Kidney Failure, Chronic
Hypercalcemia secondary to persistent hyperparathyroidism in kidney transplant patients: analysis after a year with cinacalcet. (1/36)INTRODUCTION: The most common cause of hypercalcemia in patients with transplanted kidneys is persistent hyperparathyroidism, which presents in 10%-30% of patients with functioning renal grafts. In these patients, the treatment of vitamin D-resistant hyperparathyroidism traditionally required parathyroidectomy. Calcimimetic agents represent a new therapeutic alternative; they inhibit parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion, increasing the sensitivity of the calcium-sensitive receptor in the parathyroid gland. The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of cinacalcet in renal transplant patients with persistent hyperparathyroidism. METHODS: Cinacalcet 30 mg/day was prescribed to 17 renal transplant patients (6 women, 11 men) with a mean age of 49 years and hypercalcemia secondary to persistent hyperparathyroidism. The treatment started 58.17 +/- 35.16 months posttransplant, with 1 year of follow-up. RESULTS: Calcium in serum fell from 10.5 +/- 0.74 to 9.4 +/- 0.84 mg/dL (p<0.001), whereas phosphorous levels were not significantly altered. The fall in PTH was from 204.79 +/- 78 to 148.55 +/- 56 pg/mL (p<0.011). Kidney function remained stable, and immunosuppressant drug levels remained unchanged. The dose of cinacalcet was increased to 60 mg in 2 patients. No significant adverse effects were described, and none of the patients had to suspend the treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Calcimimetic agents represent a therapeutic alternative in transplant patients with persistent hyperparathyroidism, as they correct hypercalcemia and reduce PTH levels with no adverse effects on kidney function. Prospective, controlled studies should be designed to evaluate the long-term effects and evolution after suspension of the treatment. (+info)
Vascular actions of calcimimetics: role of Ca(2)(+) -sensing receptors versus Ca(2)(+) influx through L-type Ca(2)(+) channels. (2/36)(+info)
Cinacalcet improves bone density in post-kidney transplant hyperparathyroidism. (3/36)(+info)
The calcium-sensing receptor and calcimimetics in blood pressure modulation. (4/36)(+info)
Functional expression of the extracellular calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) in equine umbilical cord matrix size-sieved stem cells. (5/36)(+info)
Secondary hyperparathyroidism: pathogenesis, disease progression, and therapeutic options. (6/36)(+info)
Paricalcitol versus cinacalcet plus low-dose vitamin D for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients receiving haemodialysis: study design and baseline characteristics of the IMPACT SHPT study. (7/36)(+info)
Regression of vascular calcification in a patient treated with cinacalcet: a case report. (8/36)(+info)
Calcimimetics are a class of drugs that are used to lower blood calcium levels in patients with hypercalcemia, a condition characterized by abnormally high levels of calcium in the blood. These drugs work by stimulating the calcium-sensing receptor in the parathyroid gland, which in turn reduces the production of parathyroid hormone (PTH). PTH is responsible for regulating calcium levels in the body by stimulating the release of calcium from bones and increasing the absorption of calcium from the intestines. Calcimimetics are typically used in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, a condition in which one or more of the parathyroid glands produce too much PTH. They may also be used in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism, which occurs in patients with chronic kidney disease or vitamin D deficiency. Calcimimetics are available as oral tablets and intravenous solutions. They are generally well-tolerated, but can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. In rare cases, calcimimetics can cause serious side effects such as low blood pressure, heart palpitations, and kidney problems.
Hyperparathyroidism, secondary, is a condition in which the parathyroid glands produce excessive amounts of parathyroid hormone (PTH) due to a problem with the body's calcium metabolism. This type of hyperparathyroidism is usually caused by a deficiency of vitamin D or low levels of calcium in the blood, which triggers the parathyroid glands to produce more PTH to try to restore normal calcium levels. Secondary hyperparathyroidism is often seen in people with chronic kidney disease, as well as in those who have had their parathyroid glands removed or who have had surgery to remove part of their thyroid gland. Other conditions that can cause secondary hyperparathyroidism include malnutrition, vitamin D deficiency, and certain medications. Symptoms of secondary hyperparathyroidism may include bone pain, weakness, fatigue, and kidney stones. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the condition, such as treating kidney disease or vitamin D deficiency, and may also include medications to lower PTH levels or to increase calcium levels in the blood. In some cases, surgery to remove the affected parathyroid gland may be necessary.
Naphthalenes are a group of organic compounds that are composed of two benzene rings fused together. They are commonly used as insecticides and moth repellents, and have also been used in the past as a treatment for certain medical conditions such as respiratory infections and skin infections. However, the use of naphthalenes as a medical treatment is now generally discouraged due to their potential toxicity and the availability of safer alternatives. In the medical field, naphthalenes are primarily used as a research tool to study the effects of benzene ring compounds on various biological processes.
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a hormone produced by the parathyroid glands, which are four small glands located in the neck, near the thyroid gland. PTH plays a crucial role in regulating the levels of calcium and phosphorus in the body. PTH acts on the bones, kidneys, and intestines to increase the levels of calcium in the blood. It stimulates the release of calcium from the bones into the bloodstream, increases the reabsorption of calcium by the kidneys, and promotes the absorption of calcium from the intestines. PTH also plays a role in regulating the levels of phosphorus in the body. It stimulates the kidneys to excrete phosphorus in the urine, which helps to maintain the proper balance of calcium and phosphorus in the blood. Abnormal levels of PTH can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including hyperparathyroidism (too much PTH), hypoparathyroidism (too little PTH), and parathyroid cancer. Hyperparathyroidism can cause osteoporosis, kidney stones, and other complications, while hypoparathyroidism can lead to muscle cramps, seizures, and other symptoms.
Receptors, Calcium-Sensing (CaSR) are a type of protein receptor found in various cells throughout the body, including those in the parathyroid gland, kidney, and bone. These receptors are responsible for detecting changes in extracellular calcium levels and regulating the body's calcium homeostasis. The CaSR is a G-protein coupled receptor that is activated by changes in extracellular calcium levels. When calcium levels are low, the CaSR is activated and triggers a signaling cascade that leads to an increase in parathyroid hormone (PTH) production, which in turn increases calcium levels in the blood. Conversely, when calcium levels are high, the CaSR is activated and triggers a signaling cascade that leads to a decrease in PTH production and an increase in calcium excretion by the kidneys. The CaSR plays a critical role in maintaining calcium homeostasis in the body and is involved in a variety of physiological processes, including bone metabolism, kidney function, and the regulation of blood pressure. Dysregulation of the CaSR can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including hyperparathyroidism, hypoparathyroidism, and calcium-related disorders such as osteoporosis and kidney stones.
Aniline compounds are a group of organic compounds that contain the aniline functional group, which is a benzene ring with a nitrogen atom bonded to one of the carbon atoms. These compounds are commonly used in the medical field as dyes, pigments, and as intermediates in the synthesis of other drugs and chemicals. Some aniline compounds have medicinal properties and are used in the treatment of various conditions. For example, aniline is used as a local anesthetic in dentistry, and some aniline derivatives are used as antihistamines to treat allergies and other allergic reactions. Other aniline compounds are used as antimalarial drugs, such as chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, which are used to treat and prevent malaria. However, some aniline compounds can also be toxic and can cause adverse effects on the body. For example, exposure to aniline can cause skin irritation, respiratory problems, and liver damage. Therefore, the use of aniline compounds in the medical field requires careful consideration of their potential risks and benefits.
Hyperparathyroidism is a medical condition characterized by the overproduction of parathyroid hormone (PTH) by the parathyroid glands. The parathyroid glands are four small glands located in the neck, behind the thyroid gland, and are responsible for regulating the levels of calcium in the blood. There are three main types of hyperparathyroidism: primary, secondary, and tertiary. Primary hyperparathyroidism is caused by a problem with the parathyroid glands themselves, such as a benign tumor or hyperplasia (enlargement) of the glands. Secondary hyperparathyroidism occurs when the parathyroid glands produce too much PTH in response to low levels of calcium in the blood, which can be caused by kidney disease or vitamin D deficiency. Tertiary hyperparathyroidism is a rare form of the condition that occurs in people with long-term kidney failure who are on dialysis. Symptoms of hyperparathyroidism can include fatigue, weakness, bone pain, kidney stones, and digestive problems. Treatment options for hyperparathyroidism depend on the underlying cause and severity of the condition, and may include medication, lifestyle changes, or surgery to remove the affected parathyroid gland(s).
Diethylamines are a class of organic compounds that contain two ethyl groups (-CH2CH3) attached to a nitrogen atom. They are commonly used as solvents, intermediates in chemical reactions, and as starting materials for the synthesis of other compounds. In the medical field, diethylamines have been used as components in some medications, such as antihistamines and anti-inflammatory drugs. For example, diphenhydramine, an antihistamine used to treat allergies and insomnia, contains a diethylamine moiety. Additionally, diethylamine has been used as a solvent in the extraction of certain plant compounds that have potential medicinal properties. However, it is important to note that diethylamines can also be toxic and have been associated with respiratory and central nervous system effects at high concentrations. Therefore, their use in the medical field is typically limited and closely monitored.
Calcium is a chemical element with the symbol Ca and atomic number 20. It is a vital mineral for the human body and is essential for many bodily functions, including bone health, muscle function, nerve transmission, and blood clotting. In the medical field, calcium is often used to diagnose and treat conditions related to calcium deficiency or excess. For example, low levels of calcium in the blood (hypocalcemia) can cause muscle cramps, numbness, and tingling, while high levels (hypercalcemia) can lead to kidney stones, bone loss, and other complications. Calcium supplements are often prescribed to people who are at risk of developing calcium deficiency, such as older adults, vegetarians, and people with certain medical conditions. However, it is important to note that excessive calcium intake can also be harmful, and it is important to follow recommended dosages and consult with a healthcare provider before taking any supplements.
Hypocalcemia is a medical condition characterized by low levels of calcium in the blood. Calcium is an essential mineral that plays a crucial role in various bodily functions, including muscle contraction, nerve function, and blood clotting. In hypocalcemia, the levels of calcium in the blood are below the normal range, which can lead to a range of symptoms, including muscle cramps, spasms, and twitching, numbness and tingling in the hands and feet, fatigue, and depression. In severe cases, hypocalcemia can cause seizures, heart palpitations, and even cardiac arrest. Hypocalcemia can be caused by a variety of factors, including malabsorption of calcium from the diet, excessive loss of calcium through the kidneys or intestines, hormonal imbalances, and certain medical conditions such as parathyroid hormone deficiency or vitamin D deficiency. Treatment for hypocalcemia typically involves increasing calcium intake through diet or supplements, treating the underlying cause of the condition, and in severe cases, administering intravenous calcium.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with the symbol P and atomic number 15. It is an essential nutrient for living organisms and is found in all cells of the body. In the medical field, phosphorus is often used as a diagnostic tool to measure the levels of phosphorus in the blood, which can be an indicator of various medical conditions. High levels of phosphorus in the blood can be caused by kidney disease, certain medications, or excessive intake of phosphorus-rich foods. Low levels of phosphorus can be caused by malnutrition, certain medications, or excessive loss of phosphorus through the urine. Phosphorus is also used in the treatment of certain medical conditions, such as osteoporosis, where it is used to help build strong bones. It is also used in the treatment of certain types of cancer, such as multiple myeloma, where it is used to help slow the growth of cancer cells. In addition to its use in medicine, phosphorus is also used in the production of fertilizers, detergents, and other industrial products.
Uremia is a condition that occurs when there is a buildup of waste products in the blood that cannot be removed by the kidneys. This buildup of waste products, which includes urea, creatinine, and other toxins, can lead to a variety of symptoms and complications, including fatigue, nausea, loss of appetite, confusion, and swelling in the legs and feet. Uremia is typically a sign that the kidneys are not functioning properly, and it is often associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD). In CKD, the kidneys gradually lose their ability to filter waste products from the blood, leading to a buildup of toxins in the body. Uremia can also occur as a result of acute kidney injury, which is a sudden and severe loss of kidney function. Treatment for uremia typically involves managing the underlying cause of the condition, such as treating a kidney infection or addressing a blockage in the urinary tract. In some cases, dialysis or kidney transplantation may be necessary to help remove waste products from the blood and prevent further damage to the kidneys.
Hypercalcemia is a medical condition characterized by abnormally high levels of calcium in the blood. The normal range of blood calcium levels is typically between 8.5 and 10.5 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) in adults. Hypercalcemia can be caused by a variety of factors, including excessive intake of calcium-rich foods or supplements, certain medications, kidney or parathyroid gland disorders, cancer, and bone disorders such as osteoporosis or osteomalacia. Symptoms of hypercalcemia can include fatigue, weakness, constipation, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, kidney stones, and confusion. In severe cases, hypercalcemia can lead to more serious complications such as cardiac arrhythmias, seizures, and coma. Treatment for hypercalcemia depends on the underlying cause and may include medications to lower calcium levels, dietary changes, and in some cases, surgery. It is important to diagnose and treat hypercalcemia promptly to prevent complications and improve outcomes.
Calcitonin is a hormone produced by the parafollicular cells, also known as C cells, of the thyroid gland. It plays a role in regulating calcium levels in the blood by inhibiting the release of calcium from bones and increasing calcium excretion in the kidneys. Calcitonin is typically released in response to an increase in blood calcium levels, such as after a meal or during pregnancy. It is also produced by the medullary thyroid carcinoma, a rare type of thyroid cancer. Calcitonin is used as a diagnostic tool to help diagnose medullary thyroid carcinoma and is also used as a treatment for osteoporosis and hypercalcemia.
Chronic kidney failure, also known as chronic renal failure, is a condition in which the kidneys are unable to function properly over a long period of time. This can be caused by a variety of factors, including diabetes, high blood pressure, and glomerulonephritis. Chronic kidney failure is typically diagnosed when the kidneys are functioning at less than 60% of their normal capacity, and the condition has been present for at least three months. As the kidneys become less functional, they are unable to filter waste products from the blood, leading to a buildup of toxins in the body. This can cause a range of symptoms, including fatigue, weakness, nausea, and difficulty concentrating. Treatment for chronic kidney failure typically involves managing the underlying cause of the condition, as well as managing symptoms and complications. This may include medications to control blood pressure and blood sugar levels, as well as dietary changes and other lifestyle modifications. In some cases, dialysis or kidney transplantation may be necessary to help the body remove waste products and maintain proper fluid balance.
Calcitriol is a hormone that is produced in the kidneys and helps to regulate the amount of calcium and phosphorus in the body. It is also known as vitamin D3 or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Calcitriol plays a critical role in maintaining healthy bones by promoting the absorption of calcium from the intestines and increasing the reabsorption of calcium from the kidneys. It also helps to regulate the immune system and may have other effects on the body. Calcitriol is available as a medication and is used to treat a variety of conditions, including osteoporosis, hyperparathyroidism, and vitamin D deficiency.
Phosphates are a group of inorganic compounds that contain the phosphate ion (PO4^3-). In the medical field, phosphates are often used as a source of phosphorus, which is an essential nutrient for the body. Phosphorus is important for a variety of bodily functions, including bone health, energy production, and nerve function. Phosphates are commonly found in foods such as dairy products, meats, and grains, as well as in some dietary supplements. In the medical field, phosphates are also used as a medication to treat certain conditions, such as hypophosphatemia (low levels of phosphorus in the blood) and hyperphosphatemia (high levels of phosphorus in the blood). Phosphates can also be used as a component of intravenous fluids, as well as in certain types of dialysis solutions for people with kidney disease. In these cases, phosphates are used to help regulate the levels of phosphorus in the body. It is important to note that high levels of phosphorus in the blood can be harmful, and it is important for people with kidney disease to carefully manage their phosphorus intake. In some cases, medications such as phosphate binders may be prescribed to help prevent the absorption of excess phosphorus from the diet.
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Oral calcimimetic agent1
- Mimpara ® (cinacalcet) is the first oral calcimimetic agent approved by the EMA for the treatment of sHPT in patients with CKD on dialysis. (pipelinereview.com)
- If approved, Parsabiv will be the first calcimimetic agent that can be administered intravenously by a healthcare provider three times a week at the end of a hemodialysis session. (pipelinereview.com)
- Parsabiv is a novel calcimimetic agent in clinical development for the treatment of sHPT in adult CKD patients on hemodialysis that is administered intravenously at the end of the hemodialysis session. (pipelinereview.com)
- A calcimimetic is a drug that mimics the action of calcium by activating the calcium-sensing receptors on the parathyroid gland. (pipelinereview.com)
- Their treatment options are limited to calcimimetic agents to reduce serum calcium levels and antiresorptive medications to protect bone health. (medscape.com)
- Thiazide diuretics are commonly used in clinical practice as antihypertensive agents. (medscape.com)
- Assess when the calcimimetics being used, because more suppression of parathyroid glands that have a good calcimimetic broker try you can easily. (deadbedbugs.com)
- Technetium-99 sestamibi, a radionuclide agent for parathyroid imaging, is more sensitive and specific than older agents and may be useful for identifying solitary adenomas. (msdmanuals.com)
- median PD duration, 28 months) starting combined therapy and investigated changes in several clinical parameters, including erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) resistance index (ERI). (bvsalud.org)
- This invention relates to combination therapies comprising an EZH2 inhibitor and a chemotherapeutic agent, and associated pharmaceutical compositions, methods of treatment, and pharmaceutical uses. (justia.com)
- Most rapid onset of action of anticalcemic agents. (medscape.com)
- because of short duration of action, other more potent but slower-acting agents should be started in patients with severe hypercalcemia. (medscape.com)
- Action of this agent is short-lived. (medscape.com)
- performs well against other anticalcium agents but has slow onset of action. (medscape.com)
- Medications used for that purpose are the calcimimetic agent cinacalcet, bisphosphonates, and calcitonin. (medscape.com)
- Marcocci et al performed an open-label, single-arm study to determine how effectively cinacalcet, a calcimimetic, reduces hypercalcemia in patients with intractable persistent primary hyperparathyroidism. (medscape.com)
- 8. Cinacalcet: An oral calcimimetic agent for the management of hyperparathyroidism. (nih.gov)
- The active substance in Mimpara, cinacalcet, is a calcimimetic agent. (shijiebiaopin.net)
- These agents promote the renal excretion of calcium, making them suitable for the treatment of hypercalcemia. (medscape.com)
- Calcimimetic Agents" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (uchicago.edu)
- Parsabiv is a novel calcimimetic agent indicated for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT) in adult patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) on hemodialysis therapy. (amgen.com)