Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.Magnetite Nanoparticles: Synthesized magnetic particles under 100 nanometers possessing many biomedical applications including DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and CONTRAST AGENTS. The particles are usually coated with a variety of polymeric compounds.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Gold: A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.Silver: Silver. An element with the atomic symbol Ag, atomic number 47, and atomic weight 107.87. It is a soft metal that is used medically in surgical instruments, dental prostheses, and alloys. Long-continued use of silver salts can lead to a form of poisoning known as ARGYRIA.Drug Carriers: Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.Nanotechnology: The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.Nanocapsules: Nanometer-sized, hollow, spherically-shaped objects that can be utilized to encapsulate small amounts of pharmaceuticals, enzymes, or other catalysts (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechnology, 4th ed).Polyglycolic Acid: A biocompatible polymer used as a surgical suture material.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Nanomedicine: The branch of medicine concerned with the application of NANOTECHNOLOGY to the prevention and treatment of disease. It involves the monitoring, repair, construction, and control of human biological systems at the molecular level, using engineered nanodevices and NANOSTRUCTURES. (From Freitas Jr., Nanomedicine, vol 1, 1999).Chitosan: Deacetylated CHITIN, a linear polysaccharide of deacetylated beta-1,4-D-glucosamine. It is used in HYDROGEL and to treat WOUNDS.Ferric Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Nanostructures: Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.Silicon Dioxide: Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.Zinc Oxide: A mild astringent and topical protectant with some antiseptic action. It is also used in bandages, pastes, ointments, dental cements, and as a sunblock.Green Chemistry Technology: Pollution prevention through the design of effective chemical products that have low or no toxicity and use of chemical processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances.Magnetics: The study of MAGNETIC PHENOMENA.Nanoconjugates: Tailored macromolecules harboring covalently-bound biologically active modules that target specific tissues and cells. The active modules or functional groups can include drugs, prodrugs, antibodies, and oligonucleotides, which can act synergistically and be multitargeting.Cerium: An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Ce, atomic number 58, and atomic weight 140.12. Cerium is a malleable metal used in industrial applications.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Ferrosoferric Oxide: Iron (II,III) oxide (Fe3O4). It is a black ore of IRON that forms opaque crystals and exerts strong magnetism.Polyglactin 910: A polyester used for absorbable sutures & surgical mesh, especially in ophthalmic surgery. 2-Hydroxy-propanoic acid polymer with polymerized hydroxyacetic acid, which forms 3,6-dimethyl-1,4-dioxane-dione polymer with 1,4-dioxane-2,5-dione copolymer of molecular weight about 80,000 daltons.Quantum Dots: Nanometer sized fragments of semiconductor crystalline material which emit PHOTONS. The wavelength is based on the quantum confinement size of the dot. They can be embedded in MICROBEADS for high throughput ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES.Calcifying Nanoparticles: Protein-mineral complexes that comprise substrates needed for the normal calcium-carbonate-phosphate homeostasis. Nanobacteria was the prior name for the particles which were originally thought to be microorganisms.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Titanium: A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)Nanocomposites: Nanometer-scale composite structures composed of organic molecules intimately incorporated with inorganic molecules. (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechology Terms, 4th ed)Drug Compounding: The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Magnetic Fields: Areas of attractive or repulsive force surrounding MAGNETS.Polystyrenes: Polymerized forms of styrene used as a biocompatible material, especially in dentistry. They are thermoplastic and are used as insulators, for injection molding and casting, as sheets, plates, rods, rigid forms and beads.Cadmium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain cadmium as an integral part of the molecule.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Colloids: Two-phase systems in which one is uniformly dispersed in another as particles small enough so they cannot be filtered or will not settle out. The dispersing or continuous phase or medium envelops the particles of the discontinuous phase. All three states of matter can form colloids among each other.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Silver Nitrate: A silver salt with powerful germicidal activity. It has been used topically to prevent OPHTHALMIA NEONATORUM.Delayed-Action Preparations: Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.Dendrimers: Tree-like, highly branched, polymeric compounds. They grow three-dimensionally by the addition of shells of branched molecules to a central core. The overall globular shape and presence of cavities gives potential as drug carriers and CONTRAST AGENTS.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Biocompatible Materials: Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.Polyethyleneimine: Strongly cationic polymer that binds to certain proteins; used as a marker in immunology, to precipitate and purify enzymes and lipids. Synonyms: aziridine polymer; Epamine; Epomine; ethylenimine polymer; Montrek; PEI; Polymin(e).Molecular Imaging: The use of molecularly targeted imaging probes to localize and/or monitor biochemical and cellular processes via various imaging modalities that include RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING; ULTRASONOGRAPHY; MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; FLUORESCENCE IMAGING; and MICROSCOPY.Nanotubes: Nanometer-sized tubes composed of various substances including carbon (CARBON NANOTUBES), boron nitride, or nickel vanadate.Silver Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain silver as an integral part of the molecule.Dextrans: A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.Coated Materials, Biocompatible: Biocompatible materials usually used in dental and bone implants that enhance biologic fixation, thereby increasing the bond strength between the coated material and bone, and minimize possible biological effects that may result from the implant itself.Cyanoacrylates: A group of compounds having the general formula CH2=C(CN)-COOR; it polymerizes on contact with moisture; used as tissue adhesive; higher homologs have hemostatic and antibacterial properties.Polyesters: Polymers of organic acids and alcohols, with ester linkages--usually polyethylene terephthalate; can be cured into hard plastic, films or tapes, or fibers which can be woven into fabrics, meshes or velours.Magnetic Phenomena: Characteristics, properties, and effects of magnetic substances and magnetic fields.Emulsions: Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.Nanospheres: Spherical particles of nanometer dimensions.Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Cell Tracking: Non-invasive imaging of cells that have been labeled non-destructively, such as with nanoemulsions or reporter genes that can be detected by molecular imaging, to monitor their location, viability, cell lineage expansion, response to drugs, movement, or other behaviors in vivo.Porosity: Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Drug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.Poloxamer: A nonionic polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene block co-polymer with the general formula HO(C2H4O)a(-C3H6O)b(C2H4O)aH. It is available in different grades which vary from liquids to solids. It is used as an emulsifying agent, solubilizing agent, surfactant, and wetting agent for antibiotics. Poloxamer is also used in ointment and suppository bases and as a tablet binder or coater. (Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)Lecithins: A complex mixture of PHOSPHOLIPIDS; GLYCOLIPIDS; and TRIGLYCERIDES; with substantial amounts of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES; PHOSPHATIDYLETHANOLAMINES; and PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS, which are sometimes loosely termed as 1,2-diacyl-3-phosphocholines. Lecithin is a component of the CELL MEMBRANE and commercially extracted from SOYBEANS and EGG YOLK. The emulsifying and surfactant properties are useful in FOOD ADDITIVES and for forming organogels (GELS).Acrylic ResinsNanotubes, Carbon: Nanometer-sized tubes composed mainly of CARBON. Such nanotubes are used as probes for high-resolution structural and chemical imaging of biomolecules with ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY.Biosensing Techniques: Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.Gold Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain gold as an integral part of the molecule.X-Ray Diffraction: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Oxides: Binary compounds of oxygen containing the anion O(2-). The anion combines with metals to form alkaline oxides and non-metals to form acidic oxides.Technology, Pharmaceutical: The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.Thermogravimetry: Technique whereby the weight of a sample can be followed over a period of time while its temperature is being changed (usually increased at a constant rate).Hyperthermia, Induced: Abnormally high temperature intentionally induced in living things regionally or whole body. It is most often induced by radiation (heat waves, infra-red), ultrasound, or drugs.Gold Colloid: A suspension of metallic gold particles.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Photoelectron Spectroscopy: The study of the energy of electrons ejected from matter by the photoelectric effect, i.e., as a direct result of absorption of energy from electromagnetic radiation. As the energies of the electrons are characteristic of a specific element, the measurement of the energy of these electrons is a technique used to determine the chemical composition of surfaces.Fullerenes: A polyhedral CARBON structure composed of around 60-80 carbon atoms in pentagon and hexagon configuration. They are named after Buckminster Fuller because of structural resemblance to geodesic domes. Fullerenes can be made in high temperature such as arc discharge in an inert atmosphere.Magnets: Objects that produce a magnetic field.Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.Gelatin: A product formed from skin, white connective tissue, or bone COLLAGEN. It is used as a protein food adjuvant, plasma substitute, hemostatic, suspending agent in pharmaceutical preparations, and in the manufacturing of capsules and suppositories.Optical Processes: Behavior of LIGHT and its interactions with itself and materials.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Silicon: A trace element that constitutes about 27.6% of the earth's crust in the form of SILICON DIOXIDE. It does not occur free in nature. Silicon has the atomic symbol Si, atomic number 14, and atomic weight [28.084; 28.086].Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Platinum: Platinum. A heavy, soft, whitish metal, resembling tin, atomic number 78, atomic weight 195.09, symbol Pt. (From Dorland, 28th ed) It is used in manufacturing equipment for laboratory and industrial use. It occurs as a black powder (platinum black) and as a spongy substance (spongy platinum) and may have been known in Pliny's time as "alutiae".Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Excipients: Usually inert substances added to a prescription in order to provide suitable consistency to the dosage form. These include binders, matrix, base or diluent in pills, tablets, creams, salves, etc.Optical Imaging: The use of light interaction (scattering, absorption, and fluorescence) with biological tissue to obtain morphologically based information. It includes measuring inherent tissue optical properties such as scattering, absorption, and autofluorescence; or optical properties of exogenous targeted fluorescent molecular probes such as those used in optical MOLECULAR IMAGING, or nontargeted optical CONTRAST AGENTS.Physicochemical Processes: Physical reactions involved in the formation of or changes in the structure of atoms and molecules and their interactions.Freeze Drying: Method of tissue preparation in which the tissue specimen is frozen and then dehydrated at low temperature in a high vacuum. This method is also used for dehydrating pharmaceutical and food products.Administration, Ophthalmic: Application of pharmaceutically active agents on the tissues of the EYE.Transcytosis: The transport of materials through a cell. It includes the uptake of materials by the cell (ENDOCYTOSIS), the movement of those materials through the cell, and the subsequent secretion of those materials (EXOCYTOSIS).Microscopy, Electron, Scanning Transmission: A type of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY in which the object is examined directly by an extremely narrow electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point and using the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen to create the image. It should not be confused with SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Surface-Active Agents: Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.Polyanhydrides: Anhydride polymers with a repeating structure of RC(=O)OC(=O)R. They readily hydrolyze in water making them useful for DELAYED-ACTION PREPARATIONS.Surface Plasmon Resonance: A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.Diagnostic Imaging: Any visual display of structural or functional patterns of organs or tissues for diagnostic evaluation. It includes measuring physiologic and metabolic responses to physical and chemical stimuli, as well as ultramicroscopy.Spectrum Analysis, Raman: Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.Selenium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain selenium as an integral part of the molecule.Gene Transfer Techniques: The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.Siloxanes: Silicon polymers that contain alternate silicon and oxygen atoms in linear or cyclic molecular structures.Ferrocyanides: Inorganic salts of the hypothetical acid ferrocyanic acid (H4Fe(CN)6).Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Luminescence: Emission of LIGHT when ELECTRONS return to the electronic ground state from an excited state and lose the energy as PHOTONS. It is sometimes called cool light in contrast to INCANDESCENCE. LUMINESCENT MEASUREMENTS take advantage of this type of light emitted from LUMINESCENT AGENTS.Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions: The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.Micelles: Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.Magnetic Field Therapy: The magnetic stimulation of specific target tissues or areas of the body for therapeutic purposes via the application of magnetic fields generated by MAGNETS or ELECTROMAGNETS.Microspheres: Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.Comovirus: A genus of plant viruses of the family COMOVIRIDAE in which the bipartite genome is encapsidated in separate icosahedral particles. Mosaic and mottle symptoms are characteristic, and transmission is exclusively by leaf-feeding beetles. Cowpea mosaic virus is the type species.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Convection: Transmission of energy or mass by a medium involving movement of the medium itself. The circulatory movement that occurs in a fluid at a nonuniform temperature owing to the variation of its density and the action of gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed; Webster, 10th ed)Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission: The spectrometric analysis of fluorescent X-RAYS, i.e. X-rays emitted after bombarding matter with high energy particles such as PROTONS; ELECTRONS; or higher energy X-rays. Identification of ELEMENTS by this technique is based on the specific type of X-rays that are emitted which are characteristic of the specific elements in the material being analyzed. The characteristic X-rays are distinguished and/or quantified by either wavelength dispersive or energy dispersive methods.Polylysine: A peptide which is a homopolymer of lysine.Intracellular Space: The area within CELLS.Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Microscopy, Atomic Force: A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.Europium: Europium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Eu, atomic number 63, and atomic weight 152. Europium is used in the form of its salts as coatings for cathode ray tubes and in the form of its organic derivatives as shift reagents in NMR spectroscopy.Pharmaceutical Vehicles: A carrier or inert medium used as a solvent (or diluent) in which the medicinally active agent is formulated and or administered. (Dictionary of Pharmacy, 1986)Toxicity Tests: An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.Nanoshells: Nanometer range spherical cores of particular semiconductor compounds surrounded by an ultrathin metal shell that is commonly made of gold or silver. This configuration gives the nanoshells highly tunable optical properties. They have potential in biomedicine for diagnosis and therapy.Povidone: A polyvinyl polymer of variable molecular weight; used as suspending and dispersing agent and vehicle for pharmaceuticals; also used as blood volume expander.Mice, Inbred BALB CCarbocyanines: Compounds that contain three methine groups. They are frequently used as cationic dyes used for differential staining of biological materials.Biomimetic Materials: Materials fabricated by BIOMIMETICS techniques, i.e., based on natural processes found in biological systems.Streptavidin: A 60-kDa extracellular protein of Streptomyces avidinii with four high-affinity biotin binding sites. Unlike AVIDIN, streptavidin has a near neutral isoelectric point and is free of carbohydrate side chains.Semiconductors: Materials that have a limited and usually variable electrical conductivity. They are particularly useful for the production of solid-state electronic devices.Polymethacrylic Acids: Poly-2-methylpropenoic acids. Used in the manufacture of methacrylate resins and plastics in the form of pellets and granules, as absorbent for biological materials and as filters; also as biological membranes and as hydrogens. Synonyms: methylacrylate polymer; poly(methylacrylate); acrylic acid methyl ester polymer.Durapatite: The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.Suspensions: Colloids with liquid continuous phase and solid dispersed phase; the term is used loosely also for solid-in-gas (AEROSOLS) and other colloidal systems; water-insoluble drugs may be given as suspensions.Integrin alphaVbeta3: An integrin that binds to a variety of plasma and extracellular matrix proteins containing the conserved RGD amino acid sequence and modulates cell adhesion. Integrin alphavbeta3 is highly expressed in OSTEOCLASTS where it may play role in BONE RESORPTION. It is also abundant in vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells, and in some tumor cells, where it is involved in angiogenesis and cell migration. Although often referred to as the vitronectin receptor there is more than one receptor for vitronectin (RECEPTORS, VITRONECTIN).Molecular Probe Techniques: The use of devices which use detector molecules to detect, investigate, or analyze other molecules, macromolecules, molecular aggregates, or organisms.Yttrium: An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Y, atomic number 39, and atomic weight 88.91. In conjunction with other rare earths, yttrium is used as a phosphor in television receivers and is a component of the yttrium-aluminum garnet (YAG) lasers.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Tiopronin: Sulfhydryl acylated derivative of GLYCINE.Scattering, Radiation: The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Electrochemical Techniques: The utilization of an electrical current to measure, analyze, or alter chemicals or chemical reactions in solution, cells, or tissues.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Calcium Phosphates: Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.Toxicity Tests, Acute: Experiments designed to determine the potential toxic effects of one-time, short-term exposure to a chemical or chemicals.Ytterbium: Ytterbium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Yb, atomic number 70, and atomic weight 173. Ytterbium has been used in lasers and as a portable x-ray source.Serum Albumin, Bovine: Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Melastomataceae: A plant family of the order Myrtales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida composed of tropical plants with parallel-nerved leaves.Tellurium: Tellurium. An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has the atomic symbol Te, atomic number 52, and atomic weight 127.60. It has been used as a coloring agent and in the manufacture of electrical equipment. Exposure may cause nausea, vomiting, and CNS depression.Soot: A dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, composed mainly of amorphous CARBON and some HYDROCARBONS, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke. It is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in low oxygen conditions. It is sometimes called lampblack or carbon black and is used in INK, in rubber tires, and to prepare CARBON NANOTUBES.Hedera: A plant genus of the family ARALIACEAE. Members contain hederin (olean-12-ene) type TRITERPENES.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Fluorescence: The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.Silanes: Compounds similar to hydrocarbons in which a tetravalent silicon atom replaces the carbon atom. They are very reactive, ignite in air, and form useful derivatives.Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Skin Absorption: Uptake of substances through the SKIN.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Polysorbates: Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.Crystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

A red herring in vascular calcification: 'nanobacteria' are protein-mineral complexes involved in biomineralization. (1/5)

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The role of calcifying nanoparticles in biology and medicine. (2/5)

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Association between calcifying nanoparticles and placental calcification. (3/5)

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Clinical implications of calcifying nanoparticles in dental diseases: a critical review. (4/5)

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Cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by nanobacteria in human breast cancer cells. (5/5)

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Nanobacteria are said to have a hard mineral shell, replicate like a living organism and are wiped out by antibiotics and radiation, yet seem to lack DNA. This proposal was controversial to say the least, and has been described as "the cold fusion of microbiology". So, are "nanobacteria" fact or fiction? A recent article in PLoS Pathogens takes a highly skeptical view (Nanobacteria: Facts or Fancies? 2007 PLoS Pathogens 3, 5, e55).. Nanobacteria have been claimed to be present in animal and human blood and other body fluids, in tissue culture cell lines, wastewater, rocks, in the stratosphere and in meteorites from Mars (Nanobacteria-like calcite single crystals at the surface of the Tataouine meteorite. 2003 PNAS USA 100: 7438-7442). Most of the reports are based on the visualization of nanobacteria by electron microscopy, but Kajander and his colleagues claim they can be propagated in cell-free tissue culture media (unlike viruses, which are obligate parasites requiring host cells for ...
Placenta can be considered as a pump of calcium necessary for the normal development of the fetus. We believe that the location of this pump is in the placental basement membrane. The calcification of this membrane has been described only in cases of in utero fetal death. In this study we describe for the first time a case of placental calcification in a living fetus. The fetus of a normal 21-year-old pregnant woman showed heart abnormalities but the genetic analysis showed a normal male karyotype. The histology of the placenta demonstrated multiple intravillous linear and granular calcific incrustations The hemtoxylin/eosin stain of the sections revealed basement membrane calcific incrustations and intravillous calcium deposits. We postulate that the fetal circulation in the villi was impaired and the calcium that reached the villi from the mother was deposited at this level ...
PNNL staff scientist and co-author Uljana Mayer devised new tagging methods that enabled the team to isolate sufficient amounts of protein. The tags also allowed fast measurements of protein-mineral binding. The researchers supplied the protein with energy--directly as electrons or in the form of a natural cellular fuel called NADH--and only during binding detected charge-transfer from protein to mineral, through a combination of techniques that included FCS, or fluorescent correlation spectroscopy, and confocal microscopy. These yielded a "fluorescence intensity trace" whose brightness depended entirely on whether hematite was available to bind with OmcA in solution. No hematite, dim; hematite, bright.. How bright? "The peak current, or flux, doesnt run long, just a few seconds," Squier said, "but flux is at least as good as what you would find in the most efficient bioreactors, which rely on living bacteria.". Biological fuel cells, or biofuel cells, are not yet powerful enough to be ...
In 2004 a Mayo Clinic team led by Franklin Cockerill, John Lieske, and Virginia M. Miller, reports to have isolated nanobacteria in diseased human arteries and kidney stones. Their results were published in 2004 and 2006 respectively.[9][10] Similar findings were obtained in 2005 by László Puskás at the DNA Lab, University of Szeged, Hungary. Dr. Puskás identified these particles in cultures obtained from human atherosclerotic aortic walls and blood samples of atherosclerotic patients but the group was unable to detect DNA in these samples.[11]. In 2005, Ciftcioglu and her research team at NASA used a rotating cell culture flask, which simulates some aspects of low-gravity conditions, to culture nanobacteria suspected of rapidly forming kidney stones in astronauts. In this environment, they were found to multiply five times faster than in normal Earth gravity. The study concluded that nanobacteria might have a potential role in forming kidney stones and may need to be screened for in crews ...
Suggested citation: California Native Plant Society (CNPS). 2017. Inventory of Rare and Endangered Plants (online edition, v7-17nov). California Native Plant Society. Sacramento, CA. Accessed on Sat, Dec. 16, 2017 from http://www.cnps.org/inventory ...
Suggested citation: California Native Plant Society (CNPS). 2018. Inventory of Rare and Endangered Plants (online edition, v7-18jan). California Native Plant Society. Sacramento, CA. Accessed on Wed, Jan. 24, 2018 from http://www.cnps.org/inventory ...
How did life originate? This is not part of evolution. Even so, there are many explanations. Proto-life, such as nanobacteria, viruses, or prions, exist as transitionary stages. Even a simple salt crystal can replicate itself. And amino acids are widespread, even in outer space. How did the DNA code originate? There have been simpler versions of the DNA code, for example one that only uses Adenine and Guanine. How could mutations create the vast amounts of information in the DNA of living things? Richard Dawkins once ran a computer model in which a complex insect-like shape evolved from a single pixel. Evolution had billions of years and billions of generations to do this. Why is natural selection taught as "evolution," when natural selection selects, but does not create? Mutations can add to the DNA code. Natural selection is the cumulative effect of mutations, and can create information. Evolution is simply the cumulative effect of natural selection. How did new biochemical pathways, which ...
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Methods are disclosed for sterilizing biological materials to reduce the level of one or more active biological contaminants or pathogens therein, such as viruses, bacteria (including inter- and intracellular bacteria, such as mycoplasmas, ureaplasmas, nanobacteria, chlamydia, rickettsias), yeasts, molds, fungi, prions or similar agents responsible, alone or in combination, for TSEs and/or single or multicellular parasites. The methods involve sterilizing biological materials containing one or more non-aqueous solvents with irradiation.
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The term "calcifying nanoparticles" (CNPs) has also been used as a conservative name regarding their possible status as a life ... calcifying nanoparticles". J Investig Med. 54 (7): 385-94. doi:10.2310/6650.2006.06018. PMID 17169260. Miller V, Rodgers G, ... "Nanobacteria-propagating calcifying nanoparticles". Lett Appl Microbiol. 42 (6): 549-52. doi:10.1111/j.1472-765X.2006.01945.x. ... Martel J, Young JD (April 2008). "Purported nanobacteria in human blood as calcium carbonate nanoparticles". Proc. Natl. Acad. ...
... a designation of holistic nutritionists who have completed a diploma program Calcifying Nano-particle, or Nanobacterium, a ...
... "calcifying nanoparticles", which were proposed to be living organisms that were 0.1 μm in diameter. These structures are now ...
Jan Martel; Hsin-Hsin Peng; David Young; Cheng-Yeu Wu; John D Young, 2014, Of Nanobacteria, Nanoparticles, Biofilms and Their ... "At present, it appears that the self-replication of the calcified envelopes is a purely abiotic, physical phenomenon." ... have carefully examined these claims and concluded that nanobacteria are in fact nonliving mineralo-organic nanoparticles (NPs ...
The research shows that more nanoparticles of gold and silver are shown in the solution than there are of the resulting salts ... By directing low temperature microplasma beams at the calcified tissue structure beneath the tooth enamel coating called dentin ... Mohan Sankaran has done work on the synthesis of nanoparticles using a pulsed DC discharge. His research team has found that by ... These cations can then capture electrons supplied by the microplasma jet and results in the formation of nanoparticles. ...
Nanoparticle catalysts for reduced hydrogen peroxide concentration[edit]. A recent addition to the field is new light- ... Calculus: neglected plaque will eventually calcify, and lead to the formation of a hard deposit on the teeth, especially around ... 3.1.2 Nanoparticle catalysts for reduced hydrogen peroxide concentration *3.1.2.1 Internal bleaching ... The organic matrix of dental plaque and calcified tissues undergo a series of chemical and morphological changes that lead to ...
Nanobac Announces Peer Reviewed Publication Verifying Self-Propagating Calcifying Nanoparticles as a Unique Entity. ... which reports on the characterization of calcifying nanoparticles (CNPs), formerly known as "nanobacteria," as self-propagating ... Their goal was to gain better insight into "such a propagating calcifying agent putatively endowed with pathogenic properties ...
Tetracycline attenuates calcifying nanoparticles-induced renal epithelial injury through suppression of inflammation, oxidative ... Background: Calcifying nanoparticles (CNPs) has been associated with the occurrence and development of kidney stones, but the ... Do calcifying nanoparticles promote nephrolithiasis? A review of the evidence. Clin Nephrol 2009;71:1-8. [Crossref] [PubMed] ... Cite this article as: Zhang Y, Zhu R, Liu D, Gong M, Hu W, Yi Q, Zhang J. Tetracycline attenuates calcifying nanoparticles- ...
Cultured nanoparticles from filtered homogenates of diseased calcified human cardiovascular tissue Researchers at the Mayo ... Clinic found they could isolate and culture nanoparticles from filtered homogenates of diseased calcified human cardiovascular ...
Association between Randalls plaque and calcifying nanoparticles Neva Çiftçioglu, Kaveh Vejdani, Olivia Lee, Grace Mathew, ... Proximity-activated nanoparticles: in vitro performance of specific structural modification by enzymatic cleavage R Adam Smith ... Formation of potential titanium antigens based on protein binding to titanium dioxide nanoparticles Carmen Irina Vamanu, Paul ...
The term "calcifying nanoparticles" (CNPs) has also been used as a conservative name regarding their possible status as a life ... calcifying nanoparticles". J Investig Med. 54 (7): 385-94. doi:10.2310/6650.2006.06018. PMID 17169260. Miller V, Rodgers G, ... "Nanobacteria-propagating calcifying nanoparticles". Lett Appl Microbiol. 42 (6): 549-52. doi:10.1111/j.1472-765X.2006.01945.x. ... Martel J, Young JD (April 2008). "Purported nanobacteria in human blood as calcium carbonate nanoparticles". Proc. Natl. Acad. ...
... of gamma-irradiated serum used as feeder in the culture and demonstration of putative nanobacteria and calcifying nanoparticles ... Nanoparticle conversion to biofilms: in vitro demonstration using serum-derived mineralo-organic nanoparticles. Nanomedicine ( ... Martel, J. & Young, J. D. Purported nanobacteria in human blood as calcium carbonate nanoparticles. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105 ... Peng, H. H., Martel, J., Lee, Y. H., Ojcius, D. M. & Young, J. D. Serum-derived nanoparticles: de novo generation and growth in ...
Announces NB2 Test for Calcified Nano Particles Now Available. American Health Associates Clinical Laboratories is accepting ...
The term calcifying nanoparticles (CNPs) has also been used as a conservative name regarding their possible status as a life ... Kajander E (2006). "Nanobacteria--propagating calcifying nanoparticles". Lett Appl Microbiol 42 (6): 549-52. PMID 16706890. ... First Live Video of Calcifying Nanoparticles Provides Possible Key to Chronic Disease Condition - Public relations, press ... calcifying nanoparticles". J Investig Med 54 (7): 385-94. doi:10.2310/6650.2006.06018. PMID 17169260. ...
... and potentially infectious calcifying nanoparticles (CNPs) that generate calcification.. One conclusion by symposium organizers ... Miller says the idea of infectious nanoparticles is still controversial, she concludes that, "Nanoparticles might serve as an ... which provide evidence that calcifying nanoparticles might be infectious and spark calcification in disease.. Although Dr. ... and Nanobac Pharmaceuticals who pioneered investigations into infectious calcifying particles.. A condition known as ...
Scientists know that calcifying nanoparticles are involved in many degenerative conditions including arthritis and ... Fetuin, one of the major proteins involved in nanoparticle formation, was found in these deposits. Levels of fetuin in amniotic ... "This preliminary evidence suggests that amniotic fluid has the potential to form nanoparticles and deposit them in the fetal ... They used a sterile culture technique to determine whether amniotic fluid can form nanoparticles. They then exposed fetal ...
Role of calcifying nanoparticle in the development of hyperplasia and vascular calcification in an animal model. ...
... at the Mayo Clinic found they could isolate and culture nanoparticles from filtered homogenates of diseased calcified human ... They point out that what is recovered from diseased calcified tissue replicates in culture, but that they have not yet been ... "Evidence of Nanobacterial-like Structures in Human Calcified Arteries and Cardiac Valves," was carried out by Virginia M. ... The research paper, entitled "Evidence of Nanobacterial-like Structures in Human Calcified Arteries and Cardiac Valves," has ...
Tetracycline attenuates calcifying nanoparticles-induced renal epithelial injury through suppression of inflammation, oxidative ...
Tetracycline attenuates calcifying nanoparticles-induced renal epithelial injury through suppression of inflammation, oxidative ...
The Role of Nanobacteria/Calcifying Nanoparticles in Prostate Disease. Jeffrey A. Jones, Neva Ciftcioglu, David McKay. 18. ...
Proteomic evaluation of biological nanoparticles isolated from human kidney stones and calcified arteries. Farooq A Shiekh. ... Role of Nanobacteria in Human Calcifying Disease. JOHN LIESKE; Fiscal Year: 2004 ...
Nanobacteria - which sometimes go by the name "nanobes" or "calcifying nanoparticles" - dont seem to fit scientists criteria ... Since that time nanobacteria have been found in kidney stones, dental plaque, the gall bladder, in calcified arteries and heart ...
This evidence strongly suggests that nanobacteria are abiotic calcifying nanoparticles rather than living cells. ...
S.-M. Zhang, F. Tian, X.-Q. Jiang et al., "Evidence for calcifying nanoparticles in gingival crevicular fluid and dental ...
Scientists know that calcifying nanoparticles are involved in many degenerative conditions including arthritis and ... Fetuin, one of the major proteins involved in nanoparticle formation, was found in these deposits. Levels of fetuin in amniotic ... "This preliminary evidence suggests that amniotic fluid has the potential to form nanoparticles and deposit them in the fetal ... They used a sterile culture technique to determine whether amniotic fluid can form nanoparticles. They then exposed fetal ...
... diagnostic of calcifying nanoparticles (previously called nanobacteria). We pioneer the notion that calcifying nanoparticles ... diagnostic of calcifying nanoparticles (previously called nanobacteria). We pioneer the notion that calcifying nanoparticles ... Calcifying nanoparticles associated encrusted urinary bladder cystitis. Jelic TM, Roque R, Yasar U, Tomchin SB, Serrato JM, ... Calcifying nanoparticles associated encrusted urinary bladder cystitis. Jelic TM, Roque R, Yasar U, Tomchin SB, Serrato JM, ...
... a designation of holistic nutritionists who have completed a diploma program Calcifying Nano-particle, or Nanobacterium, a ...
... "calcifying nanoparticles", which were proposed to be living organisms that were 0.1 μm in diameter. These structures are now ...
Some researchers argue that nanobacteria are actually calcifying nanoparticles.. Effects of bacteria on their human host. Main ...
Methods and compositions for the detection of calcifying nano-particles, identification and quantification of associated ... Method and system for enhancing polymerization and nanoparticle production US9003943B2 (en) * 2011-12-16. 2015-04-14. Saab Ab. ...
  • Calcifying nanoparticles (CNPs) has been associated with the occurrence and development of kidney stones, but the exact mechanism is not clear. (amegroups.com)
  • The term "calcifying nanoparticles" (CNPs) has also been used as a conservative name regarding their possible status as a life form. (wikipedia.org)
  • and potentially infectious calcifying nanoparticles (CNPs) that generate calcification. (nanotech-now.com)
  • Objective The relationship between calcified nanoparticles (CNPs) and the formation of urinary stones is drawing increasing attention and the specific mechanisms involved. (bvsalud.org)
  • Qian Yang, Yao Xiao, Yanlong Yin, Gaoyin Li, Jinrong Peng Erythrocyte Membrane-camouflaged IR780 and DTX co-loading Polymeric Nanoparticles for Imaging-guided Cancer Photo-Chemo Combination Therapy. (particle-metrix.de)
  • Transmission electron microscopy image of encrusted cystitis calcifications (magnification 7,000) demonstrating multiple calcifying nanoparticles (some indicated by black thin arrows) with the characteristic electron-dense shell (ring structures 165 nm to 440 nm) surrounding a central electron lucent core. (nih.gov)
  • Synthesis of well-dispersed copper nanoparticles was achieved by reduction of aqueous copper chloride solution using NaBH4 in the nonionic water-in-oil (w/o) microemulsions formed by Triton X-100, n-hexanol, cyclohexane, and water. (pianolarge.ga)
  • One medicine, disodium ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), would remove the mineral deposits that cause blood vessels to become calcified. (clemson.edu)
  • Early in 1989, geologist Robert L. Folk found what he later identified as nannobacteria (written with double "n"), that is, nanoparticles isolated from geological specimens in travertine from hot springs of Viterbo, Italy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vyavahare and his team are creating nanoparticles that are made of the protein albumin and are many times smaller than the width of a human hair. (clemson.edu)
  • The effective transfection of the RPE in vivo indicated that nanoparticles can possibly be used for studying genetic diseases to treat various eye diseases. (news-medical.net)
  • Scientists know that calcifying nanoparticles are involved in many degenerative conditions including arthritis and atherosclerosis. (redorbit.com)
  • In contrast, when macromolecules are added to nanoparticles, NTA can detect even trace-level changes in hydrodynamic diameter and can even detect and specify aggregates that may occur during such changes. (news-medical.net)
  • Although Dr. Miller says the idea of infectious nanoparticles is still controversial, she concludes that, "Nanoparticles might serve as an inflammatory stimulus that initiates cell transdifferentiation, stimulate the formation of matrix vesicles, or simply form a nidus for subsequent inorganic calcium accumulation. (nanotech-now.com)
  • Calcifying nanoparticles associated encrusted urinary bladder cystitis. (nih.gov)
  • Encrusted cystitis is a subtype of chronic cystitis characterized by multiple calcifications in the form of plaques located in the interstitium of the urinary bladder mucosa and frequently associated with mucosal ulcers.It is a very rare disease of controversial etiology.We pioneer the notion that calcifying nanoparticles are the causative agents of encrusted urinary bladder cystitis. (nih.gov)
  • We pioneer the notion that calcifying nanoparticles are the causative agents of encrusted urinary bladder cystitis. (nih.gov)
  • Yan X, Zhang X, McClements DJ, Zou L, Liu X, Liu F. Co-encapsulation of Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG) and Curcumin by Two Proteins-Based Nanoparticles: Role of EGCG. (harvard.edu)
  • Nanoparticles" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • Gratitude and Appreciation (My pain is gone after getting out 19 hard as a rock, black, calcified stones! (curezone.org)
  • My first Liver Flush produced 19 hard as a rock, black, calcified stones ranging from large to medium in size. (curezone.org)
  • It is easy to notice in Figure 3 that merging of the calcifying nanoparticles (like stacking of snowballs) forms micron-size calcium aggregates (micron-size plaques) measuring about 3 square microns that by further merging have ultimately become plaques of encrusted cystitis visible by light microscope (Figure 2) and naked eye (Figure 1). (nih.gov)
  • Huang L, Ma L, Xuan W, Zhen X, Zheng H, Chen W, Hamblin MR. Exploration of Copper-Cysteamine Nanoparticles as a New Type of Agents for Antimicrobial Photodynamic Inactivation. (harvard.edu)