Hyperostosis, Cortical, Congenital
Basal Ganglia Diseases
Fibroblast Growth Factors
Kidney Failure, Chronic
Broncholithiasis: rare but still present. (1/3283)Broncholithiasis is a rare but distinct and potentially dangerous pulmonary problem that still needs to be considered in the differential diagnosis of some patients with bronchial obstruction. Broncholiths originate from calcified material in peribronchial lymph nodes eroding into the tracheobronchial tree. The clinical and chest X-ray signs are usually non-specific, but the diagnosis can nowadays be made based on clinical suspicion, CT-scan and fibre-optic bronchoscopy findings, so that a malignant cause of airway obstruction can be ruled out. The removal of broncholiths during fibre-optic bronchoscopy is seldom possible and rather dangerous. They can be removed safely by rigid bronchoscopy with the aid of Nd-YAG laser photocoagulation. Thoracotomy is indicated in complicated cases with fistula formation or severe bleeding. (+info)
Role of glutaraldehyde in calcification of porcine aortic valve fibroblasts. (2/3283)Glutaraldehyde-treated porcine aortic valve xenografts frequently fail due to calcification. Calcification in the prostheses begins intracellularly. In a previous study, various types of cell injury to canine valvular fibroblasts, including glutaraldehyde treatment, led to calcification. An influx of extracellular Ca2+ into the phosphate-rich cytosol was theorized to be the mechanism of calcification. To test the Ca2+ influx theory, cytosolic Ca2+ and Pi concentrations were assessed in glutaraldehyde-treated porcine aortic valve fibroblasts, and their relationship to a subsequent calcification was studied. Glutaraldehyde caused an immediate and sustained massive cytosolic Ca2+ increase that was dose dependent and a several-fold increase in Pi. Calcification of cells followed within a week. The earliest calcification was observed in blebs formed on glutaraldehyde-treated cells. Live control cells or cells fixed with glutaraldehyde in Ca2+-free solution did not calcify under the same conditions. Concomitant increases in Ca2+ and Pi in glutaraldehyde-treated cells appear to underlie the mechanism of calcification, and the presence of extracellular Ca2+ during glutaraldehyde fixation promotes calcification. (+info)
Histology and tissue chemistry of tidemark separation in hamsters. (3/3283)Adult articular cartilage is divided by the tidemark into a deep calcified layer and a more superficial uncalcified layer. Histologic examination of articular cartilage from the knee joint of golden Syrian hamsters 123 days of age or older revealed defects at the tidemark in the tibia. Defects ranged from small separations of the calcified and uncalcified layers along the tidemark to progressively larger defects apparently formed by dissolution. These larger defects appeared as cavities in the noncalcified cartilage, had smooth rather than rough edges, frequently contained coalesced debris, and often resulted in a bulge in the articular surface. Occasionally, these large defects broke through the articular surface. Defects were not observed in tibial cartilage of younger (<90 days old) hamsters or in femoral cartilage from hamsters of any age. Exercise neither protected against nor increased the severity of the defects. Collagen cross-linking by pyridinoline was examined as a function of age and increased from 1,090 to 3,062 micromoles of pyridinoline/mole of hydroxyproline over the period of 1-9 months of age but was not correlated with defect formation. With increasing age, these focal tidemark defects could lead to osteoarthrosis-like cartilage lesions. (+info)
Incidence and clinical relevance of coronary calcification detected by electron beam computed tomography in heart transplant recipients. (4/3283)BACKGROUND: Patients treated by cardiac transplantation who survive beyond one year are at significant risk from fatal coronary artery disease. The development of coronary artery calcification in these patients is discussed and methods available to detect it are reviewed. OBJECTIVES: To assess the clinical importance of coronary artery calcium in heart transplant recipients. METHODS: In a cohort of 102 cardiac transplant recipients, electron beam computed tomography was used to measure calcium in the coronary arterial wall 63 days to 9.1 years (median 4.6 years) after transplantation. The results were compared with angiographic findings and with conventional coronary disease risk factors. The patients were followed for a mean of 2.12 years (1.2-4.02 years) to assess the relationship between these findings and future cardiac events. RESULTS: Forty-one (40.2%) had a stenosis of > 24% in one or more major coronary artery at angiography. Forty-six (45%) had a coronary calcium score > 0. The absence of calcium had a negative predictive value with respect to angiographic disease in any vessels of 87.5%. Logistic regression revealed that dyslipidaemia, systemic hypertension and organ ischaemic time were significant predictors of calcification. At follow-up, both an abnormal coronary angiogram and coronary calcium were found to be the only significant predictors of late events. Multivariate analysis suggested that the detection of coronary calcium did not offer any additional predictive information over that provided by the angiogram itself. CONCLUSION: Electron beam computed tomography is well suited to the assessment of calcium in the coronary arteries of heart transplant recipients, although the mechanisms of this calcification remain poorly understood. Calcium is detected more frequently than would be suggested by studies using intravascular ultrasound. It is associated with the presence of angiographic disease, and with some conventional risk factors for coronary disease. At follow-up the presence of coronary calcium was associated with an adverse clinical outcome, as it is in conventional ischaemic heart disease. (+info)
Renal biopsy in the milk-alkali syndrome. (5/3283)In milk-alkali syndrome the degree of renal impairment varies greatly. Few reports have been published describing structural changes on renal biopsy. In three illustrative cases, impairment of renal function was related to morphological changes shown on percutaneous biopsy. Milk-alkali syndrome should be considered as a cause of renal dysfunction in patients with a long history of dyspensia. (+info)
Degenerative changes in aortic root allografts placed in the right ventricular outflow tract of growing puppies. (6/3283)Differently prepared aortic root allografts were implanted in the right ventricular outflow tract of growing puppies to determine the site of origin and progress of degenerative changes in these conduits. The three preparations assessed were as follows: group A, fresh and sterile grafts; group B, antibiotic sterilized grafts in nutrient medium; and group C, beta-propiolactone sterilized grafts. Although calcification of the aortic wall occurred in all groups, the aortic leaflets were minimally affected. A correlation between viability and lack of calcification and between viability and long-term function is emphasized. (+info)
Calcific myonecrosis. (7/3283)Calcific myonecrosis is a rare and late sequela of compartment syndrome, which becomes symptomatic years after the initial trauma. We diagnosed this condition in a 64-year old man, 42 years after he sustained a shot-gun wound to the right lower leg. Total excision of a peripherally calcified, cystic mass, continuous with the anterior tibial muscle belly resulted in complete resolution of symptoms. Consideration of the diagnosis is warranted in patients with a history of major injury who develop a soft tissue mass in the traumatized compartment. The treatment of choice is marginal excision. (+info)
Angiographic correlation of CT calcification in the carotid siphon. (8/3283)BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Calcification in the coronary arteries has been correlated with significant vessel stenosis. The predictive value of calcification within the carotid siphon has not been characterized; however, stenosis in the carotid siphon is potentially important in determining management of patients with ipsilateral carotid bifurcation stenosis. The purpose of this study was to determine optimal parameters for assessing carotid siphon calcification on head CT scans and to compare the CT findings with angiographic results. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of patients referred for diagnostic carotid arteriography. Those patients who also had undergone a head CT study at our institution were selected. The CT scans and angiograms of 64 patients (128 vessels) were reviewed. Carotid siphon calcification on CT scans was characterized on brain and bone windows as mild, moderate, or severe. Comparison was then made with angiographic findings. RESULTS: The sensitivity and specificity of CT for depicting greater than 50% angiographic stenosis in the carotid siphon were 86% and 98%, respectively, for bone windows and 100% and 0%, respectively, for brain windows. The positive predictive value (PPV) for a stenosis of greater than 50% as evidenced by severe calcification was 86% on bone windows and 11% on brain windows. The PPV for mild and moderate calcification on bone windows was 2.5% and 0%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Severe CT calcification in the carotid siphon as characterized on bone windows correlates with a carotid siphon stenosis of greater than 50% as determined angiographically. Therefore, the identification of severe calcification offers a potential noninvasive method for identifying stenosis of the carotid siphon. This information may be essential in determining management and prognosis for patients with carotid bifurcation stenosis. (+info)
Calcinosis is a medical condition characterized by the deposition of calcium phosphate crystals in the skin and other tissues. It is most commonly seen in people with certain medical conditions, such as scleroderma, lupus, and kidney disease, as well as in people who have undergone long-term treatment with certain medications, such as corticosteroids. The calcium phosphate crystals that accumulate in the skin and other tissues can cause hard, raised areas that may be painful or itchy. In severe cases, calcinosis can lead to scarring, skin thickening, and limited joint mobility. Treatment for calcinosis depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. In some cases, medications may be used to help reduce the formation of calcium phosphate crystals, while in other cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the affected tissue.
CREST Syndrome is a rare autoimmune disorder that affects the connective tissue in the body. The acronym CREST stands for: - Calcinosis (calcium deposits in the skin and internal organs) - Raynaud's phenomenon (a condition that causes the fingers and toes to turn white or blue when exposed to cold or stress) - Esophageal dysmotility (problems with the movement of food through the esophagus) - Sclerodactyly (thickening and hardening of the skin on the fingers and toes) - Telangiectasia (small, dilated blood vessels on the skin) CREST Syndrome is a type of scleroderma, which is a group of autoimmune disorders that cause the body's immune system to attack its own tissues. The exact cause of CREST Syndrome is not known, but it is thought to be related to genetic and environmental factors. Treatment for CREST Syndrome typically involves managing symptoms and preventing complications, such as heart and lung problems.
Skin diseases that are metabolic in nature refer to conditions that are caused by an underlying metabolic disorder or dysfunction. These disorders can affect the skin in a variety of ways, including causing changes in skin color, texture, and appearance, as well as leading to the development of skin infections, rashes, and other dermatological conditions. Examples of metabolic skin diseases include acanthosis nigricans, which is a skin condition characterized by dark, velvety patches on the neck, armpits, and groin, and porphyria, which is a group of rare genetic disorders that can cause skin sensitivity to sunlight and lead to blistering and scarring. Metabolic skin diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic mutations, hormonal imbalances, and nutritional deficiencies. Treatment for these conditions typically involves addressing the underlying metabolic disorder, as well as managing any skin symptoms that may arise. This may involve medications, dietary changes, and other interventions, depending on the specific condition and its severity.
Dermatomyositis is a rare autoimmune disease that affects the skin and muscles. It is characterized by a distinctive rash on the face, eyelids, knuckles, and other areas of the body, as well as muscle weakness and fatigue. The rash is usually symmetric and may be accompanied by small, raised red spots or purple discoloration. The muscle weakness is usually symmetric and may affect the muscles of the face, neck, shoulders, and upper arms. In some cases, the disease may also affect other organs, such as the lungs, heart, and kidneys. Treatment for dermatomyositis typically involves medications to suppress the immune system and reduce inflammation, as well as physical therapy to help improve muscle strength and function.
Hyperphosphatemia is a medical condition characterized by an abnormally high level of phosphate ions (PO43-) in the blood. The normal range of serum phosphate levels in adults is typically between 2.5 and 4.5 millimoles per liter (mmol/L). Hyperphosphatemia can be caused by a variety of factors, including kidney disease, excessive intake of phosphorus-rich foods or supplements, certain medications, and genetic disorders. It can also be a complication of other medical conditions, such as hyperparathyroidism, vitamin D deficiency, and bone disorders. Symptoms of hyperphosphatemia may include muscle weakness, bone pain, and kidney problems. In severe cases, it can lead to complications such as kidney failure, bone disease, and heart problems. Treatment for hyperphosphatemia depends on the underlying cause and may include dietary changes, medications to lower phosphate levels, and in severe cases, dialysis or kidney transplantation.
N-Acetylgalactosaminyltransferases (NAGT) are a family of enzymes that transfer the N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) residue from UDP-GalNAc to specific acceptor molecules, such as glycoproteins and glycolipids. These enzymes play a crucial role in the biosynthesis of complex carbohydrates, also known as glycans, which are essential for many cellular processes, including cell-cell recognition, signaling, and immune function. In the medical field, NAGTs are of particular interest because defects in these enzymes can lead to a group of rare genetic disorders known as mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs). MPSs are characterized by the accumulation of undegraded glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the lysosomes of cells, leading to a range of symptoms, including skeletal abnormalities, intellectual disability, and organ dysfunction. NAGT deficiencies are responsible for several forms of MPS, including MPS I, MPS II, and MPS VII. In addition to their role in MPSs, NAGTs are also being studied for their potential therapeutic applications in other diseases, such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. For example, some researchers are exploring the use of NAGT inhibitors as targeted therapies for cancer, as these enzymes are often upregulated in cancer cells and are involved in processes such as cell proliferation and invasion.
Skin diseases refer to any medical conditions that affect the skin, hair, and nails. These conditions can range from minor irritations and infections to more serious and chronic conditions that can significantly impact a person's quality of life. Skin diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, environmental factors, infections, allergies, and autoimmune disorders. Some common examples of skin diseases include acne, eczema, psoriasis, rosacea, dermatitis, hives, warts, and skin cancer. Treatment for skin diseases depends on the specific condition and its severity. It may involve the use of topical creams, ointments, or medications, as well as lifestyle changes, such as avoiding triggers or making dietary modifications. In some cases, more aggressive treatments, such as surgery or light therapy, may be necessary. Overall, skin diseases are a common and diverse group of medical conditions that can affect people of all ages and backgrounds. Early detection and proper treatment are essential for managing these conditions and preventing complications.
Systemic Scleroderma, also known as Scleroderma, is a chronic autoimmune disorder that affects the connective tissue in the body. It causes the skin and internal organs to become hard and inflexible, leading to a range of symptoms and complications. The exact cause of Systemic Scleroderma is not known, but it is believed to be triggered by an abnormal immune response that causes the body's own tissues to be attacked and damaged. The disease can affect people of all ages and ethnicities, but it is more common in women than in men. Symptoms of Systemic Scleroderma can vary widely depending on the severity and location of the disease. Common symptoms include skin thickening and hardening, Raynaud's phenomenon (a condition that causes the fingers and toes to turn white or blue when exposed to cold), joint pain and stiffness, digestive problems, and lung fibrosis (scarring of the lungs). Treatment for Systemic Scleroderma typically involves a combination of medications, physical therapy, and lifestyle changes. Medications may include immunosuppressants, corticosteroids, and disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). Physical therapy can help to improve flexibility and reduce pain, while lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking and maintaining a healthy weight can help to slow the progression of the disease.
Calciphylaxis is a rare and serious medical condition that occurs in people with chronic kidney disease (CKD) who are on dialysis or have had a kidney transplant. It is characterized by the formation of small blood clots in the small blood vessels of the skin and other tissues, which can lead to skin necrosis (tissue death) and other complications. The condition is caused by the deposition of calcium and phosphorus in the walls of the small blood vessels, which can lead to the narrowing or blockage of the vessels. This can reduce blood flow to the skin and other tissues, leading to the formation of blood clots and skin necrosis. Calciphylaxis is a serious condition that can be difficult to treat and can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the condition, such as managing high levels of calcium and phosphorus in the blood, and treating any underlying infections or other complications. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove damaged tissue or repair damaged blood vessels.
Foot diseases refer to a wide range of medical conditions that affect the feet and can cause pain, discomfort, and other symptoms. These conditions can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, injury, infection, and underlying medical conditions. Some common foot diseases include: 1. Plantar fasciitis: A condition that causes pain in the bottom of the foot, usually due to overuse or injury. 2. Bunions: A bony bump on the side of the big toe that can cause pain and swelling. 3. Athlete's foot: A fungal infection that affects the skin on the feet and can cause itching, burning, and cracking. 4. Hammer toes: A condition in which the toes become bent and curved, often due to wearing shoes that are too tight. 5. Neuromas: A benign growth of nerve tissue that can cause pain and numbness in the foot. 6. Gout: A type of arthritis that causes inflammation and pain in the joints, including the feet. 7. Peripheral artery disease: A condition in which the blood vessels in the legs and feet become narrowed or blocked, leading to pain, cramping, and other symptoms. 8. Diabetic foot ulcers: Sores or wounds on the feet that can develop in people with diabetes due to poor circulation and nerve damage. Treatment for foot diseases depends on the specific condition and may include medications, physical therapy, surgery, or other interventions. It is important to seek medical attention if you are experiencing pain or other symptoms in your feet, as many foot diseases can be prevented or treated with early intervention.
Joint diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the joints, which are the connective tissues that connect bones to each other. These diseases can cause pain, inflammation, stiffness, and reduced mobility in the affected joints. Joint diseases can be classified into several categories, including: 1. Osteoarthritis: A degenerative joint disease that occurs when the cartilage that cushions the ends of bones wears down over time. 2. Rheumatoid arthritis: An autoimmune disorder that causes inflammation and damage to the lining of the joints, leading to pain, swelling, and stiffness. 3. Psoriatic arthritis: A type of arthritis that occurs in people with psoriasis, a chronic skin condition. 4. Gout: A type of arthritis that occurs when uric acid crystals build up in the joints, causing inflammation and pain. 5. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-related arthritis: A type of arthritis that occurs in people with inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. 6. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA): A type of arthritis that affects children and adolescents, causing joint pain, swelling, and stiffness. 7. Septic arthritis: A type of arthritis that occurs when bacteria or other microorganisms enter the joint and cause an infection. 8. Reactive arthritis: A type of arthritis that occurs in response to an infection, such as a sexually transmitted infection or a urinary tract infection. Joint diseases can be treated with a variety of methods, including medications, physical therapy, lifestyle changes, and surgery. The specific treatment approach depends on the type and severity of the joint disease, as well as the individual's overall health and preferences.
Telangiectasis is a medical condition characterized by the dilation of small blood vessels (capillaries) in the skin or mucous membranes. These dilated vessels are visible as small, red, spider-like veins on the surface of the skin. Telangiectasis can occur in various parts of the body, including the face, legs, and trunk. Telangiectasis can be a harmless condition, but in some cases, it may be a sign of an underlying medical condition, such as liver disease, cirrhosis, or genetic disorders. It can also be a symptom of certain skin conditions, such as rosacea or lupus. Treatment for telangiectasis depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. In some cases, no treatment may be necessary, and the condition may be monitored. However, in other cases, treatment may involve laser therapy, sclerotherapy, or other medical procedures to reduce the appearance of the dilated blood vessels.
Hyperostosis, Cortical, Congenital is a medical condition characterized by an abnormal thickening of the outer layer of bone (cortex) in the skull. It is a type of bone overgrowth that is present at birth (congenital) and is typically seen in the frontal and parietal bones of the skull. The exact cause of hyperostosis, cortical, congenital is not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to genetic factors. It is usually a benign condition and does not cause any symptoms or health problems. However, in some cases, it can cause cosmetic concerns or interfere with the growth of the brain. Treatment for hyperostosis, cortical, congenital is usually not necessary, as it does not cause any health problems. In cases where cosmetic concerns are significant, surgery may be considered to remove the excess bone. However, this is typically only done if the condition is causing significant symptoms or if it is affecting the patient's quality of life.
A skin ulcer is an open sore or break in the skin that does not heal on its own. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including pressure, injury, infection, poor circulation, and underlying medical conditions such as diabetes or venous insufficiency. Skin ulcers can range in size from small pinprick wounds to large, deep sores that extend down to the underlying tissue. They can be painful and may take a long time to heal, especially if they are not properly treated. Treatment for skin ulcers typically involves cleaning and dressing the wound, managing any underlying medical conditions, and addressing any underlying causes of the ulcer. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove damaged tissue or repair damaged blood vessels.
Calcium gluconate is a salt that is formed by combining calcium ions with gluconic acid. It is a white, crystalline powder that is commonly used as a source of calcium in dietary supplements and as a medication to treat certain types of calcium deficiencies, such as hypocalcemia. Calcium gluconate is also used to prevent and treat eclampsia (a potentially life-threatening condition that can occur during pregnancy) and to treat certain types of heart rhythm disorders. In the medical field, calcium gluconate is typically administered intravenously or orally in the form of a solution or tablet. It is important to note that calcium gluconate should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as it can interact with other medications and may cause side effects in some people.
Nadroparin is a type of anticoagulant medication that is used to prevent blood clots. It is a low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) that works by inhibiting the activity of thrombin, an enzyme that plays a key role in the formation of blood clots. Nadroparin is typically administered by injection and is used to treat a variety of conditions, including deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), and unstable angina. It is also sometimes used to prevent blood clots in people who are at high risk of developing them, such as those who have had a previous blood clot or who are undergoing certain medical procedures.
Eyelid diseases refer to a wide range of medical conditions that affect the eyelids, including the skin, glands, muscles, and nerves. These conditions can cause discomfort, pain, redness, swelling, tearing, and vision problems. Some common eyelid diseases include: 1. Blepharitis: Inflammation of the eyelids that can cause redness, itching, burning, and crusty discharge. 2. Meibomian gland dysfunction: A condition where the oil glands in the eyelids become clogged, leading to dryness, irritation, and redness. 3. Chalazion: A cyst that forms on the eyelid due to a blocked oil gland. 4. Stye: An infection of the oil gland at the base of the eyelash, causing redness, swelling, and pain. 5. Entropion: A condition where the eyelid turns inward, causing the eyelashes to rub against the cornea and causing irritation and tearing. 6. Ectropion: A condition where the eyelid turns outward, causing dryness, irritation, and tearing. 7. Ptosis: A condition where the eyelid droops, blocking vision. 8. Dermatitis: Inflammation of the skin on the eyelids, causing redness, itching, and dryness. 9. Allergic conjunctivitis: An allergic reaction to substances such as pollen, dust, or pet dander that causes redness, itching, and tearing. 10. Dry eye syndrome: A condition where the eyes do not produce enough tears, causing dryness, irritation, and redness. Treatment for eyelid diseases depends on the specific condition and may include medications, lifestyle changes, or surgery. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of an eyelid disease to prevent further complications.
Calcium pyrophosphate is a mineral compound that is commonly found in the human body. It is composed of calcium and two molecules of phosphorus, and it is typically found in the form of crystals. In the medical field, calcium pyrophosphate crystals can sometimes form in the joints, causing a condition known as calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (CPPD). This condition can cause pain, swelling, and stiffness in the affected joints, and it is more common in older adults. Calcium pyrophosphate crystals can also form in other parts of the body, such as the kidneys, and they can sometimes cause kidney stones. In general, calcium pyrophosphate is an important mineral that is necessary for many bodily functions, but when it forms crystals in the joints or kidneys, it can cause health problems.
Nephrocalcinosis is a medical condition characterized by the accumulation of calcium deposits in the kidneys. These deposits can form in the renal tubules, interstitium, or vessels, leading to damage to the kidney tissue and potentially impairing kidney function. Nephrocalcinosis can be caused by a variety of factors, including high levels of calcium or phosphate in the blood, certain medications, kidney disease, and genetic disorders. Symptoms of nephrocalcinosis may include flank pain, blood in the urine, and high blood pressure. Diagnosis of nephrocalcinosis typically involves imaging studies such as X-rays, CT scans, or ultrasound, as well as blood and urine tests to measure calcium and phosphate levels. Treatment may involve addressing the underlying cause of the condition, such as adjusting medication or managing kidney disease, as well as medications to help prevent further calcium deposition in the kidneys. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the calcium deposits.
Durapatite is a synthetic bone substitute material that is used in orthopedic and dental surgeries. It is a type of calcium phosphate ceramic that is similar in composition to natural bone and is designed to promote bone growth and regeneration. Durapatite is typically used in procedures such as bone grafting, where it is placed in the body to help fill in gaps or defects in bone tissue. It can also be used as an alternative to autografts (bone taken from the patient's own body) or allografts (bone taken from a donor) in certain cases. Durapatite has several advantages over other bone substitute materials, including its ability to promote bone growth and its biocompatibility with the body. It is also relatively easy to shape and can be customized to fit the specific needs of each patient. Overall, Durapatite is a useful tool for surgeons and dentists who are looking for a safe and effective way to promote bone growth and regeneration in the body.
Alpha-2-HS-Glycoprotein (AHSG) is a plasma protein that plays a role in the regulation of iron metabolism and the immune system. It is synthesized in the liver and secreted into the bloodstream, where it binds to iron ions and helps to transport them to cells that need them. AHSG also has anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic properties, and it has been implicated in the development of various diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer. In the medical field, AHSG is often measured as a marker of iron status and as a potential biomarker for disease risk.
Basal Ganglia Diseases refer to a group of neurological disorders that affect the basal ganglia, a group of subcortical nuclei in the brain that play a crucial role in motor control, learning, and behavior. These diseases are characterized by a range of symptoms, including movement disorders, cognitive impairment, and emotional disturbances. Some of the most common basal ganglia diseases include: 1. Huntington's disease: A genetic disorder that causes the progressive breakdown of nerve cells in the basal ganglia, leading to movement disorders, cognitive decline, and emotional disturbances. 2. Parkinson's disease: A neurodegenerative disorder that affects the dopamine-producing neurons in the substantia nigra, a region of the basal ganglia. Symptoms include tremors, stiffness, and difficulty with movement. 3. Multiple system atrophy: A rare neurodegenerative disorder that affects the dopamine-producing neurons in the substantia nigra and other regions of the brain. Symptoms include tremors, stiffness, and difficulty with movement. 4. Wilson's disease: A genetic disorder that causes the accumulation of copper in the brain and liver, leading to damage to the basal ganglia and other organs. 5. Progressive supranuclear palsy: A neurodegenerative disorder that affects the neurons in the basal ganglia and other regions of the brain, leading to symptoms such as difficulty with movement, speech, and swallowing. Treatment for basal ganglia diseases typically involves medications to manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to treat specific symptoms or complications.
Phosphates are a group of inorganic compounds that contain the phosphate ion (PO4^3-). In the medical field, phosphates are often used as a source of phosphorus, which is an essential nutrient for the body. Phosphorus is important for a variety of bodily functions, including bone health, energy production, and nerve function. Phosphates are commonly found in foods such as dairy products, meats, and grains, as well as in some dietary supplements. In the medical field, phosphates are also used as a medication to treat certain conditions, such as hypophosphatemia (low levels of phosphorus in the blood) and hyperphosphatemia (high levels of phosphorus in the blood). Phosphates can also be used as a component of intravenous fluids, as well as in certain types of dialysis solutions for people with kidney disease. In these cases, phosphates are used to help regulate the levels of phosphorus in the body. It is important to note that high levels of phosphorus in the blood can be harmful, and it is important for people with kidney disease to carefully manage their phosphorus intake. In some cases, medications such as phosphate binders may be prescribed to help prevent the absorption of excess phosphorus from the diet.
Raynaud's disease, also known as Raynaud's phenomenon, is a medical condition characterized by a temporary decrease in blood flow to the fingers, toes, and sometimes other parts of the body, such as the nose and ears. This can cause the affected area to feel cold, numb, and painful, and may turn white or blue in color. Raynaud's disease is usually triggered by cold temperatures, stress, or emotional stress, and can also be caused by certain medications or medical conditions, such as lupus, scleroderma, or thyroid disorders. In severe cases, Raynaud's disease can lead to tissue damage and even gangrene if blood flow is not restored quickly. Treatment for Raynaud's disease typically involves lifestyle changes, such as avoiding cold temperatures and stress, and medications to improve blood flow and reduce pain. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to treat underlying medical conditions that are causing the symptoms of Raynaud's disease.
Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGFs) are a family of proteins that play important roles in cell growth, differentiation, and tissue repair. They are produced by a variety of cells, including fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and neurons, and act on a wide range of cell types, including epithelial cells, muscle cells, and bone cells. FGFs are involved in many physiological processes, including embryonic development, wound healing, and tissue regeneration. They also play a role in the development of certain diseases, such as cancer and fibrosis. There are 23 known members of the FGF family, and they act by binding to specific receptors on the surface of cells, which then activate intracellular signaling pathways that regulate cell growth and other cellular processes. FGFs are often used as therapeutic agents in clinical trials for the treatment of various diseases, including cancer, heart disease, and neurological disorders.
Cardiomyopathies are a group of heart diseases that affect the heart muscle (myocardium). These diseases can cause the heart to become enlarged, thickened, or rigid, which can lead to problems with the heart's ability to pump blood effectively. There are several different types of cardiomyopathies, including: 1. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: This is a condition in which the heart muscle becomes abnormally thick, which can make it difficult for the heart to pump blood. 2. Dilated cardiomyopathy: This is a condition in which the heart muscle becomes weakened and enlarged, which can cause the heart to pump blood less effectively. 3. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC): This is a condition in which the heart muscle in the right ventricle becomes abnormal and can cause irregular heart rhythms. 4. Non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy: This is a type of dilated cardiomyopathy that is not caused by a lack of blood flow to the heart muscle. 5. Idiopathic left ventricular hypertrophy: This is a condition in which the left ventricle of the heart becomes abnormally thick, which can make it difficult for the heart to pump blood. Cardiomyopathies can be inherited or acquired, and they can range from mild to severe. Treatment for cardiomyopathies depends on the specific type and severity of the condition, and may include medications, lifestyle changes, and in some cases, surgery.
Antibodies, Antinuclear (ANA) are proteins produced by the immune system in response to the presence of foreign substances, such as viruses or bacteria. In the medical field, ANA tests are used to detect the presence of these antibodies in the blood. ANA tests are often used to diagnose autoimmune diseases, which are conditions in which the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy cells and tissues in the body. Some autoimmune diseases that can be diagnosed through ANA testing include lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, and Sjogren's syndrome. ANA tests can also be used to monitor the effectiveness of treatment for autoimmune diseases, as well as to detect the presence of certain infections or other medical conditions. However, it's important to note that a positive ANA test does not necessarily mean that a person has an autoimmune disease, as ANA can also be present in healthy individuals.
Glucuronidase is an enzyme that breaks down glucuronides, which are conjugated forms of various substances, including drugs, hormones, and toxins. In the medical field, glucuronidase is often used as a diagnostic tool to detect the presence of specific substances in the body. For example, in the field of forensic toxicology, glucuronidase can be used to detect the presence of drugs such as cocaine, amphetamines, and opioids in biological samples, such as urine or blood. This is because these drugs are often metabolized in the body by conjugation with glucuronic acid, forming glucuronides. By measuring the levels of glucuronides in a sample, forensic toxicologists can determine whether a person has recently used these drugs. In addition to its use in forensic toxicology, glucuronidase is also used in the treatment of certain medical conditions. For example, in the treatment of certain types of cancer, glucuronidase can be used to break down conjugated toxins that have accumulated in the body, potentially reducing their toxicity and improving patient outcomes.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with the symbol P and atomic number 15. It is an essential nutrient for living organisms and is found in all cells of the body. In the medical field, phosphorus is often used as a diagnostic tool to measure the levels of phosphorus in the blood, which can be an indicator of various medical conditions. High levels of phosphorus in the blood can be caused by kidney disease, certain medications, or excessive intake of phosphorus-rich foods. Low levels of phosphorus can be caused by malnutrition, certain medications, or excessive loss of phosphorus through the urine. Phosphorus is also used in the treatment of certain medical conditions, such as osteoporosis, where it is used to help build strong bones. It is also used in the treatment of certain types of cancer, such as multiple myeloma, where it is used to help slow the growth of cancer cells. In addition to its use in medicine, phosphorus is also used in the production of fertilizers, detergents, and other industrial products.
In the medical field, a centromere is a specialized region of a chromosome that plays a crucial role in the proper segregation of genetic material during cell division. The centromere is responsible for attaching the two sister chromatids of a chromosome to each other and to the spindle fibers that pull them apart during mitosis or meiosis. During cell division, the centromere ensures that each daughter cell receives an identical copy of the genetic material. If the centromere is not functioning properly, it can lead to chromosomal abnormalities, such as aneuploidy, which can cause a range of health problems, including birth defects, developmental disorders, and cancer. In addition to its role in cell division, the centromere is also involved in the regulation of gene expression and the maintenance of chromosome stability. Understanding the function and structure of the centromere is important for understanding the mechanisms of cell division and the development of diseases related to chromosomal abnormalities.
Osteopontin (OPN) is a protein that is involved in various biological processes, including bone remodeling, inflammation, and cancer. In the medical field, OPN is often studied in relation to diseases such as osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and cancer. OPN is synthesized by a variety of cells, including osteoblasts (cells that form bone), osteoclasts (cells that break down bone), and immune cells such as macrophages and T cells. It is secreted into the extracellular matrix, where it can interact with other proteins and cells to regulate bone remodeling and inflammation. In osteoporosis, OPN is thought to play a role in bone loss by promoting osteoclast activity and inhibiting osteoblast activity. In rheumatoid arthritis, OPN is involved in the inflammatory response and may contribute to joint damage. In cancer, OPN is often upregulated in tumors and can promote tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. Overall, OPN is a complex protein with multiple functions in the body, and its role in various diseases is an active area of research in the medical field.
Autoantibodies are antibodies that are produced by the immune system against the body's own cells, tissues, or organs. In other words, they are antibodies that mistakenly target and attack the body's own components instead of foreign invaders like viruses or bacteria. Autoantibodies can be present in people with various medical conditions, including autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and multiple sclerosis. They can also be found in people with certain infections, cancer, and other diseases. Autoantibodies can cause damage to the body's own cells, tissues, or organs, leading to inflammation, tissue destruction, and other symptoms. They can also interfere with the normal functioning of the body's systems, such as the nervous system, digestive system, and cardiovascular system. Diagnosis of autoantibodies is typically done through blood tests, which can detect the presence of specific autoantibodies in the blood. Treatment for autoimmune diseases that involve autoantibodies may include medications to suppress the immune system, such as corticosteroids or immunosuppressants, as well as other therapies to manage symptoms and prevent complications.
A biopsy is a medical procedure in which a small sample of tissue is removed from a person's body for examination under a microscope. The sample is usually taken from a lump, growth, or other abnormal area, and is used to help diagnose a medical condition or disease. There are several types of biopsy procedures, including: 1. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy: A sample of tissue is removed using a thin needle inserted into the abnormal area. 2. Core biopsy: A larger sample of tissue is removed using a hollow needle that takes multiple cores of tissue. 3. Excision biopsy: A larger piece of tissue is removed using a scalpel or other surgical instrument. 4. Endoscopic biopsy: A biopsy is performed using a flexible tube with a camera and light on the end, which is inserted into the body through a natural opening or a small incision. Biopsies are commonly used to diagnose cancer, but they can also be used to diagnose other medical conditions, such as infections, autoimmune diseases, and genetic disorders. The results of a biopsy can help guide treatment decisions and provide important information about a person's prognosis.
Calcium is a chemical element with the symbol Ca and atomic number 20. It is a vital mineral for the human body and is essential for many bodily functions, including bone health, muscle function, nerve transmission, and blood clotting. In the medical field, calcium is often used to diagnose and treat conditions related to calcium deficiency or excess. For example, low levels of calcium in the blood (hypocalcemia) can cause muscle cramps, numbness, and tingling, while high levels (hypercalcemia) can lead to kidney stones, bone loss, and other complications. Calcium supplements are often prescribed to people who are at risk of developing calcium deficiency, such as older adults, vegetarians, and people with certain medical conditions. However, it is important to note that excessive calcium intake can also be harmful, and it is important to follow recommended dosages and consult with a healthcare provider before taking any supplements.
Chronic kidney failure, also known as chronic renal failure, is a condition in which the kidneys are unable to function properly over a long period of time. This can be caused by a variety of factors, including diabetes, high blood pressure, and glomerulonephritis. Chronic kidney failure is typically diagnosed when the kidneys are functioning at less than 60% of their normal capacity, and the condition has been present for at least three months. As the kidneys become less functional, they are unable to filter waste products from the blood, leading to a buildup of toxins in the body. This can cause a range of symptoms, including fatigue, weakness, nausea, and difficulty concentrating. Treatment for chronic kidney failure typically involves managing the underlying cause of the condition, as well as managing symptoms and complications. This may include medications to control blood pressure and blood sugar levels, as well as dietary changes and other lifestyle modifications. In some cases, dialysis or kidney transplantation may be necessary to help the body remove waste products and maintain proper fluid balance.
Localized scleroderma, also known as morphea, is a rare autoimmune disorder that affects the skin and underlying connective tissue. It is characterized by the formation of thick, hard, and inflexible patches of skin, which can be painful and disfiguring. Localized scleroderma can affect any part of the body, but it most commonly affects the face, neck, and upper limbs. The skin affected by localized scleroderma may become shiny, tight, and have a mottled appearance. In severe cases, the affected skin may become so thick and rigid that its movement and function. Localized scleroderma is not contagious and does not spread from one person to another. The exact cause of localized scleroderma is not known, but it is believed to be related to an abnormal immune response in which the body's immune system attacks its own tissues. Treatment for localized scleroderma depends on the severity and location of the affected skin. Mild cases may not require any treatment, while more severe cases may require medications to reduce inflammation and prevent further skin thickening. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove affected skin or to improve function.
Pruritus is a medical term used to describe an intense, persistent, and often uncontrollable urge to scratch or rub a particular area of the skin. It is commonly referred to as "itching" and can be caused by a variety of factors, including skin conditions, infections, allergies, hormonal changes, and certain medications. Pruritus can be a symptom of many different medical conditions, such as eczema, psoriasis, liver disease, kidney disease, and cancer. It can also be a side effect of certain medications, such as antibiotics, antihistamines, and chemotherapy drugs. Treatment for pruritus depends on the underlying cause. In some cases, over-the-counter creams or ointments may be sufficient to relieve symptoms. In more severe cases, prescription medications or other treatments may be necessary. It is important to consult a healthcare professional if you are experiencing persistent or severe itching, as it could be a sign of an underlying medical condition that requires treatment.
Scleroderma, diffuse, also known as systemic sclerosis, is a chronic autoimmune disorder that affects the connective tissue in the body. It is characterized by the hardening and thickening of the skin and internal organs, as well as the development of fibrous tissue in the blood vessels, lungs, heart, and other organs. The exact cause of diffuse scleroderma is not known, but it is believed to be triggered by an abnormal immune response that leads to inflammation and damage to the body's connective tissue. The disease can affect people of all ages and ethnicities, but it is more common in women than in men. Symptoms of diffuse scleroderma can vary widely and may include skin thickening and hardening, Raynaud's phenomenon (a condition in which the blood vessels in the fingers and toes constrict, causing them to turn white or blue), joint pain and stiffness, difficulty swallowing, shortness of breath, and heart problems. Treatment for diffuse scleroderma typically involves a combination of medications, physical therapy, and lifestyle changes to manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease.
Scleroderma, Limited, also known as CREST syndrome, is a rare autoimmune disorder that affects the connective tissue in the body. It is characterized by the presence of hard, thickened skin (scleroderma) and specific features of the fingers and toes, such as clubbing, swelling, and a tight band of skin around the finger (Raynaud's phenomenon). Other symptoms may include dry mouth, dry eyes, and digestive problems. Limited scleroderma is a subtype of the disease that affects only the skin and the blood vessels in the fingers and toes, without affecting internal organs. It is typically less severe than other forms of scleroderma and has a better prognosis. Treatment is focused on managing symptoms and preventing complications.
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- Tumoral calcinosis with vitamin D deficiency. (medscape.com)
- Hyperphosphatemic familial tumoral calcinosis (HFTC) is a condition characterized by an increase in the levels of phosphate in the blood (hyperphosphatemia) and abnormal deposits of phosphate and calcium (calcinosis) in the body's tissues. (medlineplus.gov)
- Hyperphosphatemic Tumoral Calcinosis: Pathogenesis, Clinical Presentation, and Challenges in Management. (nih.gov)
- Tumoral calcinosis: case report and review. (nih.gov)
- The clinical diagnosis of HFTC is established by the presence of tumoral calcinosis and/or characteristic laboratory findings of hyperphosphatemia in the setting of inappropriately increased renal tubular reabsorption of phosphorus (TRP), elevated or inappropriately normal 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 (1,25D) levels, and elevated C-terminal FGF23 fragments. (nih.gov)
- Surgical resection of tumoral calcinosis lesions - generally reserved for those patients with significant pain or functional impairment - has variable success. (nih.gov)
- 1. Hyperphosphatemic tumoral calcinosis: a 10-year follow-up. (nih.gov)
- 2. Recurrent primary hyperphosphatemic tumoral calcinosis: a case report. (nih.gov)
- 3. Complete resolution of tumoral calcinosis after renal transplantation. (nih.gov)
- 4. Hyperphosphatemic familial tumoral calcinosis secondary to fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) mutation: a report of two affected families and review of the literature. (nih.gov)
- 7. Dialysis as a Treatment Option for a Patient With Normal Kidney Function and Familial Tumoral Calcinosis Due to a Compound Heterozygous FGF23 Mutation. (nih.gov)
- 8. Successful treatment of hyperphosphatemic tumoral calcinosis with long-term acetazolamide. (nih.gov)
- 9. Tumoral calcinosis, diaphysitis, and hyperphosphatemia. (nih.gov)
- 10. Familial tumoral calcinosis caused by a novel FGF23 mutation: response to induction of tubular renal acidosis with acetazolamide and the non-calcium phosphate binder sevelamer. (nih.gov)
- 11. Clinical and genetic analysis of idiopathic normophosphatemic tumoral calcinosis in 19 patients. (nih.gov)
- 12. Tumoral calcinosis: report of a case and brief review of the literature. (nih.gov)
- 13. A case of familial tumoral calcinosis/hyperostosis-hyperphosphatemia syndrome due to a compound heterozygous mutation in GALNT3 demonstrating new phenotypic features. (nih.gov)
- 14. Nonfamilial hyperphosphatemic tumoral calcinosis with ulnar neuropathy. (nih.gov)
- 15. Tumoral calcinosis in two infants. (nih.gov)
- 16. Autoimmune hyperphosphatemic tumoral calcinosis in a patient with FGF23 autoantibodies. (nih.gov)
- 17. High dietary phosphate intake induces development of ectopic calcifications in a murine model of familial tumoral calcinosis. (nih.gov)
- 18. [Familial tumoral calcinosis in three patients in the same family]. (nih.gov)
- 19. Familial tumoral calcinosis: a forty-year follow-up on one family. (nih.gov)
- 20. Tumoral calcinosis: serial images to monitor successful dietary therapy. (nih.gov)
- Thus, some may resemble tumoral calcinosis, whereas others are similar to a rheumatoid nodule or osteoma. (ajnr.org)
- Calcinosis cutis complicating adult-onset dermatomyositis. (medscape.com)
- Calcinosis cutis universalis with joint contractures complicating juvenile dermatomyositis. (medscape.com)
- Marzano AV, Kolesnikova LV, Gasparini G, Alessi E. Dystrophic calcinosis cutis in subacute lupus. (medscape.com)
- Miteva L, Pramatarov K, Vassileva S. Calcinosis cutis in childhood systemic lupus erythematosus. (medscape.com)
- Extensive calcinosis cutis with systemic lupus erythematosus. (medscape.com)
- Tristano AG, Villarroel JL, Rodriguez MA, Millan A. Calcinosis cutis universalis in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus. (medscape.com)
- Solitary milialike idiopathic calcinosis cutis: a case unassociated with Down syndrome. (medscape.com)
- Sais G, Jucglà A, Moreno A, Peyrí J. Milia-like idiopathic calcinosis cutis and multiple connective tissue nevi in a patient with Down syndrome. (medscape.com)
- Larralde M, Giachetti A, Kowalczuk A, D'Agostino D, Galimberti R. Calcinosis cutis following liver transplantation in a pediatric patient. (medscape.com)
- Uncommon localization of calcinosis cutis after liver transplantation. (medscape.com)
- Moss J, Syrengelas A, Antaya R, Lazova R. Calcinosis cutis: a complication of intravenous administration of calcium glucanate. (medscape.com)
- Tc-99m MDP scintigraphy in a case of idiopathic calcinosis cutis. (medscape.com)
- Dermal uptake of technetium-99m MDP in calcinosis cutis. (medscape.com)
- Calcinosis cutis can occur with or without extravasation of Calcium Gluconate Injection. (nih.gov)
- If extravasation occurs or clinical manifestations of calcinosis cutis are noted, immediately discontinue intravenous administration at that site and treat as needed. (nih.gov)
- The most common adverse events with Calcium Gluconate Injection are local soft tissue inflammation and necrosis, calcinosis cutis and calcification that are related to extravasation. (nih.gov)
- Calcinosis Cutis in the Setting of Chronic Skin Graft-Versus-Host Disease. (nih.gov)
- Valenzuela A, Chung L, Casciola-Rosen L, Fiorentino D. Identification of clinical features and autoantibodies associated with calcinosis in dermatomyositis. (medscape.com)
- This study is aiming to find out more about calcinosis, the development of calcium deposits in various parts of the body, in people with dermatomyositis (DM) and juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM). (nih.gov)
- Children and adults with dermatomyositis may develop calcium deposits, which appear as hard bumps under the skin or in the muscle (calcinosis). (nih.gov)
- After 58 years, she was diagnosed with dystrophic calcinosis in the burn scar, which was confirmed through biopsy and histopathological analysis. (rbcp.org.br)
- The anatomopathological examination of January 2019 indicated hyperkeratosis, hypergranulosis, and lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate in the papillary dermis associated with fibrinoleukocyte crust and dermal fibrosis, concluding the examination with no signs of malignancy and diagnosis of dystrophic calcinosis. (rbcp.org.br)
- People ages 7 and older who have moderate or severe calcinosis. (nih.gov)
Sclerodactyly and telangiectasia1
- Diagnosis is usually based in the typical symptoms (calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, esophageal dysmotility, sclerodactyly and telangiectasia). (rareguru.com)
- Calcinosis in a burn scar. (nih.gov)
- Five investigators examined DM/JDM calcinosis lesions by durometry, optimally recording three readings per site, as well as control readings unaffected by calcinosis in similar anatomic areas. (nih.gov)
- Durometry readings of calcinosis lesions were statistically higher than control lesions in the following locations: upper neck/clavicle, upper arms/forearms, elbows, hand/wrists, buttocks, thigh, calf and foot. (nih.gov)
- Calcinosis lesions overall were harder compared to control lesions. (nih.gov)
- Conclusion: Our study identifies durometry as a reliable tool in assessing targeted lesions of calcinosis lesions in DM/JDM patients. (nih.gov)
- People with DM and JDM can develop calcium deposits in places they should not, known as calcinosis. (nih.gov)
- Cutaneous calcinosis is a rare disease characterized by the precipitation of calcium crystals in the skin tissue. (rbcp.org.br)
- Calcinosis, a known complication of DM/JDM, is associated with significant morbidity. (nih.gov)
- Calcinosis usually occurs in and just under skin tissue around the joints, most often the hips, shoulders, and elbows. (medlineplus.gov)
- Calcinosis typically develops in early childhood to early adulthood, although in some people the deposits first appear in infancy or in late adulthood. (medlineplus.gov)
- The diagnosis of calcinosis (suspected based on finding the nodules) is confirmed with imaging studies. (rareguru.com)
- Calcinosis can be localized (tissue damage due to trauma, inflammation, infection, necrosis or neoplasia) or generalized (associated with collagenosis, genodermatoses and some types of panniculitis) 2 . (rbcp.org.br)
- Methods: Calcinosis firmness was measured using handheld digital durometer with a continuous scale across 3 institutions. (nih.gov)
- Calcinosis may also develop in the soft tissue of the feet, legs, and hands. (medlineplus.gov)
- Calcinosis aspiration: A needle placed into areas of calcinosis removes liquid. (nih.gov)
- Valenzuela A, Chung L. Calcinosis: pathophysiology and management. (medscape.com)