A peptide hormone that lowers calcium concentration in the blood. In humans, it is released by thyroid cells and acts to decrease the formation and absorptive activity of osteoclasts. Its role in regulating plasma calcium is much greater in children and in certain diseases than in normal adults.
Calcitonin gene-related peptide. A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the calcitonin gene. It occurs as a result of alternative processing of mRNA from the calcitonin gene. The neuropeptide is widely distributed in neural tissue of the brain, gut, perivascular nerves, and other tissue. The peptide produces multiple biological effects and has both circulatory and neurotransmitter modes of action. In particular, it is a potent endogenous vasodilator.
Cell surface proteins that bind calcitonin and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Calcitonin receptors outside the nervous system mediate the role of calcitonin in calcium homeostasis. The role of calcitonin receptors in the brain is not well understood.
Cell surface proteins that bind CALCITONIN GENE-RELATED PEPTIDE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. CGRP receptors are present in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and the periphery. They are formed via the heterodimerization of the CALCITONIN RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN and RECEPTOR ACTIVITY-MODIFYING PROTEIN 1.
A family of proteins that bind to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and alter their specificity, signaling mechanism, or mode of intracellular transport.
A receptor activity-modifying protein that is a subunit of specific G-PROTEIN COUPLED RECEPTORS. The CALCITONIN GENE-RELATED PEPTIDE RECEPTOR is formed from a dimer of this protein and CALCITONIN RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN, while an isoform of the ISLET AMYLOID POLYPEPTIDE RECEPTOR is formed from this protein dimerizing with the CALCITONIN RECEPTOR.
A 52-amino acid peptide with multi-functions. It was originally isolated from PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA and ADRENAL MEDULLA but is widely distributed throughout the body including lung and kidney tissues. Besides controlling fluid-electrolyte homeostasis, adrenomedullin is a potent vasodilator and can inhibit pituitary ACTH secretion.
Fish of the genera ONCORHYNCHUS and Salmo in the family SALMONIDAE. They are anadromous game fish, frequenting the coastal waters of both the North Atlantic and Pacific. They are known for their gameness as a sport fish and for the quality of their flesh as a table fish. (Webster, 3d ed).
A receptor activity-modifying protein that heterodimerizes with CALCITONIN RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN to form the ADRENOMEDULLIN RECEPTOR. In addition, an isoform of the ISLET AMYLOID POLYPEPTIDE RECEPTOR is formed from this protein dimerizing with the CALCITONIN RECEPTOR.
A receptor activity-modifying protein that heterodimerizes with CALCITONIN RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN to form the ADRENOMEDULLIN RECEPTOR. In addition, an isoform of the ISLET AMYLOID POLYPEPTIDE RECEPTOR is formed from this protein dimerizing with the CALCITONIN RECEPTOR.
G-protein coupled receptors that are formed through the dimerization of the CALCITONIN RECEPTOR with a RECEPTOR ACTIVITY-MODIFYING PROTEIN. Their affinity for ISLET AMYLOID POLYPEPTIDE is dependent upon which of several receptor activity-modifying protein subtypes they are bound to.
An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.
G-protein-coupled cell surface receptors for ADRENOMEDULLIN. They are formed by the heterodimerization of CALCITONIN RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN and either RECEPTOR ACTIVITY-MODIFYING PROTEIN 2 or RECEPTOR ACTIVITY-MODIFYING PROTEIN 3.
A carcinoma composed mainly of epithelial elements with little or no stroma. Medullary carcinomas of the breast constitute 5%-7% of all mammary carcinomas; medullary carcinomas of the thyroid comprise 3%-10% of all thyroid malignancies. (From Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1141; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.
Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
A diverticulum from the fourth pharyngeal pouch of an embryo, regarded by some as a rudimentary fifth pharyngeal pouch and by others as a lateral thyroid primordium. The ultimobranchial bodies of lower vertebrates contain large amounts of calcitonin. In mammals the bodies fuse with the thyroid gland and are thought to develop into the parafollicular cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Common name for an order (Anguilliformes) of voracious, elongate, snakelike teleost fishes.
A disease marked by repeated episodes of increased bone resorption followed by excessive attempts at repair, resulting in weakened, deformed bones of increased mass. The resultant architecture of the bone assumes a mosaic pattern in which the fibers take on a haphazard pattern instead of the normal parallel symmetry.
Surgical removal of the thyroid gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
A synthetic pentapeptide that has effects like gastrin when given parenterally. It stimulates the secretion of gastric acid, pepsin, and intrinsic factor, and has been used as a diagnostic aid.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
Agents causing contraction of the pupil of the eye. Some sources use the term miotics only for the parasympathomimetics but any drug used to induce miosis is included here.
A highly vascularized endocrine gland consisting of two lobes joined by a thin band of tissue with one lobe on each side of the TRACHEA. It secretes THYROID HORMONES from the follicular cells and CALCITONIN from the parafollicular cells thereby regulating METABOLISM and CALCIUM level in blood, respectively.
Cell surface receptors that bind peptide messengers with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the behavior of cells.
A pancreatic beta-cell hormone that is co-secreted with INSULIN. It displays an anorectic effect on nutrient metabolism by inhibiting gastric acid secretion, gastric emptying and postprandial GLUCAGON secretion. Islet amyloid polypeptide can fold into AMYLOID FIBRILS that have been found as a major constituent of pancreatic AMYLOID DEPOSITS.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
The semilunar-shaped ganglion containing the cells of origin of most of the sensory fibers of the trigeminal nerve. It is situated within the dural cleft on the cerebral surface of the petrous portion of the temporal bone and gives off the ophthalmic, maxillary, and part of the mandibular nerves.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Reduction of the blood calcium below normal. Manifestations include hyperactive deep tendon reflexes, Chvostek's sign, muscle and abdominal cramps, and carpopedal spasm. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.
A highly basic, 28 amino acid neuropeptide released from intestinal mucosa. It has a wide range of biological actions affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems and is neuroprotective. It binds special receptors (RECEPTORS, VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE).
Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.
The calcium salt of gluconic acid. The compound has a variety of uses, including its use as a calcium replenisher in hypocalcemic states.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.
A mammalian neuropeptide of 10 amino acids that belongs to the tachykinin family. It is similar in structure and action to SUBSTANCE P and NEUROKININ B with the ability to excite neurons, dilate blood vessels, and contract smooth muscles, such as those in the BRONCHI.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A hydroxylated form of the imino acid proline. A deficiency in ASCORBIC ACID can result in impaired hydroxyproline formation.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.
Abnormally high level of calcium in the blood.
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A class of disabling primary headache disorders, characterized by recurrent unilateral pulsatile headaches. The two major subtypes are common migraine (without aura) and classic migraine (with aura or neurological symptoms). (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)
Hormones released from neoplasms or from other cells that are not the usual sources of hormones.

Disruption of estrogen signaling does not prevent progesterone action in the estrogen receptor alpha knockout mouse uterus. (1/1409)

Estrogen is known to increase progesterone receptor (PR) levels in the wild-type mouse uterus, and this estrogen induction was thought to be important for progesterone action through the PR. The estrogen receptor alpha knockout (ERKO) mouse uterus was observed to express PR mRNA that cannot be induced by estrogen. Progesterone action was characterized to determine whether it was diminished in ERKO mice. The PR protein is present in the ERKO uterus at 60% of the level measured in a wild-type uterus. The PR-A and PR-B isoforms are both detected on Western blot, and the ratio of isoforms is the same in both genotypes. Although the level of PR is reduced in the ERKO uterus, the receptor level is sufficient to induce genomic responses, since both calcitonin and amphiregulin mRNAs were increased after progesterone treatment. Finally, the ERKO uterus can be induced to undergo a progesterone-dependent decidual response. Surprisingly, the decidual response is estrogen independent in the ERKO, although it remains estrogen dependent in a wild type. These results indicate that estrogen receptor alpha modulation of PR levels is not necessary for expression of the PR or genomic and physiologic responses to progesterone in the ERKO uterus.  (+info)

A prospective study of bone loss and turnover after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation: effect of calcium supplementation with or without calcitonin. (2/1409)

Transplantation of solid organs including heart, kidney, and liver is associated with rapid bone loss and increased rate of fracture; data on bone marrow transplantation recipients (BMT) are scarce. The purpose of the present study was to examine the magnitude, timing, and mechanism of bone loss following allogeneic BMT, and to study whether bone loss can be prevented by calcium with or without calcitonin. Sixty-nine patients undergoing allogeneic BMT for malignant blood diseases were enrolled into the study. Forty-four (22 women, 22 men) completed 6 months, and 36 patients 1 year follow-up. They were randomized to receive either no additional treatment (n = 22), or oral calcium 1 g twice daily for 12 months (n = 12) or the same dose of calcium plus intranasal calcitonin 400 IU/day for the first month and then 200 IU/day for 11 months (n = 10). Bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine and three femoral sites (femoral neck, trochanter, Ward's triangle) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Bone turnover rate was followed with markers of bone formation and resorption (serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (B-ALP), type I procollagen carboxyterminal (PICP) and aminoterminal propeptide (PINP), serum type I collagen carboxyterminal telopeptide (ICTP)). Serum testosterone was assayed in men. Calcium with or without calcitonin had no effect on bone loss or bone markers; consequently the three study groups were combined. During the first 6 post-transplant months BMD decreased by 5.7% in the lumbar spine and by 6.9% to 8.7% in the three femoral sites (P < 0.0001 for all); no significant further decline occured between 6 and 12 months. Four out of 25 assessable patients experienced vertebral compression fractures. Markers of bone formation reduced: B-ALP by 20% at 3 weeks (P = 0.027), PICP by 40% (P < 0.0001) and PINP by 63% at 6 weeks (P < 0.0001), with a return to baseline by 6 months. The marker of bone resorption, serum ICTP was above normal throughout the whole observation period, with a peak at 6 weeks (77% above baseline, P < 0.0001). In male patients serum testosterone decreased reaching a nadir (57% below baseline) at 6 weeks (P = 0.0003). In conclusion, significant bone loss occurs after BMT. It results from imbalance between reduced bone formation and increased bone resorption; hypogonadism may be a contributing factor in men. Bone loss can not be prevented by calcium with or without calcitonin.  (+info)

Study of the cell biology and biochemistry of cherubism. (3/1409)

AIMS: To establish whether the multinucleate cells in lesions of patients with cherubism are also osteoclasts and if this is the case whether they were responsive to calcitonin; to carry out cytogenetic studies on two members of the same family affected by cherubism in an attempt to identify any major chromosomal defects; and to perform an in-depth modern biochemical study of four children in the same family. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Four related children with cherubism were studied. Tissue taken from one of the children at elective decompression of an optic nerve was submitted to in vitro bone resorption studies. Cytogenetic studies were done on two of the children and biochemical studies on all four. RESULTS: The multinucleate cells in the cherubic lesions were shown to be osteoclasts since they synthesised tartrate resistant acid phosphatase, expressed the vitronectin receptor, and resorbed bone. Bone resorption by the cultured multinucleate cells was significantly inhibited by calcitonin. High resolution cytogenetic studies failed to detect any chromosomal abnormalities in two children with cherubism. The biochemistry profile of all four children with cherubism showed that serum calcium, parathyroid hormone, parathyroid related hormone, calcitonin, and alkaline phosphatase were within normal levels. Urine analysis of pyridinium and deoxypyridinium cross links, hydroxyproline, and calcium in relation to urine creatinine were measured to assess bone resorption in these children, and the values were at the upper end of the normal range in all four. CONCLUSIONS: Further studies are required to determine whether calcitonin treatment will control this grossly deforming disease until the time when the physiological changes that occur at puberty rectify the pathology. It is not recommended that biochemical markers of bone resorption are used in isolation to monitor the activity of cherubism in individuals because the results are based on a small number of children and because of reports of marked interindividual variation in the levels of these markers, particularly in children.  (+info)

Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumor metastases to the thyroid gland: differential diagnosis with medullary thyroid carcinoma. (4/1409)

Neuroendocrine tumors (NET) of the thyroid gland are rare. Apart from medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), metastases of gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) NET may also occur. Features of six patients (five men, one female: age range, 39-67 years) with thyroid metastases from a GEP-NET are described. Thyroid metastases were bilateral in all patients and were associated with enlarged neck lymph nodes in five. In four cases, the thyroid tumor was either the first sign of the disease (n = 2) or was an isolated site of recurrence (n = 2). The tumors were well (n = 3) or poorly differentiated (n = 3). Five tumors for which the primary site could be determined corresponded to foregut-derived tumors (3 lungs, 1 thymus and 1 pancreatic NET). One tumor demonstrated calcitonin (CT) production as shown by immunohistochemistry and elevated plasma CT levels. However, the disease history and the clinical features strongly favored a metastasizing GEP-NET. No tumoral RET proto-oncogene mutation was found in this patient. The differential diagnosis between metastatic GEP-NET and MTC is crucial because prognosis, work-up, and treatment differ greatly.  (+info)

Roles of circulating carcinoembryonic antigen and calcitonin in diagnosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma: a comparative study. (5/1409)

Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and calcitonin (CT) were simultaneously determined in sera and tumor tissues from 15 patients with medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MCT). Serum CEA was increased in all but one patient, and CT did in all of them. Both levels were significantly related to the weight of excised tumor, but not to the presence of metastasis. Furthermore, a significant correlation was noted between the basal levels of CT and CEA. Both levels fell to normal after a radical operation had been performed. Tissue concentrations of CEA and CT in the MCT were more than 100 times those in hyperthyroidism, and the ratios of tissue over serum levels averaged 770 in CEA and 1000 in CT. In the calcium infusion test, CEA levels were not significantly changed in contrast with a distinct increase in CT levels. The results indicate that CEA and CT represent separate activities of the tumor cells, and that circulating CEA together with CT is a useful indicator in the diagnosis and follow-up of the disease.  (+info)

Glucocorticoid-induced secondary osteopenia in female rats: a time course study as compared with ovariectomy-induced osteopenia and response to salmon calcitonin. (6/1409)

Previously we reported that 8-week treatment with methylprednisolone acetate (MPA: 0.1 mg/kg, s.c., 3 days a week) of male rats caused a novel type of osteopenia whose development was prevented by salmon calcitonin (SCT) in a dose-dependent manner. In this study, to compare the MPA-inducible osteopenia with the ovariectomy (OVX)-inducible one, female rats were used instead of male rats and a time-course study of development was made. MPA treatments for 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks histologically induced characteristic osteopenic changes in a time-dependent manner that were histomorphometrically detectable in tibiae within 4 weeks as reduced bone mass, accelerated bone resorption, and suppressed bone formation and mineralization. Node-strut analysis revealed that the connectivity of the trabecular structure remained unaffected. Such MPA-induced changes in the trabecular structure, to be defined as thinned-but-uncut, is in a good contrast with OVX-induced unthinned-but-cut structure, although the latter osteopenic changes became detectable 2 weeks earlier. Another previous finding confirmed herein was that MPA-induced osteopenia in female rats was also completely masked by SCT (10 U/kg, s.c., 5 days a week). The results indicate that the MPA-inducible secondary osteopenic model in either sex of rats would be usable for testing anti-osteopenic drugs.  (+info)

Protein kinase C antagonizes pertussis-toxin-sensitive coupling of the calcitonin receptor to adenylyl cyclase. (7/1409)

The calcitonin receptor is known to couple to Gs and Gq, activating adenylyl cyclase and phospholipase C, respectively. The observation of pertussis-toxin-sensitive responses to calcitonin suggests that the receptor is capable of coupling to Gi/o as well. However, the calcitonin-dependent activation of adenylyl cyclase in HEK-293 cells that stably express the cloned rabbit calcitonin receptor, as in many other cells that express calcitonin receptors, shows little pertussis toxin sensitivity. Calcitonin treatment of these cells stimulates protein kinase C, which is reported to antagonize the receptor-dependent activation of Gi. The possibility that protein kinase C could be antagonizing Galphai-adenylyl cyclase coupling was tested by examining the effects of protein kinase C inhibitors (chelerythrine chloride and sphingosine) or of chronic treatment with phorbol ester to deplete protein kinase C. All three treatments led to a reduction of calcitonin-induced adenylyl cyclase activity that was reversed by pertussis toxin. Inhibiting or depleting protein kinase C had no effect on the activation of adenylyl cyclase by cholera toxin, indicating that Gs and adenylyl cyclase were not affected by these treatments. Calcitonin treatment of HEK-293 cells, that stably express a myc-tagged rabbit calcitonin receptor, induced the formation of complexes of the receptor and Galphai subunits, confirming that the calcitonin receptor interacts with Gi. Thus, the calcitonin receptor can couple to Gi, but the inhibition of adenylyl cyclase by Galphai is negatively regulated by protein kinase C.  (+info)

A transient increase in renal clearance of phosphate in response to continuous infusion of salmon calcitonin in rats. (8/1409)

The effects of intravenous carrier-free salmon calcitonin on renal clearances of phosphate, calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium were studied in male parathyroid-ectomized (PTX) and intact rats. Both natural and synthetic hormone, when infused at constant rates (0.005 approximately 0.5 MRC U/hr), produced a rapid increase (peaking at about 60-90 min) in phosphate clearance. However, the maximal increase was transient in nature in PTX rats. In intact rats, the phosphaturic response was somewhat more pronounced and the decline after the peak was rather modest. When a large amount (4 MRC U) of calcitonin was given in divided doses, the second dose produced a lesser extent of phosphaturia in both intact and PTX rats. The phosphaturic response was accompanied by an increase in sodium and potassium clearances in PTX rats and by an increase in potassium clearance in intact rats. A fall in the apparent clearance values for calcium and magnesium occurred and was maintained throughout the infusion period of hormone in both intact and PTX rats. In conclusion, PTX rats respond to the intravenous administration of salmon calcitonin with a transient phosphaturic response which is accompanied by parallel diuresis of sodium and potassium along with sustained retention of calcium and magnesium by the kidney.  (+info)

Calcitonin is a hormone that is produced and released by the parafollicular cells (also known as C cells) of the thyroid gland. It plays a crucial role in regulating calcium homeostasis in the body. Specifically, it helps to lower elevated levels of calcium in the blood by inhibiting the activity of osteoclasts, which are bone cells that break down bone tissue and release calcium into the bloodstream. Calcitonin also promotes the uptake of calcium in the bones and increases the excretion of calcium in the urine.

Calcitonin is typically released in response to high levels of calcium in the blood, and its effects help to bring calcium levels back into balance. In addition to its role in calcium regulation, calcitonin may also have other functions in the body, such as modulating immune function and reducing inflammation.

Clinically, synthetic forms of calcitonin are sometimes used as a medication to treat conditions related to abnormal calcium levels, such as hypercalcemia (high blood calcium) or osteoporosis. Calcitonin can be administered as an injection, nasal spray, or oral tablet, depending on the specific formulation and intended use.

Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a neurotransmitter and vasodilator peptide that is widely distributed in the nervous system. It is encoded by the calcitonin gene, which also encodes calcitonin and catestatin. CGRP is produced and released by sensory nerves and plays important roles in pain transmission, modulation of inflammation, and regulation of blood flow.

CGRP exists as two forms, α-CGRP and β-CGRP, which differ slightly in their amino acid sequences but have similar biological activities. α-CGRP is found primarily in the central and peripheral nervous systems, while β-CGRP is expressed mainly in the gastrointestinal tract.

CGRP exerts its effects by binding to specific G protein-coupled receptors, which are widely distributed in various tissues, including blood vessels, smooth muscles, and sensory neurons. Activation of CGRP receptors leads to increased intracellular cyclic AMP levels, activation of protein kinase A, and subsequent relaxation of vascular smooth muscle, resulting in vasodilation.

CGRP has been implicated in several clinical conditions, including migraine, cluster headache, and inflammatory pain. Inhibition of CGRP signaling has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of these disorders.

Calcitonin receptors (CTRs) are a type of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that bind and respond to the hormone calcitonin. Calcitonin is a peptide hormone secreted by the parafollicular cells (C cells) of the thyroid gland, and plays a crucial role in regulating calcium homeostasis in the body.

CTRs are widely expressed in various tissues and organs, including bone, kidney, intestine, and brain. In bone, CTR activation inhibits osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, thereby increasing bone density and reducing the risk of fractures. In the kidney, CTR activation promotes calcium reabsorption and phosphate excretion, helping to maintain normal serum calcium and phosphate levels.

CTRs are also involved in various physiological processes, such as nociception (pain perception), neuroprotection, and cell proliferation and differentiation. Dysregulation of CTR signaling has been implicated in several diseases, including osteoporosis, hypercalcemia, and cancer.

The medical definition of "Receptors, Calcitonin" refers to the specific proteins that bind calcitonin hormone and mediate its effects on target cells and tissues.

Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptors are a type of cell surface receptor found in various tissues and cells, including the nervous system and blood vessels. CGRP is a neuropeptide that plays a role in regulating vasodilation, inflammation, and nociception (the sensation of pain).

The CGRP receptor is a complex of two proteins: calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR) and receptor activity-modifying protein 1 (RAMP1). When CGRP binds to the CLR-RAMP1 complex, it activates a signaling pathway that leads to vasodilation and increased pain sensitivity.

CGRP receptors have been identified as important targets for the treatment of migraine headaches, as CGRP levels are known to increase during migraine attacks. Several drugs that target CGRP receptors have been developed and approved for the prevention and acute treatment of migraines.

Calcitonin receptor-like protein (CRLR) is a gene that encodes for a protein involved in the regulation of various physiological functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. CRLR itself does not bind to calcitonin or any other ligands, but it serves as a necessary component for the formation of functional receptors for certain peptide hormones, such as calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and adrenomedullin.

These hormones play important roles in regulating blood pressure, inflammation, and nociception (the perception of pain). CRLR forms a complex with receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs) to create functional receptors for CGRP and adrenomedullin. The specific combination of CRLR and RAMPs determines the type of receptor formed, which in turn dictates the ligand specificity and downstream signaling pathways activated.

Mutations in the CRLR gene have been associated with various diseases, including familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) type 3, a rare inherited disorder characterized by elevated serum calcium levels and decreased urinary calcium excretion. Additionally, dysregulation of CRLR-mediated signaling pathways has been implicated in the development and progression of several types of cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and cardiovascular diseases.

Receptor Activity-Modifying Proteins (RAMPs) are a family of single-pass transmembrane proteins that play a crucial role in modulating the function of certain G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). RAMPs were first identified in 1998, and since then, they have been shown to interact with and alter the pharmacological properties, ligand specificity, trafficking, and signal transduction of class II GPCRs, including calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptors and adrenomedullin receptors.

There are three known isoforms of RAMPs: RAMP1, RAMP2, and RAMP3. These isoforms can form heterodimers with class II GPCRs, leading to the formation of distinct receptor complexes with unique functional properties. The interaction between RAMPs and GPCRs can result in the generation of novel signaling pathways, which may have implications for various physiological processes and diseases.

RAMPs are involved in several biological functions, such as regulating vasodilation, inflammation, nociception, and cell proliferation. Dysregulation of RAMP-mediated signaling has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various disorders, including migraine, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying RAMP function is essential for developing novel therapeutic strategies targeting these diseases.

Receptor Activity-Modifying Protein 1 (RAMP1) is not a medical term per se, but rather a scientific term used in the field of molecular biology and pharmacology. RAMP1 is a single-pass type I membrane protein that plays a crucial role in the function of certain G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), particularly the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor and adrenomedullin receptors.

RAMP1 forms complexes with specific GPCRs, thereby modifying their ligand specificity, trafficking, and signaling properties. It is involved in the transportation of these receptors to the cell surface and influences their binding affinity for different ligands. RAMP1-containing receptors are implicated in various physiological processes, including vasodilation, nociception (pain perception), neurogenic inflammation, and bone homeostasis. Dysregulation of RAMP1 and its associated receptors has been linked to several diseases, such as migraine, hypertension, and cancer.

While not a medical definition, understanding the role of RAMP1 in modulating GPCR activity is essential for researchers working on drug development and therapeutic strategies targeting these receptor systems.

Adrenomedullin is a hormone that is produced and released by the adrenal glands, specifically from the chromaffin cells in the adrenal medulla. It is a small peptide made up of 52 amino acids and has various physiological functions, including vasodilation, bronchodilation, and inhibition of cell growth.

Adrenomedullin acts as a potent vasodilator by binding to specific G protein-coupled receptors in the vascular smooth muscle cells, leading to relaxation of the blood vessels. It also has a role in regulating blood pressure and fluid balance in the body.

In addition to its effects on the cardiovascular system, adrenomedullin has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties. It is involved in various physiological processes such as wound healing, tissue repair, and angiogenesis (the formation of new blood vessels).

Abnormal levels of adrenomedullin have been implicated in several disease states, including hypertension, heart failure, sepsis, and cancer. Therefore, measuring adrenomedullin levels in the body can provide valuable diagnostic and prognostic information for these conditions.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Salmon" is not a medical term. It is a common name for various species of fish that belong to the family Salmonidae and are known for their distinctive pink or red flesh. They are an important source of food and are popular in many cuisines around the world. If you have any questions about medical terminology, I'd be happy to help with those instead!

Receptor Activity-Modifying Protein 2 (RAMP2) is a protein that plays a role in modulating the function of certain G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). RAMP2 combines with specific GPCRs to form complexes that alter their ligand binding, trafficking, and signaling properties.

These GPCRs include calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CALCRL) and calcitonin receptor (CTR), which bind to peptide hormones such as calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and adrenomedullin. RAMP2-containing complexes have been implicated in various physiological processes, including vasodilation, nociception, and neurotransmission.

Mutations in the RAMP2 gene can lead to several genetic disorders, such as familial migraine with aura and autosomal dominant osteoporosis type II. Additionally, RAMP2 has been targeted for drug development in conditions like migraine and cardiovascular diseases.

Receptor Activity-Modifying Protein 3 (RAMP3) is a protein that plays a role in modulating the activity of certain G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). RAMP3 combines with specific GPCRs to form complexes, which then alter the binding properties and signaling capabilities of those receptors.

RAMP3 is primarily associated with calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptors and adrenomedullin receptors. By forming a complex with these GPCRs, RAMP3 helps to regulate their activity and plays a role in various physiological processes, including neurotransmission, vasodilation, and inflammation.

It is important to note that the study of RAMP3 and its functions is still an active area of research, and new findings may continue to expand our understanding of this protein and its role in health and disease.

Islet amyloid polypeptide receptors (IAPRs) are a type of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that play a role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and energy balance. They are activated by the hormone islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP), also known as amylin, which is co-secreted with insulin from pancreatic beta cells in response to meals.

There are two subtypes of IAPRs, named RCS3 (or IA PR1) andRAMP2 (or IA PR2). These receptors can form heterodimers with other GPCRs, such as the calcitonin receptor (CTR), to form functional complexes that bind IAPP with high affinity. Activation of IAPRs by IAPP has been shown to inhibit gastric emptying, reduce food intake, and lower blood glucose levels, suggesting a role in the regulation of satiety and glucose metabolism.

Mutations in the genes encoding IAPP and IAPRs have been associated with the development of type 2 diabetes, suggesting that dysfunction of the IAPP/IAPR system may contribute to the pathogenesis of this disease. Additionally, the accumulation of misfolded IAPP in pancreatic islets can lead to the formation of amyloid deposits, which are a characteristic feature of type 2 diabetes and have been implicated in the destruction of beta cells and the development of insulin resistance.

Substance P is an undecapeptide neurotransmitter and neuromodulator, belonging to the tachykinin family of peptides. It is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and is primarily found in sensory neurons. Substance P plays a crucial role in pain transmission, inflammation, and various autonomic functions. It exerts its effects by binding to neurokinin 1 (NK-1) receptors, which are expressed on the surface of target cells. Apart from nociception and inflammation, Substance P is also involved in regulating emotional behaviors, smooth muscle contraction, and fluid balance.

Adrenomedullin receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that bind to and are activated by the peptide hormone adrenomedullin. There are two main types of adrenomedullin receptors, identified as AM1 and AM2, which are formed by the combination of different subunits. The AM1 receptor is composed of the calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR) and receptor activity-modifying protein 2 (RAMP2), while the AM2 receptor is composed of CLR and RAMP3.

Adrenomedullin receptors play important roles in various physiological processes, including cardiovascular regulation, vasodilation, and inhibition of cell growth and proliferation. They are widely distributed throughout the body, particularly in the vascular system, kidneys, adrenal glands, and central nervous system. Activation of these receptors by adrenomedullin leads to a range of intracellular signaling events, including the activation of adenylyl cyclase, increased levels of cAMP, and activation of protein kinase A (PKA). These downstream effects contribute to the diverse biological activities of adrenomedullin.

In addition to adrenomedullin, related peptides such as adrenotensin and intermedin can also bind to and activate these receptors, albeit with lower affinity. Dysregulation of adrenomedullin receptor signaling has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including hypertension, heart failure, and cancer. As a result, targeting adrenomedullin receptors has emerged as a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of these diseases.

Medullary carcinoma is a type of cancer that develops in the neuroendocrine cells of the thyroid gland. These cells produce hormones that help regulate various bodily functions. Medullary carcinoma is a relatively rare form of thyroid cancer, accounting for about 5-10% of all cases.

Medullary carcinoma is characterized by the presence of certain genetic mutations that cause the overproduction of calcitonin, a hormone produced by the neuroendocrine cells. This overproduction can lead to the formation of tumors in the thyroid gland.

Medullary carcinoma can be hereditary or sporadic. Hereditary forms of the disease are caused by mutations in the RET gene and are often associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2), a genetic disorder that affects the thyroid gland, adrenal glands, and parathyroid glands. Sporadic forms of medullary carcinoma, on the other hand, are not inherited and occur randomly in people with no family history of the disease.

Medullary carcinoma is typically more aggressive than other types of thyroid cancer and tends to spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body, such as the lymph nodes, lungs, and liver. Symptoms may include a lump or nodule in the neck, difficulty swallowing, hoarseness, and coughing. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Regular monitoring of calcitonin levels is also recommended to monitor the effectiveness of treatment and detect any recurrence of the disease.

Capsaicin is defined in medical terms as the active component of chili peppers (genus Capsicum) that produces a burning sensation when it comes into contact with mucous membranes or skin. It is a potent irritant and is used topically as a counterirritant in some creams and patches to relieve pain. Capsaicin works by depleting substance P, a neurotransmitter that relays pain signals to the brain, from nerve endings.

Here is the medical definition of capsaicin from the Merriam-Webster's Medical Dictionary:

caпсаісіn : an alkaloid (C18H27NO3) that is the active principle of red peppers and is used in topical preparations as a counterirritant and analgesic.

Thyroid neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the thyroid gland, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). These growths can vary in size and may cause a noticeable lump or nodule in the neck. Thyroid neoplasms can also affect the function of the thyroid gland, leading to hormonal imbalances and related symptoms. The exact causes of thyroid neoplasms are not fully understood, but risk factors include radiation exposure, family history, and certain genetic conditions. It is important to note that most thyroid nodules are benign, but a proper medical evaluation is necessary to determine the nature of the growth and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

Neuropeptides are small protein-like molecules that are used by neurons to communicate with each other and with other cells in the body. They are produced in the cell body of a neuron, processed from larger precursor proteins, and then transported to the nerve terminal where they are stored in secretory vesicles. When the neuron is stimulated, the vesicles fuse with the cell membrane and release their contents into the extracellular space.

Neuropeptides can act as neurotransmitters or neuromodulators, depending on their target receptors and the duration of their effects. They play important roles in a variety of physiological processes, including pain perception, appetite regulation, stress response, and social behavior. Some neuropeptides also have hormonal functions, such as oxytocin and vasopressin, which are produced in the hypothalamus and released into the bloodstream to regulate reproductive and cardiovascular function, respectively.

There are hundreds of different neuropeptides that have been identified in the nervous system, and many of them have multiple functions and interact with other signaling molecules to modulate neural activity. Dysregulation of neuropeptide systems has been implicated in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as chronic pain, addiction, depression, and anxiety.

The ultimobranchial body is a term used in human embryology to refer to a vestigial structure present during fetal development. It is the remnant of the fifth pharyngeal pouch, which eventually forms a part of the thyroid gland called the parafollicular or C cells. These cells are responsible for producing calcitonin, a hormone that helps regulate calcium levels in the body.

It's important to note that the term 'ultimobranchial body' is not commonly used in modern medical literature, and the structure it refers to is typically just referred to as the parafollicular cells or C cells of the thyroid gland.

"Eels" is not a term that has a medical definition. It refers to a type of long, snake-like fish that belong to the order Anguilliformes. There are several species of eels found in fresh and saltwater environments around the world. While there may be some references to "eels" in a medical context, such as in the name of certain medical conditions or procedures, these would be specific and unrelated to the fish themselves.

Osteitis deformans, also known as Paget's disease of bone, is a chronic disorder of the bone characterized by abnormal turnover and remodeling of the bone. In this condition, the bone becomes enlarged, thickened, and deformed due to excessive and disorganized bone formation and resorption.

The process begins when the bone-remodeling cycle is disrupted, leading to an imbalance between the activity of osteoclasts (cells that break down bone) and osteoblasts (cells that form new bone). In Paget's disease, osteoclasts become overactive and increase bone resorption, followed by an overzealous response from osteoblasts, which attempt to repair the damage but do so in a disorganized manner.

The affected bones can become weakened, prone to fractures, and may cause pain, deformities, or other complications such as arthritis, hearing loss, or neurological symptoms if the skull or spine is involved. The exact cause of Paget's disease remains unknown, but it is believed that genetic and environmental factors play a role in its development.

Early diagnosis and treatment can help manage the symptoms and prevent complications associated with osteitis deformans. Treatment options include medications to slow down bone turnover, pain management, and orthopedic interventions when necessary.

Thyroidectomy is a surgical procedure where all or part of the thyroid gland is removed. The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped endocrine gland located in the neck, responsible for producing hormones that regulate metabolism, growth, and development.

There are different types of thyroidectomy procedures, including:

1. Total thyroidectomy: Removal of the entire thyroid gland.
2. Partial (or subtotal) thyroidectomy: Removal of a portion of the thyroid gland.
3. Hemithyroidectomy: Removal of one lobe of the thyroid gland, often performed to treat benign solitary nodules or differentiated thyroid cancer.

Thyroidectomy may be recommended for various reasons, such as treating thyroid nodules, goiter, hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid), or thyroid cancer. Potential risks and complications of the procedure include bleeding, infection, damage to nearby structures like the parathyroid glands and recurrent laryngeal nerve, and hypoparathyroidism or hypothyroidism due to removal of or damage to the parathyroid glands or thyroid gland, respectively. Close postoperative monitoring and management are essential to minimize these risks and ensure optimal patient outcomes.

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a polypeptide hormone that plays a crucial role in the regulation of calcium and phosphate levels in the body. It is produced and secreted by the parathyroid glands, which are four small endocrine glands located on the back surface of the thyroid gland.

The primary function of PTH is to maintain normal calcium levels in the blood by increasing calcium absorption from the gut, mobilizing calcium from bones, and decreasing calcium excretion by the kidneys. PTH also increases phosphate excretion by the kidneys, which helps to lower serum phosphate levels.

In addition to its role in calcium and phosphate homeostasis, PTH has been shown to have anabolic effects on bone tissue, stimulating bone formation and preventing bone loss. However, chronic elevations in PTH levels can lead to excessive bone resorption and osteoporosis.

Overall, Parathyroid Hormone is a critical hormone that helps maintain mineral homeostasis and supports healthy bone metabolism.

Pentagastrin is a synthetic polypeptide hormone that stimulates the release of gastrin and hydrochloric acid from the stomach. It is used diagnostically to test for conditions such as Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, a rare disorder in which tumors in the pancreas or duodenum produce excessive amounts of gastrin, leading to severe ulcers and other digestive problems.

Pentagastrin is typically administered intravenously, and its effects are monitored through blood tests that measure gastric acid secretion. It is a potent stimulant of gastric acid production, and its use is limited to diagnostic purposes due to the risk of adverse effects such as nausea, flushing, and increased heart rate.

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is a key secondary messenger in many biological processes, including the regulation of metabolism, gene expression, and cellular excitability. It is synthesized from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by the enzyme adenylyl cyclase and is degraded by the enzyme phosphodiesterase.

In the body, cAMP plays a crucial role in mediating the effects of hormones and neurotransmitters on target cells. For example, when a hormone binds to its receptor on the surface of a cell, it can activate a G protein, which in turn activates adenylyl cyclase to produce cAMP. The increased levels of cAMP then activate various effector proteins, such as protein kinases, which go on to regulate various cellular processes.

Overall, the regulation of cAMP levels is critical for maintaining proper cellular function and homeostasis, and abnormalities in cAMP signaling have been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Miotics, also known as parasympathomimetics or cholinergic agents, are a class of medications that stimulate the parasympathetic nervous system. They work by activating muscarinic receptors, which are found in various organs throughout the body, including the eye. In the eye, miotics cause contraction of the circular muscle of the iris, resulting in pupillary constriction (miosis). This action can help to reduce intraocular pressure in patients with glaucoma.

Miotics may also have other effects on the eye, such as accommodation (focusing) and decreasing the production of aqueous humor. Some examples of miotics include pilocarpine, carbachol, and ecothiopate. It's important to note that the use of miotics can have side effects, including blurred vision, headache, and brow ache.

The thyroid gland is a major endocrine gland located in the neck, anterior to the trachea and extends from the lower third of the Adams apple to the suprasternal notch. It has two lateral lobes, connected by an isthmus, and sometimes a pyramidal lobe. This gland plays a crucial role in the metabolism, growth, and development of the human body through the production of thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine/T3 and thyroxine/T4) and calcitonin. The thyroid hormones regulate body temperature, heart rate, and the production of protein, while calcitonin helps in controlling calcium levels in the blood. The function of the thyroid gland is controlled by the hypothalamus and pituitary gland through the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH).

Peptide receptors are a type of cell surface receptor that bind to peptide hormones and neurotransmitters. These receptors play crucial roles in various physiological processes, including regulation of appetite, pain perception, immune function, and cardiovascular homeostasis. Peptide receptors belong to the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily or the tyrosine kinase receptor family. Upon binding of a peptide ligand, these receptors activate intracellular signaling cascades that ultimately lead to changes in cell behavior and communication with other cells.

Peptide receptors can be classified into two main categories: metabotropic and ionotropic. Metabotropic peptide receptors are GPCRs, which activate intracellular signaling pathways through coupling with heterotrimeric G proteins. These receptors typically have seven transmembrane domains and undergo conformational changes upon ligand binding, leading to the activation of downstream effectors such as adenylyl cyclase, phospholipase C, or ion channels.

Ionotropic peptide receptors are ligand-gated ion channels that directly modulate ion fluxes across the cell membrane upon ligand binding. These receptors contain four or five subunits arranged around a central pore and undergo conformational changes to allow ion flow through the channel.

Examples of peptide receptors include:

1. Opioid receptors (μ, δ, κ) - bind endogenous opioid peptides such as enkephalins, endorphins, and dynorphins to modulate pain perception and reward processing.
2. Somatostatin receptors (SSTR1-5) - bind somatostatin and cortistatin to regulate hormone secretion, cell proliferation, and angiogenesis.
3. Neuropeptide Y receptors (Y1-Y5) - bind neuropeptide Y to modulate feeding behavior, energy metabolism, and cardiovascular function.
4. Calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor (CGRP-R) - binds calcitonin gene-related peptide to mediate vasodilation and neurogenic inflammation.
5. Bradykinin B2 receptor (B2R) - binds bradykinin to induce pain, inflammation, and vasodilation.
6. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide receptors (VPAC1, VPAC2) - bind vasoactive intestinal peptide to regulate neurotransmission, hormone secretion, and smooth muscle contraction.
7. Oxytocin receptor (OXTR) - binds oxytocin to mediate social bonding, maternal behavior, and uterine contractions during childbirth.
8. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) - binds angiotensin II to regulate blood pressure, fluid balance, and cell growth.

Islet Amyloid Polypeptide (IAPP), also known as amylin, is a 37-amino acid peptide co-secreted with insulin from pancreatic beta-cells in response to meals. It plays crucial roles in regulating glucose homeostasis by suppressing glucagon secretion, slowing gastric emptying, and promoting satiety. In type 2 diabetes, IAPP can form amyloid fibrils, which deposit in pancreatic islets, contributing to beta-cell dysfunction and death. This contributes to the progressive nature of type 2 diabetes.

Sprague-Dawley rats are a strain of albino laboratory rats that are widely used in scientific research. They were first developed by researchers H.H. Sprague and R.C. Dawley in the early 20th century, and have since become one of the most commonly used rat strains in biomedical research due to their relatively large size, ease of handling, and consistent genetic background.

Sprague-Dawley rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not suffer from the same limitations as inbred strains, which can have reduced fertility and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. They are also characterized by their docile nature and low levels of aggression, making them easier to handle and study than some other rat strains.

These rats are used in a wide variety of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, and behavioral studies. Because they are genetically diverse, Sprague-Dawley rats can be used to model a range of human diseases and conditions, making them an important tool in the development of new drugs and therapies.

Bone resorption is the process by which bone tissue is broken down and absorbed into the body. It is a normal part of bone remodeling, in which old or damaged bone tissue is removed and new tissue is formed. However, excessive bone resorption can lead to conditions such as osteoporosis, in which bones become weak and fragile due to a loss of density. This process is carried out by cells called osteoclasts, which break down the bone tissue and release minerals such as calcium into the bloodstream.

Afferent neurons, also known as sensory neurons, are a type of nerve cell that conducts impulses or signals from peripheral receptors towards the central nervous system (CNS), which includes the brain and spinal cord. These neurons are responsible for transmitting sensory information such as touch, temperature, pain, sound, and light to the CNS for processing and interpretation. Afferent neurons have specialized receptor endings that detect changes in the environment and convert them into electrical signals, which are then transmitted to the CNS via synapses with other neurons. Once the signals reach the CNS, they are processed and integrated with other information to produce a response or reaction to the stimulus.

Radioimmunoassay (RIA) is a highly sensitive analytical technique used in clinical and research laboratories to measure concentrations of various substances, such as hormones, vitamins, drugs, or tumor markers, in biological samples like blood, urine, or tissues. The method relies on the specific interaction between an antibody and its corresponding antigen, combined with the use of radioisotopes to quantify the amount of bound antigen.

In a typical RIA procedure, a known quantity of a radiolabeled antigen (also called tracer) is added to a sample containing an unknown concentration of the same unlabeled antigen. The mixture is then incubated with a specific antibody that binds to the antigen. During the incubation period, the antibody forms complexes with both the radiolabeled and unlabeled antigens.

After the incubation, the unbound (free) radiolabeled antigen is separated from the antibody-antigen complexes, usually through a precipitation or separation step involving centrifugation, filtration, or chromatography. The amount of radioactivity in the pellet (containing the antibody-antigen complexes) is then measured using a gamma counter or other suitable radiation detection device.

The concentration of the unlabeled antigen in the sample can be determined by comparing the ratio of bound to free radiolabeled antigen in the sample to a standard curve generated from known concentrations of unlabeled antigen and their corresponding bound/free ratios. The higher the concentration of unlabeled antigen in the sample, the lower the amount of radiolabeled antigen that will bind to the antibody, resulting in a lower bound/free ratio.

Radioimmunoassays offer high sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy, making them valuable tools for detecting and quantifying low levels of various substances in biological samples. However, due to concerns about radiation safety and waste disposal, alternative non-isotopic immunoassay techniques like enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) have become more popular in recent years.

The trigeminal ganglion, also known as the semilunar or Gasserian ganglion, is a sensory ganglion (a cluster of nerve cell bodies) located near the base of the skull. It is a part of the trigeminal nerve (the fifth cranial nerve), which is responsible for sensation in the face and motor functions such as biting and chewing.

The trigeminal ganglion contains the cell bodies of sensory neurons that carry information from three major branches of the trigeminal nerve: the ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular divisions. These divisions provide sensation to different areas of the face, head, and oral cavity, including the skin, mucous membranes, muscles, and teeth.

Damage to the trigeminal ganglion or its nerve branches can result in various sensory disturbances, such as pain, numbness, or tingling in the affected areas. Conditions like trigeminal neuralgia, a disorder characterized by intense, stabbing facial pain, may involve the trigeminal ganglion and its associated nerves.

Calcium is an essential mineral that is vital for various physiological processes in the human body. The medical definition of calcium is as follows:

Calcium (Ca2+) is a crucial cation and the most abundant mineral in the human body, with approximately 99% of it found in bones and teeth. It plays a vital role in maintaining structural integrity, nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, hormonal secretion, blood coagulation, and enzyme activation.

Calcium homeostasis is tightly regulated through the interplay of several hormones, including parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitonin, and vitamin D. Dietary calcium intake, absorption, and excretion are also critical factors in maintaining optimal calcium levels in the body.

Hypocalcemia refers to low serum calcium levels, while hypercalcemia indicates high serum calcium levels. Both conditions can have detrimental effects on various organ systems and require medical intervention to correct.

Hypocalcemia is a medical condition characterized by an abnormally low level of calcium in the blood. Calcium is a vital mineral that plays a crucial role in various bodily functions, including muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, and bone formation. Normal calcium levels in the blood usually range from 8.5 to 10.2 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL). Hypocalcemia is typically defined as a serum calcium level below 8.5 mg/dL or, when adjusted for albumin (a protein that binds to calcium), below 8.4 mg/dL (ionized calcium).

Hypocalcemia can result from several factors, such as vitamin D deficiency, hypoparathyroidism (underactive parathyroid glands), kidney dysfunction, certain medications, and severe magnesium deficiency. Symptoms of hypocalcemia may include numbness or tingling in the fingers, toes, or lips; muscle cramps or spasms; seizures; and, in severe cases, cognitive impairment or cardiac arrhythmias. Treatment typically involves correcting the underlying cause and administering calcium and vitamin D supplements to restore normal calcium levels in the blood.

Osteoclasts are large, multinucleated cells that are primarily responsible for bone resorption, a process in which they break down and dissolve the mineralized matrix of bones. They are derived from monocyte-macrophage precursor cells of hematopoietic origin and play a crucial role in maintaining bone homeostasis by balancing bone formation and bone resorption.

Osteoclasts adhere to the bone surface and create an isolated microenvironment, called the "resorption lacuna," between their cell membrane and the bone surface. Here, they release hydrogen ions into the lacuna through a process called proton pumping, which lowers the pH and dissolves the mineral component of the bone matrix. Additionally, osteoclasts secrete proteolytic enzymes, such as cathepsin K, that degrade the organic components, like collagen, in the bone matrix.

An imbalance in osteoclast activity can lead to various bone diseases, including osteoporosis and Paget's disease, where excessive bone resorption results in weakened and fragile bones.

Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) is a 28-amino acid polypeptide hormone that has potent vasodilatory, secretory, and neurotransmitter effects. It is widely distributed throughout the body, including in the gastrointestinal tract, where it is synthesized and released by nerve cells (neurons) in the intestinal mucosa. VIP plays a crucial role in regulating various physiological functions such as intestinal secretion, motility, and blood flow. It also has immunomodulatory effects and may play a role in neuroprotection. High levels of VIP are found in the brain, where it acts as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator and is involved in various cognitive functions such as learning, memory, and social behavior.

Spinal ganglia, also known as dorsal root ganglia, are clusters of nerve cell bodies located in the peripheral nervous system. They are situated along the length of the spinal cord and are responsible for transmitting sensory information from the body to the brain. Each spinal ganglion contains numerous neurons, or nerve cells, with long processes called axons that extend into the periphery and innervate various tissues and organs. The cell bodies within the spinal ganglia receive sensory input from these axons and transmit this information to the central nervous system via the dorsal roots of the spinal nerves. This allows the brain to interpret and respond to a wide range of sensory stimuli, including touch, temperature, pain, and proprioception (the sense of the position and movement of one's body).

Calcium gluconate is a medical compound that is used primarily as a medication to treat conditions related to low calcium levels in the body (hypocalcemia) or to prevent calcium deficiency. It is also used as an antidote for treating poisoning from certain chemicals, such as beta-blockers and fluoride.

Calcium gluconate is a form of calcium salt, which is combined with gluconic acid, a natural organic acid found in various fruits and honey. This compound has a high concentration of calcium, making it an effective supplement for increasing calcium levels in the body.

In medical settings, calcium gluconate can be administered orally as a tablet or liquid solution, or it can be given intravenously (directly into a vein) by a healthcare professional. The intravenous route is typically used in emergency situations to quickly raise calcium levels and treat symptoms of hypocalcemia, such as muscle cramps, spasms, or seizures.

It's important to note that while calcium gluconate can be beneficial for treating low calcium levels, it should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare provider, as improper use or overdose can lead to serious side effects, including kidney damage and heart problems.

A peptide fragment is a short chain of amino acids that is derived from a larger peptide or protein through various biological or chemical processes. These fragments can result from the natural breakdown of proteins in the body during regular physiological processes, such as digestion, or they can be produced experimentally in a laboratory setting for research or therapeutic purposes.

Peptide fragments are often used in research to map the structure and function of larger peptides and proteins, as well as to study their interactions with other molecules. In some cases, peptide fragments may also have biological activity of their own and can be developed into drugs or diagnostic tools. For example, certain peptide fragments derived from hormones or neurotransmitters may bind to receptors in the body and mimic or block the effects of the full-length molecule.

Nerve fibers are specialized structures that constitute the long, slender processes (axons) of neurons (nerve cells). They are responsible for conducting electrical impulses, known as action potentials, away from the cell body and transmitting them to other neurons or effector organs such as muscles and glands. Nerve fibers are often surrounded by supportive cells called glial cells and are grouped together to form nerve bundles or nerves. These fibers can be myelinated (covered with a fatty insulating sheath called myelin) or unmyelinated, which influences the speed of impulse transmission.

Bone density conservation agents, also known as anti-resorptive agents or bone-sparing drugs, are a class of medications that help to prevent the loss of bone mass and reduce the risk of fractures. They work by inhibiting the activity of osteoclasts, the cells responsible for breaking down and reabsorbing bone tissue during the natural remodeling process.

Examples of bone density conservation agents include:

1. Bisphosphonates (e.g., alendronate, risedronate, ibandronate, zoledronic acid) - These are the most commonly prescribed class of bone density conservation agents. They bind to hydroxyapatite crystals in bone tissue and inhibit osteoclast activity, thereby reducing bone resorption.
2. Denosumab (Prolia) - This is a monoclonal antibody that targets RANKL (Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-κB Ligand), a key signaling molecule involved in osteoclast differentiation and activation. By inhibiting RANKL, denosumab reduces osteoclast activity and bone resorption.
3. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) (e.g., raloxifene) - These medications act as estrogen agonists or antagonists in different tissues. In bone tissue, SERMs mimic the bone-preserving effects of estrogen by inhibiting osteoclast activity and reducing bone resorption.
4. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) - Estrogen hormone replacement therapy has been shown to preserve bone density in postmenopausal women; however, its use is limited due to increased risks of breast cancer, cardiovascular disease, and thromboembolic events.
5. Calcitonin - This hormone, secreted by the thyroid gland, inhibits osteoclast activity and reduces bone resorption. However, it has largely been replaced by other more effective bone density conservation agents.

These medications are often prescribed for individuals at high risk of fractures due to conditions such as osteoporosis or metabolic disorders that affect bone health. It is essential to follow the recommended dosage and administration guidelines to maximize their benefits while minimizing potential side effects. Regular monitoring of bone density, blood calcium levels, and other relevant parameters is also necessary during treatment with these medications.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

The trigeminal nerve, also known as the fifth cranial nerve or CNV, is a paired nerve that carries both sensory and motor information. It has three major branches: ophthalmic (V1), maxillary (V2), and mandibular (V3). The ophthalmic branch provides sensation to the forehead, eyes, and upper portion of the nose; the maxillary branch supplies sensation to the lower eyelid, cheek, nasal cavity, and upper lip; and the mandibular branch is responsible for sensation in the lower lip, chin, and parts of the oral cavity, as well as motor function to the muscles involved in chewing. The trigeminal nerve plays a crucial role in sensations of touch, pain, temperature, and pressure in the face and mouth, and it also contributes to biting, chewing, and swallowing functions.

Neurokinin A (NKA) is a neuropeptide belonging to the tachykinin family, which also includes substance P and neurokinin B. It is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and plays a role in various physiological functions such as pain transmission, smooth muscle contraction, and immune response regulation. NKA exerts its effects by binding to neurokinin 1 (NK-1) receptors, although it has lower affinity for these receptors compared to substance P. It is involved in several pathological conditions, including inflammation, neurogenic pain, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

Hydroxyproline is not a medical term per se, but it is a significant component in the medical field, particularly in the study of connective tissues and collagen. Here's a scientific definition:

Hydroxyproline is a modified amino acid that is formed by the post-translational modification of the amino acid proline in collagen and some other proteins. This process involves the addition of a hydroxyl group (-OH) to the proline residue, which alters its chemical properties and contributes to the stability and structure of collagen fibers. Collagen is the most abundant protein in the human body and is a crucial component of connective tissues such as tendons, ligaments, skin, and bones. The presence and quantity of hydroxyproline can serve as a marker for collagen turnover and degradation, making it relevant to various medical and research contexts, including the study of diseases affecting connective tissues like osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

Peptides are short chains of amino acid residues linked by covalent bonds, known as peptide bonds. They are formed when two or more amino acids are joined together through a condensation reaction, which results in the elimination of a water molecule and the formation of an amide bond between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another.

Peptides can vary in length from two to about fifty amino acids, and they are often classified based on their size. For example, dipeptides contain two amino acids, tripeptides contain three, and so on. Oligopeptides typically contain up to ten amino acids, while polypeptides can contain dozens or even hundreds of amino acids.

Peptides play many important roles in the body, including serving as hormones, neurotransmitters, enzymes, and antibiotics. They are also used in medical research and therapeutic applications, such as drug delivery and tissue engineering.

"Wistar rats" are a strain of albino rats that are widely used in laboratory research. They were developed at the Wistar Institute in Philadelphia, USA, and were first introduced in 1906. Wistar rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not have a fixed set of genetic characteristics like inbred strains.

Wistar rats are commonly used as animal models in biomedical research because of their size, ease of handling, and relatively low cost. They are used in a wide range of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and behavioral studies. Wistar rats are also used in safety testing of drugs, medical devices, and other products.

Wistar rats are typically larger than many other rat strains, with males weighing between 500-700 grams and females weighing between 250-350 grams. They have a lifespan of approximately 2-3 years. Wistar rats are also known for their docile and friendly nature, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory setting.

Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a neurotransmitter and neuropeptide that is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is a member of the pancreatic polypeptide family, which includes peptide YY and pancreatic polypeptide. NPY plays important roles in various physiological functions such as energy balance, feeding behavior, stress response, anxiety, memory, and cardiovascular regulation. It is involved in the modulation of neurotransmitter release, synaptic plasticity, and neural development. NPY is synthesized from a larger precursor protein called prepro-NPY, which is post-translationally processed to generate the mature NPY peptide. The NPY system has been implicated in various pathological conditions such as obesity, depression, anxiety disorders, hypertension, and drug addiction.

Hypercalcemia is a medical condition characterized by an excess of calcium ( Ca2+ ) in the blood. While the normal range for serum calcium levels is typically between 8.5 to 10.2 mg/dL (milligrams per deciliter) or 2.14 to 2.55 mmol/L (millimoles per liter), hypercalcemia is generally defined as a serum calcium level greater than 10.5 mg/dL or 2.6 mmol/L.

Hypercalcemia can result from various underlying medical disorders, including primary hyperparathyroidism, malignancy (cancer), certain medications, granulomatous diseases, and excessive vitamin D intake or production. Symptoms of hypercalcemia may include fatigue, weakness, confusion, memory loss, depression, constipation, nausea, vomiting, increased thirst, frequent urination, bone pain, and kidney stones. Severe or prolonged hypercalcemia can lead to serious complications such as kidney failure, cardiac arrhythmias, and calcification of soft tissues. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition.

Vasodilation is the widening or increase in diameter of blood vessels, particularly the involuntary relaxation of the smooth muscle in the tunica media (middle layer) of the arteriole walls. This results in an increase in blood flow and a decrease in vascular resistance. Vasodilation can occur due to various physiological and pathophysiological stimuli, such as local metabolic demands, neural signals, or pharmacological agents. It plays a crucial role in regulating blood pressure, tissue perfusion, and thermoregulation.

"Bone" is the hard, dense connective tissue that makes up the skeleton of vertebrate animals. It provides support and protection for the body's internal organs, and serves as a attachment site for muscles, tendons, and ligaments. Bone is composed of cells called osteoblasts and osteoclasts, which are responsible for bone formation and resorption, respectively, and an extracellular matrix made up of collagen fibers and mineral crystals.

Bones can be classified into two main types: compact bone and spongy bone. Compact bone is dense and hard, and makes up the outer layer of all bones and the shafts of long bones. Spongy bone is less dense and contains large spaces, and makes up the ends of long bones and the interior of flat and irregular bones.

The human body has 206 bones in total. They can be further classified into five categories based on their shape: long bones, short bones, flat bones, irregular bones, and sesamoid bones.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

A migraine disorder is a neurological condition characterized by recurrent headaches that often involve one side of the head and are accompanied by various symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, sensitivity to light and sound, and visual disturbances. Migraines can last from several hours to days and can be severely debilitating. The exact cause of migraines is not fully understood, but they are believed to result from a combination of genetic and environmental factors that affect the brain and blood vessels. There are different types of migraines, including migraine without aura, migraine with aura, chronic migraine, and others, each with its own specific set of symptoms and diagnostic criteria. Treatment typically involves a combination of lifestyle changes, medications, and behavioral therapies to manage symptoms and prevent future attacks.

Ectopic hormone production refers to the situation when a hormone is produced in an unusual location or by a type of cell that does not typically produce it. This can occur due to various reasons such as genetic mutations, cancer, or other medical conditions. The ectopic hormone production can lead to hormonal imbalances and related symptoms, as the regulation of hormones in the body becomes disrupted.

For example, in some cases of lung cancer, the tumor cells may produce adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which is typically produced by the pituitary gland. This ectopic ACTH production can result in Cushing's syndrome, a condition characterized by symptoms such as weight gain, muscle weakness, and high blood pressure.

It's important to note that ectopic hormone production is relatively rare and usually occurs in the context of specific medical conditions. If you suspect that you or someone else may have ectopic hormone production, it's important to seek medical attention from a healthcare professional who can provide appropriate evaluation and treatment.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Calcitonin. The Calcitonin Protein Calcitonin at the U.S. National Library of Medicine ... Calcitonin has clinically been used for metabolic bone disorders for more than 50 years. Salmon calcitonin is used for the ... Calcitonin also has significantly impacted molecular biology, as the gene encoding calcitonin was the first gene discovered in ... Calcitonin is secreted into the milk. Calcitonin was extracted from the ultimobranchial glands (thyroid-like glands) of fish, ...
The calcitonin receptor (CT) is a G protein-coupled receptor that binds the peptide hormone calcitonin and is involved in ... Pondel M (December 2000). "Calcitonin and calcitonin receptors: bone and beyond". International Journal of Experimental ... Calcitonin+receptors at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) (Webarchive template wayback ... Nakamura M, Hashimoto T, Nakajima T, Ichii S, Furuyama J, Ishihara Y, Kakudo K (April 1995). "A new type of human calcitonin ...
... (CGRP) is a member of the calcitonin family of peptides consisting of calcitonin, amylin, ... The mammalian calcitonin gene-related peptides, adrenomedullin, amylin, and calcitonin receptors". Pharmacological Reviews. 54 ... adrenomedullin, adrenomedullin 2 (intermedin) and calcitonin‑receptor‑stimulating peptide. Calcitonin is mainly produced by ... Regulation of the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) gene is in part controlled by the expression of the mitogen-activated ...
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonists are a class of drugs that act as antagonists of the calcitonin gene ... Nakasa, T; Ishikawa, M; Takada, T; Miyaki, S; Ochi, M (2015). "Attenuation of cartilage degeneration by calcitonin gene-related ... v t e (CS1 German-language sources (de), Antimigraine drugs, Receptor antagonists, Calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor ... an Oral Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide Receptor Antagonist". British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 79 (5): 831-7. doi: ...
"Calcitonin , You and Your Hormones from the Society for Endocrinology". www.yourhormones.info. Retrieved 2018-10-04. "What's ... Excess calcium then promotes the release of calcitonin from the thyroid gland, effectively reversing the process of PTH. ...
When associated with the Calcitonin receptor (CTR) or Calcitonin receptor-like (CALCRL) (below), RAMPs can change the ... "Calcitonin Receptors: Introduction". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ... "Calcitonin Receptors". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. ... calcitonin (CT), glucagon, and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). There are three distinct types of RAMPs in mammals (though ...
"Functional calcitonin gene-related peptide receptors are formed by the asymmetric assembly of a calcitonin receptor-like ... "Calcitonin Receptors: Introduction". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ... "Calcitonin Receptors". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. ... The RAMP1 protein can also interact with the calcitonin receptor (CT) protein, where heteromerisation of RAMP1 with CT converts ...
These secrete calcitonin. In other animals, the ultimopharyngeal body may produce calcitonin. The ultimopharyngeal body may not ... In humans, it develops from the fourth pharyngeal pouch into the parafollicular cells of the thyroid to produce calcitonin. It ... Agathos EA, Tomos PI, Kostomitsopoulos N, Koutsoukos PG (February 2019). "Calcitonin as an anticalcification treatment for ...
"Calcitonin for osteoporotic fractures". Archived from the original on 2009-06-08. Retrieved 2012-09-03. Knopp, Jennifer A.; ... For osteoporotic patients, calcitonin may be helpful. Kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty are minimally invasive procedures that ... Diner, Barry M.; Blitz, Maurice; Lyritis, George P.; Rowe, Brian H. (2004). "Calcitonin for treating acute pain of osteoporotic ...
Foster, G. V.; Baghdiantz, A.; Kumar, M. A.; Slack, E.; Soliman, H. A.; MacIntyre, I. (1964). "Thyroid origin of Calcitonin". ... June 27 - Iain Macintyre's group reports it has isolated and sequenced the newly-discovered hormone calcitonin and demonstrates ...
Synthetic salmon calcitonin may be used therapeutically in humans, as it is twenty times more active than human calcitonin and ... The structure of human calcitonin and salcatonin is as follows: Human calcitonin: H-Cys1-Gly-Asn-Leu-Ser-Thr-Cys7-Met-Leu-Gly- ... Calcitonin, as salmon calcitonin (sCT), is available in the pharmaceutical market as an injectable preparation for intravenous ... Salcatonin is the type of calcitonin hormone found in salmon. Similar to humans, salmon calcitonin is a peptide hormone ...
Macintyre's laboratory also purified and then sequenced both porcine calcitonin and human calcitonin. His team also ... Along with H. R. Morris he isolated and sequenced calcitonin gene-related peptide. Later research centred on the role played by ... Copp, D. Harold; Cameron, E. C.; Cheney, Barbara A.; Davidson, A. George F.; Henze, K. G. (1962). "Evidence for Calcitonin-A ... Shortly after the hormone calcitonin had been described by Harold Copp, Macintyre's team was the first to isolate and sequence ...
Hollo I, Gergely I, Boross M (June 1977). "Smoking results in calcitonin resistance". JAMA. 237 (23): 2470. doi:10.1001/jama. ... Nicotine appears to interfere with bone metabolism through induced calcitonin resistance and decreased osteoblastic function. ...
"Treatment of osteoporosis with calcitonin". Seminars in Drug Treatment. 2 (1): 21-5. PMID 5065516. Cohn, S.H; Shukla, K.K; ...
Fenethylline Theodrenaline Morton IK, Hall JM (1999). "Calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonist". Concise Dictionary ...
The action of calcitonin opposes PTH. When a parathyroid adenoma causes hyperparathyroidism, more parathyroid hormone is ...
June 2010). "Calcitonin impairs the anabolic effect of PTH in young rats and stimulates expression of sclerostin by osteocytes ... Sclerostin production is increased by calcitonin. Thus, osteoblast activity is self regulated by a negative feedback system. ...
Parafollicular cells produce calcitonin in response to high blood calcium. Calcitonin decreases the release of calcium from ... These cells secrete calcitonin and so are also called C cells. In the development of the embryo, at 3-4 weeks gestational age, ... Calcitonin plays a role in calcium homeostasis. Secretion of the two thyroid hormones is regulated by thyroid-stimulating ... The effects of calcitonin are opposite those of the parathyroid hormone (PTH) produced in the parathyroid glands. However, ...
Unlike calcitonin, it also regulates phosphate level. It inhibits excretion of phosphate from the kidney. Stanniocalcin was ... By the mid 1970s, it was confirmed that the corpuscles secrete a factor that can reduce calcium level, similar to calcitonin ... Even though other calcium-decreasing hormone, calcitonin, is also present, these fishes require more efficient hormone as ...
A randomized, double-blind comparison to calcitonin". Annals of Internal Medicine. 108 (5): 669-74. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-108-5 ... including injectable calcitonin and intravenous etidronate. Concurrent studies also suggested clinical activity in patients ...
Aiyar N, Rand K, Elshourbagy NA, Zeng Z, Adamou JE, Bergsma DJ, Li Y (Jun 1996). "A cDNA encoding the calcitonin gene-related ... Fluhmann B, Muff R, Hunziker W, Fischer JA, Born W (Feb 1995). "A human orphan calcitonin receptor-like structure". Biochem ...
Maayan C, Becker Y, Gesundheit B, Girgis SI (2002). "Calcitonin gene related peptide in familial dysautonomia". Neuropeptides. ...
A Cochrane review of calcitonin for the treatment of metastatic bone pain suggests calcitonin yields no significant benefit in ... Martinez-Zapata, MJ (2012). "Calcitonin used to treat metastatic bone pain". Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006 (3): CD003223. ...
PTH is secreted when [Ca2+] is decreased (calcitonin is secreted when serum calcium levels are elevated). The G-protein-coupled ... Its action is opposed by the hormone calcitonin. There are two types of PTH receptors. Parathyroid hormone 1 receptors, ...
Brain, S. D.; Williams, T. J.; Tippins, J. R.; Morris, H. R.; MacIntyre, I. (1985). "Calcitonin gene-related peptide is a ... In her early career she discovered the Calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonist (CGRP) as a potent microvascular ...
Van Buchem, FS (1970). "The pathogenesis of hyperostosis corticalis generalisata and calcitonin". Proceedings of the ...
ACh-calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) co-release. Glutamate-dynorphin co-release (in hippocampus). Noradrenaline and ATP ...
The hormone calcitonin is no longer commonly used. Other chemical poisons include: ANTU (α-naphthylthiourea; specific against ...
Calcitonin, produced by the parafollicular cells (C cells) of the thyroid gland in response to rising blood calcium levels, ... The parathyroid hormone is the antagonist of calcitonin. Parathyroid hormone release is triggered by falling blood calcium ...
They are calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonists. Gepants have been suggested to have less pain relief at 2 ... and Calcitonin-Gene-Related Peptide (CGRP) Receptor Monoclonal Antibodies". Pharmaceutics. 12 (12): 1180. doi:10.3390/ ...
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Calcitonin. The Calcitonin Protein Calcitonin at the U.S. National Library of Medicine ... Calcitonin has clinically been used for metabolic bone disorders for more than 50 years. Salmon calcitonin is used for the ... Calcitonin also has significantly impacted molecular biology, as the gene encoding calcitonin was the first gene discovered in ... Calcitonin is secreted into the milk. Calcitonin was extracted from the ultimobranchial glands (thyroid-like glands) of fish, ...
Calcitonin Salmon Injection: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Continue to use calcitonin salmon even if you feel well. Do not stop using calcitonin salmon without talking to your doctor. ... Before using calcitonin salmon injection,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to calcitonin salmon or any ... Use calcitonin salmon injection exactly as directed. Do not use more or less of it or use it more often than prescribed by your ...
Discover the physiological mechanisms behind insulin hypoglycemia and its impact on calcitonin secretion. Explore the role of ... Calcitonin Secretion under Insulin Hypoglycemia () Svetlana Stepanovna Moisa1, Alexander Danilovich Nozdrachev2 1Federal State- ... Moisa, S. and Nozdrachev, A. (2014) Calcitonin Secretion under Insulin Hypoglycemia. Open Journal of Endocrine and Metabolic ... Butakova (Moisa), S.S. and Nozdrachev, A.D. (2010) Effect of Calcitonin on the Type of Alimentary Hyperglycemia in Rats of ...
Calcitonin nasal spray is used together with calcium and vitamin D to treat bone loss in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis ...
Synthetic, salmon calcitonin. A 32 amino acid residue peptide that is shown to stimulate bone formation and inhibit bone ... Calcitonin, Salmon, Synthetic, Peptide at Fishersci.com ...
A Giant Pituitary Adenoma in a Patient under Salmon Calcitonin Treatment: Coincidence or a Priori Consequence. ... Read more about A Giant Pituitary Adenoma in a Patient under Salmon Calcitonin Treatment: Coincidence or a Priori Consequence ...
Miacalcin / Fortical / calcitoninLarry Frieders2016-11-14T20:42:44+00:00 MIACALCIN (calcitonin) nasal route. Also known as ... Use Calcitonin is used to treat women with postmenopausal osteoporosis (bone loss). It is used together with calcium and ... Administration of calcitonin-salmon has been reported in a few cases to cause serious allergic-type reactions (e.g. ... Precautions: Because calcitonin is protein in nature, the possibility of a systemic allergic reaction exists. ...
... H. ... TSW Collections: 4th International Meeting of the Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide, 2001. View this Special Issue ...
Calcitonin salmon is a man-made version of the hormone found in salmon. Citing potential cancer risks, Food and Drug ... Calcitonin salmon is a man-made version of the hormone found in salmon. Citing potential cancer risks, Food and Drug ... Generic calcitonin products are also available. The current recommendation is that the drugs should only be authorized for ... In light of the potential risk of cancer associated with calcitonin salmon use, FDA believes that it is important to revisit ...
A human ovarian small cell carcinoma line (BIN-67) expresses abundant calcitonin (CT) receptors (CTR) (143,000 per cell) that ... Cloning, characterization, and expression of a human calcitonin receptor from an ovarian carcinoma cell line.. ... Cloning, characterization, and expression of a human calcitonin receptor from an ovarian carcinoma cell line.. ...
European Medicines Agency recommends limiting long-term use of calcitonin medicines ... Calcitonin will only be available as a solution for injection and infusion, and should only be used for:. *prevention of acute ... Questions and answers on the review of calcitonin-containing medicines (PDF/109.29 KB) First published: 20/07/2012 Last updated ... European Medicines Agency recommends limiting long-term use of calcitonin medicines (PDF/68.29 KB) First published: 20/07/2012 ...
Calcitonin Resistance: Clinical and Immunologic Studies in Subjects with Pagets Disease of Bone Treated with Porcine and ... Calcitonin Resistance: Clinical and Immunologic Studies in Subjects with Pagets Disease of Bone Treated with Porcine and ... All six of these subjects sera acquired the capacity to neutralize salmon calcitonins hypocalcemic effect in rat bioassay. ... Competitive displacement of calcitonins-125I from the sera of one patient treated with both porcine and salmon calcitonin ...
... calcitonin salmon), frequency-based adverse effects, comprehensive interactions, contraindications, pregnancy & lactation ... calcitonin (salmon) injection CALCITONIN SALMON - INJECTION (KAL-si-TOE-nin) COMMON BRAND NAME(S): Calcimar, Miacalcin USES: ... encoded search term (calcitonin salmon (Miacalcin)) and calcitonin salmon (Miacalcin) What to Read Next on Medscape ... Calcitonin is a man-made hormone that works by slowing bone loss and maintaining normal calcium levels in the blood. It may ...
Here, we describe the optimisation and validation of a method for the evaluation of the stability of a lead calcitonin gene- ... The development and optimisation of an HPLC-based in vitro serum stability assay for a calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor ... The development and optimisation of an HPLC-based in vitro serum stability assay for a calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor ...
Alpha-calcitonin gene-related peptide can reverse the catabolic influence of UHMWPE particles on RANKL expression in primary ... Background and purpose: A linkage between the neurotransmitter alpha-calcitonin gene-related peptide (alpha-CGRP) and particle- ...
title = "Calcium: Calcitonin gene-related peptide and adrenomedullin receptors",. abstract = "Calcitonin gene-related peptide ( ... Calcium: Calcitonin gene-related peptide and adrenomedullin receptors. / Ayub, Hoor; Grime, Rachael ; Poyner, David et al. ... Ayub, H., Grime, R., Poyner, D., & Wheatley, M. (2021). Calcium: Calcitonin gene-related peptide and adrenomedullin receptors. ... Ayub, H, Grime, R, Poyner, D & Wheatley, M 2021, Calcium: Calcitonin gene-related peptide and adrenomedullin receptors. in ...
Trigeminale Afferenzen zu den äußeren Augenmuskeln des Rhesusaffen, die Calbindin, Osteopontin oder Calcitonin-Gene-Related ... Trigeminale Afferenzen zu den äußeren Augenmuskeln des Rhesusaffen, die Calbindin, Osteopontin oder Calcitonin-Gene-Related ... Osteopontin oder Calcitonin-Gene-Related Peptide enthalten. Dissertation, LMU München: Faculty of Medicine ...
Thus salmon calcitonin produced approximately the same effect as a ten times greater dose of human calcitonin. However, porcine ... The Calcium Lowering Effect of Synthetic Human, Porcine, and Salmon Calcitonin in Patients with Pagets Disease L. Galante; L. ... The calcium lowering effect of human and porcine calcitonin was compared in two patients, and the human and salmon hormone in ... 2. All three hormones were effective in lowering the plasma calcium, but weight for weight salmon calcitonin was the most ...
G.C.Chemie Pharmie Ltd offers a wide range of products which includes salmon calcitonin nasal spray 60mds. ... G.C.Chemie Pharmie Ltd offers a wide range of products which includes salmon calcitonin nasal spray 60mds. Strength: 2200 i.u. ...
Other Names: alpha-Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide (19-37), human. Rovero, P.; et al., Peptides, 13, 1025, (1992). ...
Dual action of the cannabinoid receptor 1 ligand arachidonyl-2′-chloroethylamide on calcitonin gene-related peptide release. ... on calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) release in the dura and trigeminal ganglion (TG), as cannabinoids are known to ...
Dual action of the cannabinoid receptor 1 ligand arachidonyl-2′-chloroethylamide on calcitonin gene-related peptide release. * ... on calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) release in the dura and trigeminal ganglion (TG), as cannabinoids are known to ... on calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) release in the dura and trigeminal ganglion (TG), as cannabinoids are known to ... on calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) release in the dura and trigeminal ganglion (TG), as cannabinoids are known to ...
calcitonin gene-related peptide, substance P, hypertension. in Blood Pressure. volume. 1. issue. 4. pages. 223 - 229. publisher ... In patients with severe hypertension and in age and sex matched controls the circulating levels of calcitonin gene-related ... In patients with severe hypertension and in age and sex matched controls the circulating levels of calcitonin gene-related ... Sensory nerve terminal activity in severe hypertension as reflected by circulating calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and ...
Dual amylin and calcitonin receptor agonists (DACRAs) are known to induce a significant weight loss and improve glucose ... ANNA T. LARSEN, NINA SONNE, EMMA-MARIE BREDTOFT, MORTEN A. KARSDAL, KIM HENRIKSEN; 824-P: Dual Amylin and Calcitonin Receptor ... Dual amylin and calcitonin receptor agonists (DACRAs) are known to induce a significant weight loss and improve glucose ... 824-P: Dual Amylin and Calcitonin Receptor Agonists Improve Insulin Sensitivity and Increase Tissue-Specific Glucose Uptake ...
Calcitonin is a hormone that is produced and released by the C-cells of the thyroid gland. Its biological function in humans is ... Alternative names for calcitonin. CT; thyrocalcitonin. What is calcitonin?. Calcitonin is a hormone that is produced in humans ... Calcitonin. Calcitonin is a hormone that is produced and released by the C-cells of the thyroid gland. Its biological function ... How is calcitonin controlled? The secretion of both calcitonin and parathyroid hormone is determined by the level of calcium in ...
Endosomal signaling of the receptor for calcitonin gene-related peptide mediates pain transmission. ...
Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide Protects Against Cardiovascular Dysfunction Independently of Nitric Oxide In Vivo. / Argunhan, ... Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide Protects Against Cardiovascular Dysfunction Independently of Nitric Oxide In Vivo. In: ... The neuropeptide CGRP (calcitonin gene-related peptide) is a potent vasodilator, with a cardioprotective role, although the ... Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide Protects Against Cardiovascular Dysfunction Independently of Nitric Oxide In Vivo. Hypertension ...
Effects of calcitonin gene-related peptide on regeneration and reorganization of neoromuscular structures following peripheral ... Gunther, Elizabeth Ann, "Effects of calcitonin gene-related peptide on regeneration and reorganization of neoromuscular ...

No FAQ available that match "calcitonin"

No images available that match "calcitonin"