' classification - dumping syndrome - duodenitis - DX-52-1 ... carcinoma - carcinoma in situ - carcinomatosis - carcinosarcoma - carcinosis - carcinostatic - cardin (oncology) - carmustine ...
Malignant nodules, which only occur in about 5% of nodules, include follicular, papillary, medullary carcinomas and metastases ... Calcitonin[edit]. Main article: Calcitonin. The thyroid gland also produces the hormone calcitonin, which helps regulate blood ... Parafollicular cells produce calcitonin in response to high blood calcium. Calcitonin decreases the release of calcium from ... of the thyroid gland and medullary thyroid carcinoma. A review". The American Journal of Pathology. 88 (1): 213-50. PMC 2032150 ...
It is expressed in embryonal carcinoma but not in seminoma and is thus a useful marker in distinguishing between these germ ... Medullary thyroid cancer (Calcitonin. *Carcinoembryonic antigen). Pheochromocytoma. *Normetanephrine. *Enolase 2. ...
Medullary thyroid cancer (Calcitonin. *Carcinoembryonic antigen). Pheochromocytoma. *Normetanephrine. *Enolase 2. ...
... has been evaluated for role in assessing the depth of invasion of urothelial carcinoma in TURBT specimens.[38] ... Medullary thyroid cancer (Calcitonin. *Carcinoembryonic antigen). Pheochromocytoma. *Normetanephrine. *Enolase 2. ... Does desmin immunohistochemistry have a role in assessing stage of urothelial carcinoma in transurethral resection of bladder ...
Some forms of cancer can cause SIADH, particularly small cell lung carcinoma but also a number of other tumors. A variety of ... Increasing permeability of the inner medullary portion of the collecting duct to urea by regulating the cell surface expression ... Calcitonin gene-related peptide. *Carnosine. *Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript. *Delta sleep-inducing peptide ... Increasing the water permeability of initial and cortical collecting tubules (ICT & CCT), as well as outer and inner medullary ...
"Expression of a calcium-sensing receptor in a human medullary thyroid carcinoma cell line and its contribution to calcitonin ...
Calcitonin Expression in the Metastatic Tissue of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma. By Wei-Wen Hung, Kun-Bow Tsai and Pi-Jung Hsiao ... In conclusion, metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma with atypical chest radiography and calcitonin-free histopathlogic lung ... Although the disparity between tissue and serum calcitonin in patient with medullary thyroid carcinoma were reported, [13] the ... Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is an uncommon primary thyroid carcinoma accounting for as much as 10% of all thyroid ...
Changes in Serum Calcitonin Concentrations, Incidence of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma, and Impact of Routine Calcitonin ... Changes in Serum Calcitonin Concentrations, Incidence of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma, and Impact of Routine Calcitonin ... Changes in Serum Calcitonin Concentrations, Incidence of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma, and Impact of Routine Calcitonin ... Changes in Serum Calcitonin Concentrations, Incidence of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma, and Impact of Routine Calcitonin ...
Calcitonin-specific antitumor immunity in medullary thyroid carcinoma following dendritic cell vaccination. ... Calcitonin-specific antitumor immunity in medullary thyroid carcinoma following dendritic cell vaccination ...
Plasma levels of calcitonin were significantly higher in MTC cases without a RET mutation compared to those with a mutation. ... Plasma levels of calcitonin were determined in both. Results: miRNA323 was measured using real-time-PCR. After performing ... However, determination of calcitonin levels in plasma might be helpful in this regard. ... with calcitonin as a specific biomarker in MTC diagnosis. Germline mutations in the RET proto-oncogene are considered ...
Calcitonin, a protein hormone synthesized and secreted in humans and other mammals primarily by parafollicular cells (C cells) ... patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma, a cancer of the parafollicular cells that secretes large quantities of calcitonin, ... Both increased calcitonin secretion and increased calcitonin activity are relatively short-lived, lasting only a few days. As a ... thyroid gland: The thyroid gland and calcitonin. …adults. The thyroid gland is also the site of the production of calcitonin, a ...
YIELD OF SOMATOSTATIN RECEPTOR SCINTIGRAPHY (SRS) IN MEDULLARY THYROID CARCINOMA (MTC); IN RELATION TO CALCITONIN LEVEL. ... Tc-99m MIBI in a Patient With Parathyroid Carcinoma: What to Expect From It. STOKKEL, MARCEL P.M.; VAN ECK-SMIT, BERTHE L.F. ... Bilateral Signet-Ring Cell Carcinoma of the Breast: Scintigraphic Findings. PARK, CHAN H.; WHANG, HEE S.; PARK, HEE B. ... PROSTATE CARCINOMA. Podoloff, DA; Delpassand, ES; Tu, S.; More ...
Elevated levels of calcitonin in serum were found in 14 of 48 members studied from two kindreds with familial medullary thyroid ... Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Detected by Serum Calcitonin Assay. Melvin A. Block, MD; Charles E. Jackson, MD; Armen H. Tashjian ... Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Detected by Serum Calcitonin Assay. Arch Surg. 1972;104(4):579-586. doi:10.1001/archsurg. ... Elevated levels of calcitonin in serum were found in 14 of 48 members studied from two kindreds with familial medullary thyroid ...
Serum calcitonin measurement is helpful for early diagnosis and predicting prognosis. Postoperative calcitonin measurement is ... Postoperative calcitonin normalization correlated with US features of tumor size (p0.002), margin (p0.034), shape (p0.001), and ... Comparing MTC nodules with and without elevated preoperative calcitonin levels, the size and shape of MTC nodule and lymph node ... with pre operative and postoperative calcitonin levels. Materials and Methods: A total of 130 thyroid nodules diagnosed as MTC ...
... the precursor protein is calcitonin, a calcium regulatory hormone synthesized by the thyroid. Patients with medullary carcinoma ... Systemic AA amyloidosis in a patient with lung metastasis from renal cell carcinoma. Amyloid. 2012 Dec. 19(4):197-200. [Medline ... Systemic AA amyloidosis in a patient with lung metastasis from renal cell carcinoma. Amyloid. 2012 Dec. 19(4):197-200. [Medline ... The presumed pathogenesis is increased local calcitonin production, leading to a sufficiently high local concentration of the ...
... gene in the medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) cell line TT is modulated by a neuroendocrine-specific enhancer fragment ( ... Calcitonin / genetics*. Carcinoma, Medullary / genetics*. Consensus Sequence. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism*. Enhancer ... Transcription of the calcitonin (CT) gene in the medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) cell line TT is modulated by a ... Modified binding of proteins from calcitonin-negative tumor cells to the neuroendocrine-specific CANNTG motif of the calcitonin ...
Medullary carcinoma can secrete calcitonin . Pheochromocytomas secrete catecholamines. Tumors of the pituitary gland may ... Medullary carcinoma can secrete calcitonin. Pheochromocytomas secrete catecholamines. Tumors of the pituitary gland may secrete ... Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) Antigen Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) antigen was first identified in cervical cancer. It is a ... Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) antigen. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) antigen was first identified in cervical cancer . It is a ...
Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma. Patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) can be identified by pathologic diagnosis or by ... AACE/AME/ETA and NCCN suggest a serum calcitonin assay as an optional test, [5, 6] but the ATA guidelines make no ... Prevention of Medullary Thyroid Cancer. The familial medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) syndromes consist of multiple endocrine ... The impact of pregnancy on newly diagnosed medullary carcinoma or anaplastic cancer is unknown. However, a delay in treatment ...
Radioimmunoassay of calcitonin in plasma, normal thyroid, and medullary thyroid carcinoma of the rat. ... Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Radioimmunoassay of calcitonin in plasma, normal thyroid, and medullary thyroid ... carcinoma of the rat. Together they form a unique fingerprint. * Sort by ...
Calcitonin is the most sensitive and specific marker for medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). AIMS:. The aim of this study was to ... Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Calcitonin/blood , Carcinoma, Medullary/blood , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , ... Treatment evaluation, follow-up and familial screening of medullary thyroid carcinoma by highly specific calcitonin ... Treatment evaluation, follow-up and familial screening of medullary thyroid carcinoma by h ...
Medullary thyroid carcinoma approximately accounts for 5-10% of all thyroid carcinoma. ... ... Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is an endocrine tumor with differentiation of Parafollicular or C-cells and is categorized into ... Thyroid carcinoma is the most common endocrine malignancy and approximately accounts 2% of all cancer cases. ... Keywords: calcitonin, cross-sectional study, medullary thyroid carcinoma, RET proto oncogene. Full-Text [PDF 316 kb] (457 ...
Calcitonin receptor expression in medullary thyroid carcinoma.. Authors:. Virginia Cappagli Catarina Soares Potes Luciana Bueno ... mTOR activation in medullary thyroid carcinoma with RAS mutation.. Authors:. Joana Lyra João Vinagre Rui Batista Vasco Pinto ... C-cell-derived calcitonin-free neuroendocrine carcinoma of the thyroid: the diagnostic importance of CGRP immunoreactivity.. ... Osteopontin expression is correlated with differentiation and good prognosis in medullary thyroid carcinoma.. Authors:. Luciana ...
Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma produces calcitonin. *Amyloid and leukocytic infiltrate on path *Associated with RET-protooncogene ...
medullary;. calcitonin 18 psammoma bodies and orphan annie nuclei are seen in ____ carcinoma ... younger (vs anaplastic carcinoma);. fibrosis (extending to other structures);. painless, rock hard ... carcinoma is characterized by malignant cells on an amyloid stroma. ____ levels are increased ...
gastric carcinoma, lung carcinoma, uterine carcinoma. • immunological causes; results in secretion of EGF. ... renal cell carcinoma: often invades branches of renal v. to grow in snakelike fashion up IVC. • breast carcinoma → bone. • ... most common in carcinomas. • ex. breast in upper quadrant →axillary lymph nodes. • ex. inner quadrant of breast → nodes along ... carcinomas are malignant neoplasms of epithelial cell origin, derived from any of the three layers. o ex. squamous cell ...
Freake HC, MacIntyre I. Specific binding of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol in human medullary thyroid carcinoma. Biochem J 1982; ... Parathyroid hormone Calcitonin Ipriflavone Vitamin D3 Adult-onset diabetes mellitus This is a preview of subscription content, ... Evidence for calcitonin-a new hormone from the parathyroid that lowers blood calcium. 1962;70:638-649Google Scholar ... Yamazaki I, Kinoshita M. Calcitonin secreting property of ipriflavone in the presence of estrogen. Life Sci 1986;38:1535-1541 ...
We report herein the unusual case of a man who was diagnosed as having sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) at the age of ... Disseminated calcitonin-poor medullary thyroid carcinoma in a patient with calcitonin-rich primary tumor. Am J Surg Pathol 10: ... medullary thyroid carcinoma dedifferentiation calcitonin immunohistochemistry ultrastructure This work was supported in part by ... Takami H, Ito K (1992) Calcitonin gene-related peptide as a tumor marker for medullary thyroid carcinoma. Int Surg 77:181-185 ...
... with postoperative calcitonin normalization in patients undergoing initial surgical management of medullary thyroid carcinoma. ... No patient with a preoperative calcitonin level of Conclusion. Preoperative serum calcitonin and TMN stage, but not extent of ... Preoperative calcitonin correlated with tumor size (P < .001) and postoperative serum calcitonin levels (P = .01) after ... The optimal initial operative management of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) and the use of biomarkers to guide the extent of ...
Calcitonin, CEA, and chromogranin A before each cycle. *Toxicity Assessment and Concomitant Medications recorded Continuously ... Imatinib in Combination With Dacarbazine and Capecitabine in Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma. The safety and scientific validity of ... Imatinib in Combination With Dacarbazine and Capecitabine in Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma. Official Title ICMJE A Phase I/II ... They are not approved for the treatment of medullary thyroid carcinoma. Up to 28 participants will take part in this study. All ...
Calcitonin is a hormone made by the thyroid. Doctors measure calcitonin if they think you might have medullary carcinoma. ... The scan is also used to see if papillary, follicular or Hurthle cell carcinoma has spread outside of the thyroid. ... the results of an FNA are not clear and the doctor cant tell if a nodule is a benign thyroid nodule or follicular carcinoma. ...
No events of pancreatitis or medullary thyroid carcinoma were reported. In total, two AEs of cholelithiasis (one serious) were ... Amylase and lipase activity and calcitonin are described in the Supplementary Results. ...
  • The sonographic appearance of a medullary carcinoma, although non-specific, is as a hypoechoic node with microcalcifications (whose histology reveals calcified amyloid deposits), with irregular margins, intranodal hypervascularization and an irregular or chaotic arrangement of blood vessels, frequently associated with metastatic lymphadenopathies. (eurorad.org)
  • Amyloid Fibril Formation by Pentapeptide and Tetrapeptide Fragments of Human Calcitonin The Journal of Biological Chemistry. (jove.com)
  • Pubmed ID: 12095997 The process of amyloid fibril formation by the human calcitonin hormone is associated with medullary thyroid carcinoma. (jove.com)
  • Calcitonin levels may also be increased in association with lung cancer and certain tumours of the pancreas , namely insulinoma (an insulin -secreting tumour) and VIPoma (a vasoactive intestinal polypeptide -secreting tumour). (britannica.com)
  • Various forms of calcitonin (-Val-Gly-Ala-Pro-amide) were detected in the tumour extract. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Max MB, Kovacs KT, Scheithauer BW et al (1992) The pituitary gland in patients with breast carcinoma: a histologic and immunocytochemical study of 125 cases. (springer.com)