Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
Synthesized magnetic particles under 100 nanometers possessing many biomedical applications including DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and CONTRAST AGENTS. The particles are usually coated with a variety of polymeric compounds.
Relating to the size of solids.
A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.
Silver. An element with the atomic symbol Ag, atomic number 47, and atomic weight 107.87. It is a soft metal that is used medically in surgical instruments, dental prostheses, and alloys. Long-continued use of silver salts can lead to a form of poisoning known as ARGYRIA.
Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.
Nanometer-sized, hollow, spherically-shaped objects that can be utilized to encapsulate small amounts of pharmaceuticals, enzymes, or other catalysts (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechnology, 4th ed).
A biocompatible polymer used as a surgical suture material.
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.
The branch of medicine concerned with the application of NANOTECHNOLOGY to the prevention and treatment of disease. It involves the monitoring, repair, construction, and control of human biological systems at the molecular level, using engineered nanodevices and NANOSTRUCTURES. (From Freitas Jr., Nanomedicine, vol 1, 1999).
Deacetylated CHITIN, a linear polysaccharide of deacetylated beta-1,4-D-glucosamine. It is used in HYDROGEL and to treat WOUNDS.
Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.
Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.
A mild astringent and topical protectant with some antiseptic action. It is also used in bandages, pastes, ointments, dental cements, and as a sunblock.
Pollution prevention through the design of effective chemical products that have low or no toxicity and use of chemical processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances.
The study of MAGNETIC PHENOMENA.
Tailored macromolecules harboring covalently-bound biologically active modules that target specific tissues and cells. The active modules or functional groups can include drugs, prodrugs, antibodies, and oligonucleotides, which can act synergistically and be multitargeting.
An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Ce, atomic number 58, and atomic weight 140.12. Cerium is a malleable metal used in industrial applications.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
Iron (II,III) oxide (Fe3O4). It is a black ore of IRON that forms opaque crystals and exerts strong magnetism.
A polyester used for absorbable sutures & surgical mesh, especially in ophthalmic surgery. 2-Hydroxy-propanoic acid polymer with polymerized hydroxyacetic acid, which forms 3,6-dimethyl-1,4-dioxane-dione polymer with 1,4-dioxane-2,5-dione copolymer of molecular weight about 80,000 daltons.
Nanometer sized fragments of semiconductor crystalline material which emit PHOTONS. The wavelength is based on the quantum confinement size of the dot. They can be embedded in MICROBEADS for high throughput ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES.
Protein-mineral complexes that comprise substrates needed for the normal calcium-carbonate-phosphate homeostasis. Nanobacteria was the prior name for the particles which were originally thought to be microorganisms.
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Nanometer-scale composite structures composed of organic molecules intimately incorporated with inorganic molecules. (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechology Terms, 4th ed)
The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Areas of attractive or repulsive force surrounding MAGNETS.
Polymerized forms of styrene used as a biocompatible material, especially in dentistry. They are thermoplastic and are used as insulators, for injection molding and casting, as sheets, plates, rods, rigid forms and beads.
Inorganic compounds that contain cadmium as an integral part of the molecule.
Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Two-phase systems in which one is uniformly dispersed in another as particles small enough so they cannot be filtered or will not settle out. The dispersing or continuous phase or medium envelops the particles of the discontinuous phase. All three states of matter can form colloids among each other.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A silver salt with powerful germicidal activity. It has been used topically to prevent OPHTHALMIA NEONATORUM.
Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.
Tree-like, highly branched, polymeric compounds. They grow three-dimensionally by the addition of shells of branched molecules to a central core. The overall globular shape and presence of cavities gives potential as drug carriers and CONTRAST AGENTS.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.
Strongly cationic polymer that binds to certain proteins; used as a marker in immunology, to precipitate and purify enzymes and lipids. Synonyms: aziridine polymer; Epamine; Epomine; ethylenimine polymer; Montrek; PEI; Polymin(e).
The use of molecularly targeted imaging probes to localize and/or monitor biochemical and cellular processes via various imaging modalities that include RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING; ULTRASONOGRAPHY; MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; FLUORESCENCE IMAGING; and MICROSCOPY.
Nanometer-sized tubes composed of various substances including carbon (CARBON NANOTUBES), boron nitride, or nickel vanadate.
Inorganic compounds that contain silver as an integral part of the molecule.
A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.
Biocompatible materials usually used in dental and bone implants that enhance biologic fixation, thereby increasing the bond strength between the coated material and bone, and minimize possible biological effects that may result from the implant itself.
A group of compounds having the general formula CH2=C(CN)-COOR; it polymerizes on contact with moisture; used as tissue adhesive; higher homologs have hemostatic and antibacterial properties.
Polymers of organic acids and alcohols, with ester linkages--usually polyethylene terephthalate; can be cured into hard plastic, films or tapes, or fibers which can be woven into fabrics, meshes or velours.
Characteristics, properties, and effects of magnetic substances and magnetic fields.
Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
Spherical particles of nanometer dimensions.
Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.
Non-invasive imaging of cells that have been labeled non-destructively, such as with nanoemulsions or reporter genes that can be detected by molecular imaging, to monitor their location, viability, cell lineage expansion, response to drugs, movement, or other behaviors in vivo.
Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
A nonionic polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene block co-polymer with the general formula HO(C2H4O)a(-C3H6O)b(C2H4O)aH. It is available in different grades which vary from liquids to solids. It is used as an emulsifying agent, solubilizing agent, surfactant, and wetting agent for antibiotics. Poloxamer is also used in ointment and suppository bases and as a tablet binder or coater. (Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)
A complex mixture of PHOSPHOLIPIDS; GLYCOLIPIDS; and TRIGLYCERIDES; with substantial amounts of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES; PHOSPHATIDYLETHANOLAMINES; and PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS, which are sometimes loosely termed as 1,2-diacyl-3-phosphocholines. Lecithin is a component of the CELL MEMBRANE and commercially extracted from SOYBEANS and EGG YOLK. The emulsifying and surfactant properties are useful in FOOD ADDITIVES and for forming organogels (GELS).
Nanometer-sized tubes composed mainly of CARBON. Such nanotubes are used as probes for high-resolution structural and chemical imaging of biomolecules with ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY.
Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.
Inorganic compounds that contain gold as an integral part of the molecule.
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
Binary compounds of oxygen containing the anion O(2-). The anion combines with metals to form alkaline oxides and non-metals to form acidic oxides.
The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.
Technique whereby the weight of a sample can be followed over a period of time while its temperature is being changed (usually increased at a constant rate).
Abnormally high temperature intentionally induced in living things regionally or whole body. It is most often induced by radiation (heat waves, infra-red), ultrasound, or drugs.
A suspension of metallic gold particles.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
The study of the energy of electrons ejected from matter by the photoelectric effect, i.e., as a direct result of absorption of energy from electromagnetic radiation. As the energies of the electrons are characteristic of a specific element, the measurement of the energy of these electrons is a technique used to determine the chemical composition of surfaces.
A polyhedral CARBON structure composed of around 60-80 carbon atoms in pentagon and hexagon configuration. They are named after Buckminster Fuller because of structural resemblance to geodesic domes. Fullerenes can be made in high temperature such as arc discharge in an inert atmosphere.
Objects that produce a magnetic field.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
A product formed from skin, white connective tissue, or bone COLLAGEN. It is used as a protein food adjuvant, plasma substitute, hemostatic, suspending agent in pharmaceutical preparations, and in the manufacturing of capsules and suppositories.
Behavior of LIGHT and its interactions with itself and materials.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
A trace element that constitutes about 27.6% of the earth's crust in the form of SILICON DIOXIDE. It does not occur free in nature. Silicon has the atomic symbol Si, atomic number 14, and atomic weight [28.084; 28.086].
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Platinum. A heavy, soft, whitish metal, resembling tin, atomic number 78, atomic weight 195.09, symbol Pt. (From Dorland, 28th ed) It is used in manufacturing equipment for laboratory and industrial use. It occurs as a black powder (platinum black) and as a spongy substance (spongy platinum) and may have been known in Pliny's time as "alutiae".
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Usually inert substances added to a prescription in order to provide suitable consistency to the dosage form. These include binders, matrix, base or diluent in pills, tablets, creams, salves, etc.
The use of light interaction (scattering, absorption, and fluorescence) with biological tissue to obtain morphologically based information. It includes measuring inherent tissue optical properties such as scattering, absorption, and autofluorescence; or optical properties of exogenous targeted fluorescent molecular probes such as those used in optical MOLECULAR IMAGING, or nontargeted optical CONTRAST AGENTS.
Physical reactions involved in the formation of or changes in the structure of atoms and molecules and their interactions.
Method of tissue preparation in which the tissue specimen is frozen and then dehydrated at low temperature in a high vacuum. This method is also used for dehydrating pharmaceutical and food products.
Application of pharmaceutically active agents on the tissues of the EYE.
The transport of materials through a cell. It includes the uptake of materials by the cell (ENDOCYTOSIS), the movement of those materials through the cell, and the subsequent secretion of those materials (EXOCYTOSIS).
A type of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY in which the object is examined directly by an extremely narrow electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point and using the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen to create the image. It should not be confused with SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.
Anhydride polymers with a repeating structure of RC(=O)OC(=O)R. They readily hydrolyze in water making them useful for DELAYED-ACTION PREPARATIONS.
A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.
Any visual display of structural or functional patterns of organs or tissues for diagnostic evaluation. It includes measuring physiologic and metabolic responses to physical and chemical stimuli, as well as ultramicroscopy.
Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.
Inorganic compounds that contain selenium as an integral part of the molecule.
The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.
Silicon polymers that contain alternate silicon and oxygen atoms in linear or cyclic molecular structures.
Inorganic salts of the hypothetical acid ferrocyanic acid (H4Fe(CN)6).
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Emission of LIGHT when ELECTRONS return to the electronic ground state from an excited state and lose the energy as PHOTONS. It is sometimes called cool light in contrast to INCANDESCENCE. LUMINESCENT MEASUREMENTS take advantage of this type of light emitted from LUMINESCENT AGENTS.
The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.
Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.
The magnetic stimulation of specific target tissues or areas of the body for therapeutic purposes via the application of magnetic fields generated by MAGNETS or ELECTROMAGNETS.
Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.
A genus of plant viruses of the family COMOVIRIDAE in which the bipartite genome is encapsidated in separate icosahedral particles. Mosaic and mottle symptoms are characteristic, and transmission is exclusively by leaf-feeding beetles. Cowpea mosaic virus is the type species.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
Transmission of energy or mass by a medium involving movement of the medium itself. The circulatory movement that occurs in a fluid at a nonuniform temperature owing to the variation of its density and the action of gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed; Webster, 10th ed)
The spectrometric analysis of fluorescent X-RAYS, i.e. X-rays emitted after bombarding matter with high energy particles such as PROTONS; ELECTRONS; or higher energy X-rays. Identification of ELEMENTS by this technique is based on the specific type of X-rays that are emitted which are characteristic of the specific elements in the material being analyzed. The characteristic X-rays are distinguished and/or quantified by either wavelength dispersive or energy dispersive methods.
A peptide which is a homopolymer of lysine.
The area within CELLS.
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.
Europium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Eu, atomic number 63, and atomic weight 152. Europium is used in the form of its salts as coatings for cathode ray tubes and in the form of its organic derivatives as shift reagents in NMR spectroscopy.
A carrier or inert medium used as a solvent (or diluent) in which the medicinally active agent is formulated and or administered. (Dictionary of Pharmacy, 1986)
An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.
Nanometer range spherical cores of particular semiconductor compounds surrounded by an ultrathin metal shell that is commonly made of gold or silver. This configuration gives the nanoshells highly tunable optical properties. They have potential in biomedicine for diagnosis and therapy.
A polyvinyl polymer of variable molecular weight; used as suspending and dispersing agent and vehicle for pharmaceuticals; also used as blood volume expander.
Compounds that contain three methine groups. They are frequently used as cationic dyes used for differential staining of biological materials.
Materials fabricated by BIOMIMETICS techniques, i.e., based on natural processes found in biological systems.
A 60-kDa extracellular protein of Streptomyces avidinii with four high-affinity biotin binding sites. Unlike AVIDIN, streptavidin has a near neutral isoelectric point and is free of carbohydrate side chains.
Materials that have a limited and usually variable electrical conductivity. They are particularly useful for the production of solid-state electronic devices.
Poly-2-methylpropenoic acids. Used in the manufacture of methacrylate resins and plastics in the form of pellets and granules, as absorbent for biological materials and as filters; also as biological membranes and as hydrogens. Synonyms: methylacrylate polymer; poly(methylacrylate); acrylic acid methyl ester polymer.
The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.
Colloids with liquid continuous phase and solid dispersed phase; the term is used loosely also for solid-in-gas (AEROSOLS) and other colloidal systems; water-insoluble drugs may be given as suspensions.
An integrin that binds to a variety of plasma and extracellular matrix proteins containing the conserved RGD amino acid sequence and modulates cell adhesion. Integrin alphavbeta3 is highly expressed in OSTEOCLASTS where it may play role in BONE RESORPTION. It is also abundant in vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells, and in some tumor cells, where it is involved in angiogenesis and cell migration. Although often referred to as the vitronectin receptor there is more than one receptor for vitronectin (RECEPTORS, VITRONECTIN).
The use of devices which use detector molecules to detect, investigate, or analyze other molecules, macromolecules, molecular aggregates, or organisms.
An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Y, atomic number 39, and atomic weight 88.91. In conjunction with other rare earths, yttrium is used as a phosphor in television receivers and is a component of the yttrium-aluminum garnet (YAG) lasers.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Sulfhydryl acylated derivative of GLYCINE.
The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The utilization of an electrical current to measure, analyze, or alter chemicals or chemical reactions in solution, cells, or tissues.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.
Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.
Experiments designed to determine the potential toxic effects of one-time, short-term exposure to a chemical or chemicals.
Ytterbium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Yb, atomic number 70, and atomic weight 173. Ytterbium has been used in lasers and as a portable x-ray source.
Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A plant family of the order Myrtales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida composed of tropical plants with parallel-nerved leaves.
Tellurium. An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has the atomic symbol Te, atomic number 52, and atomic weight 127.60. It has been used as a coloring agent and in the manufacture of electrical equipment. Exposure may cause nausea, vomiting, and CNS depression.
A dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, composed mainly of amorphous CARBON and some HYDROCARBONS, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke. It is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in low oxygen conditions. It is sometimes called lampblack or carbon black and is used in INK, in rubber tires, and to prepare CARBON NANOTUBES.
A plant genus of the family ARALIACEAE. Members contain hederin (olean-12-ene) type TRITERPENES.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.
Compounds similar to hydrocarbons in which a tetravalent silicon atom replaces the carbon atom. They are very reactive, ignite in air, and form useful derivatives.
The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
Uptake of substances through the SKIN.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

A red herring in vascular calcification: 'nanobacteria' are protein-mineral complexes involved in biomineralization. (1/5)

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The role of calcifying nanoparticles in biology and medicine. (2/5)

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Association between calcifying nanoparticles and placental calcification. (3/5)

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Clinical implications of calcifying nanoparticles in dental diseases: a critical review. (4/5)

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Cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by nanobacteria in human breast cancer cells. (5/5)

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Nanobacteria are said to have a hard mineral shell, replicate like a living organism and are wiped out by antibiotics and radiation, yet seem to lack DNA. This proposal was controversial to say the least, and has been described as the cold fusion of microbiology. So, are nanobacteria fact or fiction? A recent article in PLoS Pathogens takes a highly skeptical view (Nanobacteria: Facts or Fancies? 2007 PLoS Pathogens 3, 5, e55).. Nanobacteria have been claimed to be present in animal and human blood and other body fluids, in tissue culture cell lines, wastewater, rocks, in the stratosphere and in meteorites from Mars (Nanobacteria-like calcite single crystals at the surface of the Tataouine meteorite. 2003 PNAS USA 100: 7438-7442). Most of the reports are based on the visualization of nanobacteria by electron microscopy, but Kajander and his colleagues claim they can be propagated in cell-free tissue culture media (unlike viruses, which are obligate parasites requiring host cells for ...
A brief history of nanobacteria and their implications for human health. I remember when nanobacteria were a really big deal. Press-conference-by-POTUS-about-evidence-of-extraterrestrial-life-level big deal. I hadnt thought much about them until recently, when they made a surprise appearance in a presentation on idiopathic preterm birth by Irina Buhimschi, MD, director of the Center for Perinatal Research at The…. read more ...
Calcifying nanoparticles (CNPs) (nanobacteria, nanobacteria-like particles, nanobes) were discovered more than 25 years back; nevertheless, their nature is obscure still. important function in etiopat... Read More ...
One of the original discoverers of nanobacteria (NB) and NASA researchers have presented evidence supporting the role of the mysterious agent in kidney stone formation. If further studies confirm the results, a better treatment for this painful condition may include antibiotics. Finnish researchers first forwarded the idea of NB as a novel life form and…
Placenta can be considered as a pump of calcium necessary for the normal development of the fetus. We believe that the location of this pump is in the placental basement membrane. The calcification of this membrane has been described only in cases of in utero fetal death. In this study we describe for the first time a case of placental calcification in a living fetus. The fetus of a normal 21-year-old pregnant woman showed heart abnormalities but the genetic analysis showed a normal male karyotype. The histology of the placenta demonstrated multiple intravillous linear and granular calcific incrustations The hemtoxylin/eosin stain of the sections revealed basement membrane calcific incrustations and intravillous calcium deposits. We postulate that the fetal circulation in the villi was impaired and the calcium that reached the villi from the mother was deposited at this level ...
The ability of proteins and other macromolecules to interact with inorganic surfaces is essential to biological function. The proteins involved in these interactions are highly charged and often rich in carboxylic acid side chains1-5, but the structures of most protein-inorganic interfaces are unknown. We explored the possibility of systematically designing structured protein-mineral interfaces, guided by the example of ice-binding proteins, which present arrays of threonine residues (matched to the ice lattice) that order clathrate waters into an ice-like structure6. Here we design proteins displaying arrays of up to 54 carboxylate residues geometrically matched to the potassium ion (K+) sublattice on muscovite mica (001). At low K+ concentration, individual molecules bind independently to mica in the designed orientations, whereas at high K+ concentration, the designs form two-dimensional liquid-crystal phases, which accentuate the inherent structural bias in the muscovite lattice to produce protein
PNNL staff scientist and co-author Uljana Mayer devised new tagging methods that enabled the team to isolate sufficient amounts of protein. The tags also allowed fast measurements of protein-mineral binding. The researchers supplied the protein with energy--directly as electrons or in the form of a natural cellular fuel called NADH--and only during binding detected charge-transfer from protein to mineral, through a combination of techniques that included FCS, or fluorescent correlation spectroscopy, and confocal microscopy. These yielded a fluorescence intensity trace whose brightness depended entirely on whether hematite was available to bind with OmcA in solution. No hematite, dim; hematite, bright.. How bright? The peak current, or flux, doesnt run long, just a few seconds, Squier said, but flux is at least as good as what you would find in the most efficient bioreactors, which rely on living bacteria.. Biological fuel cells, or biofuel cells, are not yet powerful enough to be ...
In 2004 a Mayo Clinic team led by Franklin Cockerill, John Lieske, and Virginia M. Miller, reports to have isolated nanobacteria in diseased human arteries and kidney stones. Their results were published in 2004 and 2006 respectively.[9][10] Similar findings were obtained in 2005 by László Puskás at the DNA Lab, University of Szeged, Hungary. Dr. Puskás identified these particles in cultures obtained from human atherosclerotic aortic walls and blood samples of atherosclerotic patients but the group was unable to detect DNA in these samples.[11]. In 2005, Ciftcioglu and her research team at NASA used a rotating cell culture flask, which simulates some aspects of low-gravity conditions, to culture nanobacteria suspected of rapidly forming kidney stones in astronauts. In this environment, they were found to multiply five times faster than in normal Earth gravity. The study concluded that nanobacteria might have a potential role in forming kidney stones and may need to be screened for in crews ...
Suggested citation: California Native Plant Society (CNPS). 2017. Inventory of Rare and Endangered Plants (online edition, v7-17nov). California Native Plant Society. Sacramento, CA. Accessed on Sat, Dec. 16, 2017 from http://www.cnps.org/inventory ...
Suggested citation: California Native Plant Society (CNPS). 2018. Inventory of Rare and Endangered Plants (online edition, v7-18jan). California Native Plant Society. Sacramento, CA. Accessed on Wed, Jan. 24, 2018 from http://www.cnps.org/inventory ...
How did life originate? This is not part of evolution. Even so, there are many explanations. Proto-life, such as nanobacteria, viruses, or prions, exist as transitionary stages. Even a simple salt crystal can replicate itself. And amino acids are widespread, even in outer space. How did the DNA code originate? There have been simpler versions of the DNA code, for example one that only uses Adenine and Guanine. How could mutations create the vast amounts of information in the DNA of living things? Richard Dawkins once ran a computer model in which a complex insect-like shape evolved from a single pixel. Evolution had billions of years and billions of generations to do this. Why is natural selection taught as evolution, when natural selection selects, but does not create? Mutations can add to the DNA code. Natural selection is the cumulative effect of mutations, and can create information. Evolution is simply the cumulative effect of natural selection. How did new biochemical pathways, which ...
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Methods are disclosed for sterilizing biological materials to reduce the level of one or more active biological contaminants or pathogens therein, such as viruses, bacteria (including inter- and intracellular bacteria, such as mycoplasmas, ureaplasmas, nanobacteria, chlamydia, rickettsias), yeasts, molds, fungi, prions or similar agents responsible, alone or in combination, for TSEs and/or single or multicellular parasites. The methods involve sterilizing biological materials containing one or more non-aqueous solvents with irradiation.
3712118=Laurel (407C) 3712118;3712117=Loma Prieta (407D) 3712117;3712243=Woodside (429A) 3712243;3712233=La Honda (429D) 3712233;3712254=Montara Mountain (448C) 3712254;3712253=San Mateo (448D) 3712253;3712285=San Rafael (467A) 3712285;3712286=Bolinas (467B) 3712286;3712287=Double Point (467E) 3712287;3812216=San Geronimo (484C) 3812216;3812218=Drakes Bay (485C) 3812218;3812217=Inverness (485D) ...
The term "calcifying nanoparticles" (CNPs) has also been used as a conservative name regarding their possible status as a life ... "Nanobacteria-propagating calcifying nanoparticles". Lett Appl Microbiol. 42 (6): 549-52. doi:10.1111/j.1472-765X.2006.01945.x. ... calcifying nanoparticles". J Investig Med. 54 (7): 385-94. doi:10.2310/6650.2006.06018. PMID 17169260. S2CID 35400477. Miller V ... Martel J, Young JD (April 2008). "Purported nanobacteria in human blood as calcium carbonate nanoparticles". Proc. Natl. Acad. ...
... a designation of holistic nutritionists who have completed a diploma program Calcifying Nano-particle, or Nanobacterium, a ...
... "calcifying nanoparticles", which were proposed to be living organisms that were 0.1 μm in diameter. These structures are now ...
Jan Martel; Hsin-Hsin Peng; David Young; Cheng-Yeu Wu; John D Young, 2014, Of Nanobacteria, Nanoparticles, Biofilms and Their ... "At present, it appears that the self-replication of the calcified envelopes is a purely abiotic, physical phenomenon." ... have carefully examined these claims and concluded that nanobacteria are in fact nonliving mineralo-organic nanoparticles (NPs ...
The research shows that more nanoparticles of gold and silver are shown in the solution than there are of the resulting salts ... By directing low temperature microplasma beams at the calcified tissue structure beneath the tooth enamel coating called dentin ... Mohan Sankaran has done work on the synthesis of nanoparticles using a pulsed DC discharge. His research team has found that by ... These cations can then capture electrons supplied by the microplasma jet and results in the formation of nanoparticles. ...
Nanoparticle catalysts for reduced hydrogen peroxide concentration[edit]. A recent addition to the field is new light- ... Calculus: neglected plaque will eventually calcify, and lead to the formation of a hard deposit on the teeth, especially around ... 3.1.2 Nanoparticle catalysts for reduced hydrogen peroxide concentration *3.1.2.1 Internal bleaching ... The organic matrix of dental plaque and calcified tissues undergo a series of chemical and morphological changes that lead to ...
Li, Qianwei; Gadd, Geoffrey Michael (2017-08-10). "Biosynthesis of copper carbonate nanoparticles by ureolytic fungi". Applied ... takes place when calcifying microbes occupy a shell secreting organism and alter the chemical environment surrounding the area ...
... calcifying nanoparticles [CNPs]) serve as mineral chaperones. Thus, CNPs may be both a result and cause of soft tissue ... Calcifying nanoparticles promote mineralization in vascular smooth muscle cells: implications for atherosclerosis Larry W ... Calcifying nanoparticles promote mineralization in vascular smooth muscle cells: implications for atherosclerosis. ...
Nanobac Announces Peer Reviewed Publication Verifying Self-Propagating Calcifying Nanoparticles as a Unique Entity. ... which reports on the characterization of calcifying nanoparticles (CNPs), formerly known as "nanobacteria," as self-propagating ... Their goal was to gain better insight into "such a propagating calcifying agent putatively endowed with pathogenic properties ...
Tetracycline attenuates calcifying nanoparticles-induced renal epithelial injury through suppression of inflammation, oxidative ... Background: Calcifying nanoparticles (CNPs) has been associated with the occurrence and development of kidney stones, but the ... Do calcifying nanoparticles promote nephrolithiasis? A review of the evidence. Clin Nephrol 2009;71:1-8. [Crossref] [PubMed] ... Cite this article as: Zhang Y, Zhu R, Liu D, Gong M, Hu W, Yi Q, Zhang J. Tetracycline attenuates calcifying nanoparticles- ...
The term "calcifying nanoparticles" (CNPs) has also been used as a conservative name regarding their possible status as a life ... "Nanobacteria-propagating calcifying nanoparticles". Lett Appl Microbiol. 42 (6): 549-52. doi:10.1111/j.1472-765X.2006.01945.x. ... calcifying nanoparticles". J Investig Med. 54 (7): 385-94. doi:10.2310/6650.2006.06018. PMID 17169260. S2CID 35400477. Miller V ... Martel J, Young JD (April 2008). "Purported nanobacteria in human blood as calcium carbonate nanoparticles". Proc. Natl. Acad. ...
Association between Randalls plaque and calcifying nanoparticles Neva Çiftçioglu, Kaveh Vejdani, Olivia Lee, Grace Mathew, ... Proximity-activated nanoparticles: in vitro performance of specific structural modification by enzymatic cleavage R Adam Smith ... Formation of potential titanium antigens based on protein binding to titanium dioxide nanoparticles Carmen Irina Vamanu, Paul ...
... of gamma-irradiated serum used as feeder in the culture and demonstration of putative nanobacteria and calcifying nanoparticles ... Nanoparticle conversion to biofilms: in vitro demonstration using serum-derived mineralo-organic nanoparticles. Nanomedicine ( ... Martel, J. & Young, J. D. Purported nanobacteria in human blood as calcium carbonate nanoparticles. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105 ... Peng, H. H., Martel, J., Lee, Y. H., Ojcius, D. M. & Young, J. D. Serum-derived nanoparticles: de novo generation and growth in ...
Announces NB2 Test for Calcified Nano Particles Now Available. American Health Associates Clinical Laboratories is accepting ...
The term calcifying nanoparticles (CNPs) has also been used as a conservative name regarding their possible status as a life ... Kajander E (2006). "Nanobacteria--propagating calcifying nanoparticles". Lett Appl Microbiol 42 (6): 549-52. PMID 16706890. ... First Live Video of Calcifying Nanoparticles Provides Possible Key to Chronic Disease Condition - Public relations, press ... calcifying nanoparticles". J Investig Med 54 (7): 385-94. doi:10.2310/6650.2006.06018. PMID 17169260. ...
... and potentially infectious calcifying nanoparticles (CNPs) that generate calcification.. One conclusion by symposium organizers ... Miller says the idea of infectious nanoparticles is still controversial, she concludes that, "Nanoparticles might serve as an ... which provide evidence that calcifying nanoparticles might be infectious and spark calcification in disease.. Although Dr. ... and Nanobac Pharmaceuticals who pioneered investigations into infectious calcifying particles.. A condition known as ...
Scientists know that calcifying nanoparticles are involved in many degenerative conditions including arthritis and ... Fetuin, one of the major proteins involved in nanoparticle formation, was found in these deposits. Levels of fetuin in amniotic ... "This preliminary evidence suggests that amniotic fluid has the potential to form nanoparticles and deposit them in the fetal ... They used a sterile culture technique to determine whether amniotic fluid can form nanoparticles. They then exposed fetal ...
2019). Calcifying nanoparticles induce cytotoxicity mediated by ROS-JNK signaling pathways. Urolithiasis 47, 125-135. doi: ...
Role of calcifying nanoparticle in the development of hyperplasia and vascular calcification in an animal model. ...
... at the Mayo Clinic found they could isolate and culture nanoparticles from filtered homogenates of diseased calcified human ... They point out that what is recovered from diseased calcified tissue replicates in culture, but that they have not yet been ... "Evidence of Nanobacterial-like Structures in Human Calcified Arteries and Cardiac Valves," was carried out by Virginia M. ... The research paper, entitled "Evidence of Nanobacterial-like Structures in Human Calcified Arteries and Cardiac Valves," has ...
Tetracycline attenuates calcifying nanoparticles-induced renal epithelial injury through suppression of inflammation, oxidative ...
Establishment renal calculus rat model induced by calcifying nanoparticles. Su Hongwei;Wang Jie;Zhu Yongsheng;Deng Qingfu;Pei ...
The Role of Nanobacteria/Calcifying Nanoparticles in Prostate Disease. Jeffrey A. Jones, Neva Ciftcioglu, David McKay. 18. ...
Proteomic evaluation of biological nanoparticles isolated from human kidney stones and calcified arteries. Farooq A Shiekh. ... Role of Nanobacteria in Human Calcifying Disease. JOHN LIESKE; Fiscal Year: 2004 ...
Nanobacteria - which sometimes go by the name "nanobes" or "calcifying nanoparticles" - dont seem to fit scientists criteria ... Since that time nanobacteria have been found in kidney stones, dental plaque, the gall bladder, in calcified arteries and heart ...
This evidence strongly suggests that nanobacteria are abiotic calcifying nanoparticles rather than living cells. ...
S.-M. Zhang, F. Tian, X.-Q. Jiang et al., "Evidence for calcifying nanoparticles in gingival crevicular fluid and dental ...
Scientists know that calcifying nanoparticles are involved in many degenerative conditions including arthritis and ... Fetuin, one of the major proteins involved in nanoparticle formation, was found in these deposits. Levels of fetuin in amniotic ... "This preliminary evidence suggests that amniotic fluid has the potential to form nanoparticles and deposit them in the fetal ... They used a sterile culture technique to determine whether amniotic fluid can form nanoparticles. They then exposed fetal ...
... a designation of holistic nutritionists who have completed a diploma program Calcifying Nano-particle, or Nanobacterium, a ...
... diagnostic of calcifying nanoparticles (previously called nanobacteria). We pioneer the notion that calcifying nanoparticles ... diagnostic of calcifying nanoparticles (previously called nanobacteria). We pioneer the notion that calcifying nanoparticles ... Calcifying nanoparticles associated encrusted urinary bladder cystitis. Jelic TM, Roque R, Yasar U, Tomchin SB, Serrato JM, ... Calcifying nanoparticles associated encrusted urinary bladder cystitis. Jelic TM, Roque R, Yasar U, Tomchin SB, Serrato JM, ...
Some researchers argue that nanobacteria are actually calcifying nanoparticles.. Effects of bacteria on their human host. Main ...
Methods and compositions for the detection of calcifying nano-particles, identification and quantification of associated ... Method and system for enhancing polymerization and nanoparticle production US9003943B2 (en) * 2011-12-16. 2015-04-14. Saab Ab. ...
Calcifying nanoparticles (CNPs) play an important role in kidney stone formation, but the mechanism(s) are unclear. CNPs were ... Calcifying nanoparticles induce cytotoxicity mediated by ROS-JNK signaling pathways.. Jihua Wu, Zhiwei Tao, Yaoliang Deng, Quan ... www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511793/calcifying-nanoparticles-induce-cytotoxicity-mediated-by-ros-jnk-signaling-pathways ...
Role of calcifying nanoparticles in the development of testicular microlithiasis in vivo Calcifying nanoparticles (NPs) have ...
Similar Articles with Keyword calcifying nanoparticles. Downloads: 99 , Weekly Hits: ⮞1 , Monthly Hits: ⮞12 ... com Introduction The discovery of nanobacteria, also referred to as calcifying nanoparticles (CNPs), led to novel theories for ...
Phosphorite nano particle with tetracycline marker and preparation process and use thereof. ... Methods and compositions for mineralizing calcified tissues. US5047031 *. May 30, 1989. Sep 10, 1991. Norian Corporation. In ... Methods and compositions for mineralizing and fluoridating calcified tissues. USRE33161 *. Mar 2, 1988. Feb 6, 1990. American ... "Progressions Of Caries-like Lesions In Vitro After Exposure To Synthetic Calcifying Fluids" IADR Abstract No. 283 (1979).. ...
... recombinant proteins and inorganic nanoparticles [6]. Among the advantages of inorganic nanoparticles, suitability to be used ... We observed the presence of a material with calcified appearance.. We found meningothelial hyperplasia and necrosis areas in ... Ping Xu Z, Hua Zeng Q, Qing Lu G, Bing Yu A (2006) Inorganic nanoparticles as carriers for efficient cellular delivery. Chem ... In other work, polymeric chito-PEG nanoparticles with MTX where synthesized [22], they found that higher feed ratios of drug ...
  • NNBP ("Nanobac" or "the Company") announces the multicenter publication of independent research, which reports on the characterization of calcifying nanoparticles (CNPs), formerly known as "nanobacteria," as self-propagating mineral protein complexes. (blogspot.com)
  • Calcifying nanoparticles (CNPs), previously called "nanobacteria", were first proposed by Kajander et al . (amegroups.com)
  • They point out that what is recovered from diseased calcified tissue replicates in culture, but that they have not yet been able to identify or label what they have found as nanobacteria described by a unique DNA sequence. (innovations-report.com)
  • This evidence strongly suggests that nanobacteria are abiotic calcifying nanoparticles rather than living cells. (hplusmagazine.com)
  • Our transmission electron microscopy of the calcified plaques of encrusted cystitis has revealed that the smallest formed particles (elementary units) of these calcifications are electron-dense shells surrounding an electron lucent core, diagnostic of calcifying nanoparticles (previously called nanobacteria). (nih.gov)
  • They vary in size (Figures 3, 4) from165 nm to 440 nm and exhibit the size and spherical-to-ovoid shape diagnostic of calcifying nanoparticles/nanobacteria according to the relevant literature and our experience. (nih.gov)
  • com Introduction The discovery of nanobacteria, also referred to as calcifying nanoparticles (CNPs), led to novel theories for pathological calcification. (ijsr.net)
  • Nanobacteria - Propagating calcifying nanoparticles. (wordpress.com)
  • Nanobacteria or calcifying nanoparticles are 80-500 nm sized nano-organisms that are physically associated with carbonate apatite mineral formations. (etu.edu.tr)
  • Electron microscope and immunological evidence of nanobacteria in calcified carotid arteries, aortic aneurysms and cardiac valves .J Am Coll Cardiol Abstracts Book.1009-79: 206A. (nanobiotechpharma.com)
  • 19. Nanobacteria as a cause of renal and vascular calcifying pathology. (nanobiotechpharma.com)
  • Nanobacteria is a general term for either a newly discovered blood-borne microorganism believed to be a bacterium or a calcifying nanoparticle responsible for biomineralization deposits that serve to harden and stiffen human tissue. (selfhealgo.com)
  • Numerous studies have subsequently been conducted that clearly associate Nanobacteria infection with many calcified-related medical conditions. (scalarlight.com)
  • Notably, it is the protective, calcium shell formed by Nanobacteria that leads to calcified deposits in human tissue. (scalarlight.com)
  • The ability of the scalar energy pathogenic cleanse to disassemble Nanobacteria and subsequently fragment calcified deposits will result in the cure, palliation or prevention of many calcified-related medical conditions. (scalarlight.com)
  • We and others have carefully examined these claims and concluded that nanobacteria are in fact nonliving mineralo-organic nanoparticles (NPs) that form spontaneously in body fluids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calcifying nanoparticles (CNPs) has been associated with the occurrence and development of kidney stones, but the exact mechanism is not clear. (amegroups.com)
  • The term "calcifying nanoparticles" (CNPs) has also been used as a conservative name regarding their possible status as a life form. (wikipedia.org)
  • and potentially infectious calcifying nanoparticles (CNPs) that generate calcification. (nanotech-now.com)
  • Objective The relationship between calcified nanoparticles (CNPs) and the formation of urinary stones is drawing increasing attention and the specific mechanisms involved. (bvsalud.org)
  • Very small superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (VSOPs) rapidly accumulate in atherosclerotic lesions, thereby enabling plaque visualization by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). (paperity.org)
  • Contrast-enhanced MR imaging of atherosclerosis using citrate-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: calcifying microvesicles as imaging target for plaque characterization Susanne Wagner,1 Jörg Schnorr,1 Antje Ludwig,2 Verena Stangl,2 Monika Ebert,1 Bernd Hamm,1 Matthias Taupitz11Department of Radiology, Section of Experimental Radiology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin. (paperity.org)
  • Intrinsic iron in biological tissues frequently precludes unambiguous the identification of iron oxide nanoparticles when iron-based detection methods are used. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here we report the full methodology for synthesizing very small iron oxide nanoparticles (VSOP) doped with europium (Eu) in their iron oxide core (Eu-VSOP) and their unambiguous qualitative and quantitative detection by fluorescence. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The fluorescent detection of Eu-doped very small iron oxide nanoparticles (Eu-VSOP) provides a straightforward tool to unambiguously characterize VSOP biodistribution and toxicology at tissue, and cellular levels, providing a sensitive analytical tool to detect Eu-doped IONP in dissolved organ tissue and biological fluids with fluorescence instruments. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The development of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONP) [ 1 - 9 ] as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) [ 10 , 11 ] started about 4 decades ago. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 4) Wagner S, Schnorr J, Ludwig A, Stangl V, Ebert M, Hamm B, Taupitz M. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging of atherosclerosis using citrate-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: calcifying microvesicles as imaging target for plaque characterization. (charite.de)
  • 1) Certain types of iron oxide nanoparticles are not suited to passively target inflammatory cells that infiltrate the brain in response to stroke. (charite.de)
  • The symposium considered works by Dr. Neva Ciftcioglu and Dr. Olavi Kajander, lead scientists with Nanobac Pharmaceuticals, as well as two other works by Mayo researchers, which provide evidence that calcifying nanoparticles might be infectious and spark calcification in disease. (nanotech-now.com)
  • The targeted nanoparticles delivered EDTA at the sites of vascular calcification and reversed mineral deposition without any side effects. (clemson.edu)
  • The research team developed a nanoparticle, known as a micelle, which attaches itself and lights up calcification to make it easier for smaller blockages that are prone to rupture to be seen during imaging. (usc.edu)
  • In our case, we demonstrated that our nanoparticle binds to calcification in the most commonly used mouse model for atherosclerosis and also works in calcified vascular tissue derived from patients," Chin said. (usc.edu)
  • Elastrin's lead asset is a nanoparticle conjugated with a novel monoclonal antibody to treat heart valve and vascular calcification. (kizoo.com)
  • The pathological changes associated with the impacted 3rd molar are cystic changes which include Dentigerous cysts ,Odontogenic keratocyst and Calcifying Odontogenic cyst .Ameloblastoma ,Myxoma and Odontogenic fibroma are the commonest neoplasms .Soft tissue pathological changes are hyperplasia's ,inflammation and calcification are the common findings around the impacted 3rd molar teeth. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This article describes some of the recent work published in the literature, where NTA has been recommended, employed, and evaluated for studying nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems. (news-medical.net)
  • These substances range from biological substances such as phospholipids, gelatin and albumin for liposomes through to substances of chemical nature such as metal containing nanoparticles and polymers. (news-medical.net)
  • Noting that the "biological nature of nanometer-sized particles remains controversial," the researchers said their current study "provides anatomical evidence that calcified human arterial and valvular tissue contain nanometer-sized particles which share characteristics of nanoparticles recovered from geological specimens, mammalian blood, and human kidney stones, and observed by transmission electron microscopy in a calcified human mitral valve. (innovations-report.com)
  • Yet another comprehensive review describes many assays that are needed to find out the chemical and physical characteristics of nanoparticles such as MALDI-TOF, batch-mode dynamic light scattering, TEM, AFM, zeta potential measurement, and SEM X-ray microanalysis of nanoparticles existing in cultured cell thin sections or tissues. (news-medical.net)
  • The research paper, entitled "Evidence of Nanobacterial-like Structures in Human Calcified Arteries and Cardiac Valves," has been peer-reviewed and is scheduled for publication in the September 2004 issue of the American Journal of Physiology: Heart and Circulatory Physiology, published by the American Physiological Society. (innovations-report.com)
  • Looking at images of their own calcified coronary arteries may be a wake-up call for patients with newly diagnosed coronary artery disease to change their lifestyles, reveals new research. (healthcanal.com)
  • But until now there has not been a study on the impact of showing consecutive patients with atypical angina images of their calcified coronary arteries as a way to stimulate change. (healthcanal.com)
  • Patients were shown a CT image of their calcified coronary arteries. (healthcanal.com)
  • Seeing their calcified coronary arteries on the CT image was clearly an eye-opener for patients. (healthcanal.com)
  • She added: "We found that patients who looked at images of their calcified coronary arteries were more likely to stop smoking, lose weight, eat a healthy diet, take recommended statins and reduce their plasma cholesterol levels. (healthcanal.com)
  • What makes the nanoparticles especially innovative is that they are designed to target elastin that has degraded and calcified, while sparing healthy arteries. (clemson.edu)
  • We were able to target our nanoparticles to calcified arteries in these mice. (clemson.edu)
  • The new nanoparticles are designed to seek out hydroxyapatite, a type of calcium that is found within arteries and atherosclerotic plaques. (pioneeringminds.com)
  • The researchers even tried it on arteries derived from real patients, demonstrating that their nanoparticles work with human tissues. (pioneeringminds.com)
  • Qian Yang, Yao Xiao, Yanlong Yin, Gaoyin Li, Jinrong Peng Erythrocyte Membrane-camouflaged IR780 and DTX co-loading Polymeric Nanoparticles for Imaging-guided Cancer Photo-Chemo Combination Therapy. (particle-metrix.de)
  • Chemoselective nanoporous membranes via chemically directed assembly of nanoparticles and dendrimers. (umassmed.edu)
  • Without the nanoparticles, systemic injections of EDTA require high dosages that result in unwanted side effects, such as hypocalcemia, renal toxicity and bone loss. (clemson.edu)
  • First, we tested the targeted nanoparticle-based EDTA chelation therapy in a rat model of adenine-induced renal failure. (clemson.edu)
  • Nanoparticles provide improved pharmacokinetic properties, ensure sustained and controlled release, and target only certain tissues, cells, or organs. (news-medical.net)
  • avoiding demineralization from normally calcified tissues (i.e., bones and teeth) remains an urgent health care need. (clemson.edu)
  • Binding resulted in a strong enhancement of luminescence that was not observed in other tissues, including non-calcified endochondral elements. (elsevier.com)
  • The team has tested their nanoparticle on calcified cells in a dish, within a mouse model of atherosclerosis, as well as using patient-derived artery samples provided by vascular surgeon, Magee, which shows their applicability not only in small animals but in human tissues. (usc.edu)
  • The nanoparticle targeting is extremely accurate and within animals, it has been shown to spot atherosclerotic calcifications with impressive specificity. (pioneeringminds.com)
  • In this context, the NTA technique has been shown to be useful when compared to DLS and other nanoparticle characterization techniques. (news-medical.net)
  • Guo Z, Cao X, DeLoid GM, Sampathkumar K, Ng KW, Loo SCJ, Demokritou P. Physicochemical and Morphological Transformations of Chitosan Nanoparticles across the Gastrointestinal Tract and Cellular Toxicity in an In Vitro Model of the Small Intestinal Epithelium. (harvard.edu)
  • Physicochemical properties of nanoparticles were studied in vitro . (hindawi.com)
  • Jens B. Simonsen, Jannik B. Larsen, Casper Hempel, Niklas Eng, Anna Fossum, Thomas L. Andresen Unique Calibrators Derived from Fluorescence‐Activated Nanoparticle Sorting for Flow Cytometric Size Estimation of Artificial Vesicles: Possibilities and Limitations. (particle-metrix.de)
  • 12. The method of claim 1, wherein the nanoparticle core is detectable by fluorescence spectroscopy. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Encrusted cystitis is a subtype of chronic cystitis characterized by multiple calcifications in the form of plaques located in the interstitium of the urinary bladder mucosa and frequently associated with mucosal ulcers.It is a very rare disease of controversial etiology.We pioneer the notion that calcifying nanoparticles are the causative agents of encrusted urinary bladder cystitis. (nih.gov)
  • Transmission electron microscopy image of encrusted cystitis calcifications (magnification 7,000) demonstrating multiple calcifying nanoparticles (some indicated by black thin arrows) with the characteristic electron-dense shell (ring structures 165 nm to 440 nm) surrounding a central electron lucent core. (nih.gov)
  • A new nanoparticle innovation from researchers in USC Viterbi's Department of Biomedical Engineering may allow doctors to pinpoint when plaque becomes dangerous by detecting unstable calcifications that can trigger heart attacks and strokes. (usc.edu)
  • Our micelle nanoparticles demonstrate minimal toxicity to cells and tissue and are highly specific to hydroxyapatite calcifications," Chin said. (usc.edu)
  • The Chung Lab team's nanoparticle micelles (left) with fluorescent tags, attach themselves to microcalcification in atherosclerosis. (usc.edu)
  • The effective transfection of the RPE in vivo indicated that nanoparticles can possibly be used for studying genetic diseases to treat various eye diseases. (news-medical.net)
  • 1) Tysiak E, Asbach P, Aktas O, Waiczies H, Smyth M, Schnorr J, Taupitz M, Würfel J Beyond blood brain barrier breakdown - in vivo detection of occult neuroinflammatory foci by magnetic nanoparticles in high field MRI. (charite.de)
  • Competitive inhibition in vivo of nanoparticle binding (n = 4) was tested by pretreatment with targeted nonfluorinated nanoparticles followed 2 hours later by targeted PFC nanoparticles. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Fluorescent, bioactive protein nanoparticles (prodots) for rapid, improved cellular uptake. (uconn.edu)
  • Fluorescent Silica Nanoparticles to Label Metastatic Tumor Cells in Mineralized Bone Microenvironments. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • Researchers at the Mayo Clinic found they could isolate and culture nanoparticles from filtered homogenates of diseased calcified human cardiovascular tissue. (innovations-report.com)
  • The NB were isolated from the calcified placental tissue (which were derived from caesarean pregnant women at the First People's Hospital of Jiulongpo District in Chongqing) and cultured in 1640 RPMI with 10% FBS at 37°C/5% CO 2 . (springeropen.com)
  • Clemson SC, USA / Berlin, Germany - Elastrin is a biotechnology startup leveraging a platform technology to develop therapeutics that render calcified tissue and organs supple again. (kizoo.com)
  • The idea behind nanoparticles and nanomedicine is that it can be a carrier like the Amazon carrier system, shuttling drugs right to a specific address or location in the body, and not to places that you don't want it to go to," Chung said. (usc.edu)
  • At present, it appears that the self-replication of the calcified envelopes is a purely abiotic, physical phenomenon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Detection and propagation of calcified nanostructures from human aneurysm .J Am Coll Cardiol Abstracts Book.1059-13: 13A. (nanobiotechpharma.com)
  • Synthesis of well-dispersed copper nanoparticles was achieved by reduction of aqueous copper chloride solution using NaBH4 in the nonionic water-in-oil (w/o) microemulsions formed by Triton X-100, n-hexanol, cyclohexane, and water. (pianolarge.ga)
  • Biomineralization pathways in calcifying dinoflagellates: Uptake, storage in MgCaP-rich bodies and formation of the shell. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • The optimized nanoparticles showed proper physicochemical properties. (hindawi.com)
  • One medicine, disodium ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), would remove the mineral deposits that cause blood vessels to become calcified. (clemson.edu)
  • Scientists know that calcifying nanoparticles are involved in many degenerative conditions including arthritis and atherosclerosis. (redorbit.com)
  • Nandate, "Simultaneous occurrence of a calcifying odontogenic cyst and its malignant transformation," Cancer, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In addition, less likely consideration included locally aggressive odontogenic lesions, such as ameloblastic fibro-odontoma, as well as other entities consisting of calcifying odontogenic cyst (Gorlin cyst), adenomatoid odontogenic tumor, and primordial cysts (keratocyst). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Recently, the potential of magnetic nanoparticles to detect macrophage infiltration by MRI was demonstrated. (paperity.org)
  • In contrast, when macromolecules are added to nanoparticles, NTA can detect even trace-level changes in hydrodynamic diameter and can even detect and specify aggregates that may occur during such changes. (news-medical.net)
  • It has been shown that MRI can detect and quantify specific molecules of interest expressed in cardiovascular disease and cancer by measuring the unique fluorine signature of appropriately targeted perfluorocarbon (PFC) nanoparticles. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Integrin-targeted PFC nanoparticles specifically detect early angiogenesis in sclerotic aortic valves of cholesterol fed rabbits. (biomedcentral.com)
  • New evidence comes from scientists at NASA, Mayo Clinic, and Nanobac Pharmaceuticals who pioneered investigations into infectious calcifying particles. (nanotech-now.com)
  • This preliminary evidence suggests that amniotic fluid has the potential to form nanoparticles and deposit them in the fetal membranes," said Shook. (redorbit.com)
  • Evidence for calcifying nanoparticles in gingival crevicular fluid and dental calculus in periodontitis," Journal of Periodontology , vol. 80, no. 9, pp. 1462-1470, 2009. (hindawi.com)
  • 5) eingereicht: Citrate-coated iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles with europium-doped cores for analytical detection using lanthanide luminescence. (charite.de)
  • 3) Millward JM, Schnorr J, Taupitz M, Wagner S, Wuerfel JT, Infante-Duarte C. Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles highlight early involvement of the choroid plexus in central nervous system inflammation. (charite.de)
  • As a result, the use of versatile and multifunctional structures of nanoparticles has grown quickly. (news-medical.net)
  • Molecular structures with an affinity for particular cell surface biomarkers are generally added during the targeting of drug delivery nanoparticles to certain sites. (news-medical.net)
  • Likewise, when other biochemical species, developed to stabilize the functional structures, are added to the nanoparticles, it may cause similar toxic effects. (news-medical.net)
  • Here we show that carbon dot nanoparticles (C-dots) with low quantum yield ("dark") bind to calcified bone structures of live zebrafish larvae with high affinity and selectivity. (elsevier.com)
  • Researchers from the University of Southern California are reporting on new nanoparticles they've developed that can stick to unstable calcified structures within vascular lumens and light up while being imaged so one can see precisely where they are. (pioneeringminds.com)
  • Early in 1989, geologist Robert L. Folk found what he later identified as nannobacteria (written with double "n"), that is, nanoparticles isolated from geological specimens in travertine from hot springs of Viterbo, Italy. (wikipedia.org)
  • A close and technical evaluation of these features suggests that the application of smallest size silver nanoparticle colloidal solution in sensitive period of 3rd trimester of pregnancy is an alarm which evokes endocrine disruptive risk in form of cellular toxicity to mature thyroid follicle is quite interesting and study oriented. (sciaeon.org)
  • Vyavahare and his team are creating nanoparticles that are made of the protein albumin and are many times smaller than the width of a human hair. (clemson.edu)
  • Before introducing nanoparticles to cellular systems for cytotoxicity testing, a better understanding of nanoparticle size distribution is very important. (news-medical.net)
  • This script is an attempt to show off disrupted endocrine system functions and deviated cellular morphology in form of mature thyroid follicle disambiguatory effect which is associated with smallest silver nanoparticle critical penetration into it while performing experiment on pregnant Swiss Albino mice at 3rd trimester of pregnancy at a extreme lower dose (0.25 mg/kg b.w./500 ppm of AgNps in colloidal solution) serial oral application. (sciaeon.org)
  • 9. The method of claim 8, wherein the nanoparticle core is a metal oxide or a doped semiconductor. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Although Dr. Miller says the idea of infectious nanoparticles is still controversial, she concludes that, "Nanoparticles might serve as an inflammatory stimulus that initiates cell transdifferentiation, stimulate the formation of matrix vesicles, or simply form a nidus for subsequent inorganic calcium accumulation. (nanotech-now.com)
  • It is easy to notice in Figure 3 that merging of the calcifying nanoparticles (like stacking of snowballs) forms micron-size calcium aggregates (micron-size plaques) measuring about 3 square microns that by further merging have ultimately become plaques of encrusted cystitis visible by light microscope (Figure 2) and naked eye (Figure 1). (nih.gov)
  • Normalized reduction of plasma calcium levels was at least 2.76 times higher in pulmonary sCT nanoparticles compared to free solution. (hindawi.com)
  • In this study, we demonstrated specific binding of α ν β 3 integrin targeted nanoparticles to neovasculature in a rabbit model of aortic valve disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Gratitude and Appreciation (My pain is gone after getting out 19 hard as a rock, black, calcified stones! (curezone.org)
  • My first Liver Flush produced 19 hard as a rock, black, calcified stones ranging from large to medium in size. (curezone.org)
  • Replenishable dendrimer-nanoparticle hybrid membranes for sustained release of therapeutics. (umassmed.edu)
  • Fetuin, one of the major proteins involved in nanoparticle formation, was found in these deposits. (redorbit.com)
  • In many instances, these calcified deposits are the direct cause of a number of medical conditions. (scalarlight.com)
  • Furthermore, they said they designed their study to systematically replicate earlier work conducted on nanoparticles isolated from human kidney stone using different, but rigorous techniques. (innovations-report.com)
  • They then exposed fetal membranes to the cultured nanoparticles to determine their ability to induce cell dysfunction, damage and cell death. (redorbit.com)
  • Considering the various applications of nanoparticles, nanoparticle-based drug delivery and targeting has been the topic of a recent review, which discusses the advantages of nanotechnology and also provides warnings regarding the physical nature of the nanoparticles, and how they can impede with standardized and conventional immunotoxicity and biocompatibility testing procedures. (news-medical.net)
  • Pulmonary delivery of P(MVEMA) nanoparticles of sCT enhanced and prolonged the hypocalcemic effect of the drug significantly. (hindawi.com)
  • Pretreatment of rabbits with targeted oil-based nonsignaling nanoparticles reduced the fluorine signal by 42% due to competitive inhibition, to a level not significantly different from control animals. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Calcifying nanoparticles associated encrusted urinary bladder cystitis. (nih.gov)
  • We pioneer the notion that calcifying nanoparticles are the causative agents of encrusted urinary bladder cystitis. (nih.gov)
  • Yan X, Zhang X, McClements DJ, Zou L, Liu X, Liu F. Co-encapsulation of Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG) and Curcumin by Two Proteins-Based Nanoparticles: Role of EGCG. (harvard.edu)
  • Typically, the measurement of nanoparticles contained in mixtures can be a major challenge. (fenertylawfirm.com)
  • Facile fabrication of polyanhydride/anesthetic nanoparticles with tunable release kinetics. (uconn.edu)
  • The drug remained stable during fabrication and tests on nanoparticles. (hindawi.com)
  • Despite irregular shape and smallest size (2.75nm) silver nanoparticles have been showing up to mark positive response in form of several expandable applications like textile, war head, miscellaneous and cancer diagnostic with treating fields because of their significant coating ability and analyst agent nature in chemical reaction it also shows negative response as endocrine disruptor of vital endocrine glands in human body especially thyroid in 3rd trimester of pregnancy. (sciaeon.org)
  • The smallest size silver nanoparticle alters the physiological activity of mature thyroid follicle along with histological features viewed in form of atresia, dystosia, atrophy and dysmorphology proved to be endocrine disruptor. (sciaeon.org)
  • The nanoparticles would deliver two medicines to calcified blood vessels, targeting damaged elastin. (clemson.edu)
  • In our laboratory, we have developed a unique targeting mechanism by using nanoparticles to deliver chelating agents and other drugs to degraded elastin, a characteristic feature of VC. (clemson.edu)
  • Nanoparticles" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • Their goal was to gain better insight into "such a propagating calcifying agent putatively endowed with pathogenic properties. (blogspot.com)
  • 25. The method of claim 24, wherein the linker molecule has a first functional group capable of binding to the nanoparticle core and a reactive functional group for attachment to the receptor binding moiety. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Nanoparticles" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Nanoparticles" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Nanoparticles" by people in Profiles. (harvard.edu)